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Index: Methodologies

Meta-Evaluations (1998)

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A

Ahmad, M. (1995). Texas Nutrition Education and Training Program for Federal Fiscal Year 1995. Final Evaluation Report. The Nutrition Education and Training (NET) program is one of the Child Nutrition Programs (CNP) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The program was established in 1977 in an amendment to the Child Nutrition Act. This report focuses on evaluation and needs assessment of the Texas state program conducted during the fiscal year 1995, and offers recommendations for future program development. The publication is in four parts. Part 1 is an Executive Summary. Part 2, "Outreach of the NET Program," describes the nutrition education workshops developed by NET; the NET Lending Library; development and distribution of instructional materials on aspects of nutrition; presentations, exhibits, and publications; coordination with related publicly supported programs; and 12 recommendations. Part 3, "Report on the Project: An Assessment of Nutrition Education and Training Needs in Texas," discusses the background of the project including objectives, problem statement, and research methods; awarding of the project's contract; project accomplishments in 1993, 1994, and 1995; and four recommendations. Part 4, "General Evaluation of the NET Programs," covers program resources; program activities; meta-analysis of program outcomes, results, and discussions; and five recommendations. "Evaluation Instruments Used in NET Program Outreach" is included in the appendix. (ND) ED393833

Allen, M. (1995). Research Productivity and Positive Teaching Evaluations: Examining the Relationship Using Meta-Analysis. Arguments about trade-offs existing between teaching and research affect much of the communication discipline as scholars engage in arguments about the future directions of departments. A study summarized more than 40 quantitative studies and found a small heterogeneous positive correlation between teaching effectiveness and research productivity. Positive teaching evaluations correlate with increased research productivity. While the finding should not be interpreted as direct evidence of any causality between the variables, the evidence points to an association that deserves consideration. While the correlation is small, the association remains positive, suggesting that research productivity does not necessarily contradict efforts at quality teaching. The finding warrants a more thorough understanding of those features associated with both increased research productivity and positive teaching evaluations. Building a strong and effective communication department requires that the philosophical underpinnings take into account the requirements and potential trade-offs between research productivity and teaching effectiveness. Contains 4 notes, 120 references, and 3 tables of data.) (RS) ED379705

Allen, M. (1996). Research Productivity and Positive Teaching Evaluations: Examining the Relationship Using Meta-Analysis. Journal of the Association for Communication Administration (JACA), n2 p77- 96 1996. Examines the relationship between teaching and research. Considers whether an emphasis on one or the other better serves the interests of communications departments. Adumbrates arguments suggesting that research undermines teaching and those suggesting the converse. Shares the results of a meta-analysis of existing research on the topic. Finds a positive correlation between teacher effectiveness and research productivity. (TB)

Allen, M., & Bourhis, J. (1995). The Relationship of Communication Apprehension to Communication Behavior: A Meta-Analysis. Communication apprehension (CA) refers to a family of related terms: (a) reticence, (b) shyness, (c) unwillingness to communicate; and (d) stage fright. One pervasive but not totally substantiated assumption in current literature is the relationship between the level of communication apprehension and the level of communication skill demonstrated by an individual. The contemporary undergraduate communication curriculum often emphasizes training in communication to improve the communication skills of students. A study using meta-analysis as a method examined the relationship between CA and communication skill level by investigating the outcomes reported in a broad range of studies in the field of communication. Thirty studies (from computer searches on ERIC and Psyclit, and from examination of several bibliographies for manuscripts) met the selection criteria and were included in the overall analysis. The average correlation was positive and the sample was heterogeneous. This finding suggests that a moderator exists and that the average correlation represents an average across studies that differs by something other than sampling error. Basically, the impact of CA increases as the selection procedures become more rigorous. The impact demonstrates that a "superb" speaker (past three standard deviations) could be expected to be more than eight times more likely to be low in CA than high in CA. There is still a need for additional summaries of available literature examining the impact of CA on various communication outcomes. (Three tables of data are included. Contains 61 references.) (TB) ED379706

Allen, M., & Others, A. (1995). A Meta-Analysis Summarizing the Effects of Pornography II: Aggression after Exposure. Human Communication Research, v22 n2 p258-83 Dec 1995. Examines by meta-analysis the effect that exposure to pornography produces on aggressive behavior under laboratory conditions considering a variety of possible moderating conditions. Demonstrates a homogeneous set of results showing that pictorial nudity reduces subsequent violent behavior, but that depictions of nonviolent sexual behavior and media depictions of violent sexual activity increased aggressive behavior. (PA)

Allen, M., & Others, A. (1995). Exposure to Pornography and Acceptance of Rape Myths. Journal of Communication, v45 n1 p5-26 Win 1995. Summarizes the literature examining the association between acceptance of rape myths and exposure to pornography. States that nonexperimental methodology shows that exposure to pornography does not increase rape myth acceptance, while experimental studies show that exposure to pornography increases rape myth acceptance. Concludes that experimental studies demonstrate that violent pornography has more effect than nonviolent pornography. (PA)

Allen, M., & Others, A. (1995). Racial Group Orientation and Self-Concept: Examining the Relationship Using Meta-Analysis. An empirical summary of 33 studies considers the relationship between racial group orientation and self-concept of an individual. This issue represents a fundamental assumption of afrocentric education practices, that the racial group orientation of the individual is related to the self- esteem of the individual. The results demonstrate a positive relationship between the degree to which a person has a positive orientation towards his or her own racial group and the person's level of self-esteem. Communication scholars increasingly need to consider the issues of interethnic communicationso much of communication scholarship deals with the issues of how a person relates to another as an individual. The development of additional insights and more refined analysis in this investigation will improve the understanding of how persons identify themselves as members of some particular cultural group. (Contains 39 references and 2 tables of data). (Author/CR) ED389038

Allison, D. B., & Faith, M. S. (1996). Hypnosis as an Adjunct to Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy for Obesity: A Meta-analytic Reappraisal. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, v64 n3 p513-16 1996. A meta-analysis for six weight-loss studies comparing the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) alone to CBT plus hypnotherapy. Notes that "the addition of hypnosis substantially enhanced treatment outcome." Concludes that the addition of hypnosis to CBT for weight loss results in, at most, a small enhancement of treatment outcome. (KW)

Azevedo, R., & Bernard, R. (1995). Assessing the Effects of Feedback in Computer-Assisted Learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, v26 n1 p57-58 1995. A meta-analysis determined the importance of feedback in computer-based learning; 59 studies were collected and evaluated for inclusion in the meta- analysis in terms of design, sample size, and availability of appropriate statistics. Achievement outcomes were found to be greater for the feedback group than the control group. (AEF)

Azevedo, R., & Bernard, R. M. (1995). A Meta-analysis of the Effects of Feedback in Computer-Based Instruction. Journal of Educational Computing Research, v13 n2 p111-27 1995. Presents results of a meta-analysis conducted on the literature concerning the effects of feedback on learning from computer-based instruction. Effect size, analysis of variance, multiple regression, and posttest data are described, and the critical role of feedback in computerized instruction is discussed. Contains 50 references. (Author/LRW)

Azevedo, R., & Bernard, R. M. (1995). The Effects of Computer-Presented Feedback on Learning from Computer-Based Instruction: A Meta-Analysis. A quantitative research synthesis (meta-analysis) was conducted on the literature concerning the effects of feedback on learning from computer- based instruction (CBI). Despite the widespread acceptance of feedback in computerized instruction, empirical support for particular types of feedback information has been inconsistent and contradictory. Effect size calculations from 22 studies involving the administration of immediate achievement posttests resulted in a weighted mean effect of .80. Also, a mean weighted effect size of .35 was obtained from 9 studies involving delayed posttest administration. Feedback effects on learning and retention were found to vary with CBI typology, format of unit content, and access to supplemental materials. Results indicate that the diagnostic and prescriptive management strategy of computer-based adaptive instructional systems provide the most effective feedback. The implementation of effective feedback in computerized instruction involves the computer's ability to verify the correctness of the learner's answer and the underlying causes of error. An appendix provides bibliographic information for the 20 studies included in the meta-analysis. Two tables illustrate data. (Contains 46 references.) (Author) ED385235
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B

Baker, E. T., & Others, A. (1995). The Effects of Inclusion on Learning. Educational Leadership, v52 n4 p33-35 Dec-199 1995. Summarizes recent research concerning inclusion's (generally positive) effects on student learning and social relations with classmates. Three meta-analyses address the most-effective-setting issue by generating a common measure, an effect size. These effect sizes demonstrate a small-to- moderate beneficial influence of inclusive education on special-needs children' academic and social outcomes. (11 references) (MLH)

Barley, Z. A., & Jenness, M. (1993). Cluster Evaluation: A Method to Strengthen Evaluation in Smaller Programs with Similar Purposes. Evaluation Practice, v14 n2 p141-47 1993. An approach to evaluation initiated by the Kellogg Foundation called cluster evaluation (not to be confused with cluster sampling) is described. Cluster evaluation provides a skilled, credible evaluator to work with a cluster of projects to assure that useful and defensible information is obtained for program evaluation. (SLD)

Bausell, R. B., Ed. (1995). The Meta-Analytic Revolution in Health Research: Part 1. Evaluation and the Health Professions, v18 n3 p235-344 Sep 1995. The six articles of this issue discuss the place of meta-analysis in the health professions and present two state-of-the-art meta-analyses using a variety of innovative methodologies, statistics, and secondary analytic procedures. A survey conducted for this issue and its sequel explores interventions to facilitate meta-analysis. (SLD)

Berndt, R. S., & Others, A. (1996). Comprehension of Reversible Sentences in "Agrammatisim": A Meta-Analysis. Cognition, v58 n3 p289-308 1996. Investigated the source of agrammatic aphasic patients' difficulty comprehending semantically reversible sentences. Found approximately equal distributions of three distinct patterns. Results conflict with explanations of comprehension failure which state that a single pattern of performance on sentence structures characterizes comprehension of all agrammatic speakers, and also emphasize the difficulty of identifying a single cause for sentence production failure. (TM)

Betchen, S. J. (1995). An Integrative, Intersystemic Approach to Supervision of Couple Therapy. American Journal of Family Therapy, v23 n1 p48-58 Spr 1995. Offers an integrative model of supervisionthe Intersystem Model of couple therapy of the Marriage Council of Philadelphiathat consolidates individual, interactional, and intergenerational therapies, providing a base from which the supervisor of couple therapy can be most effective. A detailed case of supervision is utilized to demonstrate the model. (RJM)

Bland, C. J., & Others, A. (1995). A Systematic Approach to Conducting a Non-statistical Meta-analysis of Research Literature. Academic Medicine, v70 n7 p642-53 1995. A rigorous approach to conducting nonstatistical meta-analyses of research literature is presented and illustrated in a study of literature on primary care medical specialty choice. The approach described includes model development, literature retrieval and coding, quality rating, annotation of high-quality references, and synthesizing the subset of high-quality studies. (Author/MSE)

Bland, C. J., & Others, A. (1995). Determinants of Primary Care Specialty Choice: A Non-statistical Meta- analysis of the Literature. Academic Medicine, v70 n7 p620-41 1995. A review of 73 articles on primary care specialty choice between 1987 and 1993 revealed patterns in student attitudes on entry to medical school, characteristics associated with choice of primary care, significant curricular experiences, required time in family practice, and faculty representation. Twelve strategies for increasing the proportion of primary care physicians are outlined. (Author/MSE)

Blosser, P. E., Ed., & Mayer, V. J., Ed. (1983). Investigations in Science Education. Vol. 9, No. 2. Investigations in Science Education, v9 n2 1983 1983. Critiques of 10 articles reporting research studies focused on various aspects of attitude development in science education and of six research articles related to investigations of learning and cognitive development are contained in this issue. Seven of the attitude articles describe investigations designed to change the attitudes of both pre-service and in- service elementary school teachers so that these individuals will hold more positive attitudes toward the teaching of science to elementary school pupils. Two other attitude articles are focused on students' reactions to the use of live animals in high school biology courses. The tenth attitude article provides a discussion of students' attitudes about marine education. Within the cluster of six articles about learning and cognitive development in science are included research focused on (1) correlates of formal reasoning, (2) the development of seven Science Reasoning Tasks for use in assessing the cognitive development of individuals when tested in groups of 20 or more, (3) formal operational ability and the teaching of science processes, (4) effects of textbook study questions on student learning in science, (5) synthesizing research on ability and science learning, and (6) synthesizing the effects of age and developmental levels on science learning. (PEB) ED231672

Bolton, B., & Akridge, R. L. (1995). A Meta-Analysis of Skills Training Programs for Rehabilitation Clients. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, v38 n3 p262-73 1995. Summarized the results of 15 experimental studies of 10 small-group skills training interventions developed for use with vocational rehabilitation clients. Concluded that the typical participant in skills training interventions received substantial benefit from the activity. Skills training programs should be implemented more widely with clients who are served in rehabilitation facilities. (RJM)

Borman, G. D., & D'Agostino, J. V. (1995). Title I and Student Achievement: A Meta-Analysis of 30 Years of Test Results. Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act was implemented in 1965 to provide financial assistance to state and local education agencies to meet the special needs of educationally disadvantaged children. Federal funding supports a variety of supplemental services that share the collective purpose of improving educational opportunities and outcomes for low-achieving students from schools with concentrations of poverty. Evaluation of Title I programs has usually been through a norm-referenced model based on achievement test result changes. This meta-analysis, which included 17 studies, considered whether program services, taken as a whole, had significant impact on student achievement; and it offered the possibility of determining whether choices of different testing cycles and comparison methods have provided differential estimates of the program's impact. Evidence from the analysis indicated that Title I has not fulfilled its original expectation of closing the achievement gap between at-risk students and their more advantaged peers. Results did suggest that without the program it is likely that children served over the last 30 years would have fallen further behind academically. Evaluated from this perspective, Title I has been an invaluable supplement to schools serving disadvantaged children. (Contains 4 tables, 10 figures, and 50 references.) (SLD) ED393888

Bornstein, R. F. (1995). Sex Differences in Objective and Projective Dependency Tests: A Meta- Analytic Review. Assessment, v2 n4 p319-31 Dec 1995. A meta-analysis of 97 studies published since 1950 that assessed sex differences in scores on objective and projective dependency tests indicated that women consistently obtained higher dependency scores on objective tests, and men obtained higher scores on projective tests. Findings are discussed in terms of sex role socialization. (SLD)

Boser, J. A., & Clark, S. B. (1995). Factors Influencing Mail Survey Response Rates: What Do We Really Know? Most studies of mail survey methodology focus on specific design elements, but several major reviews of research have attempted to synthesize the findings of independent empirical studies. This study examined the review articles for what they have to say about factors influencing response rates and for their methodology. A literature review identified nine articles for the study, containing 329 source studies. None of the reviews appeared in education or psychology journals, and none were located through a search of the ERIC database. There was considerable variation among the articles about response rate facilitation, and there was considerable variation in the methodological quality of the studies reported. Findings were inconclusive regarding sponsorship, questionnaire length, personalization, anonymity, and appeals as they related to response rates. Saliency, school or army populations, and colored paper appeared to facilitate response rates while marketing background of the author was an inhibitor. Overall, the study called attention to the disparity with which procedures used in the integrated review articles were documented. (Contains 2 tables, 3 figures, 26 references, and 9 citations of review articles.) (SLD) ED394996

Bosker, R. J., & Witziers, B. (1995). A Meta Analytical Approach Regarding School Effectiveness: The True Size of School Effects and the Effect Size of Educational Leadership. School-effectiveness research has not yet been able to identify the factors of effective and noneffective schools, the real contribution of the significant factors, the true sizes of school effects, and the generalizability of school-effectiveness results. This paper presents findings of a meta analysis, the Dutch PSO programme, that was used to answer the above questions. The paper relates results to the size of reported school effects and to the effect size of the variable, educational leadership. Some persistent problems in the measurement of school effects are identified: specifically, measurement error, specification in relevant levels, and the choice of covariates. Studies conducted in the United States show a significant positive relationship between educational leadership and achievement, which raises the question why leadership is an important variable in the United States and not in other countries. Eight tables are included. Appendices contain statistical tables. (Contains 31 references.) (LMI) ED392147

Burlingame, G. M., & Others, A. (1995). Group Psychotherapy Efficacy: A Meta-Analytic Perspective. Analyses of the efficacy of group psychotherapy indicate that group therapy demonstrates, in a majority of reviews, significant improvement over inert comparison groups and proves comparable or superior to other active treatment conditions. Because group therapy is a viable cost-efficient treatment option being used with increasing regularity among diverse populations, and with varying structural formats, a central task demanding attention is careful analysis of the differential effectiveness of group therapy across treatment variations or dimensions. Using a common measuring standard called an effect size, meta analyses can represent the average amount of change one could expect in the average client who receives a given treatment. The present study sought to explore systematically the relationships between improvement rates in group psychotherapy (effect size) and several treatment, therapist, client, and methodological variables using meta-analytic techniques. The review was based on the cumulative results of 12 years of group psychotherapy outcome literature. Results were reported on: component characteristics; post treatment change comparisonstreatment type comparison with wait-list controls, group treatment type comparison, outcome source comparison on post-treatment change, and outcome content comparison on post-treatment change; and pre- post-treatment change comparisonsclient population/diagnosis client gender, composition, and attrition. Contains 47 references. (JBJ) ED393054

Burlingame, M. (1994). Tools for Linking Research and Practice in the Helping Professions: Research Abstract Worksheets and Personal Reviews of the Literature. This document is comprised of four chapters that show how to use research- abstract worksheets and personal reviews of the literature as tools for linking research and practice in the helping professions. The research tools help to condense lengthy reports, place them into a consistent format, and actively involve the information seeker. Chapter 1 describes the relationship between professional problems and research, arguing that the nature of professional practice in the helping professions relies, to a large extent, on research. It describes the "research game," which stresses public debate, follows a series of conventions, and uses publications for commentary. Chapter 2 describes a process for making a research report, qualitative or quantitative, useful to the practitioner. It outlines the steps involved in creating a research-abstract worksheet and discusses the logical relationships among problems, hypotheses, and variables. Chapter 3 offers guidelines for creating abstract worksheets on reports of educational practices. Chapter 4 presents strategies for using the library intelligently and for developing a personal review of the literature (PERL), and describes the importance of creating PERLs. Appendices contain examples of four research-abstract worksheets and one example of a PERL. Two figures are included. (LMI) ED379733

Bus, A. G. A. O. (1995). Joint Book Reading Makes for Success in Learning to Read: A Meta-Analysis on Intergenerational Transmission of Literacy. Review of Educational Research, v65 n1 p1-21 Spr 1995. Results of a quantitative analysis of empirical evidence related to parent- preschooler reading support the hypothesis that parent-preschooler reading is related to outcome measures such as language growth, emergent literacy, and reading achievement. Book reading apparently affects acquisition of the written language register. (SLD)
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C

Cameron, J., & Pierce, W. D. (1996). The Debate about Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation: Protests and Accusations Do Not Alter the Results. Review of Educational Research, v66 n1 p39-51 Spr 1996. The results of a meta-analysis that found that rewards do not threaten intrinsic motivation have not been well accepted by those who argue rewards produce negative effects under a wide range of conditions. Nevertheless, the results and conclusions of the meta-analysis are held to be valid. (SLD)

Campbell, A. R., & Dickson, C. J. (1996). Predicting Student Success: A 10-Year Review Using Integrative Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Professional Nursing, v12 n1 p47-59 Jan-1996. An analysis of 47 nursing research studies from 1981-90 related to predicting student success was conducted. Grade point average in nursing and science courses was the greatest cognitive predictor, parental education and age the greatest demographic predictors. Meta-analysis of four studies showed the significant effectiveness of interventions used in experimental studies. (SK)

Carlin, C., Ed. (1995). Literacy Practitioner, 1995. Family Literacy Issue. Literacy Practitioner, v2 n2 May 95 1995. This theme issue discusses family literacy in six articles, covering: (1) visions of family literacy from research and practice; (2) a family-to- family tutoring model (Susan Weinbeck); (3) a strengths learning model (Meta W. Potts); (4) the LVA/GTE (Literary Volunteers of America/General Telephone and Electronics Corporation) family literacy project (Michael Buchholz); (5) outreach to rural families (Susan E. Perkins); and (6) relevant policy papers on family literacy. The visions of family literacy found in research are often disparate from those found in practice. One of the benefits of family to family tutoring is that all adults involved can experience empowerment, both as teachers and as learners. A strengths learning model emphasizes that adults have skills on which literacy practitioners may build. The LVA/GTE family literacy project encourages parents to read to their children and children to read to their parents. Reaching rural families involves several strategies related to: identification and recruitment; screening and preparation; program design and support services; home-based programs; instructional programs; staff development; and collaborations with other community members. The National Center on Adult Literacy at the University of Pennsylvania publishes an array of policy briefs related to adult literacy. (JW) ED388409

Carstarphen, M. G. (1995). New Media Literacy: From Classroom to Community. Each new media revolution forces adjustments for both the producers of messages and the receivers of those messages. Integral to the communication process is an understanding of what it means to be literate in an eclectic communication environment and of how the new media may enhance or impede literacy. An important premise for this discussion is that there must be a correlation between two concepts: what it means to be "media literate" (savvy to the processes and protocol of the media) and what it means to be "literate through media" (using the media as conduits to achieve heightened proficiencies in the basic literacy skills of reading, writing and comprehension). "Surfing" one of the incarnations of the new media, the Internet, a researcher asked six respondents questions about literacy and computers. The respondents were two university administrators, two media managers/publishers, a corporate librarian, and an independent writer/teacher. Responses, thought not scientifically solicited, were revealing, and, in may ways, closely reiterated the Electronic Frontier Foundation's co-founder John Barlow's vision of the transformation of information from product to process. Questions ranged from what media the respondents had encountered through their jobs to how they would define literacy and whether they thought it was in need of redefinition in light of the new media. Most significant results showed that the respondents believed that media and literacy, whether old or new, all involve one thing: the transmittal of information. This transmittal calls for basic skills like the ability to read and write and think critically. (Includes 4 tables of data; contains 12 references.) (TB) ED387842

Cobb, P., & Whitenack, J. W. (1996). A Method for Conducting Longitudinal Analyses of Classroom Videorecordings and Transcripts. Educational Studies in Mathematics, v30 n3 p213-28 1996. Describes a method whereby data are first analyzed episode-by-episode in comparison to each other. Conjectures thus generated are then meta-analyzed to create chronologies structured by general assertions grounded in students' mathematical activity. Clarifies the relation between psychological and social processes. (TO)

Coleman, H. L. K., & Others, A. (1995). Ethnic Minorities' Ratings of Ethnically Similar and European American Counselors: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, v42 n1 p55-64 1995. A metanalysis of studies showed that ethnic minorities prefer ethnically similar counselors; however, these preferences were influenced by the cultural affiliation of the participants and the research methods used. More precise methods need to be developed to determine the degree to which ethnic minorities' preferences for ethnically-similar counselors is a function of inferences concerning attitudes, values, and skill. (JPS)

Cooper, H., & Dorr, N. (1995). Race Comparisons on Need for Achievement: A Meta-analytic Alternative to Graham's Narrative Review. Review of Educational Research, v65 n4 p483-508 Win 1995. While a review by S. Graham (1994) found no differences between blacks and whites on measures of need for achievement, this meta-analysis article found reliable and complex race differences. Overall, whites scored higher on measures of need for achievement, although differences nearly disappeared in studies after 1970. Possible explanations are discussed. (SLD)

Cox, S. M., & Others, A. (1995). A Meta-Analytic Assessment of Delinquency-Related Outcomes of Alternative Education Programs. Crime and Delinquency, v41 n2 p219-34 1995. Reports results of meta-analysis to quantitatively summarize prior empirical research on alternative schools. Alternative education programs have a small overall effect on school performance, attitudes toward school, and self-esteem, but no effect on delinquency. Programs that target a specific population of at-risk youth produce larger effects than those with open admissions. (LKS)

Croteau, J. M. (1996). Research on the Work Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual People: An Integrative Review of Methodology and Findings. Journal of Vocational Behavior, v48 n2 p195-209 1996. Integrates findings of nine studies on workplace experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people into five themes: pervasiveness of discrimination, informal and formal types of discrimination, fear of discrimination, worker openness about sexual orientation, and degree of openness versus concealment. (SK)
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de Groot, G., Ed., & Schrover, M., Ed. (1995). Women Workers and Technological Change in Europe in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Drawing on research from a number of European countries, the contributors to this book present nine detailed studies on women's work spanning 2 centuries and dealing with a variety of work environments. "General Introduction" (Gertjan de Groot, Marlou Schrover) provides an overview of the book's content. "Frames of Reference: Skill, Gender, and New Technology in the Hosiery Industry" (Harriet Bradley) explores the processes that lie behind the devaluation of women's work. "The Creation of a Gendered Division of Labour in the Danish Textile Industry" (Marianne Rostgard) describes how the division of labor once established lived on to become an unquestioned tradition. "Foreign Technology and the Gender Division of Labour in a Dutch Cotton Spinning Mill" (Gertjan de Groot) argues that the gender division of labor was transferred from England to the Netherlands along with the technology. "'The Mysteries of the Typewriter': Technology and Gender in the British Civil Service, 1870-1914" (Meta Zimmeck) draws on the feminist critique of the literature to explore the introduction and spread of typewriting before the First World War. "'A Revolution in the Workplace'? Women's Work in Munitions Factories and Technological Change 1914-1918" (Deborah Thom) examines the theory of dilution and substitution. "Gender and Technological Change in the North Staffordshire Pottery Industry" (Jacqueline Sarsby) examines factors that influenced and altered the sexual division of labor. "Periodization and the Engendering of Technology: The Pottery of Gustavsberg, Sweden, 1880-1980" (Ulla Wikander) seeks to establish general trends and specific periods for changes. "Creating Gender: Technology and Femininity in the Swedish Dairy Industry" (Lena Sommestad) explores how women retained for so long but eventually lost their control over mechanized dairy production. "Cooking Up Women's Work: Women Workers in the Dutch Food Industries 1889-1960" (Marlou Schrover) shows technological change influenced women's work but was seldom the direct reason for the regendering of work. An index is appended. (YLB) ED391045

DiFranza, J. R., & Lew, R. A. (1996). Morbidity and Mortality in Children Associated with the Use of Tobacco Products by Other People. Pediatrics, v97 n4 p560-68 1996. Evaluates the impact of adult tobacco use on the health of children based on review of research reports and meta-analysis of risk ratio for various conditions studied. Results indicated that the use of tobacco products by adults has an enormous adverse impact on children's health and is associated with lower respiratory tract illnesses and injuries caused by fire. (MOK)

Dorier, J.-L. (1995). Meta Level in the Teaching of Unifying and Generalizing Concepts in Mathematics. Educational Studies in Mathematics, v29 n2 p175-97 Sep 1995. Discusses epistemological specificities of unifying and generalizing concepts in mathematics, such as axiomatic theory or groups; analyzes their influence on teaching; and presents a theoretical framework used to draw conclusions about theoretical questions of evaluation in a teaching experiment. Contains 37 references. (MKR)

Draper, D. (1995). Inference and Hierarchical Modeling in the Social Sciences. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, v20 n2 p115-47 Sum 1995. The use of hierarchical models in social science research is discussed, with emphasis on causal inference and consideration of the limitations of hierarchical models. The increased use of Gibbs sampling and other Markov- chain Monte Carlo methods in the application of hierarchical models is recommended. (SLD)

Dunn, R., & Others, A. (1995). A Meta-analytic Validation of the Dunn and Dunn Model of Learning-Style Preferences. Journal of Educational Research, v88 n6 p353-62 Jul-1995. Experimental studies based on the Dunn and Dunn Learning Style Model (conducted between 1980-1990) were identified to determine the value of teaching students through their learning style preferences. Meta-analysis determined that matching students' learning style preferences with educational interventions compatible with those preferences is beneficial to their academic achievement. (SM)

Dykeman, C., & Doyle, S. L. (1995). Gender and the Counselor Preparation Literature: Issues of Authorship and Content. In the counseling profession, women constitute the majority of clients and practitioners. Given this situation, two questions arise concerning counselor preparation literature: (1) To what extent have women authored counselor preparation literature? (2) To what degree has this literature considered gender? In order to establish a context for specific gender issues, this study provides a historical grounding for dialogue on gender issues in counseling. The context was set by examining women's authorship rates in volumes 0-32 of the journal "Counselor Education and Supervision" (CES). Articles that dealt specifically with gender issues were also analyzed. Analysis showed that women wrote 18 percent of the articles and that 4 percent of the articles addressed gender. Results indicated a significant increase over time in women's authorship of CES articles. These rates increased even though the total number of articles published per issue dropped. However, there was no significant rise in the appearance of gender articles since the 1970s, suggesting a disturbing gap in counselor preparation research. It is argued that a greater focus on gender issues in counselor training and supervision is necessary if counselors are to remain an efficacious source of mental health services. (RJM) ED379583
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Elmore, P. B., & Woehlke, P. L. (1988). Research Methods Employed in "American Educational Research Journal," "Educational Researcher," and "Review of Educational Research" from 1978 to 1987. Periodic summaries of research techniques used in important journals help professors of educational research teach each new generation of researchers. Literature published in "American Educational Research Journal" (AERJ), "Educational Researcher" (ER), and "Review of Educational Research (RER) is reviewed for the 10-year period ending in 1987. This kind of research technique has appeared frequently in educational literature. Periodic updates of recent literature with respect to methods used has an extensive history. A description of the methodology focuses on the coding process (reading each article to identify every research method or statistical technique used and categorizing all methods and techniques identified in each article) and the categories employed to code research methods or statistical techniques used (descriptive, bivariate correlation, t-test, nonparametric, meta analysis, ANOVA/ANCOVA, psychometric theory, multiple correlation/regression, multivariate, factor/cluster, LISREL, Bayesian, simulation, modeling, and qualitative). The results of this study show the most frequent methods used in rank order for JEP are ANOVA/ANCOVA, bivariate correlation, t-test, multiple regression, multivariate, and nonparametric techniques and for AERJ are ANOVA/ANCOVA, multiple regression, bivariate correlation, descriptive, multivariate, nonparametric, and t-test. For the three journals combined, five of the seven most frequently utilized methods are taught in most two-course statistics sequences required for doctoral study; only multivariate and nonparametric techniques are not covered comprehensively. Thus, it appears that graduate students are well-prepared and trained. Contains 11 references. Tables are included. (SM) ED296653

Elmore, P. B., & Woehlke, P. L. (1996). Research Methods Employed in "American Educational Research Journal," "Educational Researcher," and "Review of Educational Research" from 1978 to 1995. A content analysis was conducted of three educational research journals published by the American Educational Research Association to review the quantitative and qualitative techniques used in educational research. All articles appearing in these three journals from 1988 through 1995 (total n=1,715) were considered. Research methods were identified and classified into the following categories: (1) descriptive; (2) bivariate correlations; (3) t-test; (4) nonparametric statistics; (5) meta-analysis; (6) analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA); (7) psychometric theory; (8) multiple correlation and regression; (9) multivariate analysis; (10) factor and cluster analysis; (11) LISREL computer program analysis; (12) Bayesian statistics; (13) simulation; (14) modeling; (15) qualitative methods of several types; and (16) graphic methods. Results are consistent with those of other studies in that the most commonly used methods were ANOVA and ANCOVA, multiple regression, bivariate correlation, descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis, nonparametric statistics, and t-tests. The major difference in current methodology is the increase in the use of qualitative methods. (Contains 5 tables, 4 graphs, and 18 references.) (SLD) ED397122

Emmers, T. M., & Allen, M. (1995). Resistance to Sexual Coercion Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis. Both men and women are faced with relational situations in which sexually coercive behaviors are exercised. Because various studies offer mixed findings, a study utilized meta-analysis to compare men's and women's resistance to sexual coercion. Literature for the investigation was compiled from computer searches using key words such as "sexual coercion," "sexual aggression" and sexual resistance." Data bases searched included Psychlit, ERIC, Dissertation Abstracts and ALICE. Results indicated that men and women do not significantly differ in overall strategy usage and in verbal resistance behaviors. Men and women, however, do differ in physical resistance strategies, such that women engage in physical resistance to sexual coercion more often than men do. Possible reasons for this finding may be that women have fewer effective resistance choices available to them in sexually coercive situations. The lack of women's choice may be due to many men's belief that they have a right to sex. Moreover, women who engage in token resistance and/or are perceived by men as exercising token resistance as opposed to genuine resistance may only be adding equivocality to the potential sexual situation. The central issue of this studyhow men and women differ in their strategies of sexual resistanceis very important to those undertaking educational programs on college campuses in response to incidents of sexual harassment. (Contains 2 tables and 50 references.) (TB) ED380839

Enns, C. Z., & Others, A. (1995). The Debate about Delayed Memories of Child Sexual Abuse. Counseling Psychologist, v23 n2 p181-271 1995. Outlines the current debate regarding the veracity of delayed memories of child sexual abuse, describes the historical context in which this controversy occurs, discusses the growth and development of psychotherapy for trauma survivors, and reviews the theoretical and empirical literature relevant to abuse memories. Presents recommendations for interventions. (approximately 375 references) (RJM)
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Faith, M. S. A. O. (1995). Group Sensitivity Training: Update, Meta-analysis, and Recommendations. Journal of Counseling Psychology, v42 n3 p390-99 1995. Describes results of meta-analysis of 63 group sensitivity training studies, which revealed a moderate size, heterogeneous effect on all outcome measures, including a significantly larger effect on behavioral measures than on self-report measures. Interventions involving larger groups and number of sessions had larger effect sizes, as did studies with more discrete outcome measures. (LKS)

Fletcher-Flinn, C. M., & Gravatt, B. (1995). The Efficacy of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI): A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Educational Computing Research, v12 n3 p219-41 1995. Provides a meta-analysis on the effect of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) over a range of study features with a focus on the effectiveness debate. Suggests that what accounts for the typical learning advantage of CAI is the better quality instruction provided by CAI materials. (Author/AEF)

Foisy, P. (1995). Variations in Age-Related Deficits among Episodic Memory Tasks: An Archival Study. Canadian Journal on Aging, v14 n4 p686-96 Win 1995. A meta-analysis was conducted of 22 studies in which verbal stimuli were used as targets in episodic memory tasks. Of the 24 comparisons, 21 supported the hypothesis that these tasks require self-initiated operations and display a gradation of age-related deficits. (SK)

Forness, S. R., & Kavale, K. A. (1996). Treating Social Skill Deficits in Children with Learning Disabilities: A Meta-analysis of the Research. Learning Disability Quarterly, v19 n1 p2-13 Win 1996. A meta-analysis of 53 studies on social skills training of children with learning disabilities found a mean effect size of only 0.211, with few differences among teachers, peers, or children themselves who judged the effectiveness of the training. Discussion focuses on possible links between learning disabilities and social skills that might account for poor treatment outcome. (DB)

Friedman, L. (1995). The Space Factor in Mathematics: Gender Differences. Review of Educational Research, v65 n1 p22-50 Spr 1995. Meta-analytic results reported show that in selected examples, mathematics- space correlations are higher in females than in males, with the difference becoming more pronounced with greater selectivity. Because these samples are of gifted or college-bound youth, explanations that emphasize career- directed attitudes are suggested. (SLD)

Friedman, L. (1996). Meta-analysis and Quantitative Gender Differences: Reconciliation. Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, v18 n1-3 p123-28 Win-Sum 1996. Discusses meta-analysis results for gender differences in mathematics achievement. (MKR)
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Gaffan, E. A., & Others, A. (1995). Researcher Allegiance and Meta-analysis: The Case of Cognitive Therapy for Depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, v63 n6 p966-80 Dec 1995. Reexamines the studies of K. S. Dobson regarding metaanalysis of cognitive- behavioral therapy for depression using the Beck Depression Inventory as an outcome measure. Confirms Dobson's conclusions but shows that about half the difference between CT and other treatments was predictable from researcher allegiance. Comparable analysis of a later set of studies shows no such effect. Discusses this phenomenon. (KW)

Gage, N. L. (1996). Confronting Counsels of Despair for the Behavioral Sciences. Educational Researcher, v25 n3 p5-15,22 1996. Summarizes and challenges criticism that the behavioral sciences have failed to produce long-lasting generalizations due to cultural and historical relativism and interaction effects. Using findings from meta- analysis, the author argues that considerable consistency and validity across contexts of many generalizations exists, as well as promising methods for quantifying and analyzing the generalizing ability of research results. (GR)

Gee, E. J. (1995). The Effects of a Whole Language Approach to Reading Instruction on Reading Comprehension: A Meta-Analysis. A meta-analysis used Glassian techniques to compare the effectiveness of the whole-language approach to the direct-skills approach. A total of 21 studies included sufficient information to calculate effect sizes and included whole language approach as the independent variables with dependent variables relating to reading improvement. Results indicated: (1) nearly every study analyzed showed a positive effect size in the direction of the whole language approach; (2) the overall effect size demonstrated a significant difference between control and experimental group; and (3) studies employing random assignment had significantly larger effect sizes. However, the majority of the studies (85%) employed a quasi-experimental design which may severely limit the interpretation of the effectiveness of whole language. Further research should attempt to use random assignment and larger sample size to make the effectiveness of whole language more salient. (Contains 46 reference. An appendix of data is attached.) (RS) ED384003

Graham, S., & Others, A. (1995). Narrative versus Meta-Analytic Reviews of Race Differences in Motivation: A Comment on Cooper and Dorr. Narrative versus Meta-analytic Reviews of Race and Differences in Motivation: A Rejoinder to Graham's Comment. Review of Educational Research, v65 n4 p509-17 Win 1995. S. Graham comments on taking a meta-analytic approach to reviewing race differences in need for achievement, discussing limitations of the methodology. A rejoinder by H. Cooper and N. Dorr supports the utility of meta-analysis in such studies and discusses disadvantages to narrative review. (SLD)

Grob, L. M., & Allen, M. (1996). Sex Differences in Powerful/Powerless Language Use: A Meta-Analytic Review. Sex differences in language use have been examined for many years, but no clear-cut conclusions exist. A meta-analysis of the existing literature was conducted regarding powerful/powerless language use, including 30 studies, with a total combined sample size of 3,012. The overall correlation indicated that men use more powerful language than women. Type of language feature and gender were found to be moderator variables. Findings suggest that: (1) since men are using more powerful language than women, men are also being perceived as more credible than women; and (2) powerful language is a skill that can be taught. Almost all of the participants in this review were university studentsgenerally the classic 18-22-year-old group. It is possible that in other environments the effects would be more significant; in more "real-world" investigations, men would speak even more powerfully and women would speak even more "powerless-ly." Future research should focus on type of language feature, message elicitation, the dynamics of interaction, and naturally occurring language. Contains 1 table of data and 53 references. (Author/RS) ED395339

Guo, S., & Others, A. (1995). Sex Differences in Personality: A Meta-Analysis Based on "Big Five" Factors. Analyses of sex differences in personality have been reported only in particular scales or individual domains. In this study, a psychometric meta- analysis of adult sex differences in self-reported personality was conducted based on each of the "big five" factors. Examination of 76 studies (1,057 separate effect sizes) on 35 personality scales showed that women's scores were significantly higher than men's on measures of Neuroticism and Agreeableness. This finding raises the issue of whether the observed differences are due to differences in self-report or genuine differences in personality. Three tables are included. (Contains eight references.) (Author/SLD) ED383759

Guss, T. O. (1995). Family and Community Vulnerability Determination: Needs Assessment through Meta-Analysis. In order to determine the relevance and provide suggestions for needs assessment in western Kansas, this document examines 81 theses that are relevant to the topic. The implications of the study are as follows: (1) programs within schools and communities in western Kansas are having little effect on important populations; (2) restructuring within communities and schools is needed in order to more fully address the needs of people, particularly children; (3) substantial unhappiness exists within western Kansas, but people are generally adjusting to this situation; and (4) programs initiated to address personal and family well-being are addressing institutional needs instead. Also provided in the document are goals for planned actions intended to foster personal, family, community, and school empowerment in western Kansas. Contains 22 references. (SR) ED388894
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Hahn, A. J., & Others, A. (1994). Educating about Public Issues. Lessons from Eleven Innovative Public Policy Education Projects. The experiences of 11 innovative public policy education projects funded by the W. K. Kellogg Foundation between 1988 and 1992 are reviewed. It presents results of a cluster evaluation that used a case study approach to examine effective public policy education and the role of coalitions. The report begins with project descriptions that include a summary of the issues addressed, the policy arena in which the issues would be decided, audience, and coalition membership. Projects are as follows: the Global Food Web, Iowa Public Policy Education Project, Agriculture and Food Policy in an Interdependent World, Restructuring the Upper Midwest, Northeast Network Project, Partners in Natural Resource Policy, Groundwater Public Policy Education Project, Policy Options and Strategies for Total Community Adjustment, Communicating America's Farm Policy, Trade and Development Program, and Food Forum Education Project. Findings are presented in the forms of 21 lessons. Each lesson is accompanied by a discussion of the evidence supporting it and its implications; many are further illustrated by vignettes drawn from individual projects. Three longer case studies of individual projects are included. The report concludes with reflections on projects' experiences in light of continuing developments in the practice of public policy education in these areas: coalition building, implementation of educational programs, and impacts of education about public issues. Appended is a description of the methodology. Contains 30 references. (YLB) ED378398

Hall, G. C. N. (1995). Sexual Offender Recidivism Revisited: A Meta-Analysis of Recent Treatment Studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, v63 n5 p802-09 1995. Meta-analyses were performed on 12 studies of treatment with sex offenders (n=1,313). A small, but robust, overall effect size was found for treatment versus comparison conditions. Cognitive-behavioral and hormonal treatments were significantly more effective than behavioral treatments but were not significantly different from each other. (JPS)

Hall, J. A., & Rosenthal, R. (1995). Interpreting and Evaluating Meta-Analysis. Evaluation and the Health Professions, v18 n4 p393-407 Dec 1995. Some guidelines are offered for interpreting and evaluating meta-analytic reviews of research. The choice of unit of analysis, the issue of fixed versus random effects, the meaning of heterogeneity, the determination of appropriate contrasts, and the choice of measures of central tendency are discussed. (SLD)

Hand, C. A., & Prather, J. E. (1986). The Impact of Aggregation Bias upon the Interpretation of Test Scores across Schools. This paper investigates the problems of the impact of grouping on measuring academic performance. It focuses on inferences made from the group level to the individual level. Data for a large state college system with over 30 individual colleges is used. The problem of aggregation bias is studied using the analysis of covariance and is related to the clustering approach of generalized least squares. To illustrate the question, actual data on academic performance at the individual and group level is explored. The analysis is done by gender and minority group status. It is found that the individual level relationships and the college level relationships were generally quite different, with regression coefficients often having different signs. Based on the results of this research it is concluded that it would be generally inappropriate to use grouped data to investigate academic performance across colleges. (JAZ) ED278678

Happe, F. G. E. (1995). The Role of Age and Verbal Ability in the Theory of Mind Task Performance of Subjects with Autism. Child Development, v66 n3 p843-55 1995. Pooled data from previous studies in which autistic, mentally handicapped, and normal young children had been tested on theory of mind tasks. Found that normal children at a verbal mental age of four years, but autistic children at a verbal mental age of more than nine years, had a 50% chance of passing the theory of mind tests. (BC)

Harwell, M. (1995). An Empirical Study of the Hedges (1982) Homogeneity Test. The test of homogeneity developed by L. V. Hedges (1982) for the fixed effects model is frequently used in quantitative meta-analyses to test whether effect sizes are equal. Despite its widespread use, evidence of the behavior of this test for the less-than-ideal case of small study sample sizes paired with large numbers of studies is contradictory, and its behavior for nonnormal score distributions in primary studies is an open question. The results of a Monte Carlo study indicated that the Type I error rate and power of the homogeneity test were insensitive to skewed score distributions, but were very sensitive to smaller study sample sizes paired with larger numbers of studies. These findings extend earlier results and help to clarify the statistical behavior of the homogeneity test. Specifically, the pairing of small study sample sizes with large numbers of studies tends to produce conservative Type I error rates for the homogeneity test and underestimates its power, increasing the likelihood of Type II errors. (Contains 2 tables and 23 references.) (Author/SLD) ED392822

Hattie, J., & Others, A. (1996). Effects of Learning Skills Interventions on Student Learning: A Meta- Analysis. Review of Educational Research, v66 n2 p99-136 Sum 1996. Through meta-analysis, 51 studies are examined in which interventions were aimed to enhance student learning by improving student use of either one or a combination of learning or study skills. Results obtained, through categorizing the interventions in hierarchical levels of structural complexity and as either near or far in terms of transfer, support the notion of situated cognition. (SLD)

Haury, D. L. (1993). Teaching Science through Inquiry. ERIC/CSMEE Digest. ED359048

Hawkey, K. (1995). Peer Support and the Development of Metalearning in School-Based Initial Teacher Education (ITE). This paper presents a case study of four students working in pairs during a 1-year postgraduate Initial Teacher Education (ITE) course in the United Kingdom. The study examined the subjects' images and assumptions and developing teaching styles at the start of the year, and analyzed what they learned from each other during the school-based parts of their course using taped conversations between the partners and in-depth individual interviews at the end of the course. Findings suggested that peer work was of primary importance in the development of students' meta-learning, or the process by which they came to understand their own teaching style. Much of the peer interaction was in the form of general support. Students rarely offered each other advice or questioned each other but rather engaged in parallel, rather disconnected conversations that appeared to provide an opportunity for each to clarify and develop their own thoughts about their own teaching. The early articulation of images also appeared to enable students to develop their understanding of their own teaching style. Students who began the year with clear images of themselves were later able to reflect on how those images had changed or been clarified during the year. On the other hand, the student who began the course with an ill-defined image of himself as a teacher showed no ability to articulate either his self-image or his teaching style with greater clarity as the year progressed. (Contains 28 references.) (JB) ED383677

Hertzig, M. E., Ed., & Farber, E. A., Ed. (1995). Annual Progress in Child Psychiatry and Child Development 1994: A Selection of the Year's Outstanding Contributions to the Understanding and Treatment of the Normal and Disturbed Child. This volume provides the most up-to-date research and scholarship available in the field of child psychiatry and child development. The 20 articles are: (1) "A Meta-Analysis of Infant Habituation and Recognition Memory Performance as Predictors of Later IQ" (McCall and Carriger); (2) "The Relations of Emotionality and Regulation to Preschoolers' Social Skills and Sociometric Status" (Eisenberg and others); (3) "Friendship and Friendship Quality in Middle Childhood: Links with Peer Group Acceptance and Feelings of Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction" (Parker and Asher); (4) "A Longitudinal Study of Consistency and Change in Self-Esteem from Early Adolescence to Early Adulthood" (Block and Robins); (5) "Sex Differences in Psychological Adjustment from Infancy to Eight Years" (Prior and others); (6) "The Significance of Gender Boundaries in Preadolescence: Contemporary Correlates and Antecedents of Boundary Violation and Maintenance" (Sroufe and others); (7) "The Prevalence of Gender-Atypical Behavior in Elementary School Children" (Sandberg and others); (8) "Suggestibility of the Child Witness: A Historical Review and Synthesis" (Ceci and Bruck); (9) "The Reality of Repressed Memories" (Loftus); (10) "Impact of Sexual Abuse on Children: A Review and Synthesis of Recent Empirical Studies" (Kendall- Tackett and others); (11) "Annotation: Autism, Executive Functions, and Theory of Mind: A Neuropsychological Perspective" (Bishop); (12) "Conceptualizing 'Borderline Syndrome of Childhood' and 'Childhood Schizophrenia' as a Developmental Disorder" (Towbin and others); (13) "Private Speech of Learning Disabled and Normally Achieving Children in Classroom Academic and Laboratory Contexts" (Berk and Landau); (14) "Mental Health Disorders from Age 15 to Age 18 Years" (Feehan and others); (15) "Depressive Comorbidity in Children and Adolescents: Empirical, Theoretical, and Methodological Issues" (Angold and Costello); (16) "Contrasting Cognitive Deficits in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Versus Reading Disability" (Pennington and others); (17) "Children as Victims of War: Current Knowledge and Future Research Needs" (Jensen and Shaw); (18) "Understanding of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome by Elementary School ChildrenA Developmental Survey" (Schonfeld and others); (19) "Pharmacological Management of Pain in Children" (Pfefferbaum and Hagberg); and (20) "Nine-Year Outcome of the Vermont Intervention Program for Low Birth Weight Infants" (Achenbach and others). Each article includes references. (TJQ) ED379096

Hull, G., & Others, A. (1996). Changing Work, Changing Literacy? A Study of Skill Requirements and Development in a Traditional and Restructured Workplace. Final Report. A study (1) identified in ethnographic detail the literacy-related skills that are required in today's changing workplaces; (2) compared the literacy requirements of "high performance" workplaces with more traditionally organized ones; and (3) constructed innovative ways to introduce educators to the changing skill demands of work. The 3-year project studied circuit board assembly or "contract manufacturing" in the Silicon Valley, a rapidly growing and highly competitive part of the electronics industry. The varied functions that reading and writing served in such work environments were identified, and the ways in which industry standards and work organization, such as self-directed work teams, affect literacy requirements for a range of workers at individual companies were documented. How literacy requirements varied in these factories were determined, given different types of work organization; and the constraints that companies themselves exerted in the exercise of literate abilities were identified. A multimedia data base (a computer-base compendium of video from the factory floors; audiotaped interviews with line workers, engineers, and managers; examples of written documents and schematic diagrams and other datais being built and field-tested which can be used to introduce vocational and literacy educators, in dynamic fashion, to the literacy requirements of changing workplaces. (Contains 16 figures, 1 table of data, 8 notes, and 81 references. The 17 appendixes present log reports and procedures, transcripts, meta-categories worksheets and frequencies, and taxonomies of team activities and classroom activities.) (Author/RS) ED397423

Hyde, J. S., & Plant, E. A. (1995). Magnitude of Psychological Gender Differences: Another Side to the Story. American Psychologist, v50 n3 p159-61 1995. Argues that feminist psychologists not only do not have a uniform position on the issue of gender differences, but that many have argued for large gender differences. The article contends that meta-analyses indicate great variability in the magnitude of gender differences across different behaviors. (GR)
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Jumper, S. A. (1995). A Meta-analysis of the Relationship of Child Sexual Abuse to Adult Psychological Adjustment. Child Abuse & Neglect: The International Journal, v19 n6 p715-28 1995. This meta-analysis found significant relationships between the experience of child sexual abuse and subsequent difficulties in psychological adjustment as measured by psychological symptomatology, depression, and self-esteem. Significant heterogeneity occurred across studies using different subject populations. Student samples consistently generated smaller, more homogeneous effect size estimates than did community or clinical samples. (Author/DB)
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Kanetkar, V., & Others, A. (1995). The Effect of Scale Changes on Meta-analysis of Multiplicative and Main Effects Models. Educational and Psychological Measurement, v55 n2 p206-24 1995. The impact of scaling changes on the size of conditional relationships in meta-analysis is explored by examining a number of parameters. The most nearly appropriate parameters for researchers to aggregate appear to be unstandardized regression coefficients or partial correlation coefficients. (SLD)

Kavale, K. A. (1995). Meta-analysis at 20: Retrospect and Prospect. Evaluation and the Health Professions, v18 n4 p349-69 Dec 1995. Explores the nature of meta-analysis by placing it in the context of research synthesis. Methods of meta-analysis are described and compared with other forms of research integration, and findings for several meta- analyses are provided to show advantages of quantitative review methods. (SLD)

Kavale, K. A., & Forness, S. R. (1984). A Meta-Analysis of the Validity of Wechsler Scale Profiles and Recategorizations: Patterns or Parodies? Learning Disability Quarterly, v7 n2 p136-56 Spr 1984. Meta-analysis was used to arrive at a quantitative synthesis of the results of 94 studies of the validity of Wechsler regroupings for differential diagnosis of learning disabilities. The primary findings indicated that no recategorization, profile, factor cluster, or pattern showed a significant difference between learning disabled and normal samples. (Author/CL)

Kavale, K. A., & Forness, S. R. (1996). Social Skill Deficits and Learning Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, v29 n3 p226-37 1996. This meta-analysis examined 152 studies on social skill deficits among students with learning disabilities (LD). Quantitative synthesis showed that about 75% of students with LD manifest social skill deficits that distinguish them from comparison samples. Approximately the same level of group differentiation was found across different raters (teachers, peers, self) and across dimensions of social competence. (Author/DB)

Kenny, M. E., & Rice, K. G. (1995). Attachment to Parents and Adjustment in Late Adolescent College Students: Current Status, Applications, and Future Considerations. Counseling Psychologist, v23 n3 p433-56 1995. Presents a modelconsistent with formulations in developmental psychology and psychopathologythat extends attachment theory to late adolescence. Discusses attachment in the context of life-span development, stress, coping, and adjustment. Favors addressing methodological challenges in order to validate attachment-based developmental and intervention models. (over 120 references) (RJM)

Kirsch, I. (1996). Hypnotic Enhancement of Cognitive-Behavioral Weight Loss Treatments Another Meta-reanalysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, v64 n3 p517-19 1996. In a meta-analysis of the effect of adding hypnosis to cognitive-behavioral treatments for weight reduction, additional data were obtained from authors of two previous studies, and computational inaccuracies in the previous meta-analyses were corrected. Discusses findings. Correlational analyses indicated that the benefits of hypnosis increased substantially over time. (KW)

Kirsch, I., & Others, A. (1995). Hypnosis as an Adjunct to Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy: A Meta- Analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, v63 n2 p214-20 1995. Performed a meta-analysis on 18 studies in which a cognitive-behavioral therapy was compared with the same therapy supplemented by hypnosis. Results indicated that hypnosis substantially enhanced treatment outcome, even though there were few procedural differences between the hypnotic and nonhypnotic treatments. Effects seemed particularly pronounced for treatments of obesity. (RJM)

Kite, M. E., & Whitley, B. E., Jr. (1996). Sex Differences in Attitudes toward Homosexual Persons, Behaviors, and Civil Rights: A Meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, v22 n4 p336-53 1996. Used meta-analytic techniques to compare men's and women's attitudes toward homosexual persons, homosexual behaviors, and gay people's civil rights. As expected, size of sex differences varied across these categories. Men were more negative than women toward homosexual persons and homosexual behavior, but the sexes viewed gay civil rights similarly. Discusses other findings. (KW)

Knutson, D. S., & Others, A. (1995). Meta-Research: Researching Student Researchers' Methods. This paper considers students' attitudes toward research and writing about research and discusses methods used to help students overcome their largely negative attitudes toward research. The paper first states that at Illinois State University in Normal, the course that follows freshman composition is one on academic discourse. The paper reports on surveys given to students that revealed negative attitudes toward research but which gave vague reasons for the negativitymissing library materials, poor journal selection for student needs, etc. The paper points out that one simple solution is to help students discover more unusual research topics. The paper also notes that while some of the resistance to library research may be attributed to intellectual laziness, some of it also must be attributed to the constricting misconceptions students have about what constitutes student research. The paper argues that, in students' writing experience, they have rarely, if ever, been asked to do primary research. The paper suggests surveys, historiography, and ethnography as three areas of primary research that students may use to write fulfilling, engaging papers that push them beyond the typical synthesis or summary papers that require little original thought or critical thinking. To illustrate the relevance of these research types, a description is provided by the paper. Results of an environmental survey first given by Greenpeace and an account of the massacre at Little Big Horn from an 1876 newspaper are appended. (TB) ED393100

Kohn, A. (1996). By All Available Means: Cameron and Pierce's Defense of Extrinsic Motivators. Review of Educational Research, v66 n1 p1-4 Spr 1996. The meta-analysis of J. Cameron and W. D. Pierce (1994), which purports to demonstrate that extrinsic rewards may not undermine intrinsic motivation, is unpersuasive by virtue of its methodologies, its tendency to ignore important distinctions, and its failure to include certain evidence. (Author/SLD)

Krol, C. A. (1996). Preservice Teacher Education Students' Dialogue Journals: What Characterizes Students' Reflective Writing and a Teacher's Comments. Training teachers as reflective practitioners is an important element in many teacher education programs. Teacher education literature indicates that journal writing is an approach that fosters reflection, and is an effective source of dialogue between student and teacher. This document reports on an action research study on the use of journals in the development of reflective practitioners by investigating both student and teacher comments. The participants, 15 students enrolled in an "Approaches to Teaching" course, were required to keep a reflective dialogue journal as a class assignment. Additional data were gathered from sources such as interviews, questionnaires, and class lesson plans and notes. Analysis of the data identified six reflective writing modes for students: descriptive/narrative, affective, metacognitive, meta-affective, connective/extensive, and proflective writing. Teacher comments were characterized as affirming, think more or nudging, personal connection, give information, and little/no reaction. While the preservice teachers' journals displayed entries in all six modes, the descriptive/narrative and affective modes were used most frequently. These pre-reflective modes served as a foundation for developing the other four modes. In the metacognitive and meta-affective modes of writing, students began to move beyond description to recognition of their own understanding, emotions, and beliefs, and finally to substantive reflection in the connective/extensive and proflective modes. The teacher responded with a type of comment appropriate to the students' journal entry. (Contains 59 references.) (ND) ED395911
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Law, K. S. (1995). The Use of Fisher's Z in Schmidt-Hunter-Type Meta-Analyses. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, v20 n3 p287-306 Fall 1995. Two new methods of estimating the mean population correlation (M) and the standard deviation of population correlations (SD) were suggested and tested by Monte Carlo simulations. Results show no consistent advantage to using the Pearson correlation or Fisher's Z in estimating M or SD; estimates from all methods are similar. (SLD)

Lepper, M. R., & Others, A. (1996). Intrinsic Motivation and Extrinsic Rewards: A Commentary on Cameron and Pierce's Meta-Analysis. Review of Educational Research, v66 n1 p5-32 Spr 1996. Provides a critical analysis of the meta-analysis of J. Cameron and W. D. Pierce (1994) of the experimental literature on the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Their overly simplistic conclusion has little theoretical or practical value and results from misuse of meta- analytic procedures. (SLD)

Li, T., & Lui, X. (1995). Programmed Elicitation in Secondary School Chemistry Teaching: A 10-Year Summary. Science Education, v79 n6 p667-92 1995. Summarizes a 10-year Chinese secondary school chemistry teaching experiment, programmed elicitation, which was found to be more effective than traditional Chinese elicitation. Includes sample programmed elicitation textbook section and lesson. (Author/MKR)

Lopez, F. G. (1995). Contemporary Attachment Theory: An Introduction with Implications for Counseling Psychology. Counseling Psychologist, v23 n3 p395-415 1995. Reviews attachment theory's conceptual foundations and key empirical findings while tracing important conceptual and methodological advances. Results of contemporary theory-guided studies of adult affect regulation, social competence, and intergenerational continuity are selectively reviewed. Considers implications of these findings for advancing an integrative understanding of healthy adult coping. (RJM)

Luckenbill, L. M. (1995). Biological Superiority in Math: Calvin or Susie? Spotlight: Gender Differences. Montessori Life, v7 n4 p28-32 Fall 1995. Discusses recent research findings, which do not appear to support the idea that boys' superiority in mathematics is biological. Cerebral lateralization studies are discussed; meta-analysis showed that the gender gap has narrowed, casting doubt on the importance of innate ability determining mathematics performance. Discusses implications of recent research studies for educators. (DR)

Lyddon, W. J. (1995). Attachment Theory: A Metaperspective for Counseling Psychology? Counseling Psychologist, v23 n3 p479-83 1995. Analyzes attachment theory's viability as an overarching framework for counseling psychology. Places particular emphasis on the integrative potential and heuristic value of the theory, arguing that it can use biological (structural), psychological (cognitive/affective), and social dimensions of experience to clarify developmental dynamics in self-change and self-stability. (RJM)
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Major, N. (1995). Modelling Teaching Strategies. Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, v6 n2-3 p117-52 1995. Describes a modelling language for representing teaching strategies, based in the context of the COCA intelligent tutoring system. Examines work on meta-reasoning in knowledge-based systems and describes COCA's architecture, giving details of the language used for representing teaching knowledge. Discusses implications for future work. (AEF)

McKinlay, J. B. (1996). More Appropriate Evaluation Methods for Community-Level Health Interventions: Introduction to the Special Issue. Evaluation Review, v20 n3 p237-43 1996. Articles in this special issue consider different aspects of community- level evaluation research and demonstrate the emerging sophistication and promise of this field. Process evaluation, qualitative research, and meta- analysis are promising new directions for ensuring more appropriate levels of analysis and more appropriate outcomes. (SLD)

McNeil, K., & Newman, I. (1995). Going beyond the Literature Review with Meta-Analysis. Mid-Western Educational Researcher, v8 n1 p23-26 Win 1995. Presents situations in which researchers can use the general linear model to uncover reasons for discrepant effect-size results of meta-analysis of similar studies. Situations include similarly labeled treatments or participants differing in important ways, treatment effectiveness varying by subject aptitude or situational variables, research design strongly influencing outcome, and analysis of several results from one study. (RAH)

Metcalf, K. K. (1995). Laboratory Experiences in Teacher Education: A Meta-Analytic Review of Research. The present study sought to expand upon earlier reviews of research by examining statistically the relative and comparative effects of several common forms of on-campus clinical experience in teacher education. Data were obtained from 60 studies which met a priori criteria for inclusion. Using aggregation techniques suggested by Rosenthal and others and modified Bonferoni techniques for pairwise comparisons, descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated. Among other things, the results suggest that laboratory experiences produce moderate to strongly positive results in terms of teacher affect, knowledge, and instructional behavior. Supporting earlier reviews, the results suggest that laboratory experiences are more powerful for inservice than for preservice teachers. However, in contrast to conclusions drawn in earlier reviews, laboratory experiences appeared to have a strong effect on teacher behavior which did not significantly decrease over time. The results also suggest the relative importance of various elements of laboratory experience. The data are presented in 14 tables. (Contains 83 references.) (Author) ED388645

Meyer, J. R. (1996). What Cognitive Differences Are Measured by the Role Category Questionnaire? Western Journal of Communication, v60 n3 p233-53 Sum 1996. Investigates, in two experiments, whether scores on the Role Category Questionnaire (RCQ) predicted the amount of psychological knowledge activated about others. Uses meta-analytic comparison of the results from the experiments to suggest that RCQ scores significantly predict the amount of conceptual psychological knowledge activated about others. (PA)

Michel, E. C. (1995). Promoting the Synthesis of Everything: Designing an Interdisciplinary Liberal Arts Communication Major for Undergraduates. The conceptualization of the Mars Hill College (MHC) communication major is a type of the refocused, liberal arts-based programs appearing at many colleges and universities around the countryMars Hill is an undergraduate college of 1100 students. The final product (the liberal-arts based, interdisciplinary MHC communication major) is the result of 3 critical factors: (1) a year and a half of informal, first-hand interviews of university educators who are changing their programs, those who head respected programs, and leading practitioners in communication-related industries; (2) a full year of studying Mars Hill College to get a sense of its character, its mission, its faculty, and its students; (3) the shared vision and enthusiasm of the division head, the dean of faculty and the vice president of academic affairs. The critical quality of "Communication as a Liberal Art" is its function as a context for 21st-century living. The study of communication should help students define and refine daily living and the understanding of it, making possible educated, meaningful information exchange in business, media consumption, message interpretation, leisure, and interpersonal communication. If communication as a meta-perspective is the "new liberal art," it follows that it must be positioned in the academy to be relevant across the academic spectrum. In the last two years, the program at Mars Hall College has incorporated courses from six other departmental disciplines and used a number of faculty from other departments. It also shares computer labs and other resources with other departments. (A list of interdisciplinary programs is attached.) (TB) ED393137

Miller, N., & Pollock, V. E. (1995). Use of Meta-analysis for Testing Theory. Evaluation and the Health Professions, v18 n4 p370-92 Dec 1995. Factors that might bias outcomes of meta-analytic reviews are discussed. The role of meta-analysis in theory development is considered, describing three types of meta-analytic tests of theory. A final section discusses the applicability of meta-analysis in the assessment of convergent and discriminant construct validity. (SLD)

Morrison, T., & Morrison, M. (1995). A Meta-analytic Assessment of the Predictive Validity of the Quantitative and Verbal Components of the Graduate Record Examination with Graduate Grade Point Average Representing the Criterion of Graduate Success. Educational and Psychological Measurement, v55 n2 p309-16 1995. A meta-analytic review was conducted on published studies examining the relationship between performance on the quantitative and verbal components of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) and graduate grade point average. Results suggest that the quantitative and verbal components of the GRE possess minimal predictive validity. (SLD)

Morrow, L. M., Ed. (1995). Family Literacy: Connections in Schools and Communities. Intended for practitioners from preschool to college whose major interest is literacy development, this book presents 20 essays that discuss multiple perspectives of the varied definitions of family literacy and provide ideas for schools, community agencies, and families by presenting different types of programs to put into practice. Essays in the book also explain the meaning of family literacy in the United Kingdom and explore the uses of literacy in families. Essays are: "Family Literacy: New Perspectives, New Practices" (Lesley Mandel Morrow); "Which Way for Family Literacy: Intervention or Empowerment?" (Elsa Roberts Auerbach); "Implementing an Intergenerational Literacy Project: Lessons Learned" (Jeanne R. Paratore); "Combining Parents' and Teachers' Thoughts about Storybook Reading at Home and School" (Patricia A. Edwards); "The Family Writing and Reading Appreciation Program" (Lesley Mandel Morrow with others); "Have You Heard Any Good Books Lately?: Encouraging Shared Reading at Home with Books and Audiotapes" (Patricia S. Koskinen and others); "Enhancing Adolescent Mothers' Guided Participation in Literacy" (Susan B. Neuman); "Let the Circle Be Unbroken: Teens as Literacy Learners and Teachers" (Billie J. Enz and Lyndon W. Searfoss); "The Reading Is Fundamental Motivational Approach to Family Literacy" (Ruth Graves and James H. Wendorf); "Helping First Graders Get a Running Start in Reading" (Linda B. Gambrell and others); "The Even Start Family Literacy Program" (Patricia A. McKee and Nancy Rhett); "A Comprehensive Approach to Family-Focused Services" (Meta W. Potts and Susan Paull); "Parents and Children Reading Together: The Barbara Bush Foundation for Family Literacy" (Benita Somerfield); "Linking Families, Childcare, and Literacy: 'Sesame Street' Preschool Educational Program" (Iris Sroka and others); "The Family Literacy Alliance: Using Public Television, Book-Based Series To Motivate At-Risk Populations" (Twila C. Liggett); "Family Literacy Practice in the United KingdomAn International Perspective" (Colin Harrison); "Opportunities for Literacy Learning in the Homes of Urban Preschoolers" (Linda Baker and others); "Children Practicing Reading at Home: What We Know about How Parents Help" (Diane H. Tracey); "Shared Lives and Shared Stories: Exploring Critical Literacy Connections among Family Members" (Daniel Madigan); and "Representations of Literacy: Parents' Images in Two Cultural Communities" (Vivian L. Gadsden). Includes an author index and subject index. (RS) ED383995

Mostert, M. P. (1996). Reporting Meta-analyses in Learning Disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, v11 n1 p2-14 Win 1996. This article proposes a set of criteria for reporting meta-analyses of topics in learning disabilities. Application of the criteria to examples of published meta-analyses reveals the wide variation in amount of reported data, which could influence the summative results of meta-analyses and subsequent judgment of face validity. (Author/DB)

Muchinsky, P. M. (1996). The Correction for Attenuation. Educational and Psychological Measurement, v56 n1 p63-75 1996. This article examines the statistical correction for attenuation and the controversies surrounding the procedure. The logic of the double and single correction formulas is discussed, and misapplications and misinterpretations of the correction are presented. (SLD)

Murtagh, D. R. R., & Greenwood, K. M. (1995). Identifying Effective Psychological Treatments of Insomnia: A Meta- Analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, v63 n1 p79-89 1995. Clarified efficacy of psychological treatments for insomnia through a meta- analysis of 66 outcome studies representing 139 treatment groups. Psychological treatments produced considerable enhancement of both sleep patterns and the subjective experience of sleep. Participants who were clinically referred and who did not regularly use sedatives experienced the greatest therapeutic gains. (RJM)

Myors, B. (1996). A Simple, Exact Test for the Holland Hexagon. Journal of Vocational Behavior, v48 n3 p339-51 1996. A method based on Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients was applied to the hypothesized ranks among correlations in Holland's hexagon of vocational interests. The procedure was easy to compute and apply and was amenable to comparing the fit in several matrices and to conducting meta- analysis. (SK)
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Nishi, S. (1990). Class Size: The Issue for Policy Makers in the State of Utah. A review of literature on class size is the purpose of this report. Included are a summary of four meta analyses (Robinson and Wittebols 1986), (Cone 1978), and (Glass and Smith 1978 and 1979); a discussion of research methodologies; recommendations for policy makers; and alternative strategies for class size reduction. Appendices present information on the relationship between achievement and class size, cluster analysis summaries, Utah demographics, and a set of bibliographies that contain more than 350 entries. (LMI) ED321410

Nye, L. G., & Witt, L. A. (1995). Interpreting Moderator Effects: Substitute for the Signed Coefficient Rule. Educational and Psychological Measurement, v55 n1 p27-31 1995. Basic rules are suggested to replace the signed coefficient rule to infer the form of moderator effects in terms of slopes of regression lines. Steps are provided to interpret the form of moderator effects that can be achieved using only the regression coefficients of the predictor variable and interaction term. (SLD)
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O'Sullivan, R. G., & O'Sullivan, J. M. (1994). Evaluation Voices: Promoting Cluster Evaluation from within Programs. Evaluation Voices is an approach to evaluation that assumes that programs with similar goals can strengthen their evaluation strategies through cluster networking as they build evaluation expertise from within. Evaluators focus on a process that: (1) begins with program staff and stakeholders sharing their vision for the program; (2) recognizes the current level of evaluation skill present within programs; (3) identifies barriers to strengthening the evaluation; (4) provides training to overcome identified barriers; and (5) generates an action plan to strengthen individual program evaluation plans. The Evaluation Voices approach is extremely sensitive to diversity in practice and culture. Results of preliminary uses of the approach have been very encouraging, and programs appear to have strengthened the ability to conduct and use evaluation. Two Figures are included. (Contains 12 references.) (Author/SLD) ED380482

Ochoa, S. H., & Olivarez, A., Jr. (1995). A Meta-Analysis of Peer Rating Sociometric Studies of Pupils with Learning Disabilities. Journal of Special Education, v29 n1 p1-19 1995. This meta-analysis of peer rating sociometric research on students with learning disabilities (LD) examined 17 studies. Results demonstrated that LD students have considerably lower sociometric status compared to nondisabled peers. The influence of ratee gender, rater gender, grade level, research design, and sociometric scale type is examined. (Author/JDD)
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Parker-Price, S., & Claxton, A. F. (1996). Teachers' Perceptions of Gender Differences in Students. Sex stereotyping attitudes and behaviors of educators have been cited as particularly important influences on the development of gender differences in childhood and adolescence. Because teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of gender differences may impact the formation of students' confidence in academic subjects and school in general, the perceptions that educators have of real or imagined gender differences can be used as one indicator of the conditions that may influence elementary and secondary school students. This study examined K-12 teachers' (155 females and 38 males) classifications of a list of characteristics as more typical of males or females in their classrooms. Characteristics were based on the Maccoby and Jacklin meta-analysis of gender difference research, so that teachers' responses could be compared with the findings of psychological research. In addition to evaluating the teachers' agreement with scientific evidence for gender differences, teachers' perceptions were examined in relation to teacher gender. It was found that some teacher perceptions of student gender differences agree with psychological research findings, some with myths, and some were even in favor of no sex differences when the research stated otherwise. It was also found that male and female teachers have different perceptions of the prevalence of some characteristics in boys and girls. Three tables present results and statistical analysis. (JBJ) ED397373

Paulston, R. G., & Others, A. (1996). Mapping Multiple Perspectives: Research Reports of the University of Pittsburgh Social Cartography Project, 1993-1996. The Department of Administrative and Policy Studies (APS), University of Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), completed six research reports about its Conceptual Mapping Project. The reports reproduced here originally appeared in the "Occasional Paper Series" of the APS. They are presented in order of the chronological appearance as follows: (1) "Mapping Knowledge Perspectives in Studies of Social and Educational Change," June, 1993 (R. G. Paulston); (2) "The Promise of a Critical Postmodern Cartography," August, 1993 (R. G. Paulston and M. Liebman); (3) "Social Cartography: A New Methodology for Comparative Studies" September, 1993 (M. Liebman and R. G. Paulston); (4) "Mapping and Remapping Discourse in Educational Policy Studies," June, 1996 (J. V. Nicholson-Goodman and R. G. Paulston); (5) "Postmodernity's Influence in Comparative Education Theory and Debate," July, 1996 (M. Liebman); and (6) "Mapping Visual Culture in Comparative Education Discourse," August, 1996 (R. G. Paulston). These reports contain numerous tables, figures, references, and notes. (LMI) ED400591

Pearl, J. B., III, & Rubino, A. (1993). The Power of Cluster Evaluation Networking Conferences. Groups from two Michigan-based science education projects, funded through the Kellogg Foundation Science Education Initiative, used networking conferences with cluster evaluation processes for their program assessment format. Cluster evaluation is categorized as a type of naturalistic evaluation, and it includes negotiated common cluster outcomes, collaborative data collection and analysis procedures, regular networking conferences, technical assistance to individual projects, and cooperative derivation and dissemination of findings. Networking conferences (NC) are special gatherings held semi-annually of project directors, evaluators, other key project staff, foundation staff, invited guests, and cluster evaluators. The Science Education Initiative aims to improve science teaching and learning with a long-term goal of improving the scientific literacy of Michigan citizens. The specific purposes of the cluster evaluation networking conferences included the following: (1) conduct strategic planning for, exchange ideas about, provide direction to discuss issues and problems emerging from, and review and analyze data and findings of the cluster evaluation; (2) share lessons learned with other projects; (3) learn about current and developing issues in science education and science curriculum, instruction, and assessment topics directly pertinent to projects; (4) formally and informally share science education curriculum materials and instructional strategies; and (5) visit project sites. (Contains nine references.) (JB) ED365257

Peterson, C. A. O. (1995). Learned Helplessness: A Theory for the Age of Personal Control. Experiences with uncontrollable events may lead to the expectation that future events will elude control, resulting in disruptions in motivation, emotion, and learning. This text explores this phenomenon, termed learned helplessness, tracking it from its discovery to its entrenchment in the psychological canon. The volume summarizes and integrates the theory, research, and application of learned helplessness. The chapters discuss: the phenomena of helplessness and personal control; observations of learned helplessness in animals, including an account of how the condition was first observed in dogs who were repeatedly shocked; the biology of learned helplessness, with an emphasis on biochemical reactions and their effects on organisms; learned helplessness in people, including a meta-analysis of human helplessness studies; the attributional reformulation, which looks at causal explanations and the locus of control; connections between learned helplessness and depression; social problems arising from learned helplessness; correlations between learned helplessness and physical health; and an epilogue which examines the importance of control and some of the disputes surrounding the concept of learned helplessness. Each chapter critically evaluates what is known and not known about relevant topics and offers suggestions for future research. Contains over 550 references, as well as an author index and a subject index. (RJM) ED399474

Petrosino, A. J. (1995). Specifying Inclusion Criteria for a Meta-Analysis: Lessons and Illustrations from a Quantitative Synthesis of Crime Reduction Experiments. Evaluation Review, v19 n3 p274-93 1995. Problems and illustrations are presented from a meta-analysis of crime reduction programs. Eight criteria are specified for including studies in a meta-analysis, and some problematic studies are discussed using the criteria. Rules for handling problem studies in order to retain consistency throughout the analysis are discussed. (SLD)

Puk, T. (1996). Applications of a Meta-model of Educational Processes as It Applies to Lifelong Teaching and Learning. International Journal of Lifelong Education, v15 n1 p41-49 Jan-1996. An implicit or explicit curriculum exists wherever teaching and learning occur, in any teaching relationship. A model of educational processes that includes the image of an educated person, model of the learner, and conceptions of context and discipline provides a mechanism that clarifies the concept of lifelong learning. (SK)
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Qin, Z., & Others, A. (1995). Cooperative versus Competitive Efforts and Problem Solving. Review of Educational Research, v65 n2 p129-43 Sum 1995. The relative impacts of cooperative and competitive efforts on problem- solving success were explored in a review of 46 studies. Findings from these studies were categorized by problem-solving type and subjected to a meta-analysis. Members of cooperative teams outperformed competitive individuals on the identified types of problem solving. (SLD)
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Raeder, A. (1996). The Internet Express: Meta Sites for Efficient Internet Exploration. Searcher, v4 n9 p38-41 1996. World Wide Web "meta sites," or collections of subject-specific hyperlinks, can expedite Internet searching. One can find meta sites by consulting: search engines that offer site ratings or selective retrieval; library- constructed Web sites; Internet-related journals; and subject experts. A compilation of meta sites, with descriptions and Uniform Resource Locators, is provided. (LAM)

Reeh, H. E., & Reilly, K. J. (1995). A Quasi Meta Analysis of the Health Locus of Control Construct. Numerous theories have attempted to explain possible factors relating to an individual's propensity for engaging or failing to engage in preventative health behaviors. The Health Locus of Control (HLOC) is now considered to be an important variable for understanding an individual's likelihood for following health promoting behaviors. This paper provides a quasi meta- analysis by offering a descriptive and methodological review of HLOC literature from 1976 to 1993. This literature was examined for possible sources of bias. The results of this analysis indicate that HLOC research is primarily conducted in the United States by a fairly even distribution of male and female researchers, who are often members of psychology faculties. Studies are mostly published in psychology journals, with some research appearing in medical journals. These studies have included a wide variety of participants, including hospital patients, employees, school children, and university students. HLOC research is generally of an applied nature, and is most often correlational in design. An analysis of research findings indicates that an Internal HLOC is related to health-promoting behavior, positive health status, health knowledge, information-seeking, and treatment success. Five tables and 13 figures provide statistical summaries. (RJM) ED380732

Ringwalt, C. L., & Others, A. (1994). Past and Future Directions of the D.A.R.E. Program: An Evaluation Review. Draft Final Report. Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) was designed to prevent students' use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs by using trained, uniformed police officers in the classroom. This report examines the effectiveness of DARE in drug use prevention and how this program compares to other prevention programs. The report is organized into four sections and four appendices. Section 1 provides an overview of school-based drug prevention programs. Section 2 presents the methodologies used and results of each of the four components of the implementation assessment. It includes information on the national/regional-level operations of DARE, the State-level operations, and the implementation of DARE and other drug prevention programs at the local level. The report's methodology appears in Section 3, along with the results of the outcome assessment, while in Section 4, findings are discussed from both the implementation and outcome assessments. The findings show that the program has been extremely successful at placing drug education in the Nation's schools. Appendices contain sampling information for the school district drug prevention coordinators' survey, descriptions of each study utilized in the meta-analysis conducted for the outcome assessment, a bibliography of comparison program evaluations, and data collection materials for the implementation assessment. (RJM) ED379558

Robinson, G. E., & Wittebols, J. H. (1986). Class Size Research: A Related Cluster Analysis for Decision Making. ERS Research Brief. A policy of reducing class size seems sensible, but might have costly, far- reaching implications for students, teachers, and public support for schools. The purpose of this research brief is to summarize 100 class size research studies from 1950 to 1985 and to regroup them into 18 areas of concern. The cluster analysis approach was designed to make this research more accessible and useful to school officials making class size decisions. (Three major 1978 syntheses had created substantial debate and controversy by treating class size as an isolated variable.) In contrast, clustering research by grade level, subject area, definition, pupil characteristics, teacher opinion, and cost implications helps decision-makers determine the best possible use of additional resources. This analysis dispels the concept of an "optimum" class size. The relationships between class size and student achievement vary greatly across grades, among subject areas, and by instructional methods. In general, the effects of smaller classes on student learning, attitudes, and behavior decreases as grade level increases. Findings indicate that disadvantaged or minority students achieve more academically in smaller classes. The same holds true for students with below average academic ability. Included are numerous tables and three appendices listing over 200 class size studies and 83 additional references. (MLH) ED274030

Rogers, K. B. (1991). The Relationship of Grouping Practices to the Education of the Gifted and Talented Learner. Executive Summary. Research-Based Decision Making Series. This executive summary reports on a study which utilized meta-analysis and best-evidence synthesis techniques to evaluate 13 research studies on the academic, social, and psychological effects upon learners who are gifted and talented of three grouping practices: (1) ability grouping for enrichment; (2) mixed ability cooperative grouping for regular instruction; and (3) grouping for acceleration. It was concluded that the research showed strong, consistent support for the academic effects of most forms of ability grouping for enrichment and acceleration, but that the research is scant and weak concerning the socialization and psychological adjustment effects of these practices. Claims for the academic superiority of mixed ability grouping or for whole group instructional practices were not substantiated for gifted and talented learners. Guidelines are offered suggesting that: students who are gifted and talented should spend most of their school day with others of similar abilities and interests; cluster grouping of gifted students within an otherwise heterogeneously grouped classroom can be considered when a full time gifted program is not feasible; a cross-grade grouping option could be offered in the absence of a full time gifted program enrollment; gifted and talented students should be offered a variety of acceleration and enrichment based options; and mixed ability cooperative learning should be used sparingly for students who are gifted and talented. (15 references) (Author/DB) ED343330

Rogers, P. J., & Hough, G. (1995). Improving the Effectiveness of Evaluations: Making the Link to Organizational Theory. Evaluation and Program Planning, v18 n4 p321-32 Oct-Dec 1995. Explores implications for evaluation practice of using five different perspectives on organizations, drawing on the four models of social program implementation developed by R. F. Elmore (1978). It is argued that evaluation will only really be effective when its focus, methods, and management reflect realistic assumptions about how organizations work. (SLD)

Rubino, A. N., & Pearl, J. (1994). Using Networking Conferences for Science Program Improvement. This paper describes the role of and planning process for networking conferences in the cluster evaluation of the Michigan-based science education projects funded through the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Science Education Initiative to improve science teaching and learning with a long term goal of improving the scientific literacy of Michigan citizens. Cluster evaluation is designed to strengthen individual projects and to assess the impact of a selected group of projects and thus strengthen Kellogg Foundation programs and policymaking. Networking conferences are described as an important component of the Foundation's cluster evaluation process. They serve the following purposes: (1) plan for, exchange ideas about, provide direction to, and discuss issues and problems emerging from the cluster evaluation; (2) share lessons learned with other projects; (3) learn about current and developing issues in science education; (4) share science education curriculum materials and instructional strategies; and (5) visit project sites. The paper shows details of the design, implementation, and evaluation phases of networking conferences and presents nine fundamental propositions that make these conferences a powerful tool for dissemination of information. Appendices provide a chart of the steps in the conference planning task and proposed time frames for completing the tasks. (Contains 10 references.) (JDD) ED371682

Rupinski, M. T., & Dunlap, W. P. (1996). Approximating Pearson Product-Moment Correlations from Kendall's Tau and Spearman's Rho. Educational and Psychological Measurement, v56 n3 p419-29 1996. The use of Monte Carlo methods demonstrated that a formula presented by M. G. Kendall for estimating Pearson's rho from tau is somewhat more accurate than a formula presented by K. Pearson for estimating Pearson's rho from a Spearman's rho coefficient. Implications for meta-analysis of correlations are discussed. (SLD)

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (1996). When Paradigms Clash: Comments on Cameron and Pierce's Claim That Rewards Do Not Undermine Intrinsic Motivation. Review of Educational Research, v66 n1 p33-38 Spr 1996. The conclusion of J. Cameron and W. D. Pierce that rewards do not pose a threat to intrinsic motivation (1994) is a misrepresentation of the literature based on a flawed meta-analysis. Their analysis is more an attempt to defend behaviorist turf rather than meaningful consideration of relevant data and issues. (Author/SLD)
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Schmidt, F., & Hunter, J. E. (1995). The Impact of Data-Analysis Methods on Cumulative Research Knowledge: Statistical Significance Testing, Confidence Intervals, and Meta-Analysis. Evaluation and the Health Professions, v18 n4 p408-27 Dec 1995. It is argued that point estimates of effect sizes and confidence intervals around these point estimates are more appropriate statistics for individual studies than reliance on statistical significance testing and that meta- analysis is appropriate for analysis of data from multiple studies. (SLD)

Schram, C. M. (1996). A Meta-analysis of Gender Differences in Applied Statistics Achievement. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, v21 n1 p55-70 Spr 1996. A meta-analysis of gender differences examined statistics achievement in postsecondary level psychology, education, and business courses. Analysis of 13 articles (18 samples) found that undergraduate males had an advantage, outscoring females when the outcome was a series of examinations. Females outscored males when the outcome was total course performance. (SLD)

Schwartz, M. B., & Brownell, K. D. (1995). Matching Individuals to Weight Loss Treatments: A Survey of Obesity Experts. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, v63 n1 p149-53 1995. Identified factors for matching individuals to treatments by surveying experts in the field of obesity about the indications and contraindications of 11 common approaches to weight loss. Experts provided 170 client characteristics as possible matching factors. Discusses potential variables for studies on matching individuals to treatments along with other concerns. (RJM)

Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (1996). Teacher Perceptions of Mainstreaming/Inclusion, 1958-1995: A Research Synthesis. Exceptional Children, v63 n1 p59-74 Fall 1996. Application of systematic research synthesis procedures to 28 studies of general education teachers' attitudes toward inclusion indicated that, overall, about two-thirds of the teachers support inclusion. Their support, however, varied depending on the disability. Only one-third or less believed that they have the time, skills, training, or resources necessary for inclusion. (CR)

Scruggs, T. E., Ed., & Mastropieri, M. A., Ed. (1995). Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities. Volume 9. Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities are considered in this 10- chapter volume. Contents include: "Developmental Language Disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder" (Cynthia A. Riccio and George W. Hynd); "Self-Regulated Strategy Development: A Theoretical and Practical Perspective" (Lisa P. Case et al.); "Mapping the Cutting-Edge in Primary- Level Literacy Instruction for Weak and At-Risk Readers" (Michael Pressley et al.); "Knowledge about Reading and Self-Evaluation in Reading Disabled Children" (Francesca Pazzaglia et al.); "Social Skill Deficits and Training: A Meta-Analysis of the Research in Learning Disabilities" (Kenneth A. Kavale and Steven R. Forness); "Computer-Assisted Instruction and Students with Learning Disabilities: Does Research Support the Rhetoric?" (Rwey-Lin Shiah et al.); "The Self-Concept of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities: A Review of the Literature and a Call for Theoretical Elaboration" (Jean C. McPhail and C. Addison Stone); "Dictation: Applications to Writing for Students with Learning Disabilities" (Susan De La Paz and Steve Graham); "Qualitative Research Methodology in the Study of Learning and Behavioral Disorders: An Analysis of Recent Research" (Thomas E. Scruggs and Margo A. Mastropieri); and "Treatment Validity: A Neglected Component of Special Education Classification" (Russell J. Skiba et al.). Individual chapters contain references. (SW) ED383132

Shapiro, D., & Varey, K. (1996). Reactions to Sexist Humor: An Exploratory Analysis from a Meta-Perspective. A study focused on investigating perceptions of sexist humor, specifically on how people perceive others' reactions to sexist humor. Subjects, 206 college men and women, rated communication competence and attraction of actors in vignettes depicting 2 different reactions to sexist humor. Results indicated that sex of both the joke teller and the joke reactor significantly affect outsiders perceptions of competence and attraction with women appearing to have a greater latitude of acceptable behavior than men. Findings suggest that men should refrain from telling anti-female sexist jokes because they have little to gain but much to lose if the joke is poorly received; and that women who are offended by humor should call attention to it since there was no evidence that this face-threatening act is likely to be seen as incompetent or unattractive. (Contains 33 references and 6 tables of data. The survey instrument is attached.) (Author/RS) ED396354

Short, R. H., & Others, A. (1986). A Meta-Exploration of WISC-R Factor Score Profiles as a Function of Diagnosis And Intellectual Level. In spite of massive research efforts, no clear conclusions have been reached with regard to whether specific exceptional groups demonstrate Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) profiles that reliably differentiate them from normative or other exceptional groups. This study applied multivariate clustering and profile analysis procedures to the Kaufman-recategorized WISC-R subtest data of 119 samples of normal and exceptional children drawn from the available WISC-R research literature in an attempt to determine whether some limited number of WISC-R patterns adequately describe the performance of these children and the extent to which such performance patterns may be associated with psychoeducational diagnosis or level of intellect. This meta-exploration showed the performance of the 119 samples to be most parsimoniously described by three relatively distinct recategorized WISC-R profiles. Profile similarity appeared to be most strongly related to the mean Full Scale IQ of the samples. Samples failed to cluster as a function of psychoeducational diagnosis. These results suggest that the use of WISC-R profile analysis for the differentiation of various diagnostic groups is not warranted. Twenty-six pages of bibliographical references as well as data tables are appended. (Author/JAZ) ED276774

Sickle, M. V. S., Barbara. (1996). Caring Relationships in Science Classrooms: A Symbolic Interaction Study. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, v33 n4 p433-53 1996. Identifies and describes characteristics of science teachers in classrooms in which an ethic of caring was perceived to exist. Describes the emergence of teacher-student-content relationships and illustrates the importance of these relationships. Contains 38 references. (JRH)

Sipe, T. A., & Stallings, W. M. (1996). Cooper's Taxonomy of Literature Reviews Applied to Meta-Analyses in Educational Achievement. H. M. Cooper (1988) has developed a taxonomy that classified literature reviews based on six characteristics: (1) focus of attention; (2) goal of the synthesis; (3) perspective on the literature; (4) coverage of the literature; (5) organization of the perspective; and (6) intended audience. One hundred and three meta-analyses identified from the literature on educational achievement were coded according to Cooper's taxonomy. Research outcomes were the focus in a majority of the meta-analyses while research methods and theory building or assessment were the focus in less than 10 percent of the meta-analyses. Generalization was a goal of all the meta- analyses, while linguistic bridge building, which deals with theories, was a goal in 12 percent of the meta-analyses. Perspectives of these meta- analyses were fairly evenly divided between neutral and espousal of a position. Findings were arranged conceptually in all of the meta-analyses, and were also arranged methodologically in slightly fewer than half. Practitioners were the usual intended audience. Using the taxonomy of reviews to classify meta-analyses can help readers assess study quality and can provide a framework for those who are conducting and publishing meta- analyses. Appendix A lists the meta-analyses included in this exploration; Appendix B lists identified studies specifically excluded. (Contains 6 tables and 10 references.) (SLD) ED398275

Slavin, R. E. (1996). Education for All. Contexts of Learning Series. This collection assembles some of the most important works from the writings of Robert E. Slavin and presents them in individual chapters with introductions and commentary to set them in context. The works cited give educators and educational researchers a single source for the most important work of Slavin and his colleagues. The first section, "Research on Effective Instructional Strategies," traces the program of development and research that led from cooperative learning strategies for elementary and secondary classrooms to the cooperative elementary school to the Success for All and Roots and Wings programs. The second section, "Best- Evidence Syntheses," presents quantitative reviews of research on several key issues of school and classroom organization. These reviews use the review technique of best-evidence synthesis, which combines systematic literature search methods and the quantification of study outcomes characteristic of meta analysis with the discussion of substantive and methodological issues and the description of important studies characteristic of the best narrative reviews. A theoretical model derived from Slavin's work that has guided much of it is presented as a model of effective instruction based on quality of instruction, appropriate levels of instruction, incentive, and time that provides opportunities for learning. (Contains 10 figures, 37 tables, and 829 references.) (SLD) ED399332

Sloutsky, V. M., & Morris, A. K. (1995). Understanding of Logical Necessity in Adolescents: Developmental and Cross- Cultural Perspectives. Exploring whether deductive reasoning can develop adequately without special instruction, this paper presents two studies that examine the development of meta-components of deductive reasoning, first in algebra, and second in verbal reasoning. The first study examined students' understanding of logical necessity in algebraic tasks in different curricular settings, where one curriculum provided instruction with an emphasis on the meta-components of algebraic reasoning and the other did not. The study involved 120 Russian and 120 English students participated in an experimental mathematics curriculum group, and 89 Russian and 120 English students participated in the nonexperimental curriculum. Each group included younger and older adolescents. Students in the experimental curriculum had a better understanding of logical necessity and this ability tended to increase with age. Students in the nonexperimental curriculum had not developed an understanding of logical necessity. In the second study, the same subjects participated in a study of the transfer of the understanding of logical necessity to verbal reasoning. The advantage noted for those in the experimental curriculum continued into the verbal reasoning tasks. (Contains 5 figures, 5 tables, and 45 references.) (SLD) ED389782

Snowman, J. (1995). Computer-Based Education: More Hype than Help? Mid-Western Educational Researcher, v8 n1 p32-35 Win 1995. Recent meta-analysis of studies of computer-based education (CBE) assessed effects on student cognitive skills, academic achievement, and attitudes. CBE methods include drill-and-practice, simulation, and tutorials. Program guides and evaluation criteria are listed. Effectiveness of CBE varied with age, ability, and program type, and basic learning principles were often ignored in CBE program development. (JAT)

Stauffer, J. M. (1996). A Graphical User Interface Psychometric Meta-analysis Program for DOS. Educational and Psychological Measurement, v56 n4 p675-77 1996. MetaDOS is a point-and-click PASCAL program for meta-analysis that provides a user-friendly, Windows-type interface for DOS systems. Its statistical procedures basically follow those developed by J. E. Hunter and F. L. Schmidt and their colleagues (1990 and 1993). (Author/SLD)

Stein, D. M., & Lambert, M. J. (1995). Graduate Training in Psychotherapy: Are Therapy Outcomes Enhanced? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, v63 n2 p182-96 1995. Reviews sources of indirect evidence supporting the value of graduate training in psychotherapy. Discusses training protocols that are known to enhance trainees' skills and summarizes a meta-analysis of therapy outcome studies involving within-study comparisons of psychotherapists of different levels of training and experience. Other research is also presented. (RJM)

Stock, W. A., & Others, A. (1996). Research Synthesis: Coding and Conjectures. Evaluation and the Health Professions, v19 n1 p104-17 1996. Guidelines are offered that make it more likely that high-quality information will be extracted and coded from primary research reports in meta-analyses. It is also noted that the methodology of meta-analysis results in pressure to change the type of information that appears in primary research reports. (SLD)

Sutman, F. X., & Others, A. (1996). Seeking More Effective Outcomes from Science Laboratory Experiences (Grades 7-14): Six Companion Studies. The series of three sets of companion studies reported in this presentation addresses the need for seeking more effective outcomes from science laboratory experiences, which is indicated by conflicting outcomes of earlier reported research related to laboratory instruction at two different academic levelsgrades 7-12 and beginning college. Four of the studies reported are based on actual on-site observations of laboratory based science instruction, while two are the results of meta-analysis of earlier statistically based studies related to learning outcomes of science laboratory experiences. Each meta-analysis included 55 studies conducted and reported during the period from 1970-94 and concluded that non- traditional approaches to laboratory instruction produces significantly improved content learning, reasoning ability, and skills and attitudes. The second set of studies considered the emphasis given to specific teaching strategies during pre-laboratory and post-laboratory instruction. Results indicate that students experience laboratory-based experiences as an add-on to lecture rather than as the driving force for later instruction. The third set of studies investigated the impact of an inservice model on classroom science teaching with results indicating that the teachers adopted the model approach and made significant changes in their course organization. Contains 144 references. (JRH) ED393703

Swanson, H. L. (1996). Meta-analysis, Replication, Social Skills, and Learning Disabilities. Journal of Special Education, v30 n2 p213-21 Sum 1996. Evaluation of two meta-analyses of sociometric research on children with learning disabilities notes differences in their findings. Differences are attributed to effects of gender, ethnicity, and type of measurement on effect size; inadequate reporting of coding reliability; failure to include similar articles for analysis; and poor operationalization of the term "learning disabilities." Guidelines for future syntheses are offered. (Author/DB)

Swarthout, D. (1988). Cross Validation of Job Families Using an Expanded Data Set. USES Test Research Report No. 53. The analyses of J. E. Hunter (1983) were replicated with an expanded data set. The Hunter study, the basis of the Validity Generalization system used by the United States Employment Service, contained 515 General Aptitude Test Battery validation studies. The data set in this study included these and additional studies to bring the data set to 755 studies representing 74,187 individuals. Analyses were conducted for the total sample, the original sample, and the new or additional sample. The beta weights developed by Hunter were compared with the beta weights developed for the total sample. Results indicate that the beta weights developed by Hunter in 1983 and those developed from the total sample yield virtually identical validity coefficients. Consequently, there is no need to change the beta weights currently being used. A secondary conclusion is that the validities for the additional sample are lower than those for the original sample, particularly for the perceptual or psychomotor aptitudes. There is no easy explanation for the decline in validities, but several suggestions are advanced. Eight tables present study information. An appendix contains tabulated data on the 755 studies that constitute the total sample. (SLD) ED310173

Swim, J. K., & Sanna, L. J. (1996). He's Skilled, She's Lucky: A Meta-analysis of Observers' Attributions for Women's and Men's Successes and Failures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, v22 n5 p507-19 1996. This meta-analysis builds on past qualitative reviews examining different attributions that observers give for other women's and men's successes and failures. Results suggest the greatest support for the argument that differences in expectations for women's and men's performances on masculine tasks influence the selection of stable or unstable causes. Suggestions for pursuing new perspectives on the impact of gender on attribution processes are discussed. (KW)
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_________. (1995). The Emotional Price of Excellence. Abstracts of Selected Papers from The Annual Esther Katz Rosen Symposium on the Psychological Development of Gifted Children (5th, Lawrence, Kansas, September 8-9, 1995). This monograph presents 29 abstracts on the emotional price of excellence in the psychological development of gifted children. Sample topics include: self-as-learner schemas, the impact of academic pressure on Japanese students, multicultural counseling practices for gifted minorities, coping strategies of gifted adolescents, suicide among gifted students, early language enrichment, gifted adolescent girls, psychological intensities in young gifted children, recruitment and retention of minority students in gifted education, meta-attention control, social support for science- talented rural girls, self-actualization as a model for educational excellence, factors undermining self-concept and persistence, supersensitivity and excellence, the relationship between mental illness and giftedness, effects of a summer honors academy on bright high school students' self-concept, the emotional price of overlapping syndromes, at- risk gifted young adults: a longitudinal study in progress, the Pyryt Mendaglio Self-Perception Survey, academic acceleration, development of artistic identity, rechanneling misdirected gifted energy, parental expectations: precursors for societal competence and leadership capacities, and loss of empathy as an emotional price of cognitive excellence. (DB) ED386906
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van Ijzendoorn, M. H., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (1996). Attachment Representations in Mothers, Fathers, Adolescents, and Clinical Groups: A Meta-analytic Search for Normative Data. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, v64 n1 p8-21 1996. This meta-analysis on 33 studies, including more than 2,000 Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) classifications, presents distributions of AAI classifications in samples of nonclinical fathers and mothers, in adolescents, in samples from different cultures, and in clinical groups. Fathers, adolescents, and participants from different countries show about the same distribution of AAI classifications as nonclinical mothers do. Discusses other findings. (Author/KW)

Van Sickle, M., & Dickman, C. (1996). Science Across the Disciplines. Science Scope, v20 n3 p22-24 Nov-Dec 1996. Discusses interdisciplinary teaching teams as one approach to integrating several subjects in a curriculum. Presents activities for an interdisciplinary unit on energy and the human body that involve science, health, mathematics, music, and physical education. (JRH)

Veenman, S. (1995). Cognitive and Noncognitive Effects of Multigrade and Multi-Age Classes: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Review of Educational Research, v65 n4 p319-81 Win 1995. This article reviews the best evidence concerning the cognitive and noncognitive effects of multigrade (students of more than one grade taught by one teacher) and multiage (students grouped for expected benefits) classrooms. Studies of noncognitive, cognitive, and achievement effects reveal no adverse effects of learning in such classrooms. (SLD)

Vevea, J. L., & Hedges, L. V. (1995). A General Linear Model for Estimating Effect Size in the Presence of Publication Bias. Psychometrika, v60 n3 p419-35 Sep 1995. When the process of publication favors studies with small p-values and large effect estimates, combined estimates from many studies may be biased. This paper describes a model for estimation of effect size when there is selection based on one-tailed p-values. (SLD)
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Waddington, T. S. H. (1995). Why Mastery Matters. It is argued that mastery learning is one explanation for the documented differences in mathematics achievement between Japanese and American students. Given its emphasis on mastery at one stage before moving on to the next stage, and the potential accumulated benefits of this approach over time, mastery learning appears to be very similar to what occurs in Japanese classrooms. A meta-analysis of studies of elementary mathematics achievement supports the research findings of H. W. Stevenson and S. Y. Lee (1990). The overlapping confidence intervals of Japanese mathematics performance and mastery learning do not support a positive conclusion that mastery learning caused the differences, but they do indicate that there is a potential relationship. The role of mastery learning in mathematics deserves further exploration. An appendix contains a chart of the studies reviewed. (Contains 3 figures and 18 references.) (SLD) ED394982

Weinburgh, M. (1995). Gender Differences in Student Attitudes toward Science: A Meta-Analysis of the Literature from 1970 to 1991. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, v32 n4 p387-98 1995. Presents a meta-analysis of literature which examined gender differences in students attitudes toward science, and correlations between attitudes toward science and science achievement. Results found that boys show a more positive attitude toward science than girls in all types of science and that a positive attitude results in higher achievement, particularly for low-performance girls. (43 references) (Author/MKR)

Weiss, B., & Weisz, J. R. (1995). Relative Effectiveness of Behavioral versus Nonbehavioral Child Psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, v63 n2 p317-20 1995. Evaluated the hypothesis that the apparent superiority of behavioral interventions among children is due to differences in the methodological quality of studies of behavioral and nonbehavioral treatments. Meta- analytic results found little support for this hypothesis. Because meta- analysis is a correlational technique, these results should be considered suggestive. (RJM)

Weisz, J. R., & Others, A. (1995). Bridging the Gap Between Laboratory and Clinic in Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, v63 n5 p688-701 1995. In studies of the usefulness of psychotherapy with children and adolescents, clinical therapy has markedly poorer outcomes than laboratory studies. Proposals to bridge the gap include enriching the data base on treatment effects by clinical practitioners, identifying the features of research therapy that account for positive outcomes, and exporting lab- tested treatments to the clinical setting. (JPS)

Welch, C. J., & Miller, T. R. (1995). Assessing Differential Item Functioning in Direct Writing Assessments: Problems and an Example. Journal of Educational Measurement, v32 n2 p163-78 Sum 1995. Effects of using different combinations of internal and external matching variables were examined using a generalized Mantel-Haenszel statistic, a technique based on meta-analysis, and logistic discriminant function analysis with data from a writing assessment for over 4,200 8th graders. Results did not support use of an external matching criterion. (SLD)

White, M. J., & Others, A. (1995). Diagnostic Overshadowing and Mental Retardation: A Meta-Analysis. American Journal on Mental Retardation, v100 n3 p293-98 1995. A meta-analytic approach was used to determine whether diagnostic overshadowing judgmental bias reliably occurs when clinicians evaluate clients with mental retardation and mental disorders. The diagnostic overshadowing effect was reliable over the 349 studies reviewed, and the size of the effect was small to moderate. (Author/SW)

Wincek, J. (1995). Negotiating the Maze of School Reform: How Metaphor Shapes Culture in a New Magnet School. This book traces the first year of a magnet school called Mega Center for Learning, established in 1990 in a large midwestern urban school district. It focuses on how the primary metaphors embedded in school documents and in stakeholders' perceptions and practices helped or hindered reform. Data were obtained from classroom observation; informal conversations; observations of assemblies and meetings; interviews with teachers, staff, the principal, and two district-level administrators; observation of the principal; focus-group interviews with parents and students; and document analysis. Following the introductory chapter, chapter 2 describes the research design. The third chapter surveys the history of schooling in the United States since the late 1800s, emphasizing metaphors included in major movements. Chapter 4 examines the power of metaphor, looks at what researchers are suggesting as changing roles and relationships in schools, and links these two ideas to the notion of school culture. Chapters 5 through 8 address Mega Center's four major institutional metaphorsvision, families, teams, and vision-keepershowing the influence of these metaphors on changing educational practices and on the school's culture. Chapter 9 links the major metaphors operative during Meta Center's first year and the diverse images of schooling found in the history of school reform. Suggestions for forging stronger links between language and practice are offered. Reformers cannot assume that stakeholders share common metaphors. It is important to examine the metaphorical underpinnings of language and the effects of metaphors on change efforts. (Contains 82 references.) (LMI) ED391253
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Yutrzenka, B. A. (1995). Making a Case for Training in Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Increasing Treatment Efficacy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, v63 n2 p197-206 1995. Argues for the inclusion of ethnic and cultural diversity in professional psychology training, particularly the impact of this training on treatment outcome. Reviews the empirical literature examining both the direct and indirect linkages between ethnic and cross-cultural training and outcome. Identifies limitations of this research. Contains over 100 references. (RJM)
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Zurmuehlen, M., Ed., & Thunder-McGuire, S., Ed. (1993). Marilyn Zurmuehlen's Working Papers in Art Education, 1993. Number 12. This collection of doctoral student research papers begins with a biographic dedication to Marilyn Zurmuehlen. The papers and their authors are introduced in brief discourse by a faculty mentor (mentor's introduction). Articles include: (1) "Feminism < > Dialogic Interaction < > Research (Miriam Cooley), introduced by Elizabeth J. Sacca, Concordia University; (2) "Art, Culture, and Chinese American Students: An On Going Case Study at a Chinese Community-based School" (Mei-Fen Chen), introduced by Enid Zimmerman, Indiana University; (3) "Preliminary Examination of Reductive Tendencies in Art Understandings and Lesson-Planning of Pre- Service Teachers" (Georgianna Short), introduced by Judith Smith Koroscik, Ohio State University: (4) "Genres of Art History and Rationales For and Against the Inclusion of Art History in Elementary School Curricula: A Philosophical Study Addressing Clarification and Justification Questions Regarding Art History Education" (Cheryl Williams), introduced by Kenneth A. Marantz, Ohio State University; (5) "Truth and Community: Reality Construction in the Visual Arts" (John White), Pennsylvania State University; (6) "Relating Continuity and Change to the Tabasaran of Daghestan" (Lorraine Ross), introduced by Steve Thunder-McGuire, University of Iowa; (7) "The Conceptual Analysis of the Construct Multicultural Art Education" (Bill Davidson), introduced by Larry Kantner, University of Missouri; (8) "An Exploratory Study of Nonverbal Digital Video Interactive Analytic Techniques Applied to an Individual Learning Dance" (Karen Keifer- Boyd), introduced by Beverly J. Jones, University of Oregon; (9) "Intrinsic Motivation and Social Constraints: A Qualitative Meta-Analysis of Experimental Research Utilizing Creative Activities in the Visual Arts" (Gloria Sharpless), also introduced by Beverly J. Jones, University of Oregon; and (10) "Reflections and Refractions of Societal Images: The Cultural Formation of Self-Identity in a Middle School Art Classroom" (Monica Kirchweger), introduced by Ron W. Neperud, University of Wisconsin. (MM) ED379199
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