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Carol H. Weiss: Evaluation (2nd Edition)

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Glantz, M. D., & Johnson, J. L. (1999). Resilience and development: positive life adaptations. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. Hv4998.r47 1999

Goddard, H. W., & Allen, J. D. (1991). Using the ABC-X Model To Understand Resilience., 15p. Many fundamental questions about the functional meaning of resilience remain to be answered. There are many different approaches to resilience. Some studies have described functional characteristics of children who demonstrate resilience, while other studies have looked to the temperament of the child and characteristics of the environment to find predictors of later resilience. In both cases the variables identified as associated with resilience have not converged to form a parsimonious and powerful prediction. It is possible that temperament, development, situation, and the nature of the stressors must be accounted for in an effective model of resilience. Hill (1958) developed the ABC- X model to understand stress and coping. In this model the "A" stands for the provoking event or stressor. The "B" stands for the resources or strengths that the person or family brings to the stressful situation. The "C" stands for the meaning attached to the event, and the "X" stands for crisis and stress. Systematic research on stress may ultimately enable the prediction of the specific outcomes of stressful experiences and situations. Using the ABC-X Model does not answer any of the difficult questions about resilience but it does provide a framework for organizing the insights that come from continuing research in the area. (LLL) ED338965

Goldin-Meadow, S., & Others (1995). The Resilience of Combinatorial Structure at the Word Level: Morphology in Self- Styled Gesture Systems. Paper presented at the Cognition, 56, 3, 195-262 Sep 1995. Videotaped four deaf preschoolers and their mothers during free play at home and coded the preschoolers' and mothers' gestures according to handshapes. Found that all children produced gestures characterized by combinations of handshapes and motions, and that children's gestures did not correspond to their mothers' gestures. (BC) EJ514011

Gonzalez, R., & Padilla, A. M. (1997). The Academic Resilience of Mexican American High School Students. Paper presented at the Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 19, 3, 301-17 Aug 1997. High- and low-achieving Mexican American students were selected from a database that included 2,169 Mexican American students in three California high schools. A sense of belonging to school was the only significant predictor of student grades, but family and peer support and certain cultural influences also contributed to resilient outcomes. (Author/SV) EJ549615

Gootman, M. E. (1998). Effective In-House Suspension. Paper presented at the Educational Leadership, 56, 1, 39-41 Sep 1998. Although educators can do little to change students' out-of-school environments, they can use inhouse suspension time to help them behave more responsibly and become more resilient in handling daily pressures. The adult in charge should assume the role of a supportive resource, establish a personal connection with students, listen, take interest, and encourage them as worthy individuals. (MLH) EJ570151

Gootman, M. E. (2001). The Caring Teacher's Guide to Discipline: Helping Young Students Learn Self-Control, Responsibility, and Respect. Second Edition., For first edition, see ED 416 178. Page Length: 223. This book provides a comprehensive guide to teaching students to do the right thing. After "Introduction: Caring Teachers Can Make a Difference," 11 chapters include: (1) "Setting the Stage for Appropriate Behavior"; (2) "Expectations, Limits, and Rules" (unreasonable barricades and how to build moderate fences); (3) "Encouragement, Praise, and Rewards"; (4) "Creating a Community of Caring Listeners and Talkers" (e.g., recognizing and labeling feelings, listening to others, and communicating feelings nonhurtfully); (5) "Harnessing and Channeling Anger Into Constructive Outlets" (e.g., defusing anger on the spot, preventing anger, and harnessing anger); (6) "What to Do After Students Misbehave" (low-key and strict discipline); (7) "Problem Solving as a Tool for Teachers" (problem solving steps and problem solving as a discipline tool); (8) "Problem Solving as a Tool for Students" (e.g., what students learn from social problem solving, examples of social problem solving, and group problem solving); (9) "Strategies for Chronic, Annoying Misbehaviors"; (10) "Bullying: Prevention and Intervention"; and (11) "Enhancing Resilience: Strategies for Misbehavior Resulting from Childhood Trauma" (e.g., what childhood trauma is, teachers' roles, and behavior problems that could be manifestations of trauma). Suggested readings and recommended programs are listed. (Contains 124 references.) (SM) ED449152

Gordon, K. A. (1996). Resilience and Motivation in Two Ethnic Minority Populations., 12p. Two studies are reviewed that have uncovered how the motivational patterns of resilient African American and Hispanic adolescents differ from their nonresilient counterparts. The first study found that resilient African American adolescents differed from their nonresilient counterparts in having a stronger cognitive motivational pattern of the four motivational dimensions of ability, environmental support, control, and importance and emphasis. The resilient African American students also placed more emphasis on extracurricular activities and on material gain. Resilient Hispanic adolescents also had motivational patterns that differed from their counterparts. Resilient Hispanic students believed more in their cognitive abilities than the nonresilient adolescents and they placed less of an emphasis on belongingness than their nonresilient counterparts. Resilient African American students had a more robust cognitive motivational pattern, being firmer in purpose and outlook, than the resilient Hispanic adolescents, whose motivational pattern could still be described as tenacious. In both ethnic groups, resilient students believed in the importance of material gain. These studies represent an initial exploration into the motivational patterns of resilience among ethnic groups. (Contains 2 figures and 13 references.) (SLD) ED404401

Gordon, K. A. (1996). Resilient Hispanic Youths' Self-Concept and Motivational Patterns. Paper presented at the Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 18, 1, 63-73 Feb 1996. Thirty-six Hispanic high school sophomores were identified as academically resilient (from impoverished stressful background with a grade point average of 2.75 or above). Compared to their nonresilient peers, resilient students believed more in their own cognitive abilities and placed less emphasis on having close ties with family and friends. Contains 33 references. (SV) EJ520533

Gordon, K. A., & Others (1994). Resilient Students' Beliefs about Their Schooling Environment: A Possible Role in Developing Goals and Motivation., 21pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 4-8, 1994). This paper presents the results of an exploratory analysis of goals, self- concept, and abilities of academically resilient and non-resilient students, and compares them with the beliefs these students have about their schooling environment. Resilient students are defined as coming from an impoverished and stressful environment, yet achieving a 2.75 or greater grade point average (GPA). Non-resilient students come from the same background, yet do not have the requisite GPA. Subjects were 17 resilient and 19 non-resilient students identified from a population of 170 urban high school students. The results show that students believe their schooling environment supports their cognitive abilities. However, their schooling environment is not supportive of a number of other abilities including social abilities, happiness, self-determination, individuality, and resource provision (helping others). An appendix contains a figure illustrating the conceptual framework. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/SLD) ED369817

Gordon, K. A., & Coscarelli, W. C. (1996). Recognizing and Fostering Resilience. Paper presented at the Journal formerly titled: "Performance & Instruction.". Defines resilience as displaying competence despite adversity and discusses its place in the work environment. Highlights include sample scenarios of employees reacting to stress; ingredients of resilience; individual characteristics affecting resilience; environmental stressors and self-esteem; and fostering resilience through environment. (LRW) EJ531136

Goutard, M. (1994). Une famille elargie pour les enfants des rues de Bogota (A Wider Family for the Street Children of Bogota). Paper presented at the International Journal of Early Childhood, 26, 1, 55-58 1994. Describes work of Father Javier de Nicolo, who has worked for 20 years with street children in Bogota, Colombia. Lists and discusses de Nicolo's principles for working with and educating street children, which are based on acceptance and respect. Describes two successful programs that have helped street children stabilize their lives and helped compensate for lack of biological families. (DR) EJ483989

Granello, D. H., & Beamish, P. M. (1998). Reconceptualizing Codependency in Women: A Sense of Connectedness, Not Pathology. Paper presented at the Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 20, 4, 344-58 Oct 1998. Critiques the codependency construct as it is currently applied and examines how the concept is used to blame and label women. The construct ignores economic and social reality, perpetuates victim-blaming, and uses the male emphasis on individuation and autonomy as normative. Codependency is reframed as a sense of social connectedness and resiliency in women. (Author/MKA) EJ590814

Gray, H. P., & Richard, S. C. (1995). International finance in the new world order ( 1st ed.). Oxford, OX, UK ; Tarrytown, N.Y., USA: Pergamon. Hg3881.i576335 1995

Graybill, L. S., Thompson, K. W., & White Burkett Miller Center. (1998). Africa's second wave of freedom: development, democracy, and rights. Lanham, Md. [Charlottesville, Va.]: University Press of America ; Miller Center University of Virginia. Dt352.8.a34 1998

Gregory, S. T. (1995). Black Women in the Academy: The Secrets to Success and Achievement., 163p. This book presents selected historical data focusing on three aspects in the lives of Black women: resilience of Black women and their families; strengths of the Black church and community; and formidable gains made by Black women in the workforce. The status and achievements of Black women professors and scholars in the academy are reviewed, with attention to: important studies of the academic labor market over the past four decades; literature on academic mobility; the rise of intellectualism among Black women; rites of passage; and the choice patterns made regarding career and family. Discussion of a theoretical framework covers economic, psychosocial, and job satisfaction issues. A literature review considers the influence of the following eight factors: salary, tenure status, institutional type, intention to leave, marital status, number of dependents, support systems, and external barriers. Patterns identified in the present study are compared to similar studies of Black women Ph.D.s in 1981 and 1988. Research outcomes include a decision model of career mobility and information on common barriers to success and achievement. Recommendations are offered regarding tenure and promotion, career advancement, and creating opportunities for success. (Contains approximately 550 references). (SW) ED417654

Griffith, C., Honig, A. S., McQuillan, P. J., Johnson, G. M., Tully, F., Brown, W. K., Mendler, A., Lucero, M. G., Benard, B., Hollar, A., DuBeau, T., Benzola, E. J., Quinn, P. E., & Callahan, S. (1998). Building a Resilient Work Force. Annotated Infant/Toddler/Preschooler Research References: Stories Caregivers Need To Know Educational Opportunity in an Urban American High School. A Cultural Analysis. Resilient At-Risk Students in the Inner City. Korczak Ziolkowski: Storyteller in Stone. WORK: World Organization of Resilient Kids. Beyond Discipline Survival. Healing Kids and Cultures. Education and Delinquency Devolution: A Case History. Drawing Forth Resilience in All Our Youth. It Had to Get Better. Survival and Sexual Identity: CalvinA Gay Adolescent. Surviving Foster Care and Its Emotional Roller Coaster. Wednesday's Child Full of Grief.

Grossman, F. K., & Others (1992). Risk and Resilience in Young Adolescents. Paper presented at the Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 21, 5, 529-50 Oct 1992. The roles of risk and protective factors were studied in 74 male and 105 female adolescents from a middle and lower income northeastern school district. Protective factors (family cohesion, locus of control mother/father communication, and relationships with a nonparent adult) were highly context- specific but were powerful predictors of adaptation.(SLD) EJ458550

Grotberg, E. (1998). I Am, I Have, I Can: What Families Worldwide Taught Us about Resilience. Paper presented at the Reaching Today's Youth: The Community Circle of Caring Journal, 2, 3, 36-39 Spr 1998. Discusses the International Resilience Research Project (IRRP), a study that surveyed more than 1,200 families and children from 27 sites in 22 countries. Presents the 15 elements of resilience and their three sources that were identified by the IRRP; demonstrates how to use these elements to promote resilience in youth. (Author/MKA) EJ579036

Grotberg, E. H. (1995). The International Resilience Project: Research and Application., 13p. The International Resilience Project was launched to determine the role of parents, teachers, other adults and children themselves in promoting resilience in children. In this study, 589 children and their families or caregivers participated; most children were 9-11 years old, with children ages birth to 6 years represented also. Subjects reported from Lithuania, Russia, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Brazil, Thailand, Vietnam, Hungary, Taiwan, Namibia, Sudan, Canada, South Africa, and Japan. Subjects responded to situations of adversity or described a personal experience of adversity that involved the target child. Findings indicated that adults promote more resilience than children, and older children promote more resilience than younger children, suggesting that resilience promotion depends more on the behavior of parents and adults for children age 6 and under, while children ages 9-11 do as much to promote their own resilience as adults. The most frequently used resilience factors or features included (external support) trusting relationships, structure and rules at home, and encouragement of autonomy; (internal support) autonomy, sense of being lovable, and locus of control; and (social support) communication and problem solving. These features were distilled into a vocabulary of resilience: "I Have..." (external); "I Am..." (internal); and "I Can..." (social). A guide was subsequently developed to help those working with children and families incorporate resilience into their work. The guide includes age-appropriate activities and examples from research. (JPB) ED423955

Grotberg, E. H. (1996). Resilience and Culture/Ethnicity Examples from Sudan, Namibia, and Armenia., 11pp. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the International Council of Psychologists (55th, Padua, Italy, July 21-23, 1997). This study examined cultural/ethnic similarities and differences in ways to promote resilience in children identified in the International Resilience Research Project (IRRP), focusing on Sudan, Namibia, and Armenia. Child resilience was assessed through the child's responses to a hypothetical situation in which a child is teased and frightened by older students and then tells her mother she is ill and cannot attend school. Findings indicated that there were cultural similarities and differences in resilience promotion. Sudanese parents encouraged a sense of autonomy and confidence, Namibian parents expressed love but stressed the need to be responsible, and Armenian parents provided a loving trusting relationship, encouraged autonomy with support as needed, and showed empathy and built confidence. The relative absence of expressing love and empathy in Sudan when children had problems suggested a greater emotional detachment than in the other two countries. Parents and children from each site focused on communication skills and problem solving. Children in Sudan and Namibia solved their own problems by seeking help outside the family or solving the problem alone; in Armenia the interaction between parents and children continued over the course of resolving the problem. Parent actions preventing resilience were similar in each country and occurred in about 30 percent of the responses. The large percentage of children receiving little or no help or support suggests the extent of the need for the promotion of resilience in children. (Contains 11 references.) (Author) ED417860

Grotberg, E. H. (1996). The International Resilience Project Findings from the Research and the Effectiveness of Interventions., 12pp. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the International Council of Psychologists (54th, Banff, Canada, July 24-28, 1996). This article discusses the nature of resilience in children, means to measure and verify it, and attempts to promote it through education; it also describes a study of parental, teacher and caregiver efforts to promote resilience in children. The International Resilience Project examined resilience factors children and their parents use in response to constructed situations of adversity and the developmental differences in acquiring this trait. In this study, 589 children ranging in age from under 3 years to 11 years old and their parents or caregivers responded to a sample situation involving a parent and child. Subjects were from 14 countries experiencing cultural change or war. While an insignificant number of children under age 3 responded, of the children in the other 2 age groups, younger children showed less resilience in their responses than older children. Evidence of resilience-promoting behavior was found to be almost equal across parents in each age group. The article discusses reports of personal experiences in addressing adversity drawn from the study. Based on the study's findings, the article presents suggestions for effective interventions to encourage resilience in children. Resilience features are classified into three phrases. Examples of three phases are: I HAVE people around me I trust and who love me, no matter what; I AM a person people can like and love; I CAN talk to others about things that frighten me or bother me. Other sample statements using these phrases are provided. (Contains 16 references.) (JPB) ED419584

Grotberg, E. H. (1997). The International Resilience Research Project., 18pp. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the International Council of Psychologists (55th, Graz, Austria, July 14-18, 1996). Resilience is defined as "the human capacity to face, overcome, and be strengthened by experiences of adversity." This study used an Eriksonian developmental model to examine parents', caregivers', and children's resilience- promotion in children up to 12 years of age. Age and gender differences and cultural/ethnic similarities and differences in resilience promotion were examined. Subjects responded to 3 age-specific (birth to 3 years, 4 to 6 years, and 9 to 11 years) structured situations of adversity. Data were received from 27 sites in 22 countries for a total of 1,225 target children and families/caregivers. Findings indicated that about one-third of parents promoted resilience. Resilience was promoted more in situations where helplessness and need were perceived and where support seemed feasible and less in situations in which there were perceived threats to authority, in which blame and punishment seemed more important than understanding or communication, and in which the person who could promote resilience was more concerned with frustration. Younger children (4-6) relied more than older children on help and guidance from parents to deal with adversity; older children (9-11) promoted resilience as often as their parents. When younger children promoted resilience, girls drew on empathy and helpfulness more than boys. For older children, girls drew on trusting relationships, role modeling, and promoting autonomy more than boys; all internal resilience factors except a sense of control; and all interpersonal skills except managing impulsivity and seeking help which were used with the same frequency as boys. Examples from Sudan, Namibia, and Armenia suggested differences and similarities in successful resilience promotion. Socioeconomic status had an insignificant impact on resilience-promoting behavior; the difference was primarily in the number of resilience factors used. (Contains 43 references.) (KB) ED417861

Grych, J. H., & Fincham, F. D. (2001). Interparental conflict and child development: theory, research, and applications. Cambridge, U.K. ; New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press. Hq772.5.i58 2001

Grzeda, M. (1999). Career Development and Emerging Managerial Career Patterns. Paper presented at the Journal of Career Development, 25, 4, 233-47 Sum 1999 1999. Career-motivation theory provides a new framework for managerial careers in the context of contemporary career patterns. The framework includes the concepts of career resilience, career insight, and career identity. (SK) EJ587083

Grzeda, M. M. (1999). Re-conceptualizing Career Change: A Career Development Perspective. Paper presented at the Career Development International, 4, 6, 305-11 1999. Regression analysis of data from 94 Canadian managers whose jobs had been eliminated explored the correlation between career resilience and five job facets (duties, skills, field, occupation, and function). Career resilience was positively related to intended and active changes in duties, skills, and functions. (SK) EJ594500

Guetzloe, E. (1994). Risk, Resilience, and Protection. Paper presented at the Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Problems, 3, 2, 2-5 Sum 1994. Sees risk/resilience research providing transition for professionals in field of emotional/behavioral problems, moving from management of existing problems to addressing risk factors before problems arise. Identifies recurring themes from studies of resilient children/adolescents, describes protective factors related to resilience, and offers methods for including protective factors in youth programs. (NB) EJ492577

Gunnarsson, P. (1992). Let There Be Languages. Paper presented at the Educational Media International, 29, 1, 23-25 Mar 1992. Examines the resilience of small languages in the face of larger ones. Highlights include the concept of one dominant language, such as Esperanto; the threat of television to small visual-language societies; the power of visual media; man's relationship to language; and the resilience of language. (LRW) EJ448873

Guss, T. O. (1999). Toward Individual and Family Well-Being: The Western Kansas Experience in Family Resource Development., Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (New Orleans, LA, October 27-31, 1999). Page Length: 50. Rural communities are often plagued with socioeconomic challenges that contribute to family vulnerability and developmental challenges. Family Development Programs is a course that provides learning experiences related to rural community issues and family interactions with an opportunity to review programs that are provided within the region. Existing services to children and youth are assessed by the Family Development Task Force (FDTF) and programs are evaluated through testimony from the Family Development Focus Group (FDFG) regarding their contributions to family resilience. Also included are exercises to elicit strategic plans such as marital enrichment and alternative parenting strategies directed toward prevention of domestic violence and support of community safety. As a result of the FDTF and FDFG collaborations from 1994-1999 (Kansas Partnership for Family Development and Community Support), a needs assessment for the region is evolving, and priorities for family development are emerging. Also, the importance of a problem solving approach in implementing programs is encouraged through projects that seem useful in professional development of counselors and providers in community planning. Appendix A, Rationale for Program Implementation, is provided. Appendix B discusses individual committees involved with the program. (Contains 7 tables and 27 references.) (Author/MKA) ED442038

Guy, K. A., Ed. (1997). Our Promise to Children., Also sponsored by the Centre for Studies of Children at Risk. Preface by Fraser Mustard, Dan Offord, Karen Goldenberg, and Susan E. Young. This book is the result of a nationwide collaborative effort in Canada to draft national goals on healthy child and youth development. Following a brief introduction, the book is divided into three main sections. Section one examines how children develop in the following four chapters: (1) "The Mind Matters: A Child's Developing Brain"; (2) "No Time To Waste: Early Experiences Are Key"; (3) "Bouncing Back: Children's Resilience"; and (4) "More Reasons To Invest in Children: Child Development and a Changing World." Section two examines what makes a difference to children's development in the following five chapters: (5) "What All Children Need: Four Determinants of Optimal Child Development"; (6) "Childhood Should Be Protected: The First Determinant of Optimal Child Development"; (7) "Relationships are Key: The Second Determinant of Optimal Child Development"; (8) "Opportunity and Hope: The Third Determinant of Optimal Child Development"; and (9) "Community Is Us: The Fourth Determinant of Optimal Child Development." Section three examines how society can make a difference in the following two chapters: (10) "Communities in Action"; and (11) "Finding Solutions and Taking Action." The book's six appendices highlight new research, assessment, relevant Canadian organizations, health goals, criteria for research, and contributors. (SD) ED437188

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Gaines, D. (1998). Teenage Wasteland: Suburbia's Dead End Kids., Originally published in 1991 by Pantheon Books. This book examines the impact of socioeconomic and school environments on youth. It was inspired by the author's work investigating a suicide pact involving four teenagers in Bergenfield, New Jersey in 1987. Through that investigation and afterwards, the author befriended suburban adolescents considered to be outcasts by their families, educators, peers, and themselves. This book discusses those encounters. It looks beyond the typical adult opinion of alternative adolescents and suggests that American youth are, for the most part, misunderstood. It offers the view that many of the problems experienced and perpetrated by adolescents, such as suicide and violence, can be explained by this generational misunderstanding. The underlying theme of this book is a hopeful one. It suggests that adults should work to understand today's youth in its diversity and to help these individuals become empowered. (MKA) ED432710

Garbarino, J., & Bedard, C. (1996). Spiritual Challenges to Children Facing Violent Trauma. Paper presented at the Childhood: A Global Journal of Child Research, 3, 4 p467-78 Nov 1996. Reviews research dealing with the intersection of the developmental psychology of trauma and spirituality. Examines the role of religion in spiritual development and asserts the need to study life paths of violent youth to see role of spirituality in preventing social problems. Uses research with street children and children in war zones. (BGC) EJ534670

Garbarino, J., & others (1992). Children in Danger: Coping with the Consequences of Community Violence., 281pp. A joint publication in the Jossey-Bass Social and Behavioral Science Series and the Jossey-Bass Education Series. This book examines the threat to childhood development posed by living amid chronic community violence and the link between a child's response to growing up in an atmosphere of violence and danger and the social context established for that child by community and caregivers. The 11 chapters in the book are as follows: (1) "The Meaning of Danger in the Lives of Children" is an introductory essay; (2) "Children in War Zones: From Mozambique to Chicago" profiles the experience of children growing up in war zones in other countries, develops a preliminary look at trauma and development, and presents a model of accumulative childhood risk; (3) "The Developmental Toll of Inner-City Life" develops the argument that inner-city experiences can be compared to life in communities at war; (4) "Clinical Outcomes: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder" looks at research, responses to trauma, consequences, clinical outcomes, and institutional responses; (5) "Resilience and Coping in Children at Risk" considers the varying responses of children who are more resilient and less resilient; (6) "School as a Refuge: The Importance of Early Intervention" explains the key role that schools can play in helping children cope with violence; (7) "Ramon and His School: A Case Study" highlights the case of a 4-year-old boy with an alcoholic and violent father; (8) "Developing Supportive Settings for Children at Risk" outlines key school program components and the importance of school atmosphere; (9) "Helping Teachers Help Children" discusses the support teachers need; (10) "The Healing Role of Play and Art" discusses the importance of having children tell their own stories for healing; and (11) "Giving the Most to Those Who Need It" is an overview. Included are 238 references. (JB) ED346217

Garbarino, J., Kostelny, K., & Dubrow, N. (1991). No Place To Be a Child: Growing Up in a War Zone., 177p. War and violence are part of day-to-day life for many of the world's children. This book explores the lives of the children of Cambodia, Mozambique, Nicaragua, the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and inner-city Chicago. Through research on the psychological and developmental effects of trauma in early life and interviews with children in war zones around the world, the book examines how children cope with war and violence. Noting that while most children can cope with horrible experiences and high levels of stress if they have a secure relationship with parents or effective substitutes, the book points out that they may face lifelong challenges to their mental health, to their physical well-being, and to their moral development. The book's chapters are: (1) "Children and War"; (2) "At What Cost?"; (3) "Cambodian Survivors: Hell Is a Time and Place"; (4) "Mozambique's Children: Dying Is the Easy Part"; (5) "Nicaragua in Conflict: The Politics of Suffering"; (6) "Palestinians in Revolt: Children of the 'Intifada'"; (7) "Chicago: The War Close to Home"; and (8) "Making a Place for Children Who Have No Place To Be a Child." Contains 109 references. (LPP) ED411101

Gardner, S. E., Ed., & Others (1994). Signs of Effectiveness II: Preventing Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use: A Risk Factor/Resiliency-Based Approach., 128p. In 1993, "Signs of Effectiveness in Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems" appeared. It addressed alcohol and other drug use as a health problem influenced by risk factors in five life spheres or domains: individual, family, school, peer group, and community. Like its predecessor, "Signs of Effectiveness II" reports on promising prevention strategies implemented in communities throughout the United States by Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's (CSAP) High-Risk Youth Demonstration grantees. Each project, which is profiled here, has been in operation long enough to provide an experience base that can be a resource to others. Some of the programs offer positive outcome data, while others, in spite of limited results, enjoy recognition in their communities as important, meaningful, and valued approaches. The main text is divided into the five major domains noted above. In each of these sections there is a description of factors that place youth at high risk for use of alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs; promising strategies that address these risk factors; and illustrations of effective strategies that have been implemented. The text contains numbered citations of specific curriculums, researchers, and program materials. The notes also provide contact information. There is detailed information about each of the High-Risk Youth Demonstration Grants, with names and addresses of people to notify for more information. (RJM) ED381714

Garibaldi, A. M. (1991). The Role of Historically Black Colleges in Facilitating Resilience among African- American Students. Paper presented at the Theme issue with title "Resilience, Schooling, and Development in African- American Youth." For related documents, see UD 516 260-266 and UD 516 268-271. Historically black colleges and African-American state universities are valuable institutions and continue to produce two-fifths of all African-American bachelor's degree recipients and one-third of all master's graduates, although they serve a proportionately small segment of the African-American population. Many institutions of higher education could learn from their policies and practices. (SLD) EJ437025

Gelatt, H. B. (1998). Self, System, Synergy: A Career-Life Development Framework for Individuals and Organizations. Paper presented at the Career Planning and Adult Development Journal, 14, 3 p13-23 Fall 1998. The Self-System-Synergy model provides the philosophical framework for the concept of career resiliency, which has become the basis for many organizational initiatives. The three elements are self-reliance (the power of personal beliefs), interdependence (the connectedness of multiple systems), and self-renewal through continuous learning. (JOW) EJ573019

Gibbs, J. Rather than "Fixing Kids"Transform the Environment. The philosophy of "Tribes" and the process of the "Tribes Learning Community" are described. The mission of Tribes is: "To assure the healthy development of every child so that each has the knowledge, skills and resiliency to be successful in a rapidly changing world." Central to this approach are two paradigms: (1) "Rather than fixing kids, fix the environments of the systems contributing to and sustaining their problems"; and (2) "Rather than diagnosing and labeling weaknesses, involve teachers, parents and students to identify, appreciate and celebrate each young person's strengths and importance to self Others." Human resilience is increased when systems foster caring and supportive relationships, positive and high expectation, and opportunities for meaningful participation. School cultures containing these components assure the development of physical, emotional, cognitive, social, and moral competence. Training in social skills is provided to facilitate the "learning community." The community building process of Tribes makes it possible to create a transformational culture supportive of all students, which enhances the potential of the school to meet everyone's basic human needs and create an environment in which academic excellence is possible. (Contains nine references.) (EMK)

Giglio, L., Diamante, T., & Urban, J. M. (1998). Coaching a Leader: Leveraging Change at the Top. Paper presented at the Journal of Management Development, 17, 2, 93-105 1998. Coaching can help executives deal with organizational change by focusing on objectives, developing resilience, and building interpersonal skills. Coach and executive move through phases of building commitment and facilitating personal transformation. (SK) EJ563605

Gil, E. (1998). Essentials of Play Therapy with Abused Children. Videotape. This 40-minute instructional video illustrates the unique benefits of play therapy for children who have been physically or sexually abused. It describes how play activities fit into the reparative process and provides helpful pointers for practice. The uses of art supplies, the sandtray, puppets, dollhouse, masks, and more are highlighted. Illustrated throughout by children's evocative paintings, drawings, and play, the program explores: (1) the benefits of different activities for articulating children's inner experience; (2) themes to look for in the play and artwork of children who have been abused; (3) how to balance directive and nondirective approaches; and (4) helping children feel safe in the therapy setting. A companion manual amplifies themes presented in the video, including, definitions and types of child abuse, the continuum of impact of abuse, symptomatology, assessment, theoretical approaches, resilience, environmental factors and systemic responses, play therapy, rapport building, setting a context for therapy, directive and nondirective approaches in play therapy, the selection of toys and props, and specific therapy techniques, including art therapy, sand therapy, puppets, dollhouses, and courtroom replicas. The manual also provides resource lists for students and practitioners. (Contains 40 references.) (CR) ED421830 Available from: Guilford Publications, Inc., 72 Spring Street, New York, NY 10012; World Wide Web: http://www. guilford.com (video and accompanying manual, $95).

Gil, E. (1998). Play Therapy for Severe Psychological Trauma. Videotape. In this 36-minute educational video, a play and family therapist elucidates the nature of trauma, how to recognize it clinically, and how to manage its powerful effects upon children's development with the use of specific play materials and techniques. With a reenacted clinical interview, footage from an actual play therapy session, and a detailed discussion of dissociation and other symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder, information is provided on: (1) how play therapy can help resolve traumatic events; (2) what dissociation looks like in children's paintings and drawings; (3) why dissociation occurs and how it can be addressed in therapy; (4) the distinctive characteristics of posttraumatic play; and (5) concrete ways to intervene when repetitive or ritualized play becomes harmful. A companion manual amplifies themes presented in the video, including definitions and types of child abuse, the continuum of impact of abuse, symptomatology, assessment, theoretical approaches, resilience, environmental factors and systemic responses, individual responses to trauma, trauma's link to dissociation, posttraumatic stress disorder, play therapy, phases of treatment, and obstacles or impasses. The manual also provides resource lists for students and practitioners. (Contains 31 references.) (Author/CR) ED421829 Available from: Guilford Publications, Inc., 72 Spring Street, New York, NY 10012; World Wide Web: http://www.guilford.com (video and accompanying manual, $95).

Gilliam, B., & Scott, D. (1998). The Courage To Expect Greatness from Our Children. Paper presented at the Special topic: "Attachment and Belonging." For related articles, see CG 553 873-886. Discusses various paradigms and treatment strategies in working with troubled youth. Proposes a shift from traditional approaches that stress deficits and pathology toward strength-based interventions that focus on positive development. Describes a range of specific innovations in program development that result when research on resilience becomes the basis of intervention. (Author/MKA) EJ587264

Gilligan, R. (2000). Adversity, Resilience and Young People: The Protective Value of Positive School and Spare Time Experiences. Paper presented at the Children & Society, 14, 1, 37-47 Feb 2000. Highlights the value of resilience as a key concept in work with young people in need and considers implications of a resilience-led approach for policy and practice. Discusses social and developmental factors influencing a child or young person's degree of resilience, with particular reference to the resilience enhancing potential of school experiences and spare time activities. (Author/KB) EJ602184

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Hadley, C. D., & Bowman, L. (1995). Southern state party organizations and activists. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. Jk2295.a13 s68 1995 324.275 norst

Hage, S. M., & Nosanow, M. (2000). Becoming Stronger at Broken Places: A Model for Group Work with Young Adult from Divorced Families. Paper presented at the Special topic: "Psychoeducational Group Work." For related articles, see CG555 694-699. Describes a model for group work with young adults from divorced families using an 8-session psychoeducational group intervention. Goals include reducing isolation, establishing connectedness, and building a stronger sense of identify. By educating young adults on topics such as assertiveness, communication skills, and self-esteem, it will give them extra tools to build trust, intimacy, and enduring relationships. (Author/JDM) EJ611012

Haggerty, R. J. (1994). Stress, risk, and resilience in children and adolescents: processes, mechanisms, and interventions. Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press. Bf723.s75 s79 1994

Hall, D. T. (1999). Accelerate Executive Developmentat Your Peril! Paper presented at the Career Development International, 4, 4, 237-39 1999. A study of Sears managers in accelerated management development shows that managers who progress quickly develop problems that often lead to failure: no personal network, alienation of others, no resilience, and no metacompetencies such as adaptability and self-understanding. (SK) EJ589057

Hallenbeck, M. (1998). A Victory for the Village. Paper presented at the Special topic: "Attachment and Belonging." For related articles, see CG 553 873-886. Chronicles the development of a troubled child who was removed at the age of 8 from his parents. In time, after a long history of serious problems, he was able to achieve success. This account suggests that continuity of support and the passage of time can enable many youth with serious challenges to develop resilience and responsible independence. (Author/MKA) EJ587266

Halpert, H., Widdowson, J. D. A., & Lovelace, M. J. (1996). Folktales of Newfoundland: the resilience of the oral tradition. New York: Garland Pub. Gr113.5.n54 h35 1996 398.2/09718

Hamilton, T. L. (1998). Siblings' Response to a Survivor of Childhood Cancer: A Review of the Literature on What Leads to Healthy Adjustment or Maladjustment., Doctoral Research Paper, Biola University. This paper reviews the research on how siblings respond to another sibling who has survived childhood cancer. The paper examines the siblings' ability to cope, adjust, and adapt to this stressor. Relevant interventions are also discussed. The research indicates that although siblings may experience heightened emotional and behavioral problems, overall their psychological adjustment is adequate and not altogether different from siblings in healthy families. The two strongest predictor variables appear to be the compound variable gender/age and the presence of problems existing before diagnosis. The siblings' level of maturity and ability to overcome stressors contributed to a healthy adjustment. When the siblings' level of ability to adapt is considered, those who are categorized as dysfunctional have more difficulty than siblings classified as resilient. Finally, interventions that promote family cohesiveness, adaptability, and open communication facilitated healthy coping, adapting, and adjustment. (Contains 46 references.) (Author/GCP) ED433476

Hammen, C. L. (1991). Depression runs in families: the social context of risk and resilience in children of depressed mothers. New York: Springer-Verlag. Rc537.h3 1991

Harrison, B. T., & Brodeth, E. (1999). Real Work through Real Collegiality: Faculty Seniors Views on the Drive To Improve Learning and Research. Paper presented at the Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 21, 2 p203-214 Nov 1999. Addresses two key principles for continuous improvement in learning and research in universities, focusing on development of strategies and building a climate of trust and resilience in collegial relations. Analysis of interviews with eight faculty and school leaders identified ways in which key terms associated with academic collegiality operate in tension with key terms associated with improving university performance. (DB) EJ603553

Hauser, S. T. (1999). Understanding Resilient Outcomes: Adolescent Lives across Time and Generations. Paper presented at the Journal of Research on Adolescence, 9, 1, 1-24 1999. Describes person-based follow-back design and narrative analyses to examine young adult developmental adaptation despite serious prior risks and adversity. Describes identification of competent young adults and narrative analysis method. Presents preliminary findings detailing content and structural themes involving individual constructions of self and relationships. Considers implications of combining quantitative and narrative analyses. (Author/KB) EJ580303

Hawkins, R., & Others (1992). Athletic Investment and Academic Resilience among African-American Females and Males in the Middle Grades. Research Report #3., 32p. This study looks at the relationship between athletic participation among middle grade African American students and academic achievement, particularly athletics, as an instrument through which students gain academic resilience and attachment to academic goals. The data for the analysis were drawn from the base year of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), a nationally representative sample of 24,599 eighth graders. The African-American subsample included 1,105 male and 1,112 female public school students. Multiple regression analyses were used to estimate the net or direct effect of interscholastic and intramural athletic participation on the academic resiliency of African American students as measured by educational aspiration, investments in pro-academic behaviors, and social status among their school peers. The analysis found that sports participation is positively associated with black eighth grade male aspirations to enroll in academic or college preparatory programs in high school, with having definite plans to complete high school and with plans to attend college. This pattern is similar for females, although their educational plans are more strongly influenced by intramural participation than by interscholastic participation. In addition, the data show positive links between athletic participation and several indicators of pro-academic investment behaviors and attitudes. Four tables are included. (Contains 53 references.) (JB) ED361450

Hearn, M. P. (1998). Happily, Ever After: The Resilience of the Fairy Tale, Part 1. Paper presented at the Journal availability: Essmont Publishing, P.O. Box 186, Brandon, Vermont 05733-0186. Discusses the work of Frenchman Charles Perrault, the seminal figure in fairy tales, and puts it in context of the French fairy tale fashion. Describes how the fairy tale came to England. Describes how the Germans revived the fairy tale at the end of the 18th century, and discusses the work of the Brothers Grimm. (SR) EJ577013

Hebert, T. P. (1996). Portraits of Resilience: The Urban Life Experience of Gifted Latino Young Men. Paper presented at the Roeper Review, 19, 2, 82-90 Dec 1996. Explores the resilience of three gifted Latino high school students who live in the inner city. The sources of their resilience are examined. Implications for resilience in gifted youth are discussed and recommendations are made for nurturing resilience in urban teenagers to ensure greater success in life. (Author/CR) EJ542696

Henderson, N. (1997). Resiliency in Schools: Making It Happen. Paper presented at the Principal, 77, 2, 10-12,14,16-17 Nov 1997. Educators with a "resiliency attitude" can help at-risk children flourish, despite adverse environmental conditions. Certain protective factors can reduce the negative impact of stressful situations and problems. Educators should increase student and parent bonding with the school; set clear, consistent boundaries; teach life skills; provide caring and support; communicate high expectations; and provide opportunities for meaningful participation. (MLH) EJ553788

Henderson, N., & Milstein, M. M. (1996). Resiliency in schools: making it happen for students and educators. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Corwin Press.

Henley, M. (1998). Building Resilience with the Self-Control Curriculum. Paper presented at the Reaching Today's Youth: The Community Circle of Caring Journal, 2, 3, 48-51 Spr 1998. Illustrates how teachers can build their students' social competence by integrating indiscrete social skills into the academic curriculum. States that the challenge for those who teach high-risk youth is to recognize and support the protective factors that build on strengths and enhance resiliency. (Author/MKA) EJ579039

Henry, D. L. (1999). Resilience in Maltreated Children: Implications for Special Needs Adoption. Paper presented at the Special issue on: "Achieving Excellence in Special Needs Adoption.". Details study of adolescents in York County, Pennsylvania, to determine processes by which maltreated children develop adaptive personalities despite aversive family experiences. Discusses five themes that provide cues to behavior in new environments viewed as unsafe by the child: loyalty to parents, normalizing the abusive environment, invisibility to the abuser, self-value, and future vision. (LBT) EJ593694

Herbert, M. A., Mayhew, J. C., & Sebastian, J. P. (1997). The Circle of Life: Preparing Teachers To Work with American Indian Students with Disabilities. Paper presented at the Rural Special Education Quarterly, 16, 4, 2-9 Fall 1997. Describes a federally-funded University of Utah model project to prepare teachers to work with American Indian students with disabilities in both rural and urban regions. Components include cultural sensitivity and awareness, nonbiased assessment, fostering resilience, curriculum and instructional strategies, transition and collaboration, field experiences, and distance delivery. Contains 22 references. (Author/SAS) EJ563146

Herring, R. D. (1998). Career Counseling in Schools: Multicultural and Developmental Perspectives. This handbook is a resource for counselor educators, school counselors, and other helping professionals who have not discovered an appropriate multicultural approach to career development. It is designed to enhance the school counselor's knowledge about cultural diversity and to provide appropriate career development interventions with special population students. This book combines the themes of the relation of changing demographics to sociocultural and psychocultural imperatives in schools; the balance between universalism and cultural pluralism; the resilience and adaptation of ethnic and cultural student groups; and the ethnic and cultural status as stressors on the normal development of school-age youths. It presents explicit interventions, assessment techniques, and information services for successful career counseling with diverse, school-aged populations. It addresses the unique career concerns of immigrant students; gay, lesbian, and bisexual students; and students with physical, mental, or medial challenges. Each chapter contains experiential activities that can be adapted to various ages, grade level, and learning styles. (Contains an extensive reference list and an index.) (MKA) ED431994

Hiew, C. C. (1998). Resilience: Development and Measurement., 12pp. Paper presented at the Graduate Department of Learning and Curriculum Development, Faculty of Education, Hiroshima University (Hiroshima, Japan, July 24, 1998). This paper explains that Grotberg (1995) has developed two measures of child resilience, one eliciting children's responses to vignettes depicting difficult situations and the second a checklist completed by an adult. Two studies examined the validity of these methods of assessing child resilience. Study 1 focused on the validity of vignettes and used measures of social support and parental bonding as predictors. Sixty-eight students (mean age 12 years) responded to vignettes describing adversities and completed questionnaires on parental bonding and sources of social support. Their teachers completed the resilience checklist. Findings indicated that the single most important predictor of resilience was support from informal sources. Study 2 examined the factor structure of the resilience checklist. Teachers completed the checklist for 40 students (mean age 13 years) and evaluated their school competencies. Students completed the vignette measure and questionnaires assessing their social skills and identifying social supports. Four factors were identified for the resilience checklist, labeled: (1) "I Can"social/interpersonal resilience, surfacing in school settings; (2) "Facilitative Environment"internal resilience, emerging within family supports; (3) "I Am"internal resilience, emerging within nonfamily supports; and (4) "I Have," social skills. The findings of the two studies indicated that the two child resilience measures were significantly related to independent predictors of resilience. (KB) ED426780 You may be able to order this document from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service.

Higgerson, M. L. (1998). In My View. Restoring Hope and Building Leaders. Paper presented at the Kappa Delta Pi Record, 35, 1, 6-7 Fall 1998. Asserts that today's students must cope with considerable hostility and find the courage to survive aggression (e.g., through organized religion). Without religion in schools, educators lose values that teach children to be ethical, contributing citizens. Teachers must be leaders in moral development in order to help students understand how their actions affect others and to help create an orderly society. (SM) EJ592383

Higgins, G. O. C. (1994). Resilient adults: overcoming a cruel past ( 1st ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Hv697.h54 1994

Hill, L. H. (1998). Changes of the Human Mind., This essay has also been published in the book review section of "Adult Education Quarterly" (v49, 1 Fall 1998). Five books, representing a small selection of possible readings on necessary changes of the human mind, point to a convergence of interest from different fields of study toward the need for modern society to develop the capacity to respond to the complexity of modern life and the newly acquired ability to destroy life on an unprecedented scale. Those books are as follows: "The Web of Life: A New Scientific Understanding of Living Systems" (F. Capra); "Common Fire: Lives of Commitment in a Complex World" (L.A.P. Daloz et al.); "In Over Our Heads: The Mental Demands of Modern Life" (R. Kegan); "The Protean Self: Human Resilience in an Age of Fragmentation" (R. J. Lifton); and "Evolution of Consciousness: The Origins of the Way We Think" (R. Ornstein). Despite the differences in the five authors' approaches, they describe a consciousness that is: (1) capable of developing a more inclusive world view and forming allegiances beyond the local; (2) cognizant of the interdependence among humans and between humankind and the earth; (3) able to cope comfortably with ambiguity; and (4) able to value complexity and diversity. All five authors call for changes in the way humans think, the way humans relate to the rest of the world, and the way humans identify with all of humanity. Study of these authors leads to building a curriculum for a new consciousness. (KC) ED435021

Hill, M. S. (1996). Making Students Part of the Safe Schools Solution. Paper presented at the NASSP Bulletin, 80, 579, 24-30 Apr 1996. In a learning community, everyone must participate in decision making. Involving students in developing classroom rules, solving community problems, and reviewing school and district policies has lasting benefits. Service learning, mentoring, and mediation programs help students develop civic responsibility, interpersonal competence, and resilience. A Tennessee career learning center offers teens a safe learning setting. (MLH) EJ522761

Himelein, M. J. M., Jo Ann V. (1996). Resilient Child Sexual Abuse Survivors: Cognitive Coping and Illusion. Paper presented at the Child Abuse & Neglect: The International Journal, 20, 8 p747-58 Aug 1996. Two studies examined coping strategies associated with resilience in a nonclinical sample of young adult child sexual abuse survivors. Survivors were likely to engage in positive illusions or such cognitive strategies as disclosing and discussing the abuse, minimization, positive reframing, and refusing to dwell on the experience. Results support cognitive reappraisal in child sexual abuse recovery. (Author/DB) EJ529381

Himelein, M. J., & Others (1994). Resilience in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors: Healing Power of Illusions., 6pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association (New Orleans, LA, April, 1994). Because research has focused on psychopathology rather than psychological health, little is known about how child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors escape childhood trauma unharmed. This investigation sought to identify cognitive characteristics associated with resilience following a history of CSA. The study sample of 180 women was drawn from a small, public university. Questionnaires assessed demographic information, CSA history, cognitive characteristics and illusions, and current psychological functioning. Illusion was defined on the basis of three cognitive measures: (1) exaggerated perceptions of internal control over life events; (2) unrealistic optimism; and (3) accurate self-knowledge. Twenty-five percent of participants (n=45) reported a history of contact CSA, defined as unwanted sexual contact occurring prior to the age of 15 and initiated by someone 5 or more years senior. A greater percentage of abused women than nonabused women were represented by the lowest income category: below $15,000. No significant differences were detected between the abused and nonabused women after performance of a multivariate analysis of variance on several measures. Perceptions of control and optimistic expectations of the future, even when exaggerated or distorted, appeared to facilitate adjustment for both groups, suggesting that cognitive methods of coping may be of help irrespective of trauma history. (RJM) ED370028

Holaday, M., & McPhearson, R. W. (1997). Resilience and Severe Burns. Paper presented at the Journal of Counseling & Development, 75, 5, 346-56 May-Jun 1997. Incorporated findings of a general literature review with opinions offered by 39 burn survivors. Results indicate that care factors influencing resiliency include social support (cultural influences and community, school, personal, and familial support), cognitive skills (intelligence, coping style, personal control, and assignment of meaning), and psychological resources. Suggests counseling strategies that strengthen resilience. (RJM) EJ553608

Honig, A. S., & Wang, Y.-C. (1997). Child Resilience in Taiwanese Immigrant Families as a Function of Maternal Supports and Maternal Employment. Paper presented at the Early Child Development and Care, 139, 43-48 Dec 1997. Investigated resilience, as assessed by mothers, among 4- to 11-year-old children of Taiwanese immigrant families in the United States. Found that maternal support for child resilience and mixed cultural rearing style was most predictive of children's resilience, but maternal employment was not associated with resilience. Boys were less resilient than girls. (JPB) EJ572323

Horn, L. J., & Chen, X. (1998). Toward Resiliency: At-Risk Students Who Make It to College., 52p. This study examined whether or not student, parent, and peer engagement factors that contribute to at-risk students' success in graduating from high school continue to be important in making the transition from high school to postsecondary education. The data set used was the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, which included 1994 data obtained two years after students' scheduled high school graduation. At-risk students exhibited two or more of six risk factors, including "family in the lowest socioeconomic quartile" or "held back a grade". Analysis used alternative statistical methodology, specifically regression analysis and the "odds ratios" produced by this procedure. Key findings indicated that: (1) students whose parents frequently discussed school-related matters and/or had high educational expectations were much more likely than other students to enroll in postsecondary education; (2) students who reported that most or all of their high school friends planned to attend college were far more likely to attend themselves; (3) participating in college preparation activities such as gathering information about financial aid increased the odds of enrolling in postsecondary education; and (4) moderate- to high- risk students participating in college outreach programs were more likely to attend college. Appended are a glossary and technical and methodology notes. (Contains 11 references.) (DB) ED419463 Available from: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328.

Huang, S.-y. L., Waxman, H. C., & Educational Resources Information Center (U.S.). (1996). Comparing learning environment of resilient and non-resilient Asian American students. [Washington, DC]: U.S. Dept. of Education Office of Educational Research and Improvement Educational Resources Information Center. Ed 1.310/2:398315

Hutchings, P., Ed. (2000). Opening Lines: Approaches to the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning., Accompanying CD-ROM not available from ERIC. Page Length: 108. This publication features reports by eight Carnegie Scholars who are working to develop a scholarship of teaching and learning that will advance the profession of teaching and improve student learning. Following the Introduction, "Approaching the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning" (Pat Hutchings), the papers are: "Investigating Student Learning in a Problem-Based Psychology Course" (William Cerbin); "Resilient Students, Resilient Communities" (Donna Killian Duffy); "Looking through a Different Lens: Inquiry into a Team-Taught Course" (Cynthia V. Fukami); "A Chemical Mixture of Methods" (Dennis Jacobs); "For Better or Worse? The Marriage of Web and Classroom" (T. Mills Kelly); "Students' Perspectives on Interdisciplinary Learning" (Sherry Linkon); "A Case Study of Theory, Voice, Pedagogy, and Joy" (Mona Taylor Phillips); "Difficulty: The Great Educational Divide" (Mariolina Rizzi Salvatori); and a Conclusion: "Inventing the Future" (Lee S. Shulman). (Papers contain references.) (SM) ED449157

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Ianni, F. A. J. (1993). Joining Youth Needs and Program Services. Urban Diversity Series No. 104., 64p. This paper discusses the challenges of effectively matching the needs of youth populations with program services. An introduction reviews some broad issues that shape the discussion, namely whether youth is a period integrated into the course of life or a separatist culture. A second section proposes an ecological approach to youth services, which proceeds from the assumption that human behavior and patterns of social relationships are not independent of place. This section looks at models for youth development and program foundation. A third section looks at varieties of personal, social, and cultural development among youth, including identity formation and community influences. The following section reviews the developmental and environmental stresses involved in growing up, such as risks of delinquency, and mutually-reinforcing multiple risk factors. The fifth section suggests how to mitigate the risks in young lives through social support systems that help young people to learn to cope with risks and find a balance between inner resilience and social support, considers how adults and community resources can play a role, and emphasizes the importance of community-based collaborative roles for youth professionals. A final section explores building service communities for youth. An author biography is included. (Contains 65 references.) (JB) ED355306

International Monetary Fund., & Nsouli, S. M. (1995). Resilience and growth through sustained adjustment: the Moroccan experience. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund. Hc810.r47 1995 338.964 1000 I113 Oc1 no.117 1995 govin

Iverson, P. (1995). The Road to Reappearance: Indians and Cattle Ranching in the American West. Paper presented at the Tribal College, 7, 2, 23-26 Fall 1995. Discusses the role of cattle ranching in maintaining the resilience of western Native American tribes in the face of many ill-advised federal policies. Describes the historical impetus for Native American cattle ranching and its current economic viability, suggesting that ranching provides a traditional means for Native Americans to achieve economic success. (MAB) EJ516677

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Jackson, S., & Martin, P. Y. (1998). Surviving the Care System: Education and Resilience. Paper presented at the Special section: "Adolescents within the Care System." For related articles, see CG 554 305-310. Reports on studies that traced a group of successful people who had grown up in care. Subgroup of high achievers participated in a more intensive study. A risk-and-resilience framework was used to identify the protective factors that enabled this group to achieve a life trajectory that differed from their siblings and peers. Success in education was a crucial factor. (Author/JDM) EJ592692

James, C. (1994). Don't Shoot My Dodo: On the Resilience of Contrastive and Error Analysis. Paper presented at the IRAL, 32, 3, 179-200 1994. This article examines recent research in the areas of contrastive analysis (CA) and error analysis (EA) as they apply to second-language learning, focusing on redefinitions and modifications of the concepts of language "transfer," "error," and "native speaker." It argues that both CA and EA remain vital components of applied linguistics and language teaching. (89 references) (MDM) EJ494876

Jenkins, R., & Angrosino, M. V. (1998). Questions of competence: culture, classification and intellectual disability. Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press. Hv3004.q47 1998 362.3

Jew, C. L. G., Kathy E.; Kroger, Jane. (1999). Development and Validation of a Measure of Resiliency. Paper presented at the Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, v32, 2, 75-89 Jul 1999. Reports on four studies developed to provide validation information for a measure of resiliency. Concludes that persons scoring higher on the resiliency scale are likely to demonstrate better academic skills, have higher self-perceived competence, and display a wider range of coping skills than less resilient peers. (Author/GCP) EJ596698

Johnson, K., Bryant, D. D., Collins, D. A., Noe, T. D., Strader, T. N., & Berbaum, M. (1998). Preventing and Reducing Alcohol and Other Drug Use among High-Risk Youths by Increasing Family Resilience. Paper presented at the Social Work, 43, 4, 297-308 Jul 1998. The effects of a community-based program designed to delay onset and reduce frequency of alcohol and drug use among high-risk youth are evaluated. Implemented in multiple church communities, program components include parent and youth training, early intervention services, and follow-up case management services. Implications for social work are discussed. (Author/EMK) EJ579064

Johnson, N. G., Ed., Roberts, M. C., Ed., & Worell, J., Ed. (1999). Beyond Appearance: A New Look at Adolescent Girls. This book provides a new look at adolescent girls. The sections and chapters reveal the strengths and positive assets of adolescent girls, their relationships, and their communities. It takes a new look at the strengths and successes of adolescents within the context of their race, ethnicity, class, self, sexual orientation, relationships and community. Focusing on strengths, it takes a look at factors of resilience and proposes models to support adolescent girls in their transitional development. The book contains five sections, each beginning with an introduction by the section editor. "Developing the Woman in Myself" (Judith Worell, Ed.) considers the development of self in the context of sociocultural expectations for the gendered self, the competent self, and the physical self. "Adolescent Girls of Color: Declaring Their Place and Voice" (Jessica Henderson Daniel) both underscores the critical importance of understanding the role of ethnicity, culture, and race in any discussion of adolescent girls and provides data about the implications of the neglect in psychological research on diversity. "To the Heart of the Matter: The Relational Lives of Adolescent Girls" (Lyn Mikel Brown, Ed.) provides complex lenses for looking at and thinking about adolescent girls' relationships. "Coping, Negotiating, and Problem Solving in Community Contexts" (Denise M. DeZolt, Ed.) covers three critical areas for adolescent girls: the schools, the health system, and the courts. "Implications and Future Trends" (Michael C. Roberts, Ed.) discusses public policy, education and training, and clinical practice, and concludes with a summary view of past discussions on adolescent girls and what might be their future. (Contains an author and subject index.) (MKA) ED441188

Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., & Bachman, J. G. (2000). Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-1999. Volume I: Secondary School Students., For volume II, see CG 030 420. Page Length: 662. Over the past quarter of a century, the Monitoring the Future study has tracked young American's use of psychoactive substances, both illicit and licit. In this volume, findings are presented on the prevalence and trends of drug use and related factors for secondary school students (eight, tenth, and twelfth graders). Distinctions are made among demographic subgroups of these populations based on gender; college plans; region of the country; population density; parents' education; and race/ethnicity. This study demonstrates that key attitudes and beliefs about use of the various drugs are important determinants of trends in use over time. Attitudes are tracked as well as students' perceptions of certain relevant aspects of their social environment, including perceived availability of substances, peer norms, use by friends, and exposure to use. Chapter One provides an introduction. Chapter Two gives an overview of key findings. Chapter Three presents study design and the procedures. Chapter Four discusses the prevalence of drug use among the different grades. Chapter Five explains trends in drug use. Chapter Six looks at the incidence of drug use in the lower grades. Chapter Seven discusses the degree and duration of drug-induced highs. Chapter Eight details attitudes and beliefs about drug use. Chapter Nine includes the influence of the social milieu. Chapter Ten explains other findings from the study. (Contains 5 appendixes, 152 tables, 105 figures, and references.) (JDM) ED446308

Jones, F., & Jones, A. C. (2001). The triumph of the soul: cultural and psychological aspects of African American music. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. Ml3556.t75 2001

Jones, W. H. (1997). Baby Steps. Paper presented at the Phi Delta Kappan, 78, 10, 797-800 Jun 1997. A harried school counselor describes a tangled web of domestic discord and agency miscoordination (complicated by an unintelligible restraining order and a birth certificate mix-up) that try his patience and leave a young girl bereft of family. Dakota Stages's gutsiness and resiliency impress this counselor immensely. (MLH) EJ547292

Jongeward, C. (1999). Shifting the Ground of the Familiar: Using Autobiography and Intercultural Learning in a Time of Transition. Paper presented at the Canadian Journal for the Study of Adult Education, 13, 1 p21-40 May 1999. Explores the challenges of living in an unfamiliar physical and cultural environment through the concepts of complexity, self-organization, and chaos. Discusses creative resilience, composed of risk taking, reflection, and relationships, and its role in adult learning for sustainability. (SK) EJ585147

Jordan, J. V. (1992). Relational resilience. Wellesley, MA: The Stone Center Wellesley College. Bf712 scist

Jose, P. E. (Apr 1991). Family Correlates of Children's Type A Behavior., 9pp. Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development (Seattle, WA, April 18-20, 1991). This study examined the relation of parenting style and parents' personality to children's Type A behavior pattern. Teachers rated 38 second- through fifth-grade children on the Matthews Youth Test for Health (MYTH), which was used to measure children's Type A behavior. Two subscale scores, leadership-competitiveness and impatience-aggression, were derived from the MYTH ratings. Parents of 19 of the children completed 7 scales which measured family cohesiveness and parents' Type A personality, Type A attitudes, anger, and perceptions of their child's distractibility and ego resilience. Results indicated that: (1) Type A children were perceived by their parents as having ego resilience; (2) parental Type A personality was not associated with children's MYTH scores; (3) fathers' Type A personality was negatively correlated with children's leadership subscale score; and (4) parents' anger was not associated with children's MYTH scores. These results were unexpected. Other results indicated that family cohesiveness was associated with leadership and children's MYTH scores were associated with family Type A behavior. Children's leadership was associated with parental Type A behavior and attitudes. Mothers' traits and behaviors predicted children's Type A profile more strongly than did fathers'. A list of 10 references is included. (BC) ED339468

Joseph, J. M. (1994). The resilient child: preparing today's youth for tomorrow's world. New York: Insight Books. Bf723.r46j67 1994

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Kalil, A., & Kunz, J. (1999). First Births among Adolescent Girls: Risk and Protective Factors. Paper presented at the Social Work Research, 23, 3, 197-208 Sep 1999. Survey administered to 958 girls studied effects of sociodemographic risk factors for adolescent nonmarital childbearing. Analysis showed adolescents girls who experienced five or more sociodemographic risk factors were 16 times more likely to experience a nonmarital childbirth during their teenage years. Under similar levels of risk, adolescent girls with high educational expectations were less likely to experience a nonmarital birth. (Author/JDM) EJ610974

Kaplan, C. p. O. (1996). Promoting Resilience Strategies: A Modified Consultation Model. Paper presented at the Social Work in Education, 18, 3, 158-68 Jul 1996. Describes a project guided by the resilience paradigm in which a team of 4 social workers and 17 prevention personnel collaborated on programs serving 2000 inner- city adolescents. The project team concluded that a modified consultation model is essential for implementing new techniques and that positive, supportive relationships are singularly important for fostering resilience. (LSR) EJ542282

Katz, M. (1997). On playing a poor hand well: insights from the lives of those who have overcome childhood risks and adversities ( 1st ed.). New York: Norton. Rj507.s77k38 1997

Katz, M. (1997). Overcoming Childhood Adversities: Lessons from Those Who Have "Beat the Odds". Paper presented at the Theme Issue: Violence in the Classroom. This article addresses ways that schools and communities can be a protective influence by helping students to overcome the difficulties of destructive home and inner-city environments. Topics discussed include the school as a protective influence, neighborhood organizations that buffer and protect children and teenagers, the protective value of at least one supportive individual, and mentoring relationships. (DB) EJ539261

Keating, W. D., & Krumholz, N. (1999). Rebuilding urban neighborhoods: achievements, opportunities, and limits. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications. Ht175.r425 1999

Keigher, S. M., Fortune, A. E., & Witkin, S. L. (2000). Aging and social work: the changing landscapes. Washington, D.C.: NASW Press. Hv1451.a32 2000

Keller, M. M., & Decoteau, G. T. (2000). The Military Child: Mobility and Education. Fastback 463., Sponsored by the Central Texas Chapter of Phi Delta Kappa International. Page Length: 41. Because most military children will be enrolled in public schools at some point, an understanding of military children can assist educators in working with such children and, more broadly, with mobile children from other backgrounds. Following an introduction providing information on the numbers of military children and their unique issues, this fastback describes some of the challenges posed by high mobility as seen in the military child population, including those related to calendars and schedules, school records, classes and credits, state testing, and emotional needs. The fastback then suggests strategies, such as local and institutional partnerships, that educators can use to assist military children in building their capacity for adaptability. (Contains 25 references.) (EV) ED448884

Kelley, K., & Others (1996). Resilient Older Academic Women: Stories Told in Their Own Voices., 11pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association (82nd, San Diego, CA, November 23-26, 1996). During the 1990s, the status of women faculty in higher education was the subject of numerous progress reports. Given the abundance of data available in these reports and articles on women faculty at colleges and universities, a study explored the issues, using another method of investigationnarratives. Six accomplished "resilient" women in the communication discipline, all full college or university professors, were identified and asked to share one or two stories that described critical milestones or markers illustrative of how they survived, if not thrived, in their careers. Themes running through these accounts which can be identified include the necessity of being far above average in competence, discipline, effort, energy, confidence, savvy, rectitude, creativity, and fortitude to survive in academia. Several of the women were afforded the support of a male mentor, and several reported skills in political and organizational power. All of the women hewed unconventional career paths mostly using convention. Resilience perhaps should be defined not only as strength of charactermany of the women reported having to recover and rebound from devastating setbacks. (CR) ED403619

Kelly, B. (1996). The Significance of Preschool Behaviour Problems for Adjustment in Later Life. Paper presented at the Early Child Development and Care, 117, 1-19 Feb 1996. Reviews literature on effects of early maladjustment on later behavior problems. Discusses development as transactional process in which risk and resilience are central, a cumulative risk model of behavior problems as resulting from a variety of factors, and longitudinal research that focuses on externalizing behaviors. Concludes predictive power of antisocial childhood problems on later behavior has not been established. (JW) EJ521925

Kelly, T. B., Berman-Rossi, T., Palombo, S., & Association for the Advancement of Social Work with Groups. Symposium. (2001). Group work: strategies for strengthening resiliency. New York: Haworth Press. Hv45.g73154 2001

Kemper, K. (1996). Constructing a True Story: The Moral Autobiography of a Survivor. Paper presented at the Thresholds in Education, 22, 3, 23-26 Aug 1996. A junior high school teacher shares the story of a childhood dominated by poverty, family alcoholism, sexual and physical victimization, and haphazard school attendance. Surviving these traumatic experiences (and a teen pregnancy) was not easy. This teacher's background enables her to unearth covering-up strategies used by children trying to survive abusive situations. (MLH) EJ570103

Keogh, B. K., & Weisner, T. (1993). An Ecocultural Perspective on Risk and Protective Factors in Children's Development: Implications for Learning Disabilities. Paper presented at the Special Issue: Risk and Resilience in Individuals with Learning Disabilities: An International Focus on Intervention Approaches and Research. Four predictive models offering an ecocultural perspective on the educational and personal-social development of children at risk for learning disabilities and other learning problems are proposed: main effect, additive, multiplicative, and compensatory. Preliminary results favor the compensatory and additive models. Both risk and protective factors should be considered in diagnosis and intervention planning. (Author/DB) EJ465467

Kicza, J. E. (1993). The Indian in Latin American history: resistance, resilience, and acculturation. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources. E65.i45 1993

Kim, K., & Honig, A. S. (1998). Relationship of Maternal Employment Status and Support for Resilience with Child Resilience among Korean Immigrant Families in the United States. Paper presented at the Early Child Development and Care, 141, 41-60 Feb 1998. Examined the relationship between child resilience and maternal employment status among Korean families resident in the United States. Found that mother's attitudes toward their employment status, father's supportiveness of that employment, and satisfaction with child care arrangements, but not employment itself, impacted reported children's resilience. (JPB) EJ574102

King, A. S. (1997). The Crescendo Effect in Career Motivation. Paper presented at the Career Development International, 2, 6, 293-301 1997. Presents a strategic model for career motivation based on component dimensions of self-identity, self-insight, and career resilience. Identifies these elements as part of the greater construct of career commitment. (SK) EJ554931

Kingston-Mann, E., & Sieber, R. T. (2001). Achieving against the odds: how academics become teachers of diverse students. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Lc3727.a34 2001 378.1/9829

Kinney, D. A., & Others (1994). The Urban Learner Framework: An Overview., 21p. The Urban Education staff at Research for Better Schools (RBS), Inc., has developed a conceptual framework to address the complex issues that must be dealt with in urban school-restructuring efforts. This overview of the Urban Learner Framework (ULF) describes its two major features: four research-based themes that are the foundation for a new vision of the urban learner and the ramifications of these themes for decision-making within functional areas of school organization. The four themes are: (1) cultural diversity and learning; (2) unrecognized abilities and underdeveloped potential; (3) enhancement of ability development through motivation and effort; and (4) resilience of urban learners. Integration of knowledge and meaning across these themes leads to a new vision of urban learners that focuses on their strengths. The second major feature of the ULF is a set of decision-making guidelines that begins with determining an appropriate curriculum, instruction, and assessment and then designing effective staff- development programs. Establishing a supportive school environment and building visionary leadership and effective management are other decision-making guideline topics. A list of RBS activities and products is included. (Contains 42 references.) (SLD) ED375231

Kinney, D. A., Williams, B., & Educational Resources Information Center (U.S.). (1995). "We get to learn!" building urban children's sense of future in an elementary school. Philadelphia, PA [Washington, DC]: Urban Education Project Research for Better Schools ; U.S. Dept. of Education Office of Educational Research and Improvement Educational Resources Information Center. Ed 1.310/2:390971

Kirk, J. J., & Kirk, L. D. (1995). Training Games for Career Development., 295p. This book is designed to be used as a supplemental instructional resource by teachers of courses and training workshops on a variety of career-related matters. Along with almost 60 games, the book contains background information on numerous career subjects and a six-step game selection model to help users locate the game best suited to achieve their instructional objectives. The games deal with a wide range of career topics: career motivation/resilience, development, dynamics, climate, promotion, and management. They can also be deployed to teach and reinforce career-related concepts. Each game is coded according to both its career topic and its instructional role, making game selection especially easy for the trainer with particular goals to accomplish. Each game includes specific instructions, as well as before, during, and after facilitation guidelines. Two appendixes provide answers to games and a gaming catalog containing certificates and props for games. (KC) ED404458

Kittelson, J. M., & Transue, P. J. (1984). Rebirth, reform, and resilience: universities in transition, 1300-1700. Columbus: Ohio State University Press. La621.3.r43 1984

Kline, B. E., & Short, E. B. (1991). Changes in Emotional Resilience: Gifted Adolescent Boys. Paper presented at the Roeper Review, 13, 4, 184-87 Jun 1991. This study with 82 gifted males (grades 1-12) used a questionnaire which focused on self-confidence, perfectionism, relationships with parents, relationships with peers, hopelessness, and discouragement. Findings indicated a significantly higher level of discouragement and hopeless feeling for junior high school boys as compared with senior high school boys. (Author/DB) EJ432837

Kline, B. E., & Short, E. B. (1991). Changes in Emotional Resilience: Gifted Adolescent Females. Paper presented at the Roeper Review, 13, 3, 118-21 Apr 1991. The study, with 89 gifted girls in grades 1-12, found decreased self-regard, self- confidence, inner courage, and self-assurance with increased age. Levels of perfectionism, hopelessness, discouragement, and emotional vulnerability rose with increasing age. Findings suggest the need for strong identity information and models and the encouragement of emotional stability and life direction. (Author/DB) EJ430003

Knapp, R. G. (1999). China's living houses: folk beliefs, symbols, and household ornamentation. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. Gt365.k6 1999

Kneidek, T. (1996). The Mid Kids: Riding the Waves from Childhood to Adulthood. Paper presented at the Northwest Education, 1, 2, 2-9 Spr 1996. Discusses the intertwined emotional and intellectual needs of early adolescents, characteristics of developmentally responsive middle schools, family and school factors that increase the likelihood of dropping out, problems of delinquency and school discipline, protective factors related to student resilience, and school and community recommendations to help kids thrive. (SV) EJ561757

Knitzer, J. P. L. (2000). Promoting Resilience: Helping Young Children and Parents Affected by Substance Abuse, Domestic Violence, and Depression in the Context of Welfare Reform. Children and Welfare Reform Issue Brief 8. As states respond to major welfare legislation in providing assistance and other interventions to help adults on welfare become ready to work, the challenge of helping these adults in their parenting skills and in promoting resilience in their children has often been ignored. This issue brief addresses the challenge of promoting resilience in children whose parents are experiencing domestic violence, substance abuse, and serious mental health issues, including depression. Section 1 of the brief highlights the dimensions of the challenge, focusing on policy issues, family characteristics, and challenges for service providers. Section 2 highlights services strategies to: (1) promote resilience, social competence, and school readiness in the children of the most vulnerable parents; (2) repair or prevent damaged parent-child relationships among young children whose parents face severe risks; and (3) ensure the safety of the children while helping parents meet the work-related goals of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act. Section 3 suggests steps that policymakers, service providers, private funders, and advocates might take to improve outcomes for and investments in young children in high-risk families. The brief's three appendices describe the "Starting Early Starting Smart" sites, list helpful national organizations and agencies, and provide contact information for several programs. (Contains 63 endnotes.) (KB) ED438961

Konrad, K., & Bronson, J. (1997). Handling Difficult Times and Learning Resiliency. (Are You Working with the Heartwood or Just the Bark?), 13pp. In: Deeply Rooted, Branching Out, 1972-1997. Annual AEE International Conference Proceedings; see RC 021 269. This paper examines resiliency and how it can be fostered through experiential programs. Resiliency is defined as the capacity to spring back, rebound, successfully adapt in the face of adversity, and develop social competence despite exposure to severe stress. A summary of research findings concerning resiliency presents the characteristics of resilient people, the defensive aspect of resilience, defensive versus coping responses, an experiential learning model of resilience, and organizational and instructional practices that help others develop resilience. The results of resiliency research may be incorporated in experiential programs through a paradigm shift from an "at-risk" perspective to one that views people as resources, as experts in their own lives, and as possessing innate mental health and well-being. The building of resilient people is a long-term process of healthy human development based on nurturing, participatory relationships that are grounded in trust and respect and reach toward valuable goals. Four causes of inappropriate behaviors and five ways to handle them are listed. Thirteen core competencies are outlined for program staff in resilience-focused programs. Contains 17 references. (TD) ED414139

Kowal, J. P. (1994). Standards Promote Schools of the Future. Paper presented at the School Administrator, 51, 7, 27 Aug 1994. "Professional Standards for the Superintendency" underscore the importance of the superintendent's role in developing well-educated young people and document the extraordinary range of skills, competencies, and values required of today's superintendents. Ethically defining these requirements, without homogenizing them, will help produce school executives with the vision, resilience, and performance necessary to align student achievement with 21st-century hopes and dreams. (MLH) EJ487872

Kozol, J. (1997). Reflections on Resiliency. Paper presented at the Principal, 77, 2, 5-6,7 Nov 1997. America's inequitable school funding system assigns urban children of poverty only half the value accorded suburban professionals' children. Beware of casting certain children as models of resiliency. Less articulate children also deserve adults' attention and support. Tracking, which isolates social classes, should be outlawed. One South Bronx principal is making her school a bridge to the community, not a fortress against it. (MLH) EJ553787

Kozub, F. M., Porretta, D. L., & Hodge, S. R. (2000). Motor Task Persistence of Children with and without Mental Retardation. Paper presented at the Mental Retardation, 38, 1, 42-49 Feb 2000. Task persistence by 31 children (ages 9-13) with and without mental retardation during two challenging motor tasks was investigated. A main effect was found for group affiliation: children without mental retardation attempted more trials over three sessions. Results indicated children with mental retardation were less persistent than typical children. (Contains references.) (Author/CR) EJ603382

Krovetz, M. L. (1999). Fostering Resiliency: Expecting All Students To Use Their Minds and Hearts Well. Schools that trust their students, and schools that value, respect, and know their students are schools that foster resiliency for their students. More than any other single factor, the lack of a deeply held belief in every child's ability leads to underachieving students. Seven schools that are working to remove roadblocks to student success are described as examples of the process of becoming a school which fosters resiliency. Chapters are: (1) "What Is This Resiliency Stuff?" (Anzar High School); (2) "Becoming a Resilient School Community: First Things First" (Rosemary School); (3) "What's In It for Me?" (Cesar Chavez School); (4) "I Care, You Care, We All Care: But How Do Students Know That?" (Moss Landing Middle School); "Providing High Expectations and Purposeful Support" (Stipe School); (6) "Valuing Meaningful Student Participation" (Homestead High School); (7) "Managing Change: On Your Mark, Get Set, Are You Ready to Go?" (Mission Hill Junior High School); (8) "Commonly Asked Questions about Resiliency (And the Answers)." Resources appended include: (1) "Observation Checklist"; (2) "Assessing School Resiliency Building"; (3) "Moving from Risk to Resiliency in Our Schools"; (4) "Cupertino Union School District, Junior High Assessment. Standard 1: Student/School Connectedness"; (5) "Questions for Reflection." (Contains 44 references.) (EMK) ED428309

Krovetz, M. L. (1999). Fostering resiliency: expecting all students to use their minds and hearts well. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Corwin Press. Lb2805.k688 1999

Krovetz, M. L. (1999). Resiliency: A Key Element for Supporting Youth At-Risk. Paper presented at the Clearing House, 73, 2, 121-23 Nov-Dec 1999. Advocates moving from a problem-focused model for schoolsespecially alternative schoolsand toward one based on building resiliency: capabilities, strengths, and assets that help people bounce back from adversity. Shows how schools in general do not promote resiliency. Discusses ways to foster resiliency in students and adults of a school community. (SR) EJ594726

Kysela, G. M., & Others (1996). The Child and Family Resiliency Research Program. Paper presented at the Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 42, 4, 406-09 Dec 1996. Describes a University of Alberta project that focuses on family interventions to enhance the resilience of high-risk children with developmental disorders; the project's research phase, which compares and evaluates three interventions (family-centered assessment and intervention planning, natural teaching strategies, and cooperative family learning); and plans for partnership, networking, and dissemination of results. (SV) EJ536488

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Laird, J. (1999). Lesbians and lesbian families: reflections on theory and practice. New York: Columbia University Press. Hq75.6.u5 l47 1999 305.48/9664/0973

Langehough, S. O., Walters, C., Knox, D., & Rowley, M. (1997). Spirituality & Religiosity as Factors in Adolescents' Risk for Anti-Social Behaviors and Use of Resilient Behaviors., 9pp. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the NCFR Fatherhood and Motherhood in a Diverse and Changing World (59th, Arlington, VA, November 7-10, 1997). Current literature indicates the positive effect of a spiritual or religious orientation on recovery from alcohol abuse, drug addiction, codependency, and child sexual abuse, and as a personal control against deviant behavior in adolescents. Yet spiritual resources have been underutilized not only in prevention but in intervention programs. This study examined the potential relationship between reported spiritual outlook, religious practice, and an individual's resilience in relation to antisocial behavior in subjects who have reported experiencing physical or sexual abuse during childhood. Hypotheses were: (1) High spirituality scores will be correlated with low levels of antisocial behavior; (2) Higher scores of religiosity will be correlated with low levels of antisocial behavior; and (3) Low levels of antisocial behavior will be correlated with stronger resiliency behaviors and attitudes. Three groups of adolescents and adults completed a questionnaire. Results showed that individuals who were abused as children reported higher levels of intrinsic spirituality and religious orientation than those not abused. For abused and nonabused alike, higher intrinsic spirituality and religious orientation scores also matched lower antisocial behaviors and higher resiliency behavior scores. According to stepwise regression results, the presence of antisocial behaviors can be predicted based on religiosity, intrinsic spirituality, and gender. (Contains 36 references.) (EV) ED417001

le, R., Johann, & Smith, C. S. (1998). Psychological Characteristics of South African Street Children. Paper presented at the Adolescence, 33, 132, 891-99 Win 1998. Attempts to identify the psychological characteristics that predispose certain children to run away and to survive, often for long periods, on the streets of South Africa. Examines vulnerability and resilience as well as social conditions that mediate the psychological predisposition to become a street child. (Author/GCP) EJ594587

Lee, V. E., & Others (1991). Academic Behaviors among High-Achieving African-American Students. Paper presented at the Theme issue with title "Resilience, Schooling, and Development in African- American Youth." For related documents, see UD 516 260-264 and UD 516 266-271. Data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress indicate that school characteristics as well as individual actions of students help to explain differences between 661 high-achieving and 1,894 low-achieving African-American eighth graders. Process variables connected with schooling rather than family background explain differences in achievement. (SLD) EJ437023

LePage-Lees, P. (1997). Exploring Patterns of Achievement and Intellectual Development among Academically Successful Women from Disadvantaged Backgrounds. Paper presented at the Journal of College Student Development, 38, 5, 468-78 Sep-Oct 1997. Explored the educational experiences of 21 academically successful women who were disadvantaged as children. Results indicate that resilient women who had endured stress as children often developed a highly advanced level of "emotional intelligence" or "interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence." Presents educational strategies for encouraging resilient girls and women to reach their potential. (RJM) EJ556597

LePage-Lees, P. (1997). From Disadvantaged Girls to Successful Women: Education and Women's Resiliency., 170p. This book is the result of a 2-year study of women who were disadvantaged as girls but who achieved highly in academics. The participants, all of whom had advanced degrees or had completed two years of graduate school, had been raised in low-income homes, were first-generation college students, and had faced stress as children. Most of these women were Caucasian, but 4 of the 21 considered themselves part of an ethnic minority. They ranged in age from 24 to 54. Information about the 21 participants was collected through individual in-depth interviews, questionnaires, and school records. The interviews took place in the San Francisco (California) Bay area, although most of the women had grown up in different parts of the country. Elements that contributed to the resilience of these women were the focus of the study. It appears that these women achieved academically because they adapted and assimilated to the majority culture. They hid who they were because they believed that their backgrounds reflected on them negatively. Their circumstances at home led them to seek out reinforcement in other places, and they did this by being good girls and by excelling in school. Elementary school was easy for them. High school was less easy, but because they believed that they were smart and special, they did not give up on the idea that they had something to offer. Their motivation was always enhanced because they were drawn to fields in which they could use their intellectual abilities. These women had ideas about how to change the schools. They wanted teachers and mentors who treat them as future colleagues and who valued what they bring to their educational experience. They wanted to be evaluated accurately, according to their own strengths. They wanted the schools to get to know their parents and family situations in a way that does not embarrass or stigmatize them. Finally, they wanted more connection with the broader community. The following chapters are included: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Description of the Participants"; (3) "Personalities of Resilient Women"; (4) "Relationships with Disadvantage"; (5) "Teachers"; (6) "Mentors"; (7) "Positive Aspects of Schooling"; (8) "Negative Aspects of Schooling"; (9) "Achievement and Development Patterns"; (10) "Family and Community Influences"; (11) "Why Do Some Women Succeed?"; and (12) "Transforming Education." Four appendixes discuss participant demographics and data collection methods and present research tables and the feedback questionnaire with participant comments. (Contains 5 tables and 88 references.) (SLD) ED423348 Available from: Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881.

Letourneau, N. (1997). Fostering Resiliency in Infants and Young Children through Parent-Infant Interaction. Paper presented at the Infants and Young Children, 9, 3, 36-45 Jan 1997. This article reviews research showing that high-quality parent-infant interaction is important in the promotion of child resiliency and should be emphasized in family-centered early intervention programs. Research on risk factors that threaten the quality of parent-infant interaction and thus resiliency in infants and young children is also reviewed. Clinical guidelines for assessing and promoting parent-infant interaction are suggested. (DB) EJ537664

Lewis, R. E. (1999). A Write Way: Fostering Resiliency during Transitions. Paper presented at the Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 37, 4, 200-11 Jun 1999. Structured narrative has grown out of the tradition that uses writing in counseling. This article presents the theory and practice that underlie a structured narrative writing intervention, "A Write Way," used to orient and help students develop more effective learning stories during their transition into high school. It can be adapted to different teaching context from elementary school to graduate school. (Author/JDM) EJ598700

Lifton, R. J. (1993). The protean self: human resilience in an age of fragmentation. New York, NY: BasicBooks. Bf697.5.s65 l53 1993

Lifton, R. J. (1999). The protean self: human resilience in an age of fragmentation ( University of Chicago Press ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Bf697.5.s65l53 1999

Linehan, M. F. (1992). Children Who Are Homeless: Educational Strategies for School Personnel. Paper presented at the Phi Delta Kappan, 74, 1, 61-64,66 Sep 1992. Shows how children are affected by homelessness, how school personnel can help alleviate major stresses (constant moving, frequent change of schools, overcrowded living conditions, and lack of access to basic resources), and how Massachusetts and other state departments of education are preparing school personnel to serve homeless kids. Educators should recognize children's resilience and understand 1987 federal legislation. (MLH) EJ449878

Linquanti, R. (1992). Using Community-Wide Collaboration To Foster Resiliency in Kids: A Conceptual Framework., 17p. Collaboration as an effective means for developing resiliency in children is examined in this document. The first section summarizes findings of literature on collaboration to develop a new paradigm based on the following features: obtaining community ownership; developing and utilizing people's strengths; and actively engaging children. Collaborators are being challenged not only to improve service delivery, but also to engage youth as resources, strengthen families, and empower communities. The second section describes the resiliency framework, which attempts to build environments that protect youth from succumbing to high-risk behaviors. The framework recognizes the critical roles of all adults in the child's environment, emphasizes improving the environment rather than children's behaviors, and builds on participants' strengths and capacities. The third section demonstrates how the principles of the resiliency framework can improve collaborators' effectiveness. Some tools, models, and programs are highlighted in the fourth section. The appendix provides information on additional tools, guides, and publications. (Contains 25 references.) (LMI) ED353666

Lipsitt, L. P., Ed. (1998). The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, 1998. Paper presented at the 134pp. For 1996 issues, see ED 407 163. For 1997 issues, see ED 418 786. These 12 monthly issues from 1998 explore problems encountered by children and adolescents. Regular features include "Keep Your Eye On...," brief accounts of research into childhood and adolescent problems, "What's New in Research," summarizing research from recent publications and professional conferences; "Commentary," editorials from professionals working with children and adolescents; "Announcements," events and conferences of interest; book reviews; and client handouts for use by practitioners. Major topics include: (1) infant sleep position and malformations, and juvenile sex offender programs (January); (2) learning disabilities and inclusion (February); (3) parent involvement, suicide, psychosocial problems and hunger, and cigarette promotional items and smoking (March); (4) the Adoption and Safe Families Act, the shame response, and childhood depression and anxiety (April); (5) school violence, early intervention, and childhood obesity (May); (6) self-esteem and resilience, children of parents with psychological disorders, and bedwetting treatment (June); (7) early stimulation and brain development, and self-mutilation (July); (8) child abuse prevention programs and documentation (August); (9) school testing, campus drinking, and language-based disabilities mistaken for ADHD (September); (10) problems with the time-out method, eating disorders treatment, and childhood abuse as risk factor for adolescent psychiatric disorder (October); (11) social factors and substance abuse prevention, new treatments for children's weight problems, and incidence of adolescent dangerous behavior (November); and (12) adolescent suicide, nurturing children's feelings of gratitude, and prenatal cocaine exposure (December). A year-end index facilitates searching for particular topics. (KB) ED426771 Available from: Manisses Communications Group, Inc., 208 Governor Street, Providence, RI 02906; phone: 800-333-7771; fax: 401-861-6370; e-mail: lwjackim@manisses.com (institutions, $177 per year; individuals, $117). You may be able to order this document from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service.

Lisa, A. (1950). Absolution and the Resilience of Monarchy in the Middle East.

Little, S. S., & DiSano, D. (2000). Cultural Differences in Self Esteem: A Study of Delinquent Male Adolescents., Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the National Association of School Psychologists (New Orleans, LA, March 28-April 1, 2000). Page Length: 15. This paper presents a two-part study first undertaken in a juvenile detention facility in the Northeast in order to assess the need for programs to increase self-esteem within the facility. In the first part of the study, a self esteem inventory was administered to incarcerated males aged 14-19. In the second part, the inventory was administered to a comparison sample of youth attending high school in three communities. Scores of this sample were compared with scores from 202 members of the same three ethnic groups (Caucasians, Latinos, African Americans) at the detention center, for a total of 399 participants. Findings suggest that there was no evidence to indicate that male juvenile delinquents suffer from low self-esteem, and neither was there evidence to indicate that they suffer from high self-esteem. They report that a comparison of self-esteem scores of incarcerated male juveniles with their nondelinquent counterparts suggest that there is an interaction between ethnicity and incarceration. Overall, results suggest that a single approach to raising (or lowering) self esteem among male juvenile delinquents of any ethnicity is ill-advised. (Contains 20 figures, 8 tables, and 14 references.) (JDM) ED442046

London, M. (1997). Overcoming Career Barriers: A Model of Cognitive and Emotional Processes for Realistic Appraisal and Constructive Coping. Paper presented at the Journal of Career Development, 24, 1, 25-39 Fall 1997. A model of reactions to career barriers explains how people differ in appraising situations and establishing coping strategies based on a mix of emotional and cognitive processes, appraisal styles, and predispositions. (SK) EJ548525

London, M. (1998). Career Barriers: How People Experience, Overcome, and Avoid Failure., 215p. This book defines career barriers, considers how people react to them, and offers ways to overcome and prevent them. It is geared towards people experiencing career barriers; for students at the start of their careers; for seasoned employees wanting to avoid or be prepared to deal with career barriers; and for managers, human resource professionals, and researchers who want to understand how people confront career barriers. Chapter 1 describes characteristics of career barriers and types of barriers. Chapter 2 focuses on emotions and thoughts, and their relationships as they affect how people respond to negative life events. Chapter 3 describes coping strategies. Chapter 4 explains three parts to career motivation: resilience, insight, and identity. Chapter 5 looks more closely at resilience and an associated concept, hardiness. Chapter 6 outlines situational conditions that support career resilience, insight, and identity; describes factors that constitute a continuous learning culture; and considers ways to support older workers facing career decline. Chapter 7 describes programmatic interventions for organizations to help employees cope with career barriers. Chapter 8 makes recommendations to help people prevent career barriers. Appendixes include the following: additional case examples; a catalog of cases; case description and rating forms; and relationships between appraisal, coping, and career motivation. (Contains 213 references and author and subject indexes). (YLB) ED422498 Available from: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 10 Industrial Avenue, Mahwah, NJ 07430; toll-free phone: 1-800-926-6579; e-mail: orders@erlbaum.com (clothbound: ISBN-0-8058-2579-7, $59.95; paperback: ISBN-0-8059-2580-0, $29.95).

London, M., & Greller, M. M. (1991). Demographic Trends and Vocational Behavior: A Twenty Year Retrospective and Agenda for the 1990s. Paper presented at the Journal of Vocational Behavior, 38, 2, 125-64 Apr 1991. This review considers how research in vocational behavior reflects demographic changes during the last 20 years. The themes of career and life transitions and person/situation matches for minorities, women, and older workers are evident. The research points to ways of enhancing employees' career resilience, insight, and identity. (180 references) (Author/SK) EJ446793

London, M., & Noe, R. A. (1997). London's Career Motivation Theory: An Update on Measurement and Research. Paper presented at the Journal of Career Assessment, 5, 1, 61-80 Win 1997. Summarizes London's career motivation theory, describes measures of career motivation domains, discusses a study of 366 adults that demonstrated the convergent validity of three measures, and reviews findings of related research, concluding with future research directions. (SK) EJ537106

Long, W., & Vaughn, C. (1999). "I've Had Too Much Done to My Heart": The Dilemma of Addiction and Recovery as Seen through Seven Youngsters' Lives. Paper presented at the Journal of Drug Education, 29, 4, 309-22 1999. A year-long qualitative study examined seven formerly-addicted alcoholic youth committed to recovery to determine how addicted youth become and remain sober. Bending to social stress, including racism and ethnic prejudice, three participants relapsed. However, personal commitment augmented by familial, community, spiritual, and educational support encouraged four to remain sober. (Author/MKA) EJ609475

Lott, S. W., Ed., & Others (1993). Global Perspectives on Teaching Literature: Shared Visions and Distinctive Visions., 412p. This book is a collection of essays designed for high school and college teachers who want to introduce non-Western and other non-canonical texts into their traditional literature courses. The essays in the book explore the kinds of visions encountered when teachers cluster Western texts with those outside the dominant Western tradition. Papers in the introductory section are: "World Literature in Context" (S. Lawall); "Facing Others, Facing Ourselves" (J. P. Hunter); and "Global Perspectives: A Thematic Approach" (S. W. Lott). Papers in the "Private Worlds" section are: "Colonial Encounters of an Autobiographical Kind: Bringing the Personal Voices of Sean O'Casey and Wole Soyinka to the Literature Classroom" (R. Ayling); "Mariama Ba's 'So Long a Letter' and Alice Walker's 'In Search of Our Mother's Gardens'" (D. Grimes); and "Private Worlds: A Bibliographic Essay" (S. Palmer). Papers in the "Hero's Quest" section are: "Heroic Visions in 'The Bhagavad Gita' and the Western Epic" (M. Foley); "Contending with the Masculinist Traditions: 'Sundiata's Sogolon and the Wife of Bath" (S. Vance); "Soseki's 'Kokoro': The Voice of the Exile in Quest of a Modern Self" (P. Anderer); and "The Hero's Quest: A Bibliographic Essay" (E. Hughes and C. Gravlee). Papers in the section on "The Individual, the Family, and Society" are: "'The World Was All before Them': Coming of Age in Ngugi wa Thiong'o's 'Weep Not, Child' and Salinger's 'The Catcher in the Rye'" (S. Latham and S. Lott); "Cooper's Indians, Erdrich's Natives Americans" (M. A. McCay); and "The Individual, the Family, and Society: A Bibliographic Essay" (E. H. Rodgers). Papers in the section on "Intertextuality and Cultural Identity" are: "Crossing Cultural Bridges in Search of Drama" (A. Parkin); "Segregation in India: Forster's 'A Passage to India' and Anand's 'Untouchable'" (U. Ahlawat); "'The King Will Come': Laye Camara's Response to Kafka's World Vision" (P. Egejuru); "Carlos Fuentes's Tribute (and Reply) to Ambrose Bierce in 'The Old Gringo'" (E. Espadas); "African American Renderings of Traditional Texts" (N. Lester); "Politics and the Poet in Baraka's 'The Slave': Turning and Turning in Yeat's Gyres" (M. S. G. Hawkins); and "Intertextuality and Cultural Identity: A Bibliographic Essay" (M. S. G. Hawkins). Papers in the section on "Approaches to Chinua Achebe's 'Things Fall Apart'" are: "Chinua Achebe: The Bicultural Novel and the Ethics of Reading" (B. Henricksen); "If the Shoe Fits: Teaching 'Beowulf' with Achebe's 'Things Fall Apart'" (L. Purdon and J. Wasserman); "An African Turnus: Heroic Response to Colonialism in Vergil's 'Aeneid' and Achebe's 'Things Fall Apart'" (N. McMillan); "The Center Holds: The Resilience of Ibo Culture in 'Things Fall Apart'" (N. Sarr); and "Approaches to 'Things Fall Apart': A Bibliographic Essay" (J. Lott and S. Lott). (RS) ED361745

Loup, K. S., Clarke, J., Ellett, C. D., & Rugutt, J. (1997). Exploring Dimensions of Personal and Organizational Efficacy Motivation: A Study of Teachers, Social Workers, and University Faculty., 26pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, March 24-28, 1997). This paper presents the results of instrument development and adaptation efforts associated with conceptualizing and investigating self and organizational efficacies in terms of motivation toward achievement of organizational goals in schools, child welfare agencies, and higher education institutions. Results of initial conceptual development of a series of empirical analyses used to explore validity and reliability characteristics of a new efficacy resilience measure are presented. Subsequent results of instrument adaptation and further empirical analyses to confirm initial findings are presented for two studies in different organizational contexts: a sample of child welfare professionals in Louisiana and a sample of higher educational faculty from 56 research universities across the United States. Review of factor analyses results indicated that the social worker sample results were more like those of an earlier study of teachers than the results for higher education faculty. It was concluded that the original teacher instrument can be used with other populations and that self, organizational, and collective efficacy motivations can be identified and measured in multiple organizational contexts. Appendixes contain the Teacher Self and Organizational Efficacy Assessment (TSOEA) and item location indices for subscales of the TSOEA. (Contains 22 references.) (JLS) ED411205

Lovins, A. B., Lovins, L. H., Council on Environmental Quality (U.S.), United States. Federal Emergency Management Agency., & Friends of the Earth. (1981). Energy policies for resilience and national security: final report to the Council on Environmental Quality, Executive Office of the President under contract #EQ9AC016. San Francisco, Calif.: Friends of the Earth Inc. PrEx 14.2:En 2/4/final

Lowenthal, B. (1998). The Effects of Early Childhood Abuse and the Development of Resiliency. Paper presented at the Early Child Development and Care, 142, 43-52 Mar 1998. Discusses the negative effects of neglect and abuse on young children, including the cognitive, neurological, and psychological effects. Considers interventions that can prevent neglect and abuse and foster resiliency in the affected children. Advocates the community, family, and professional support of preventive and therapeutic efforts that promote resiliency. (JPB) EJ574110

Lugg, C. A., & Boyd, W. L. (1993). Leadership for Collaboration: Reducing Risk and Fostering Resilience. Paper presented at the Phi Delta Kappan, 75, 3, 253-56,258 Nov 1993. The breakdown of traditional families and increasing numbers of at-risk children have greatly increased need for building collaborative networks to reduce disabling risk factors. Building children's resilience involves reducing overall vulnerability, reducing impact of emotional stressors, increasing resources available to provide for interagency services, and activating the protective process. School administrators cannot tackle this responsibility without resolving turf issues. (MLH) EJ472594

Lustig, D. C. (1997). Families with an Adult with Mental Retardation: Empirical Family Typologies. Paper presented at the Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 41, 2, 138-57 Dec 1997. Measured parents of 116 adult children with mental retardation on dimensions of family sense of coherence, social support, family adaptability, family cohesion, and family adaptation. Results indicate that most families were resilient and functioning positively. Claims that the empirical typology can be used to describe the strengths of these families. (RJM) EJ560574

Luthar, S. S. (1991). Vulnerability and Resilience: A Study of High-Risk Adolescents. Paper presented at the Child Development, 62, 3, 600-16 Jun 1991. Factors that allowed inner-city ninth graders to maintain socially competent behavior in spite of stress were examined. Findings yield insights on the ways in which personality variables may interact with stress to influence social competence among inner-city adolescents. (GLR) EJ434853

Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). Research on Resilience: Response to Commentaries. Paper presented at the Replies to commentaries by von Eye and Schuster; Roosa; and Robinson (PS530932-934) in this issue. Clarifies two sets of issues raised in preceding commentaries. First, interaction effects are undoubtedly salient in resilience research; yet main effect findings can be equally critical from an intervention perspective. Second, although resilience research and prevention science reflect similar broad objectives, the former involves explicit attention to positive adjustment outcomes in addition to the avoidance of psychopathology. (KB/Author) EJ611893

Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The Construct of Resilience: A Critical Evaluation and Guidelines for Future Work. Paper presented at the For commentary on this article see PS530932 to 530935 in this issue. Presents a critical appraisal of resilience, a construct connoting the maintenance of positive adaptation by individuals despite significant adversity. Addresses common criticisms, proposes solutions for those considered legitimate, and clarifies misunderstandings surrounding less valid criticisms. Concludes that work on resilience possesses substantial potential for understanding processes affecting at-risk individuals. Maintains that serious conceptual and methodological pitfalls remain. (Author/KB) EJ611889

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LaForett, D. R., Watt, N. F., Diaz, L., McCullough, J., & Barrueco, S. (2000). Resilience and Reading Proficiency of Head Start Graduates in Inner-City Schools., Paper presented at the Annual Head Start Research Conference (5th, Washington, DC, June 28-July 1, 2000). Page Length: 51. This study examined the relationship of home and family, school behavior, peer relations, and self-concept with reading achievement among Head Start graduates. Participating in the study were 43 girls and 37 boys ranging in age from 8 to 17 at the time of the study. Two groups were selected. The first group, identified as resilient, had average reading achievement scores on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) above the 75th percentile throughout their schooling. The second group had average ITBS reading achievement scores between the 25th and 50th percentiles. The ethnic breakdown of the participants was as follows: 40 Latinos, 10 European Americans, 26 African Americans, and 4 Native Americans. Data on home and family, school behavior, peer relationships, and self-concept were collected from interviews with the student and his or her caretaker and ratings completed by participant-nominated teachers. Findings indicated that reading proficiency was positively and significantly correlated with the following: generous psychological autonomy granting by parents as judged by parents and children; behaviors demonstrating harmonious relationships with peers and teachers, scholastic motivation, and emotional stability (as rated by teachers); and behavioral, global, and scholastic self-concept. Reading proficiency was negatively and significantly correlated with peers' classroom activities, homework engagement, and cooperation with classroom rules. There were no significant relations between reading achievement and classroom activities, homework engagement, cooperation, or antisocial behavior as rated by the target child and teachers combined. Both mother's and child's verbal ability were positively correlated with reading proficiency and grade point average. (Contains 12 references.) (KB) ED443590

Lamb-Parker, F., Ed., Hagen, J., Ed., Robinson, R., Ed., & Clark, C., Ed. Page Length: 723. (1998). Children and Families in an Era of Rapid Change: Creating a Shared Agenda for Researchers, Practitioners and Policy Makers. Summary of Conference Proceedings: Head Start's National Research Conference (4th, Washington, DC, July 9-12, 1998). This report summarizes the conference proceedings of the fourth Head Start National Research Conference. The focus of the conference was on creating a shared agenda for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers related to serving children and families in an era of rapid change. Keynote topics and speakers are: "Countering the Health Effects of Poverty on Children and Families" (Norman Anderson); "Researchers, Practitioners, and Policy Makers: Hanging Together or Hanging Separately" (Jack P. Shonkoff); and "An Embarrassment of Riches: Partnering for High Quality Research and Programs During Head Start Expansion" (Eleanor E. Maccoby). Other special session topics included the effects of immigration and migration of children and their communities and early childhood assessment. Thirty-seven symposia are summarized in the areas of: (1) Head Start research and practice; (2) Administration of Children, Youth, and Families research; (3) cultural diversity; (4) family support and parenting; (5) health, mental health, and resiliency; (6) language development and school readiness; (7) research methods, measures, and assessment; (8) researcher-practitioner partnerships and collaborations; and (9) miscellaneous. Poster sessions are also summarized on the following topics: (1) children and technology; (2) classroom environment; (3) cultural and linguistic diversity; (4) curriculum development; (5) early education; (6) exceptional children; (7) fathers; (8) health; (9) infants and toddlers; (10) measurement techniques; (11) mental health; (12) research methods; (13) normative child development; (14) parenting; (15) parent education; (16) parent involvement; (17) school readiness; (18) staff development; (19) teacher-child interaction; (20) transition; and (21) welfare reform. Four appendices include a list of the cooperating organizations and peer reviewers, a subject index, and a directory of participants. (KB) ED429700

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