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Index: Peace Education

Peace Education (A-E) Abstracts

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A

_____. (Apr 1994). Education for a Global and Peaceful Future. Reports and Miniprints from the Malmo School of Education. Reprints and Miniprints No. 808., 35p. The project group "Preparedness for Peace" carries on research and development work on peace education and related aspects of internalization of school teaching. This bibliography gives examples of reports and miniprints from this project work and some related earlier projects of the Malmo School of Education in Sweden. The list also includes some reports and miniprints related to the work of the Peace Education Commission (PEC) of the International Peace Research Association, published by the Malmo School of Education. All listings are alphabetically arranged with English translations of foreign titles. (EH) ED384546

_____. (Apr 1994). Fostering Peace: A Comparison of Conflict Resolution Approaches for Students (K- 12)., 35p. This compilation of 12 conflict resolution models is an attempt to provide a comparable overview of approaches that teach conflict management and peacemaking skills to K-12 students, teachers, counselors, and administrators. They have been selected for inclusion because they have been used in many schools around the United States. Each is classroom oriented, and each seeks to enhance responsibility and problem-solving skills. Many teachers and counselors are familiar with more than one approach and often combine elements of various models when teaching. Some models focus more on process, others more on communication skills or on respecting and understanding others as well as oneself; some link personal conflict situations with issues of international concern. All models foster peacemaking skills by developing respect for differing opinions, teaching empathy, and by developing collaborative problem solving skills. They empower students to find their own innovative approaches to conflict management and thus to develop self-esteem and decision making skills. (KM) ED368993

_____. (Apr 1991). Co-Operation for Reinforcing the Development of Education in Europe (CORDEE). Final Report of the Regional Consultation Meeting (Paris, February 12-15, 1991)., 33p. This report discusses a meeting to examine proposals for a new European program in the field of education. The assistant director for education stressed the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) concern that its attempt at developing cooperation in the field of education in Europe may build up yet another new bureaucracy and result in a duplication of effort or diversion of funds from efforts on behalf of developing countries. When discussing the agenda, the participants fully supported the initiative taken by UNESCO for the development of educational cooperation in Europe, and set out the methodological principles that should govern those new activities. They emphasized the need to pay greatest attention to: (1) the current priority needs of Central and Eastern European states within the framework of their reform process; and (2) establish direct and multiple contacts between educational communities that have been kept apart from each other for too long by the arbitrary division of Europe. The participants recommended that efforts to reinforce the inter- and intra-regional exchanges and joint actions should focus on specific subjects in the following priority areas: (1) education for all, meeting basic learning needs; (2) strengthening educational exchange to cope with changes brought about by the upheavals in Europe through learning of foreign languages, democratic practices, education relating to human rights, peace education, civic education, multicultural education, school text revision, and teacher training, and environmental education; and (3) including higher education among the group's activities. The working document for the meeting elaborating on the three priority areas is included. (DK) ED369702

_____. (Apr 1991). Peace Education and the Development of Teaching Materials for Peace and Justice in Ireland. Paul Rogers, Maura Ward and The Project "Preparedness for Peace.", 13pp. Interview reprinted from "Peace, Environment and Education,", 2 n1, 47-55 1991. A combined interview with two educators active in peace education in Ireland, North and South, is presented in this document. Maura Ward and Paul Rogers work within the Joint Peace Education Programme of the Irish Commission for Justice and Peace and the Irish Council of Churches. In the interview, Ward and Rogers each discuss their experiences, both in training sessions for teaching staff on peace education and in the development of teaching materials on peace and justice for use in primary and post-primary schools. (DB) ED345959

_____. (1994). American Montessori Society Position Papers. Paper presented at the Montessori Life, 6, 2, 6-7 Spr 1994. Presents two American Montessori Society position papers. "Multi-Age Grouping" offers an analysis of eight specific methods and strategies of multiage practice that serve as a useful guide for implementation. "Peace Education" explains the need for, the requirements for, and the benefits of peace education as part of a school's curriculum. (TJQ) EJ484031

Association of African Women for Research and Development. (1995). From strategies to action: a research perspective. Nairobi: The Association. Hq1796.5 Bachay, J. Fighting Violence with Peace Education Strategies. Paper presented at the Multicultural Education, 4, 2, 43-45 Win 1996. The curriculum developed by the Peace Education Foundation to help students deal with conflict is described. The curriculum is life-affirming and teaches that human connection is precious. Conflict-resolution strategies and nonviolent methods advocated by Martin Luther King Jr. are taught. (SLD)

Aspeslagh, R. (Nov 1992). Tragic Pages: How the GDR, FRG and Japan Processed Their War HistoryLessons for Education for Peace. Peace Education Miniprints No. 39., 41p. This document describes the ways in which Japan and the German nations have taught the history of World War II. According to the document, the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) took a pro-communist and anti-fascist approach to the subject. At the same time, the Western Allies pressured the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) to institute a political education system designed to prevent the Germans from starting anew on the track toward fascism. In recent years, the FRG took greater responsibility for the War, and the mass media were instrumental in bringing information to the German public. Japanese teaching about the War downplays the nation's aggression in Asia and the Pacific and emphasizes the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the United States. The document argues that there is a continued need for peace education concerning World War II, but there is also a need to avoid negative politicization of the issue. Eighteen endnotes are included along with 47 references. (LBG) ED359120

Ashford, M.-W. (1996). Peace Education after the Cold War. Paper presented at the Canadian Social Studies, 30, 4, 178-79,182 Sum 1996. Considers school violence prevention programs as well as the role students can play in international efforts to prevent war. Examines the peace and global education efforts of nongovernmental organizations. Finds a pertinent example in the Philippines where students declared their school a "zone of peace." (MJP) EJ533355

ASCD 1973 Yearbook Committee., & Henderson, G. (1973). Education for peace; focus on mankind. Washington,: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Lb2804

Arnold, D., & Students for a Democratic Society (U.S.). (1964). Vietnam: Symptom of a World Malaise. New York: Students for a Democratic Society.

Armstrong, M., & And, O. (Mar 1993). Peace Education, Multicultural Issues, and Conflict Resolution. Three Perspectives from Members of COPRED's Working Group on Primary/Secondary Peace Education. Peace Education Miniprints No. 42., 31p. The project group "Preparedness for Peace" at the Malmo School of Education in Sweden studies ways of helping children and young people to deal constructively with questions of peace and war. As part of this work, experts with special interest and competence in areas related to peace education are interviewed. This publication explores the views of Melinda Armstrong, Ann Hardt and Priscilla Prutzman, all three of whom are active participants in the Consortium on Peace Research, Education and Development's Working Group on Primary/Secondary Peace Education. (Author) ED364443

Argyris, P., & And, O. (Apr 1994). Improving Conflict Resolution Skills of Primary Students through Curriculum Adaptation and Teacher Interventions., 83pp. M.A. Thesis, Saint Xavier University. This report describes a program for improving social and conflict resolution skills of primary students in three middle class suburban schools located in a northwest suburb of Chicago, Illinois. This program was recognized by teaching staff who found students lacking in social skills, problem solving strategies and the ability to solve conflicts. Teacher observation and teacher/student surveys confirmed the problem. Analysis of the probable cause data revealed that students demonstrate inappropriate (negative) skills for resolving their own conflicts, and that this lack of skill may come from socioeconomic background, exposure to violence, poor family relations, poor self-esteem and a lack of knowledge of alternative solutions. A combination of solution strategies suggested by research, teacher experience and collegial support resulted in the following interventions: (1) provide lessons on self-esteem; (2) utilize conflict resolution techniques through literature and role playing; and (3) adapt the life skills unit. The outcome of this Action Research Project was that students exhibited an increase in their ability to recognize and resolve conflict by utilizing appropriate resolution strategies. (Author) ED374377

Applewhite, H., & Joint Educational Development. (1974). Waging peace: a way out of war. Philadelphia,: Published for Joint Educational Development [by] United Church Press. Jx1953.a6463

Anshen, R. N. (1943). Beyond victory. New York,: Harcourt Brace and Company. 341.6 An8b

Annisette, M. (October 2000). Imperialism and the professions: the education and certification of accountants in Trinidad and Tobago. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 25(7), 631-659(629). By locating professionalisation within the wider context of imperialism, this paper seeks to understand and explain the dominance of the British-based Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) in the education and certification of professional accountants in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T)- an erstwhile British colony. The paper illustrates how the interests of a UK-based accountancy institution intermeshed with those of the local accounting elite to subvert the nationalistic goal of indigenizing accountancy training in T&T. This intermeshing of the indigenous and the external constitutes the 'internal logic of imperialism' [Galtung, J. (1971). A structural theory of imperialism. Journal of Peace Research, 81-117] and is the source of its perpetuation after empire.

Andre, Y., Ed., & Mouzoune, A., Ed. (June 1998). Apprendre a vivre ensemble grace a l'enseignement de l'histoire et de la geographie. Rapport final du colloque sur le theme. (Learning To Live Together Thanks to the Teaching of History and Geography. Final Report on a Colloquium on That Theme.) Proceedings of a Colloquium Organized Jointly by the International Bureau of Education (UNESCO) and the University of Geneva (Geneva, Switzerland, June 12, 1998). These Proceedings contain 14 chapters (or papers) from a colloquium on learning to live together in peaceful co-existence thanks to the teaching of history and geography. All the papers in the Proceedings are in French, but each paper has both an English summary and a Spanish summary. The 14 papers are, as follows: (1) "Introduction" (Yves Andre; Antoine Bailly; Bernard Ducret; Bernard Huber; Abdelkrim Mouzoune); (2) "Donner un sens nouveau a l'enseignement de l'histoire et de la geographie" (Antoine Bailly); (3) "La maniere d'enseigner le vivre ensemble au Liban, au Salvador et en Republique tcheque: analyse a travers les connaissances explicites et implicites" (Abdelkrim Mouzoune); (4) "Geographie et formation au vivre ensemble a Geneve" (Bernard Huber); (5) "Enseignement de la geographie et ideologie en Angleterre et au Pays de Galles" (Norman Graves); (6) "Les orientations de l'enseignement de la geographie au Portugal" (Sergio Claudino); (7) "L'education aux nouvelles citoyennetes en geographie: le cas de la France" (Robert Ferras); (8) "De Costa Rica: El libro de geografia de Costa Rica para ninos de 4 grado de escuela" (Guillermo Carvajal); (9) "Vivre ensemble grace a l'enseignement de l'histoire et de la geographie au Maroc" (El Hassane Boubekraoui; Abdelkrim Mouzoune); (10) "Devoir et vouloir vivre ensemble: enjeux de la citoyennete chez les jeunes au Senegal" (Cisse Kane); (11) "Apprendre a vivre ensemble grace a l'enseignement de l'histoire et de la geographie au Burundi: ideal et limites" (Angelo Barampama); (12) "Les modeles d'enseignement de l'histoire et de la geographie" (Bernard Ducret); (13) "Nouvelles directions pour l'enseignement de l'histoire et de la geographie" (Antoine Bailly); and (14) "Conclusions: le dessous des cartes. Propositions pour l'enseignement de l'histoire de la geographie" (Yves Andre). (BT) ED432519

Anderson, T. (2000). The Guernica Childrens Peace Mural Project. Journal of Art and Design Education, 19(2), 141-152(112). This is an exploration of the international Guernica Childrens Peace Mural Project, particularly in terms of its theoretical underpinnings and possible impact as a paradigm for `real life' art education.

Amewowo, W., & African Biblical Centre. (1985). Education for justice and peace. Nairobi: St. Paul Publications. Br115.j8

American Technical Assistance Corporation. Evaluation Group., & Chafkin, S. H. (1968). The management of program and training information in the Peace Corps. [Washington, D.C.: American Technical Assistance Corporation].

American Friends Service Committee. Peace Section., Church of the Brethren. Board of Christian Education., Fellowship of Reconciliation (U.S.), Mennonite Peace Society., & Methodist Episcopal Church. General Conference Commission on World Peace. (1939). Pacifist handbook: questions and answers concerning the pacifist in wartime: prepared as a basis for study and discussion. Philadelphia: The Committee. 172.4 F91p

American Friends Service Committee., & American Friends Service Committee. Peace Education Division. (1969). Anatomy of anti-communism; a report prepared for the Peace Education Division of the American Friends Service Committee. New York,: Hill and Wang. Hx86

American Friends Service Committee., & American Friends Service Committee. Peace Education Division. (1968). The draft? A report prepared for the Peace Education Division of the American Friends Service Committee ( [1st ] ed.). New York,: Hill and Wang. Ub343

American Bar Association. Standing Committee on Education Against Communism. (1964). Peaceful coexistence; a Communist blueprint for victory. Chicago,: American Bar Association. D844.a54

Allen, R. V., & American Bar Association. Standing Committee on Education Against Communism. (1966). Peace or peaceful coexistence? Chicago,: American Bar Association. D1058/a7/////012334

Alexander, S., & Garcia, C. (Nov 1990). Peace Education, Social Responsibility, and Social Transformation. Peace Education Miniprints No. 3., 26pp. For related documents, see SO 030 485 and ED 335 249-250. Interviews with two educators who have been involved in peace education are the focus of this document. The interviews were conducted by a representative of the project group, "Preparedness for Peace," of Malmo, Sweden. This project studies ways of helping children and young people deal constructively with questions of peace and war. Susan Alexander, of the United States, who has been executive director of Educators for Social Responsibility (ESR), and Celina Garcia, of Costa Rica, who has been executive secretary of The Peace Education Commission of the International Peace Research Association (PEC), are the interviewees. Among the topics, each is asked about her views on peace education in general, specific efforts being made in her country or organization, and the role of teachers as peace educators. (DB) ED340663

African National Congress. Dept. of Political Education. (1990). The Road to peace: resource material on negotiations. Marshalltown: ANC Dept. of Political Education.

Adelson, A. (1 March 2000). Globalization and University Peace Education. Peace Review, 12(1), 117-122(116).

Adams, H. (1994). Peace in the Classroom: Practical Lessons in Living for Elementary-Age Children., 139p. The most effective alternative to punishment for violent or disruptive student behavior is to provide children with tools they will need for living peacefully with one another. This guide for elementary school classes examines ways in which a peaceful environment can be achieved and maintained in the classroom. Divided into six units which are geared toward this goal, the guide covers: (1) importance of individualism and the acceptance of others; (2) importance of friendships; (3) improving communication skills; (4) understanding and controlling emotions; (5) conflict resolution; and (6) peacekeeping including ideas for a school-wide peace festival. Approaching these topics through the use of activities, the guide provides objectives, age levels, needed materials, directions, drawings and charts, ways the activities can be expanded, and discussion questions for each unit. An appendix contains extra copies of materials needed for certain activities. (EB) ED392520

Abu-Nimer, M. (1 March 2000). Peace Building in Postsettlement: Challenges for Israeli and Palestinian Peace Educators. Peace and Conflict, 6(1), 1-21(21). Peace-building activities are designed to correspond with the different stages of conflict. In the postsettlement phase, peace-building activities are most needed but are least explored by researchers and practitioners. This article examines the dynamics of postsettlement peace-building activities and priorities as perceived by Israeli and Palestinian educators. The focus is on the perceptions of educators, their role, and the obstacles they face in the aftermath of the Oslo settlement. The Palestinian and Israeli peace educators interviewed have identified separate sets of needs in each community. Timing and differential needs are identified as crucial factors in implementing peace education programs in the aftermath of a political agreement.
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B

_____. (1995). Beginnings Workshop. "Acting Against Violence: A Response for Children.". Paper presented at the Child Care Information Exchange, 102, 33-56 Mar-Apr 1995. Provides discussions of understanding violence in children's lives (Levin); helping children exposed to violence (Jackson); the role of day care centers in helping children cope with violence (Groves and Mazur); the influence of Power Rangers (Levin); creating a culture of nonviolence (Carter); listening to children to understand violence (Hopkins and Peppers); and violence prevention (Levin and Carlsson-Page). (DR) EJ503776

Bush, K. D., Ed., & Saltarelli, D., Ed. (2000). The Two Faces of Education in Ethnic Conflict: Towards a Peacebuilding Education for Children., This study draws on the findings of a project originated and coordinated by Paolo Basurto, former director of the UNICEF International Child Development Centre (now known as the UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre). Page Length: 55. This report challenges the widely held assumption that education is inevitably a force for good. While the provision of good quality education can be a stabilizing factor, the report shows how educational systems can be manipulated to drive a wedge between people. The report begins by describing the nature of today's armed conflicts, with virtually every conflict of recent years fought within, rather than between, nations. It examines the growing importance of "ethnicity" in conflicts, as clearly seen in recent tragedies such as Rwanda, Kosovo, and Chechnya. The second section of the report describes the two different faces of education: the negative face shows itself in the uneven distribution of education to create or preserve privilege, the use of education as a weapon of cultural repression, and the production or doctoring of textbooks to promote intolerance; the positive face goes beyond the provision of education for peace programs, reflecting the cumulative benefits of the provision of good quality education. While the report recognizes the value of peace education, it stresses that it is only one of many educational measures needed in the midst of ethnic hatred. It suggests that peace education cannot succeed without measures to tackle the destructive educational practices that fuel hostility, and should be seen as one part of a wider peacebuilding education approach. The report examines possible steps toward the creation of a peacebuilding education, outlining guiding principles and goals, including the demilitarization of the mind, the introduction of alternatives to suspicion, hatred and violence, and the value of memory. (Contains 138 references.) (BT) ED448105

Burns, R. J., Ed., & Aspeslagh, R., Ed. (1996). Three Decades of Peace Education around the World: An Anthology. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Volume 600. Reference Books in International Education, Volume 24., 413p. The Peace Education Commission (PEC) of the International Peace Research Association (IPRA) has been the forum for peace educators to come together, to exchange and to share ideas, materials and experiences over three decades. This book draws from key papers from different areas and times of peace education work to show the richness of ideas and practice and its many sources worldwide. (EH) ED417999

Burnett, J. (1997). Opening the World to Children: Using Books to Develop Problem-Solving Strategies., 10pp. Paper presented at the Annual International Conference of the Association for Childhood Education (Portland, OR, April 9-12, 1997). This paper shows examples of thought-provoking picture and chapter books that can be used as springboards for discussing, analyzing, and solving authentic problems by pre-school through middle-level children in diverse settings. The paper begins with a description of a conference presentation which introduced participants to the notion of using books to develop problem-solving strategies. It then discusses specific examples of works in children's literature that deal with: everyday classroom problems (sharing, taking turns, etc.); difficult issues (violence and abuse); sensitive issues (stealing, lying, and cheating); and peace education issues (respecting others, their property, and their ideas). Contains 17 selected references. (RS) ED414565

Buck Consultants., & Colorado. Office of State Auditor. (1999). Compensation study of the Colorado Department of Public Safety's state troopers. Seattle, Wash.: Buck Consultants. Ga2/100.10/1251/1999

Bruning, M. D. (2000). Positive, Peaceful Interactions between Adults and Young Children. Growing Together: Building a Peaceful Community., Adapted from paper presented at the 2000 Early Childhood Conference (South Bend, IN, March 4, 2000). Page Length: 9. This paper discusses classroom practices contributing to positive, peaceful interactions between adults and young children. The paper begins with reminders about the development of self-control as a crucial aspect of peacefulness, the role of the toddler's developing autonomy, and the development of a sense of fairness in prekindergarten children. The paper notes the importance of positive adult role models who have a daily quiet time, engage in meditation or prayer, and are mindful of their vocal inflection and body language. Suggestions for fostering peaceful environments are given, including using visual reminders, having orderly homes and classrooms, providing aesthetic experiences that promote peace, telling stories about problem solving, and limiting and monitoring television viewing. Inappropriate strategies for dealing with conflict are delineated, including the avoidance of threats, physical reactions, name calling, bringing up the past, and inattentive listening. Appropriate strategies are described, such as identifying the real problems, and demonstrating mutual respect for everyone's feelings. Also noted are procedures to help adults keep perspective as they help children work through steps of conflict resolution. The paper concludes by asserting that peace starts with positive interactions at home, in the community, and at school, and that each individual has the responsibility to respond, rather than react, to conflict. (KB) ED446833

Bruce, H. E., & Davis, B. D. (2000). Slam: Hip-Hop Meets PoetryA Strategy for Violence Intervention. Paper presented at the Theme: A Curriculum of Peace. Describes one strategy used in high school English classrooms to teach for peace and dislodge violence: the poetry slam, a burgeoning pop culture phenomenon that combines poetry and performance art. Describes poetry slams that incorporate hip-hop culture. Discusses promoting slams in English classrooms to show students the power of words and instruct them in nonviolence, leadership, character, and social change. (SR) EJ604758

Brown, D. R., & Consortium Graduate School of Social Sciences. (1998). Evaluation, learning and Caribbean development. Kingston, Jamaica: Canoe Press University of the West Indies Consortium Graduate School of Social Sciences.

Brock-Utne, B. (July 1995). Educating all for positive peace: education for positive peace or oppression? International Journal of Educational Development, 15(3), 321-331(311).

Brock-Utne, B. (Jan 1991). The Raising of a Peaceful Boy. Peace Education Miniprints, No. 8., 14p. During the years 1986-1988, a Swedish research project called "Sons" tried to provide some tentative answers to questions raised by the recent focus on gender issues in peace education. A total of 20 feminist and 20 traditional mothers of sons were interviewed concerning their ideas about the development of their sons and about the difficulties they had encountered in providing their sons with peace education. The interviews revealed that almost all the mothers wanted to raise a nonsexist son and gentle boy, and thus wanted to provide them with an alternative education. Nevertheless, most of the mothers felt that they did not succeed in educating their sons the way they had originally wanted to. Feminist mothers never used a biological argument when their sons developed into more typical males than the mothers had wanted them to. Feminist mothers deplored the influence of sports clubs to which their sons belonged, noting that they fostered a competitive and rough spirit. More than half the feminist mothers, as opposed to a quarter of the traditional mothers, had given their sons dolls. In many cases, the mothers in general saw the children's father as the main obstacle to the boy's peace education, insofar as the father wanted his sons to be treated tougher and rougher than the mothers wanted them to be treated. Other adverse social influences, such as those of other parents or the father's friends, were noted. Brief concluding remarks address the strength of environmental pressures on boys to conform to the traditional male model. (HOD) ED354993

Brock-Utne, B. (1996). Peace Education in Postcolonial Africa. Paper presented at the Peabody Journal of Education, 71, 3, 170-90 1996. Examines whether efforts by donor agencies and Third World governments toward achieving basic education for all will lead to further development of peace education in Africa; whether the outcomes of the 1990 Education for All (EFA) conference in Thailand will promote positive peace; and whether the new EFA strategy will lead to a self-reliant development for Third World countries. (SM) EJ582887

Brock-Utne, B. (1989). Feminist perspectives on peace and peace education. New York: Pergamon Press. Jx1965.b77 1989 303.6/6

Brock-Utne, B. (1 March 2000). Peace Education in an Era of Globalization. Peace Review, 12(1), 131-138(138).

Bridgers, S. E. (2000). Learning a Language of Nonviolence. Paper presented at the Theme: A Curriculum of Peace. Describes the author's experience writing a novel which she believed was a love story, but came to realize was a story about domestic violence. Argues for a strong role for young adult literature in examining the realities of abusive, confining relationships. Notes that young people have been helped in dealing with their own dilemmas by seeing themselves in such stories. (SR) EJ604749

Brenes, A., & Ito, T. (Apr 1994). Peace Education: Perspectives from Costa Rica and Japan. Peace Education Miniprints No. 62., 22p. This publication explores the views of two present members of the International Peace Research Association: Abelardo Brenes and Takehiko Ito. Brenes and Ito answer 13 questions related to peace education issues in their individual interviews. Abelardo Brenes is a professor at the University of Costa Rica and a consultant to the University for Peace, and has coordinated the Central American Program for the Promotion of Human Rights and Peace Education. Takehiko Ito is an associate professor at Wako University in Tokyo (Japan), chairperson of the Committee on Research of Peace and Disarmament Education of the Japanese Scientists Association, and secretary of Japanese Psychologists for Peace. (Author/CK) ED377111

Brawdy, P. (2001). Exploring Human Kindness through the Pedagogy of Aikido., Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Seattle, WA, April 10-14, 2001). Page Length: 26. This paper considers the origins of kindness in relation to the martial art known as Aikido. It also attempts to discover the underlying constitutional elements of Aikido's pedagogy of self learning, learning about others, and instructional practices that promote interpersonal relatedness. A teacher and four students of the Aikido Dojo were interviewed. Analysis revealed major structural constituents were associated with the pedagogy of Aikido. All of the Aikido practitioners described experiences where knowledge of self was mediated by an awareness of how invested they were in a given moment. Aikido offers one possible model for instruction that focuses on promotion of peace through the content it teaches. It demonstrates the value of a discipline in the process of self-discovery; it provides a cultural model for learning that is shaped by an interest in peaceful relations; and it provides a pedagogical model that is shaped by themes of blending, integration, wholeness, and unity. (Contains 18 references.) (Author/JDM) ED451451

Braus, J., Wood, D., North American Association for Environmental Education., Peace Corps (U.S.). Information Collection and Exchange., & ERIC clearinghouse for Science Mathematics and Environmental Education. (1994). Environmental education in the schools: creating a program that works! Washington, DC: North American Association for Environmental Education(NAAEE) in conjunction with the ERIC Clearinghouse for Science Mathematics and Environmental Education The Ohio State University.

Bradshaw, Y. W., & Ndegwa, S. N. (2000). The uncertain promise of Southern Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Dt1166.u53 2000

Brabeck, K. (1 March 2001). Justification for and Implementation of Peace Education. Peace and Conflict, 7(1), 85-87(83).

Boulding, E. (1 September 2000). A New Chance for Human Peaceableness? Peace and Conflict, 6(3), 193-215(123). The millennial optimism being generated among nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the global civil society by the advent of the year 2000, and the United Nations Declaration of a Year and Decade of Education for a Culture of Peace and Nonviolence for the Children of the World, opens the possibility of a paradigm shift from dominance to mutualism in both interpersonal and interstate relations. Multiple year 2000 peace initiatives by NGOs present them with the challenge of a shift from turfism to collaboration in peacebuilding. Truth commissions offer new opportunities for peace work. Peace movements are learning to apply interactive problem-solving skills as they shift from protest to peace practitioner roles in war-torn areas. The power of the social imagination to envision peaceful futures is critical to all these efforts.

Booth, P. (1962). Peace Politics: A Study of the American Peace Movement and the Politics of the 1962 Congressional Elections. Ann Arbor: Peace Research and Education Project February 1964.

Bobrow, D. B., Schwartz, J. L., Lawrence Radiation Laboratory., Carnegie Endowment for International Peace., & United States. Division of Nuclear Education and Training. (1968). Computers and the policy-making community; applications to international relations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,: Prentice-Hall. Jx1291

Bobrow, D. B., Schwartz, J. L., Lawrence Radiation Laboratory., Carnegie Endowment for International Peace., & United States. Division of Nuclear Education and Training. (1968). Computers and the policy-making community: applications to international relations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Jx1291.c56 327/.01/8

Boatwright, M. T. (1980). Tacitus and the Wealth, Enrichment and Impoverishment of the Roman Upper Classes. The dissertation offers a detailed study of the historian Tacitus' treatment of wealth, enrichment and impoverishment among the Roman upper classes. Tacitus' writings in this regard, examined chronologically, reveal a pronounced evolution, an evolution which contributes to our understanding of the historian's originality. The introductory chapter defines the problem presented by Tacitus' discussion of wealth and politics under the Principate--how to distinguish between tradition and innovation in his historical writings. The method here is examination in the individual works of Tacitus' thematic uses of financial affairs among the senatorial and equestrian classes in Rome. Chapter II investigates the theme of wealth in the Roman historical tradition before Tacitus. His predecessors, especially Sallust and Livy, portray the financial status and activities of the elite in indefinite terms of luxury and avarice, terms which became established early in the Romans' traditionally moral interpretation of history. Chapter III analyzes the theme of wealth in Tacitus' three early works. In the biography Agricola Tacitus presents financial information only to document Agricola's praiseworthy political and military career. In the ethnographical work Germania he introduces notices of Roman financial practices and attitudes as a way to stress native German integrity. In both, his use of financial reports and commentary is consistent with that of the earlier historiographical tradition. But in transferring such material to these specialized genres, Tacitus introduces a definite historical and ethical tone to the two works. In the Dialogus, Tacitus specifically uses financial information to bring out the social and political consequences of treason trials, as well as their moral implications. Chapter IV argues that the Historiae contains two approaches to the representation of wealth. In the history of the Civil War Tacitus reports only a general kind of financial information: we often hear of the leaders' "financial vices" of avarice and luxury. This approach is consonant with the Roman historical tradition. But in his extant history of the Flavian peace he provides more specific financial information, offering many details of the financial workings of delation, and these particulars serve to illustrate a historical interpretation that is social and political as well as moral. Chapter V demonstrates in the Annales the further development of this tendency detected in the Historiae. Tacitus' last work is richer in financial particulars than any of his previous writing. Here the information falls into three categories. First, Tacitus presents those monetary transactions that were customary to Republican politics. Second, he describes the different way in which wealth served politics in the Principate, as individuals tried to influence the Princeps and his court. Finally, Tacitus gives a great deal of financial information to support his interpretation of the ways in which the Principate corrupted the social relationships and moral condition of the Roman upper classes. But here too he employs financial details to single out and commend individuals for their moral, political, and social behavior. The concluding chapter offers a general evaluation of the changes in Tacitus' treatment of the theme of wealth. In his earliest writings, he employed financial notices in ways traditional to Roman historiography. In his later work, Tacitus exploits such information in increasing detail and variety, and uses it to interpret the social and political, as well as moral, history of peace under the Principate.

Blythe, S. (1994). Peace Education: Volunteers for UN50, Celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the United Nations, 1945-1995., 42p. This manual builds on the UNA-USA/Gainsville work to help volunteers prepare to "teach peace" during the 50th anniversary of the United Nations, and to provide educational resources for UN50. The document includes: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Preparing for the Training"; (3) "Workshop 1: Preparing the Presentation"; (3) "Workshop 2: Practicing for Presentations"; (4) "Coordinating the Volunteers"; and (5) "Follow-up Gathering." The appendix provides handouts for training peace education volunteers for UN50. (EH) ED392660

Blumenfeld, S., United States. Agency for International Development. Office of Nutrition., USAID/Philippines., United States. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Asia. Evaluation Division., & United States. Agency for International Development. Office of Food for Peace. Title II. (1982). PL 480 Title II: a study of the impact of a food assistance program in the Philippines. [Washington, D.C.?]: Bureau for Asia U.S. Agency for International Development. S 18.52/4:6

Blumberg, H. H. (Nov 1993). Perception and Misperception of Others: Social-Cognition Implications for Peace Education. Educational and Psychological Interactions. No. 115., 26pp. Supported in part by a grant from the Niwano Peace Foundation. This document discusses person perception or social cognition, as it affects relationships between people and nations. An important part of living together in harmony is for people to be able to perceive each other accurately, for individuals to understand one another's values, customs, goals, and resources. The need for accurate and sympathetic understanding among parties is true at the international and intercultural levels as well as interpersonally. Topics in social cognition that may be adapted for peace education include: (1) the nature and use of categories; (2) dimensional analysis of social interaction; (3) cognitive consistency; (4) prototypes and stereotypes; and (5) two-stage theories of inference-making. Additional topics, considered briefly, are: attributional analysis, biases in attributions, heuristics, and implicit personality theory. For each topic, an exercise relevant to peace education is described. Better understanding of the principles of social cognition and attendant biases can help in structuring a more peaceful and just world. Given both the challenges and opportunities in the world today the seemingly intractable conflicts in some places, and the need to nurture newly emergent democratic ideals in others, it is important to stress both prevention and cure of hostility. At least one facet of prevention of bias, and in the reinforcing of a meaningful and just peace, is to facilitate knowledge about the perceptual origins of at least some forms of bias and misunderstanding. Contains 30 references. (Author/DK) ED374035

Bjerstedt, A. (Sep 1993). Peace Education Approaches among Younger and Older Students in Schools. Peace Education Reports. No. 8., 47p. This report used data from an interview study with international experts to examine the extent that peace education is relevant at various ages and to look at how the age of pupils affect the design of a pedagogy for peace. The two parts of the report provided replies from 50 experts representing 22 countries. Part 1 attempts to summarize major aspects of the relationship of age level to education for peace. In several cases, the interviewees made general comments claiming that in actual fact, age differences were of considerably less importance than imagined. Some interviewees emphasized the fact that little is known in the area. Part 2 provides detailed documentation of the 50 interview answers. (CK) ED368639

Bjerstedt, A., Ed. (Oct 1993). The PEC Network 1993. Directory of the Peace Education Commission. Peace Education Miniprints, No. 47., 59p. This extensive list of the council members of the Peace Education Commission (PEC) from 1992-1994 gives mailing addresses and some telephone and fax numbers to enable direct contact with network members. The Peace Education Commission (PEC) facilitates international cooperation among individuals interested in peace education and research related to peace education. Operating via a Council and an Executive Secretary, the main ambition of PEC is to serve as a useful network for transnational information and the support of the peace education field through a newsletter service and an updated address list. (CK) ED370867

Bjerstedt, A., Ed. (Oct 1992). The PEC Network 1992: Directory of the Peace Education Commission. Peace Education Miniprints, No. 34., 54p. The Peace Education Commission (PEC) of the International Peace Research Association (IPRA) was established to facilitate international cooperation among individuals interested in peace education and research related to peace education. It operates via a council and an executive secretary (at present located in Sweden). The main ambition of PEC is to serve as a useful network for transnational information and support in the peace education area. Two instruments are basic in such network activities: a newsletter service and a current address list. The present miniprint gives current mailing addresses. Included in the list are addresses for 1992-94 PEC council members, former executive secretaries, the present executive secretary, and other members from around the world. (SG) ED359106

Bjerstedt, A., Ed. (Oct 1990). Introducing the PEC Network: Mailing Addresses of the Peace Education Commission. Peace Education Miniprints No. 1., 32pp. For a related document, see SO 030 484. The Peace Education Commission (PEC) was established to facilitate international cooperation among individuals interested in peace education and research related to the field. The major ambition of PEC is to serve as a useful network for transnational information and support in the peace education area. This document gives current mailing addresses for a core group of PEC members. (DB) ED347121

Bjerstedt, A., Ed. (Oct 1990). Peace Education: Basic BooksRecent Publications. Peace Education Miniprints, No. 7., 13pp. For a related document, see SO 030 483. This publication presents an annotated bibliography of some recent publications in the area of peace education. The document features seven volumes identified as seminal works in the field. In addition, six doctoral dissertations, four journal articles, and 16 additional sources for publications are described. (DB) ED347122

Bjerstedt, A., Ed. (Nov 1990). Education for Peace in the Nineties. A Conference Report. Educational and Psychological Interactions No. 105. A Conference Report (PEC/IPRA, Groningen, July 1990)., 107p. The International Peace Research Association is an international network of people interested in peace education and research related to this field. Divided into four parts, the first part of this conference report contains two papers that offer overviews of ideas and concepts in the field of peace education; the second part presents two papers that report on empirical research and development projects. In the third part, summaries of most of the remaining papers written for and/or presented at the conference are given. The fourth part features glimpses from the conference sessions in the form of overviews by two participant observers. (DB) ED335263

Bey, T. M., & Turner, G. Y. (1996). Making school a place of peace. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Corwin Press.

Bellegarde, D. (1934). Un Haïtien parle. Port-au-Prince,: Chéraquit.

Barton, J. H. (1981). The politics of peace: an evaluation of arms control. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
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Bainton, R. H. (1960). Christian attitudes toward war and peace; a historical survey and critical re-evaluation. New York,: Abingdon Press.

Beegel, S. F., Shillinglaw, S., & Tiffney, W. N. (1997). Steinbeck and the environment: interdisciplinary approaches. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. Ps3537.t3234 z8669 1997

Bjerstedt, A. (Aug 1992). Peace Education around the World at the Beginning of the 1990s: Some Data from Questionnaires to Ministries of Education and Members of the Peace Education Commission. Peace Education Miniprints No. 32., 26p. Two questionnaire studies on the status of peace education in different countries or regions are presented in this paper. One of the studies approached school authoritiesministries of education or similar offices. This study involved analyses of the responses received from 125 geographical units in 1991-92 as well as the responses from a special "comparison group" of 100 areas that were surveyed in both 1985-86 and in 1991-92. The other study collected views from a group of educators and researchers with a special interest in peace education members of the Peace Education Commission. It was observed, among other things, that to date many countries do not have any recommendations on peace education in their official school texts. Nevertheless, there was a substantial minority of countries where such recommendations existed. While there are developments that give peace educators hope for the future, there are many indications that it is still difficult to get peace education generally accepted. The study concluded that it should be an important task in the coming years for educators and researchers interested in peace education to try to understand the character of the resistance or the difficulties in each particular area better and to use this understanding to find ways to overcome the barriers. (DB) ED354194

Bjerstedt, A. (Dec 1990). Towards a Rationale and a Didactics of Peace Education: Progress Notes (1990) on the Project "Preparedness for Peace" in Sweden. Peace Education Miniprints No. 6., 30pp. For a related document, see SO 021 149. The aims and tasks of a set of research and development studies carried out at the Malmo School of Education at Lund University in Sweden, under the umbrella term "Preparedness for peace," are outlined. The general aim of the studies was to increase knowledge of possible ways of helping children and young people at school to deal constructively with questions of war and peace. The work involved a variety of tasks, for example: (1) an inventory and analysis of experiences of peace education in different countries; (2) studies of conceptions (peace, war, enemy images) among children and young people; (3) a collection and analysis of viewpoints on the role of schools in pursuit of "preparedness for peace"; (4) documentation and experiments focusing on practical ways in which schools can organize peace-oriented activities; and (5) publication of brief information pamphlets from the project work that might be used to stimulate discussion and to generate ideas among teachers and teacher trainees. The document has a 124-item reference list of pamphlets and reports. (DB) ED335250

Bjerstedt, A. (Dec 1993). Second-Order Learning and Education for Peace: Eva Nordland and the Project "Preparedness for Peace." Peace Education Miniprints No. 54., 15p. This interview explores the views of Eva Norland, an educational researcher and peace activist. A discussion of peace education examines definitions, school contribution, age levels, teacher training, and instructional approach. Eva Norland offers her opinion on the concept of peace from environmental development, solidarity work, human rights, and disarmament perspectives. Brief background notes and a nine-item list of selected publications of Eva Nordland follow the interview. (CK) ED369715

Bjerstedt, A. (Dec 1993). The "Didactic Locus" of Peace Education: Extra-Curricular, Mono-Curricular, Cross- Curricular, or Trans-Curricular Approaches. Didakometry. No. 74., 48p. This document discusses various models of peace education. Peace education can be handled in a number of different ways in relation to the traditional "Didactic space" of schools, for example: (1) peace education can be made into a special subject, a mono-curricular approach; (2) peace related issues can be handled by means of special efforts outside of the normal system of classes, an extra- curricular or special event approach; (3) peace education can be seen as a common assignment for several or all school subjects, a cross-curricular approach; or (4) peace education may be viewed as aiming at education for peace values and nonviolent interaction with others, whereby the question of school subject attachment moves into the background, a trans- curricular approach. Interview illustrations on the possible contributions of different school subjects are presented. The document is divided into two parts. The first part is an introductory discussion on the place of peace education in the didactic space of schools. The second part contains excerpts from interviews with 50 experts from different nations. Contains 14 references. (Author/DK) ED374036

Bjerstedt, A. (Feb 1992). Conceptions of the Future and Education for Responsibility. Peace Education Reports No. 4., 36p. In order to build a future world society characterized by "peace with nature" and sustainable development, it is necessary to introduce new policies, partly involving changes in lifestyle among the general public. In order to win acceptance for such changes, what is needed is a "differentiated problem awareness" and an "adequate readiness for action." This report discusses: (1) some psychological starting points (focusing especially on conceptions of the future); (2) central goal areas to plan for in educational planning dealing with this type of preparedness for the future; and (3) various approaches that may be used in the classroom in order to work towards the goals outlined. (Ten figures and one table are included. Contains 13 references.) (Author) ED359103

Bjerstedt, A. (Feb 1994). The Meaning of "Peace Education": Associations, Emphases, and Sub-categories. Peace Education Reports No. 9., 54p. Included in an interview with 50 experts who have a special interest in peace education and represent 22 countries, this report documents and discusses answers to the question: "What do you think of first when you hear the words 'peace education'?" Part 1 of the report presents a summary of some of the major aspects of the answers related to the meaning of the term peace education. Part 2 gives a more detailed documentation of the interview answers regarding the question. The reactions vary and testify to the fact that peace education is a changeable field in an early stage of development. The responses show a strong tendency to take up a discussion of possible sub-categories within the field using more specific labels. (CK) ED370876

Bjerstedt, A. (Jan 1990). Education for Global Perspectives and Non-Violent Relations: A Selective Bibliography. Educational Document No. 100 = Undervisning for icke- valdsrelationer: Exemplifierande bibliografi. Pedagogisk dokumentation Nr. 100., 97p. This document presents a selective bibliography on education for global perspectives and nonviolent relations. The major emphasis is on recent books, reports, and articles in English or in the Scandinavian languages. The document groups the literature in seven content categories and presents introductory comments both in English and in Swedish. Items include: (1) examples of monograpahs and collections of papers explicitly dealing with peace education; (2) examples of shorter items explicitly addressing peace education; (3) examples of study materials or study guides on peace education; (4) books and articles dealing with such related topics as international understanding or global perspectives in schools; (5) examples of publications dealing with psychological aspects of war, peace, etc.; (6) examples of items dealing more generally with global survival; and (7) examples of Malmo School of Education research and development project reports on peace education topics. (SG) ED360196

Bjerstedt, A. (Jan 1990). Peace Education: Perspectives from Brazil and India. An Interview with Anima Bose (India) and Zlmarian Jeanne Walker (Brazil). Reprints and Miniprints No. 683., 24pp. Sponsored by the "Preparedness for Peace" project. As a means of studying ways to help children and young people deal constructively with questions of peace and war, Anima Bose and Zlmarian Jeanne Walker, who have worked to promote peace education in India and Brazil respectively, are interviewed. The influence of Gandhi on the concept of peace in India is emphasized. One cannot teach peace, it must be learned through practice. Peace education must include a form of apprenticeship where students go out into the real world to find out what violence is and what solutions are. Peace education is especially important in this day and time because all of society seems to be overcome by violence, even in entertainment. Peace must not be viewed as "no war." A nation with no war but with injustice, poverty, economic discrimination, and inequity cannot be said to have peace. The teacher is the most responsible person in any peace education course at any level. At the elementary level the examples of parents and teachers and cooperation between them is very important for teaching peace. The interviewees emphasize the lack of materials available to be used in peace education. Peace education should not be taught as a separate subject in elementary school, but included in various subjects. In higher grades it may be emphasized in one particular subject. In secondary school it can be dealt with through the study of international organization, transnational concepts, and the reality of interdependence. (DK) ED360194

Bjerstedt, A. (Jan 1994). Teacher Training and Peace Education. Peace Education Miniprints No. 55., 45p. The issue of what needs to be done in teacher training in order to prepare future teachers more adequately for the area of peace education provides a variety of responses from an interview study involving 50 international experts representing 22 countries. Part 1 discusses the question and summarizes the major aspects of the theme of teacher training and peace education. Part 2 gives a detailed documentation of the interview responses. (Author/CK) ED371999

Bjerstedt, A. (January 1999). Objectives Related to Multicultural Education: Bias Awareness, Cultural Fluency, Diversity Appreciation, Empathy, Equality Attitudes, Intercultural Communicative Competence, Tolerance, and Transcultural Identities. Examples of Publications. Peace Education Miniprints No. 98. This bibliography lists examples of books, dissertations, reports, and articles dealing with the broad field of multicultural education. The bibliography's major focus is on materials in English from recent years, especially materials that deal with educational objectives implicitly related to peace education, such as bias awareness, empathy, and tolerance. In the bibliography titles of documents are given in their original languageif the original language is English, French, or German, no translation is provided; in the case of other original languages, a translation of the title into English is added in square brackets. (BT) ED432526

Bjerstedt, A. (Jun 1994). Peace Education Articles: A Selective Bibliography. Reprints and Miniprints No. 813., 24p. The bibliography lists examples of journal articles and chapters in edited books explicitly dealing with peace education. The major focus is on materials in English, German, and the Scandinavian languages from recent years. (EH) ED384548

Bjerstedt, A. (Jun 1994). Peace Education Books: A Selective Bibliography. Reprints and Miniprints No. 810., 29p. The bibliography lists examples of monographs and collections of papers explicitly dealing with peace education. Some special issues of journals devoted to the area of peace education also have been included. The major focus is on materials in English, German, and the Scandinavian languages from recent years. For those unfamiliar with the area, the fairly large number of references may be confusing. An asterisk (*) is used to mark a few publications as valuable for those who would like to get some introduction and review of the field. These selections may be seen as arbitrary, but it is hoped that these notations may be useful for some beginning readers. (EH) ED384547

Bjerstedt, A. (Mar 1990). Education for Peace as Liberation vs. Indoctrination: Do We, in Fact, Need Some "Unbalanced Teaching" To Achieve a "Balanced Learning?" An interview with Hilary Lipkin and Richard Yarwood. Reprints and Miniprints No. 693., 31pp. Sponsored by "Preparedness for Peace" project. As part of Sweden's Malmo School of Education's "Preparedness for Peace" project, this paper presents interviews with Hilary Lipkin and Richard Yarwood. Lipkin has served as national coordinator for "Teachers for Peace" and Yarwood ran the Peace Education Project at the Peace Pledge Union in London (England). Both of the interviewees discuss their interpretations of the term "peace education", and such related terms as "disarmament education" and "education for peace." They discuss differences between peace education for older and younger children and examine how schools can contribute to peace education. The document also includes notes about Richard Yarwood and lists some of his publications. (SG) ED360195

Bjerstedt, A. (Mar 1994). Immigrant Students as a Resource, Multicultural Education, and Preparedness for Peace. Peace Education Miniprints No. 59., 46p. This report suggests that immigrants and immigrant students have been considered and discussed as problems during political discourse and in educational circles rather than devoting energy to regarding immigrant students as a resource in international and peace issues and in ethnic relations. Part 1 provides a background discussion on what can be done to enhance the view of immigrant students as resources and focuses on concepts like "preparedness for peace" and "multicultural education." Part 2 includes examples of the viewpoints of 24 experts who have been interviewed on how students who represent a variety of nationalities and cultural backgrounds in a school can aid in peace education. Part 3 offers an extensive bibliography on materials related to multicultural education. Contains over 200 references. (CK) ED377108

Bjerstedt, A. (Mar 1994). Peace EducationHow? A Discussion of Steps and Measures To Be Taken. Peace Education Reports No. 11., 67p. This document discusses and documents the answers that 50 experts representing 22 countries gave to two questions: (1) Do you think it is at all possible for schools to contribute to a "peace education"? and (2) If so, what are some to the steps and measures to be taken that you think of first? Part 1 of the report attempts to summarize some major aspects of the answers, while part 2 gives a more detailed documentation of the interview areas in this area. The interviews had the character of relatively free conversation. The usual main questions were employed, but these main questions often had a very open character, the interviewer allowed and encouraged the respondents to converse in a natural manner. The group interviewed had a multifarious and usually long experience related to peace issues and peace education. The answers to the first question are rather brief probably because the interviewees are from a group of people who were chosen because of their interest in and knowledge about the topic of peace education. Also, they had already had the opportunity to make comments on the introductory questions of the interview; the answers, therefore, would be fairly predictable. The second question was formulated to elicit some examples of what the respondent thought could be done by the teacher in the classroom situation to contribute to peace education. Promotion strategies suggested include concerned individuals, flexible strategy, collaborative efforts at the local level, and teacher training. (DK) ED378073

Bjerstedt, A. (May 1991). Peace Education: A Selective Bibliography. Peace Education Reports No. 3., 126p. This bibliography on peace education focuses on books, reports, and articles written in English, German, and the Scandinavian languages. The listed materials are organized into seven categories: (1) monographs and collections of papers explicitly dealing with peace education; (2) articles explicitly dealing with peace education; (3) study materials or study guides for peace education; (4) publications on internationalization, international understanding, global perspectives in school, etc.; (5) psychological aspects of peace/war issues; (6) more general references dealing with global survival, including military and ecological threats, peace research, peace work, etc.; and (7) "Preparedness for PeacePreparedness for the Future": reports and miniprints from the Malmo School of Education. (DB) ED354166

Bjerstedt, A. (May 1991). The Difficulties of Peace Education. Peace Education Miniprints No. 17., 17p. Many teachers feel uncertain when given the task of teaching peace education because of the relative novelty and controversial character of this field. This document examines some of the difficulties and obstacles involved in peace education. First, various views of society, the school, and the change process are reviewed in relation to peace education efforts. Then, more specific barriers are discussed, using examples from the Malmo School of Education project, "Preparedness for Peace." Finally, certain measures aimed at coming to terms with the difficulties are outlined. A 22-item list of references is included. (Author/DB) ED345962

Bjerstedt, A. (Nov 1993). Peace Museums as Potential Instruments of Peace Education. Views Expressed by Members of the PEC Network. Peace Education Miniprints No. 51., 16p. Members of the Peace Education Commission answered a questionnaire on peace museums. The first 60 respondents, representing 25 different countries supplied the results of this report. A majority of the respondents had a positive opinion about the potential values of a peace museum. A variety of definitions of a peace museum were supplied by respondents, and a common definition was difficult to obtain although several remarks stated that a museum should go beyond a static collection of objects and develop a participatory environment. While a few countries had experience with peace museums, most countries seemed to have no peace museum experience at all. Alternative ways of focusing peace museums addressed an emphasis on anti-war, pro-peace or both themes and either a multi- dimensional or specific approach. Potential risks and difficulties such as finances and biased displays were indicated by respondents who also provided suggestions on how to promote the idea of peace museums. (CK) ED369716

Bjerstedt, A. (Nov 1994). Teacher Training in Relation to Peace Education in Schools: Views Expressed by Members of the PEC Network. Peace Education Miniprints, No. 67., 20p. This study did a preliminary examination of Peace Education Commission (PEC) members' views on teacher training in relation to peace education in schools. A questionnaire was mailed to all PEC members and 75 questionnaires were returned from 33 different countries. Findings included the following: (1) teacher training is of great importance; (2) training related to peace education should be included in both basic teacher training and in-service training; (3) little is currently done in teacher training related to peace education; (4) a broad-range policy for teacher training covering several approaches to peace education received strong support from the respondents; (5) with regard to how peace education should be related to the total system of teacher education, a clear majority (60 percent) favored a combination of special courses on peace education within basic teacher training as well as promoting peace education objectives and procedures in a number of different courses in basic teacher education; (6) 41 respondents could not recommend a peace education handbook; and (7) many saw significant risks and difficulties in developing peace education. Finally, a variety of ideas were presented on how to promote the idea of teacher training for peace education. (Contains 22 references.) (JB) ED383686

Bjerstedt, A., Ed. (Apr 1993). Doctoral Dissertations Related to Education for Peace and Multicultural Awareness. Peace Education Miniprints No. 43., 33p. This bibliography lists recent doctoral dissertations, written in English and German, related to peace education, multicultural education, and related topics. Dissertations from India on nonviolence, Mahatma Gandhi, and related subjects are listed in a separate appendix (with Hindi titles translated into English). (Author/DB) ED361259

Bjerstedt, A., Ed. (Dec 1992). Education for Peace: A Conference Report from Kyoto. Peace Education Reports No. 6., 235pp. Report of the Sessions of the Peace Education Commission at the International Peace Research Association Conference (14th, Kyoto, Japan, July 27- 31, 1992). Conference sessions of the Peace Education Commission (PEC), a transnational network of people interested in peace education and research related to peace education, are reported in this document. Following an introductory overview of the conference as a whole, the report is divided into four parts. The first part contains three area studies; that is, papers reporting on developments related to peace education in special geographical areas. The second part includes three comparative studies, in which comparisons are made between various countries or between different time periods. The third part contains seven papers covering such topics as linguistic rights, lifelong education, nonviolence, and the World Bank. While the first three parts of the report contain full papers (or substantial extracts of papers), the fourth part presents 19 papers in brief abstract or summary form. The titles and authors of the papers included in the first three parts of the report are: Peace Education in Japanese Universities (H. Fujita; T. Ito); Education for Social Transformation in South Korea (J. Synott); Education for Global Survival: Reflections Based on Some Swedish Experiences and Examples (B. Thelin); Tragic Pages: How the GDR, FRG and Japan Processed Their War History: Lessons for Education for Peace (R. Aspeslagh); Peace Education around the World at the Beginning of the 1990s: Some Data from Questionnaires to Ministers of Education and Members of the Peace Education Commission (A. Bjerstedt); Peace Education in Britain and Japan: A Comparison (T. Murakami); Linguistic Rights as Human Rights (B. Brock-Utne); UNESCO Approaches to International Education in Universities (D. Chitoran; J. Symonides); A Within and Below Perspective on Lifelong Education (M. Haavelsrud); A Teacher Training On- site Model on Peace Education (Q. Martin-Moreno Cerillo); Raising Children towards Nonviolence (P. Patfoort); The World Bank as Development Educator: Towards Which Paradigm? (T. Swee-Hin; V. Floresca-Cawagas); and Peace and International Education in School (R. Wahlstrom). (DB) ED358009

Bjerstedt, A., Ed. (Dec 1994). Education for Peace: A Conference Report of the Peace Education Commission of the International Peace Research Association (Malta, October-November 1994). Peace Education Reports No. 13., 208p. This report presents reviews of the sessions at a recent Peace Education Commission (PEC) of the International Peace Research Association meeting in Malta. The report is divided into five parts, with the first four parts containing examples of full-length papers within different content areas while the fifth part presents abstracts of additional papers. Part 1, "Principles," includes the following papers: (1) "The Role of Peace Education in a Culture of Peace: A Social-Psychological Analysis" (Michael G. Wessells); and (2) "Nonviolence in Education" (Ian M. Harris). Part 2, "Contexts," contains the following: (1) "Exploring Peace Education in South African Settings" (Valerie Dovey); and (2) "Australian Aboriginal Constructions of Humans, Society and Nature in Relation to Peace Education" (John P. Synott). Part 3, "Conflict Resolution," includes: (1) "Conflict-Resolution Skills Can Be Taught" (Benyamin Chetkow-Yanoov); and (2) "Conflict Resolution in Children" (Di Bretherton, Linda Maree Collins; Andrea Allard). Part 4, "Children's Ideas and the Future," includes: (1) "Children's Thoughts about Peace and War" (Emilia S. Sokolova); and (2) "Educating for the Twenty-First Century: Beyond Racist, Sexist and Ecologically Violent Futures" (Frank Hutchinson). Part 5, "Paper Summaries," contains 34 summaries of papers presented at the conference. (EH) ED384550

Bjerstedt, A., Ed. (Feb 1994). Education for Peace: A Conference Report from Budapest. Peace Education Reports No. 10., 151p. Eight papers and nine summaries of papers present themes and discussions addressed during the European Peace Research Association (EUPRA) conference in Budapest (Hungary) in 1993. Following an introduction with overview information regarding the conference, the first three sections present eight papers on areas studies, peace museums, concepts, and methods: (1) "Peace Education Across the Curriculum: Some Perspectives from New Zealand" (James Collinge); (2) "Peace Education in Lithuania: Experiences and Problems" (Algis Krupavicius); (3) "The Teaching of Conflict Resolution and Nonviolence in Australian Schools: A Context for Peace Education" (Max Lawson); (4) "The Role of Peace Museums in Peace Education: A New Terrain for Peace Educators" (Terence Duffy); (5) "A Peace Museum as a Center for Peace Education: What do Japanese Students Think of Peace Museums?" (Kazuyo Yamane); (6) "'An Agenda for Peace' and the Role of Peace Education" (Nicholas Gillett); (7) "Project Work in Teacher Training as Part of Peace Education" (Hanns-Fred Rathenow); and (8) "Conflict-mitigation: Philosophy and Methodology" (Jan Oberg). Nine brief abstracts of other papers presented at the conference concludes the report. (CK) ED371996
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Bjerstedt, A., Ed. (Mar 1992). Peace Education: Glimpses from the EUPRA Conference in Firenze. Peace Education Reports No. 5., 38pp. A report from the Annual Conference of the European Peace Research Association (1st, Florence, Italy, November 8-10, 1991). This report presents the material from a workshop on peace education that was part of a conference sponsored by the European Peace Research Association (EUPRA). Two papers, "Research as a Tool for Peace Education" (Alberto L'Abate) and "Promoting Commitment to Peace and Environmental Responsibility" (Riitta Wahlstrom), are documented in part 1 of the report. The other presentations, reported in summary form in part 2, include: (1) "Goals of Peace Education According to Peace Educators: Some Notes from a Questionnaire Study of PEC Members" (Ake Bjerstedt); (2) "A National School for Teachers of Conscientious Objectors: A Project and A Curriculum" (Antonino Drago); (3) "Public Opinion on the Conflict and War in the Gulf, 1990-1991" (Philip P. Everts); (4) "Human Rights, Peace Studies, and International Education" (Jorgen Pauli Jensen); (5) "The Necessity of a Multiethnic Education for Peace and Coexistence in a Changing Europe" (Soren Keldorff); (6) "What Is This Thing Called Peace?" (Mary Maxwell); (7) "Cultural Symbiosis in Al-Andalus" (Sanaa Osseiran); (8) "Nonviolence in Education" (Pat Patfoort); and (9) "Peace Education in Sweden: Some Glimpses from the Public Debate" (Bengt Thelin). (SG) ED359104

Bainton, R. H. (1960). Christian attitudes toward war and peace; a historical survey and critical re-evaluation. New York,: Abingdon Press. Bt736.2 Bt736.2 b3

Bar, H., Bar-Gal, D., Asaqla, J., Mekhon Yerushalayim le-*he*ker Yi*sra*el., & Mekhon Gu*tman le-me*h*kar *hevrati shimushi. (1995). Li-*heyot *im ha-*konfli*k*t: pe*ilut hafgashah be-*kerev bene no*ar Yehudim u-Fales*tinim ezre*he Yi*sra*el. Yerushalayim: Mekhon Yerushalayim le-*he*ker Yi*sra*el: Mekhon Gu*tman le-me*h*kar *hevrati shimushi.

Baratta, J. P., & Center for U.N. Reform Education. (1989). International peacekeeping: history and strengthening. Washington, D.C.: Center for U.N. Reform Education. Jx1981.p7

Barbieri, C. A., & University of Michigan. School of Natural Resources. (1984). A humanistic response to the social pathology of nuclearism: barriers and opportunities in educating for peace within a behavioral-empowerment perspective: a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment... for the degree of Master of Science.

Barton, J. H. (1981). The politics of peace: an evaluation of arms control. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press. Jx1974.b325 327.1/74 Jx1974.b325 norlin JX1974.B325 c.2

Benninga, J. S., Ed. (1991). Moral, Character, and Civic Education in the Elementary School., 290pp. Foreword by Kevin Ryan. This collection of essays addresses the debate over moral education. The contributors deal with whether educators should influence children's value orientation through a direct program advocating restraint and higher moral standards, or whether educators should teach students to cope and adapt by providing a variety of alternatives from which the students themselves can choose. In "Part 1: Introduction," chapters include: "Moral and Character Education in the Elementary School: An Introduction" (Jacques S. Benninga); and "Doing Justice to Morality in Contemporary Values Education" (Larry P. Nucci). "Part 2: The Developmental or Indirect Approach to Moral Education" includes the following chapters: "Lawrence Kohlberg's Influence on Moral Education in Elementary Schools" (Robert W. Howard); "An Integrated Approach to Character Development in the Elementary School Classroom" (Thomas Lickona); "Democracy in the Elementary School: Learning by Doing" (Ethel Sadowsky); and "Development and Practice of Democracy in a K-8 School" (Robert J. Weintraub). "Part 3: The Character Education or Direct Approach to Moral Education" includes the following chapters: "Moral Literacy and the Formation of Character" (William J. Bennett); "Character and Academics in the Elementary School" (Edward A. Wynne); "Character Development in Small Rural Schools: Grades K-8" (JoAnne Martin-Reynolds, Bill J. Reynolds); and "Character Development at Fort Washington Elementary School" (Richard K. Sparks, Jr.). In "Part 4: Focusing on Citizenship and Social Problem Solving" chapters include: "Promoting Civic Understanding and Civic Skills through Conceptually Based Curricula" (Alita Zurav Letwin); "Educating for Citizenship in the Early Grades" (Carolyn Pereira); "Developing Social Competence in Young Handicapped and Withdrawn Children" (James J. Fox, Mary A. McEvoy, Robert Day); and "Teaching Peace and Conflict Resolution" (Robert E. Valett). "Part 5: Epilogue" contains the final chapter, "Synthesis and Evaluation in Moral and Character Education" (Jacques S. Benninga). Contains an index. (RJC) ED396970

Berlowitz, M. J. (1994). Urban Educational Reform: Focusing on Peace Education. Paper presented at the Education and Urban Society, 27, 1, 82-95 Nov 1994. Assesses the current educational-reform movement through an examination of the effectiveness of peace education and conflict resolution programs in urban schools. The current reform movement is seen as based on assumptions that ignore the structural crisis in the U.S. economy, use as their baseline data a standard of education excellence from a Golden Age that never existed, and ignore our nation's failure to achieve egalitarian reform. (GLR) EJ495764

Bernat, V. (1993). Teaching Peace. Paper presented at the Young Children, 48, 3, 36-39 Mar 1993. Discusses and illustrates the ways in which early childhood teachers can teach preschoolers about peace. Teachers can implement two simple rules: "Don't hurt anyone," and "Use words to settle problems." Explains how these rules would be implemented in particular preschool situations. (BB) EJ460164

Birthistle, U. (2000). Peace Education: The Importance of Social Engagement Skills and a Human Rights Framework., Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 24-28, 2000). Page Length: 20. This paper is set in the context of the political problems facing Northern Ireland and the educational responses to these problems. It focuses on the importance of globally accepted human rights values to a divided society and the role of education in promulgating these. The paper discusses the methodology of human rights education in the light of educational theory about the value of experiential learning, and the importance of self-esteem and positive attitudes toward others. It defines peace as on-going conflict resolution. Examples are given of good practice where schools have transformed the atmosphere and relationships through the introduction of democratic structures and the teaching of conflict resolution skills. Educational responses to the conflict in Northern Ireland are described, set against the backdrop of recent debates about values in education and education for democratic citizenship. Finally, the paper discusses some of the debates and research which, it is hoped, will help to inform curriculum development in Northern Ireland for the 21st century. The key messages from these lend support to the arguments in the paper for a greater emphasis on the development of the core social engagement skills required for the maintenance of peaceful relationships at all levels of societylocally, nationally, and globally. (Contains 42 references.) (BT) ED441747

Bjerstadt, A., Ed. (Apr 1991). Books on Peace Education: A Selective Bibliography. Peace Education Miniprints No. 12., 25pp. For related documents in the series, see ED 335 249-250 and SO 021 281-282. Education for global perspectives and non-violent relations is increasingly seen as an important task for schools. This bibliography of monographs, articles, and reports dealing with peace education is heterogeneous in kind and the items are available from a broad range of sources. The listed materials are written in English, German, and the Scandinavian languages; most are of recent origin. (DB) ED339655

Bjerstedt, A. (1996). Peace Education in the 1990s. A Guide to Five Conference Reports from PEC. Peace Education Miniprints, No. 84., 30pp. For a commentary on the content of the conference papers listed here, see SO 028 534. This bibliography lists and indexes a total of 124 papers presented during five international conferences held during the 1990s on the topic of peace education. This miniprint aims to make it easier for peace researchers and peace educators to locate conference contributions of special interest to them. The guide has been organized into three parts: (1) a complete list of papers presented in each conference report; (2) an author index with indication of country of origin; and (3) a subject index with a number of keywords or key expressions for different kinds of paper contents. The five conferences summarized are: (1) "Education for Peace in the Nineties: A Conference Report", PEC/IPRA (Peace Education Commission/International Peace Research Association), Groningen (1990); (2) "Peace Education: Glimpses from the EURPA (European Peace Research Association) Conference in Firenze" (1991); (3) "Education for Peace: A Conference Report from Kyoto" (1992); (4) "Education for Peace: A Conference Report from Budapest" (1993); and (5) "Education for Peace: A Conference Report from Malta" (1994). (EH) ED418905 Available from: Preparedness for Peace, School of Education, Box 23501, S-20045 Malmo, Sweden.

Bjerstedt, A. (1996). Six International Conferences of PEC (The Peace Education Commission). Peace Education Miniprints No. 87., 35p. This pamphlet offers an overview of five larger reports in order to facilitate the process of locating contributions originating from five peace conferences between 1990-1994. The Peace Education Commission (PEC) arranged five conferences in Groningen (The Netherlands), Firenze (Italy), Kyoto (Japan), Budapest (Hungary) and Valletta (Malta). A conference report for each conference was published in which the contributions are presented either in full-text or summary form. The full reports were previously published by the Malmo School of Education, University of Lund (Sweden). This guide facilitates reference to contributions in peace-related education during this time. In order to update the information, the contributions at the latest 1996 PEC conference in Brisbane (Australia) have been added, although no conference report references have been made yet. Part 1 contains an introductory description and some comments relevant to the topic. Part 2 is the guide to the pamphlet with the Brisbane conference information based on personal notes, not on published conference proceedings. (EH) ED416132

Bjerstedt, A. (1996). What Have Peace Education Commission Papers Dealt with in the 1990s? Comments on a Guide to Five Conference Reports. Reprints and Miniprints, No. 857., 12pp. For a bibliography listing the 124 conference papers being commented on, see SO 028 435. Five international conferences were held during the 1990s by the Peace Education Commission, a semi-independent subgroup of the International Peace Research Association. The conferences were held in Groningen (The Netherlands), Firenze (Italy), Kyoto (Japan), Budapest (Hungary), and Valletta (Malta). This document is a brief commentary on the topics covered by the 124 papers presented at these conferences. Nineteen specific papers are mentioned in the commentary. (EH) ED418907 Available from: Department of Educational and Psychological Research, Malmo School of Education, Lund University, Box 23501, S-20045 Malmo, Sweden.

Bjerstedt, A. (1997). Monographs and Paper Collections on Peace Education: With a Focus on the Last 25 Years. Peace Education Miniprints, No. 90. This bibliography lists examples of journal articles and chapters in edited books dealing with peace education. The major focus of the bibliography is on materials from the last 25 years and are in English, German, and the Scandinavian languages. Titles of articles in the bibliography are given in the original language. If the original language is English, French, or German, no translations are provided, but in the case of other original languages, a translation of the title into English is added in square brackets. The bibliography contains over 600 citations. (Author/LB) ED428002

Bjerstedt, A. (1998 Length: 26 Page(s); 1 Microfiche). Peace Education Aids: Examples of Students' Materials and Teachers' Guides, with a Focus on the Last 25 Years. Peace Education Miniprints No. 93. Over 180 examples of peace education students' materials and teachers' guides, from the last 25 years, are listed in this bibliography. A translation of the title into English is added in square brackets if the original language is not English, French, or German. Examples of final products, preliminary versions, and material catalogs are given. Documents listed in the bibliography are not grade specific and range from pre-kindergarten to under graduate studies. A few publications in the bibliography have been marked with an asterisk as examples of comprehensive materials that may be used for analyses in course programs on peace education. (BT) ED429014

Bjerstedt, A. (1998). Articles on Peace Education. A Selective Bibliography with a Focus on the Last 25 Years. Peace Education Miniprints No. 91., For Peace Education Miniprints No. 90, see SO 029 542. This bibliography lists examples of journal articles and chapters in edited books dealing with peace education; some separate prints of article size also are included. The major focus of the bibliography is on materials in English, German, and the Scandinavian languages from the last 25 years. Titles of articles are given in the original language if the original language is English, French, or German, no translations are provided, but in the case of other original languages, a translation of the title into English is added in square brackets. The bibliography contains over 600 citations. (BT) ED428019

Bjerstedt, A. (1998). "International Understanding," "Global Perspectives" and "World Citizen Responsibility" as Educational Objectives: Examples of Publications. Peace Education Miniprints No. 96. Books, articles, and reports relevant to peace education are heterogeneous in kind and have been published in a broad range of sources. This booklet considers books and articles that do not focus on terms such as, "peace education," but that deal with partly related goals and methods utilizing terms such as, "international understanding," "internationalization," "global perspectives," and "world citizen responsibility." Titles of documents are given in the booklet in their original language. If the original language is English, French, or German, no translations are provided. In the case of other original languages, a translation of the title into English is added in square brackets. The booklet cites more than 140 documents. (BT) ED429919

Bjerstedt, A. (Apr 1994). Disarmament Education, Education for International Understanding, Global Education, Peace Education and Other Related Terms: Comments and Preferences in a Group of Experts. Peace Education Miniprints No. 61., 47p. Fifty experts, representing 22 countries provide their comments and views on the use of terms such as "disarmament education" and "peace education" in international debates. Part 1 of the report presents a summarization of the major characteristics of the answers. Some of the interviewees emphasize that the terms are not interchangeable and that it is useful to be equipped with a variety of terms in dealing with this group of educational endeavors. Separate discussions present the view of the terms "education for international understanding," "disarmament education," "global education," "peace education," and other terms. Some of the experts indicate that there is a need for flexibility of terms and for new terms. Part 2 gives more detailed documentation of the 50 interview replies. (CK) ED377110

Bjerstedt, A. (Apr 1994). Peace-Related Education in Schools - Then and Now. Fifty Experts Look Back on Their Own School and Evaluate the Present Situation in Their Country. Educational and Psychological Interactions No. 117., 75p. The project group "Preparedness for Peace" at the Malmo School of Education in Sweden studies various prerequisites for peace education in school and various possibilities of carrying out peace-related activities at different school levels. A broad goal is to increase knowledge of possible ways of helping children and young people to deal constructively with the issues of peace and war. As a part of that work, viewpoints are collected via interviews with people who have worked with peace education issues theoretically and practically. In this report, answers related to the "then and now" aspect of peace-related education in schools are dealt with. On the one hand, were there some aspects in the interviewees' old schools that might be considered attempts at peace education? On the other hand, do they believe that schools in their own country, as they know them today, contribute to peace education? Answers to these questions from 50 experts representing 22 countries are documented and discussed. Mapping of ideas and generation of ideas are solicited. Even though such viewpoints are obviously different from fact collecting surveys, the interviewers considered memories and judgments from an expert group to be of some interest per se and thought that such reported impressions could also contribute to understanding of how peace education is conceptualized by these experts. Part 1 of this report presents an attempt to summarize some major aspects of the two themes, while parts 2 and 3 give a more detailed documentation of the interview answers. More information about the 50 experts is available in a separate report. (DK) ED382497

Bjerstedt, A., Ed. (1990). Peace, Environment and Education. Paper presented at the 64p. This special issue contains five sections. In the first part, "Papers," one full- length paper (Lennart Vriens) and a selection of paper summaries from a recent international conference on peace education are included. The second part, "People and Perspectives," presents an interview with Tom Roderick of the U.S. organization, Educators for Social Responsibility. The third part, "Places," reports on two major conferences (Groningen I and Groningen II) on peace education. The fourth part, "Publications", is an annotated bibliography of some recent publications (basic books, dissertations, journals, and additional information) related to peace education. The final section, Postscripts, presents information about archives, a selected listing of conferences, organizations that collect peace education materials, and a description of the UNESCO Peace Education Prize Ceremony for 1990. (DB) ED336314

Bjerstedt, A., Ed. (1990). Perspectives on Peace Education: Interviews with Experts from Fourteen Countries. Educational Information and Debate. 89., 206pp. For a related document, see SO 030 289. The project group, Preparedness for Peace, at the Malmo School of Education in Sweden studies ways of helping children and young people deal constructively with questions of peace and war. As part of this work, the project collects viewpoints on the role of schools in pursuit of "peace preparedness." A number of experts with special interest and competence in areas related to peace education are interviewed. This book presents conversations with 14 individuals, representing 14 different countries and a variety of professional backgrounds. (Author) ED334144

Bjerstedt, A., Ed. (1992). Peace Education around the World. Some Expert Interviews. Educational Information and Debate 97., 95p. The project group "Preparedness for Peace," working at the Department of Educational and Psychological Research, Malmo School of Education in Sweden, explores ways of helping children and young people to deal constructively with questions of peace and war. As part of its work, the project group collects viewpoints on the role of schools in pursuit of "peace preparedness." A number of experts with special interests and competences in areas related to peace education have been interviewed. This report presents such conversations with 10 experts: James Calleja (from Malta), James Collinge (New Zealand); Henk B. Gerritsma and Daan Verbaan (The Netherlands), Petra Hesse (the United States), David Hicks (England), Mitsuo Okamoto (Japan), Paul Rogers (Northern Ireland) and Maura Ward (Ireland), and Bogdan Rowinski (Poland). (Author) ED362427

Bjerstedt, A., Ed. (1993). Peace Museums: For Peace Education? Educational Information and Debate No. 102., 54p. This booklet is intended to stimulate discussion about the potential influence of peace museums as a way to educate the public about peace. Four papers are included representing four somewhat different perspectives. The first paper, "The Environment for Peace Education: The Peace Museum Idea" (Terence Duffy), outlines the origins and the growth of the peace museum idea and discusses categories of such museums, especially the Irish Peace Museum Project. The second article, "On the Creative Principles, Message, and Thematic Content of a Peace Museum" (Peter van den Dungen), details some of the principles and content of a peace museum, presenting a general outline of 18 possible major themes. The third paper, "A Peace Museum as a Center for Peace Education: What do Japanese Students Think of Peace Museums" (Kazuyo Yamane), discusses present trends and possibilities in the peace museum field. The final essay, "Peace Museums as Potential Instruments of Peace Education: Viewpoints Expressed by Members of the PEC Network" (Ake Bjerstedt), provides responses to a questionnaire about the positive interest in the idea of peace museums as potential instruments for peace education, based on 60 respondents from 25 different countries. (EH) ED388530

Bjerstedt, A., Ed. (1993). Peace/War Issues from a Psychological Perspective. A Selective Bibliography. Revised., 57pp. For earlier edition, see ED 351 253. This bibliography lists publications related to peace education and the psychological aspects of war and peace. The publications are from around the world and the majority are written in English. (DB) ED364444

Bjerstedt, A., Ed. (1993). Visions of Peace Education: Interviews with the Five Former Executive Secretaries of the Peace Education Commission. Educational Information Debate 99., 49p. The Peace Education Commission (PEC), a subgroup of the IPRA (The International Peace Research Association), was established to facilitate international cooperation among individuals interested in peace education and research related to peace education. PEC is coordinated by a Council and an Executive Secretary (at present Ake Bjerstedt). The full list of former Executive Secretaries of PEC contains five persons who have served in the following order: Christoph Wulf (Germany), Magnus Haavelsrud (Norway), Robert Aspeslagh (the Netherlands), Robin Burns (Australia), and Celina Garcia (Costa Rica). The present Executive Secretary interviewed these five "predecessors" about their opinions on peace education. Present PEC members and other people interested in peace education should finding the publication interesting and stimulating. (Author/DB) ED360236

Bjerstedt, A., Ed. (1994). Education beyond Fatalism and Hate: Some Principles and Procedures in Peace- Related Educational Efforts. Educational Information and Debate 103., 101p. This small book presents six articles from the journal "Peace, Environment and Education," published by the Peace Education Commission. The articles have been chosen to give a broad range of illustrations of principles and procedures in peace-related education efforts in the 1990s. The contents are as follows: (1) "Education beyond Hate" (Morton Deutsch); (2) "Education beyond Fatalism and Impoverished Social Imagination: Are We Actively Listening to Young People's Voices on the Future?" (Francis P. Hutchinson); (3) "Peace Education across the Curriculum: Some Perspectives from New Zealand" (James Collinge); (4) "The Teaching of Conflict Resolution and Nonviolence in Australian Schools: A Context for Peace Education" (Max Lawson); (5) "Peace Education in Teacher Training: Some Examples" (Hanns-Fred Rathenow); and (6) "Conflict-Mitigation: Philosophy and Methodology" (Jan Oberg). (EH) ED383639

Bjerstedt, A., Ed. (Apr 1991). Articles on Peace Education: A Selective Bibliography. Peace Education Miniprints No. 14., 19p. This miniprint lists examples of journal articles and chapters in edited books explicitly dealing with peace education. The major focus is on materials in English, German, and the Scandinavian languages from recent years. (Author) ED345960

Bjerstedt, A., Ed. (Apr 1991). Psychological Aspects of Peace/War Issues: A Selective Bibliography. Peace Education Miniprints No. 16., 26p. Teachers can be more effective and efficient as peace educators, if they know about the typical conceptions and other psychological prerequisites of their students. In addition, psychological components are important in most conflict and war situations. This bibliography provides examples of publications containing studies or discussion related to psychological aspects of war and peace and of peace education. Among the themes touched upon are psychological aspects of violent conflict resolution, psychological principles underlying effective responses to war threats, psychological effects of war and peace, and the empowerment of individuals and groups to become more involved in and effective at peace-promoting activities. Many of the studies of the 1980s dealt with reactions to the nuclear war threat. The major focus of the bibliography is on materials written in English from recent years, with additional drawn from German and Scandinavian publications. Six of the more basic publications have been marked with asterisks. (Author/DB) ED345961

Bjerstedt, A., Ed. (Apr 1993). Fifty Peace Educators: Self-Portraits in Passing from Twenty-Two Countries. Peace Education Reports No. 7., 82p. The project group "Preparedness for Peace" of the Department of Education and Psychological Research, Malmo School of Education, Sweden, explores ways of helping children and young people deal constructively with questions of peace and war. As part of its work, the project group collects viewpoints on the role of schools in pursuit of "peace preparedness." In this regard, experts with special interests and competencies in areas related to peace education have been interviewed by the project. This document presents excerpts from interviews with 50 peace educators representing 22 different countries. Answers given by interviewees to the question "As an introduction, could you say a few words about yourself and your interest in the field of peace education?" are the focus of the report. (DB) ED359138

Bjerstedt, A., Ed. (Apr 1993). Peace Education: Perspectives from Germany and Israel. Interviews with Haim Gordon (Israel) and Christoph Wulf (Germany). Peace Education Miniprints No. 44., 19pp. Sponsored by the "Preparedness for Peace" project. The project group "Preparedness for Peace" at the Lund University Malmo School of Education in Sweden studies ways of helping children and young people to deal constructively with questions of peace and war. As part of this work, experts with special interests in competence in areas related to peace education are interviewed. This publication explores the views of Haim Gordon from Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel, and Christoph Wulf from Freie Universitat, Berlin, Germany. Haim Gordon has worked with Jews and Arabs on education for peace in accordance with the philosophy of Martin Buber. Christoph Wulf is one of the founders of the Peace Education Commission and the editor of early handbooks on peace education in German and English (1973-74). (Author) ED370831
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Curran, J. M. (1996). Peace Pilgrim: A Readers Theatre Approach to Peace Education., 15pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New York, NY, April 1996). Readers theater is a dramatic art that directs attention to the words of a text. During a performance, a reader (rather than an actor) presents and interprets the work within a narrative context intended by the author. In this project, the text, a collection of the words and writings of a woman known as the Peace Pilgrim, tells the story of her 28-year pilgrimage for peace. This text reflects a transformational approach to peace education; it promotes living a life that is nonviolent at every level. Participants in the study were 10 college students enrolled in an independent study. Results of the study are discussed with regard to five issues: (1) students' choice to participate in the study; (2) students' reactions to Peace Pilgrim as a potential role model; (3) students' reactions to the use of readers theater as a curriculum tool; (4) changes in students' attitudes toward peace education; and (5) changes in students' emotional reactions to the concept of world peace. Student reaction to the readers theater project was enthusiastic; as a method for peace education, readers theater, although performance based, was relatively non-threatening. Creating and performing a readers theater requires active participation and provides students with a sense of accomplishment because their work results in a tangible project (script) and production (performance). An "Education Priorities Survey" is attached. (ND) ED413296

Cunningham, P. M. (1991). What's the Role of Adult Educators? Paper presented at the Adult Learning, 3, 1, 15-16,27 Sep 1991. Discusses the increasing importance of peace studies and the role of adult educators. (JOW) EJ430772

Crowe, C. (2000). Peace-keeping Forces: YA War Books. Paper presented at the Theme: A Curriculum of Peace. Argues that good young adult books about war can help teenagers appreciate the blessings of peace and the horrors of war, and perhaps may inspire them to do what they can to preserve peace. Describes briefly 71 young adult war books worth reading. (SR) EJ604763

Crothers, S. M. (1916). Pleasures of an absentee landlord, and other essays. New York,: Houghton Mifflin Co. Ps3505.r92

Crombez, M. M., Ed., & Mangigian, L., Ed. (1999). Offspring, 1999. Paper presented at the For 1998 issues, see ED 427 878. Published twice a year. Photographs may not reproduce well. Page Length: 58. This document consists of the two 1999 issues of a magazine for parents, teachers, Others involved in cooperative nursery schools. The magazine is designed to provide a forum for views on dealing with young children, express a variety of ideas, promote the cooperative philosophy, and enhance the relationships of those involved in cooperative nursery schools. The Spring 1999 issue contains the following articles: (1) "Parents Do Matter! An Interview with Dr. Nicholas Abraham" (Lisa Mangigian); (2) "Adventures in Living" (Kate Cole); (3) "'What Do You Do?' Career Parenting in the 90s" (David Bard); (4) "Building Moral Foundations: Character Education for Children" (Karen L. Pace); (5) "Making Peace with Your Mother" (Lynn Sipher); and (6) "Understanding the TV Rating System" (Mary Margaret Crombez). The Fall 1999 issue contains the following articles: (1) "Is It My Turn to Work?" (Carole M. Grates); (2) "Pass the Peace, Please: Teaching Young Children To Live Peacefully" (Holly E. Brophy-Herb); (3) "Massage for Children: More than Just a Hug!" (Mary Margaret Crombez); (4) "Child Directed Learning: The Project Approach" (Mary Trepanier-Street, Lori Gregory, and Jennifer Bauer); (5) "Rewards of Co-oping: What's in It for You and Your Family" (Laura N. Sweet); (6) "Helping Hints for Nursery Parents" (Marjorie Kunz); and (7) "One Step Ahead: The First Years Last Forever."(KB) ED445811

Crews, R. J., Ed., & Weigert, K. M., Ed. (1999). Teaching for Justice: Concepts and Models for Service-Learning in Peace Studies. AAHE's Series on Service-Learning in the Disciplines., For other documents in this series, see HE 033 726-743. Initial funding for this series was supplied by Campus Compact. Page Length: 192. This volume is part of a series of 18 monographs on service learning and the academic disciplines. This volume offers a collection of essays on the integration of service learning in the field of peace studies. After a Preface by Elise Boulding and an Introduction by Kathleen Maas Weigert and Robin J. Crews, titles in Part 1, "Conceptual Essays" include: "Moral Dimensions of Peace Studies: A Case for Service-Learning" (Kathleen Maas Weigert); "Peace Studies, Pedagogy, and Social Change" (Robin J. Crews); and "Service-Learning as Education: Learning from the Experience of Experience" (Michael Schratz and Rob Walker). Chapters in Part 2, "Service-Learning in Peace Studies Programs," include: "Study, Act, Reflect, and Analyze: Service-Learning and the Program on Justice and Peace at Georgetown University" (Sam Marullo, Mark Lance, and Henry Schwarz); "Justice and Peace Studies at the University of St. Thomas" (David Whitten Smith and Michael Haasl); "Student Contributions to Public Life: Peace and Justice Studies at the University of San Francisco" (Anne R. Roschelle, Jennifer Turpin, and Robert Elias); "Peace Building through Foreign Study in Northern Ireland: The Earlham College Example" (Anthony Bing); "The International and National Voluntary Service Training Program (INVST) at the University of Colorado at Boulder" (James R. Scarritt and Seana Lowe); "The Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution's Modest Experiment in Service-Learning" (Frank Blechman); and "Peaceful Intent: Integrating Service-Learning within a Master's in International Service at Roehampton Institute London" (Christopher Walsh and Andrew Garner). Titles in Part 3, "Service-Learning Courses in Peace Studies," include: "Learning about Peace through Service: Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Colorado at Boulder" (Robin J. Crews); "Learning about Peace: Five Ways Service-Learning Can Strengthen the Curriculum" (Martha C. Merrill); "Hunger for Justice: Service-Learning in Feminist/Liberation Theology" (Michele James-Deramo); "Service-Learning in Methods of Peacemaking at Earlham College" (Howard Richards and Mary Schwendener-Holt); "Teaching Attitudes of Cultural Understanding through Service-Learning" (Mary B. Kimsey); and "A Mini-Internship in an Introductory Peace Studies Course: Contributions to Service Learning" (John MacDougall). An annotated bibliography of Internet and World Wide Web resources and national and international organizations is appended. (All papers include references.) (SM) ED449736

Crawford, D., & Bodine, R. (Oct 1996). Conflict Resolution Education. A Guide to Implementing Programs in Schools, Youth- Serving Organizations, and Community and Juvenile Justice Settings. Program Report., 145p. This guide was developed for educators, juvenile justice practitioners, Others in youth-serving organizations to increase awareness of conflict resolution education and its potential for the peaceful settlement of disputes. Conflict resolution programs can help schools promote both the individual behavior changes necessary for responsible citizenship and the systemic change necessary for a safe learning environment. The guide is designed to provide sufficient information and tools to initiate the development of comprehensive youth-centered conflict resolution programs. Chapter 1, "Understanding Conflict Resolution," defines conflict as a natural condition and presents the essential principles of conflict resolution. Each of the next four chapters discusses one of the following approaches to conflict resolution: (1) the process curriculum approach; (2) the mediation program approach (peer or other mediation); (3) the peaceable classroom approach; and (4) the peaceable school approach, a comprehensive whole-school approach. The next two chapters address conflict resolution in juvenile justice settings and in parent and community initiatives. The final three chapters consider research on conflict resolution, developmentally appropriate practices, and conflict resolution program development and implementation. Nine appendixes offer a variety of resources for establishing conflict resolution education programs, including lists for further reading, a glossary, sample forms, and a strategic program plan. (SLD) ED404426

Cram, R. A. (1922). Towards the great peace. Boston,: Marshall Jones Company. Hm101

Craig, R. J., Clarke, F. L., & Amernic, J. H. (17 December 1999). Scholarship in university business schools - Cardinal Newman, creeping corporatism and farewell to the "disturber of the peace"? Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 12(5), 51-52(52). This paper was stimulated by the chilling vision of the corporate university described by Moore and touted by numerous others. It exposes the ways in which Newman's The Idea of a University will be abrogated and transformed by corporate universities. Fundamental issues are raised about the nature and purpose of universities and about the roles of its professors and schools of business, especially in a world characterized by "the triumph of the market". An urgent plea is proferred for broader debate about the place of Corporate Universities in business higher education.

Consortium on Peace Research Education and Development (U.S.), Council on Peace Research in History., & Kent State University. Center for Peaceful Change. (1972). Peace and change ( Vol. 1). Sonoma [Calif.]: California State College. Jx1901.p248

Concerned Citizens for Human Rights (Samar Philippines), & Catholic Commission for Justice and Peace (Sydney N.S.W.). (1982). Samar Island and the Northern Samar Integrated Rural Development Project: development for the poor Samareños? [Sydney?]: Catholic Commission for Justice and Peace.

Comstock, G. A., Maccoby, N., Comstock, P., & Stanford University. Institute for Communication Research. (1966). The Peace Corps educational television (ETV) project in Colombia: two years of research. Overview of research reports no.1-10. [Stanford, Calif.]: Institute for Communication Research Stanford University.

Commager, H. S., & Chase, J. W. (1949). Years of the modern; an American appraisal ( 1st edition. ed.). New York,: Longmans Green. E169.1

Collings, D., & Canadian Institute for International Peace and Security. (1994). Peace for Lebanon?: from war to reconstruction. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers. Ds87.p43 1994 956.9204/4

Collinge, J. (Nov 1993). Peace Education across the Curriculum: Some Perspectives from New Zealand. Peace Education Miniprints No. 52., 24p. This paper argues that issues of peace and war and related environmental and social questions ought to form part of the curriculum of a truly democratic education system. The aim of these studies is not to indoctrinate young people into predetermined positions with respect to controversial questions, but, quite the opposite, to help them develop into independently thinking and questioning adults. An emphasis is placed on the skills students should develop in peace education, such as the principles of presenting a well-considered argument, concern for evidence and logic, and an awareness of bias. One model put forward is Paolo Freire's education for critical consciousness through the study of generative themes. Controversial issues such as those dealt with in peace education should not be limited to older students. Even quite complex issues, such as nuclear weapons, are of concern to young children and should be dealt with at a level appropriate to their development. This is true even in early childhood education, where the desire of some children to play war games could be the basis for political and social education. The second part of the paper looked at curriculum developments in New Zealand education, in which, even though there is no official support for peace education, there is scope within the new curriculum for concerned teachers to deal with peace issues. Learning peace, however, is more than just curriculum development; it is concerned with the process of education as much as with content. Contains 26 references. (DK) ED370869

Collinge, J. (Nov 1992). Peace Education in New Zealand. Peace Education Miniprints No. 37., 12p. This paper reports that the story of peace education in New Zealand has been one of extremes. While there has been some interest in the subject for decades, it was only in the 1980s that there was any serious activity and widespread debate. In 1984, the conservative National government, which had ruled the country for 9 years, was replaced by a Labour government. An important part of the new Labour government's policy was a strong commitment to a nuclear free New Zealand. As a part of this commitment, there was a strong effort, particularly from 1984 to 1987, to introduce peace education into New Zealand schools. This efforts proved to be extremely controversial. A conservative government was elected in 1990 and the commitment to peace education from the government ended. However, regardless of the official position, peace education seems to have strong support in many quarters. (Contains 10 references.) (DB) ED358008

Collinge, J. (1997). Peace Education through the Arts. Peace Education Miniprints, No. 89., 14p. This paper explores the role the arts can play in peace education, an area of interest that has received little attention. Peace education is usually integrated into other content areas such as social studies, history, language, or science. The booklet emphasizes the development of imagination in art education. Students can be brought to envision previously unimagined possibilities to creatively visualize preferable worlds and thus be empowered to ponder and work for alternatives to violence and war in conflict situations. (EH) ED426008 Available from: Lund University, Malmo School of Education, Box 23501, S-200 45, Malmo, Sweden. You may be able to order this document from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service.

Coldwater (Mich.). Photographs, drawings, and examination papers of the Coldwater (Mich.) Public Schools, 1876; financial records, 1861-1882; justice of the peace docket book, 1896-1918; tax assessment roll, 1845.

Coghlan, R. (2000). The Teaching of Anti-Violence Strategies within the English Curriculum. Paper presented at the Theme: A Curriculum of Peace. Argues that the English classroom is a fitting place to integrate anti-violence teaching into the academic curriculum. Describes how English teachers can teach conflict resolution strategies, instill respect for cultural diversity, provide an atmosphere for cooperative learning while acknowledging controversy, and heighten empathy and respect by integrating violence prevention strategies into the content of the English curriculum. (SR) EJ604752

Christie, D. J. (1991). The Measurement of Psychological Constructs in Peace Education., 28pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association (98th, Boston, MA, August 10-14, 1991). Peace education research typically is designed to evaluate the effects of a single lesson or a group of lessons (unit) on some attitudinal or learning outcomes. The current research was designed to evaluate a set of procedures for identifying a mix of peace education lessons that desirably impact on students. Three curriculum consultants were employed to review and rate more than 300 commercially available lessons in terms of the expected impact of each lesson on four psychological constructs: ethnocentrism, political efficacy, conflict resolution skills, and prosocial orientation. Subsequently, the most highly rated lessons for each construct were assembled into four curricula (units) and then field tested with a sample of 1,398 eighth through twelfth grade students. Students were assigned to one of the curriculum groups or to a no-curriculum control group. Measures of the four psychological constructs were administered in a pre-posttest fashion. Critical thinking, political orientation (liberal- conservative) and other measures were also obtained. Results indicated that while all the psychological measures were affected by some of the lessons, curriculum consultants were unable to predict which particular measures would be affected by which particular lessons. Since well-trained and experienced curriculum consultants were unable to predict the impact of lessons on students, the results suggest that the outcomes of peace education instruction should be carefully evaluated. Psychologists and the emerging field of peace psychology can make a major contribution to peace education. A collaborative relationship between psychologists and peace educators is recommended with psychologists developing tools for measurement, assisting in program design and analysis, and providing theory guided peace education content. A list of 28 references is included. (Author) ED347105

Cho, Y. o.-s., & Institute of International Peace Studies. (1983). Peace studies. [Seoul, Korea]: Kyung Hee University Press.

Childs, J. B. (1997). The New Youth Peace Movement: Creating Broad Strategies for Community Renaissance in the Unites States. Paper presented at the Social Justice, 24, 4, 247-57 1997. More than 6,021 groups have been identified that work to bring peace to urban streets in constructive ways. Approaches that can help bring these groups together as exemplified by the Youth Peace Movement are discussed. The transcommunal approach of the Youth Peace Movement brings together many allies at the grass roots level. (SLD) EJ563507

Chetkow-Yanoov, B. (1996). Conflict-Resolution Skills Can be Taught. Paper presented at the Peabody Journal of Education, 71, 3, 12-28 1996. Discusses the development of three different curricula for teaching conflict resolution to students in the Israeli public schools. Explains curriculum goals, presents eight examples of available teaching technologies appropriate for students in different age groups (e.g., peer mediation and second-language learning), and discusses creative communication in the midst of conflict. (SM) EJ582878

Chapman, W. K., & Manson, J. M. (1998). Women in the milieu of Leonard and Virginia Woolf: peace, politics, and education. New York: Pace University Press.

CBS News., & Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. (1992). Cbs News/New York Times National Survey, June 3-6, 1991. Ann Arbor, Mich. (P.O. Box 1248, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248/(313)763-5010): Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor]. In addition to providing an ongoing evaluation of the Bush presidency, this survey polled respondents on a variety of social and political topics including political parties, economics, racism, the Persian Gulf War, patriotism, Mikhail Gorbachev and the Soviet Union, China, and health care policy. Respondents were asked whether they approved of George Bush's handling of the presidency, foreign policy, and the economy. Detailed queries on political topics included items on the most important problem facing the country and the party that could best handle it, and the party best able to control unemployment, reduce the federal deficit, keep the United States out of war, deal with foreign economic competition, and insure the prosperity of the country. Respondents were also asked which party was more concerned with the needs of people like themselves, which was more likely to make sure that United States military defenses are strong and that children get a better education in the public schools, which was more likely to improve the health care system, which party favored the rich, the middle class, and the poor, which party cared more about the needs and problems of women, men, Blacks, and Whites, and which was more likely to waste tax money. Economic questions focused on whether trade restrictions were necessary to protect domestic industries, what the condition of the national economy was, whether the United States was in an economic recession, and whether the economy was getting better. Questions concerning racism asked whether preference should be given to hiring Blacks where there had been discrimination in the past, whether preferential hiring or promotion of Blacks hurts Whites, and whether the respondent had ever been discriminated against. Questions focusing on the Persian Gulf War included whether the war to defeat Iraq was worth the cost, whether the results of the war would make the chance for peace in the Middle East more likely, whether the United States should have stopped fighting when Iraqi troops left Kuwait or continued fighting Iraq until Saddam Hussein was removed from power, if the respondent felt proud about what the United States had done in the Persian Gulf, and whether the United States made a mistake by getting involved in the war against Iraq. [Cf. http://www.icpsr.umich.edu for full text of summary] Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor]

Catholic Church. Pope. (1963). Seven great encyclicals. Glen Rock, N. J.,: Paulist Press. 262.8 C28s

Catholic Church. Pope 1922-1939 (Pius XI). (1929). Encyclical letter of His Holiness Pius Xi, by divine providence, Pope: to the patriarchs, primates, archbishops, bishops and other ordinaries in peace and communion with the Apostolic See, and to all the faithful of the Catholic World on Christian Education of Youth. New York: Paulist Press. Bx873

Cassidy, K. J., & Bischak, G. A. (1993). Real security: converting the defense economy and building peace. Albany: State University of New York Press. Hc79.d4 r43 1993

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Division of International Law. (1921). Shantung: treaties and agreements. Washington: The Endowment. Casals, P., & Stern, I. Casals, a living portrait, in his own words. Ml418

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Division of Intercourse and Education. (1928). Le Centre européen de la Division des relations internationales et de l'éducation: fondation, administration, activité. Paris,: Centre européen de la Dotation Carnegie.

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Division of Intercourse and Education. (1925). Enquête sur les livres scolares d'aprés guerre. Paris,: Centre Eurpoéen de la Dotation Carnegie. Lb3045

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Division of Intercourse and Education. (1920). American foreign policy, based upon statements of presidents and secretaries of state of the United States and of publicists of the American republics. Washington, D.C.,. Jx1405

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Division of Intercourse and Education., Ishii, K., Iyenaga, T., & Clarke, J. I. C. (1918). The Imperial Japanese mission, 1917; a record of the reception throughout the United States of the special mission headed by Viscount Ishii; together with the exchange of notes embodying the Root-Takahira understanding of 1908 and the Lansing-Ishii agreement of 1917. Washington, D. C.: [Press of B. S. Adams]. Ds849.u6

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Division of Intercourse and Education., Ishii, K., Iyenaga, T., & Clarke, J. I. C. (1918). The Imperial Japanese mission, 1917: a record of the reception throughout the United States of the special mission headed by Viscount Ishii; together with the exchange of notes embodying the Root-Takahira understanding of 1908 and the Lansing-Ishii agreement of 1917. Washington, D.C.: Press of Byron S. Adams. E183.8.j3 c2

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace., American Association for International Conciliation., & Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Division of Intercourse and Education. (1972). International conciliation ( Vol. -no. 587). New York: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. In 16

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace., American Association for International Conciliation., & Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Division of Intercourse and Education. (1907). International conciliation ( Vol. [No.] 1). New York: American Branch of the Association for International Conciliation.

Cangelosi, B. R. (2000). "Who You Dissin', Dude?" At-Risk Students Learn Assertive Communication Skills. Paper presented at the Theme: A Curriculum of Peace. Describes a four-week unit developed by the author to teach her at-risk high school students assertive communication as a means of empowerment, a way of taking control of situations. Describes organizing the content and implementing the curriculum, and notes students' positive and enthusiastic feedback. (SR) EJ604757

Calleja, J., & Daffern, T. (Feb 1992). Peace Education: Perspectives from Malta and England. Peace Education Miniprints No. 25., 23p. The project group "Preparedness for Peace" at the Malmo School of Education in Sweden studies ways of helping children and young people to deal constructively with questions of peace and war. As part of this work, experts with special interest and competence in areas related to peace education are interviewed. This publication explores the views of James Calleja and Thomas Daffern. James Calleja is executive director of the Foundation for International Studies at the University of Malta and coordinator of its peace education activities. Thomas Daffern is involved in various activities related to peace studies at the Institute of Education, University of London, as a teacher and as a researcher and development officer. (Author) ED353187

Calleja, J., Chi*toran, D., & Bjerstedt, Å. (1995). International education and the university. London Bristol, Pa. Paris: J. Kingsley; Unesco.
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_____. (Dec 1990). Peace Education, World Studies, Global Futures. David Hicks and the Project "Preparedness for Peace." Peace Education Miniprints No. 7., 14pp. For a related document, see SO 021 150. This document contains an interview with David Hicks, an educator in England active in promoting the practice of peace education. (The interviewer was Ake Bjerstedt.) Peace education is described as a process that seeks to promote students' autonomy; foster debate and dialogue between students and teachers; and help young people to understand some of the origins of conflicts and various concepts of peace. The current state of peace education in schools in England, existing peace education projects, what teachers can do to teach peace, how teachers should be trained, and perceptions and misperceptions of peace education and related terms are among the topics discussed. (DB) ED335249

_____. (Dec 1990). Literacy for Peace and Human Rights. Paper presented at the 92p. This publication contains 11 papers, all of which reflect the emphasis on literacy that continues to dominate adult education at the end of International Literacy Year. The papers include four presentations from conferences related to literacy held in 1990, one on literacy and peace held in Indonesia and one on literacy in China held in Macao. The 11 papers are: "Literacy and Peace Education: A Maori Viewpoint" (Te Ripowai Pauline Higgins); "The Consumer Movement's Efforts in Peace Building" (Joe Selvaretnam); "Fijian Literacy: Visions for a Literate Community" (Joseph Veramu); "Past, Present, and Future of Literacy Education in Korea" (Soon Chul Ko); "Education Is the Answer" (Catherine Tseng); "Why Adult Literacy?" (Inayatullah); "Literacy and Literacy Activities in Japan" (Ken Motoki, Mimoru Mori); "Strategies for Literacy and Functional Literacy" (W. M. K. Wijetunga); "Literacy and Peace Education" (A. T. Ariyaratne); "Weaving New Life" (Thailand Foundation for Women); and "The Intercommunity Roles of Adult Educators and Extension Workers" (James Draper). An annotated list of eight resources and a review of a book by Edwin Townsend-Coles on non-formal education in Botswana conclude this journal. (NLA) ED328711

Dyson, R. A. (1991). Adult Education and the Mass Media: Challenges for Peace and Non-Violence. Paper presented at the Adult Learning, 3, 1, 20,27 Sep 1991. The traditional approach to educationtraining new generations of teachers to teach new generations of studentsis outmoded. The communications industry alone has the capacity to educate on the scale needed in the time available. It is essential that adult educators work within the mass media. (Author/JOW) EJ430773

Dungen, P. v. d. (Oct 1993). On the Creative Principles, Message and Thematic Content of a Peace Museum. Peace Education Miniprints No. 49., 14p. The struggle for peace is a story filled with action, drama, and heroism that should be presented in a peace museum based on a careful selection of themes and the events, individuals, and movements within each theme. An outline provides 18 possible major themes to be addressed in the content of a peace museum in order to present a comprehensive picture of the history and evolution of peace: (1) the unity and fragility of the globe; (2) the experience of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; (3) the anti-nuclear weapons movement; (4) wars and weapons of the post-1945 world; (5) oppositional movements to the military threat and the militarisation of society; (6) the idea of peace in antiquity and in the world's religions; (7) the faithfulness to the pacifist doctrine of heretical sects in the Christian world in the Middle Ages; (8) the enlightenment and the growth of the peace sentiment; (9) following the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815; (10) the development of the organized peace movement in the second half of the 19th century; (11) official endeavors for peace, arbitration, growth of international law in the decades leading up to 1914; (12) the radical and socialist peace movements before 1914; (13) the fate of war-resisters in World War I; (14) developments during the inter-war period; (15) international organizations in the post-1945 world; (16) domestic oppression and injustice and the non-violent struggle against it; (17) academic concerns about the causes of war and violence following World Wars I and II; and (18) the growth of international law. (CK) ED370866

Duhon-Sells, R. M., Cooley, S. M., & Duhon, G. M. (1999). The developmental process of positive attitudes and mutual respect: a multicultural approach to advocating school safety. Lewiston, N.Y.: E. Mellen Press.

Duhan, K. L. (October 2000). A Trio of Books Applying the Ethic of Care: Personal, Institutional, and Global Dimensions. Museum International, 52(4), 516-526(511). Books reviewed in this article:Towards a Caring Society: Ideas into Action, by Pearl M. Oliner and Samuel P. OlinerCaring in an Unjust World: Negotiating Borders and Barriers in Schools, edited by Deborah Eaker-Rich and Jane Van GalenLearning Peace: The Promise of Ecological and Cooperative Education, edited by Betty Reardon and Eva Nordland with the assistance of Peter Zuber

Duffy, T. (Oct 1993). An Environment for Peace Education: The Peace Museum Idea. Peace Education Miniprints, No. 48., 14p. Societies all over the world have museums to commemorate war and war heroes. A world-wide growth of peace museums addresses the issue of museums to celebrate peace. These museums, grounded in the activities of nationals, have a regional base but embody a larger international quest for peace education through the visual arts. The original type of peace museum is the anti-war museum. A second type is the issue-based museum such as in Hiroshima and Nagasaki that developed as a response to atomic bombs and the nuclear age. A third strand of peace museum focuses on the celebration of humanitarian work. Modern peace museums have a multi-faceted approach that encapsulates the world-wide quest for peace. These museums constitute a vital force for non-formal peace work and an opportunity for peace educators. (CK) ED370865

Duffy, T. (Nov 1992). Peace Education in a Hostile Environment: The Divided Society of Northern Ireland. Peace Education Miniprints No. 35., 17p. This paper explores the issue of peace education in Northern Ireland in its broadest sense. It looks not merely at peace education per se but also at the sectarian context of schooling and at a variety of anti-sectarian initiatives. In recent years there have been several peace education ventures in Northern Ireland reflecting the statutory responsibility of the education and training agencies in the promotion of peace. These efforts have occurred at a variety of levels (none of them mutually exclusive from one another) but the principal venues have been the schools, youth and community agencies, and the higher education and adult education sectors. The schemes pioneered by these diverse organizations have ranged from holiday projects involving groups of Catholic and Protestant children to programs of study on Northern Ireland history and politics to various types of cross-community contact schemes in a variety of institutional and non- institutional settings. A relatively new feature on the scene is the work of the Community Relations Council (CRC) which has programs in the areas of reconciliation and community skills training. The CRC was established in January 1990 as an independent organization (with substantial government funding) and charged with the task of promoting better community relations and the recognition of cultural diversity. In recent years the Department of Education in Northern Ireland has developed the notion of Education for Mutual Understanding as a basic strategy of encouraging appreciation of a divided heritage and community. The possibilities as well as the problems of implementation of many of these ideas are the subject of this paper. (Contains 36 references.) (Author) ED358006

Dovey, V. (Dec 1994). Exploring Peace Education in South African Settings. Peace Education Miniprints No. 68., 28p. This paper provides a synopsis of a research report done by the Youth Project of the Centre for Conflict Resolution (CCR), an autonomous institute with the University of Cape Town. In 1992 the Human Sciences Research Council initiated a cooperative research programme into South African youth and the problems and challenges they face. CCR was commissioned to participate and submit a report on conflict resolution and peacemaking among youth. The synopsis of the report is divided into three sections. Section 1 focuses on the needs of South African children and youth and asks: (1) What do our young people say? and (2) What do educationists say? Section 2 focuses on an overview of peace education programmatic and research initiatives. Section 3 examines the way forward with: (1) Peace Education for South African youngsters in both the school and the wider community; (2) Some cautionary thoughts in regards to terminology, schools, and parents; and (3) Research directions. Contains seven references. (EH) ED384542

Dovey, V. (1996). Exploring Peace Education in South African Settings. Paper presented at the Peabody Journal of Education, 71, 3, 128-50 1996. In exploring peace education in South Africa, the paper reviews a research report on the subject, focusing on the needs of children and youth and on the range of programmatic and research initiatives already working in this field. Summarizes three issues: recommended policy guidelines related to peace education for South-African children, cautionary thoughts, and research directions. (SM) EJ582885

Dougherty, S. K. (1999). Autobiography: Telling Our Life Stories. Paper presented at the Montessori Life, 11, 1, 40-41 Win 1999. Discusses the role of student projects to provide opportunities for self-expression and self-knowledge as a first lesson in peace education. Describes activities for 3- to 6-year olds, including creating a memory book; 6- to 9-year olds, including developing an illustrated timeline of their lives and daily journaling; and for 9- to 12-year olds, including writing their autobiographies and corresponding with penpals. (KB) EJ580226

Doty, R. S. (1937). Education for peace in the United States since the World War. AM 1937 do

De Huszar, G. B. (1944). New perspectives on peace. Chicago,: University of Chicago press. Jx1952

Davies, I. (1 March 1999). What has Happened in the Teaching of Politics in Schools in England in the Last Three Decades, and Why? Oxford Review of Education, 25(1), 125-140(116). During the last three decades there have been very different approaches to political learning in schools in England. Very generally, prior to the 1960s, if anything was done explicitly, there was a concentration on learning facts about the British constitution. The late 1960s and into the 1970s saw a 'burgeoning of interest' (Heater) in political education characterised by attention to skills within a broader definition of politics than had been used in British Constitution courses. The 1980s saw the birth or, in some cases, redevelopment, of a whole raft of adjectival educations concerned with peace, development, the environment, 'race', in a way that was more holistic and affective than earlier initiatives. The current period has been described as 'the decade of the citizen' (Dahrendorf), which for most of the 1990s seems to have meant some attempt at learning about responsibilities within a framework of officially sanctioned values, and opportunities to undertake voluntary action in the local community. Very recent developments shift education for citizenship into more enlightened waters but there may be little cause for optimism that widespread implementation will occur. The reasons for such shifts are discussed and trends and consequences (actual and likely) are explored.

Darom, D. (1998). Peace Education in IsraelEncounter and Dialogue. Paper presented at the Mediterranean Journal of Educational Studies, 3, 1 p129-39 1998. Describes an educational project in Israel aimed at furthering coexistence and peace. The Children Teaching Children project is based on face-to-face encounters between Arab and Jewish junior high school classes. Outcomes of the program show considerable attitude changes in both groups and a better understanding of the Arab-Israeli conflict. (SLD) EJ571277

Dagan, M., & Al-Aarj, S. (1998). Proposed Curriculum, Written by: The Peace Education Forum for Palestinian and Israeli Educators., Supported by "People to People Program.". This booklet is the result of more than one year of meetings from 1997 to 1998 between 16 Palestinian and Jewish Israeli educators from both formal and informal educational systems. The establishment of this forum was supported by the "People to People Program" whose main goal is to enhance dialogue and relations between Palestinians and Israelis based on equality and reciprocity. The booklet documents long discussions of difficult issues, of insights from those discussions, and of the will and commitment of all the participants to educate for peace and dialogue in both societies. The booklet includes the description of the group process, activities on four different subjects, and the impressions of some of the participants. The proposed activities in the booklet represent just the first draft. The group will continue to meet and to use the proposed activities in their schools. After getting feedback from the students about the activities, the educators will work to improve them. (BT) ED434066
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Erasmus, D., Jardine, L., Cheshire, N. M., & Heath, M. J. (1997). The education of a Christian prince. Cambridge, U.K. ; New York: Cambridge University Press.

Erasmus, D., & Born, L. K. (1968). The education of a Christian prince. New York,: W.W. Norton & co.

Erasmus, D., & Born, L. K. (1965). The education of a Christian prince. New York: Octagon Books.

Erasmus, D., & Corbett, P. E. (1921). Erasmus' "Institutio principis christiani.". London,: Sweet and Maxwell limited.

Egendorf, L. K., Ed., & Hurley, J. A., Ed. (1999 Length: 190 Page(s)). Teens at Risk: Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints Series. Contributions in this collection present opposing viewpoints about factors that put teens at risk; illustrate how society can deal with teenage crime and violence; show how to prevent teen pregnancy; and present the roles of the media and government in teen substance abuse. The following essays are presented: (1) "A Variety of Factors Put Teens at Risk" (Gene Stephens); (2) "Teens Are Not at Risk" (Kirk A. Astroth); (3) "Media Violence Puts Teens at Risk" (Mona Chaten); (4) "Media Violence Does Not Put Teens at Risk" (Mike Males); (5) "The Absence of Fathers Puts Teens at Risk" (Wade F. Horn); (6) "The Absence of Fathers Does Not Put Teens at Significant Risk" (Stephanie Coontz); (7) "Inconsistent Messages about Morality Put Teens at Risk" (Edward Grimsley); (8) "Gay Teens Are at Risk" (Rosemarie Buchanan); (9) "Violent Juvenile Criminals Should Be Treated as Adults" (Linda J. Collier); (10) "Juvenile Criminals Should Not Be Treated as Adults" (William Ayres); (11) "Gang Injunctions Can Prevent Teenage Violence" (Roger L. Conner); (12) "Gang-Loitering Ordinances Are an Objectionable Approach to Reducing Teenage Violence" (George Brooks); (13) "Juvenile Boot Camps Can Be Effective in Addressing Teenage Crime" (Eric Peterson); (14) "Juvenile Boot Camps Do Not Reduce Teenage Crime" (Margaret Beyer); (15) "Peace Education Can Help Reduce Teenage Violence" (Colman McCarthy); (16) "Community Based Efforts Can Help Reduce Teenage Violence" (Robert L. Woodson, Sr.); (17) "Teaching Abstinence Helps Avert Teen Pregnancy" (Maggie Gallagher); (18) "Teaching Abstinence Puts Teens at Risk of Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Diseases" (M. Jocelyn Elders); (19) "Long-Term Contraceptive Devices Can Help Prevent Teen Pregnancy" (Margaret P. Battin); (20) "Long-Term Contraceptive Devices Promote Teen Promiscuity" (Richard John Neuhaus); (21) "Enforcing Statutory Rape Laws Can Help Reduce Teen Pregnancy" (Ralph deToledano); (22) "Enforcing Statutory Rape Laws Will Not Reduce Teen Pregnancy" (Catherine Elton); (23) "Ending Welfare Will Help Reduce Teen Pregnancy" (William J. Bennett and Peter Wehner); (24) "Ending Welfare Will Not Reduce Teen Pregnancy" (Kristin A. Moore); (25) "The Media Encourage Teen Substance Abuse" (Barry R. McCaffrey); (26) "The Media Exaggerate the Extent of Teen Substance Abuse" (Mike Males); (27) "An Inadequate Government Antidrug Effort Has Contributed to the Problem of Teen Drug Abuse" (Rob Portman); (28) "An Inadequate Government Antidrug Effort Is Not Responsible for Teen Drug Abuse" (Jacob Sullum); (29) "The Government Should Combat Teen Smoking" (Donna E. Shalala); and (30) "Government Efforts To Combat Teen Smoking Are Unnecessary and Wasteful" (Edwin Feulner and D. T. Armentano). (Contains 4 figures, 4 tables, and 40 references.) (SLD) ED428155

Educational Policies Commission. (1944). Learning about education and the peace. Washington, D.C.,: Educational policies commission National education association of the United States and the American association of school administrators.

Educational Policies Commission. (1943). Education and the people's peace. Washington, D.C.,: National education association of the United States and the American association of school administrators.

Ecumenical Task Force on Christian Education for World Peace. (1979). Try this: family adventures toward shalom. Nashville: Discipleship Resources. Jx1953
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