Frederic M. Wolf: Meta-Analysis: Quantitative Methods for Research Synthesis
Index: Rural Education
Rural Extension (2001)
Acuna, S. T., Juristo, N., & Recio, B. (July 1997). Knowledge-based system for generating administrative grant alternatives applying the IDEAL methodology. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 18(1), 1-28(28). In this paper, we analyze how regulations are arranged and implemented in a knowledge-based system (KBS) to provide for ease of use, modification and addition of new regulations. The IDEAL methodology was used to achieve this objective. Different common agricultural policy (CAP) grants to which farmers in Spain are entitled were considered to validate the model. The system is a query system and the end users are specialists from the Agricultural Extension Services (AES). The system has been implemented using the tool Kappa-PC, V. 2.3. The prototype was developed jointly with the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid's Departments of Artificial Intelligence, Rural Projects and Planning and Mathematics Applied to Agronomy and the Castile and Leon Government's Provincial Agriculture Office in Segovia.
Alwang, J., Siegel, P. B., & Jorgensen, S. L. (November 1996). Seeking Guidelines for Poverty Reduction in Rural Zambia. World Development, 24(11), 1711-1723(1713). Poverty profiles typically provide policy makers with information about the characteristics of the poor without giving guidance as to the types of programs best suited for reducing poverty. A method is described in this paper for extending the typical poverty profile to analyze and quantify the constraints faced by poor smallholders in rural areas. The method is applied to rural Zambia, where poverty is widespread and deep. The extension provides timely information for the design of poverty-reducing policies.
Anderson, R. L., United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Natural Resource Economics Division., & Colorado State University. Cooperative Extension Service. (1978). Urbanization of rural lands in the northern Colorado Front Range, 1978: [study. [Fort Collins]: Cooperative Extension Service Colorado State University. A 93.2/2:Ur 1 Ht123.5.c6
Anderson, W. A. (1946). Rural social trends in New York, their implications for extension activities. [Ithaca,: New York State College of Agriculture Cornell University. 323.254
Apantaku, S. (1999). Indigenous Technical Knowledge and Use of Forest Plant Products for Sustainable Control of Crop Pests in Ogun State, Nigeria. Journal of sustainable agriculture, 14(2/3), 5.
Appleton, S., & Collier, P. (Nov 1995). On Gender Targeting of Public Transfers., 29pp. In: van de Walle, Dominique, Ed., and Nead, Kimberly, Ed. "Public Spending and the Poor: Theory and Evidence." Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995. Chapter 19 (p555-581). This chapter discusses the benefits and feasibility of targeting public resources and services to females. An overview of gender differences in welfare in various countries examines household expenditures, food consumption, mortality, health care, morbidity, education, and leisure, and finds few generalizations across countries. However, there is evidence of significant female disadvantage in South Asia in terms of food consumption and related health indicators, and the level of female education is significantly lower than that of men in many developing countries. Although directly increasing female income may partially offset female disadvantage, generalized gender-based transfers present problems: (1) they are very indiscriminate; (2) women may not retain control over income received; and (3) other remedies may better address the causes of female disadvantage. A more specific policy response may involve gender targeting of particular government services. Gender targeting of education has been adopted by some developing countries and is receiving favorable attention from external funding agencies. Education raises women's personal income; cannot be directly appropriated by other household members; benefits children, particularly in the area of child health; and tends to reduce fertility. Other government services that may be targeted by gender include family planning services, health and nutrition interventions, and agricultural extension services. Other types of targeted intervention may also be highly cost-effective, including reforming the content of education and strengthening female property rights. Contains 102 references. (SV) ED392581Austin, C. B., & Wehrwein, G. S. (1914). Co-operation in agriculture, marketing, and rural credit. Austin, Tex.,: University of Texas. 338.1
Baezconde-Garbanati, L., Portillo, C. J., & Garbanati, J. A. (August 1999). Disparities in Health Indicators for Latinas in California. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 21(3), 302-329(328). This study analyzes disparities in selected health indicators for Latinas when compared to non-Latina Whites, and other population groups in the United States, and as available in Mexico. A review and secondary analyses of government and other data were conducted as an extension of previous research. Data revealed that the population of Latinas, although youthful on average, are composed of an increasingly large group of poor women who in their middle years (45-64), and in rural communities, display high cardiac risk, high rates of diabetes, and cervical cancer. This picture calls for special attention, in particular to Latinas without health insurance. Further research, policies that protect women's health, and culturally competent prevention services are needed to address these health disparities and the complexities of Latina health in California.
Bantjes, R. (September 1997). Benthamism in the Countryside: The Architecture of Rural Space, 1900-1930. The Journal of Historical Sociology, 10(3), 249-269(221). Historians of state formation have increasingly recognized what Foucault has described as the `dark side' of the enlightenment institutional principles of representation, transparency and accountability and explored the parallel principles of legitimation, surveillance and discipline. In this paper, I pursue these themes in a neglected area, the institutional architecture of rural space. I do so by examining ideologies for rural planning in western Canada and the American midwest in the early twentieth century. These ideologies were linked to state projects, and found institutional expression in Canada in the `town planning movement' attached to municipal and provincial planning offices, and in the United States in agricultural extension services and the `county agent' system-the local `inspectorate' of the Federal Department of Agriculture. The aim was a restructuring of rural space in the interests of rationalizing agricultural production and controlling large populations of settlers, recently displaced, and disturbingly `isolated' and inaccessible in the vast spaces of the great plains. Despite common aims, American and Canadian reformers adopted fundamentally different principles of spatial design. Town planners inherited the European assumption that community networks and class relations were embedded in particular spatial arrangements, so that rural reform required re-drawing the boundaries of fields and settlements. As early as 1915, American reformers developed the idea that networks of sociability and domination were defined first by abstract structures, formal organizations and the cash nexus, and could, using modern media of communication, be `disembedded' from particular locales and distributed spatially.
Barten, P. K., Damery, D., Catanzaro, P., Fish, J., Campbell, S., Fabos, A., & Fish, L. (March 2001). Massachusetts Family Forests: Birth of a Landowner Cooperative. Journal of Forestry, 99(3), 23-30(28). The story is as old as our profession: private lands, low-value species, a stagnant rural economy, development pressure, and loss of forests. A group of foresters and landowners is trying to reverse this cycle by forming a cooperative enterprise. This article summarizes our approach and experiences during the start-up phase. The overarching objective of Massachusetts Family Forests is to sustain or enhance the forest resources, rural character, and economy of our region.
Basu, S. (February 1997). Why Institutional Credit Agencies are Reluctant to Lend to the Rural Poor: A Theoretical Analysis of the Indian Rural Credit Market. World Development, 25(2), 267-280(214). This paper examines why institutional credit facilities remain unable to extend credit to the rural poor. Analysis indicates that poor peasants at best can offer an entitlement set as a mortgage, comprised only of future shares of their harvest, which itself is subject to risk. Consequently, lenders can not advance loans without risking extensive loss of loanable funds. As the landlords' income is subject to the same risk as that of peasants, they advance loans to ensure that their own income is not affected by the peasants' financial situation. An extension of institutional credit to peasants results only in subsidization of landlords.
Beck, K. G., & Colorado State University. Cooperative Extension Service. (1996). Weed management for small rural acreage. [Fort Collins, Colo.]: Colorado State University Cooperative Extension. Ucsu20/6.22/3.106/1996
Behr, C., Lamb, G., Miller, A., Sadowske, S., & Shaffer, R. (1995). Building Community Based Initiatives in Rural Coastal Communities. Staff Paper 95.2., 26pp. Funded by the National Coastal Resources Institute. In rural coastal communities, trade-offs between conserving and developing environmentally sensitive resources are acute. At the community level, part- time volunteers and citizen officials are asked to make complex decisions based on ambiguous and frequently contradictory "scientific" evidence of economic and environmental relationships. The conditions surrounding these decisions often are characterized by limited access to information and conflict about the choices available and their consequences. This paper summarizes one community's efforts to integrate technical and social- economic information in a series of educational events leading to informed community consensus about the use of the community's waterfront. In Oconto, Wisconsin, on Lake Michigan's Green Bay, the waterfront is a fragile wetland resource that could be used in several different and potentially conflicting ways. A University of Wisconsin extension team that has provided development assistance to the area for the past decade undertook to facilitate the community's discussions of competing options. The team moved away from the conventional model of community intervention to one featuring emergent and flexible design, cyclic process, synergy between external and indigenous knowledge, holistic approach, and inclusion of diverse interests. The project demonstrated that judicious use of community surveys; a "locally acceptable" facilitator; a local advisory committee; and the cyclic process of asking, listening, analyzing, and reporting can identify local preferences and generate community energy for specific options. Contains 23 references. (SV) ED424049
Bernet, T., Ortiz, O., Estrada, R. D., Quiroz, R., & Swinton, S. M. (September 2001). Tailoring agricultural extension to different production contexts: a user-friendly farm-household model to improve decision-making for participatory research. Agricultural Systems, 69(3), 183-198(116). Farmers operate within specific natural and socio-economic settings. When those settings are very diverse, as in mountainous areas, agricultural extension services have often failed to tailor interventions to the specific needs of client farmers. In such settings, extensionists need cost-efficient tools or a close link to researchers to evaluate potential strategies and activities to raise farmers' income. This need has become more critical as governments in developing countries downsize expenditure on extension services and donors demand impact from their investments. This paper outlines a flexible computer-based farm-household model designed to assist researchers, extension workers, and policy makers. The model allows the user to define specific production options and resource constraints under different socio-economic and biophysical settings. Model application in different regions has proven its flexibility to capture and analyze a variety of production systems. When used with site-related input data and effective dialogue on the results among researchers, extensionists, and farmers, the model can be a useful tool for participatory research and extension.
Brown, S., & Shrestha, B. (July 2000). Market-driven land-use dynamics in the middle mountains of Nepal. Journal of Environmental Management, 59(3), 217-225(219). Market oriented production is a key factor driving land-use intensification in the Middle Mountains of Nepal. The results of a GIS-based case-study indicates historic, large-scale deforestation followed by afforestation. The area under cultivation has increased, but the expansion of irrigation has been limited by water availability. Rainfed agriculture has expanded onto steep upland slopes while irrigated cultivation expanded on slopes 10. The farming systems have become more intensive; double and triple crop rotations are applied where water is available, and increased vegetable production and the marketing of milk are indicators of intensification. Seventy percent of the surveyed households now grow cash crops, and 45 sell buffalo milk. Market oriented agriculture is more demanding of soil and water resources, and concerns about resource degradation are emerging. Sixty percent of surveyed farmers reported a lack of irrigation as their main production constraint. Agro-chemical use has increased, soil acidification related to the use of ammonium based fertilizers is a concern, and stream eutrophication is common during the dry season. Commercial milk production has increased demand for animal fodder, placing additional pressure on forest and rangelands, with 55 of female farmers reporting fodder shortages during the dry season. Potential management options to minimize the impact of intensification include improved agricultural extension, N-fixing plants, improved composting, liming, and water use efficiency. Market-driven agricultural production provides a source of income to the rural poor, but the sustainability of these intensive systems is dependent on addressing soil and water degradation. Copyright 2000 Academic PressBrunner, E. d. S., & Yang, H.-p. (1949). Rural America and the Extension Service; a history and critique of the Cooperative Agricultural and Home Economics Extension Service. New York,: Bureau of Publications Teachers College Columbia University. S544.b72 630.717 630.717.B836r 630.717 B836r
Caldwell, A. E., & Richardson, J. G. (Feb 1995). Media Preferences of Selected North Carolina Farmers., 12pp. Paper presented to the Agricultural Communications Section of the Southern Association of Agricultural Scientists (New Orleans, LA, February 1995). Nearly all burley tobacco farmers in the mountains of North Carolina are small or part-time farmers who have limited time for seeking information. Although they desire accurate, user-friendly, timely, and relevant information, their willingness or opportunity to spend time in face-to-face contacts or grower meetings is becoming severely limited. These farmers seek and use information at nontraditional times and locations. A research project sought to determine the feasibility of using selected distance education delivery methods to meet the informational needs of burley growers for controlling three insect pests of burley tobacco. These delivery methods were as follows: a fact sheet, a fact sheet plus an audiocassette, and the extension bulletin, "Scouting Tobacco." Twenty growers of burley were randomly selected from a list of 97 growers with 10 or fewer years of experience obtained from a county office and interviewed personally. The study showed that 17 of the 20 farmers involved in the research preferred the fact sheet and audiocassette combination for gaining the needed insect information. Age, education level, or size of farming operation generally had no influence on the farmer's preferences. Knowledge gained by the farmers increased substantially via this preferred combination of delivery methods. (Contains 13 references.) (KC) ED377398
Castaneda, X., Garcia, C., & Langer, A. (January 1996). Ethnography of fertility and menstruation in rural Mexico. Social Science and Medicine, 42(1), 133-140(138).
Challman, S. A. (1917). The rural school plant for rural teachers and school boards, normal schools, teachers training classes, rural extension bureaus. Milwaukee, Wis.,: The Bruce publishing company. Lb3209.c4 379.7 379.7 c35
Chhabra, S., Gandhi, D., & Jaiswal, M. (1 March 2000). Obstructed labour - a preventable entity. Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 20(2), 151-153(153). We present a clinical study of 204 cases of obstructed labour admitted over a period of 5 years between 1991-92 and 1996-97 in a rural institute in central India. They constituted 1.9% of births. Seventy-one per cent of the cases were from the rural area (similar to the overall patient population in this hospital), 31.4% women were primigravidae. Of the subjects, 64.7% were between 20 and 29 years. Malpresentation was the cause in 53.2%, followed by cephalopelvic disproportion, in 41.1%. Intraoperative incomplete rupture was detected in 5.9% cases. The commonest maternal morbidity was intraoperative extension of uterine incision at the time of caesarean section, mostly lateral (14.0%). Of the women, 12.5% had intrapartum or postpartum sepsis. The perinatal mortality was 160/1000. There was no maternal mortality. Timely diagnosis of malpresentation, pelvic contraction and use of a partogram at all levels could have prevented obstructed labour. In these unfortunate situations, judicious selection of subjects for caesarean section is appropriate, avoiding heroic vaginal procedures even with a dead baby. Infection devitalises tissues and attempts at vaginal delivery may be dangerous.
Childs, D., Doeksen, G. A., Frye, J., United States. Extension Service., Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station., & United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Economic Research Service. (1977). Economics of rural fire protection in the Great Plains. Washington: Dept. of Agriculture Economic Research Service. A 1.75:407
Chirwa, R., & Aggarwal, V. (2000). Bean Seed Dissemination Systems in Malawi: A Stragegy. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 15(4), 5.
Christiansen, I., & Hunt1, R. (2000). Research, Extension and Industry - Working Together Can Achieve Results. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 41(7), 310-318(319). Over recent decades, research has been directed to assessing the impacts of land uses on valuable natural assets, such as the Great Barrier Reef. Land managers in adjacent areas are expected to adopt practices to minimize any adverse affects on downstream environments. Conversely, researchers are being pressed to provide answers to the problems. In response, researchers and environmental managers are bombarding land managers with information regarding the potential environmental implications of their practices. Is this an effective mode to achieve on-ground change?Collaboration between all groups - research, industry and extension - may be more effective in developing and implementing practical solutions to these more complex issues. A change from the research and extension models currently used may be needed to achieve positive resource management outcomes.Research, development and extension initiatives underway in the Australian sugar industry to improve farm practice and reduce the potential for adverse impacts on downstream environments are discussed. Case studies provide some insights into how science and extension skills work best together and how an industry group can respond to a community concern.
Chugh, R. L. (1997). Promoting Rural Development Through Linkages with Higher Education: A Case Study of the Northern New York Economy., 27pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Western Social Science Association (Albuquerque, NM, April 23-26, 1997). This paper examines the role that colleges and universities play in the economy of rural northern New York. It is based on a 1992-93 survey of 20 of the 21 colleges and universities in the region. Parts of the survey were updated in 1997. The study found that the institutions played a vital role in assisting businesses and community organizations engaged in promoting economic development. Services provided included small business assistance, workforce and entrepreneurial development, international trade and investment assistance, total quality management, technology transfer and product development, Internet and computer services, economic research, environmental and forestry management, continuing education and training programs, assistance to community organizations, and providing conference and workshop facilities. It was also found that the nature and magnitude of the technical assistance provided by an institution depended on its degree of commitment to public service, its location and size, the diversity of its academic and other programs, and the expertise and interests of its faculty and staff. An appendix provides a list of areas of institutional strength in public service. (MDM) ED418620
Clement, D. M., & Others, A. (Jan 1995). Level of Use of Extension by Two Diverse Audiences and Their Preferred Means for Receiving Extension Information., 13pp. Paper presented to the Agricultural Communications Section of the Meeting of the Southern Association of Agricultural Scientists (New Orleans, LA, January 1995). Two diverse extension audiences in Polk County, North Carolina were surveyed to determine their levels of use of extension information and their preferred means for receiving information. Information was gathered through mailed surveys returned by 48 beef producers and 40 county government workers (about a 67 percent return for each group). Nearly all of the beef producers indicated some to very much use of extension information. County government personnel, however, depend significantly less on extension for information than the beef producers. In their preferences for receiving extension information, beef producers' top five delivery methods were as follows: newsletters, bulletins and pamphlets, personal visits, field days, and method demonstrations. The following were the top five delivery methods for county government personnel: newsletters, newspapers, bulletins and pamphlets, workshops, and leaflets and flyers. Even though newsletters were most popular among both audiences among 35 delivery methods identified, the 2 audiences indicated significant differences in preferences for 8 of the methods. An analysis of the findings showed that county government personnel have different dependence levels on extension as well as different preferences for delivery systems than beef producers. Thus program delivery methods and information must be highly focused for each audience in order to meet their needs and preferences. (KC) ED377397
Colorado Agricultural College. Extension Service., Colorado Agricultural and Mechanical College. Agricultural Extension Service., Colorado State College (Fort Collins Colo.). Extension Service., & Colorado A & M College. Extension Service. (1957). Bulletin ( Vol. Ceased with 444-A). Fort Collins, Colo.: Colorado A & M College Agricultural Extension Service [and] Agricultural Experiment Station cooperating. UCSU20/6.3/no S41 630.76 Ucsu20/6.3/
Colorado State University. Cooperative Extension Service., & Colorado Rural Revitalization Project. (1992). Visions in action: Colorado community cases: a report of the Colorado Rural Revitalization Project. Fort Collins, Colo.: Colorado State University Cooperative Extension. Ucsu20/6.2/r88/1992
Coppedge, R. O., Davis, C. G., University of Florida. Food and Resource Economics Dept., & Florida Cooperative Extension Service. (1977). Rural poverty and the policy crisis ( 1st ed.). Ames: Iowa State University Press. Hc110.p6 r88 339.2/1 Hc110.p6 r88
Cordes, S., VanderSluis, E., & Hoffman, J. (1999). Rural Health Research--Rural Hospitals and the Local Economy: A Needed Extension and Refinement of Existing Empirical Research. Journal of Rural Health, 15(2), 189.
Corsmeier, U., Kalthoff, N., Kolle, O., Kotzian, M., & Fiedler, F. (July 1997). Ozone concentration jump in the stable nocturnal boundary layer during a LLJ-event. Atmospheric Environment, 31(13), 1977-1989(1913). During the field campaign performed within the SANA-project (readjustment of the atmosphere in the five new federal states of the Federal Republic of Germany) at a flat, rural site in eastern Germany, several cases of a jumplike increase of ozone at the surface under stable conditions during the nights have been observed. The concentration jumps of ozone are on the order of 12 to 23 of the days maximum and the level is significantly higher than under normal conditions with stable stratification. The cases are correlated with an increase in wind speed, wind shear and a downward flux of ozone. In the case selected here, the increase in turbulence is caused by the evolution of a low-level jet (LLJ) with the core just above the top of surface inversion. The analysis of wind profile measurements at the aerological stations in north-eastern Germany reveals a spatial extension of the low-level jet of up to 600 km in length and 200 km in width. Thus the significance of the LLJ on the transport capability of the atmosphere is twofold: due to the large spatial extent of the LLJ and the high wind speed at the jet core level air pollutants are transported over hundreds of kilometers during one night. Secondly, due to the strong wind shear between the jet core and the ground pollutants can be mixed to the ground far away from the release area.Cremer, R. D., de, B. A., & Dupuis, A. (January 2001). International Sister-Cities: Bridging the Global-Local Divide. The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 60(1), 377-401(325). With the demise of the sharp urban-rural divide as a framework for urban analyses, debates have arisen regarding the utility of the city as a theoretically significant construct. Recently however, the growing emphasis on globalization has brought the analysis of global cities into sharp focus. The countervailing trend emphasizes the significance of "the local." International sister-cities provide a site of analysis which illustrates the global-local interface and yet delves deeper. Initially conceived as a post-war means of developing friendships and cultural ties, sister-cities were based on similarities such as name or economic function. More recently, greater recognition has been given to the economic foundations and benefits of these connections. Providing an extension to an integrated approach to the study of sister-cities based on the multifold relationship between culture and commerce, this paper adds a further dimension by focusing on simultaneously operating multi-level entrepreneurial partnerships necessary to sustain active sister-city relationships. Drawing on New Zealand examples of twinning arrangements, it is demonstrated that the emergence and development of embedded partnership ties is vital to deriving sustainable economic and social benefits. While the global outreach of the sister-cities phenomenon appears to transcend the geographic confines of cities, strong locality considerations and local activism nevertheless predominate. A novel feature of this paper is the conceptualization of a hybrid form of entrepreneurialism, "municipal-community entrepreneurship," which is argued as a valuable facilitator of the economic and social vibrancy of cities. to the two cities, it is broadening out to include cultural and work exchanges.
Darlington, M. W., University of Nebraska (Lincoln campus). Teachers College., & University of Nebraska (Lincoln campus). Extension Division. (1940). A teacher's handbook for the self-appraisal of a rural elementary school. Lincoln, Neb.,: The University of Nebraska Teachers college and University extension division. Lb1567.d27 379.7
DaviesAdetugbo, A., & Adebawa, H. (1997). The lfe South Breastfeeding Project: training community health extension workers to promote and manage breastfeeding in rural communities. Bulletin of the world health organization. bull, 75(4), 323.
Davis, T. L., & Colorado State University. Cooperative Extension Service. (1982). Purchasing rural property in Colorado. [Fort Collins, Colo.]: Colorado State University Extension Service. Ucsu20/6.22/6.300
Deacon, B., & Thompson, L. (1999). Back to the Land? Service and Self-Interest in Adult Education in Rural England, 1920-1945., Paper presented at the annual Standing Conference on University Teaching and Research in the Education of Adults (Warwick, England, July 5-7, 1999). Page Length: 8. Between the World Wars, a strong current of thought saw "the rural" as a reservoir of the spiritual capital of the nation, a view that stimulated back-to-the-land movements across western Europe. But the inter-war period also saw growing encounters of the urban and rural worlds, one of the interfaces being rural adult education. This paper presents two case studies of rural adult education in England during this period and argues that, despite apparent differences, both cases represent an ethos of "service and self-interest." They were both top-down interventions that allowed professional and administrative elites to move to and work in rural areas. Both projects also imagined the rural within a particular framework of class and gender relations. In Cornwall, the Workers Educational Association, in partnership with a university, extended liberal adult education to rural areas as a means of opening the gates to individual liberation. The ideological framework was one of service, but an outcome of self-interest is apparent as educators established their position as interpreters of academic culture to rural communities. In Devon, county-sponsored agricultural education for adults included "manual process" classes (in such areas as plowing and milking) that aimed to keep a low-paid but valued sector of the British race on the land, and "women's institutes" in horticulture and food preservation that promoted "active domesticity" at home or in the Empire. Government agricultural directives and funding were translated into agricultural education in Devon by the Agricultural Organiser, who also built an empire in the process with the tacit approval of the county council. (Contains 11 references.) (SV) ED443605
Deugd, M., Roling, N., & Smaling, E. M. A. (1 December 1998). A new praxeology for integrated nutrient management, facilitating innovation with and by farmers. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 71(1), 269-283(215). Integrated nutrient management (INM) is a broad-based remedy against excessive soil fertility decline or accumulation, problems which are increasingly recognised as major constraints to farming in both temperate and tropical hemispheres. The different technical indicators of INM (nutrient stocks, nutrient flows, technologies) are listed in the paper. At the same time, INM requires social interventions to arrive at technologies that simultaneously improve soil fertility in a sustainable way, and make sense to farmers given their different social and economic motives. As the limitations of transfer of technology to promote better INM become more obvious (particularly in lesser-endowed regions in the tropics), there is a need to develop new strategies, focussing on the facilitation of farmer learning to become experts at INM and at capturing the opportunities in their diverse environments. Facilitating INM therefore, requires a praxeology (theory informing practice, and practices feeding new theory) about facilitating innovation, focussing on enhancing the farmers' capacity to observe, experiment, discuss, evaluate and plan ahead. The paper lists the work needed to facilitate this learning with respect to INM, borrowing a leaf from earlier successes in the field of integrated pest management (IPM). Indispensable ingredients are participatory rural appraisals and participatory technology development, which emphasizes mutual open-mindedness and empathy between all the participants. The paper provides guidelines for the development of INM learning, but further field testing still has to be undertaken.
Dewees, P. A. (July 1995). Trees on Farms in Malawi: Private Investment, Public Policy, and Farmer Choice. World Development, 23(7), 1085-1102(1018). Agricultural intensification in Malawi has proceeded at the expense of the country's extensive woodlands. Rather than clear their farmlands of all trees however, farmers plant or leave preferred species in fields and around households. A number of indigenous and exotic agroforestry species are being promoted through extension. An analysis of potential capital and management costs vis-a-vis increased potential production of local and hybrid maize shows that investments in tree planting are most favorable when they involve low costs and low risks. In order to reduce the farmer's costs of tree planting, government introduced a Tree Planting Bonus scheme which has provided cash payments as an incentive for farmers to plant trees. The program has been costly to administer and has had a limited impact. Survey data suggest that existing markets for poles and other wood products probably provide better tree planting incentives. Planners need to carefully consider household resource allocation processes with regard to trees and tree based products before they can expect to achieve a significant impact in encouraging rural afforestation.
Dolloph, F., & Others, A. (10 Feb 1995). Meeting the Needs of a Rural Community for Registered Nurses., 18pp. Paper presented at "Workforce 2000," the Annual Conference on Workforce Training of the League for Innovation in the Community College (3rd, San Diego, CA, February 8-11, 1995). In 1988, Shepherd College-South Branch (SC-SB), a rural institution serving primarily place-bound adults, began offering non-nursing courses that would transfer to three regional nursing programs. Student requests, however, and a recognized shortage of registered nurses led to the establishment of a two-year rural nursing program in 1993. A county commission was established to determine possibilities for funding, and SC-SB hired a nursing faculty member from the main campus to assess needs and resources. It was determined that the county hospital could provide funds for a nursing coordinator, medical supplies, books, and a classroom, and that the local nursing home could provide facilities for the basic nursing skills lab, with students assisting with basic patient care as part of their training. In addition, the county library agreed to serve as a resource center for nursing library materials and lectures at the main campus were videotaped for SC-SB. Twelve students were admitted to the program's first class, with 9 of these students graduating after 2 years. An April 1994 review of the program indicated that in general it was successful and the hospital and nursing home agreed to 2 more years of funding, resulting in the admittance of 10 students for the 1996 class. Since the nursing shortage will probably cease to exist after this class, funding may not continue beyond 1996. (A map of West Virginia, the SC-SB nursing curriculum, and duties of the coordinator are appended.) (KP) ED380156
Donovan, P. A. (1995). The Management, Funding and Organisational Structure of Agricultural R & D in Zimbabwe, Malawi and South Africa. Part II--Organisational Structure. Agricultural Systems, 47(3), 273-290(218). The basic reasons for the present unsatisfactory structure of agricultural R & D in Southern Africa and particularly in South Africa, are the focus of R & D on the commercial sector of agriculture, at the expense of the non-commercial sector, top-down policy decision-making and the institutional separation of research and extension. This has led to the generation of inappropriate technology and ineffective technology transfer particularly for rural or communal farmers.The solution to these problems is a restructuring of agricultural R & D in which R & D for commercial agriculture is privatised enabling all government resources for agricultural R & D to be devoted to the non-commercial sector, a reversal of top-down decision-making empowering stakeholders to take their own decisions, and by making agricultural development, including agricultural R & D, an integral part of rural development structures and decision-making.Dube, I. (November 2001). PV for rural areas-the power utility (ZESA) Zimbabwe's experience. Renewable Energy, 24(3), 517-520(514). Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority (ZESA) is mandated to provide power to all parts of the country but in rural areas the electrification rate is very low, estimated at 5%. This is due to technical, financial and socio-economical factors. These factors include low loads, long reticulation lines, and low and erratic incomes. This renders the electrification of some rural areas through grid extension not feasible in the short and medium term. As part of the solution, renewables were incorporated as an alternative energy supply to such rural areas. This paper discusses the technical and socio-economic characteristics of the rural areas in Zimbabwe and the role of renewables in meeting rural loads.
East African Agricultural Economics Society., & Makerere University College. Dept. of Rural Economy and Extension. (1968). East African journal of rural development ( Vol. 1). Kampala: East African Agricultural Economics Society and the Dept. of Rural Economy and Extension Makerere University College University of East Africa. Hd1401.e27 338.1/09676
Eastern Africa Agricultural Economics Society., Makerere University. Dept. of Rural Economy and Extension., & Makerere University. Eastern Africa journal of rural development ( Vol.. 6-16). [Kampala, Uganda,: Eastern Africa Agricultural Economics Society]. Hd1401.e27 338.1/0967
Eberle, W. (2000). Agricultural Extension and Rural Development: Breaking Out of Traditions, edited by Ray Ison and David Russell. Journal of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Education, 29, 167.
EDWARDS, P. E. T. E. R. (April 1998). A systems approach for the promotion of integrated aquaculture*. Aquaculture Economics & Management, 2(1), 1-12(12). A broad definition of integrated aquaculture based on linkages between human activities in general rather than on agriculture (including aquaculture) specifically, has merit. This recognizes that the world is changing rapidly and is becoming increasingly diverse and complex; by the end of the millennium more people will live in urban/industrial than rural areas.A framework comprising three interrelated aspects (production technology, social and economic aspects, and environmental aspects) is presented to facilitate study of sustainable farms. The need for a systems approach, which recognizes that integrated aquaculture comprises a range of systems involving various interrelated factors, is illustrated by reference to widespread misconceptions concerning two integrated culture systems: the dyke-pond system of south China, and feedlot livestock/fish.The case is made that the major constraints facing the promotion of aquaculture are the limited ability of developing countries to assimilate existing technology and limited local capacity in education, research and development. A conceptual framework for the promotion of integrated aquaculture is also presented. The framework comprises theory and practice interrelated with human resources or capacity as a better understanding of the former would facilitate the activities of the actors or players, the latter, who promote or execute aquaculture. National institutes should promote aquaculture in their areas of influence following a farming systems research and extension methodology. Furthermore, financial and technical assistance would be more effective if it were better co-ordinated.
Ellis, E. A., Nair, P. K. R., Linehan, P. E., Beck, H. W., & Blanche, C. A. (June 2000). A GIS-based database management application for agroforestry planning and tree selection. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 27(1), 41-55(15). Agroforestry (the deliberate growing of trees or shrubs in rural lands) is being promoted in the United States as an alternative resource management system that can bring landowners economic benefits and provide environmental services such as reduced soil erosion, improved water quality and wildlife habitat. Landowners, farmers and extension agents need to be better informed about different agroforestry opportunities and potential tree species. The Florida Agroforestry Decision Support System (FADSS) was designed to aid in the dissemination of such information. FADSS utilizes a geographical information system (GIS) enabling the user to select a location of interest which is linked to spatial data on climate and soils characteristics for the state of Florida. The application also incorporates a database of over 500 trees and 50 tree attributes, forming a relational database. The application structure consists primarily of building database queries using Standard Query Language (SQL). SQL queries are constructed during run-time based on spatial parameters of a selected location, the type of agroforestry system desired, and production and management criteria provided by the user. Experts were interviewed to help develop queries used to select trees and other agroforestry species. Being a prototype, the application is built with a modular and flexible framework in which spatial data of different scales and/or regions as well as plant data may be easily incorporated. Among the major limitations encountered during the development of FADSS with major implications on future agroforestry decision support systems was the current lack of tree information relevant to agroforestry and the lack of research involving the assessment of suitable trees and their characteristics.Etling, A., & Maloney, T. (1995). Needs Assessment for Extension Agents and Other Nonformal Educators., 61p. This manual is designed to introduce extension workers to needs assessment theory and techniques in an applied context and to serve as a tool for planning and implementing county-level assessments of youths' needs for extension education (including 4-H programs). First, the following steps in the program planning process are explained: identify issues, determine needs, set goals and objectives, assess resources, form a plan, implement the plan, and evaluate results. Selected aspects of the needs assessment process are examined (including critical questions for needs assessments, examples of target groups and informants, reasons for conducting/not conducting needs assessments, and strategies). The following office techniques for conducting needs assessments are discussed and illustrated with sample forms/instruments: needs sheet/wall chart, resource inventories, review of office records, futures wheel, and reflective listening. The roles of the following data/data collection instruments in assessing needs are described: social indicators, written surveys, phone surveys, the nominal group process, county forums, focus group interviews, and brainstorming. Concluding the manual are a summary of Pennsylvania county youth needs assessments conducted during 1987-91 and lists of the following: other needs assessment techniques, common misuses of the needs assessment techniques described, and benefits of county advisory committees. (Contains 21 references.) (MN) ED388774
_____. (Feb 1994). Beginning Farmer Sustainable Agriculture Project. Interim Report., 15pp. Photographs may not reproduce adequately. The Nebraska Sustainable Agriculture Society also cooperated in this project. This project increases opportunities for beginning farmers to learn about and implement sustainable farming methods through mutual-help discussion groups and continuing education opportunities. Local groups established in six areas in northeast Nebraska in 1991 constitute the Beginning Farmer Support Network (BFSN). At workshops held throughout the year, the groups discussed goal setting, financial planning, alternative crops, farming practices, enterprise options, and grazing practices. Twelve beginning farm families that attended the BFSN workshops were selected for whole-farm case study analysis of their farm entry strategies. They kept records on machinery, inventories, energy use, fertilizer and pesticide purchases and use, assets and liabilities, and farm and nonfarm income and expenses. The following recommendations developed by the project include: mechanisms to hasten loan approval, to supplement beginning farmers' cash down-payments, and trade up-front acquisition costs for longer-term financing would help beginners; programs and policies that foster businesses and job creation in small towns are essential, since beginning farmers rely on off- farm employment to supplement their incomes; access to professional, educational, and extension services at nonstandard times and ways is needed; and information is needed that is geared toward basic facts, lowest-cost and least-input methods, and diversified integrated farms. Appended are farm family summaries. (TD) ED388472
Flora, C. B. (1998). Community Building for a Healthy Ecosystem. Paper presented at the Rural Development News, 22, 3, 1-3,10 Fall. People act in environmentally sound ways for many reasons, but the best motivation is wanting to act in the public good and knowing how to do it. Ed ucation and socialization internalize socially responsible behavior. Land grant university education and extension are based on internalizing the right thing to do and learning the right way to do it. Formal and informal education can help people appreciate the environment and its important ecological functions, as well as teach them how to work with and enhance those ecological functions. When internalization is absent, peer pressure may result in positive or negative actions toward the environment. However, community counts in terms of environmental quality and may turn peer pressure from a negative to a positive. When internalization and peer pressure do not work, economic incentives or penalties may encourage land managers to practice conservation. Force is the final and most costly mechanism for preventing environmentally damaging behavior. Internalization and peer pressure work well with farmers in an agrarian environment but not with those who live elsewhere and make decisions about environmental practices. If education for ecological health is going to improve ecosystem health, we must rethink whom we are talking to and why we are talking to them, and we must think more in terms of actors who are not rooted in place and who have various relationships to land, labor, and capital. Both farm managers and the bankers who loan them money must be educated about environmentally sustainable practices and how they can be profitable. (SV) ED426831 You may be able to order this document from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Land and Water Development Division., & Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Research Extension and Training Division. (1997). Land quality indicators and their use in sustainable agriculture and rural development: proceedings of the workshop. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. S591.l298 1997 631.4 1000 F17 L229wb no.5 1997
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations., Unesco., & International Labour Organisation. Training for agriculture and rural development ( Vol. 1975-). Rome,: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. S530.t7 630/.7/1 1000 F17 Ec74sFreebairn, D. K. (February 1995). Did the Green Revolution Concentrate Incomes? A Quantitative Study of Research Reports. World Development, 23(2), 265-279(215). A review of more than 300 studies on the Green Revolution published during 1970-89 shows that about 80% of those studies which had conclusions on the distributional effects of the new technology found that inequality increased, both interfarm and interregional. This evidence diverges from the position of action agencies which support and participate in this technological strategy toward agricultural and rural development. An evaluation of the studies, using their results as data for a statistical analysis, reveals that the authors' conclusions on the question of whether income concentration increased depended on such structural and methodological characteristics as the regional origin of authors, location of the study area, methodology followed, and the geographic extension of the study area. For example, studies done by Western developed-country authors, those employing an essay approach, and those looking at a multi-country region are most likely to conclude that income inequalities increased. By contrast, work done by Asian-origin authors, with study areas located in India or the Philippines, and using the case method are more likely to conclude that increasing inequality is not associated with the new technology.
_____. (1999 Length: 33 Page(s); 1 Microfiche). Building Rural Health Partnerships in the South. Final Report. The Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC) at Mississippi State University aims to stimulate the creation of new partnerships to enhance rural communities' capacity to address key health issues. In 1997, SRDC hosted a conference to develop the following: partnerships among land-grant universities, the health sector, and local citizens and leaders; share health planning resource tools; and explore strategies to ensure that rural areas maintain a viable health sector. As a result of the conference, state rural health teams were formed in Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Texas. This document contains minigrant reports from the six state teams. Each report includes an introduction, team objectives, activities, achievements, future plans, and contact information. In Alabama, a countywide Coosa County "family festival" focused on family health, parenting, and the particular needs of children. Arkansas team members participated in an intensive workshop on how to write and adapt health materials for low literacy individuals, and are developing a center to provide such materials on a continuing basis. The Kentucky team developed a resource directory of health services for Floyd County, addressed cultural awareness issues, and started a clearinghouse on health education issues. The Mississippi team established a mentoring program for at-risk teenagers in Jones County. The Oklahoma team guided Noble County community leaders through the process of making decisions to improve their health environment. The Texas team assessed health issues and related educational needs in Hunt County. (SV) ED428919
Garkovich, L., & Tisdale, J. (1997). Evaluation and Impacts of Linking Family and Community Strengths Conference., 7pp. Conference was also sponsored by the National 4-H Council and the four Regional Rural Development Centers. This report summarizes a postconference evaluation of the "Linking Family and Community Strengths" conference, held in Louisville, Kentucky, in June 1996, and describes 12 community projects based on conference lessons. Six months after the conference, an evaluation was completed by 100 of 192 participants. The conference aimed to provide a framework for understanding ways in which family and community strengths, needs, and problems affect each other and for using these interconnections as a basis for partnerships that address family/community concerns. Two out of three respondents stated that conference topics and issues were important in their state and their work. Resource materials and knowledge obtained from the conference were applied to the work of 40-60 percent of respondents. Since the conference, 40-60 percent had begun or strengthened partnerships related to family- community interests. Twelve conference participants, Cooperative Extension Service educators, were awarded minigrants to develop partnerships that would build capacity in families and communities. The 12 projects took place primarily in rural areas and addressed poverty awareness among community service providers, community leadership training, teen perceptions of family strengths, challenges of welfare reform, strengths of Native American families and communities, poverty issues, "mind shift" from needs assessment to strengths assessment, and collaboration with early childhood networks. (SV) ED423107
Garner, M. G., Longbottom, H. M., Cannon, R. M., & Plant, A. J. (1998). A review of Q fever in Australia 1991-1994. Occupational Health and Industrial Medicine, 38(4), 169-169(161). Q fever continues to be an important disease in Australia. Despite the development of an effective vaccine that has been commercially available since 1989, the number of cases notified has continued to increase. This study reviewed national notifications of Q fever between 1991 and 1994, together with demographic, socioeconomic and occupational information, to investigate temporal and spatial disease patterns. Based on notification data, Q fever can be considered primarily a disease of adult males that occurs in eastern Australia: southern Queensland and northern New South Wales have the highest levels of activity. A significant association between Q fever activity of areas and the presence of livestock was found. A strong association with the meat industry was also confirmed. Q fever is conservatively estimated to cost Australia around A$ 1 million and more than 1700 weeks of work time annually. There is a need to increase awareness of this disease and its prevention. An extension program in rural communities and provision of vaccine to all abattoir workers would appear to be sensible public health approaches.
Gates, J. P. (Dec 1995). Educational and Training Opportunities in Sustainable Agriculture. 8th Edition., 48pp. For the 7th edition, see ED 378 058. This directory provides information on over 200 institutions and organizations that are involved in organic, alternative, or sustainable agriculture and that also focus on education, training, or provision of information. The directory was compiled by the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (AFSIC), which is 1 of 10 information centers within the National Agricultural Library that provide in-depth coverage of specific subject areas relating to agricultural sciences. AFSIC focuses on alternative farming systems that aim at maintaining agricultural productivity and profitability, while protecting natural resources. The directory includes sections on institutions and organizations mostly in the United States and Canada with some overseas contacts. Each listing includes address, name of contact person, and a brief program description. Included are undergraduate and graduate degree programs, extension services, research programs, environmental education programs for elementary and secondary students, workshops and seminars, multidisciplinary training programs, and information sources. The guide also provides information on the regional offices of the Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program, which offer competitive research grants in agricultural sciences. (LP) ED393613
Gilbert, L. (16 July 1998). Pharmacy's attempts to extend its roles: A case study in South Africa. Social Science and Medicine, 47(2), 153-164(112). This paper examines the role expansion of community pharmacy in South Africa against the background of phenomena such as professional dominance and boundary encroachments. The study demonstrates pharmacy's thrust towards an extended and more meaningful role, making a clear distinction between the role extension concerning the granting of additional powers to prescribe medications, and that of a wider range of activities. It confirms previous claims that the opposition from the medical profession is particularly fierce when it relates to the pharmacist's ability to prescribe. The successful granting of special permits to a selected group of pharmacists to practice an extended role can be explained by the fact that it has been restricted to rural, under-served areas. The developments to date signify a partial success by the pharmacy profession towards its role extension. However, this is likely to remain limited due to the forces operating against it. Considering this context, the development of ''health centres'' might prove to be an alternative venue for the integration of pharmacists into the health care team.
Gill, D. S. (1988). A bibliography on effectiveness of agricultural extension services in reaching rural women in developing countries. Monticello, Ill.: Vance Bibliographies. Z7164.a2
Goebel, A. (April 1998). Process, Perception and Power: Notes from `Participatory' Research in a Zimbabwean Resettlement Area. Development and Change, 29(2), 277-305(229). The increased popularity of `participatory' methods in research, development projects, and rural extension in developing countries, has not consistently been accompanied by a critical evaluation of the quality and reliability of knowledge created and extracted in the process. In this article, the author employs her own research using Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) in a Zimbabwean Resettlement Area, to examine how knowledge is created through this type of research act, and how later research may be used to turn back and `make sense' of PRA data. The article explores how power relations among participants are both revealed and concealed in PRA, focusing specifically on the implications for gendered perspectives. The paper also highlights the dynamic, contested and often contradictory nature of `local knowledge' itself. Apparently transparent chunks of `local reality' gleaned through PRA can turn out to be part of complex webs of multiple ideologies and practices. The author argues that while participatory methodologies may offer effective ways of beginning a research project, adoption of short PRA workshops in academic or project related research could lead to dangerously faulty representations of complex social worlds.
Good, C. M. (1970). Rural markets and trade in East Africa: a study of the functions and development of exchange institutions in Ankole, Uganda. [Chicago: University of Chicago Dept. of Geography]. H31.C514 no. 128 380.1/09676/1Griffin, D. W., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Cooperative Extension Service., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Dept. of Agricultural Economics., & Western Illinois University. Institute for Regional Rural and Community Studies. (1975). A profile of the Two Rivers Region. [Urbana]: Cooperative Extension Service University of Illinois. S537 338
Halbrook, S. A., Ed., & Grace, T. E., Ed. (Jan 1994). Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies: 1993. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the National Public Policy Education Committee (43rd, Clearwater Beach, Florida, September 12-15, 1993)., 231pp. For selected individual papers, see RC 019 486-489. For 1992 proceedings, see ED 355 353. The annual conference of the National Public Policy Education Committee (NPPEC) is held to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. This publication contains 26 conference papers: "Rural America and the Information Revolution: An Exploration of Possibilities and Potentialities" (David Pearce Snyder); "Observations on Agricultural Policy, Policy Reform and Public Policy Education" (John E. Lee, Jr.); "The Status of Agriculture in 1993" (Marty Strange); "A Legislative Perspective on Current and Future Changes in U.S. Farm Policy" (Chip Conley); "Farm Group Perspective on U.S. Farm Policy" (Harry Bell); "Public Policy in a Changing Society" (Otto Doering); "Innovations in Public Policy Education" (Alan J. Hahn); "Alternative Dispute Resolution Approaches to Conflict Management" (Ronald C. Faas); "Collaborative Dispute Resolution Processes" (Robert M. Jones); "Use of ADR in Extension Public Policy Education Programs and Roles Extension Can Play in Dispute Resolution" (Leon E. Danielson & Simon K. Garber); "Framing Public Issues and Working with the Media" (JoAnn Myer Valenti); "Building Coalitions for Educating and Problem Solving: Process, Roles, Warnings and Styles for Extension Involvement" (Fielding Cooley and Others); "Educational Coalitions, Political Coalitions and Roles for Extension" (Alan J. Hahn); "Ethical Issues in Health Care Reform" (Mark H. Waymack); "Health Reform: What the Clinton Plan and Alternatives Mean to Rural and Urban America" (Edward F. Howard); "Health Care Reform: The Implications for Health Data Systems" (Ronald C. Young); "A Case Study of Extension's Response to Health Care Reform" (Lorraine Garkovich); "Public Issues Education and the NPPEC" (Walter J. Armbruster); "Public Issues Education: A Cooperative Extension System Initiative to Improve Public Decisions" (Ayse C. Somersan); "Public Issues Education and the National Public Policy Education Committee" (Barry L. Flinchbaugh); "Environmental Policy: The Legislative and Regulatory Agenda" (Michael T. Olexa); "Impacts of Reduced Pesticide Use on the Profitability of the Fruit and Vegetable Sector" (Charles Hall and others); "Impacts of EPA Dairy Waste Regulations on Farm Profitability" (Ronald D. Knutson and others); "Environmental Policy and Natural-Resource-Based Economic Development" (Tim Phipps); "Environmental Policy: Impacts on Natural-Resource-Based Economic Development" (Robert P. Jones); and "Tourism, Natural Environments and Public Policy" (Clyde F. Kiker and Andrew Seidl). Also contains abstracts of presentations, poster and display session topics, and a list of conference participants. (KS) ED373928
Halbrook, S. A., Ed., & Merry, C. E., Ed. (Jan 1996). Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies, 1995., 208pp. Papers presented at the National Public Policy Education Conference (45th, Overland Park, KS, September 24-27, 1995). For the 1994 version, see ED 386 332. This document contains abstracts and the complete texts of 19 papers that were presented at a conference held to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. The following papers are included: "Microwave Society and Crock-Pot Government" (Bill Graves); "Citizen Participation, Social Capital and Social Learning in the United States, 1960-1995" (Carmen Sirianni); "Citizen InvolvementFederal Level" (Sam Brownback); "Citizen Involvement in Public Policy Formation from the Perspective of a Rural Kansas Senatorial District" (Janis Lee); "Johnson County Citizens Are Involved with Local Government" (Johnna Lingle); "The Past and Future: Social Contract, Social Policy, and Social Capital" (Cornelia Butler Flora, Jan L. Flora); "Asset-Based Alternatives in Social Policy" (Michael Sherraden, Deborah Page-Adams); "Application Opportunities in Public Issues Education" (Alan J. Hahn); "National Policy Trends: Implications for Resource Conservation" (Jeffrey A. Zinn); "Civic Environmentalism and National Environmental Policy: Reform or Rollback?" (DeWitt John); "Whose Land Is It Anyway? Endangered Species, Private Property, and the Fight for the Environment" (Jon H. Goldstein); "Consumer Perceptions of Risk: Implications for Food Safety Policy" (Margy Woodburn); "Economic Issues Associated with Food Safety" (Stephen R. Crutchfield); "1995 Farm Bill; Will We Decouple?" (Barry L. Flinchbaugh); "1995 Farm Bill" (Ronald D. Knutson); "Industrialization of Agriculture: What Are the Policy Implications?" (Michael Boehlje); "Sustainability: Observations, Expectations and Policy Implications" (Dana L. Hoag, Melvin D. Skold); "Understanding the Changing Structure of American Agriculture" (Don Paarlberg); and "Understanding the Changing Structure of American Agriculture" (Harold F. Breimyer). Also included are lists of the conference's invited poster/display session topics and conference participants. Some papers contain substantial bibliographies. (MN) ED392897
Harrington, V., & O'Donoghue, D. (August 1998). Rurality in England and Wales 1991: A Replication and Extension of the 1981 Rurality Index. Sociologia Ruralis, 38(2), 178-203(126). This paper sets out to create rurality indexes for 222 non-urban Local Authority Districts (LADs) in England and Wales 1991, replicating the earlier work of Cloke (1977) and Cloke and Edwards (1986) for 1971 and 1981 respectively. The same technique is employed to generate the rurality indices for 1991 as that used by those previous researchers. The results for 1991 are then compared to those for 1981, illustrating the robustness of the rurality index. Despite the robustness of the rurality index, it was felt that too much of the variation in rurality was left unexplained by the previous construction. Therefore, principal components analysis is used to identify two new dimensions of rurality: Structural Rurality and Demographic Rurality. The remainder of the paper investigates the ways in which these new, or additional, indices of rurality may prove useful to the further study of change in rural areas of England and Wales.
Heise, D. A., Comp. (Sep 1995). Journals Significant to Rural Development Received at the National Agricultural Library. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 48. Revised Edition., 33p. This directory lists 227 journals in the National Agricultural Library's (NAL) collection that are related to social and economic aspects of rural development. The directory includes both United States and international journals. Each citation includes title, NAL call number, NAL holdings information, the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), publisher, frequency of publication, and an indication of whether the journal is indexed in the NAL database AGRICOLA. Journals focus on issues related to rural development, rural economics, rural education, agriculture, extension services, rural areas, human services, environmental economics, health care, public policy, agribusiness, human resources, rural sociology, social problems, community development, and rural reconstruction. The directory also provides information on the Rural Information Center, a joint project of NAL and the Extension Service; document delivery services to individuals; and electronic access for interlibrary loan requests. (LP) ED401053
Henderson, J. W., Kelly, T. M., & Taylor, B. A. (November 2000). The Impact of Agglomeration Economies on Estimated Demand Thresholds: An Extension of Wensley and Stabler. Journal of Regional Science, 40(4), 719-733(715). Central place theory predicts that geographic markets located in rural areas have lower demand thresholds, and, therefore, a higher frequency of business establishments relative to areas that are more proximate to urban centers, other things equal. Wensley and Stabler (1998) confirm this prediction using data on the location and frequency of business activities in rural Saskatchewan. We demonstrate that this relationship may not always hold true depending on the existence and magnitude of agglomeration economies. If average cost differences associated with being located in an urbanized area are sufficiently large, then the relationship between urban proximity and number of establishments may be reversed. We provide evidence of this reversal using 1996 cross-sectional data on hospital services in Texas.
Henry, M. S., Schmitt, B., & Piguet, V. (April 2001). Spatial Econometric Models for Simultaneous Systems: Application to Rural Community Growth in France. International Regional Science Review, 24(2), 171-193(123). In this article, comparisons are made of several spatial econometric approaches to estimation of multiequation models of small region development applied to rural community growth. Spatial extensions of the Carlino and Mills's 1987 and Boarnet's 1994 models are estimated to analyze the spread of population and employment into 3,500 rural communes in six French regions. Results are compared for the Henry, Barkley, and Bao's 1997 extension of the Boarnet model, the Carlino-Mills and Boarnet models, and three spatial autoregressive models suggested by Rey and Boarnet in 2001. Tests for spread and backwash effects in the spatial autoregressive model, and the Carlino-Mills and Boarnet models, with spatial autoregressive terms added, indicate that population growth spreads to rural communities from nearby areas but that evidence on employment spread is less robust. The Henry et al. modification to Boarnet adds insight into how urban growth affects proximate rural areas by decomposing the spatial cross-regressive term into rural area, urban core, and urban fringe effects.
Hiller, R. L., & Colorado State University. Cooperative Extension Service. (1979). Rural clean water program. [Fort Collins, Colo.]: Colorado State University Extension Service. Ucsu20/6.22/4.906
Hoffman, M. T., & Todd, S. (1 December 2000). A National Review of Land Degradation in South Africa: the Influence of Biophysical and Socio-economic Factors. Journal of Southern African Studies, 26(4), 743-758(716). Studies of land degradation in South Africa have seldom addressed the issue for the whole country. As part of the first step in developing a National Action Programme to combat desertification, a national review of the soil and veld degradation problem was conducted in 1997 and 1998. The results are based on the perceptions of agricultural extension workers and resource conservation technicians from the Department of Agriculture. They indicate that it is primarily in the communal areas along the eastern and northern escarpment and in some commercial districts along the Orange River that problems of soil degradation are greatest. Veld degradation is also higher in communal areas than commercial areas, although many commercial areas are susceptible to bush encroachment and alien plant invasions. A separate multiple regression analysis indicates that both biophysical and socio-economic factors are associated with high levels of soil and veld degradation. Magisterial districts which are most degraded are characterised by steep slopes and high mean annual temperatures, and a rural population in which many people are dependent on only a few wage earners. Although the interaction is poorly understood it appears that when there are high levels of poverty in susceptible environments, land degradation is greatest.
Holloway, G., Nicholson, C., Delgado, C., Staal, S., & Ehui, S. (September 2000). Agroindustrialization through institutional innovation - Transaction costs, cooperatives and milk-market development in the east-African highlands. Agricultural Economics, 23(3), 279-288(210). Some small-holders are able to generate reliable and substantial income flows through small-scale dairy production for the local market; for others, a set of unique transaction costs hinders participation. Cooperative selling institutions are potential catalysts for mitigating these costs, stimulating entry into the market, and promoting growth in rural communities. Trends in cooperative organization in east-African dairy are evaluated. Empirical work focuses on alternative techniques for effecting participation among a representative sample of peri-urban milk producers in the Ethiopian highlands. The variables considered are a modern production practice (cross-bred cow use), a traditional production practice (indigenous-cow use), three intellectual-capital-forming variables (experience, education, and extension), and the provision of infrastructure (as measured by time to transport milk to market). A Tobit analysis of marketable surplus generates precise estimates of non-participants' 'distances' to market and their reservation levels of the covariates - measures of the inputs necessary to sustain and enhance the market. Policy implications focus on the availability of cross-bred stock and the level of market infrastructure, both of which have marked effects on participation, the velocity of transactions in the local community and, inevitably, the social returns to agroindustrialization.Humble, M. (1938). Rural America reads; a study of rural library service. New York,: American Association for Adult Education. 021.6
International Labour Office. (1996). Rural women in micro-enterprise development: a training manual and programme for extension workers. Geneva: Ilo. 1024 R881wm 1996Ison, R., & Russell, D. (2000). Agricultural Extension and Rural Development - Breaking Out of Traditions. Organization Studies, 21(5), 1022.
Jedlicka, A. D. (1977). Organization for rural development: risk taking and appropriate technology. New York: Praeger Publishers. Hd1417.j4 1977 338.1/09172/4 Hd1417.j4 1977
Jiggins, J., & Roling, N. (Apr 1994). Systems Thinking and Participatory Research and Extension Skills: Can These Be Taught in the Classroom? Occasional Papers in Rural Extension, No. 10., 21p. Over the last decade, there have been rapid developments in field methodologies within participatory approaches to rural and agricultural development. At the same time, the use of "soft systems" methodologies for bringing potentially conflictual or disparate actors together for action has spread from the business world to other applications. These new methodologies are based on the ideas that: (1) action for change and impossible as a voluntary process without a commitment to change and that participation is a necessary condition for commitment, and (2) complex decisions in conditions of uncertainty and immediacy are best handled from a systems perspective. Information about and competence in using and adapting these methodologies remain largely in the store of "craft knowledge" of professionals. Academic institutions have been slow to train students in the emerging professionalism of systems management and participatory research and extension, and have tended to view such professional work practices and skills as best developed in the field. This paper outlines reasons why such a view is no longer viable; outlines principles and goals for training and practice in rural development, agricultural research, and extension; describes efforts of a few universities worldwide to address these training needs; and examines questions about whether the needed skills can be taught in the classroom. Two university innovations in this area are described: systems-based curricula at the University of Western Sydney (Australia) emphasizing experiential learning, student reflection, and problem solving; and an intensive 3-week course on participatory research and extension at Guelph University (Ontario). Contains over 100 references. (SV) ED393609
John, P. L. C. (Aug 1994). Rural Leadership: January 1984 - May 1994. Quick Bibliography Series: QB 94-45. Updates QB 93-51., 40pp. Updates ED 364 391. This bibliography contains 135 entries related to rural and community leadership. The entries were derived from the AGRICOLA database produced by the National Agricultural Library and include journal articles, extension bulletins, books, conference papers, and government reports. Entries cover such topics as community development, community leadership, educational programs, leadership, leadership training, local government, extension activities, program development, rural areas, rural communities, rural development, and teaching materials. Each entry includes title, author, publisher, publication date, journal or conference information (where appropriate), language, descriptors, and the National Agricultural Library call number. Some entries contain an abstract. Also included are indexes by author and subject and information about interlibrary loan from the National Agricultural Library. (LP) ED377006
John, P. L. C. (Feb 1994). Crime in Rural America: January 1979-October 1993. Quick Bibliography Series., 30pp. Updates QB-92-21. This bibliography lists materials available from the National Agricultural Library's (NAL) AGRICOLA database that are related to crime and crime prevention in rural areas. The bibliography was derived from a search of books, journals, research reports, and Cooperative Extension Service publications that have been entered into the database since January 1979. The 91 citations include the NAL call number, title, author, place of publication, publisher, journal information, language, and descriptors. In some cases, an abstract is included. Materials cover topics such as criminality, delinquent behavior, family violence, adolescent development, juvenile delinquency, law enforcement, criminal justice, property protection, victimization, rural communities, rural youth, and youth programs. Also provides information on the Rural Information Center, a joint project of NAL and the Extension Service; document delivery services to individuals; and electronic mail access for interlibrary loan requests. Includes author and subject indexes. (LP) ED401052
John, P. L. C. (Jun 1994). Information Access in Rural America: January 1980 - April 1994. Quick Bibliography Series: QB 94-39., 41pp. Updates ED 361 150. This bibliography contains 166 entries related to information access in rural communities. The entries were derived from the AGRICOLA database produced by the National Agricultural Library and include journal articles, books, conference papers, and government reports. Entries cover such topics as information centers, information needs, cooperative extension services, information services, libraries, program development, rural areas, rural development, rural communities, rural sociology, and rural libraries. Each entry contains title, author, publisher, publication date, journal or conference information (where appropriate), language, descriptors, and the National Agricultural Library call number. Some entries contain an abstract. Also included are indexes by author and subject and information about interlibrary loan from the National Agricultural Library. (LP) ED378003John, P. L. C. (Jun 1994). Leadership Development: January 1984 - April 1994. Quick Bibliography Series: QB 94-40., 47p. This bibliography contains 181 entries related to leadership training and education. The entries were derived from the AGRICOLA database produced by the National Agricultural Library and include journal articles, extension bulletins, books, conference papers, and government reports. Entries cover such topics as 4- H clubs, agricultural education, community development, community education, community leadership, educational programs, extension education, leadership training, rural communities, rural development, teaching materials, and youth programs. Each entry contains title, author, publisher, publication date, journal or conference information (where appropriate), language, descriptors, and the National Agricultural Library call number. Some entries contain an annotation. Also included are indexes by author and subject and information about interlibrary loan from the National Agricultural Library. (LP) ED377005
Kai-yuen, T. (September 1998). Factor Decomposition of Chinese Rural Income Inequality: New Methodology, Empirical Findings, and Policy Implications. Journal of Comparative Economics, 26(3), 502-528(527). This paper is an attempt to explore the factors behind the changes in rural income inequality in China in the second half of the 1980s by decomposing overall rural income inequality into contributions by different sources of income. Furthermore, by extension of Shorrocks decomposition rule (Shorrocks, 1982, Econometrica 50, 1:193-211, Jan. 1982), the contribution of each source of income is further decomposed into its between-regions and within-region contributions. Statistical tests are developed to ascertain whether the changes in the contributions are statistically significant. The policy implications of the empirical findings with respect to region-based redistributive and preferential policies are discussed.J. Comp. Econom., September 1998, 26(3), pp. 502-528. Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.
Kasusya, P. (June 1998). Combating desertification in northern Kenya (Samburu) through community action: a community case experience. Journal of Arid Environments, 39(2), 325-329(325). The Samburu District is situated in the arid and semi-arid area of the Rift Valley Province of Kenya. The Lorroki Plateau in central Samburu acts as an important water catchment for the surrounding arid areas and serves as an area for dry season grazing for the Samburu people, who are pastoralists living in group ranches and whose trees and forests are managed as a communal resource providing grazing, firewood, building poles and medicines. Strong group rules enforced by appointed elders have traditionally been essential to the conservation and wise use of communal tree and forest resources. But these rules have been undermined by changes in resource management, forest use patterns, increasing population, overgrazing, displacements, droughts, cattle rustling and high urban demand for wood energy and building materials. These changes have led to desert conditions. For the past 2 years I have worked among the communities in interventions to combat desertification and have held seminars to sensitize communities and extension staff. Participatory rural appraisal methods and action plans have been drawn up to address range rehabilitation within denuded community lands. The people have formed rural conservation committees with defined responsibilities, and women are taking an active role in harvesting and marketing non-woody products like honey to earn income.
Keightley, R. (1999). The Impact of the Extension of Security of Tenure Act on an Owner's Right to Vindicate Immovable Property. South African journal on human rights, 15(3), 277.
Klees, S., Matangala, A., Spronk, B., & Visser, J. (1997). Reaching Unreached Learners in Mozambique: A Report to the Minister of Education on Learning Needs and Alternative Pathways to Learning in the Perspective of an Integrated Response to the Needs of a Rapidly Developing Society in a Complex World., 66pp. Financial support from the Netherlands Government, through its embassy in Maputo, Mozambique. This report was prepared in the framework of Mozambique's concern to respond to the needs of large numbers of unreached learners and to attend, in an integrated fashion, to a growing diversity of learning needs. As step 1 of a three-phase process assisted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO's) Learning without Frontiers initiative, an international mission team analyzed the context of learning needs in Mozambique and examined resources available to meet such needs holistically. The first section of this report discusses the need for lifelong learning in a rapidly changing world, design of the overall three- phase process, and work of the mission team. This section also examines the notion of crossing "frontiers" to reduce barriers to learning; these frontiers include boundaries between public and private sectors, between channels of learning, between the worlds of work and learning, between "modern" and "traditional" systems of knowledge, and among languages. The second section looks at key problems and issues related to the economy, agriculture, health, education, and communications in Mozambique as a whole and in the provinces of Sofala and Nampula, focusing on effects of the decade-long civil war, widespread dependence on subsistence agriculture, limited access to education, high rates of illiteracy, poor health conditions, and the education of women and girls. Final sections suggest directions for project content, audiences, organization, and location and include recommendations for the next mission. Contains 33 references and an additional bibliography. Appendices list persons and groups met within Maputo and organization name abbreviations. (SV) ED426833 Available from: Web site: http://www.unesco.org/education/educprog/lwf/lwf docs.htm l You may be able to order this document from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service.
Korsching, P. F., Hipple, P. C., & Abbott, E. A. (2000). Having all the right connections: telecommunications and rural viability. Westport, CT: Praeger. He7775.h39 2000 384/.0973/091734
Krishna, A., Uphoff, N. T., & Esman, M. J. (1997). Reasons for hope: instructive experiences in rural development. West Hartford, Conn.: Kumarian Press. Hn981.c6 r43 1997 307.1/412/091722Kuruppu, L. (2001). The ''books in schools'' project in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Educational Research, 35(2), 181-191(111). In Sri Lanka, English is taught in the primary school, by language specialists, starting in Grade 3. During 1995, staff at the National Institute of Education investigated the impact of a ''Book Flood'' of 100 good quality English reading books per school, in 20 small disadvantaged schools, at Grades 4 and 5. Half the schools were urban and half were rural. The books were donated for the project by Wendy Pye, a New Zealand publisher. In preparation for the project, teachers were trained, in short workshops, to use the Shared Reading method, and to read stories to children. The books were used for 15-20min daily during normal English periods. The achievement levels of the pupils were tested before and after the program, which continued from March 1995 until January 1996. In comparison with matched control groups, the project groups showed highly significant gains in reading achievement, approximately three times that of control groups, and substantial improvements in writing and listening skills. Apparently, the daily practice at reading and related activities contributed to a marked improvement in English literacy acquisition. The Ministry of Education recommended extension of the program to all schools, in English, Tamil and Sinhalese. Teachers in over 400 schools have now been trained in the approach.
Lans, C., Harper, T., Georges1, K., & Bridgewater1, E. (12 June 2000). Medicinal plants used for dogs in Trinidad and Tobago. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 45(3), 201-220(220). This paper documents ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat dogs in Trinidad and Tobago. In 1995, a 4-stage process was used to conduct the research and document the ethnoveterinary practices. Twenty-eight ethnoveterinary respondents were identified using the school-essay method, which is a modified rapid rural appraisal (RRA) technique. Semi-structured interviews were held with these respondents as well as with 30 veterinarians, 27 extension officers and 19 animal-health assistants and/or agricultural officers, and the seven key respondents that they identified. The final step involved hosting four participatory workshops with 55 of the respondents interviewed to discuss the ethnoveterinary data generated from the interviews and to determine dosages for some of the plants mentioned. Supplementary interviews were conducted in 1997 and 1998.Seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Cassia alata, Azadirachta indica, Gossypium spp., Cajanus cajan and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are used as anthelmintics. The anthelmintics Gossypium spp. and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are the most frequently used species. Crescentia cujete pulp, Musa spp. stem exudate, the inside of the pods of Bixa orellana, leaves of Cordia curassavica and Eclipta alba plant tops are used for skin diseases. Musa spp. stem exudate, seeds of Manilkara zapota, Pouteria sapota and Mammea americana and leaves of Cordia curassavica, Scoparia dulcis and Nicotiana tabacum are used to control ectoparasites. Dogs are groomed with the leaves of Cordia curassavica, Bambusa vulgaris and Scoparia dulcis. Psidium guajava buds and leaves and the bark of Anacardium occidentale are used for diarrhoea. Owners attempt to achieve milk let-down with a decoction of the leaves of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis. The plant uses parallel those practised in human folk medicine in other Caribbean countries and in other tropical countries.
Lee, J. E., Jr. (Jan 1994). Observations on Agricultural Policy, Policy Reform and Public Policy Education., 24pp. In: "Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies: 1993"; see RC 019 485. The intervention of the United States government in agriculture in the 20th century is an explainable response to basic characteristics of agriculture: unpredictability, immobile resources, technological changes and disproportionate supply and demand factors. The concentration of large benefits among relatively few producers and diffusion of costs over a large nonfarm population make policy reform difficult. The policies in place since the 1930s have had both positive and negative consequences from a societal perspective. While farm policies have gradually become less distortive, less expensive, and increasingly sensitive to a broader array of social concerns, such as the environment and food safety, they still reduce the overall efficiency of the U.S. economy, regressively redistribute income and wealth, and divert attention and energy of policymakers away from more pressing rural and social problems. Increasing public understanding of the consequences of alternative policies will equip people for productive questioning. Such outreach is essential for policy reform and is both an opportunity and a challenge for public policy educators. (KS) ED373929Levin, A., Caldwell, B., & Khuda, B.-e. (July 1999). Effect of price and access on contraceptive use. Social Science and Medicine, 49(1), 1-16(16). The Family Planning Program in Bangladesh has been very successful. The contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) has increased from 13% in 1979 to 49% in 1996. Now that the program has matured and demand for family planning has been created, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) of the Government of Bangladesh is concerned with increasing its financial sustainability. Options to increase financial sustainability include cost sharing and a gradual transition from doorstep to static clinic delivery of contraceptives. Many of these alternatives would involve additional travel time or charges for consumers, and it is important to estimate the effect that these additional prices would have on the use of contraception.The effect of economic constraints, such as cash price and access to services on contraceptive method use, the choice of contraceptive method and provider choice, has been analyzed, taking into account the socioeconomic factors that influence decision-making for individual family members. Two data sources have been used for this analysis: (1) a survey on use of contraception and (2) two baseline surveys of 1993 and 1994 in the two field sites of the MCH-FP Extension Project (Rural) of International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.No effect of cash prices was found on the probability of use of any contraceptive method, but clients were to a limited extent responsive to price in making choices about contraceptive methods and providers. In addition, couples were less likely to use contraception or choose methods if the travel time to fixed clinics was greater than 30 min.
Malaviya, J. N., & Ranade, S. P. (November 1997). Potential of solar home-lighting system in rural western India. Fuel and Energy Abstracts, 38(6), 415-415(411). Among the largest consumers of electricity are the states of Maharastra and Gujarat in Western India. These areas experience power shortages in rural housing due to the ever increasing demand on electricity. A desirable solution is solar home-lighting system (SHS), attractive as a self-reliant source. The study takes into account the number of villages-households-population and the existing electricity structure to determine the system's potential. Government backing will be provided for financing schemes also involving NGOs for supplying the system. Rural technicians would be trained to maintain the systems. This will serve as a pilot model for the country, for subsequent extension to other states.
Martinot, E., Cabraal, A., & Mathur, S. (March 2001). World Bank/GEF solar home system projects: experiences and lessons learned 1993-2000. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 5(1), 39-57(19). Twelve projects provide energy services to off-grid rural households in developing countries by enhancing markets for solar home systems and by removing barriers to their dissemination. Project approaches are reviewed, along with early implementation experience and lessons suggested by experience. Most projects incorporate the following features: pilot private-sector and NGO delivery models; pilot consumer credit delivery mechanisms; pay first-cost subsidies and offer affordable system sizes; support policy development and capacity; develop codes and standards and establish certification, testing, and enforcement institutions; and conduct consumer awareness and marketing programs. Most projects are just beginning implementation; a few are almost completed. Lessons from early experience suggest that: solar home system delivery firms face a myriad of difficulties operating in rural areas; credit risk is a serious concern of both financiers and dealers and makes credit sales particularly challenging; technical performance of systems is becoming well-proven; customers desire a range of component options and service levels and can benefit from even small systems; projects must recognize the link between rural electric-grid extension and solar home system demand; and marketing campaigns can be extremely costly and time consuming in rural areas. Challenges are to demonstrate sustainable and replicable business models, develop regulatory models for energy-service concessions, and integrate rural electrification policy with solar home system delivery.
McDonald, B. T. (April 2000). Extending that little bit further An interview with Martin Driver and Ian Davidson. Ecological Management & Restoration, 1(1), 3-9(7). Two long-term practitioners in restoration extension reflect on how far we have come with remnant vegetation management in rural southern NSW - and how far we have yet to go
Milne, D., & Gibson, L. (1 September 1994). Quality Assurance in the Voluntary Sector. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 7(6), 16-19(14). Reports on a small-scale quality assurance analysis of rural mental health drop-in centres. Within a cross-sectional research design, measures were taken of the centres structure, process and outcome. The instruments used to take these measures were structured interviews, questionnaires and direct observation, which were applied to clients, staff and referrers. It was found that the centres achieved their objectives with considerable success, including high levels of client and referrer satisfaction. Concludes that the three centres provided a quality service which complements the formal options i.e. NHS and Social Services. Draws implications for the extension of NHS staff roles in relation to the voluntary sector.
Molgaard, V. (1997). The Extension Service as Key Mechanism for Research and Services Delivery for Prevention of Mental Health Disorders in Rural Areas. American journal of community psychology, 25(4), 515.
Morris, C., & Winter, M. (October 1999). Integrated farming systems: the third way for European agriculture? Land Use Policy, 16(4), 193-205(113). The potential contribution of integrated farming systems (IFS) to the development of a more sustainable agriculture has been largely ignored within social science and by policy analysts. The goals of IFS are to sustain agricultural production, maintain farm incomes, safeguard the environment and respond to consumer concerns about food quality issues. IFS can be conceptualised as a 'third way' or middle course for agriculture between conventional and organic farming. This paper describes the origins and basic principles of IFS and positions this distinctive approach to agriculture within the agri-environmental debate. It also explores some of the implications of pursuing this 'third way' for farmers and the institutional and policy frameworks.
Mortera-Gutierrez, F. (1999 Length: 8 Page(s); 1 Microfiche). The World Bank Rural Development Field Staff Distance Learning and Training Strategy., Paper presented at the Annual Distance Education Conference (6th, San Antonio, TX, January 12-15, 1999). The Rural Development Distance Learning and Training Strategy targets locally recruited field staff of the World Bank Rural Sector. Field staff at the bank's mission offices worldwide are heterogeneous in terms of culture, ethnicity, race, gender, social class, and religion. However, they have the following in common: they follow the Bank's work rules and corporate culture; they share the same job responsibilities; and they have access to means of communication and information that allow them the delivery of instruction and training. Staff needs for learning and training have been identified through a needs assessment report and a formal content analysis of interviews with rural development experts. The core training program provides learning opportunities to enable all rural field staff to perform effectively and efficiently in their current and future assignments. Three broad categories of knowledge and skill needs are bank operations, rural development, and basic skills. The range of training/learning products to enable field staff to follow self-paced learning and distance learning courses and workshops includes printed materials, videotapes and workbook sets, Internet-based training units, CD-ROMs, and audiocassettes. Staff may choose the medium or combination of media most suited to their work and family situation and time availability. The distance learning and training strategy also features interactive communication using e-mail, discussion forums via the Internet or Intranet, and videoconferencing. (Contains 14 references) (YLB) ED427199
Mtshali, S. M. (1 March 2000). Monitoring and evaluation of women's rural development extension services in South Africa. Development Southern Africa, 17(1), 65-73(69). In South Africa, rural women's extension services are frequently based on the Western, middle-class ideology of a woman's place being in the private or domestic sphere of the home. Consequently, almost all extension services have a home economics feature which advocates the teaching of Western-type domestic skills, such as sewing, crocheting, knitting, cookery and child care, to name a few. The home economics extension services offered to rural women are inappropriate and ineffective in relation to women's triple role pertaining to reproductive, economic and community managing activities. Furthermore, most of the extension services are irrelevant to the real conditions of poverty prevailing in rural areas. Much of the planning of extension services is based on the needs of rural communities as decided by policy planners. Even where participatory approaches have been adopted, the monitoring and evaluation of progress made in achieving the objectives are often neglected. This article defines the concepts of monitoring and evaluation, explains their purposes in rural extension services, identifies suitable indicators for measuring sustainability of programmes, and highlights appropriate methods for collecting, handling and analysing data. In recognition of the inadequacies of and confusion in women's rural extension programmes, the article encourages reorientation of the processes used in monitoring and evaluating agricultural and rural development extension services in South Africa.
Murphy, L. J. (1933). Water supply for the isolated home. Ames, Ia.,: Iowa State College. Td927 Td927.m8 engineMurray, P. (July 2000). Agricultural Extension and Rural Development: Breaking out of Traditions: - Ison, Ray, Russell, David, Cambridge University Press, 2000, 239 pp., hard cover, 35, US$ 59.95. ISBN 0-521-64201-9. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 79(2), 281-282(282).
Narayana, N. S. S., & Vani, B. P. (March 2000). Earnings and Consumption by Indian Rural Laborers - Analysis with an Extended Linear Expenditure System. Journal of Policy Modeling, 22(2), 255-273(219). This paper analyzes consumption pattern of agricultural and nonagricultural labor households in rural India using a new extension of the familiar Linear Expenditure System (LES) model. This extension accounts for changes in commodity consumption not only due to changes in prices and total expenditure but also due to changes in certain other ''status'' variables. The analysis extends to assess differential impacts on consumption pattern due to different welfare programmes.Published by Elsevier Science Inc.
Ngimwa, P., Ocholla, D. N., & Ojiambo, J. (March 1997). Media Accessibility and Utilization by Kenyan Rural Women. The International Information & Library Review, 29(1), 45-66(22). This study aims to establish the level of media accessibility and use by the Kenyan rural women in the Kinangop area, with the assumption that media can play an important role for the improvement of their welfare. A survey, using the critical incidence method, was used to gather data by probing person-to-person through interviews and questionnaires. 104 women were sampled from 31 170 women using multistage sampling technique, and interviewed. Ten questionnaires were distributed to key informants who hold leading positions for the improvement of social welfare in the area. The data was analysed by use of descriptive statistics. The study revealed that women require mainly health and agricultural information. Because of low literacy, the majority of the women cannot comprehend radio transmissions in English and Kiswahili which are not their vernacular languages. Despite rating the radio relatively high (26%) as the leading media for information compared to other media, several social and economic barriers including the lack of time to listen to radio programmes were mentioned. Alternative media resources such as rural extension workers and fellow women and friends were rated high. The poor transport and telecommunications infrastructure contributes enormously towards media inaccessibility. The study recommends that alternative media resources like women groups, folk media, religious gathering and exhibitions be promoted and extension services be improved. In addition, timely radio programmes should be broadcasted in vernacular, and women should be encouraged to participate in adult education programmes. Male spouses should be closely involved to support the initiatives and reduce cultural barriers. A model for solving some of the problems is provided. The study confirms previous similar studies and presents new dimensions that can be pursued. The data gathered can be used to determine the role libraries can play. Copyright 1997 Academic Press Limited
Niederfrank, E. J., & United States. Federal Extension Service. (1968). Helping the handicapped in rural areas. [Washington]: U. S. Federal Extension Service; [for sale by the Supt. of Docs. U. S. Govt. Print. Off. A 1.68:860
Nieto, R. D., & Henderson, J. L. (1994). The Dairy Technology System in Venezuela. Summary of Research 79. A study examined the agricultural technology system in Venezuela with emphasis on the dairy industry. An analytical framework was used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the following components of Venezuela's agricultural technology system: policy, technology development, technology transfer, and technology use. Selected government documents were revised, and the following individuals were interviewed: 7 national- and state-level policymakers, 22 agricultural researchers, 18 extension agents, and 33 dairy farmers. It was discovered that government expenditures on agriculture averaged 4% of the country's total expenditures during the past 10 years. Accessibility of external sources of technical dairy information to agricultural researchers was found to be low, and three-fourths of the extension personnel interviewed indicated that direct contact between public research and extension personnel occurred either never or only on an ad hoc basis. Although most farmers had knowledge of basic animal husbandry practices, those practices requiring higher input costs, modern equipment, specialized personnel/skills, and/or sophisticated management abilities were adopted less frequently. It was recommended that the government's financial commitment to the agricultural sector be increased and linkages among researchers, extension agents, and farmers be improved. (Contains 29 references.) (MN) ED384730
Noble, M., & Wright, G. (1 July 2000). Identifying poverty in rural England. Policy & Politics, 28(3), 293-308(216). This article demonstrates how benefit dependent households can be identified at small area levels in rural areas. Current debates about the nature and extent of rural poverty are outlined. We then explain how municipal administrative data can be mapped at different spatial levels - Enumeration District and 500 metre grid squares. Such data at small spatial levels are potentially useful components of national indices of deprivation for the allocation of central government resources to local authorities. There remains a need for measures of poverty that can be consistently applied to urban and rural areas for the purposes of national funding allocation. Cet article montre que les foyers dependant des allocations de l'etat peuvent etre identifies de facon tres detaillee dans les regions rurales. Il rend compte des debats actuels sur la nature et l'etendue de la pauvrete rurale. Les auteurs expliquent comment les donnees administratives des municipalites peuvent etre exprimees a des niveaux geographiques differents - au niveau de l'Enumeration District (district de denombrement) et par des carres de 500 metres de cote. De telles donnees a des niveaux detailles fournissent des composants utiles pour le calcul des indices nationaux de deprivation concernant l'allocation des fonds de l'etat aupres des administrations locales. Il reste cependant a identifier des mesures de pauvrete qui pourraient etre appliques avec logique aux regions urbaines et rurales pour l'allocation des fonds nationaux. Este articulo demuestra como se pueden identificar las familias que dependen de beneficios en limitadas zonas rurales. El articulo resume los ultimos debates relacionados con la naturaleza y extension de la pobreza rural. Los autores explican como se puede levantar un plano de los datos administrativos municipales en diferentes niveles espaciales - La Enumeracion del Districto y 500 metros cuadrados. Tales datos en limitados planos espaciales,son constituyentes de gran utilidad de los indices nacionales de privacion para el reparto de los recursos del gobierno central a las autoridades locales. Sin embargo, para repartir los fondos nacionales, todavia existe la necesidad de determinar la pobreza que se puede atribuir constantemente tanto a areas rurales como urbanas.Nwaerondu, N. G. (Jul 1994). Educational Radio: A Tool for Rural Change., 6pp. In: Issues Affecting Rural Communities. Proceedings of an International Conference Held by the Rural Education Research and Development Centre (Townsville, Queensland, Australia, July 10-15, 1994); see RC 020 376. This paper examines how educational radio has been used to disseminate agricultural information to farmers in rural communities of Manitoba (Canada), and discusses implications for educational uses of radio in developing countries. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 communication experts involved in rural extension services in Manitoba. The experts felt that they did not use radio to educate but to make farmers aware of timely and useful technical information and to inform farmers of practices that would improve farming and their quality of life. Experts planned radio programs cooperatively and, at times, in consultation with the target audience. Various program formats were used, and ideal program length was 30-45 minutes. Evaluation of radio programs was informal, with orientation toward listener feedback. Experts recommended that programming for farmers in developing countries should emphasize simplicity, community involvement, indigenosity, the Farm Radio Forum approach, and multimedia approach. A five-phase framework is proposed for educational uses of radio in the agricultural extension services of Nigeria and other developing nations. The five phases are needs assessment; cooperative planning and development by committees; production, which takes into account local problems, attitudes, beliefs, practices, language use, misconceptions, and government policies; implementation or delivery, which focuses on organizing listening groups and group discussions and gathering feedback; and evaluation of each of the other phases. Specific recommendations for implementation are listed. Contains 21 references. (SV) ED390624
O'Sullivan, J. M. (2000). Small and Part-Time Farmers in the Southern Region. Paper presented at the Also sponsored by the TVA Rural Studies Program at the University of Kentucky, and 29 Southern land grant institutions. Page Length: 12. The loss of small farms in the South was dramatic from 1987 to 1997, with family farming becoming an increasingly rare phenomenon. Small farms are important to the local economic base. They purchase inputs locally, keep the tax base low, and reduce the need for public services. Diversity among farm managers is increasing in the South, with greater numbers of Hispanic and women farm operators. At the same time, only small increases are occurring in the number of African American farmers. Sustainable agriculture advocates have an interest in maintaining niches for small farms and in bringing young people into farming. They point out that well educated small-farm operators are more environmentally responsible. Policy issues include: a need to level the playing field for small farms by developing broad-based national agriculture policy, land use concerns, environmental protection and regulation enforcement, and alternative sources of capital and local financial markets. The major issues facing the small farm are economiccash flow, income, asset development and protection, and return on investment. These issues must be addressed by federal, state, and local policy. Land grant universities need to commit research and educational resources to address the South's small farms issues. (Contains 14 references.) (TD) ED442598
Ojomo, C. O., & McCaslin, N. L. (1995). Factors Influencing Rural Women Cassava Processors' Intention to Participate in an Agricultural Extension Education Program. Summary of Research 80., 15p. A study examined factors influencing female cassava processors' intentions regarding participation in an extension education program on cassava processing in rural Nigeria. Interviews were conducted with 224 women who were purposely selected from areas of zone 3 of Ondo State, Nigeria, which has large concentrations of cassava processors. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and discriminant analysis were used to identify relationships between demographic characteristics and respondents' individual characteristics and their intention to participate in extension education. The cassava processors were found to be educationally and economically disadvantaged and to have considerable experience and indigenous knowledge about cassava processing. It was concluded that those rural cassava processors most likely to participate in a cassava processing extension program were women who perceive a high need for training, want to cooperate, are willing to share information, want evening programs, and have farmed for longer periods of time. Women who had lower attitudes toward innovation or were unmarried were least likely to attend extension programs. Most (200) of the women interviewed intended to participate in a cassava processing extension program. Twelve recommendations regarding future research were made. (Contains 25 references.) (MN) ED384731Oregon State University. Extension Service., United States. Dept. of Agriculture., & Western Rural Development Center. (1982). Helping small towns grow. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Western Rural Development Center. Ed 1.310/2:227984
Achipa, J., Comp. (Sep 1995). Volunteerism. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 46. Revised Edition., 22pp. For an earlier version, see ED 366 721. This bibliography, which is intended to assist prospective volunteers and volunteer recruiters, presents information on the current status of volunteerism and ways in which volunteers can be recruited, trained, and managed. Presented first is an annotated list of 22 articles and 8 books on the general topic of volunteerism. Among the topics covered in the references cited are characteristics and motivations of volunteers, benefits of volunteerism, and exemplary voluntary programs and organizations. Presented next are lists of 7 publications devoted to recruiting volunteers, 10 publications discussing managing volunteers, and 5 publications concerning training volunteers. An annotated list of 18 voluntary organizations and associations, list of 11 journals and magazines and addresses for obtaining them, and list of other sources of information about volunteerism are also included. Concluding the document is information about the National Agricultural Library's document delivery services to individuals and policies regarding interlibrary loan requests. (MN) ED389937
Patten, M. (1937). The arts workshop of rural America: a study of the Rural arts program of the Agricultural Extension Service. New York: Columbia University Press. S533.p28 630.7170978 630.717 630.717.P277a
Pearn, W. L., & Wu, T. C. (October 1995). Algorithms for the rural postman problem. Computers and Operations Research, 22(8), 819-828(810). Scope and Purpose--Given an undirected (connected) street network, the well-known Chinese postman problem (CPP) is that of finding a shortest (or least-cost) postman tour covering all the edges (streets) in the network. The rural postman problem (RPP), is a generalization of the CPP, in which the underlying street network may not form a connected graph. Such situation occurs, particularly, in rural (or suburban) areas where only a subset of the streets need to be serviced. The RPP has been shown to be NP-complete, and heuristic solution procedures have been proposed to solve the problem approximately. The purpose of this paper is to review the existing solution procedures, and introduce two new algorithms to solve the problem near-optimally.The rural postman problem (RPP) is a practical extension of the well-known Chinese postman problem (CPP), in which a subset of the edges (streets) from the road network are required to be traversed at a minimal cost. The RPP is NP-complete if this subset does not form a weakly connected network. Therefore, it is unlikely that polynomial-time bounded algorithms exist for the problem. In this paper, we review the existing heuristic solution procedures, then present two new algorithms to solve the problem near-optimally. Computational results showed that the proposed new algorithms significantly outperformed the existing solution procedures.
Percy, R. (1 September 1999). The experiential learning cycle and its application towards the transformation of governmental extension services in sub-Saharan Africa. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 18(5), 370-384(315). This article focuses on the use of the experiential learning cycle in the training of staff within the governmental extension services of sub-Saharan Africa. It starts with reference to a project in Ethiopia in which the experiential learning cycle was employed in a sequential training of trainers within the Extension Division of the Ministry of Agriculture. The project involved the use of participatory approaches and gender analysis in ensuring that the extension services became more client-oriented with particular reference to women. The project objectives, training process and the complementarity between the use of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and the experiential learning cycle are examined. Outcomes of the project in relation to experiential learning, as well as the enabling and constraining factors to the process, are reviewed. From this specific case, a more general analysis is drawn concerning the changing role of the extension worker and the consequent changes needed in both content and style of change agent training. It is suggested that experiential learning forms the basis of new extension approaches being taken up world-wide such as participatory technology development and farmer-based extension. The decentralization of extension services which is becoming more and more an issue in sub-Saharan Africa provides an opportunity for farmers to take 'centre-stage' and for farmers, agricultural research and extension to work together in partnership. The congruence between experiential learning and participatory approaches involved in this partnership can contribute to the transformation of 'top-down' extension services to those supporting sustainable and farmer based development.
Percy, R. (1999). Gender analysis and participatory rural appraisal: assessing the current debate through an Ethiopian case study involving agricultural extension work. International journal of educational development, 19(6), 395.
Percy, R. (November 1999). Gender analysis and participatory rural appraisal: assessing the current debate through an Ethiopian case study involving agricultural extension work. International Journal of Educational Development, 19(6), 395-408(314). This paper analyses how participatory rural appraisal (PRA) can be used with gender analysis in rural development. The development and convergence of both is outlined. Their combined use in an Ethiopian case is then analysed. It is argued that the use of PRA and gender analysis are complementary in that they put the clients first, engender respect, provide equal opportunities and are flexible. The paper concludes with an analysis of current debate on the topic, identifying six major areas of concern and reviewing these with reference to the Ethiopian case.
Pingali, P. L., & Rosegrant, M. W. (June 1995). Agricultural commercialization and diversification: processes and policies. Food Policy, 20(3), 171-185(115). Agricultural commercialization and diversification involve the gradual replacement of integrated farming systems by specialized enterprises for crop, livestock, poultry and aquaculture products. Changes in product mix and input uses are determined largely by the market forces during this transition. Commercialization of agricultural production is an endogenous process and is accompanied by economic growth, urbanization and withdrawal of labor from the agricultural sector. This paper provides a selective overview and synthesis of the issues involved in the commercialization and diversification process of agriculture, drawing in significant part from the papers in this volume. Based on an assessment of the process observed in selected countries, we show that the commercialization process should not be expected to be a frictionless process, and significant equity and environmental consequences may occur, at least in the short to medium term, particularly when inappropriate policies are followed. However, we highlight that appropriate government policies including investment in rural infrastructure and crop improvement research and extension, establishment of secure rights to land and water, and development and liberalization of capital markets, can help alleviate many of the possible adverse transitional consequences.Pontier, D., Auger, P., Bravo, d. l. P. R., & Sanchez, E. (25 August 2000). The impact of behavioral plasticity at individual level on domestic cat population dynamics. Ecological Modelling, 133(1), 117-124(118). An extension of a model studying the population dynamic consequences of intra-individual variability in behavior is presented. Individuals can adopt three different tactics: hawk, dove and bully. We consider a population of individuals that compete for some resources. The same individual experiences the different tactics in his life and it is assumed that the game is played at a fast time scale in comparison to population dynamics. This fast part of the model is coupled to a slow part, which describes the growth of each sub-population. By use of aggregation methods, we obtain an equation governing the total population at the slow time scale. This equation is a logistic one whose r and K parameters are related to the payoff of the tactics. The model is applied to the case of domestic cat populations. Results show that the highest population density corresponding to urban environment is reached when all individuals are bully. We also obtain a gradient from rural to urban environments, respectively corresponding to aggressive to non-aggressive individuals. The results of the model are consistent with empirical data: high-density populations of domestic cats are mainly bullies, whereas low-density populations are mainly hawks.
Recio, B., Acuna, S. T., & Juristo, N. (May 1999). Methodological proposal for modelling and implementing regulation application problems in a knowledge-based system. Agricultural Systems, 60(1), 17-53(37). In this paper, a methodology is proposed for designing and constructing a knowledge-based system (KBS) in order to generate and evaluate administrative grants. The methodology is applied to the Common Agricultural Policy regulations covering Spanish farmers for validation. The proposed methodology facilitates the development of applications of this type from preliminary problem analysis to application implementation and maintenance. This methodology is well adapted to the characteristics of the knowledge-based software under development: open requirements and diverse computational models. It constitutes a complete guide for the knowledge engineer in producing and maintaining an automated solution to a real-world problem, as the methodology is not only declarative (i.e. indicates what to do) but also procedural (i.e. indicates how to do it). The KBS demonstrator built is a query system for use by specialists from the Agricultural Extension Services. The prototype implemented by means of the Kappa-PC V. 2.3 was developed jointly by the Departments of Artificial Intelligence, Rural Projects and Planning and Mathematics Applied to Agronomics of the Polytechnic University of Madrid and the Castile-Leon Provincial Office of Agriculture in Segovia. (C)
Richardson, J. G. (Mar 1995). An Assessment of Clientele Preferences for Receiving Extension Information., 13pp. Paper presented at the Southern Agricultural Education Research Meeting (Wilmington, NC, March 19-20, 1995). A research project was conducted to determine the methods of information delivery preferred by targeted clientele of extension offices in North Carolina, and what methods clients might prefer in the future. Eleven North Carolina Cooperative Extension agents representing all areas of the state cooperated in the study. The agents developed educational programs with objectives from the four major subject areas of agriculture, home economics, youth (4-H) organizations, and community development. They randomly selected a sample of 77 clients from their potential audience of 994 people. The 77 clients were interviewed using a questionnaire developed for the project. Interviewees mostly had agricultural interests; they included community leaders, environmentalists, urban home owners, school teachers, day care providers, and production agriculture workers. The study found that, even though great diversity existed in the interests of the targeted audiences, their preferences of delivery methods were remarkably similar. Personal visits, meetings, newsletters, demonstrations, and workshops were preferred methods. Computer instruction, faxes, and videotapes were expected to become more important in the future, although these methods were the most unfamiliar to the clients. Regardless of the delivery methods, clients strongly preferred information that was customized for them. (KC) ED377396
Richardson, J. G., & McAlister, M. (1994). Small and Part-Time Farmer Innovative Program Delivery Project, Madison County, North Carolina. Two approaches to providing information about beef cattle preconditioning to randomly selected farmers were compared in a study involving 12 small and part- time farmers in Madison County, North Carolina. Half the farmers received the information from an extension agent via face-to-face consultations, telephone conversations, and an educational meeting. The remaining six farmers received the information through a poster, audiocassette, and fact sheets that were all developed by the extension agent. The farmers receiving the information via face- to-face instruction produced an average of 33.8 calves on their farm in 1993, whereas the farmers receiving the information without face-to-face contact averaged 22 calves per farm. Pretests and posttests assessing the farmers' knowledge gains established that the farmers receiving face-to-face instruction experienced knowledge gains of.976 and the other group experienced knowledge gains of.213. It was emphasized, however, that the latter group had a higher beginning knowledge level. Of the six individual delivery methods studied, fact sheets and face-to-face contact were the most favored, whereas posters and meetings were the least favored. The audiocassette and telephone methods were seen as only marginally effective means of delivering extension education programs. (MN) ED384798
Richardson, J. G., Ed. (April 1999). Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education (13th, Arlington, VA, April 3-5, 1997)., For 1999 proceedings, see SE 062 584. This proceeding contains the following session topics: communicating technology, extension curricula, rural development, adoption of innovations, instructional technology, communications technologies, international education; extension programming, extension training, and technology transfer. (CCM) ED431613
Richardson, J. G., Ed. (April 1999). Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education (15th, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago March 21-26, 1999)., For 1997 proceedings, see SE 062 583. This proceedings contains session topics: extension systems, extension programs, extension evaluation, program impacts, extension management, extension reform, experiential learning, program delivery, farming systems research, professional training and development, program strategies, teaching effectiveness, organizational leadership, extension programming, extension models and extension program evaluation. (CCM) ED431614
Riddel, M., Skold, M. D., Trock, W. L., Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station., Colorado State University. Cooperative Extension Service., & Colorado State University. Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics. (1994). The future of the Conservation Reserve Program in Colorado: a summary in graphs and tables. Fort Collins, Colo.: Colorado State University Agricultural Experiment Station: Cooperative Extension: Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics. Ucsu20/2.11/tr94-5
Roberto, A. J., & Others, A. (Nov 1994). Orientation to Co-Learning among University Extension Personnel., 31pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association (80th, New Orleans, LA, November 19-22, 1994). A study examined the extent to which employees in one university extension organization oriented themselves to a vision of extension work that responded to nontraditional societal problems, nontraditional affected communities, and the expertise of nontraditional faculty. The state extension service organization (based at a large midwestern research and land-grant university) was chosen for study because of a desire by a new director to better understand her impact on the organization's culture of outreach work. Four agents were randomly selected for participant observation. Self-administered written questionnaires were distributed to all 859 employees of the extension organization, and 433 surveys were completed (for a response rate of 50%). Results suggest that overall, agents collaborate most often with community members, regularly with organizational co- workers, and least often with faculty. In identifying problems, agents follow this same pattern: they rely on constituents first, colleagues second, and faculty least of all. Agents perceived more benefits than drawbacks to working with constituents. University faculty, even those with extension appointments, appear to be "out of the informational loops" which extension agents and community members comprise as they work to apply knowledge to the solution of community problems. (Contains 23 references and two notes.) (Author/RS) ED379698
Robinson-Horne, J. p. J., Katie W. Page Length: 22. (2000). Factors Deterring Participation in Professional Activities. This study investigated factors deterring county Extension agents from participating in professional development activities, such as in-service training, continuing education, and formal coursework, designed to help them grow as professionals. The Deterrent to Participation Scale-General, which was divided into eight factors, was designed so that a higher degree of agreement indicated a deterrent to participation. Responses were received from 321 extension agents, a response rate of 61%. Descriptive statistics were used to develop a respondent profile and to determine which factors received the highest rating, and thus prevented agents from participating in professional development activities. An item analysis showed the five items with the highest means were inconvenient location, inconvenient time, time away from family, time required for completion, and lack of interest. Of the five items with the highest means, two were from the factor Time Constraints and two were from the factor Lack of Convenience. The findings of this study indicate the survey population was homogeneous and that convenient location and time were critical to decisions to participate. When professional development activities were not seen as relevant, convenience became more important. (Contains 19 references.) (SLD) ED438332
Rockstrom, J. (2000). Water Resources Management in Smallholder Farms in Eastern and Southern Africa: An Overview. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere, 25(3), 275-283(279). Livelihood security in Eastern and Southern Africa is strongly dependent on rainfall distribution and land management practices among smallholder farmers. Over 95 % of the land used for food production is based on rainfed agriculture. The major challenge for the rural communities, representing up to 80 % of the population in certain countries, is to improve the productivity of the arable land and the available water resources. This paper gives an outline of the hydrological challenges facing smallholder farmers with focus on water scarce areas. The importance of rainfall partitioning rather than rainfall totals is discussed. The main focus is on the management of rural water using low-tech practices, both for domestic purposes and for crop production. Case studies from Eastern and Southern Africa are presented, showing the potential of stabilising the water supply over time both for livestock, household use, and for crop production. The challenges facing research and extension of introducing water management on different scales (household, community, catchment) is discussed.Ron, A., Carrin, G., & Van, T. T. (July 1998). Viet Nam: The development of national health insurance. International Social Security Review, 51(3), 89-103(115). Since 1987, Viet Nam has been moving from a centrally planned to a market economy. The public sector became weaker, and public resources were no longer sufficient to respond to all healthcare needs. The government then recognized the need for cost-sharing, and in August 1992 issued a national Health Insurance Decree calling for compulsory health insurance for salaried workers in both the public and private sectors. Voluntary membership for dependants, farmers and the self-employed was also encouraged from the start. Currently, the number of insured persons reaches almost 9.5 million. Future challenges include the extension of coverage, especially to the low-income rural and urban population, modification of provider payment methods so as to enhance cost-containment, and organizational development in general.
Sanders, R. (1 November 2000). Political Economy of Chinese Ecological Agriculture: a case study of seven Chinese eco-villages. Journal of Contemporary China, 9(25), 349-372(324). This article discusses one of the Chinese Government's initiatives for developing environmentally friendly economic activity in the Chinese countryside since the reforms, that of Chinese Ecological Agriculture (CEA). It draws on the author's research findings from seven villages and, to a lesser extent, four counties that have adopted CEA in different parts of the Chinese countryside in recent years. It concludes that while CEA may indeed provide considerable economic and environmental benefits, there are a number of important factors constraining its adoption and consequent extension throughout rural China, the most important being small-scale family farming reintroduced with the Household Responsibility System in the early 1980s. It argues that if CEA is to flourish, a more collectivised agriculture, as already practised in Village Conglomerates in some of the more affluent parts of the Chinese countryside, should be encouraged.
Savile, A. H. (1965). Extension in rural communities; a manual for agricultural and home extension workers. London, New York,: Oxford University Press. S544
Schmitt, B., & Henry, M. S. (January 2000). Size and growth of urban centers in French labor market areas: consequences for rural population and employment. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 30(1), 1-21(21). In this paper we use an extension of the Carlino and Mills and Boarnet models to test for city size and growth influences on rural population and employment changes. In a sample of communes in six selected French regions, we find that both the size of the urban center and the growth rates of urban employment and population affect rural population and employment change. Medium size urban places have the strongest positive impacts on rural commune change.
Schrijnen, P. M. (1 May 2000). Infrastructure networks and red-green patterns in city regions. Landscape and Urban Planning, 48(3), 191-204(114). Landscape ecology challenges the urbanisation processes and the activities of the infrastructure sectors. Infrastructure networks have a strong impact on the development of cities and landscapes. This impact is often positive in an economic sense but can be negative in respect of natural or recreational functions of city and countryside. The challenge for spatial planning is to locate infrastructure lines in order to safeguard the conditions for the less dynamic functions in and around the urban regions. This paper analyses the impact of network patterns on urban development patterns and on green patterns, taking the history of the Randstad Holland as an example. In history the central peat area of this region was hardly accessible. This fact has led over the course of time to a unique spatial pattern: the major infrastructure lines and the major urban settlements are situated on the rim of a Green Heart. This creates a high-quality setting for the economy and the urbanisation of more than 6 million people as well as for natural and agricultural functions. Such a combination of urban elements and infrastructure around a green core can also be found on other scale levels and in other regions. Constraints on access often correlate with restricted urbanisation and with a sustainable position for the green elements. In those cases that such a restraint is chosen deliberately, often five phenomena are visible: (1) Polarity: a spatial polarity between less dynamic and more dynamic functions. (2) Decentrality: a side position of the main infrastructure and urban centres and a central position for the green functions. (3) Equality: equilibrium in extension of urban and rural elements. (4) Continuity: the green areas are part of larger scale networks. (5) Formality: planning policies couple the planning of infrastructure and dynamic urban activities to the development of the less dynamic, green functions.Together, these five elements create a special approach of spatial planning that can be applied on various scales. It is possible to use these elements as a concept, a design tool to create sustainable conditions for the 'green' functions in and around city regions. Based on some examples, suggestions are made for a strategy for urban-rural (re-)development aiming at high-quality urban life and for the natural environment, in and around urban regions. Sustainable spatial patterns demand a planning approach that combines the planning of infrastructure and urban activities with the planning of their green counterpoint.
Shirima, R., Greiner, T., Kylberg, E., & Gebre-Medhin, M. (April 2001). Exclusive breast-feeding is rarely practised in rural and urban Morogoro, Tanzania. Public Health Nutrition, 4(2), 147-154(148). Objective: To investigate and compare feeding practices among infants of less than 7 months of age in a rural and an urban area in Tanzania.Design: Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based interview of mothers and focus group discussions with extension workers and community leaders.Setting: Eleven villages in a rural district and 10 wards in an urban district in the Morogoro region, Tanzania, west of Dar es Salaam.Subjects: Probability samples of mothers with infants of less than 7 months of age (n=320 from each area).Results: Exclusive breast-feeding was rarely practised in either the rural or urban areas investigated. However, the urban mothers initiated breast-feeding earlier, discarded colostrum less frequently, breast-fed exclusively for a longer period, gave breast milk as the first feed more often and delayed the introduction of solid foods for longer than their rural counterparts. The rural mothers, on the other hand, breast-fed their previous infants slightly longer than the urban mothers.Conclusions: The better performance of urban mothers could be partly due to sustained breast-feeding support in hospital settings and other campaigns which may not have reached the rural areas. In both the rural and urban areas more efforts are needed to encourage exclusive breast-feeding, to avoid premature complementation and, in the case of the urban areas, to protect extended breast-feeding.
Sparks, B., & Farr, C. (Aug 1995). Issues and Problems in Distance Teaching to Rural Communities: A Western Perspective., 7pp. Paper presented at the Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning (11th, Madison, WI, August 9-11, 1995). The Western Brokering Project (WBP) is a cooperative effort to share resources and programming across educational institutions in the western United States. Administered by the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education and the Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications, the WBP works with 6 community colleges and universities and 15 states to match the educational needs of rural communities with available resources through distance education. The University of Wyoming, for example, offers a land surveying certificate as part of the WBP. The program can be taken as part of an associate degree program and utilizes distance education technology to be available to students across the West. To ensure high quality in the distance education program, faculty worked with the instructional design team to adapt their course to the distance delivery system. Audio conferencing is the primary delivery method used, while videotapes and print materials are also included. To participate, students only need access to a videocassette player and a conference telephone. After the initial implementation of the courses, the following recommendations were developed: (1) remedial tapes should be developed and sent to students requiring extra help with prerequisites to the course; (2) the amount of required audioconferencing should be decreased; and (3) an infrastructure to support program delivery nationwide must be developed. (TGI) ED393476
Srinath, K., Sridhar, M., Kartha, P. N. R., & Mohanan, A. N. (July 2000). Group farming for sustainable aquaculture. Ocean and Coastal Management, 43(7), 557-571(515). Sustainable farming is a critical issue in aquaculture development. The concept is well understood but the issue is that of methodology for implementing it. It is well recognized that fragmented holdings have been a major constraint in the implementation of farming practices by small-scale farmers. In India 80 per cent of the shrimp production comes from small and marginal holdings which follow different systems of production, including the traditional `pokkali' farms of Kerala state, improved traditional farming, and scientific methods. Group farming, which was highly successful in paddy farming, was tested among small-scale shrimp farmers practicing paddy and shrimp farming in rotation in a cluster of `pokkali' fields in Kerala. The model served as an effective extension intervention to educate farmers on sustainability while helping them to improve their farming practices. The farmers, including women, could be equipped with the technology for farming not only shrimp but also finfish, crab and aquaculture feed production by strengthening the farmer-extensionist-researcher-political-administrative linkages. The work was done during 1993-1996 at the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Cochin, India. The study formed a part of the action research project on empowerment of rural communities through extension.
Stubbs, A., Straw, W., & Mullaney, P. (1997). Key Competencies for Rural Extension Practitioners. Agricultural science, 10(2), 41.
Sulser, T. B., Duryea, M. L., Frolich, L. M., & Guevara-Cuaspud, E. (May 2001). A field practical approach for assessing biophysical sustainability of alternative agricultural systems*. Agricultural Systems, 68(2), 113-135(123). Participatory research and farmer-led extension principles are employed to conduct meaningful monitoring and evaluation while working within the constraints encountered in the field by farmers and rural agents. This assessment method is characterized as Field Practical, that is, it is (1) quick, (2) inexpensive, (3) easily applied, (4) of direct and immediate relevance, and (5) a tool for stimulating project productivity. It harmonizes external expertise with local experience for biophysical sustainability assessment of proposed production alternatives in the context of the local agricultural system. This is accomplished via a Likert rating survey based on locally defined criteria and indicators and has two outputs: (1) a Summary Measure based on weighted average ratings giving indication of overall patterns of contributions to the biophysical sustainability of the agricultural system and (2) Frequency Distribution Matrices for more detailed analyses of the data. Statistical tests for differences add discriminatory power. This assessment was applied in northern Ecuador, but could be adapted to other locations.
Summers, T. H., Schafer, R. W., & Colorado Agricultural College. Extension Service. (1928). An agricultural program for northwest Colorado. Fort Collins, Colo.: Colorado Agricultural College Extension Service. Ucsu20/6.2/n67/1928 S451.c6Sutherland, A. J., Irungu, J. W., Kang'ara, J., Muthamia, J., & Ouma, J. (August 1999). Household food security in semi-arid Africa-the contribution of participatory adaptive research and development to rural livelihoods in Eastern Kenya. Food Policy, 24(4), 363-390(328).
Taylor, J. (1994). Fashioning Farmers: Ideology, Agricultural Knowledge and the Manitoba Farm Movement, 1890-1925., 170p. This book presents a study of educational institutions in Manitoba (Canada) agriculture before 1925, the dominant ideologies that resided there, and the impact of those ideologies on the agrarian movement. The first chapter overviews a variety of ideologies, state structures, and agrarian movements in North America during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. During this time, capitalist expansion, the development of a bureaucratic state, and the experience of working-class and women's movements in Manitoba were interrelated and contributed to divisions that developed during the 20th century. The second chapter outlines educational institutions in Manitoba agriculture during this period. Beginning in the 19th century, volunteer organizations such as agricultural societies and farmers' institutes were established for the production and transmission of agricultural knowledge. Manitoba Agricultural College (MAC) opened in 1905 and became the mainstay of agricultural education. Chapter 3 documents the internal evolution of MAC, relevant academic disciplines, agricultural education for children and youth, and rural adult education before and after the formation of an extension service. Chapters 4 and 5 analyze the theoretical and practical components of the dominant ideology including the emergence of rural social science disciplines such as agricultural economics, home economics, rural sociology, and rural education. Chapter 6 examines the context of the Manitoba agrarian movement, 1890-1925. This chapter addresses the tension between the dominant ideology and challenging popular ideologies such as the radicalism of the Patrons of Industry. The last chapter summarizes how dominant and critical elements interacted in the Manitoba experience. Contains over 350 references as well as 91 notes. (LP) ED376001Treat, K. R., & Others, A. (1995). Modeling Leadership Development for a Diverse Workforce in Food and Agriculture. Final Report of Higher Education Challenge Grant Proposal No. 9203317., 15p. The "Building Bridges" Leadership/Mentor Project developed a model leadership intern experience with emphasis on minority group involvement. It had four goals: to foster an environment in which cultural diversity was understood and valued; to increase work force participation of minority groups; to provide opportunities for leadership mentoring and role modeling; and to enhance employability and career success in the food and agricultural sciences. A mentor handbook and intern experience notebook were developed. The 13 interns who were recruited received 6 college credit hours in agricultural and extension or home economics education, tuition waiver, living stipend, and travel reimbursement. Mentors received a stipend. Prior to the 8-week onsite experience, mentors and interns participated in an orientation meeting, site visit, and 1-week leadership seminar. During the experiential component of the project, mentors provided day-to-day support to interns as they completed required activities. Students returned to campus to participate in a post-field experience seminar. The Youth Leadership Life Skills Development Scale was administered as a pretest/posttest. Findings indicated that, for the 1994 interns, increases in frequency were seen in 26 life skills; in 1995, only seven life skills showed an increase in mean frequency. Mentors thought this was a valuable opportunity for professional growth and renewal. Students found it a very valuable career awareness activity that provided personal and professional development. (YLB) ED387602
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United States. Agricultural Research Service., & United States. Extension Service. (1984). Water-quality improvements for farmstead and rural home water systems. [Washington, D.C.?]: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. A 1.9:2274 United States. Congress. House. Committee on Agriculture. 4-H Club and Rural Youth Act: Hearing before The Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, Seventy-seventh Congress, First Session on H.R. 4530, a bill to promote the further development of the 4-H clubs and other extension work with rural youths, November 17 and 18, 1941. Washington: U.S. G.P.O. Y 4.Ag 8/1:F 82
United States. Congress. House. Committee on Agriculture., & United States. Congress. House. Committee on Agriculture. Subcommittee on Livestock Dairy and Poultry. (1985). General farm bill of 1985: hearings before the Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, Ninety-ninth Congress, first session. Washington: U.S. G.P.O. Y 4.Ag 8/1:99-5/pt.1-8
United States. Congress. House. Committee on Agriculture., United States. Congress. House. Committee on Agriculture. Subcommittee on Domestic Marketing Consumer Relations and Nutrition., United States. Congress. House. Committee on Agriculture. Subcommittee on Cotton Rice and Sugar., United States. Congress. House. Committee on Agriculture. Subcommittee on Tobacco and Peanuts., United States. Congress. House. Committee on Agriculture. Subcommittee on Wheat Soybeans and Feed Grains., & United States. Congress. House. Committee on Agriculture. Subcommittee on Livestock Dairy and Poultry. (1981). General farm bill of 1981. Washington: U.S. G.P.O. Y 4.Ag 8/1:97-G/pt.1-9
United States. Congress. House. Committee on Education and Labor. Subcommittee on Special Education. (1960). Extension of Library Services Act: hearings before the United States House Committee on Education and Labor, Subcommittee on Special Education, Eighty-Sixth Congress, second session, on Mar. 29, Apr. 6, 7, 1960. Washington: U.S. G.P.O. Considers legislation to extend Federal aid programs to rural libraries. Considers (86) H.R. 9574, (86) H.R. 9587, (86) H.R. 10280, (86) H.R. 10604, (86) H.R. 10623, (86) H.R. 10647, (86) H.R. 10958, (86) H.R. 10929, (86) H.R. 1002, (86) H.R. 10117, (86) H.R. 10191, (86) H.R. 10335, (86) H.R. 10420, (86) H.R. 10535, (86) H.R. 10701, (86) H.R. 10888, (86) H.R. 10937, (86) H.R. 10928, (86) H.R. 10992, (86) H.R. 11000, (86) H.R. 11108, (86) H.R. 11118, (86) H.R. 11120, (86) H.R. 11148, (86) H.R. 11154, (86) H.R. 11175, (86) H.R. 11202, (86) H.R. 9319, (86) H.R. 9494, (86) H.R. 9812. Y 4.Ed 8/1:L 61/4
United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment. (1986). Technology, public policy, and the changing structure of American agriculture. Washington, D.C.: Congress of the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment. Y 3.T 22/2:2 T 22/17/v.2/pt.A-E
United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Agriculture and Forestry. (1976). Extension of rural community fire protection program: report tp to S. 3520. [Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. 94-2:S.rp.1337 Serial set 13130-11
United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Agriculture and Forestry. Subcommittee on Agricultural Credit and Rural Electrification. (1961). Extension of Mexican Farm Labor Program hearings before the United States Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Subcommittee on Agricultural Research and General Legislation, Eighty-Seventh Congress, first session, on June 12, 13, 1961. Washington: U.S. G.P.O. Considers S. 1466 and related S. 1945 and H.R. 2010, to amend the Agricultural Act of 1949 to encourage recruitment of domestic farm workers before hiring Mexican farm workers. Considers (87) S. 1466, (87) S. 1945, (87) H.R. 2010. Y 4.Ag 8/2:M 57/961
United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Agriculture and Forestry. Subcommittee on Agricultural Credit and Rural Electrification. (1966). Supplemental Financing of REA Programs hearings before the United States Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Subcommittee on Agricultural Credit and Rural Electrification, Eighty-Ninth Congress, second session, on Aug. 15-19, 1966. Washington: U.S. G.P.O. Considers S. 3337 and related bills, to amend the Rural Electrification Act of 1936 to provide additional Federal financing for extension and improvement of rural electric and telephone service, and to strengthen and stabilize rural electrification and telephone systems. Considers (89) H.R. 14837, (89) S. 3337, (89) S. 3720. Y 4.Ag 8/2:R 88/10
United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Agriculture and Forestry., & United States. (1976). Extension of title V of the Rural development act of 1972: report to accompany H.R. 6346. [Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. 94-2:S.rp.706 Serial set 13130-2
United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Agriculture Nutrition and Forestry. (1979). Extension of title V of the Rural development act of 1972: additional loan guarantees for pilot energy projects: report together with minority views to accompany S. 892. [Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. 96-1:S.rp.188 Serial set 13240
United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Agriculture Nutrition and Forestry., United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Agriculture Nutrition and Forestry. Subcommittee on Agricultural Research and General Legislation., & United States. Congress. Senate. Select Committee on Indian Affairs. (1989). Preparation for the 1990 farm bill: hearing before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate, One Hundred First Congress, first session. Washington: For sale by the Supt. of Docs. Congressional Sales Office U.S. G.P.O. [Supt. of Docs. U.S. G.P.O. distributor]. Y 4.Ag 8/3:S.hrg.101-259/
United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs. Special Programs Center. (1982). Your United States Department of Agriculture: how it serves people on the farm, and in the community, nation, and world ( [Rev. Nov. 1982] ed.). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. A 1.68:824/7
United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Office of Publishing and Visual Communication. (1992). USDA today. [Washington, D.C.]: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Office of Public Affairs Office of Publishing and Visual Communication. A 1.68:1503/992
United States. Extension Service. (1981). A profile of clientele served by county agricultural and natural resources extension staffs: results of a 1979 survey. [Washington, D.C.?]: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Extension Service. A 1.38:1415
United States. Extension Service. 4-H Office., & United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Office of International Cooperation and Development. Scientific and Technical Exchange Division. (1982). Management and organizational technologies of Chinese rural youth programs: a scientific exchange of rural youth programs between the U.S.A. and the People's Republic of China. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Extension Service 4-H Office and Office of International Cooperation and Development Scientific and Technical Exchange Division. A 43.2:c 44United States. National Youth Administration. Colorado., & Jenkins, M. (1938). Youths make the rural library a going concern; a record of the Weld county NYA library project. [Denver,. Nya1.2/l53/1938 Z733.g76
VVerma, S., & Burnett, M. (November 1999). Addressing the Attribution Question in Extension., Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Evaluation Association (Orlando, FL, November 3-6, 1999). Program directors and evaluators need to address the important program accountability question of attribution of outcomes. This discussion is a beginning. Starting with some basics, such as the meaning of the program, approaches to program theory development, and the nature of attribution, the paper suggests three types of attribution. An agricultural research verification and extension program provides background for the recommendation to use causation attribution in a controlled program environment, and associative attribution in a confounded program environment. Implications for evaluation design and methodology are discussed. (Author/SLD) ED435675
Waithaka, M. (2001). Agricultural extension and rural development: breaking out of traditions. Agricultural Systems, 68(ER2), 175-176.
Waithaka, M. (May 2001). Agricultural extension and rural development: breaking out of traditions. Agricultural Systems, 68(2), 175-176(172).
Wallace, I. (January 1997). Agricultural education at the crossroads: present dilemmas and possible options for the future in sub-Saharan Africa. International Journal of Educational Development, 17(1), 27-39(13). Agricultural Education and Training (AET) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) needs to respond to the many changes in the socio-economic and political environments within which it exists. In addition to these, there are marked changes in the concept of 'agriculture' itself, which is increasingly seen in terms of broader notions of renewable natural resource management, with increasing emphasis on integrated systems and sustainable production.Traditional forms of AET are also challenged by new ideas about the process of teaching and learning, including soft-systems thinking, participatory rural appraisal and farmer-to-farmer extension; as well as the emergence of new modes of learning (including distance learning). Current moves towards privatisation also mean that there is increasing prominence given to new and more flexible providers such as NGOs, parastatal bodies and agribusinesses. All these factors are leading to calls for adaptation, innovation and diversification in systems which have been marked by their lack of responsiveness in the past.Dilemmas which now face the AET sector include changing patterns of donor support, the emergence of new training needs and new types of audiences. The paper examines a range of issues, including the lack of labour market and training needs identification studies, the need for more relevant and responsive curricula, the key role of staff development in creating 'learning organisations', the need for a strategy of developing linkages and learning webs or networks and for far more sustainable donor interventions. Finally there is a lack of a coherent policy framework for AET in most countries in the region.A number of options are discussed, such as rationalisation, including achieving a better balance between public and private sector provision, the adoption of new aims and learning styles at all levels, catering for the needs of new target audiences and enhancing innovation and relevance in curriculum.Some important prerequisites for such changes are highlighted and include political will and commitment, consensus and popular support, entrepreneurial leadership, a balance between responsiveness and stability and the targeting of financial and other forms of support to enable sustainable models of innovation to emerge.
Walters, B. B., Cadelina, A., Cardano, A., & Visitacion, E. (February 1999). Community history and rural development: why some farmers participate more readily than others. Agricultural Systems, 59(2), 193-214(122). Past explanations of why rural people respond as they do to external development interventions have emphasized the role of key limiting factors or critical characteristics (wealth, education, land tenure, etc.) which are thought to influence peoples' behavior in predictable ways. Efforts to promote tree planting and soil conservation in eight neighboring villages in the Philippines revealed that variation in participation did not reflect clear patterns based on existing household or village characteristics. Instead, specific responses to interventions reflected a complex, but interpretable interaction between existing socio-economic factors and historic trends or events. Characteristics like the degree of local knowledge, security of land tenure and community cohesion affected peoples' participation, in general, but their specific influence was neither predictable nor consistent between, and even within, individual villages. An appreciation of the specific historic context was often sufficient to explain these variations. The following historic trends and events were found to have important consequences for peoples' participation: migration and settlement history; family and group lineages; history of socio-political organization and conflict; history of physical isolation; labor history; economic-ecological history; environmental history; and past exposure to development agents. The paper concludes with a preliminary checklist of questions intended to assist researchers and development agents to discover relevant and interesting historical information about rural villages.
Ward, R. C., Hansen, R. W., & Colorado State University. Cooperative Extension Service. (1979). On-site water supply and wastewater disposal: quality maintenance of the water cycle. [Fort Collins, Colo.]: Colorado State Extension Service. Ucsu20/6.22/4.662
Ward, R. C., Hansen, R. W., & Colorado State University. Cooperative Extension Service. (1979). Septic tank installation and construction. [Fort Collins, Colo.]: Colorado State University Extension Service. Ucsu20/6.22/4.665
Ward, R. C., Ruiter, J. B., Hansen, R. W., & Colorado State University. Cooperative Extension Service. (1982). Wastewater management alternatives for small Colorado communities. Fort Collins, Colo.: Cooperative Extension Service Colorado State University. Ucsu20/6.3/512a
Warner, P. D., & Christenson, J. A. (1984). The Cooperative Extension Service: a national assessment. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. S544 S544.w37 1984 scienc
Westermarck, H. (1997). AR, HEA and AAS in Rural Development ProjectsBenchmarking towards the Best Processes., 12pp. Paper presented at the Annual International Conference of the Community Development Society (29th, Athens, GA, July 27-30, 1997). In most countries, agricultural research (AR), institutions of higher education in agriculture (HEA), and agricultural advisory services (AAS) function as separate agencies. So far, in most countries, AR, HEA, and AAS have not had a common vision for rural development. In Finland, domination of agricultural production in Finland has led to a lack of effort to develop other economically viable enterprises for rural areas. The Regional Development Act 1993 is characterized by a shift from a project approach to a program-based, integrated territorial policy. The goal of the rural policy is to revitalize the countryside. An efficient higher education program is needed to produce qualified researchers to tackle rural problems; a well-functioning rural advisory system is needed to transfer the results for the benefit of rural areas. Universities can provide a multidisciplinary approach to combine conflicting values into a framework in action. The final products of rural development activities must be economically competitive enterprises, clean rivers and ground water, high quality food products, diversified livelihood structure, and the well-being of rural people. The main challenge is to transform, through education and training, agricultural producers into rural entrepreneurs. Close cooperation is needed among AAS, AR, and HEA to develop and implement a joint planning process for applied research and extension programs. (YLB) ED413480
White, B. A., Burnham, B., & Educational Resources Information Center (U.S.). (1995). The Cooperative Extension System a facilitator of access for community-based education. [Washington, DC]: U.S. Dept. of Education Office of Educational Research and Improvement Educational Resources Information Center. Ed 1.310/2:385260Woods, E. J., & Others, A. (Jul 1994). Building Human Resources for Rural Change., 7pp. In: Issues Affecting Rural Communities. Proceedings of an International Conference Held by the Rural Education Research and Development Centre (Townsville, Queensland, Australia, July 10-15, 1994); see RC 020 376. The institutions and practices of agricultural extension in Australia are changing to meet the changing needs of rural people and communities. Issues and challenges facing rural people include the declining relative economic importance of agriculture; the declining agricultural workforce; and the shift in agriculture from a purely production orientation to a more holistic view that considers broad trade issues, sustainability, marketing requirements, and the dependence of agriculture on other parts of the economy. With trends toward smaller government and client payment for services, rural people are becoming consultants and participants in delivery of extension services. The role of extension professionals is also changing to incorporate new features: focus on measurable outcomes and accountability, facilitation of group processes, systems orientation, working within a program on limited projects, working with collaborators from other technical disciplines and organizations, and moving between roles in the public and private sectors. The Rural Extension Centre (REC), established in 1993 as a joint initiative of the Queensland Department of Primary Industries and the University of Queensland, provides professional training and facilitates research in support of rural extension. A case study focuses on REC in relation to key future strategies for rural people and extension workers: (1) willingness to adapt to rapid change; (2) self-reliance and self-direction as a learner; (3) action orientation concerned with goals and outcomes; (4) collaboration; (5) monitoring and evaluation; and (6) modeling constructive behaviors. Contains 12 references. (SV) ED390607
Young, D., & Deng, H. (1 November 1999). The effects of education in early-stage agriculture: some evidence from China. Applied Economics, 31(11), 1315-1323(1319). The stochastic production frontier approach is used to study the effects of education on agricultural efficiency for a cross-section of 'early-stage' farms from Guanghan County, Sichuan Province, China. Education for farm families in rural China is multifaceted with a combination of formal education, intragenerational transfer of knowledge within the home, and agricultural extension services. Since our survey data span two different years with markedly different policy environments, we are able to examine not only which aspects of education affect agricultural efficiency, but also whether or not the policy environment matters. We find limited evidence that in a policy environment that is conducive to agriculture, formal education provides positive returns in agriculture. Furthermore, general education may provide greater returns than the more targeted extension services.Youngman, F., & Maruatona, T. (1998). A departure from the past? Extension workers and participatory rural development: the case of Botswana. International journal of lifelong education, 17(4), 236.
ZZuber, E., Ed., & Heasley, D. K., Ed. (May 1995). Combined Report, 1994: Selected Research and Extension Projects of the Four Regional Rural Development Centers. NERCRD Publication No. 69., 39pp. Photographs will not reproduce adequately. Small towns and rural places face numerous barriers to development. In response, the four Regional Rural Development Centers serve as regional and national networks to catalyze, initiate, facilitate, and evaluate research and educational programs that have potential to improve rural economic and social well-being. Such programs focus on developing skills and problem solving processes of individuals in small towns and rural places. This publication profiles the Centers' cooperative programs and those of each Center, focusing on five key issues for the 1990s: (1) improving economic competitiveness and diversification; (2) supporting management and strategic planning for economic investment; (3) creating capacity through leadership; (4) assisting in family and community adjustments to stress and change; and (5) promoting constructive use of the environment. These programs are concerned with economic development, community development, business development, tourism, recycling, natural resource management, attracting retirees, marketing, local public finance, accessing higher education resources, strategic community planning, rural service delivery, public policy education, consumer education, student attitudes toward economic development and outmigration, leadership training, youth leadership, relationship between rural education and rural development, poverty research, health care, youth problems and needs, parenting education, sustainable agriculture, and conservation. Contains photographs. (SV) ED387308
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Donna M. Mertens: Research and Evaluation Methods in Special Education
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