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Cognitive Apprenticeship (1998)

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A

Atkinson, E. (1989). Assessing the Apprenticeship Approach in the Classroom. Reading v23 n1 p17-22 Apr 1989. Presents a summary of the deliberations of a primary school teacher concerning her use of an "apprenticeship approach" to beginning reading instruction. States that it is the teacher's role to use a child's pleasure in a book as a key to the development of reading skills. (RS) UMI EJ393407
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B

Begley, P. T. (1995). Using Profiles of School Leadership as Supports to Cognitive Apprenticeship. Educational Administration Quarterly v31 n2 p176-202 May 1995. Proposes the development and use of school leadership profiles to support administrators' cognitive-apprenticeship experiences in both formal and informal leadership development applications. Links the cognitive-apprenticeship theoretical process to outcomes in three role-profiling action research projects conducted in Canada and Western Australia. Explores benefits and liabilities of using leadership profiles. (43 references) (MLH) UMI Report/ISSN: ISSN-0013-161X EJ504956

Berryman, S. E. (1991). Designing Effective Learning Environments: Cognitive Apprenticeship Models. IEE Brief n1 Sep 1991 New York Available in paper copy and microfiche. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage. Institute on Education and the Economy, Box 174, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 ($7.50). Using cognitive science as the knowledge base for the discussion, this paper reviews why many school learning situations are ineffective and introduces cognitive apprenticeship models that suggest what effective learning situations might look like. Five wrong assumptions about learning are examined: (1) people transfer learning from one situation to another; (2) learners are passive receivers of wisdom; (3) learning is the strengthening of bonds between stimuli and correct responses; (4) learners are blank slates; and (5) skills and knowledge should be acquired independent of their contexts of use. Cognitive scientists use a wide array of knowledge and experience to design effective learning environments, including the work of 19th- and early 20th-century educators, analyses of apprenticeship learning and of the spectacular learning of young children, and an extensive body of cognitive science research. The Collins, Brown, and Newman cognitive apprenticeship model is recommended; its four building blockscontent, methods, sequence, and sociologytogether define an effective learning situation. Current programs for integrating academic and vocational education and apprenticeships in light of the cognitive apprenticeship model are described. The paper concludes that the cognitive apprenticeship model could be a good vehicle for learning and should be implemented in more situations. (13 references) (KC) ED337689

Brandt, B. L., & Others, A. (1993). Cognitive Apprenticeship Approach to Helping Adults Learn. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education n59 p69-78 Fall 1993. Cognitive apprenticeship teaches acceptable performance, integration of practical and theoretical knowledge, and understanding specific situations. Five phases are involved: modeling, approximating, fading, self-directed learning, and generalizing. (SK) UMI Report/ISSN: ISSN-0195-2242 EJ472132

Browne, D. L., & Ritchie, D. D. C. (1991). Cognitive Apprenticeship: A Model of Staff Development for Implementing Technology in School. Contemporary Education v63 n1 p28-34 Fall 1991. Proposes a framework for designing staff development to implement technology in schools, focusing on needs assessment to ensure the transfer of knowledge and skills into regular teaching practice. Components of the model provide teachers with instruction, modeling, coaching, and empowerment. The article offers examples of cognitive apprenticeship for implementing technology. (SM) UMI Report/ISSN: ISSN-0010-7476 EJ443835
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C

Casey, C. (1996). Incorporating Cognitive Apprenticeship in Multi-Media. Educational Technology Research and Development v44 n1 p71-84 1996. Examines the use of cognitive apprenticeships as a framework for instructional design to help address the needs of a distributed learning environment. Describes the applications of a multimedia training course that helps weather forecasters interpret radar. Findings indicate that cognitive apprenticeships can be implemented in multimedia to meet the cognitive demands of diverse learners. (JMV) UMI Report/ISSN: ISSN-1042-1629 EJ520278

Cash, J. R., & Others, A. (1997). Effectiveness of Cognitive Apprenticeship Instructional Methods in College Automotive Technology Classrooms. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education v34 n2 p29-49 Win 1997. In two automotive air-conditioning classes, an experimental group (n=12) conducted laboratory activities structured by cognitive apprenticeship principles; 14 controls attended lectures. Cognitive apprenticeship was significantly more effective in increasing information acquisition, troubleshooting knowledge, and diagnostic skills. (SK) Report/ISSN: ISSN-0022-1864 EJ545589

Chee, Y. S. (1994). SMALLTALKER: A Cognitive Apprenticeship Multimedia Environment for Learning Smalltalk Programming. Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 1994. Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 94World Conference on Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, June 25-30, 1994); see IR 017 359. Singapore Available in paper copy and microfiche. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage. As an instructional technology, cognitive apprenticeship has become increasingly important. Cognitive apprenticeship embeds the acquisition of knowledge and skills in their social and functional context and consists of six teaching methods: modelling, coaching, scaffolding, articulation, reflection, and exploration. SMALLTALKER is a Macintosh-based multimedia learning environment for Smalltalk programming that supports both concept learning and skill acquisition. The system fulfills the roles of instruction presenter and coach. In its capacity as instruction presenter, SMALLTALKER makes extensive use of modelling; animations are used to present instruction on concepts and skills necessary for Smalltalk programming. The most pervasive method of coaching takes the form of feedback to student actions and errors while they are engaged in solving programming problems. Scaffolding and fading are difficult teaching methods to implement because they require a teacher to be sensitive to the needs and difficulties of students engaged in task performance; the SMALLTALKER approach to this difficulty is to place the burden of responsibility on the student and an open-ended help system is provided. SMALLTALKER poses conceptual questions to provoke both articulation and reflection. Exploration is an activity that system designers cannot prevent students from engaging in, as long as the system succeeds in gripping their interest and arousing their motivation to learn. (Contains 15 references.) (AEF) ED388291

Chee, Y. S. (1995). Cognitive Apprenticeship and Its Application to the Teaching of Smalltalk in a Multimedia Interactive Learning Environment. Instructional Science v23 n1-3 p133-61 May 1995. Reviews traditional approaches to learning and education, and examines the use of cognitive apprenticeship as an improved approach. Explores and evaluates the application of cognitive apprenticeship to the teaching of the programming language Smalltalk in a multimedia-based interactive learning environment. Sample computer screens depicting Smalltalk applications are displayed. (58 references) (Author/JMV) UMI Report/ISSN: ISSN-0020-4277 EJ510299

Collins, A. (1988). Cognitive Apprenticeship and Instructional Technology. Technical Report. Massachusetts Available in paper copy and microfiche. EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage. Report/ISSN: BBN-R-6899 Contract no.: N00014-85-C-0026. In earlier times, practically everything was taught by apprenticeships. Schools are a recent invention that use many fewer teaching resources, but the computer enables us to go back to the resource-intensive mode of education, in a form called cognitive apprenticeship. This involves the use of modeling, coaching, reflecting on performance, and articulation methods of traditional apprenticeships, but with an emphasis on cognitive rather than physical skills. In the situated learning approach, knowledge and skills are taught in contexts that reflect how the knowledge will be used in real life situations. Technology thus enables us to realize apprenticeship learning environments that were either not possible or not cost effective before. (3 figures, 31 references) (EW) ED331465

Collins, A., & Others, A. (1987). Cognitive Apprenticeship: Teaching the Craft of Reading, Writing, and Mathematics. Technical Report No. 403. Illinois Available in paper copy and microfiche. EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage. Contract no.: 400-81-0030; N00014-85-C-0026. Noting that skills and knowledge taught in schools have become abstracted from their uses in the world, this paper clarifies some of the implications for the nature of the knowledge that students acquire through a proposal for the retooling of apprenticeship methods for the teaching and learning of cognitive skills. The paper specifically proposes the development of a new cognitive apprenticeship to teach students the thinking and problem-solving skills involved in school subjects such as reading, writing, and mathematics. The first section of the paper, after discussing key shortcomings in current curricular and pedagogical practices, presents some of the structural features of traditional apprenticeship, detailing what would be required to adapt these characteristics to the teaching and learning of cognitive skills. The central section of the paper considers three recently developed pedagogical models that exemplify aspects of apprenticeship methods in teaching thinking and reasoning skills. The section notes that these methodsA. S. Palincsar and A. L. Brown's reciprocal reading teaching, M. Scardamalia and C. Bereiter's procedural facilitation of writing, and A. H. Schoenfeld's method for teaching mathematical problem solvingappear to develop successfully not only the cognitive, but also the metacognitive, skills required for true expertise. The final section organizes ideas on the purposes and characteristics of successful teaching into a general framework for the design of learning "environments," including the content being taught, pedagogical methods employed, sequencing of learning activities, and the sociology of learningemphasizing how cognitive apprenticeship goes beyond the techniques of traditional apprenticeship. Tables of data are included, and references are appended. (Author/NKA) ED284181

Collins, A., & Others, A. (1991). A Cognitive Apprenticeship for Disadvantaged Students. "Teaching Advanced Skills to Educationally Disadvantaged Students" (see UD 028 249). Also published separately by the Center for Technology in Education, as Technical Report No. 10. Illinois Available in paper copy and microfiche. EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage. Contract no.: OERI-1-135562167-A1. A framework is described for extending the principles of apprenticeship to teaching such subjects as reading, writing, and mathematics. Such a cognitive apprenticeship is aimed at teaching students the processes experts use to handle complex tasks. Conceptual knowledge and factual knowledge are illustrated within the contexts in which they are used. The proposed framework, comprised of content, method, sequencing, and sociology, is consistent with the goals of compensatory education. The cognitive apprenticeship model is useful for all students, but is particularly effective for disadvantaged, or at-risk, students because learning is embedded in a setting that is more like work, with an authentic connection to students' lives. Examples are given of cognitive apprenticeship programs in an urban middle school in Rochester (New York), and an urban secondary school in Harlem (New York). By giving their students long-term projects that engage them deeply and by constructing an environment embodying the principles of the described framework, these schools have begun fostering cognitive apprenticeship. The two schools' progress should be followed and their methods replicated to move education to a more rational system. One figure and a 25-item list of references are included. The paper's discussant is Herb Rosenfeld in a taining piece entitled "Reflections from a Workplace for Cognitive Apprenticeship." (SLD) ED338729

Collins, A., & Others, A. (1991). Cognitive Apprenticeship: Making Things Visible. American Educator: The Professional Journal of the American Federation of Teachers v15 n3 p6-11,38-46 Win 1991. The apprenticeship model can be adapted to teaching and learning cognitive skills in reading, writing, and mathematics, as illustrated by three successful examples. A cognitive apprenticeship framework is presented for the design of learning environments incorporating content taught, pedagogical methods, sequencing of learning activities, and sociology of learning. (SLD) UMI Report/ISSN: ISSN-0148-432X EJ440511

Cordeiro, P. A., & Campbell, B. (1995). Problem-Based Learning as Cognitive Apprenticeship in Educational Administration. Connecticut Available in paper copy and microfiche. EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage. This paper proposes that problem-based learning (PBL) can serve as a cognitive apprenticeship in administrator-preparation programs. The paper presents an overview of PBL and its application in the administrator-preparation program at the University of Connecticut. The initial training in group processing for students enrolled in the program is described. Two examples of actual PBL projects, including their planning and execution, are presented. One vignette describes a simulated-problem project on technology, and the second details an authentic-problem project. Finally, reflections are offered regarding the roles of instructors and the challenges encountered in using a PBL approach in educational-administration programs. Problem-based learning is based on the following premises: (1) The starting point for learning is a problem; (2) the problem is one that students are likely to face as professionals; (3) students need knowledge organized around problems rather than disciplines; (4) students, individually and collectively, are responsible for their own instruction and learning; and (5) most of the learning occurs within the context of small groups other than lectures. (Contains 29 references.) (LMI) ED386800
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D

De Bruijn, H. F. M. (1995). Cognitive Apprenticeship in a CAL-Environment for Functionally Illiterate Adults. Instructional Science v23 n4 p221-41 Jul 1995. Describes a computer program for arithmetic in which the use of the operationalized cognitive apprenticeship methods was studied together with effects of modelling and coaching on student performance. Results showed that adult basic education students make little use of optional materials in a computer program. (Author/JKP) UMI Report/ISSN: ISSN-0020-4277 EJ508748

Duncan, S. L. S. (1996). Cognitive Apprenticeship in Classroom Instruction: Implications for Industrial and Technical Teacher Education. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education v33 n3 p66-86 Spr 1996. Community college students (n=159) were taught writing using one of three treatments: modeling with scaffolds, scaffolds without modeling, and control group. Test scores, observations, and instructor interviews showed that think-aloud modeling increased writing skills; implementation of scaffolding was too idiosyncratic to compare; and integration of modeling will require scheduling adjustments and considerable instructor training. (SK) UMI Report/ISSN: ISSN-0022-1864 EJ524122
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E

Ertmer, P. A., & Cennamo, K. K. S. (1995). Teaching Instructional Design: An Apprenticeship Model. Performance Improvement Quarterly v8 n4 p43-58 1995. Discusses a cognitive apprenticeship approach to teaching design that incorporates elements of modeling, coaching, reflection, articulation, and exploration. Use of the model in an instructional design course that moves novice designers along a continuum of expertise is described, and it is suggested that the model could be adapted for performance technologists. (LRW) Report/ISSN: ISSN-0898-5952 EJ512311
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F

Farmer, J., A., J., & Others, A. (1992). Cognitive Apprenticeship: Implications for Continuing Professional Education. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education n55 p41-49 Fall 1992. Cognitive apprenticeship involves modeling of a task by an expert, learner performance and reflection with coaching, internalizing, and generalizing. It is effective because knowledge is created and made meaningful by the context in which it is acquired. (SK) UMI Report/ISSN: ISSN-0195-2242 EJ456732
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H

Hilem, Y., & Futtersack, M. (1994). COMPANION: An Interactive Learning Environment Based on the Cognitive Apprenticeship Paradigm for Design Engineers Using Numerical Simulations. Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 1994. Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 94World Conference on Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, June 25-30, 1994); see IR 017 359. France Available in paper copy and microfiche. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage. The use of numerical simulations to design and analyze new products requires both conceptual and operational knowledge. This paper describes COMPANION: an intelligent multimedia system for vocational training used by engineers and technicians. A key concept in terms of training methodology is that of "situated learning," or continuous learning in the workplace. Cognitive apprenticeship is a design model supporting situational learning which is an extension of the traditional apprenticeship model focusing on learning problem solving skills in the practice of performing authentic tasks. The novice (apprentice) watches the expert performing the task, and the expert allows the novice to ask questions and perform small parts of the task, with the amount of the task carried out by the novice increasing as experience is gained. Following an introduction in section one, section two describes the different student uses of COMPANION, and shows how cognitive apprenticeship and hypermedia are integrated in the whole system. Section three focuses on the structure of COMPANION. Section four details the content of hypermedia modules used in conceptual knowledge acquisition. Section five describes how the operational knowledge is structured and acquired. Sections six and seven, respectively, detail the engineering activity and the technical assistant, which embodies the knowledge that becomes operational during problem solving with collaboration between the student and COMPANION. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/MAS) ED388257

Hosenfeld, C., & Others, A. (1996). Adapting a Cognitive Apprenticeship Method to Foreign Language Classrooms. Foreign Language Annals v29 n4 p588-96 Win 1996. Reconceptualizes a cognitive apprenticeship method to provide foreign language teachers in charge of beginning language levels with the knowledge necessary to acquire the strategies of reciprocal teaching. The article gives teachers an example of a set of lesson plans that embeds the teaching of prerequisite declarative and procedural knowledge needed to perform higher order cognitive tasks. (12 references) (Author/CK) Report/ISSN: ISSN-0015-718X EJ537697
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J

Jarvela, S. (1994). Cognitive Apprenticeship Model in a Technologically Rich Learning Environment: Socioemotional Processes in Learning Interaction. Finland Available in paper copy and microfiche. EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage. Socioemotional processes of learning interaction during classroom teaching and learning were analyzed. The learning interaction was organized according to the principles of a cognitive apprenticeship model (Collins, Brown, and Newman, 1989) and applied to the technologically rich learning environment. The purpose of the learning task was to promote the mediation of modern technological thinking and problem-solving skills for 22 French male 7th-grade students. An on-line method was developed to analyze task involvement and motivational orientation during the instructional interaction. Data revealed that the same instructional arrangements are interpreted differently and lead to different situational interpretations among the students. Contextual features, such as the challenging learning task, self-responsible activities, and social interaction actualized different motivational coping strategies among the students. One figure illustrates the study. (Contains 63 references.) (Author/SLD) ED374145

Jarvela, S. (1995). The Cognitive Apprenticeship Model in a Technologically Rich Learning Environment: Interpreting the Learning Interaction. Learning and Instruction v5 n3 p237-59 1995. Qualitative features of teacher-student interaction during classroom teaching and learning while modern technological thinking and problem-solving skills were mediated were studied for 22 seventh-grade boys in Finland. Reciprocal understanding between teacher and student were necessary in order for the teacher's special instructional assistance to be successful. (SLD) Report/ISSN: ISSN-0959-4752 EJ520967

Jarvela, S. (1996). Qualitative Features of Teacher-Student Interaction in a Technologically Rich Learning Environment Based on a Cognitive Apprenticeship Model. Machine-Mediated Learning v5 n2 p91-107 1996. Describes a study that analyzed the qualitative features of learning interaction during classroom teaching and learning when mediating modern technological thinking and problem-solving skills for Finnish seventh graders. The learning interaction was organized according to the principles of a cognitive apprenticeship model and applied to a technologically rich learning environment. (Author/LRW) UMI Report/ISSN: ISSN-0732-6718 EJ523166

Johnson, S. D., & Fischbach, R. R. M. (1992). Teaching Problem Solving and Technical Mathematics through Cognitive Apprenticeship at the Community College Level. California Available in paper copy and microfiche. EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage. NCRVE Materials Distribution Service, Horrabin Hall 46, Western Illinois University, Macomb, IL 61455 (order no. MDS-468: $3). Contract no.: V051A80004-91A. The traditional format of mathematics instruction has not succeeded in providing the skills students need to work cooperatively to solve problems in industry. New models of instruction have been proposed to resolve this deficiency. Schoenfeld has used a technique that incorporates coaching, modeling, and fading strategies with college-level students. Treisman has improved minority student performance in calculus using a model based on collaborative problem solving. A hybrid model called cognitive apprenticeship merges the coaching-modeling-fading components of Schoenfeld's model and Treisman's collaborative workshop model to enable students to become better problem solvers while working together as members of a community of learners. Cognitive apprenticeship instruction was tested in community college industrial technology classes: two instructors each taught a traditional and an experimental technical mathematics class. Quantitative data from indicated students in the cognitive apprenticeship group scored slightly better than the control group on a problem-solving exam and the final exam, although not significantly. The scores of the cognitive apprenticeship students on a standardized exam were slightly lower than the control group, but not significantly. Two recommendations were proposed based on the results of the study: first, to explore the model further after certain suggestions were incorporated and second, to test it in other math-based classes. (Contains 61 references.) (YLB) ED352455
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K

Kane, R. (1994). Reconceptualising Pre-Service Teacher Education: The Applicability of a Cognitive Apprenticeship Model. Australia; Queensland Available in paper copy and microfiche. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage. This paper introduces the design for a study to investigate application of a cognitive apprenticeship approach to preservice teacher education. The research will be informed by and build upon the findings of a previous Master of Education dissertation. In particular, the study seeks to investigate answers to the following research question: To what extent does the cognitive apprenticeship model improve the nexus between the propositional and procedural knowledge of beginning teachers? The plan for the investigation is an interventionist one in which, in addition to "normal" requirements of the preservice teacher education program, six final year students will undertake supplementary instruction modelled on the principles and reflecting the teachings of cognitive apprenticeship. Data on participants' personal constructs of teaching and learning will be collected through personal journals, stimulated recall interviews, and the elicitation of successive individual Repertory Grids. A proposed timeline (1994-1996) including research procedures is provided. (Contains 50 references.) (LL) ED374126
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L

Lave, J. (1977). Cognitive Consequences of Traditional Apprenticeship Training in West Africa. Anthropology and Education Quarterly 8 3 177-80. Addresses the question of the impact of native educational institutions on individual cognitive skills. Examines the Liberian tailor apprenticeship system, and focuses upon tailors' arithmetic skills. Concludes that the inductive teaching learning techniques of apprenticeship training do not prevent the formation of general problem solving principles taught as deductive techniques in formal schooling. (Author/GC) EJ168930

Lee, C. D. (1995). A Culturally Based Cognitive Apprenticeship: Teaching African American High School Students Skills in Literary Interpretation. Reading Research Quarterly v30 n4 p608-30 Oct-Dec 1995. Offers a theoretical argument for the efficacy of a culturally based cognitive apprenticeship. Investigates the benefits of using ethnically diverse literature with ethnically diverse students, and how to make explicit in instruction some of the important comprehension strategies needed to interpret complex fiction independently. Notes that students in the experimental group outperformed those in a control group. (RS) UMI Report/ISSN: ISSN-0034-0553 EJ511630
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N

Neale, D. C., & Others, A. (1990). Implementing Conceptual Change Teaching in Primary Science. Elementary School Journal v91 n2 p109-32 Nov 1990. Describes a method of demonstration and modeling used to improve the science teaching ability of eight elementary teachers. Designed to increase teachers' knowledge of physics, the course documented changes in the teachers' knowledge and practice. Results are discussed in relation to case methods and cognitive-apprenticeship models of training. (GH) UMI Report/ISSN: ISSN-0013-5984 EJ423488
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R

Rojewski, J. W., & Schell, J. J. W. (1994). Cognitive Apprenticeship for Learners with Special Needs: An Alternate Framework for Teaching and Learning. Remedial and Special Education (RASE) v15 n4 p234-43 Jul 1994. Cognitive apprenticeship emphasizes a combination of authentic problem-solving experiences with expert guidance in lieu of decontextualized instruction. This article examines issues in cognitive science and describes a model of cognitive apprenticeship for providing academic instruction to students with special learning needs. (Author/DB) UMI Report/ISSN: ISSN-0741-9325 EJ486420

Roth, W.-M. (1991). Aspects of Cognitive Apprenticeship in Science Teaching. Canada; Ontario Available in paper copy and microfiche. EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage. Reports about U.S. schools have indicated the need for improvement of science teaching and learning. One of the solutions advocated calls for classroom contexts that allow for authentic practice under the guidance of teachers who model pertinent skills as practitioners in the field of study. The metaphor used to describe such teaching-learning situation is that of cognitive apprenticeship: teachers model scientific skills and coach students in their attempts to handle the practical and conceptual tools in the sciences. This paper summarizes the results of a two-part study. During the first part, the learning outcomes when grade 8 students, in small groups of two and three individuals who are framing, developing, and comleting their own research agendas, are examined. The second part of the study reports on the interactions between a gifted 10th-grade student and the researcher of this study, who acted as a mentor and a coach. An interpretive research methodology was used in both parts of the study. Underlying the study was a constructivist view of knowledge acquisition. The findings of the study are based on: direct observations of teachers and students; interviews with teachers and students; audiotaped sessions of tutoring relationship; and interviews with the tutee in the relationship. The results of this study confirm the viability of the concept of cognitive apprenticeship for science teaching and learning. The discussion addresses the issue of helping teachers to change their strategies through a change of metaphors and the issue of research based in and conducted from the school level. Forty-five references are included. (KR) ED337350

Roth, W.-M., & Bowen, G. G. M. (1995). Knowing and Interacting: A Study of Culture, Practices, and Resources in a Grade 8 Open-Inquiry Science Classroom Guided by a Cognitive Apprenticeship Metaphor. Cognition and Instruction v13 n1 p73-128 1995. Examines perceptions of eighth graders in a science teaching environment in which they guide their own learning, frame problems for inquiry, design data collection procedures, and interpret and present data in a convincing fashion. Asserts that, in constructing their inquiries, students successfully negotiated courses of action and established group structures through which they organized their interactions and diffuse knowledge. (AA) Report/ISSN: ISSN-0737-0008 EJ500049
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W

Willemsen, E. W., & Gainen, J. (1995). Reenvisioning Statistics: A Cognitive Apprenticeship Approach. New Directions for Teaching and Learning n61 p99-108 Spr 1995. Seven characteristics of active learning were identified (experiential learning, collaboration, discovery, use of authentic problems, planning before doing, risk-taking, integrative learning), and then used to reconceptualize an introductory statistics course. The model involves students as apprentices to faculty active learners. (MSE) UMI Report/ISSN: ISSN-0271-0633 EJ499618
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