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_____. (1997). Teaching Tolerance for All: Education Strategies To Promote Global Peace. International Yearbook on Teacher Education 1995. Proceedings from the World Assembly of the International Council on Education for Teaching (42nd, Darussalam, Brunei, July 3-7, 1995). The overall theme of this proceedings, Teaching Tolerance for All: Education Strategies to Promote Global Peace, is discussed by addressing four main topics: (1) rethinking the school curriculum to teach the values of tolerance and peace; (2) empowering teachers and teacher educators to teach the values of tolerance and peace; (3) developing leaders to promote the values of tolerance and peace; and (4) consolidating international initiatives to foster the values of tolerance and peace. The proceedings covers opening and closing ceremony presentations; the Keynote Frank H. Klassen Lecture; five plenary addresses, four covering the four conference topics; and concurrent session papers. (SM) ED431737

_____. (1990). The African Adult Education Movement in Blossom. Report of the Secretary General to the Second General Assembly on the 1987-90 Period., 45p. Since 1987, many activities have been undertaken by the African Association for Literacy and Adult Education (AALAE). Perhaps the most important program activity has been the building of institutional capacities in the adult education movement. Important elements are organizational development, networking and solidarity, management development training, and small grants. Networks have been instituted to help members develop and implement programs. Under the Catalytic Initiatives Program, AALAE undertakes specific, concentrated action in particular subregions to strengthen adult education. The Exchange Program facilitates the sharing of experiences between adult educators and development activists. In other activities, the AALAE: (1) developed a program for Peace Education, Human and People's Rights; (2) began to build training capacities, especially through the training of trainers; (3) conducted a feasibility study to determine the need for an African Training Center for Literacy and Adult Education; (4) endeavored to ensure the generation, creation, recording, and wide dissemination of information and knowledge; (5) cultivated regional and international relations; (6) undertook research projects in volunteerism, multilevel partnerships, literacy, and environmental education; and (7) mobilized human, material, and financial resources. Ongoing, end-of-year, and terminal evaluations have been planned. Problems have been: undertaking too broad a program; too much dependence on external funding; and difficulties with decentralization. (YLB) ED349410

_____. (1946). "The defenses of peace." Documents relating to UNESCO, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Washington,: U. S. Govt. Print. Off. As4.u82

Tuohy, M. V. T. (1948). The role of Catholic education in fostering world peace. Washington,: Catholic Univ. of America Press.

Tucker, W. J. (1916). The new reservation of time, and other articles contributed to the Atlantic monthly during the occupancy of the period described. Boston New York,: Houghton Mifflin company.

Tschida, R., Short, A., & Bloch, J. C. (1999). Teaching for a Peaceful Solution {and} Training Assistants To Teach. Paper presented at the American Language Review, 3, 3, 17-23 May-Jun 1999. Examines the work of the U.S. Institute for Peace, talks about the need for international exchange, and discusses the role of teaching assistants in U.S. universities. (Author/VWL) EJ589745

Trotter, J. C., & Jones, L. T. (1998). Create Peace Now. The Peace Project: An In-School Suspension Program for Middle and High School Students with Violent Behaviors., 141p. The Peace Project was initiated in 1993 by the Wholistic Stress Control Institute in conjunction with three schools to develop an intervention for middle school students who were repeatedly suspended for violent behaviors. It is an in-school suspension program for violent youth. The project provides training and services in conflict resolution, stress management, and peace education in a 9-hour program. The program is a comprehensive, interactive program that uses lectures, videos, group discussions, and role playing. This manual is divided into four parts. The first section is an overview and evaluation report for the Project's third year of operation in a middle school in an inner city Atlanta (Georgia) neighborhood. In the third year 282 students participated in the program, 35 teachers received violence prevention training, and 30 parents received training or information. The Peace Project reduced the number of suspensions by 25 percent. Part II contains copies of all the forms used in the Peace Project for instructors to copy. Part III is the Peace Project curriculum. The beginning of the section presents several cartoons on violence prevention. The curriculum itself is a 3-day curriculum with four of five lessons that could be taught. Part IV provides a variety of resource information on violence prevention educational materials, including 30 videos, 13 manuals and curricula, 3 sets of cassettes, 7 books, 6 excerpts from publications, and a reading list from the National Criminal Justice Clearinghouse. (SLD) ED423355 Available from: Wholistic Stress Control Institute, Inc., 2545 Benjamin E. Mays Drive, S.W., Atlanta, GA 30311; P.O. Box 42481, Atlanta, GA 30311; phone: 404-755- 0068 or 404-755-2976.

Troester, R., & Mester, C. S. (1990). Peace Communication: A Survey of Current Attitudes, Curricular Practice, and Research Priorities. Paper presented at the Special Issue: Rhetorical Criticism. Surveys the current relationship between speech communication education and peace education at the college level. Addresses attitudes toward peace education, actual teaching related to peace and peacemaking, and peace research priorities. Focuses on the diverse and often contradictory attitudes held by respondents. (KEH) EJ414686

Tower, E. (1995). Public economics IV: urban, rural, regional; law & crime; health, education. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Eno River Press. Hb74.5.e284 1995 330/.076

Tower, E. (1995). Public economics III: public choice, political economy, peace & war. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Eno River Press. Hb74.5.e284 1995 330/.076

Tower, E. (1995). Public economics II: taxation & expenditure exams. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Eno River Press. Hb74.5.e284 1995 330/.076

Tower, E. (1995). Public economics I: taxation & expenditure reading lists. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Eno River Press. Hb74.5.e284 1995 330/.076

Tower, E. (1995). Microeconomics Reading lists. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Eno River Press. Hb74.5.e284 1995 330/.076

Tower, E. (1995). Microeconomics exams. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Eno River Press. Hb74.5.e284 1995 330/.076

Tower, E. (1995). Mathematical economics, game theory, computational economics & applied general equilibrium. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Eno River Press. Hb74.5.e284 1995 330/.076

Tower, E. (1995). Macro II: macroeconomics exams. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Eno River Press. Hb74.5.e284 1995 330/.076

Tower, E. (1995). Macro I: macro, money, & financial economics reading lists. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Eno River Press. Hb74.5.e284 1995 330/.076

Tower, E. (1995). Macro III: advanced macro, monetary & financial economics exams. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Eno River Press. Hb74.5.e284 1995 330/.076

Tower, E. (1995). Labor economics reading lists. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Eno River Press. Hb74.5.e284 1995 330/.076

Tower, E. (1995). Labor economics exams with demography reading lists. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Eno River Press. Hb74.5.e284 1995 330/.076

Tower, E. (1995). International economics reading lists. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Eno River Press. Hb74.5.e284 1995 330/.076

Tower, E. (1995). International economics exams. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Eno River Press. Hb74.5.e284 1995 330/.076

Tower, E. (1995). Industrial organization & regulation exams with transport economics reading lists. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Eno River Press. Hb74.5.e284 1995 330/.076

Tower, E. (1995). Industrial organization & regulation reading lists. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Eno River Press. Hb74.5.e284 1995 330/.076

Tower, E. (1995). History of economic thought. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Eno River Press. Hb74.5.e284 1995 330/.076

Tower, E. (1995). Environmental & natural resource economics. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Eno River Press. Hb74.5.e284 1995 330/.076

Tower, E. (1995). Econometrics reading lists. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Eno River Press. Hb74.5.e284 1995 330/.076

Tower, E. (1995). Economic history. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Eno River Press. Hb74.5.e284 1995 330/.076

Tower, E. (1995). Econometrics exams. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Eno River Press. Hb74.5.e284 1995 330/.076

Tower, E. (1995). Development I: reading lists. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Eno River Press. Hb74.5.e284 1995 330/.076

Tower, E. (1995). Development II: national economies, comparative, transition & planning. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Eno River Press. Hb74.5.e284 1995 330/.076

Tower, E. (1995). Development III: exams. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Eno River Press. Hb74.5.e284 1995 330/.076

Tower, E. (1995). Agricultural economics & agriculture in economic development. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Eno River Press. Hb74.5.e284 1995 330/.076

Tolstoy, L., & Wiener, L. (1968). The complete works of Count Tolstoy. New York,: AMS Press. Pg3366

Toh, S.-H., & And, O. (Nov 1992). Building a Peace Education Program: Critical Reflections on the Notre Dame University Experience in the Philippines. Peace Education Miniprints No. 38., 40p. This paper draws upon the experiential and theoretical insights gained from 5 years of developing a peace education program at Notre Dame University in the Philippines. The critical reflections on that experience encompass the processes, relationships, and structures embodied in the program, and its achievements, constraints, difficulties, and prospects for the future. The personal, social, political, and cultural forces and influences underpinning the formation and evolution of the program also are explored. It is hoped that a case study of peace education in the Philippine context, which is burdened by such deep crises of conflict, violence, and human suffering, may yield meaningful answers and questions for enhancing the craft and struggle of educating for peace, justice, and compassion. (Contains 30 references.) (Author/LBG) ED355162

Tigner, S. S. (1996). Souls in Conflict. Paper presented at the Journal for a Just and Caring Education, 2, 4, 349-59 Oct 1996. A just and caring education aims to cultivate both character and intelligence. Peacemakers (like Aristotle, Saint Augustine, and Gandhi) combine an unusually developed sense of compassion and humility with a firm, clear perception of right conduct on which they act with uncommon courage. They fight fire with water whenever possible, but are prepared to use fire when necessary. (15 references) (MLH) EJ532311

Thrush, U. (1993). Peace 101: Implementing the Vision. Paper presented at the Montessori Life, 5, 2, 36-37 Spr 1993. Maintains that peace education must start in the home. Discusses the teaching of peace to children of all ages and at every level and the relevance of peace education to the physical, emotional, intellectual, and spiritual being of children. "A Plan for Peace Education," a proposal approved by the Montessori Accreditation Council for Teacher Education, is attached. (SM) EJ471304

Thomas, T. M., Conrad, D. R., & Langsam, G. F. (1987). Global images of peace and education: transforming the war system. Ann Arbor, MI: Prakken Publications.

Thelin, B. (Oct 1992). Education for Global Survival: Reflections Based on Some Swedish Experiences and Examples. Peace Education Miniprints, No. 33., 23p. This document which reviews peace education as the subject was presented in Sweden in the later 1980s. The paper argues for a stronger commitment to peace education and approaching the subject from the perspectives of the unique, the absurd, and the relevant. The contemporary era is unique in that humanity now possesses the means to reify apocalyptic myths about the end of the world. Absurdity is identifiable in the gross social inequalities that exist in the world. What is relevant, even central, to education is the future of humanity and the world. Peace education in Sweden sheds light on workable models and strategies. The Swedish National Board of Education (NBE) highlighted curricular areas in which such concepts as human rights and peace have a strong position. The NBE also published service material on peace education and cooperated with international peace organizations. It is unclear what programs will survive the NBE's replacement by the National Agency for Education. Efforts in support of global survival must combine knowledge, feeling, and action. Amid war, overpopulation, refugee problems, and other crises, the current generation must realize that it has the knowledge necessary to solve such problems. (Contains 18 references.) (SG) ED359107

Thelin, B. (December 1998). Fostered to Internationalism and Peace: Biographical Notes on UN General Secretary Dag Hammarskjold. Peace Education Miniprints No. 97., Revised version of a paper presented at the International Peace Research Association Conference, Peace History Commission (Durban, South Africa, June 1998). This paper presents some biographical glimpses of Dag Hammarskjold's childhood and youth. It is a period of the life of the late United Nations (UN) Secretary General (1905-1961) that has been dealt with very little by his biographers. Hammarskjold's private archives at the Royal Library in Stockholm are now available for research. These sources lead to two observations: (1) his family background, the intellectual, cultural, and international environment in which he grew up and lived were important preconditions for his later career; and (2) they deepen and confirm the knowledge of his intellectual capacity and moral integrity, showing that these characteristics, as well as his religious and responsible nature, matured early in his life. Contains 6 notes and references. (BT) ED431691

Thelin, B. (Dec 1994). Early Tendencies of Peace Education in Sweden. Peace Education Miniprints No. 69., 20p. Early tendencies of peace education in Sweden are discussed in this document. The time span is from the second part of the 19th century to the beginning of World War II. Peace education put special emphasis on exposing the contradiction between religious and history education. Religious education preached love and reconciliatory spirit, while history education in Sweden, as elsewhere, was nationalistic and ethnocentric. To "cleanse" history education from chauvinism and from glorifying war was a strong concern of early peace educators. (RJC) ED386399

Thelin, B. (1996). Early Tendencies of Peace Education in Sweden. Paper presented at the Peabody Journal of Education, 71, 3, 95-110 1996. Examines the history of peace education in Sweden, beginning with the 1870s, when the continental peace movement started taking hold in Sweden, and moving through the 20th century as various resolutions and initiatives supporting peace education began. A characteristic of the movement was deep confidence in education as an effective instrument for preventing war and safeguarding peace. (SM) EJ582883

Tendler, J., & United States. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Food for Peace and Voluntary Assistance. Office of Private and Voluntary Cooperation. (1983). Ventures in the informal sector, and how they worked out in Brazil. [Washington, D.C.?]: Office of Private and Voluntary Cooperation Bureau for Food for Peace and Voluntary Assistance U.S. Agency for International Development. S 18.52/3:12

Tendler, J., United States. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Food for Peace and Voluntary Assistance. Office of Program and Management Support., & United States. Agency for International Development. Office of Evaluation. (1982). Turning private voluntary organizations into development agencies: questions for evaluation. [Washington, D.C.?]: Office of Program and Management Support Bureau of Food and Voluntary Assistance and Office of Evaluation Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination U.S. Agency for International Development. S 18.52/2:12

Taran, P. A. (2000). Human Rights of Migrants: Challenges of the New Decade. International Migration, 38(6), 7-51(45). This review summarizes main trends, issues, debates, actors and initiatives regarding recognition and extension of protection of the human rights of migrants. Its premise is that the rule of law and universal notions of human rights are essential foundations for democratic society and social peace. Evidence demonstrates that violations of migrants human rights are so widespread and commonplace that they are a defining feature of international migration today.About 150 million persons live outside their countries; in many States, legal application of human rights norms to non-citizens is inadequate or seriously deficient, especially regarding irregular migrants. Extensive hostility against, abuse of and violence towards migrants and other non-nationals has become much more visible worldwide in recent years. Research, documentation and analysis of the character and extent of problems and of effective remedies remain minimal.Resistance to recognition of migrants rights is bound up in exploitation of migrants in marginal, low status, inadequately regulated or illegal sectors of economic activity. Unauthorized migrants are often treated as a reserve of flexible labour, outside the protection of labour safety, health, minimum wage and other standards, and easily deportable.Evidence on globalization points to worsening migration pressures in many parts of the world. Processes integral to globalization have intensified disruptive effects of modernization and capitalist development, contributing to economic insecurity and displacement for many.Extension of principles in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights culminated in the 1990 International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families. With little attention, progress in ratifications was very slow until two years ago. A global campaign revived attention; entry into force is likely in 2001. Comparative analysis notes that ILO migrant worker Conventions have generally achieved objectives but States have resisted adoption of any standards on treatment of non-nationals.A counter-offensive against human rights as universal, indivisible and inalienable underlies resistance to extension of human rights protection to migrants. A parallel trend is deliberate association of migration and migrants with criminality.Trafficking has emerged as a global theme contextualizing migration in a framework of combatting organized crime and criminality, subordinating human rights protections to control and anti-crime measures.Intergovernmental cooperation on migration "management" is expanding rapidly, with functioning regional intergovernmental consultative processes in all regions, generally focused on strengthening inter-state cooperation in controlling and preventing irregular migration through improved border controls, information sharing, return agreements and other measures.Efforts to defend human rights of migrants and combat xenophobia remain fragmented, limited in impact and starved of resources. Nonetheless, NGOs in all regions provide orientation, services and assistance to migrants, public education and advocating respect for migrants rights and dignity. Several international initiatives now highlight migrant protection concerns, notably the UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights of Migrants, the Global Campaign promoting the 1990 UN Convention, UN General Assembly proclamation of International Migrants Day, the 2001 World Conference Against Racism and Xenophobia, anti-discrimination activity by ILO, and training by IOM.Suggestions to governments emphasize the need to define comprehensive, coordinated migration policy and practice based on economic, social and development concerns rather than reactive control measures to ensure beneficial migration, social harmony, and dignified treatment of nationals and non-nationals. NGOs, businesses, trade unions, and religious groups are urged to advocate respect for international standards, professionalize services and capacities, take leadership in opposing xenophobic behaviour, and join international initiatives. Need for increased attention to migrants rights initiatives and inter-agency cooperation by international organizations is also noted.

Tabachnick, B. R. (1990). Studying Peace in Elementary Schools: Laying a Foundation for the "Peaceable Kingdom.". Paper presented at the Theory and Research in Social Education, 18, 2, 169-73 Spr 1990. Examines peace education at the elementary school level, stressing the need to include interpersonal and international relations when teaching peace. Suggests peace education can lead children to prosocial behavior. Sees peace as a positive of being. Urges the infusion of peace education throughout the elementary social studies curriculum. (CH) EJ420690


University of Michigan. Dept. of History. (1991). Dept. of History (University of Michigan) student papers. Topics of papers concern Michigan social and political history; Michigan biography and bibliography; and local community history.

United States. General Accounting Office. (1995). Peace operations effect of training, equipment, and other factors on unit capability: report to congressional requesters. Washington, D.C. Gaithersburg, MD (P.O. Box 6015, Gaithersburg 20884-6015): The Office ; The Office [distributor. Ga 1.13:nsiad-96-14

United States. Executive Office of the President. Food for Peace Office. (1970). Evaluation of dry cereal shipments to India and the Philippines; relationship of packaging to insect infestation and to physical damage during shipment, storage, and distribution. [Washington,.

United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. Subcommittee on Education. (1976). George Washington Peace Academy act, 1976 hearing before the Subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, Ninety-fourth Congress, second session, on S. 1976... May 13, 1976. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. Y 4.l 11/2:g 29/2/976

United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Labor and Human Resources. Subcommittee on Education Arts and Humanities. (1983). United States Academy of Peace Act, 1983 hearing before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts, and Humanities of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-eighth Congress, first session on S. 564... March 16, 1983. Washington: U.S. G.P.O. Y 4.L 11/4:S.hrg.98-144

United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Labor and Human Resources. Subcommittee on Education Arts and Humanities. (1982). The United States Academy of Peace Act hearing before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts, and Humanities of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-seventh Congress, second session on S. 1889... April 21, 1982. Washington: U.S. G.P.O. Y 4.L 11/4:Ac 1

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on International Security and Scientific Affairs., United States. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on International Operations., & United States. Congress. House. Committee on Education and Labor. Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education. (1982). Proposals to establish a U.S. Academy of Peace joint hearing before the Subcommittees on International Security and Scientific Affairs and on International Operations of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, and the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, Ninety-seventh Congress, second session, on H.R. 5088 and H.R. 6182, July 21, 1982. Washington: U.S. G.P.O. Y 4.F 76/1:Un 35/50

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. (1965). To Amend Further the Peace Corps Act hearings before the United States House Committee on Foreign Affairs, Eighty-Ninth Congress, first session, on June 2, 3, 8, 1965. Washington: U.S. G.P.O. Considers H.R. 9026, to eliminate differences between volunteer and paid Peace Corps staff, to extend the Career Information Service programs for returning volunteers from one to three years, and to raise the spending limits on research, program evaluation and cost-benefit analysis. Considers (89) H.R. 9026, (89) H.R. 5876, (89) H.R. 6297, (89) H.R. 9027, (89) S. 2054. Y 4.f 76/1:p 31/7/965

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Education and Labor. Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education. (1988). The U.S. Institute of Peace and the Taft Institute for Two Party Government hearing before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, second session, hearing held in Washington, DC, April 27, 1988. Washington: U.S. G.P.O. Y 4.Ed 8/1:100-66

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Education and Labor. Subcommittee on Labor-Management Relations. (1992). Hearing on H.R. 4443, the reauthorization of the United States Institute of Peace Act hearing before the Subcommittee on Labor-Management Relations of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, second session, hearing held in Washington, DC, March 25, 1992. Washington: U.S. G.P.O. Y 4.Ed 8/1:102-95

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Education and Labor. (1988). Authorization of appropriations for the United States Institute of Peace through fiscal year 1991

United States. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Food for Peace and Voluntary Assistance. Office of Private and Voluntary Cooperation. (1985). Report on the Workshop on Private Voluntary Organizations and Small-Scale Enterprise Development, October 31-November 2, 1983, Washington, D.C. [Washington, D.C.?]: U.S. Agency for International Development. S 18.52/2:22

United States. Action. (1973). Report on the intern program evaluation: a cost-effectiveness study. [Washington]: ACTION (Service Corps). Aa 1.2:p 31/2/969-72

United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. Youth Institute. (1962). World peace and the United Nations. Dobbs Ferry, N. Y.: Oceana Pub. Jx1977.z8

Unesco., International Bureau of Education., & Halpe*rin, D. S. (1997). To live together: shaping new attitudes to peace through education. Paris: UNESCO: International Bureau of Education.

Unesco Institute for Education. (1999). 97 Confintea, Hamburg, 1997: a series of 29 booklets documenting workshops held at the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education. Hamburg: Unesco. Lc5225.l42 1000 U213 Ad 93l 1997 no.1a-10a


Vriens, L. (Nov 1990). Peace Education in the Nineties: A Reappraisal of Values and Options. Peace Education Miniprints No. 4., 20pp. For related documents, see SO 030 485, ED 335 249-250. The text is reprinted from "Peace, Environment, and Education,", 1, 1, 5-20, 1990. Current efforts towards peace education in Europe and the potential barriers to those efforts need to be understood in the context of the political history of the continent and prior discussion on peace education itself. Beginning with a brief overview of the political situation in Europe at the beginning of the 1990s, some concepts of peace education that emerged in the Netherlands after World War II and their impact on the discussion of peace education are surveyed. Finally, the main challenges for peace education in the 1990s are presented: technology and informatization, ecology, social justice, religion, inhumane philosophies, and the New Age Movement. A 24-item reference list is included. (DB) ED340664

Vriens, L. (December 1997). Peace Education: Cooperative Building of a Humane Future. Pastoral Care in Education, 15(4), 25-30(26). The notion of peace education has been a subject of considerable controversy and criticism. Indeed, at one time it was one of the major targets of the last UK government's attack on what it saw as trendy, left-wing teaching. Although the attacks were often frenzied, it seemed that there was little clarity about what peace education did or should actually involve. In this paper, Lennart Vriens provides a clear and well-argued antidote to this lack of clarity. He sets out the main arguments that are levelled against peace education and then counters each one effectively. He goes on to provide a clear and instructive explanation of peace education as an active, ongoing process, explaining what this should involve and why it is of great importance.

Velloso, A. (1998). Peace and Human Rights Education in the Middle East: Comparing Jewish and Palestinian Experiences. Paper presented at the International Review of Education/Internationale Zeitschrift fuer Erziehungswissenschaft/Revue Internationale de l'Education, 44, 4, 357-78 1998. The author asks to what extent peace and human-rights education programs for Israeli and Palestinian children have fostered peaceful solutions to the differences between the Israeli and Palestinian people. He concludes that the programs are very limited and have made little impact in reversing the long educational legacy of mutual distrust and hostility. Contains 25 references. (AMA) EJ586458

Varis, T. (1995). The Role of Peace Education and the Media in the Prevention of Violence: A Global Perspective. Paper presented at the Special issue: "Safe Schools Through a Comprehensive, Effective, and Positive Strategy: An International Perspective," edited by Miguel A. Gutierrez and Carlos H. Lepiz. The universities of the world bear profound moral responsibilities to increase understanding of nuclear-age risks and the need to reduce them. Global classrooms are needed. If universities design and set up an international information center and communications consortium, these facilities will support information exchange and provide communications based on low-cost technologies. (17 references) (MLH) EJ513314

Vandrick, S. (1996). Teaching Critical Thinking and Reading for Peace Education. Paper presented at the College ESL, 6, 2, 27-36 Dec 1996. Focuses on the peace education movement as a manifestation of the idea that second language classes need to include more than traditionally defined language skills to teach critical thinking and reading. Argues that critical skills often include higher level cognitive skills involving a process of questioning the status quo and an orientation toward transforming the social order. (12 references) (CK) EJ542870

Van, H., Shirley A. (Nov 1990). The Role of Communication in Peace and Global Future Studies., 16pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association (76th, Chicago, IL, November 1-4, 1990). An evaluative study examined the role communication scholars should play in the planning, development and teaching of peace studies courses. Numerous surveys indicate increased student concern over world communication and peace. The language and war metaphors being used by the various governments in the Persian Gulf crisis illustrate how the misuse of language impedes the communication process. Most communication departments already offer courses conducive to the teaching of peace education in communication classes. These courses could very easily include a chapter or section on peacemaking. For example, courses such as group problem solving, discussion, ethics, conflict management, leadership, debate, bargaining and negotiation, and interpersonal communication could add segments on peacemaking. Offering a course in peacemaking and dialogue is another highly recommended option within the capabilities of communication educators. (Twenty-seven references are attached.) (KEH) ED326905

Van, G., Jane, Ed., & And, O. (1992). Sociopolitical Analyses. Paper presented at the 108pp. For related items, see SO 022 927-930. This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains four articles devoted to the topic of "Sociopolitical Analyses." In "An Interview with Peter L. McLaren," Mary Leach presented the views of Peter L. McLaren on topics of local and national discourses, values, and the politics of difference. Landon E. Beyer's "Educational Studies and the Liberal Arts: Cultural Politics and Institutional Change" outlined the conceptual orientation to educational studies that formed the basis for efforts at institutional change and explored the nature of the institutional, bureaucratic, and cultural constraints to proposals. In "Sociopolitical Influences on Federal Government Funding of Gifted and Talented and Bilingual Education Programs," Ursula Casanova and Sheila Chavez examined the influence of various socio-political factors on government policies in federal programs for the gifted and talented and those for bilingual education and suggested that sociopolitical pressures, rather than pedagogical interests, have shaped the evolution of the two programs. In "The Challenge of Peace Education: Do Our Efforts Make a Difference?," Ian M. Harris looked at the impact of peace studies courses upon 108 students at the college and university level. Results on attitudes and beliefs were inconclusive, interest in peace studies were wide ranging in variety, and behavior changed in peaceful directions after taking a peace studies course. Appendix A includes the instrument used in the study. (CK) ED369665

Vaile, R. A. (6 May 1998). SETI as an educational tool. Acta Astronautica, 42(10), 755-758(754). SETI offers an extraordinary catalyst in our search for a better education. While the glamour of movie images increased the general public awareness of the term SETI, we are challenged to improve the level of public understanding of the fundamental scientific and technological issues involved in SETI. It is also critical to keep in mind the reality of human existence. No country seems entirely at peace, whether one considers cultural, trade, military, or heritage issues; no country seems content with the breadth and standards of education for following generations. However, SETI requires generations to participate across cultures, and this long-term human involvement must be sustained through both education and communication across many disciplines and different cultures. For both these major roles, SETI appears to offer a tantalising range and depth, both in educational tools, and in superb tests of communication skills. This paper considers the educational influence of roles evoked by SETI issues. We will briefly consider the range in expertise needed in SETI, the means of improving the public SETI awareness, and mechanisms through which such education may explore the consequences of any SETI result (whether judged as successful or not). Examples of the use of SETI in formal secondary and University education are briefly reviewed.


Wulf, C. (1973). Kritische Friedenserziehung ( Erst ausg. 1. Aufl. ed.). Frankfurt (am Main)]: Suhrkamp.

Wrye, M. (2000). The Silent Classroom. Paper presented at the Theme: A Curriculum of Peace. Argues that, under the weight of the culture of materialism, superficiality, and rampant consumerism fueled by sex, drugs, and violence, it is difficult yet critically important for individuals to carve out a space for the pleasures of concentration, and for finding an internal anchor. Describes how a teacher has used silence in support of these goals. (SR) EJ604751

Wright, M. F., & Kowalczyk, S. (2000). Peace by Piece: The Freeing Power of Language and Literacy through the Arts. Paper presented at the Theme: A Curriculum of Peace. Describes a number of class activities and student projects that the authors have used to teach the language and literature of peace in seventh- and eighth-grade reading and language arts classes, via theme-based units, interdisciplinary projects, and original theatrical student productions that celebrate language and literacy through the arts. (SR) EJ604747

World Council of Churches. Assembly (8th: 1998: Harare Zimbabwe), & Raiser, K. (1998). Assembly workbook: Harare, 1998. Geneva: WCC Publications. Bx6.w77

Woolman, D. C. (August 19, 1992). International Development of Peace Studies and Education, 1960-1990., Paper presented at the World Education Fellowship Biennial Conference (36th, Hartford, CT, August 17-20, 1992). This paper focuses on two aspects of the development of international approaches in peace studies: one concern is to examine the conceptual evolution of global thinking about social conflict and peace, while the other is to investigate the origins, goals, and work of international institutions which conduct research and education related to world problems of conflict resolution and peace. The paper is divided into sections on: (1) "Origins"; (2) "Conceptual Development"; (3) "Critical Perspectives"; (4) "Applied Peace Studies"; (5) "Peace Education"; and (6) "Future Directions." The paper concludes that the international development and structure of peace studies have reflected the emergence of a global culture and awareness after World War II, associated with the shrinkage of distance brought about by the revolution in communications and transportation. Contains 37 notes. ((BT)) ED435570

Woolf, L., & Angell, N. (1973). The intelligent man's way to prevent war. New York,: Garland Pub. Jx1953.w7 1973

Wolk, R. A., & Rodman, B. H. (1994). Classroom crusaders: twelve teachers who are trying to change the system ( 1st ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Lb1027.c4699 1994

Wolf, A. D. (1996). Nurturing the Spirit in Non-Sectarian Classrooms., 199pp. Illustrated by Joe Servello. This book reiterates the fundamental purpose of Maria Montessori's philosophy of bringing about a "better world by nurturing the spirit of the child." The book draws upon published authorities on the importance of the nurturing of the spirit, along with experiences of active Montessorians for everyday examples of nurturing spirituality in the classroom. The book is divided into three parts with 21 chapters. Part 1, "The Meaning and Importance of Spirit," contains: (1) "The Spiritual Legacy of Maria Montessori"; (2) "What Does 'Spirituality' Mean"; (3) "The Differences between 'Spirituality' and 'Religion'"; (4) "Comparing 'Spirit' and 'Soul'"; and (5) "The Child - The Essence of Spirituality." Part 2, "The Spiritually Aware Adult," includes: (1) "Nourishing the Spirit of the Teacher"; (2) "Support for Deepening Spirituality"; and (3) "Community for Teachers." Part 3, "Ideas for Children in Non-Sectarian Settings," offers: (1) "Cultivating Stillness"; (2) "Wonder - the Leaven of Spirituality"; (3) "Experiencing Wonder in the Classroom"; (4) "The Spiritual Meaning of Cosmic Education"; (5) "Care of the Earth - A Spiritual Way of Life"; (6) "The Spiritual Roots of Peace Education"; (7) "Children's Inner Peace and Love"; (8) "Peace in the Classroom Community"; (9) "The School as a Family/Global Community"; (10) "Spirituality and the Arts"; (11) "Controlling Advertising in the Environment"; (12) "What about God?"; and (13) "Explaining Spiritual Nurture to Parents." An appendix, bibliography, and recommended resources conclude the text. (EH) ED423156 Available from: Parent Child Press, P.O. Box 675, Hollidaysburg, PA 16648 ($13.95, plus $4 shipping and handling).

Wilson, W., Baker, R. S., Dodd, W. E., & Leach, H. S. (1925). The public papers of Woodrow Wilson ( Authorized ed.). New York and London,: Harper and Brothers. E660.w72

Wilkes, S. (1996). The Apartheid Struggle, Curriculum Module. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (South Africa)., 11pp. Some materials may not photocopy well. This curriculum unit is designed for secondary students in twentieth-century history and peace studies. The unit contains three activities from which students gain a better understanding of the dimensions of apartheid in South Africa. The activities are entitled: (1) "Racial Separation," an activity that gives students the opportunity to identify and research three distinct levels of social separation practiced in South Africa"petty apartheid," "urban segregation," and "grand apartheid"; (2) "Images of Defiance," an activity where students are shown samples of Soweto Day posters and are asked to design and produce their own student protest posters; and (3) "South Africa: Free at Last " an activity where students read an article concerning the triumph and challenges of South Africa's new multiracial government and then respond to questions. (EH) ED415165

Whitman, B. B. (1992). Bonus Activity Book. Peacemakers. Paper presented at the Learning, 21, 4, 45-59 Nov-Dec 1992. Activity book helps elementary students learn about peace and see themselves as peacemakers and peacekeepers. Students are introduced to literary and historical figures who have worked for peace and won the Nobel Peace Prize. Activities teach students that peace means more than calm situations or absence of war. (SM) EJ461893

Weston, S. F., & Intercollegiate Peace Association. (1914). Prize orations of the Intercollegiate peace association. Boston,: The World peace foundation. 341.6 W89we

Wessels, M. G. (Oct 1994). The Role of Peace Education in a Culture of Peace: A Social-Psychological Analysis. Peace Education Miniprints No. 65., 20p. This paper analyzes the role of peace education in the creation of a culture of peace from the standpoint of social psychology. To meet the current challenges to peace, it is necessary to develop programs of research, education, and intervention that are as systemic and multidimensional as violence itself. The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) nascent culture of peace program offers promise in this regard. UNESCO's program is an integrated approach to peace building and post-conflict reconstruction. Peace education programs that support a culture of peace should embody these five major principles: (1) to produce systemic change, peace education must be integrated across a variety of social levels; (2) cooperative orientations are essential components of the psychological substrate for a culture of peace; (3) cooperation on superordinate goals shared by groups and individuals in conflict provides one of the best means of reducing and preventing destructive conflict; (4) empathy and multicultural understanding must be integrated into programs of peace education; and (5) there must be a thorough reorientation of the structure, content, and pedagogy of peace education toward positive peace. (EH) ED384549

Wessels, M. G. (Feb 1993). Building a Sustainable World: Technology, Values, and Social Choices. Peace Education Miniprints No. 41., 29p. Planetary life support systems are at risk, and clean air, unpolluted water, and arable land are increasingly scarce. Environmental problems such as ozone depletion and the threat of global warming transcend national boundaries and confront our species with fundamental questions about survival, quality of life, and responsibility to future generations. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the ecological crisis and to discuss the role of technology in the evolution, management, and correction of the crisis. It is suggested that what is needed to correct environmental problems is nothing less than a large scale transformation, including changes in institutions, norms, social practices, values, and lifestyles. Contains 39 references. (Author/DB) ED361260

Wellisch, M. (2000). Games Children Play: The Effects of Media Violence on Young Children. Paper presented at the AECA Research in Practice Series, 7, 2 2000. Noting that most children living in Australia have access to a television, video games, and computers and are influenced by the content of their viewing and interactive games, this report examines the impact of media violence on young children. Topics discussed include the recognition of violence on television and video/computer games, reasons for children's play, and a description of violent games commonly seen. The report further discusses the negative psychological effects of television violence and violent games. Additional topics include appropriate models for children, gender differences, moral development, early intervention for children exhibiting frequent aggressive behavior and speech, the courage to say "no" to violence, conflict resolution procedures in early childhood and school settings, and a program philosophy to facilitate positive conflict resolution practices. The book concludes with further suggestions for practitioners and an example of a preschool peace policy. Numerous case study descriptions illustrate the main points of the report. (Contains 26 references.) (KB) ED448876

Weiss, C. (September 2000). The New Democratic Diplomacy: The Hague Appeal for Peace. Development, 43(3), 50-51(52). Cora Weiss describes how the Hague Appeal for Peace, a global coalition of civil society organizations, sponsored a world conference in May 1999 on the centennial of the world's first peace conference. The coalition used the new democratic diplomacy to bring together governments and inter-governmental organizations, especially the United Nations, with civil society. It sees this alliance as the formula for securing social and political change to achieve peace and justice and to promote universal peace education.

Weil, P. (1990). The Art of Living in Peace: Towards a New Peace Consciousness., 84p. This report summarizes the peace research and curricula that have proved to cause a deep change in the attitudes and behavior of the human being. The document focuses on the last 40 years with the work of the United Nations and UNESCO. It is designed for adults and is dedicated to peace education and peace educators. There are three modules in the report. Module 1 addresses: (1) General considerations concerning the method used in this document; and (2) The method of education. Module 2 contains: (1) General introduction; (2) A fragmentary vision of peace; (3) Peace considered as an external phenomenon from man; (4) Peace as an inner state or as state of spirit; (5) A holistic vision of peace; (6) The fragmented vision of education; (7) The holistic vision of education; (8) Towards a holistic vision of peace education; (9) Bibliography notes and references; and (10) Method of education. Module 3 includes: (1) Required conditions for a peace educator; (2) The process of destruction of peace; (3) The Art of Living in peace with oneself; (4) How was war born in the mind of men?; (5) Method of education; (6) The awakening and development of inner peace; (7) The peace of the body; (8) The peace of the heart; (9) The peace of the mind; (10) Bibliography notes and references; (11) Method of education; (12) The Art of Living in Peace with the others; (13) The contemporary "normose"; (14) The three social manifestations of the Energy; (15) The cultural education for peace; (16) Social education for peace; (17) The economic peace education; (18) Bibliography notes and references; (19) Method of education; (20) The Art of Living in Peace with the environment; (21) Nature of man and nature of the environment; (22) Towards an ecological method of education; (23) The ecological method of education; (24) Bibliography notes and references; and (25) Method of education. (EH) ED382508

Weerasinghe, H. (1992). Education for peace: the Buddha's way. Ratmalana, Sri Lanka: Sarvodaya Book Pub. Services.

Webster-Doyle, T., & Russ, A. (1993). War: What Is It Good For? Peace Education in the Classroom: A School Curriculum., 302p. This unit of materials focuses on understanding conflict, individually and in the social extreme of war. The unit's purpose is to examine the underlying primary factors that create conflict in relationships and explore alternatives for resolution. The 20 lessons include: (1) "The Beginner's Eye"; (2) "Discovering the Wise Master"; (3) "Our Old Brain: Its Fight for Survival"; (4) "I Am What I Think"; (5) "Survival Begins in my Mind"; (6) "Do I Fight or Do I Run?"; (7) "I'll Join a Group "; (8) "My Group Knows Best "; (9) "The Enemy: Someone Who's Different"; (10) "The Hero: Someone We Want to Be"; (11) "The Bully: A Person with Problems"; (12) "Fear: The Only Enemy We Have"; (13) "Respect: The Act the Conquers Fear"; (14) "The Real Source of Power"; (15) "Does Your Brain Know Who You Are?"; (16) "The Military Is a Way of Life"; (17) "Can Peace Be a Way of Life?"; (18) "The Challenge: Going Beyond Conflict"; (19) "Our New Brain: It Wants a Peaceful World"; and (20) "Peace Can Happen in an Instant." The lessons are designed to provide procedures and materials needed, along with suggestions for additional activities to supplement the presentation. Lessons allow flexibility for individual settings. (EH) ED424185 Available from: Atrium Society Publications, P.O. Box 816, Middlebury, VT 05753; Tel: 802- 388-0922.

Wahlstrom, R. (Mar 1991). Peace Education Meets the Challenge of the Cultures of Militarism. Peace Education Miniprints No. 11., 24p. The militaristic culture serves to imprison many of the world's peoples, and most persons are not even aware of the harmful limitations that this culture's emphasis on military preparedness, violence, and the use of force in international relations places on all humans. This paper discusses various characteristics of militarism, and peace education that has as some of its aims the conversion of cultures of militarism to cultures of peace, authoritarian education to democratic education, sexism to supporting equality between men and women, obedience and uniformity to supporting self-reliance, independence, and critical thinking and racism and nationalism to tolerance and global responsibility. A 39-item list of references is included. (DB) ED345958

Wahlstrom, R. (1991). Growth towards Peace and Environmental Responsibility. From Theory to Practical Implications. Publication Series B. Theory into Practice 67., 117p. This report presents the results and activity ideas created by a peace and international education project. The project implemented and evaluated activities suitable for primary school pupils over a three-year period. The goals, contents, and methods presented are those of peace and environmental education. The teaching suggestions, methods, and activity ideas are based on knowledge and research results in developmental and sociopsychological studies and on moral education. The report discusses the meaning, functions, and impact of peace and international education. Peace and environmental education are discussed from the following perspectives: integration, general pedagogical principles, implementation possibilities, and new learning theories and practices. The report tries to answer the question of how to create the values, attitudes, and skills that make people act for peace and global survival. The document discusses structural violence and education for positive peace, human rights, experiential learning, cooperative learning, promoting moral growth, growth for tolerance, promoting empathy and altruism, and learning for cooperation and non-violence in the areas of peace and environmental education. Environmental responsibility is broken down into sensitivity to nature and environmental education, and environmental education as a part of formal education. The project found that teachers needed to have a positive attitude towards new ideas in order to create a new model of teaching. Problems of implementation can be alleviated somewhat by keeping all the staff and parents informed of all the new activities. Cooperative learning and learning games helped increase pupils' self-esteem, moral development, and critical thinking. (DK) ED364490


Yonka, P. (1999). Adult TransformationProcess, Not Product. Viewpoint. Paper presented at the Montessori Life, 11, 1, 24 Win 1999. Examines the need for adult transformation proposed by Maria Montessori as a necessary step in seeing children's true spiritual essence and maintains that such transformation is necessary in work with adults as well. Suggests that individuals need to consider the body, mind, emotions, and spirit as interrelated, and notes that transformation is an ongoing process. (Author/KB) EJ580223

Yamane, K. (Oct 1993). A Peace Museum as a Center for Peace Education: What Do Japanese Students Think of Peace Museums? Peace Education Miniprints No. 50., 17p. This paper discusses present trends and possibilities in the peace museum field. The document is based on a collection of written opinions of Japanese students on peace museums, visits to peace museums in other countries, and a position on a peace museum and center for peace education in Japan. Peace museums throughout the world show that they can play a role as centers for peace education, not only in the community but also in its schools. It should be important to promote visitors' active participation in peace museums and to foster critical and creative thinking for the future. National peace museums are desirable, but it is also important to have community-based peace museums to interact with schools. The opinions of Japanese students about peace museums were directly affected by whether the responding student had actually visited a peace museum. Those who had not tended to have unfavorable or apathetic attitudes toward peace museums. Those who had visited such museums had a far more favorable impression of the importance of peace education and the role of the peace museum in aiding that education. Peace museums throughout the world play a role as centers for peace education. The contents of the exhibits are related closely to the goals of peace education. Although army museums glorify war, they do imply what peace museums should be like in terms of exhibits and the method to reach the goals of peace education. (DK) ED370868


Zuber, R., Ed. (Dec 1994). Journeys in Peace Education: Critical Reflection and Personal Witness. Peace Education Reports No. 14., 118p. These essays attempt to chronicle the work of six authors in peace education as they reflect on the processes and important persons leading them to commit to peace education. They also examine those obstacles, successes and failures encountered trying to make these commitments concrete and substantial. The essays in this volume include: (1) "Paper Shoes and Leather Souls" (Tena Montague, Canada); (2) "Remembering the Future: Journey towards Wholeness" (David Hicks, United Kingdom); (3) "The Bamboo Sways but Never Breaks: A Personal Journey in Peace Education" (Virginia Floresca-Cawagas, The Philippines); (4) "Peace Education in Context: Personal Reflections" (Robin Burns, Australia); (5) "Transcending Boundaries: The Yin and Yang of Educating for Peace" (Toh Swee-Hin, Canada); and (6) "Reflections from the Margins" (Robert Zuber, United States). (EH) ED384551

Zimmern, A. E. (1968). The prospects of democracy and other essays. Freeport, N.Y.,: Books for Libraries Press. Ja41

Zimmern, A. E. (1918). Nationality and government, with other wartime essays. New York,: R.M. McBride & company.

Zimmern, A. E. (1918). Nationality & government with other wartime essays. New York,: Robert M. McBride & Co.

Zeiger, S. (January 2000). Teaching Peace: Lessons from a Peace Studies Curriculum of the Progressive Era. Peace & Change, 25(1), 52-70(18). The historical roots of peace education as a school reform movement can be traced to the progressive era in the United States. This essay offers a content analysis of the first comprehensive peace education curriculum, published in 1914 by the American School Peace League, under the direction of Fannie Fern Andrews. Examining the curriculum raises fundamental questions about the teachers role in social change; it also reveals ideological tensions within the peace movement of the World War I period.

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