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Index: Intentionality

Reflection in Education (1998)

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A

Abt-Perkins, D., & Gomez, M. L. (1993). A Good Place to BeginExamining Our Personal Perspectives. Language Arts, v70 n3 p193-21993. Suggests that teaching multiculturally must begin with self-inquiry teachers must first examine the relationships among their fundamental values, attitudes, dispositions, belief systems, their teaching, and their students' diverse literacy learning. Describes a summer course designed to allow such self-reflection, and explores the course's impact on two teachers. (RS)

Adams, A. (1995). A Portfolio Assessment Procedure for Preservice Teachers for Admission to the Professional Year: The Project So Far. This paper reports on a program that is developing assessment procedures to measure a student's preparedness for the professional year. This assessment technique seeks to capture an individual's teaching capabilities that may not be evident in traditional assessment methodologies, and to examine the development of teaching capabilities over time. Portfolios allow students an opportunity for self-reflection on their growth and development that they might not otherwise experience. Portfolio assessment examines five dimensions: professionalism, planning, instruction, communication, and management. For each dimension, students must submit an artifactany type of evidence that a requirement has been fulfilledalong with a written rationale for the artifact and a verification statement. Requirements for the portfolio include: evaluative checklists from cooperating teachers and college instructors; a videotape of a lesson taught by the student; evidence of professional activities and educational service; a written philosophy of education; a practicum artifact; and proof of completion of a standardized personality inventory. Procedures for preparing and reviewing portfolios are summarized, as well as guidelines for evaluating the portfolios. Concerns still under consideration include necessary curriculum changes to accommodate portfolio assessment, timelines for students, and time burdens for faculty. (ND) ED387458

Akin, T., & Others, A. (1995). Character Education in America's Schools. Increasingly, schools are faced with the necessity of finding ways to shoulder a greater share of the burden of producing respectful, responsible citizens. Along with traditional academic subjects, schools must teach acceptable standards of conduct and the attitudes and attributes that foster them. This book provides ways to help teachers instill moral values deliberately and directly through the curriculum. Created for grades 1-8, each unit contains 10 or more activities (many implemented through the use of cooperative learning strategies) designed to help build student character. The activities within each unit, which include stories, discussions, and role plays, are arranged in a logical and somewhat developmental sequence, but most can be presented independently. When activities are linked, it is so indicated. Suggested adaptations for younger students are included with many of the activities. Following an introduction and an overview of a process known as the "sharing circle," the book presents seven units of activities that help develop trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, justice and fairness, caring, citizenship, and moral reflection. An annotated bibliography of 65 books with themes that address these values is included. (TJQ) ED393600

Albers, P. (1997). Art as Literacy. Language Arts, v74 n5 p338-50 1997. Challenges educators to consider the meaning-making potential of art. Explores how this was done in a middle school art classroom by examining the role of the teacher, students' enculturation in art, art as process, and reflection in art. Notes the risks involved when students sometimes create visual meanings that are racist, homophobic, or sexist. (SR)

Allen, R. M., & Casbergue, R. M. (1997). Evolution of Novice through Expert Teachers' Recall: Implications for Effective Reflection on Practice. Teaching and Teacher Education, v13 n7 p741-55 1997. To determine the effects of teaching experience on changes in accuracy of teachers' recall of their own and their students' specific classroom behaviors during teaching, researchers observed and interviewed elementary teachers with a range of experiences. Results suggested that teachers progressed in thoroughness of recall along different paths and at different rates as they gained experience. (SM)

Anderson, R. C., & Armbruster, B. B. (1990). Some Maxims for Learning and Instruction. Technical Report No. 491. Maxims derived from recent theory in learning and instruction and from reflection on excellent practice can be applied to teacher education, not only to improve the training of prospective teachers, but also to improve their ability to teach others. Especially useful are examples from Reading Recovery, a successful literacy training program. Some of the maxims include: (1) instruction should use a whole-to-part approach; (2) instruction should be rooted in authentic, real world situations; (3) instruction should foster flexibility through multiple perspectives; (4) instruction should be sensitive to the developmental progression of students; (5) instruction should assume an action orientation; (6) instruction should involve modeling; (7) instruction should involve coaching; (8) instruction should involve scaffolding; and (9) instruction should foster reflection and articulation. The great irony of teacher education appears to be that prospective teachers are taught in ways that are inconsistent with the maxims of effective learning and instruction. An experimental preservice education course at the University of Illinois illustrates on a small scale how the maxims developed can be applied to teacher education. (RS) ED314741

Anderson, T. L. (1996). "They're Trying to Tell Me Something": A Teacher's Reflection on Primary Children's Construction of Mathematical Knowledge. Young Children, v51 n4 p34-42 1996. Describes a teacher's experience with students during their first- and second-grade years. Claims that meaningful learning in a variety of curricular areas occurs when children are interested in a topic. Suggests that teachers capitalize on these situations and create learning experiences that reflect those outside the classroom. Suggests the use of educational games to enrich mathematics classes. (MOK)

Appleton, K. (1994). Using Learning Theory To Guide Reflection in the Practicum. Reflection is a key aspect of the practicum experience for preservice teachers at the University of Central Queensland (Australia). However, ensuring that reflection occurs has been somewhat problematic. A study was conducted to explore how theoretical constructs based on learning theory can be used to guide the function of the practicum and the place of reflection in such a framework. A reflective practicum component was integrated into a curriculum subject, using constructivist learning theory as a guide. Teacher interventions derived from the learning theory provide guidelines for the placement and operation of the practicum and for encouraging reflection about both the practicum and classwork. An evaluation of the subject was carried out using a variety of data. In addition, the report discusses selected findings, the success of the subject in influencing cognitive and affective outcomes, the role of the practicum, and indications of the occurrence of reflection by students. A brief explanation and diagram of the constructivist learning model on which teacher inventions are based is included. Teacher interventions based on both constructivist theories and use in the subject are displayed in tabular form. (LL) ED374128

Arter, J. A., & Others, A. (1995). Portfolios for Assessment and Instruction. ERIC Digest. ED388890

Atmore, E. (1993). A Community Development Approach to Early Childhood Educare Intervention in Disadvantaged Communities. Early childhood education and care (educare) combined with community development presents a unique opportunity to stimulate the disadvantaged and oppressed sectors of the population towards improved economic status, increased self-confidence and self-esteem, and human development. The three main elements of this approach are the community, parental involvement, and empowerment. Research results indicate that for children from deprived groups, intervention must consider the needs of the whole child within the context of the family and community. Community support and parent involvement are key variables in the operation of preschools and other services for children under five. Child care has great potential for driving the empowerment process at the local level. Educare contributes by facilitating mutual respect among parents and other caregivers and by fostering critical reflection. The process of community development in the educare context involves: (1) identifying needs through community and educare profiles, and needs assessment; (2) prioritizing these needs; (3) developing, implementing, and monitoring a plan of action to meet the needs; and (4) evaluating the process and outcomes. While the community worker plays several important roles in this process, he or she does not lead, manage, or own the process or the product. Community development is about individual human action and the development of people. (AC) ED369496
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Baptiste, N. (1994). Always Growing and Learning: A Case for Self-Assessment. Professional Development. Day Care & Early Education, v22 n2 p26-29 Win 1994. Examines self-assessment techniques that early childhood teachers can use to avoid "burnout" and rejuvenate their personal and professional lives. Suggests that professional books and articles, personal journals, reflection and other techniques can be used to create a web of self- assessment that allows teachers to better understand their personal and professional goals. (MDM)

Barr, R., & Johnson, B. (1991). Teaching Reading in Elementary Classrooms: Developing Independent Readers. Intended for those learning to become teachers, this book was written to help such students gain a full understanding of how to teach reading in elementary schools. It can also be used by experienced teachers to encourage further professional development. In order to promote the reader's interaction with the ideas of the text, activities have been included to encourage the reader to "Pause and Reflect" and "Try It Out." The book is divided into five sections. Section I, "How Children Learn to Read," includes the following chapter titles: "Introduction" and "Developing Good Readers." Section II, "Organizing for Reading Instruction," includes chapters 3 through 6: "Overview of Materials for Reading Instruction," "Matching Reading Materials to Student Needs: Ongoing Assessment," "Assessing Student Knowledge at the Beginning of the School Year," and "Organizing Students for Reading Instruction." Section III, "The Nature of the Reading Program," includes chapters 7 through 10: "Supporting Emergent Literacy," "Developing Reading in the Primary Grades," "Developing Reading in the Intermediate Grades," and "Developing Reading in Grades Seven and Eight." Section IV, "The Central Components of Reading Lessons," includes chapters 11 through 14: "Prereading Instruction," "During-Reading Instruction," "Postreading Instruction: Concluding the Text Selection," and "Postreading Instruction: Extending the Text Selection." Section V, "Communication and Professional Growth," includes chapters 15 and 16: "Working with Parents" and "Reflection, Evaluation, and Professional Development." Appendixes provide children's book publishers, literature for young readers, and information on Basal publishers; a First-Grade Teacher's Manual Excerpt from the Silver, Burdett and Ginn Reading Program; copies of selected standardized reading tests, grades K-8; and lists of children's magazines and high interest-low vocabulary materials. (MG) ED335630

Barrow, D. A. (1991). Critical Reflection: A Source of Wonderful Ideas for Changing Classroom Practices. Journal of Elementary Science Education, v3 n2 p26-39 Sum 1991. Some of the underlying values associated with particular beliefs a teacher held about the teaching (and learning) of reading are delineated. Also delineated is how those beliefs changed when the teacher personalized and constructed new visions of her role as teacher through critical reflection. (KR)

Barrs, M. (1990). "The Primary Language Record": Reflection of Issues in Evaluation. Language Arts, v67 n3 p244-53 1990. Discusses several observation-based methods of student assessment that are recommended in the "Primary Language Record," a book developed by schools in the Inner London Educational Authority. (MM)

Barry, N. H. (1994). Promoting Reflective Practice among Undergraduate Education Majors in an Elementary Music Methods Course. Researchers have identified six experiences that promote reflective teaching: (1) teaching experiences; (2) journal writing; (3) peer observations; (4) receiving notes/feedback from peer observations; (5) self- assessment; and (6) consultation/conversation with the university supervisor. In this study, these experiences were included as essential components of a music and related arts methods course for undergraduate elementary and early childhood education majors. The purpose of the study was to examine the students' perceptions of the usefulness of those experiences and the amount of thought and reflection required. Teaching experiences included brief peer teaching episodes and laboratory teaching experiences in an elementary classroom. Students were required to keep a journal, observe a peer teacher, and complete a self-evaluation inventory at the conclusion of the laboratory teaching experiences. Instructors provided written feedback and encouraged discussions about problems and teaching strategies. The journal, a teaching philosophy paper, artifacts from teaching experiences, and other evidence of professional growth and development were assembled to create a portfolio for evaluation. Finally, students were asked to complete an anonymous "Reaction Inventory" to rate each class activity on usefulness and reflection requirements. The data indicated that students found the laboratory teaching experience to be the most useful and to require the most thought and reflection. Results suggest that education students may require an external impetus to promote reflection and that teacher education courses include the six experiences listed above. (Contains 15 references.) (ND) ED388641

Beals, D. E., & De Temple, J. M. (1992). Home Contributions to Early Language and Literacy Development. A study focused on types of talk between parents and children as predictors of development of skills such as narrating, explaining, and describing. The study investigated some measures of home language environment and their relationships with literacy outcomes. Eighty-four 3-year-old children from low income families in the Boston (Massachusetts) area were visited to gather information about the family's social and economic circumstances and their literary practices. The mothers were asked to read to and converse with the children during the visits, and, at the end of their kindergarten year, the children were given a battery of standardized tests of linguistic and cognitive skills and asked to perform a set of independent language tasks. Results indicated that a combination of home social and economic measures, general family conversation measures, and child language measures are the best predictors of formal definitions scores and story comprehension scores. However, results demonstrate the mother's impact in the information index (for bookreading) as a reflection of her ability to involve the child in the conversation. The presence of discourse talk in models predicting literacy outcomes suggests that families that engage in decontextualized talk, such as explanatory talk and narrative talk, expose their children to interesting and extended and sophisticated ways of expressing themselves. (Seven figures and seven tables of data are included.) (PRA) ED352693

Benton, M. (1990). Importance of Poetry in Children's Learning. This paper examines the uniqueness of poetry and classroom methodology as found in children's experiences of hearing, enacting, discussing, and making poems. Poetry offers the peculiar use of language, form, and a fresh look. Poems are useful in the classroom as they are read differently from ordinary text, are read with both the eye and the ear, and offer children access to a wide variety of experiences. When using a poem, teachers should provide time and opportunity for individual student reflection; poems must be experienced before they can be analyzed. Properly handled, literary understanding and critical evaluation develop as a result of reflective reading and responding, without which, comprehension degenerates into inquisition and criticism into mechanical analysis. An example is given of a poem as read by a child with her notes on her thoughts as she read the poem, illustrating how children need time to be better understood. (Contains 21 references.) (NAV) ED390292

Bergman, A. B. (1992). Lessons for Principals from Site-Based Management. Educational Leadership, v50 n1 p48-51 1992. At a Suburban New Jersey elementary school, the principal learned to let go and provide the means for staff to solve their own problems. Some lessons include learning to listen, establishing patterns of communication, understanding individual styles, promoting open communication, working to build trust, thinking with new perspectives, promoting autonomy, and taking time for self-reflection. (MLH)

Berlin, D. F. (1996). Teacher Action Research: The Impact of Inquiry on Curriculum Improvement and Professional Development. The Berlin-White Action Research Model (BWARM) described here was designed to prepare and support teachers in the development, implementation, and evaluation of innovation within their classroom. The year-long program consists of three interrelated phases over four academic quarters: (1) "Pedagogical Awareness," designed to provide knowledge and experiences to advance teacher learning and to serve as a springboard for the development of educational innovations; (2) "Research, Development, and Evaluation," which prepares teachers in the fundamentals of inquiry in education; and (3) "Classroom Applications," three quarter-long seminars focusing on development of curriculum innovation and data collection procedures, classroom implementation and data collection and analysis, interpretation, and report writing. A culminating 2-day conference brings together teachers and other professional educators to share the curriculum innovation and action research results. The findings of a 5-year longitudinal study involving 92 elementary teacher-researchers suggest that the BWARM program enhanced teacher attitudes toward educational innovations and educational research, facilitated the implementation of educational innovations and improved teaching and learning in individual classrooms, and changed the participating teachers' views of their classroom roles to include reflection and inquiry. A figure and eight tables are attached. (Contains 17 references.) (ND) ED397029

Bernhardt, E. B., Ed. (1992). Life in Language Immersion Classrooms. Multilingual Matters 86. In contrast to other volumes on language immersion programs that have discussed language outcomes, this book focuses on how teachers and school administrators implement and carry on the daily operations of immersion schooling. It chronicles a 2-year research project that involved the staff and principals of two immersion schools in the midwest, in collaboration with a team of researchers that included specialists in second language as well as in language arts teaching. Two in-depth studies of immersion teachers are included: a study of the use of drama in the immersion classroom, and an analysis of the use of children's literature. The book concludes with discussion of preparing and maintaining immersion school staff. Chapters and authors are: "Immersion Teachers' Pedagogical Beliefs and Practices: Results of a Descriptive Analysis" (Ann Salomone); "How Many Wednesdays? A Portrait of Immersion Teaching through Reflection" (Carolyn Mendez); "Learning through Drama in the Immersion Classroom" (Deborah Wilburn); "Whole Language and Literature in a French Immersion Elementary School" (Janet Hickman); "Student-Teacher Interactions in Selected French Immersion Classrooms" (Ann Salamone); "The Development of Immersion Teachers" (Elizabeth Bernhardt and Leslie Schrier); "Meeting the Challenges of Immersion: The Role of the Foreign Language Supervisor" (Diane Ging); and "Immersion: A Principal's Perspective" (Roger Coffman). (LB) ED355823

Bird, L. B. (1995). Assessment: Continuous Laring. Different Ways of Learning. Strategies for Teaching and Learning Professional Library. This publication is part of a series of monographs on the art of teaching. Each volume, focusing on a specific discipline, explores theory in the context of teaching strategies Three techniques for using the series: dialogues (as self-evaluation and in study groups), shop talk (review of current professional literature), and teacher-to-teacher field notes (tips and experiences from practicing educators). This volume, containing four chapters, focuses on the role of assessment. Chapter 1, "Understanding Authentic Assessment," defines six principles of authentic assessment with specific examples, and discusses the role of continuous professional growth. Chapter 2, "We Assess To Learn and Teach," looks at the purpose of assessment, the learning cyclecoming to know (the purpose of learning), showing you know (the products of learning), and knowing you know (reflections); and five kidwatching perspectives to enable teachers to understand students and their needs at various points in the learning cycle- -monitoring, observing, interacting, analyzing artifacts, and reporting. Chapter 3, "Assessment Tools for Learning and Teaching," examines and describes specific tools and forms for each stage of the kidwatching cycle evaluation. Chapter 4, "Purposeful Portfolios," discusses the development and use of portfolios and how portfolios can help students engage in effective self-reflection. Guidelines for creating, implementing, and using portfolios are included; a math portfolio is given as an example. A list of professional associations and publications is included. (Contains 43 references.) (ND) ED390811

Bond, M. (1992). Reflection: Third-Grade Style. Hands On, n43-44 p97-101 Spr-Sum 1992. A third-grade teacher and her students used the Foxfire practice of reflection to analyze student projects in reading. Analysis of student comments and levels of participation indicate that elementary-age students are capable of using high-level thinking skills to improve the quality of their work. (LP)

Bonnett, M., & Doddington, C. (1990). Primary Teaching: What Has Philosophy to Offer? Cambridge Journal of Education, v20 n2 p115-21 1990. Discusses the importance of philosophy of education in elementary education, arguing that philosophical reflection by teachers affects educational reasoning, thus strengthening curriculum development and teacher practice. Five contributions that philosophy of education can make to teacher development are described. (SM)

Borgia, E. T., & Schuler, D. (1996). Action Research in Early Childhood Education. ERIC Digest. Action research is an approach to professional development and improved student learning in which teachers systematically reflect on their work, seek feedback from colleagues, and make changes in their practice. Several benefits of action research have been cited: (1) teachers investigate their own practice in a new way, looking at what children actually do and what they themselves do; (2) teachers develop a deeper understanding of children, of the learning process, and of their role in the educational lives of children; (3) teachers are viewed as equal partners with their collaborators in deciding what works best in their situation; (4) solutions are arrived at cooperatively; (5) teachers are often more committed to implementation of a project that they have been involved in designing; and (6) action research is an ongoing processits principles can be applied elsewhere. Action research begins with a focus or question, which frequently is modified as data are gathered and the process continues. After reflection and discussion, a research question is conceptualized, and a plan of action is developed. The teacher implements the plan, keeping detailed anecdotal records. The research methods used are often qualitative, including detailed documentation, although quantitative methods are sometimes included for triangulation purposes. Involvement in action research includes: (1) commitmentthose who agree to participate should know that they will be involved with the project for a year or more; (2) collaborationthe power relations among participants are equal; (3) concernthe interpretive nature of action research means that the participants will develop a support group of critical friends; (4) considerationreflection is a challenging, critical assessment of one's own behavior as a means of developing one's craftsmanship; and (5) change change is ongoing and difficult, but it is an important element in remaining effective as a teacher. (Contains 10 references.) (LPP) ED401047

Braunger, J. (1995). Tensions to Resolve: Improving Literacy Programs in the Context of School Reform. Literacy Improvement Series for Elementary Educators. This booklet is designed to help educators plan and implement language and literacy programs and related professional development opportunities for elementary school educators. A primary focus of the document is on the tensions that exist between recent local, state, and national initiatives to improve the quality of schooling and current understandings of literacy and language learning. These tensions center on appropriate models of learning (transmission vs. transactional learning), views of knowledge (knowledge as discrete content vs. connected understandings), equity issues (race, culture, and class), purposes of education (preparation for higher education and work, social and personal uses), the role of teachers (teachers as technicians or professionals), and the role of standards (gatekeepers vs. motivators, fixed or dynamic). Questions for reflection and discussion concerning each area are included. An appendix provides information on educational reform in Washington, Oregon, and Alaska, as well as on the National Educational Goals, as revised in the Goals 2000: Educate America Act. (Contains 27 references.) (MDM) ED394622

Bromer, J. (1995). When I Was a Baby: Autobiographical Talk in a Preschool Classroom. Much of the current research on children's memory comes from a Vygotskian perspective, focusing on context and social environment, and from a Piagetian perspective, emphasizing the importance of family lore and belief systems in shaping children's memory. Recent studies suggest that young children's representational abilities are continuous with adults' representational and memory capabilities. Current studies have identified three kinds of memories exhibited by young children: (1) general event representation; (2) episodic memory; and (3) autobiographical memory. Recognizing the importance of social interaction and social context in the development of memory, one teacher explored the development of self- reflective talk and memories in a classroom of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds. The teacher initiated an ongoing curriculum around memories and babyhood through periodic classroom memory-related discussions, stories, and projects, and recorded group and individual discussions as well as spontaneous episodes of memory talk. The goal of these activities was to help children distinguish between their past as babies and their rapidly increasing maturity as preschoolers through talking about the past. Observations indicate that young children usually recount episodes from their past to adults rather than to their peers, reflecting the findings of studies that suggest memory retrieval in young children requires a cue often adult-initiated conversations. Over the year, children in the class learned much about how to remember and talk about the past. Children began to initiate remembering discussions independently, indicating their increasing abilities to internalize past experiences in language and memory. Remembering also became a mode through which the children in the class could find solidarity. The task of remembering and thinking about the past appears to be one way in which preschool children can develop a clearer sense of self as they continue to grow and have new experiences in the world. (Contains 18 references.) (KDFB) ED400953

Brough, J., & Others, A. (1995). Practicing What You Preach: Preparing Teachers for an Interdisciplinary Curriculum. Schools in the Middle, v4 n4 p9-13 1995. Describes the teacher preparation program at Gettysburg College (Pennsylvania), which integrates various disciplines across its academic program and field experiences. Notes the program's major concepts: reflection, collaboration, and conceptual thinking. (HTH)

Bruce, B. C., & Others, A. (1997). University Science Students as Curriculum Planners, Teachers, and Role Models in Elementary School Classrooms. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, v34 n1 p69-88 1997. Examines experiences of university students in an outreach program designed to teach science and foster positive attitudes toward science in younger children. Reports positive responses from teachers and children. Highlights the value of providing diverse and challenging experiences for children and the need for dialog and reflection on those experiences. Contains 31 references. (Author/JRH)

Burch, P. (1993). Action Research in Family-School-Community Partnerships: The Experience of One Rural Elementary School. In 1991, eight schools received funding to carry out a 3-year locally designed family and community involvement project. This multisite collaborative action-research project aims to identify school policies and practices that obstruct or advance effective family-school-community partnerships. Data gathering and analysis are being carried out at two levels: in each school by a parent-teacher action research team and trained on-site facilitator; and by central research staff in Boston. Brief descriptions profile the eight schools and their projects. The experiences at Atenville Elementary School in Harts, West Virginia, illustrate the path followed by the various projects. Steps included: (1) defining goals and objectives; (2) moving beyond representation to meaningful participation by parents and teachers; (3) identifying new resources to meet expanding program needs; (4) moving from action to reflection; and (5) identifying remaining obstacles. Early outcomes suggest that action research can be adapted to diverse settings, can help schools identify important barriers to collaboration between parents and teachers, and can help schools identify unmet needs of children and parents. Action research schools are making decisions about parent and community involvement based on their own evidence of what works, and are moving toward coordinated and creative use of federal, state, and local funds. (SV) ED364369

Burgess, C. B., Ed. (1990). Ripples: A Big Sweep Elementary Activity Guide. Littering is a careless act indicating lack of respect for the environment, other people, and wildlife. Through education people can learn the consequences of littering and how to stop doing it. This book, designed for elementary children, presents a collection of 16 activities, ideas and resources concerning litter in the aquatic and marine environment. Some of the ideas can be modified for older or younger children. The format for each activity includes: (1) an introductory section that can be read to the class or group; (2) activity objectives; (3) time requirement and materials needed; (4) procedure and extension activities; and (5) a section that poses questions for reflection and discussion to explore opinions, positions, and ethics and environment. A glossary provides definitions of words used in the activities. A resource section that lists agencies and groups where additional information and assistance can be obtained and a materials section that lists supplemental curricula, audio-visual aids and information are provided. (MCO) ED349171

Burk, D. I., & Dunn, M. (1996). Learning about Learning: An Interactive Model. Action in Teacher Education, v18 n2 p11-18 Sum 1996. Discusses a college course that employs the basic principles of constructivist education and promotes active learning through social interaction and personal reflection. The course assists students in developing a greater degree of autonomy that will help them in their personal and professional lives. (SM)

Buschman, L. (1996). Boy, Do I Have Problems. Teaching Children Mathematics, v3 n3 p148-54 1996. Endorses the projects approach to learning as helping students acquire contextual, personal knowledge rather than learning only isolated bits of content information. Describes the five-step process for doing projects which includes productive thinking or generating ideas, the planning or organizing of ideas, decision making, communication or sharing ideas, and reflection or assessment of ideas and goal setting. (AIM)

Bush, B. (1994). Integrated Language Arts: Curriculum Redesign in Teacher Training. Six communication instructors redesigned the curriculum of two courses to make integration part of teacher training both in course content and in the way trainees were taught and prepared. Having conducted a literature search, the six teachers developed a language arts interdisciplinary team to plan, pilot, and implement a new integrated approach. The resulting plan called for team teaching, opportunities for student reflection on their personal and professional growth, active learning, writing process strategies, integration of language arts components, planning and development by students of integrated teaching units around a thematic core, portfolio development, integrated language arts/reading practicum, and feedback and evaluation provided in many formats at many points during the program including video taping of student work and chances for a faculty member, teacher, and the student to view and evaluate the tape. The program was piloted with a reading methods instructor and a language arts methods instructor who, over two semesters, redesigned the curriculum for two courses as one course. They team taught the new integrated course. The program is currently in implementation, and refinement and evaluation are ongoing following Total Quality Management processes. (Contains 15 references.) (JB) ED377186

Butkowski, J., & Others, A. (1994). Improving Student Higher-Order Thinking Skills in Mathematics. This report describes a program for improving higher-order thinking skills in mathematics of (n=17) third-, (n=27) fifth-, and (n=27) sixth-grade students in a middle class community. Three interventions were chosen: (1) cooperative learning to develop student self-confidence and to improve student achievement, (2) the instruction of students in mathematical problem-solving strategies, and (3) curriculum revision with the addition of a supplementary program on mathematical problem solving. All strategic solutions were related to improving student cognition and advancing student achievement on higher-order thinking skills. All of the components that contributed to the original problem were reduced as projected: student acquisition of mathematical problem-solving strategies became evident, student confidence levels in mathematics increased, and student achievement on non-routine problems requiring higher order thinking skills improved. Appendices include: problem-solving pre- and post-test results, sample problems, student survey, teacher questionnaire, teacher observation checklist, sample test questions, attitude survey, student evaluation form, student reflection sheet, and sample activities. (Contains 55 references.) (Author/MKR) ED383526

Buzzelli, C. A. (1995). The Development of Moral Reflection in the Early Childhood Classroom. Contemporary Education, v66 n3 p143-45 Spr 1995. This article examines Vygotsky's and Bakhtin's work as it relates to moral reflection. A sociocultural approach based on Vygotsky's and Bakhtin's work provides the theoretical underpinnings for engaging children in authentic, critical, and reflective discourse. It is through such communicative exchanges that teachers help children develop self-regulation and moral reflection. (SM)
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Baird, J. R., & Others, A. (1991). Challenge: A Focus for Improving Teaching and Learning. A 4-year program of naturalistic research on science teaching and learning was conducted in Australia. This program comprised a project entitled Teaching and Learning Science in Schools (TLSS), which ran from 1987-89, and a year of follow-up studies in which some of the major findings from the project were explored further. Participants included 5 teachers and 200 grade 6 students from 4 primary schools; 41 teachers and over 2,000 secondary students; and 2 teacher educators, 13 teacher trainees, 2 lecturers, and over 200 first-year college chemistry students. Three main themes that guide improvement in classroom practice arise from the findings of this study: (1) the interdependence between constructivist processes of purposeful inquiry based on reflection and outcomes associated with enhanced metacognition; (2) the importance of balance between cognition and affect for effective teaching and learning; and (3) the notion of challenge as a focus for conceptualizing themes 1 and 2. Nine features that influence cognitive and affective components of challenge were identified. These features are seen as important subjects for teacher and student reflection and action. (KR) ED336281

Barnett, D. C., & Bayne, E. L. (1992). Reflection and Collaboration in the Practicum: The Mayfair Project. Monograph No. 14. This paper describes a pilot project in which interns were clustered in an elementary school in Saskatchewan (Canada) to work in collaboration with the teaching staff toward school goals as well as internship goals. The role of the college supervisor was primarily one of supporter, problem- solver, resource provider, and idea stimulator. The working relationship between teacher and intern moved through three phases focusing on: (1) specific feedback based on technical data collection; (2) exploration of ideas and alternative approaches; and (3) interpretation and reflection. Reflective journal writing focusing on descriptive, analytical, and affective levels of reflection was on-going throughout the internship. Feedback indicated a positive perspective on the experience by both interns and teachers. Some adjustments for the three days of inservices were recommended, positive feelings for peer support and peer coaching ranged from very little to substantial, and suggestions for changes in another school undertaking a similar project were provided. The project concluded that a successful practicum is enhanced if the process is perceived within the framework of the total school program and a paradigm of collaboration and experimentation is established at the outset. (Author/LL) ED354220

Barr, R., & Johnson, B. (1991). Teaching Reading in Elementary Classrooms: Developing Independent Readers. Intended for those learning to become teachers, this book was written to help such students gain a full understanding of how to teach reading in elementary schools. It can also be used by experienced teachers to encourage further professional development. In order to promote the reader's interaction with the ideas of the text, activities have been included to encourage the reader to "Pause and Reflect" and "Try It Out." The book is divided into five sections. Section I, "How Children Learn to Read," includes the following chapter titles: "Introduction" and "Developing Good Readers." Section II, "Organizing for Reading Instruction," includes chapters 3 through 6: "Overview of Materials for Reading Instruction," "Matching Reading Materials to Student Needs: Ongoing Assessment," "Assessing Student Knowledge at the Beginning of the School Year," and "Organizing Students for Reading Instruction." Section III, "The Nature of the Reading Program," includes chapters 7 through 10: "Supporting Emergent Literacy," "Developing Reading in the Primary Grades," "Developing Reading in the Intermediate Grades," and "Developing Reading in Grades Seven and Eight." Section IV, "The Central Components of Reading Lessons," includes chapters 11 through 14: "Prereading Instruction," "During-Reading Instruction," "Postreading Instruction: Concluding the Text Selection," and "Postreading Instruction: Extending the Text Selection." Section V, "Communication and Professional Growth," includes chapters 15 and 16: "Working with Parents" and "Reflection, Evaluation, and Professional Development." Appendixes provide children's book publishers, literature for young readers, and information on Basal publishers; a First-Grade Teacher's Manual Excerpt from the Silver, Burdett and Ginn Reading Program; copies of selected standardized reading tests, grades K-8; and lists of children's magazines and high interest-low vocabulary materials. (MG) ED335630
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Caouette, L. (1992). French as a Second Language. Teacher Resource Manual: Early Childhood Services-Grade 12 = Francais langue seconde: guide d'enseignement de la maternelle a la 12e annee. This reference guide provides Alberta (Canada) teachers of French as a Second Language with instructional ideas and teaching methods. The guide outlines features of Alberta's new French curriculum, describes pedagogical principles behind the program's philosophy, and proposes a methodology for instructional planning consistent with the curriculum. The first section chronicles the evolution of second language teaching, and the second defines the main features of a multidimensional curriculum. Section 3 details the areas on which this curriculum focuses: communication processes, culture, linguistic knowledge, and general language knowledge. The fourth section discusses instructional methodology, including basic pedagogical principles, teacher and student roles, and phases of the teaching process (preparatory, experience, reflection, reinvestment, evaluation). Section 5 describes specific strategies and classroom activities for developing aural comprehension, oral production, reading comprehension, written expression, and learning strategies, and for grouping students and using learning resources. Section 6 examines the processes of yearly planning, planning an integrated unit, and daily lesson planning. Subsequent sections look at technology in the classroom and issues in enrichment/remediation. Appended materials include reproducible worksheets and flash cards, suggestions for educational projects, a directory of sources for authentic documents, and a list of approved basic instructional materials. The manual is presented in both English and French. (MSE) ED354765

Carty, G. (1992). Spelling: Conversations for Change. Reading, v26 n2 p17-22 1992. Offers some critical reflection and conversation on the topic of spelling and spelling instruction. Describes concerns about the lack of transfer from instruction to practice, about teaching spelling through isolated word lists, and about failing to meet individual needs and parents' expectations. Discusses ways teachers and researchers are trying to make spelling programs more meaningful and effective. (RS)

Castle, K., & Rogers, K. (1994). Rule-Creating in a Constructivist Classroom Community. Childhood Education, v70 n2 p77-80 Win 199 1994. Creating classroom rules together can be a very meaningful experience for children and teachers and can help establish a positive sense of classroom community. Student participation in rule-making encourages active involvement, reflection, meaningful connections, respect for rules, a sense of community, problem solving through negotiation, cooperation, inductive thinking, and a sense of ownership. (TJQ)

Cavanaugh, C. F. (1991). The Value of Storytelling. Teaching Theatre, v2 n2 p3-4 Win 1991. Argues for a greater appreciation of the significance of story as a form in itself, its pervasive and omnipresent nature in our lives, and its overwhelming importance as a major means of communicating with and educating the young. Suggests a reconsideration and reflection of what is taught and how to teach. (PRA)

Cheung, K. C. (1990). To Grow and Glow: Towards a Model of Teacher Education and Professional Development. This study was conducted in order to examine the process of teacher development in a close interplay between educational principles and classrooms in a Singapore practicum curriculum. The process of teacher development is regarded as a continuous, self-renewing, lifelong process. Since no comprehensive constructivist model of teacher development has been advanced in the literature to guide in the design of teacher education programs, this paper seeks to spell out the rationale and relationship of the four basic components of a teacher development program with respect to: (1) subject matter; (2) teaching methods; (3) educational principles; and (4) classroom practice. Humanistic constructivism provides the underlying philosophy and pedagogy of the proposed teacher development model. Through a better articulation of teacher roles, internalization of educational principles, and reflection of classroom practices, teachers' professional development grows. Based on this model of teacher development in a practicum curriculum, some research evidence of professional growth is presented using student teachers' self-appraisal of their own and their cooperating teachers' classroom practice. (Author/LL) ED338575

Cobb, P., & Others, A. (1997). Reflective Discourse and Collective Reflection. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, v28 n3 p258-77 1997. Explores the relationship between classroom discourse and mathematical development in a first-grade classroom. Addresses issues such as the teacher's role and the role of symbolization in supporting reflective shifts in the discourse. Contrasts the analysis of reflective discourse with Vygotskian accounts of learning that also stress the importance of social interaction and semiotic mediation. Contains 45 references. (Author/JRH)

Conss, L., & Tyler-Higgins, N. (1996). Carry the Torch for Your Department into the Community. The early childhood education program at Massachusetts' Middlesex Community College has included a service learning component for the past 3 years. Service learning participants have the opportunity to observe several different public and private early care and education programs in the community and to discuss the programs with other students. Participants are also asked to maintain journals which are shared with the instructor and, if students desire, with other students. The journals involve the following four phases of reflection: (1) concrete experience, or a description of specific behaviors which occurred during an incident; (2) reflective observation, or personal thoughts, feelings, and perceptions about the events; (3) abstract conceptualization, illustrating the relationship between the experience and knowledge learned in the class; and (4) active experimentation, in which students apply learning to situations that they might encounter in the future. Students who choose to participate in service learning are excused from two assignments and their research papers are designed around their service learning placement. Although integrating service learning involves extra work and can mean sacrificing some valuable class time, it is well worth the effort as it gives students the opportunity to network, experience, and observe professional actively involved with children. (BCY) ED394549

Cooper, S. B. (1996). Case Studies of Teacher Education Students in a Field-Based and a University-Based Elementary Mathematics Methods Course. Journal of Teacher Education, v47 n2 p139-46 Mar-1996. This study compared the effects of a field-based mathematics methods course and a traditional university-based mathematics methods course on preservice teachers in their development of teaching concepts in elementary mathematics. Case studies of students representative of the two groups indicated significant differences in their teaching concepts. (SM)

Creany, A. D., & Others, A. (1993). Representation of Culture in Children's Picture Books. This paper examines the portrayal of minority cultures in children's picture books. In picture books, the illustrations are as important as the text with respect to the meaning of the story. As a result, picture books have the potential to influence a child's view of other cultures. Currently, only three percent of picture books represent minority cultures. This results in two negative consequences: minority children may not see their own image reflected in books, and majority children may receive a distorted view of the real world. Also, the books that do represent minority cultures may represent them inaccurately or show stereotypical images. Multicultural literature introduces children to the values of other cultures. The reflection of these images should be evaluated for accuracy and presence of stereotypes. With multicultural literature, children gain a validation of their own background and values as well as an introduction to other cultures. Criteria for evaluating multicultural literature are also included. (Contains 28 references.) (JLB) ED370570

Cromwell, R. R. (1991). Key Supervision Skills That Will Touch the Future of School Reform. In the spirit of educational reform efforts, this paper describes a supervisory training program at Indiana University East. The program, based on the development of reflective skills, is designed to assist classroom teachers who become supervisors for early education field students and student teachers. In order to develop the skills of a good supervisor, the training is centered around communication, setting a vision, observing, conferencing, and self-knowledge. Each of these areas is addressed through a 15-hour training program utilizing discussion, group work, and role playing. To understand the linkage between school improvement, reform, and the supervision training program, this paper reviews reform efforts in schools and takes a concentrated look at the key elements of this training program. The training has helped build a pool of qualified teacher supervisors whose skills in supervision lend themselves to being effective and helpful in achieving effective school reform. (LL) ED352355
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da Costa, J. L. (1993). A Study of Teacher Collaboration in Terms of Teaching-Learning Performance. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between teacher participation in a teacher collaboration program and teaching-learning outcomes. The consultation approaches promoted collegial interactions of teachers on a professional level and emphasized self-examination and development of classroom behaviors from the individual teacher's value and belief perspectives. A review of the literature reveals positive outcomes for both teachers and pupils when teachers engage in the use of collaborative consultation. Participants in this investigation consisted of 30 elementary school teachers from each of 2 suburban public school districts in British Columbia. Data were collected from classes at two points during the school year, and information based on the following constructs was obtained from teachers, teaching partners, and pupils as appropriate: teacher trust for the teaching partner; teaching partner's supervisory beliefs; degree of teacher reflection; teacher efficacy and classroom behavior; and pupil achievement, attitudes, and behavior. A discussion of the findings (displayed in tabular form) and implications and recommendations based on informants' suggestions complete the document. Appendixes provides descriptions of terms as well as data collection instruments and procedures. (Contains approximately 100 references.) (LL) ED362472

Dana, N. F. (1992). Discovering Researcher Subjectivities, Perceptions, and Biases: A Critical Examination of Myths, Metaphors, and Meanings Inherent in University-School Collaborative Action Research Projects. This paper describes a collaborative action research project conducted by a university researcher and a group of elementary school teachers. It examines the role the researcher plays when educational change is initiated by practitioners and the nature of the relationship that develops between researcher and practitioners throughout the change process. The document focuses on the researcher as a reflective coach, on themes emerging from and inherent to university/school relationships, and on the process of challenging traditional myths (beliefs) and metaphors associated with educational research and educational researchers. The discussion centers on the myth of the researcher as expert and the ivory tower metaphor. Results suggest that reform and change may begin when university researchers, principals, and teachers form relationships that transcend traditional myths and metaphors of educational research. Such relationships are empowering and enable all members of a collaborative group to reflect critically on practices as teacher educator, principal, or teacher. Critical reflection may lead to change beginning with self-reflection, constructs of reality, and practices as educators. (Contains 20 references.) (LL) ED352342

Dana, N. F. (1992). Teacher Leadership through Collaborative Action Research: Implications for Teachers, Principals, and University Researchers/Teacher Educators. This study was conducted to explore the process of teacher and principal change initiated by elementary school teachers who wished to replace the school's culture of isolation and seclusion with a culture of collegiality and caring. Their vision of change and the change process itself was intertwined with the development of a sense of teacher leadership and teacher voice. The teachers, the principal, and a university researcher engaged in an action research project to explore, initiate, implement, and document change at the school. Data were gathered utilizing participant observation, ethnographic interviewing, document analysis, and dialogue journals. Results suggest that voice and reflection are the common threads that weave cultural change, and that teacher, principal, and researcher narratives change into one collective narrative. A subsection of the paper examines the assertion that the nature of one's own voice, critical reflection, and change are intimately linked. The finding and silencing of voice, critical reflection, and change are reciprocal, interactive, and dynamic processes. (Contains 20 references.) (LL) ED352343

Dana, N. F., & Floyd, D. M. (1994). When Teacher Educators Collaboratively Reflect on Their Practices: A Case Study on Teaching Cases. The purpose of this study was to create the portrait of a teacher educator implementing the case study method to determine what knowledge helps a teacher educator facilitate a case study discussion and what dilemmas teacher educators may encounter when teaching a case. Two portraits titled "Dealing With Discipline and Classroom Management Issues" and "Dealing with Special Needs Students" are presented. Each story is followed by a cross- case analysis of the teaching act. Through video and audio tapes of the teacher educator teaching a case, in-class observations, and reflective journals kept by both teacher educators and prospective teachers, insight was gained into the experience of teaching a case and the multiple tensions instructors may face as they prepare for and teach a case study. Results suggest cooperative learning and role playing as two strategies particularly suited to the teaching of cases. A jigsaw approach to teaching cases similar in theme enabled prospective teachers to conduct cross case analyses; cross case analyses provided an opportunity for prospective teachers to construct and test personal theories of teaching and learning; and role playing cases helped preservice teachers reflect on their personal theories of teaching and learning. Course syllabi are appended. (Contains 25 references.) (LL) ED369768

Dana, N. F., & Others, A. (1992). Creating a Culture for Change: The University Researcher, Principal, and Teacher Family. Consistent with educational reform efforts, this study examines traditional roles of teacher educators, university researchers, and public school personnel and addresses the following questions: (1) What role can the university play as change is initiated within public schools? (2) In order to create a culture for change, how must the traditional roles of university and public school personnel change? and (3) How does meaningful school and university collaboration develop? The participants, a teacher educator/researcher at The Florida State University and the teachers and principal at Sabal Palm Elementary School (Florida), engaged in a collaborative action research project. Interviews, journal entries, and field notes suggest that: building collaborative teams of teachers, administrators, and university faculty has tremendous potential to affect educational change and reform; building such teams means that the traditional relationship between university researchers, teacher educators, and school practitioners must be reconceptualized; and the collegiality and reflection experiences are not unlike the sharing that goes on in a family. The family metaphor evolved as a viable referent for exploring issues inherent in building university school collaboration as well as for establishing a school culture for change. (LL) ED350276

Davenport, L. R., & Sassi, A. (1995). Raising Voices: Using Teaching Cases To Stimulate Teachers' Thinking and Reflection in Mathematics Education. This paper examines the reactions of 10 elementary teachers to a teaching case used as part of a professional development project's curriculum. Their written reactions to both reading the case and participating in a 2-hour discussion of it suggest that cases may stimulate teachers to think about their own understanding of mathematics, the mathematical thinking of children, and their roles as teachers. In addition, patterns in the data suggest that teachers' reactions to cases are strongly colored by their prior experience with case materials, their abilities to articulate the subtleties of reformed mathematics teaching practice, and where they are in their thinking about mathematics education reform. Contains 17 references. (Author) ED389607

DeFord, D. E. (1993). Learning within Teaching: An Examination of Teachers Learning in Reading Recovery. Reading and Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, v9 n4 p329-50 Oct-1993. Explores teacher change within a year's professional development course in Reading Recovery. Finds significant changes in the teachers' orientations to reading, moving from a skills orientation toward a whole-language orientation. Finds that group reflection, learning through teaching, skilled observation, teacher decision making, and coaching had a high relationship to teacher change. (RS)

Del Prete, T., & Others, A. (1990). Anna Maria College-Calvin Coolidge School Professional Development School Guidebook. The concept of the professional development school (PDS) and the commitment to collaboration advocated by educational reformers derives in part from a recognition of the need to more fully incorporate the voices of teachers in teacher education and professional development. The Coolidge Professional Development School (Shrewsbury, Massachusetts) is a joint effort of the Anna Maria College (Paxton, Massachusetts) Education Department and the Calvin Coolidge School professional staff. This guidebook contains: (1) background on the PDS; (2) a summary of beliefs and assumptions about teaching-learning, teacher preparation, and ongoing professional development; (3) an outline of roles and responsibilities of the PDS personnel; (4) description of some benefits of the PDS program; (5) an evaluation plan; (6) an overview of the teacher preparation program; (7) a description of professional development day activities, a sample semester schedule, and two sample day schedules; (8) outlines of the teacher preparation program orientation and cooperating teacher orientation; (9) evaluation forms; and (10) outlines of activities for the teacher retreat and reflection events. The appendices include: information on PDSs in Massachusetts; school-university issues to consider in forming a PDS; a timeline from the 1990 grant proposal; and some notes on clinical methodology and the teaching-learning concept. (IAH) ED349266

Delgado-Gaitan, C. (1990). Involving Parents in the Schools: A Process of Empowerment. A 4-year ethnographic study in Carpinteria, California, examined the school district's parental involvement activities for their effectiveness with lower-class Spanish-speaking parents. Research at three elementary schools included observations of traditional activities, such as parent-teacher conferences and open house, and non-conventional activities, such as the Bilingual Preschool Parent Involvement Program, as well as interviews with parent participants and nonparticipants, teachers, and administrators. Conventional avenues to parent involvement were closed to many parents because of their lack of cultural knowledge about schools' norms. In contrast, some non-conventional activities encouraged parent participation by being culturally responsive to the families' experiences and need to learn about the schools and by including parents in decision making. As a result of their active participation, some Hispanic parents organized themselves into a group in order to become more knowledgeable about the school system and parental rights and responsibilities. The "Comite de Padres Latinos" group (COPLA) engaged in collective "critical reflection" that was central to the empowerment process. The parents' awareness of their shared experience became the basis for collective action as they sought to establish a network of systematic linkages between the school and parents. Three power-based conceptualizations of parent involvement are defined based on conventional, non-conventional, and COPLA activities in Carpinteria. This report contains 24 references. (SV) ED323059

Dixon-Krauss, L. A. (1995). Partner Reading and Writing: Peer Social Dialogue and the Zone of Proximal Development. Journal of Reading Behavior, v27 n1 p45-63 1995. Investigates Vygotsky's concept of the zone of proximal development using peer social dialogue integrated with teacher support to develop children's reading, writing, and abstract thinking in story reflection and sense of audience. Reports that students showed improvement in word recognition, in fluency, and in evaluating their own reading progress. Notes that students felt more positive about reading aloud. (PA)

Draper, D. (1994). Reflection on Practice: Taking the Time To Think. This field study report recounts an action research project undertaken by an elementary school teacher to reflect on her practice as a teacher. After a review of the literature on using reflection for personal and professional growth, the ethnographic methodology employed in the study is discussed. The teacher action-researcher took 117 pages of field notes between September and December 1992 while teaching a class of 31 third- and fourth-graders. Twenty specific field journal entries are reproduced and discussed. The study helped the teacher to develop (1) a personal philosophy, (2) knowledge of the relationship between her personal philosophy and educational philosophy, (3) an understanding of the emergence of a teaching metaphor, and (4) a change in classroom action toward more student-centered activities. (Contains 20 references.) (MDM) ED394631

Dudley-Marling, C. (1994). Struggling Readers in the Regular Classroom: A Personal Reflection. Reading Horizons, v34 n5 p465-87 1994. Offers the perspective of a university professor who taught a third-grade class while on a year-long leave. Discusses how the teacher immersed students in print, provided students with regular demonstrations of how print is used, and offered frequent opportunities for students to read. Offers insights on diversity in the classroom and inclusive education. (HB)

Dudley-Marling, C., Ed., & Searle, D., Ed. (1995). Who Owns Learning? Questions of Autonomy, Choice, and Control. Noting that current theory and practice in literacy education emphasizes the importance of student independence, autonomy, and choice (commonly referred to as "ownership"), this book presents 14 essays that discuss what ownership means and how teachers can encourage students to take responsibility for their learning. Although student ownership has become a guiding principle in literacy education through the influence of whole language and writing process literature, the book notes that literacy educators find the concept of ownership a "slippery" concept. Essays in the book are: (1) "Complicating Ownership" (Curt Dudley-Marling); (2) "Understanding Ownership in Classroom Interaction" (Dennis Searle and Curt Dudley-Marling); (3) "Students and Teachers: Sharing Ownership and Responsibility in Reading" (Lynn K. Rhodes); (4) "Reading with Friends: A Peer-Tutored Reading Program" (Odette Bartnicki); (5) "Self-Reflection: Supporting Students in Taking Ownership of Evaluation" (Cheryl K. Ames and Hilary Sumner Gahagan); (6) "Integrating Social Studies and Whole Language in a Middle School: Finding a Core in Chore" (Mary Burke-Hengen); (7) "Lessons from Little Bear" (Susan Stires); (8) "Ownership for the Special Needs Child: Individual and Educational Dilemmas" (Cora Lee Five); (9) "The Power of Influence: Effecting Change by Developing Ownership" (Margaret Stevenson); (10) "Dialectics of Ownership: Language as Property" (Patrick Shannon); (11) "Writing a Difference in the World: Beyond Ownership and Authorship" (Catherine DuCharme and others); (12) "Liberating Student Intention and Association: Toward What Ends?" (Timothy J. Lensmire); (13) "Scaffolding: Who's Building Whose Building?" (Dennis Searle); and (14) "Teaching and Learning Together in Teacher Education: 'Making Easter'" (David Dillon and others). (RS) ED375388

Dupuis, M. M., Ed., & Fagan Edward R., E. (1990). Teacher Education: Reflection and Change. Monograph 5. The papers in this monograph represent responses to criticisms of teacher education. The theme connecting the papers is reflection and change in teacher education. The following papers are included: (1) "Computers in EducationAnother Failed Technology?" (Thomas A. Drazdowski); (2) "Selected Effects of Cooperative Learning" (Therese A. Ream); (3) "Teaching the Reading Process to Elementary Education Majors: Issues to Consider" (Michele L. Irvin); (4) "Field Experiences To Bridge the Gap Between Theory and Practice" (Michele Tellep); (5) "Bicultural Teacher Education: A Native American Perspective" (Doris McGrady); (6) "Whole Brain Learning, Learning Styles and Implications on Teacher Education" (Phillip V. Shortman); (7) "Expert Teachers as Guest Lecturers for Preservice Teachers: An Organizational Proposal" (Robert Clemens); (8) "New Staff Induction Programs: The State of the Art" (Carol Blundell); (9) "Emerging Teachers: The Nurturing Process" (Margaret Foley); and (10) "The Role of the Teacher in Follow-Up Activities for Staff Development Programs" (Joseph Clapper). (JD) ED330647

Dyson, A. H. (1991). The Case of the Singing Scientist: A Performance Perspective on the "Stages" of School Literacy. Technical Report No. 53. A case study examined assumptions of current written language pedagogies, particularly the links between oral performance, literacy pedagogy, and the use of the explicit, analytic language valued in school. The subject, a young African-American child enrolled in an urban K/1 classroom, used school writing activities and the music of language to "perform," while other class members aimed more straightforwardly to communicate. Data collection took place weekly over a 10-month period and included hand- written field notes and audiotape recordings of the children's spontaneous talk during literacy activities. Data analysis consisted of the development of a set of categories to describe how the subject participated in the social and language life of the classroom. Results showed that, although the child's language resources contributed to his success with written language, they did not always fit comfortably into the "writing workshop" used in his classroom; in fact, his assumptions about written language and texts conflicted in revealing ways with those undergirding a workshop approach. As the year ended, the child, his teacher, and his peers had negotiated "stages" for his oral performances, which led to articulation of a distinction between text and performance. For the child, the most comfortable social structure for reflection involved privacy or interaction with collaborators who were not simultaneously his audience. Results highlight the subject's negotiations for social stages, not his control of literacy mechanics. (Three tables of data are included; 95 references are attached.) (RS) ED341066

Dyson, A. H., Ed. (1995). Diversity and Literacy Development in the Early YearsWhat Difference Does Difference Make?: Teacher Perspectives on Diversity, Literacy, and the Urban Primary School. Final Report. Focusing on teachers' perspectives, this report examines sociocultural diversity and teaching by reconstructing the talk of a group of 10 teachers from the Oakland and Berkeley, California areas who met weekly for a school year. The curricular focus of the group was the teaching of writing, but over time the discussions of difference and child literacy broadened. A framework for teacher reflection, a framework grounded in teachers' reflections on classroom experiences, is outlined. Chapters in the report are: (1) Introduction: Teaching in City Schools; (2) Relationships in and Out of the Classroom: "Who Am I to Them?"; (3) Building Classroom Communities: "I'm from Texas; What Are You?"; (4) Negotiating Permeable Activities: "At First I Didn't Understand"; (5) Portraits of Children Learning: "What Did You Think of Me?"; and (6) Extending the Conversation: "It's Not about Telling You What to Do." A coda (The Permanence of Change and the Power of Reflection) concludes the report. Contains 67 references. (RS) ED397420
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_________. (1992). Every Child Can Learn: Accommodating Differences in Elementary School. This Alberta (Canada) guide highlights the practical connections among results-based or outcome-based, continuous progress, and integrated curricula. It describes effective educational efforts and beliefs that accommodate differences in learning and promote learning success, and invites administrative and teaching staff to participate in collaborative discussions and efforts that promote learning success for all students. The strategies described provide a practical look at how learner success can be encouraged within the framework of continuous progress, high expectations, standards, appropriate time, and support for learning. The first eight chapters contain a topical discussion, a list of sources for that topic, and a "reflection section" that provides questions for discussion and reflection. The eight chapters are: (1) "Developing the Vision: Clarifying Our Beliefs about Teaching and Learning"; (2) "What Constitutes Learning Success for Each Child?"; (3) "Contexts for Learning"; (4) "Identifying Learner Strengths in Planning Next Steps"; (5) "Instructional Practices that Promote Continuous Learning"; (6) "Assessing Learning Progress"; (7) "Reporting Learning Growth"; and (8) "Home and School Connections." Chapter 9 contains teachers' stories, and chapter 10 offers a summary and implications. Contains approximately 75 references. Eighteen appendixes include planning and criteria sheets, forms, assessment tools, and learning and instructional profiles. (TJQ) ED371830

Echevarria, J., & McDonough, R. (1995). An Alternative Reading Approach: Instructional Conversations in a Bilingual Special Education Setting. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, v10 n2 p108-19 Spr 1995. Students (n=12) in a self-contained elementary class for students with learning disabilities were taught using instructional conversation (IC), a teaching method in which students are engaged in interactions promoting analysis, reflection, and critical thinking. IC promoted oral participation and interactions among students and provided a holistic context, but required adaptations for students with learning disabilities. (DB)

Edmiston, B. (1993). Structuring Drama for Reflection and Learning: A Teacher-Researcher Study. Youth Theatre Journal, v7 n3 p3-1993. Describes research in which the author studied his own teaching over a two- year period and, based on the research, developed a model for structuring drama to support reflection and learning. (SR)

Ellis, J. D., & Backe, K. A. (1995). Using Video To Evoke Reflection on Science Teaching. Interim Report of NSF- Supported Project: Teacher Development Modules for Elementary School Science. This document presents an overview of the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) Teacher Development Modules for Elementary School Science. It documents the collaboration of BSCS with science educators, science supervisors, and outstanding science teachers in developing, evaluating, refining, and disseminating four teacher development modules to support the improvement of science teaching in the elementary school. The modules are based on the major themes of the contemporary reform in science education: innovative instruction (constructivism, cooperative learning, and learning styles), curriculum emphases (thematic, less-is-more, and science- technology-society), equitable teaching, and alternative assessment. Subtopics include the nature of science and technology, major science concepts, classroom management, and educational technology. The population that conducted the content review process for the modules included project staff, members of the advisory board, university faculty, teachers, and science supervisors. It is reported that overall, reviewers and teachers responded very positively to the modules and voiced the need for such materials for both inservice and preservice teachers. Contains 60 references. (JRH) ED391640

Engel, B. S. (1993). Valuing Children: Authentic Assessment Based on Observation, Reflection and Documentation. Education is presently undergoing a paradigm shift, with some teachers, parents, and administrators interested in new ways of thinking about teaching and learning, while others are skeptical or even resistant to new ideas in education. The Whole Language movement, and holistic education in general, is in danger of being tossed aside like the "New Math" of the 1960s. The current shift of paradigm in education can be described as a shift toward "meaning," the energy behind both growth and learning. The influence of the paradigm can be seen in the Whole Language and process writing movements, in the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' Standards, in hands-on science education, and in the multiple perspectives or meanings in the new social studies. School assessment and evaluation are also changing, with more emphasis on helping teachers and children in the classroom work together in the most productive ways possible. (MDM) ED368450

Etemad, M. E. (1994). The Role of Kinesthetics in Learning: The Importance of Active Engagement and the Connected Process of Reflection. A study examined the effect of a kinesthetic component in instruction on the performances of 16 5- and 6-year-old public school students on a cognitive development test. Eight boys and eight girls were randomly selected and assigned in equal numbers to a treatment group and a control group. The kinesthetic elements consisted of drawing, coloring, making a collage, using pantomime, dramatization, acting out action words, rhythm clapping, and sculpting with clay. It was hypothesized that a kinesthetic form of active engagement would lead to stronger cognitive development. A series of five language arts lessons were taught. The treatment group's lessons included a kinesthetic element. The goals for the five lessons were to help both groups to learn (1) story structure, (2) new concepts through building vocabulary, and (3) the concepts of synonyms and antonyms. Both groups used the same format. The TONI-2 Test of Nonverbal Intelligence: A Language-Free Measure of Cognitive Ability was administered individually to all subjects before and after the series of lessons. The results indicated no statistically significant difference between the two groups. However, there was a slight improvement of cognitive skills when the kinesthetic element was present. Contains 28 references. (WP) ED374887
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Faulkner, A. R. C. (1995). Improving the Literacy Instruction Strategies of Elementary School Teachers through a Graduate Education Course. A practicum was designed to improve the literacy instruction of first-grade students by increasing the first grade teachers' and reading specialists' understandings of current research and theory. A graduate-level 3-hour course was developed and adopted by a local state university to assist teachers in understanding and utilizing the most current research regarding emergent literacy and early literacy. The course was designed to balance current theory and research with the practical application of the results. Teachers learned how to administer the Observation Survey and became very adept at taking a running record and analyzing it. The emphasis of the class for the teachers was on the practical application of theory and on reflection of their teaching practices. Analysis of the data revealed that the teachers were able to make shifts in their thinking and practices as evidenced by their end-of-course oral presentations. These presentations demonstrated a reading and writing unit that reflected both current theory and practice. The end-of-course evaluations were quite positive and indicated the significance of the course on their understanding of emergent literacy. (Contains 25 references and 3 tables of data. Appendixes present a checklist for evaluating running records and a scoring rubric.) (Author/RS) ED398529

Fein, G. G. A. O. (1993). Book Reviews. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, v39 n3 p415-36 1993. Reviews the following books: "Child Care in Context" (Lamb et al., Eds.); "Making Friends in School: Promoting Relationships in Early Childhood" (Ramsay); "The Epigenesis of Mind: Essays on Biology and Cognition" (Carey and Gelman, Eds.); "Moral Maturity: Measuring the Development of Sociomoral Reflection" (Gibbs et al.); and "The Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect: Issues and Research" (Starr and Wolfe, Eds.). (MM)

Fennell, H.-A. (1993). Student Teachers' Evaluation of Their Preparation for Internship Course: A Case Study. The integration of theory with practice continues to be an important concept in preservice teacher education. This paper reports on findings of a study in which preservice teachers evaluated their preparation for internship course to determine how adequately they felt prepared for classroom teaching at the beginning of a 16-week practicum. Also noted are additional sources from which student teachers learned strategies for teaching and management, and the ways in which they developed reflective strategies for thinking about their teaching. Implications for practice include development of a professional development model through which some aspects of preservice and inservice teacher education can be linked. Figures and tables present frameworks for integrating theory and practice based on three epistemological traditions, and tables provide means and standard deviations for students' perceptions of their preparedness for teaching based on five areas of course content (lesson planning, unit planning, questioning and responding, classroom management, and strategies of instruction), and additional sources and strategies for acquiring more knowledge about the five main program areas. (Contains 16 references.) (LL) ED361335

Field, H. (1996). A Wholistic Approach to Conflict Resolution. Conflict, as a natural part of daily life is to some extent inevitable in all child care centers. Children need to develop effective strategies to deal with conflict, and educators need to reduce the amount of conflict present in the total child care environment. Two roles early childhood educators can play in encouraging conflict resolution are (1) to assist children in developing conflict resolution skills and (2) to implement peace and conflict education curricula in the classroom. The wholistic approach to conflict resolution goes beyond these two child-centered approaches to include the administrative, parental, and teacher dimensions of conflict. This paper discusses several approaches to conflict resolution and includes the following sections: (1) "The Child Centered Approach," including individual negotiation and development of a conflict resolution curriculum from a global perspective; (2) "The Wholistic Approach," encompassing both children's and adult's conflicts in early childhood settings, and asserting that critical reflection on all the patterns of conflict is necessary to a peaceful child care environment; (3) "The Child- Centered/Wholistic Link," including a conflict scenario along with a discussion of crisis management and prevention; and (4) "Constructive Communication: The Key to Wholistic Conflict Resolution," outlining Virginia Satir's (1988) theory of communication stylesplacater, blamer, distracter, computer, and negotiator. The paper concludes by noting that the wholistic approach to conflict resolution can best be achieved through implementing the negotiator communication style and that effective negotiation between early childhood teachers, administrators, parents, and children is essential to building high-quality child care programs. (BGC) ED400066

Filby, N. N. (1995). Analysis of Reflective Professional Development Models. This paper reviews the background of and compares three particular approaches to reflective professional development, specifically as used by Far West Laboratory: case methods, the Peer Assisted Leadership process, in which peer partners observe each other, conduct reflective interviews, construct leadership models, and explore alternate ways to handle dilemmas they face as school leaders; and teacher action research. It further describes how theory, data, and discussion are intertwined in each approach; what forms of knowing and reasoning emerge; and how these processes unfold in several specific examples. A distinctive characteristic of the approaches, as compared to their reflective processes, is the emphasis on in-depth consideration of real world experience or the documentation and interpretation of specific situations, here labeled as a focus on data. Discussion is a process tool by which participants articulate and reconsider interpretations of experience and try out and adjust different theoretical frames. By focusing on data or experience, many different forms of knowing and learning become relevant and useful, including propositional knowledge, narrative knowledge, and reflection through action. Each case is reviewed in terms of story, theory, action, question form, data/research, agency, and complexity. Appendixes include four examples of teacher research cases and an annotated bibliography of reflective professional development model literature. (Contains 49 references.) (Author/NAV) ED393857

Fitzgerald, M., & Others, A. (1997). Achieving, Behaving, Caring: The ABC's of Early Intervention. This report describes first year activities and results of a project comparing two early interventions with 102 children (grades 1 and 2) at risk for emotional or behavior disorders. Fifty-nine children received an intervention involving social skills lessons given on a whole-class basis at least twice a week with information sent home regularly regarding the lessons. The parents and teachers of the remaining 43 children met regularly to do action research focused on the individual child. The parent teacher action research approach involved parent-teacher equality, use of the action research cycle, parent liaison, planning mutual parent-teacher goals for the child, consistency between home and school, and planned transitions. This intervention also utilized the Making Action Plans process to set individual goals for each child. The action research cycle (plan of action, action, reflection, and practical theory) becomes the structure that guides each team's meetings. Preliminary results indicated by the teacher reports show that children in both groups decreased in total problems, with the action research group showing greater decreases. Parent reports suggested both groups decreased in total problems and externalizing behavior. Direct observational findings found the action research group decreased in problems and increased in on-task behavior, whereas the social skills training group increased in problems and decreased in on-task behavior. (DB) ED405723

Flippo, R. F. (1997). Reading Assessment and Instruction: A Qualitative Approach to Diagnosis. Containing many specific assessment, instruction, and organization ideas and strategies, this book provides "the basics" for this classroom reading assessment and instruction, and supports the importance of the individual classroom teacher's beliefs, decisions, and role. The book is intended for teachers taking certification, graduate, or in-service courses in reading assessment, diagnosis, and instruction. The book aims to facilitate the development of a balanced perspective that makes use of the most appropriate ideas from the various philosophies in the field of reading and literacy education. Chapters in the book are (1) The Classroom Teacher's Role; (2) Understanding Standardized Tests and Quantitative Data; (3) Assessing Affective, Linguistic, and Other Qualitative Information; (4) Assessing Comprehension, Comprehending Strategies, and Other Cognitive Information; (5) Analyzing Information Qualitatively; (6) Organizing for Reading Development and Instruction; (7) Assessment, Instruction, and Learning in the Classroom; and (8) Ideas for Strategy Development. An appendix discusses portfolio and other ideas for reflection, ongoing assessment, and organizing for instruction. A glossary presenting approximately 200 items, approximately 350 references, and a 49-item list of children's literature references are attached. (RS) ED399521

Foster-Harrison, E. S. (1995). Peer Helping in the Elementary and Middle Grades: A Developmental Perspective. Elementary School Guidance & Counseling, v30 n2 p94-11995. Peer helping provides critical opportunities for practice and reflection as a means of supporting psychosocial development. School counselor skill and knowledge play an important role in the process of peer program development and success. Provides steps for developing a successful program and a sample developmental training model. (JBJ)

Fraser, J., & Skolnick, D. (1994). On Their Way: Celebrating Second Graders as They Read and Write. Teacher to Teacher Series. Noting that reading and writing in second-grade classrooms have undergone dramatic changes in the past 10 years, this book provides ideas that engage the second grader and transform the classroom into a more meaningful place in which to learn. The book discusses reading and writing from the developmental point of view, how to organize and set up the classroom, how to put rituals in place that help the classroom run smoothly, the importance of talking and listening, successful ways to involve students in evaluation, developmental characteristics of 7- and 8-year-olds, sample of classroom charts, and student writing samples. Chapters in the book are: (1) Second Grade: A New Look; (2) Smiles with Spaces: Developmental Considerations; (3) Beginning with Grit and Grace; (4) Pass the Book: Reading with Second Graders; (5) Pass That Book Again; (6) The Writing Habit; (7) Managing and Extending the Writing Habit; (8) The Power Tools: Listening and Talk; and (9) Reflection and Evaluation. An epilogue (Keep the Music Playing), evaluation instruments, a list of strategies to help young readers, and rules for book conversations are attached. (RS) ED376469
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_________. (1994). Get a Handle on Portfolio Assessment. Instructor, v104 n1 p114 Jul-1994. Offers a strategic activity to help teachers learn to use portfolios for evaluating students' work. Step-by-step information is provided in diagram form. Steps include beginning the portfolios, defining the purpose, selecting contents, discussing self-reflection, reviewing portfolios, evaluation by peers, and portfolio send-home. (SM)

Galda, L., & Pellegrini, A. D. (1996). Friends Working with Friends: A Closer Look at the Social Context of Literacy Instruction. Instructional Resource No. 31. This resource explores how mutual friendships and diversity of social contacts influence literacy learning (such as in reading and writing workshops) in the primary grades. The strengths of friends working together seem to be a function of the cycle of conflict, resolution, and reflection that occurs. This cognitive decentering and the metalanguage that accompanies it is also facilitated by diverse social contacts. Collaborative literacy learning experiences, with friends and with diverse others, support the reflective talk that promotes literacy learning. Contains 12 references. (Author/RS) ED400514

Gallas, K. (1994). The Languages of Learning: How Children Talk, Write, Dance, Draw, and Sing Their Understanding of the World. Noting children's natural proclivity to interpret language freely and use that potential to expand and develop as learners, this book offers a new approach to understanding how young children communicate their knowledge of the world and how that understanding can transform the educative process. The book also describes the process of conducting teacher research and what distinguishes that process from other kinds of educational research. Following a chapter presenting a model for teacher research, the first section of the book examines, through children's narratives and artwork, how even mundane classroom events can provide enormous insight. Chapters in this section explore how "sharing time" expanded the children's repertoire from true to fictional stories; how to make room for the many voices of a culturally diverse classroom; and the artistic learning styles of boys who are considered disruptive or underachieving. The second section of the book examines how children's stories about science contexualize their classroom experiences. Chapters in this section discuss how keeping science journals allowed the children to explore and refine their own thinking processes; how keeping a science journal helped one child in his struggle to understand the world of science; and the children's use of metaphors and analogy to develop sophisticated theories. The third section of the book describes the repercussions of integrating art into the curriculum. Chapters in this section introduce the potential of the art experience as a vehicle for learning, and explore more fully epistemology, the study of the nature of knowledge, as an important exercise furthered through the artistic process. A description of how a specific unit of study in science developed around the creative arts is also given. A concluding chapter offers reflection on the elements of classroom language. (HTH) ED404021

Galton, M. (1993). Managing Education in Small Primary Schools. ASPE Paper No. 4. Managing Primary Education Series. Despite frequent criticisms of small schools, evidence collected over the last decade indicates that smaller English primary schools offer a curriculum and maintain standards compatible with those offered by larger institutions. In recent years, informal clustering arrangements have enabled small schools to increase the range of subjects offered, improve resources, and end the isolation of both teachers and pupils. School clusters typically develop through a three-stage pattern consisting of initiation (early connections and limited involvement among schools), consolidation (implementation of cluster agreements but with minimal alterations to existing practices), and reorientation (staff "ownership" of the cluster leading to greater reflection on and innovation in teaching strategies). Targeted training approaches by both internal and external support persons facilitate the transition from one stage to the next. Recent developments such as devolved budgeting and the demands for increased specialization resulting from the National Curriculum may require more formal cluster arrangements, called federations or consortia, to deal with matters such as joint hiring, common purchasing policies, and shared timetables. Legislation will be required to allow individual schools to delegate some of their powers to the federation management committee. Government funding of pilot projects would allow existing clusters to experiment with management strategies. (Author/SV) ED364379

Galvez-Martin, M. E., & Others, A. (1996). A Longitudinal Study on Reflection of Preservice Teachers. The level of reflection achieved by preservice teachers (N=21) at the end of their Master of Education program is analyzed in this exploratory study. Data were collected from class sessions and field experiences during three quarters. Subjects engaged in reflection by writing in journals about readings, class discussions, and field or student teaching experiences. Findings indicated that if preservice teachers engage in reflective activities, they improve their level of reflection but do not achieve the highest levels of reflection without specific training. Without any background in teaching theory, preservice teachers retold events without interpretation or analysis. Preservice teachers with training seemed to gain more understanding about the application of certain strategies or procedures. Results suggested that the theme of teachers as reflecting professionals should be pursued in preservice education and specific training should be extended in these programs. Includes five tables with statistics. (Contains 16 references.) (LH) ED406384

Gimenez, J., Ed., & Others, A. (1996). Becoming a Primary Teacher: Issues from Mathematics Education. This book is a collection of works by mathematics educators from Spain with an emphasis on preservice primary teacher education. This book aims to promote reflection upon and discussion of research issues as well as put out a call to action. Articles include: (1) "Contexts and Learning to Teach Mathematics. The Case of Prospective Elementary Teachers" (S. Llinares); (2) "History and Background of Spanish Primary Teacher Training on Mathematics and Its Didactics" (Modesto Sierra and Luis Rico); (3) "Epistemological Changes in Primary Education in Spain from 1970" (Maria Luz Callejo and Camino Canon); (4) "The Understanding of Mathematical Topics and Instructional Representations: The Case of Fractions and Rational Number by Prospective Elementary Teachers" (Salvador Llinares and Victoria Sanchez); (5) "Prospective Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge about Multiplicative Structures" (Enrique Castro and Encarnacion Castro); (6) "Thinking about Mathematics and Its Teaching: An Experience with Preservice Teachers" (Marta Civil); (7) "Learning to Teach Mathematics: Types of Knowledge" (Lorenzo J. Blanco); "Habitual School Practices and Problem Solving Situations: The Case of Carlota" (Victoria Sanchez and Salvador Llinares); and (9) "Exploring an Integrated Model of Assessment with Prospective Teachers" (J. Gimenez and J. M. Fortuny). Contains 278 references. (DDR) ED401110

Goffin, S. G., Ed., & Stegelin, D. A., Ed. (1992). Changing Kindergartens: Four Success Stories. This document relates the experiences of individuals who have embraced the concept of developmentally appropriate practice in kindergarten and made the effort to translate their understandings into practice in public school settings. The book's primary authors are a kindergarten teacher, an elementary school principal, a school superintendent, and parents of kindergarten children. Their stories record the complicated process of moving from a comfortable, traditional perspective on working with 5-year- old children to an approach that demands reflection, complex implementation, and political negotiation. The book's chapters are: (1) "Kindergarten Education: Current Policy and Practice," by Dolores A. Stegelin; (2) "Changing Kindergartens: Teachers as Change Agents," by Emily L. Murawski; (3) "Coming To Know: A Principal's Story," by Nancy J. Mooney; (4) "Developing Appropriate Practices in the Kindergarten: A District-Level Perspective," by Larry May; (5) "Parent Power: The Developmental Classroom Project," by Linnea Anderson and the Parent Support Group for the Developmental Classroom; and (6) "Challenging the Status Quo: Serving as Critical Change Agents," by Stacie G. Goffin. Each chapter concludes with a list of suggested readings for the targeted audience (for example, teachers, principals, superintendents), and the book as a whole offers a list of further readings about teacher experiences, the change process, and advocating for continued change. Information about the National Association for the Education of Young Children is also included. (AC) ED349083

Gordon, C. M. (1996). The Power of Powerlessness. A qualitative study examined and compared the theoretical basis of a remedial curriculum program designed for beginning readers with the espoused theory of the teacher chosen to lead the program's implementation. Visits to the elementary school (located in a town which adjoins a military base), document reviews, classroom observations, and interviews where the data collection techniques were used. A content analysis was conducted for each data set and then compiled and analyzed as a whole. Results indicated that the teacher's espoused theory ("practical theoretical beliefs") and the curriculum's implied theory (a positivist view of education) did not match. The teacher felt powerless to provide answers to her own important questions about her students and instead relied on the program to tell her what to do and when to do it. Findings suggest that only when preservice teachers are given time for thoughtful reflection and participation in the decision making process will this powerlessness cease. (RS) ED402566

Gordon, R., & Julius, T. (1995). At the Heart of Education: Portfolios as a Learning Tool. This chapter consists of a conversation between a third-grade teacher and a teacher educator about the advantages of the portfolio method of assessment. The advantages of portfolios are that they are a powerful learning tool as well as an assessment tool, they can make the separate subjects in a curriculum come together in an integrated way, and the fact that they are prepared for an audience besides the teacher makes the student think more about the real-world applicability of the material. The challenges of portfolios are the time they require, and that educators need to relinquish some control in order to empower students at the center of the learning process. Working with portfolios requires engaging students in the process of developing standards, collecting and selecting from their authentic work, and making presentations to an audience. This collaborative process encourages both teachers and students to explore new concepts for standards of quality. The exercise of determining these standards is a valuable learning tool in itself. Beyond content knowledge, portfolios encourage critical thinking, decision making, organization, reflection, and presentation, which are practical life skills. Portfolios encourage authentic interdisciplinary links that cut across content areas, providing support for teacher collegiality, teaming, and integrated studies. For students, this helps break down artificial barriers that can separate subjects when the focus is almost entirely on content acquisition rather than application and use. (Contains 10 references.) (TD) ED398028

Gore, J. M., & Zeichner, K. M. (1991). Action Research and Reflective Teaching in Preservice Teacher Education: A Case Study from the United States. Teaching and Teacher Education, v7 n2 p119-36 1991. Discusses teaching and the social reconstructionist view of reflection that underlies the University of Wisconsin-Madison elementary teacher education program. The paper examines action research in the student teaching curriculum and the way it is facilitated by one supervisor, and analyzes written reports of research projects by 18 student teachers. (SM)

Grace, C. (1992). The Portfolio and Its Use: Developmentally Appropriate Assessment of Young Children. ERIC Digest. ED351150

Gregait, L. H., Johnsen, D. R., & Nielsen, P. S. (1997). Improving Evaluation of Student Participation in Physical Education through Self- Assessment. This report describes a program for implementing self-assessment to enhance performance and clarify evaluation of participation in Physical Education (PE) classes. Participants were fifth and seventh graders in middle class midwestern communities. Teachers in targeted PE classes displayed concerns about students' abilities to self-assess when evaluating class participation. Researchers surveyed teachers and students at the beginning of the semester and found that both groups believed student participation should be part of students' grades. Most students believed they should share in evaluating their participation. Teachers rarely incorporated student self-assessment in their classrooms, and students rarely practiced self-assessment in class. Strategies researchers developed to help students become involved in self-assessment included: understanding what was expected of them through checklists/rubrics; learning cooperatively; setting goals; and keeping journals. An 18-week intervention used the four strategies. Pre- and post-intervention assessment of student surveys, review of anecdotal notes and student journals, and monitoring of checklists/rubrics indicated a rise in the percentage of students who felt participation should be part of their PE grade. Results suggested that cooperative strategies were essential, participation checklists/rubrics increased students' understanding of teacher expectations, journals promoted reflection, and goal setting made students more focused. Six appendixes present the teacher and student surveys, participation checklist/rubric, sample student journal, prediction card, and student survey results. (Contains 9 figures, 2 tables, and 21 references). (SM) ED415222

Guillaume, A. M., & Rudney, G. L. (1993). Student Teachers' Growth toward Independence: An Analysis of Their Changing Concerns. Teaching and Teacher Education, v9 n1 p65-80 1993. A year-long study examined the development of student teachers' concerns. Journals from 19 elementary student teachers during their 1-year, postbaccaluareate program showed a broad range of concerns, development toward independence from student to teacher over time, and reflection on educational aims and practices when given the needed support. (SM)
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Hamilton, D., & Hitz, R. (1996). Reflections on a Constructivist Approach to Teaching. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, v17 n1 p15-25 Win-Spr 1996. Describes the design, delivery, and impact of an undergraduate early childhood education course consistent with constructivist principles. Cites results from the Teachers' Belief Questionnaire and examination of student journals indicating students' knowledge and beliefs about teaching had changed. Suggests that helping students recognize preconceptions about teaching and challenging those ideas through cognitive conflict by reflection and problem solving facilitated learning. (KDFB)

Han, E. P. (1995). Issues in Education. Reflection Is Essential in Teacher Education. Childhood Education, v71 n4 p228-30 Sum 1995. Addresses the importance of reevaluation of teaching practices at the classroom and teacher education levels. Reviews the term "reflection," as defined by Dewey, and its process. Discusses whether preservice teachers are capable of reflecting and how a climate of critical inquiry can be fostered. Suggests strategies that promote reflective thinking. (BAC)

Harrington, H. L., & Hathaway, R. S. (1994). Computer Conferencing, Critical Reflection, and Teacher Development. Teaching and Teacher Education, v10 n5 p543-54 1994. Reports results of a study that examined whether computer conferencing would enhance preservice teachers' awareness of taken-for-granted assumptions. Analysis of students' discussions suggests that, though conferencing generates a rich source of assumptions, students may not recognize them as such. Students' developmental level related to ability to identify and clarify taken-for-granted assumptions. (SM)

Harste, J. C. (1994). Visions of Literacy. Indiana Media Journal, v17 n1 p27-32 Fall 1994. Sees collaborative inquiry as what curriculum should be all about. Describes a curricular model in which disciplines become research devices that students constantly use rather than areas to be mastered. Identifies and discusses the five key processes that language plays in learning: voice, connection, perspective through transmediation, tension, and reflection. Envisions classrooms as communities of learners. (RS)

Hart, L. C., & Others, A. (1992). Implementing the Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics: The Role of Reflection in Teaching. Arithmetic Teacher, v40 n1 p40-42 1992. Discusses the role of teacher reflection in effecting the changes envisioned by the NCTM "Professional Teaching Standards." Presents reasons why teachers should reflect on their teaching, what teachers should examine, when reflection should be done, and five methods on how reflection can take place. (MDH)

Hearne, J., & Schuman, S. (1992). Portfolio Assessment: Implementation and Use at an Elementary Level. Exploratory work in the implementation of a portfolio assessment system at an elementary school in Washington State is described. The effectiveness of the assessment strategy is examined in relation to: (1) teacher implementation levels; (2) student demographic variables; and (3) teacher ratings of students' academic and social adjustment levels plus portfolio use. Students (N=324) in grades 1 through 5 completed a year-long task of selecting writing and mathematics work samples for their portfolios. Structured and free response measures of self-reflection were gathered on the portfolios' contents. The district's records provided student demographic information. Students were tested using the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills and were rated by their teachers, who also rated the portfolios. Teachers completed a questionnaire to identify their concerns about knowledge and use of portfolio information. The level of implementation by staff was higher than might have been predicted given the recent introduction of portfolios. Portfolios differentiated among demographic factors in the same ways as did other assessment measures, suggesting that they do not provide a more unfair picture than other measures. Evidence to date supports the utility of portfolios in an elementary school setting. Six tables present study data, and an appendix containing 49 tables and constituting about two-thirds of the document provides supplemental information about student performance. There is an 18-item list of references. (SLD) ED349330

Hebert, E. A. (1992). Portfolios Invite ReflectionFrom Students and Staff. Educational Leadership, v49 n8 p58-61 1992. Dissatisfied with mandated standardized assessment modes, an Illinois elementary school began an alternative assessment program incorporating Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. The assessment process became more meaningful through using learning experience forms and "portfolio evenings," in which children present their portfolios to their parents. (MLH)

Herrera, M., & Gaston, M. L. (1992). Quincentennial of Evangelization: A Time for Reflection and Action. This document is intended to help Catholic educators and their students examine efforts at evangelization over the 500 year period since Christopher Columbus' voyage united the eastern and western hemispheres. The first of three sections has study guides for teachers focusing on six themes: (1) the legacy of Columbus; (2) evangelization: then and now; (3) missionaries: witnesses to the Christian message; (4) the Americas: an encounter of peoples; (5) ecology and the Christian; and (6) the new America: an exchange of gifts. Each of these study guides has three parts: (1) a reflective article that gives the instructors some basic information on one of the six themes; (2) learning activities grouped by grade level that can be integrated into different subjects including mathematics, history, geography, literature, science, and religious studies; and (3) a list of resources that teachers may examine to expand their information base on the particular theme. The second section provides a list of resource material on topics dealing with the quincentennial of evangelization. This resource list is divided into 11 sections: (1) publications and video resources for the fifth centenary; (2) promotional resources; (3) liturgical resources; (4) educational or learning resources; (5) other publication resources; (6) newsletter resources; (7) magazine resources; (8) video or audiocassette resources; (9) a "mixed bag" of resources; (10) bilingual resources; and (11) additional organizational resources. The third and last section presents 13 pictures and brief biographies of 15 key figures involved in the early evangelization of the Americas. A quiz on Columbus that can be used as an introduction to the whole study is included. (DK) ED370827

Herrmann, B. A. (1992). Teaching and Assessing Strategic Reasoning: Dealing with the Dilemmas. Reading Teacher, v45 n6 p428-33 1992. Describes dilemmas and solutions associated with teaching and assessing strategic reasoning. Emphasizes that learning to teach and assess strategic reasoning is a trail-and-error process requiring much reflection on the part of the teacher. Initiates discussions among teachers about dilemmas associated with teaching and assessing strategic reasoning. (MG)

Herter, R. J. (1991). Writing Portfolios: Alternatives to Testing (Research and Practice). English Journal, v80 n1 p90-91 1991. Describes a successful use of portfolios to assess the development of eleventh grade students' writing skills by inviting self-reflection and encouraging students to assume control over their writing. (KEH)

Hill, A. (1994). Surprised by Children: A Call to Pedagogical Possibilities. Canadian Journal of Education, v19 n4 p339-50 Fall 1994. This description of a teacher-researchers's experiences of surprise in daily practice suggests that moments of surprise are opportunities to develop and sustain reflective teaching practice. The experience of surprise is in itself an embodied reflection that can awaken pedagogical possibilities. (SLD)

Hill, B. C., & Others, A. (1994). 6 Ways to Make Student Portfolios More Meaningful & Manageable. Instructor, v104 n1 p118-21 Jul-1994. Presents six strategies to help teachers make the most of student portfolios. The suggestions include defining the portfolio's purpose, teaching students self-reflection, structuring portfolio reviews, making time for peer evaluation, regularly sharing portfolios with parents, and allowing time to learn to use portfolios. Includes a reproducible to help students choose work for their portfolio and write about their work. (SM)

Hoge, J. D. (1988). Civic Education in Schools. ERIC Digest. ED301531

Hopfenberg, W. S., & Others, A. (1990). Accelerated Schools. This paper describes the Accelerated Schools Project, which was begun at Stanford University in 1986 to improve schools for children caught in at- risk situations. The first sections describe the present deficiencies of schools serving at-risk students and the limitations of general reform proposals for educating at-risk youth. The Accelerated Schools Project focuses on creating learning activities characterized by high expectations and high status for its participants. Its goal at the elementary level is to enable all students to take advantage of mainstream secondary education instruction by effectively closing the achievement gap in elementary school. Its three guiding principles include unity of purpose, empowerment, and building on strengths. Program values include equity, participation, communication/community, reflection, experimentation, trust, and risk- taking. The Inquiry Process is a mechanism for moving the school toward accelerate practice along all three dimensions of the modelcurriculum, instructional practices, and organization. The five stages in initiating the process include: (1) focus on the real problem; (2) brainstorm solutions; (3) synthesize solutions into an experimental program; (4) pilot the test program; and (5) evaluate. Administrators' new roles revolve around coordination, motivation, and support. Pilot schools have demonstrated the following early outcomes: improved student achievement, increased parent participation, improved student attendance, and a decrease in discipline problems. One figure is included. (LMI) ED375471

Housego, E., & Burns, C. (1994). Are You Sitting Too Comfortably? A Critical Look at "Circle Time" in Primary Classrooms. English in Education, v28 n2 p23-29 Sum 1994. Asks whether the common practice that has been termed "Circle Time" and its variations are a useful classroom practice. Analyzes the ways teachers employ circle time. Critiques the practice of circle time. Argues that the quality of learning is dependent on the quality of reflection by teachers concerning their practice, not on gimmicks. (HB)

Howe, F. C. (1993). Developmental Trends. Child Study Journal, v23 n4 p327-46 1993. Explores developmental patterns in children from kindergarten through grade six. Highlights physical development, including height, activity level, motor skills, and health; mental development, including abstract thought, academic focus, learning difficulties, subject preferences, and creativity; psychosocial development, including interpersonal relations, reading preferences, emotional balance, and interests. Separately explains special education students' development, and considers humor as a reflection of development. (BC)

Hoyt, L., & Ames, C. (1997). Letting the Learner Lead the Way. Primary Voices K-6, v5 n3 p16-29 1997. Shares processes for decision-making that are congruent with recent theory about literacy development of special needs students. Shows how student self-reflection and involving the learner in planning are essential for matching instruction to individual student needs. Discusses crafting the learning environment, knowing the learner, and thinking broadly about structures for support. (SR)

Hudson-Ross, S., & Dong, Y. R. (1990). Literacy Learning as a Reflection of Language and Culture: Chinese Elementary School Education. Reading Teacher, v44 n2 p110-23 1990. Presents vignettes of Chinese elementary education as seen through the eyes of an American teaching in China and a native Chinese teacher. Notes that, although the Chinese and Western educational systems differ in many ways, a shared love of children unites the systems at the deepest level of belief and practice. (MG)
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Jalongo, M. R., & Isenberg, J. P. (1993). Teachers' Stories: Reflections on Teaching, Caring and Learning. Childhood Education, v69 n5 p260-61 1993. Argues that teachers' perspectives and insights are needed to make meaningful, enduring improvements in American education. Maintains that a useful teacher narrative should be genuine, invite reflection and discourse, be recursive and encourage reinterpretation, serve as an antidote to a "technological mentality," and be powerful and evocative. (TJQ)

Jensen, R. A., & Others, A. (1994). Fear of the Known: Using Audio-Visual Technology as a Tool for Reflection in Teacher Education. Even though videotape technology has been found to be an effective tool for evaluation of student teachers, this technology is often not used to assess performance in preservice clinical experiences. The purpose of this study was to explore the use of video technology as a tool for reflection in teacher education. In the study, student teachers and junior level field experience participants were required to videotape three teaching segments and to use those teaching samples as avenues for reflection and self- assessment. Students completed written evaluations after each videotape session as well as a Preservice Teacher Reflection and Self Analysis survey. To provide a focus for their reflection, students were asked to consider three skill groups: interpersonal skills; instructional management and organizational skills; and questioning skills. Study results suggested that preservice teachers' focused observations and reflections on their own teaching yield more reliable and helpful information than their attempts to self-assess their overall teaching competency. Student teachers tended to be more specific and descriptive in their self-assessment than did junior level practicum participants, and both groups demonstrated they were better at assessing their interpersonal skills and instructional management competencies than at assessing their use of questioning strategies. The results of this study support the use of audiovisual technology as a tool for reflection in teacher preparation and suggest that preservice teachers could benefit from more instruction and experience in videotaping, self assessment, reflection, and questioning strategies. Attached tables include: videotape flowchart, videotape self-assessment evaluation forms, and the Preservice Teacher Reflection and Self-Analysis survey form. (ND) ED387482

Johnston, J., & Pickersgill, S. (1992). Personal and Interpersonal Aspects of Effective Team-Oriented Headship in the Primary School. Educational Management & Administration, v20 n4 p239-48 1992. Examines elementary principals' perceptions of themselves as stretched to the limit, undervalued, undersupported, and underresourced. Heads tend to interpret the majority of organizational problems as a reflection of their personal failure. A team-oriented approach to headship would ameliorate this situation by creating more efficient work procedures and better time management. (seven references) (MLH)

Jones, A. M., & Airasian, P. W. (1996). Through Their Eyes: Teacher Self-Assessment. Mid-Western Educational Researcher, v9 n1 p12-16 Win 1996. Data on teacher self-assessment practices were collected from 17 elementary teachers in 4 focus groups. Common themes included process and product indicators that triggered self-assessment, irrelevance of most formal teacher evaluations, lack of time for reflection and self-assessment, need for administrator and collegial support, and the nature of teachers' standards and criteria for self-assessment. (SV)

Judd, D. (1995). Give Sorrow Words: Working with a Dying Child. Second Edition. Efforts to alleviate the emotional pain of terminally ill children and their parents have led many physicians to turn to child psychiatrists for psychological support and treatment services. This book, written by a child psychotherapist, offers an overview of children's attitudes to death and considers the moral and ethical issues raised by treatments for life- threatening illness. The text focuses on children with cancer and explores the climate in which they find themselves. A central question addressed here is whether or not caretakers should ever shift their focus from one of working towards the day when the child will recover to one where death is accepted. Some of the questions covered here include how to talk to children about death, the stages of emotional reactions to life-threatening illness, and the prolonging of death. Separate chapters are also devoted to what happens after the death of a child. Much of the book presents the personal experience with a 7-year-old boy who suffered from leukemia. This section is in the form of a diary and covers the period from the initial visit with the boy until the child's death several months later. Three appendices present an analysis of the boy's drawings, extracts from the Nuremburg Code, and a reflection on a work by Isabel Menzies Lyth. Contains a glossary, a list of useful addresses, a short bibliography of books for ill children, a list of about 300 references, and an index. (RJM) ED399476
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Karmiloff-Smith, A., & Others, A. (1993). From Sentential to Discourse Functions: Detection and Explanation of Speech Repairs by Children and Adults. Discourse Processes, v16 n4 p565-89 Oct-1993. Presents a new methodology for studying children's and adults' metalinguistic knowledge of the cohesive, discourse-level properties of spoken language. Studies the abilities of subjects to detect and then to explain discourse repairs in narratives. Considers why the discourse-level functions of the markers are not open to reflection. (HB)

Karp, K. S., & Huinker, D. (1997). Portfolios as Agents of Change. Teaching Children Mathematics, v3 n5 p224-28 1997. Discusses the use of portfolios in mathematics education. Highlights self- assessment, portfolios in the hiring process, framework, possible contents, making selections, and evaluating portfolios. Concludes that portfolios are powerful assessment tools that can develop a student's reflection and responsibility for the learning process, augment elementary teachers' lessons, and help professors examine their own instruction. (JRH)

Kasten, B. J., & Others, A. (1996). Helping Preservice Teachers Construct their Own Philosophies of Teaching through Reflection. This study evaluated the impact of reflective teaching on the ability of preservice teachers to articulate a teaching philosophy. Three questions were explored: (1) how effective will a structure for reflecting be if used throughout a teacher education program? (2) how effectively will students be able to use that structure as a framework for developing a personalized philosophy of teaching? and (3) how effective will that instrument be for students in other teacher education programs? Participants were two professors and their graduate and undergraduate students enrolled in three teacher education programs for early childhood/elementary education. The data consisted of written reflections, journal entries, and papers describing the student's teaching philosophy. An instrument for guiding reflection was comprised of three questions regarding what the student had learned about children, teaching and learning, and about teacher role. Findings indicated that the instrument was beneficial in helping preservice teachers understand their readings and discuss course work and field experiences. Participants reported that the instrument helped them focus on critical incidents, provided opportunities for professors to understand issues around the cognitive conflicts experienced by students, enabled students to comment on classroom teacher's approach, and provided documentation of the growing understanding of the teaching role. As students progressed through their course work, they began taking ownership of their personal beliefs. Contains 10 references. (KDFB) ED402072

Katz, L. G. (1992). From Our President. The Three Rs of Democratic Governance. Young Children, v48 n1 p2-3 1992. Discusses reflection, representation, and responsibility as fundamental principles of democratic governance in the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). Suggests that conflicts and incompatibility on the governing board are natural and desirable. They indicate a diversity of board membership that reflects the membership. (DR)

Katz, L. G. (1992). Visions of the Future of NAEYC and Early Childhood Education. In the coming years, the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) will need to confront a number of issues relating to its structure and mission and the larger context in which the association works. In terms of organizational structure, it is useful to consider the nature of the democratic process and the role that reflection, representation, and responsibility play in that process. Other principles are involved in organizational structures that reflect the democratic process. These principles include: (1) the choice of error, which is that any decision has its own errors embedded within it; (2) the fundamental attribution error, which is the tendency to explain other people's behavior in terms of their dispositions or traits; and (3) the tendency to romanticize the knowledge and contributions of "the grassroots" and neglect the valuable insights of upper-level agency personnel and minority-position visionaries who may not work directly with children. The mission of the NAEYC remains to upgrade the quality of programs and provisions for young children and to improve public understanding of what is required for this upgrading. In the future, this mission might include efforts to keep the focus on developmentally appropriate practices, influence public policies away from the language of "readiness" toward the more encompassing goal of "quality of life," continue work on cultural diversity, and develop standards for early childhood professional development and practice. The public and private contexts in which the NAEYC functions are pervaded by various notions of accountability, confusion about what accountability means, and opinionmakers' tendency to blame schools for the nation's ills. (AC) ED345842

Katz, L. G. (1993). Dispositions: Definitions and Implications for Early Childhood Practices. Perspectives from ERIC/EECE: A Monograph Series, No. 4. This monograph consists of a paper that examines the construct "disposition," and explores its relevance to curriculum and teaching practices in early childhood education, and a selected ERIC bibliography relating to this subject. The paper is organized in two parts. Part 1 provides a definition of disposition and definitions of the related terms "inclination," "cognitive style," and "learning style." The definition of disposition can be clarified by comparing the construct of disposition to other personal characteristics, namely: (1) traits, which are sometimes not distinguished from dispositions; (2) thought processes; (3) skills, which may exist without the disposition to use them; (4) attitudes, which are enduring organizations of beliefs; (5) habits, which are actions that are not the consequence of reflection; (6) the work inhibition of children who do not do work required of them despite their capability to do so; and (7) motives, which are considered to be more general than dispositions. Part 2 suggests seven reasons why the development of desirable dispositions should be included among the goals of early childhood education. The most important of these reasons is that the acquisition of knowledge and skills alone does not guarantee that children will use the knowledge and skills. A list of 47 references is provided. The bibliography that follows consists of 13 documents and 38 journal articles on dispositions, motivation, and praise that were selected from a search of the ERIC database. Each item in the bibliography contains bibliographic information and an abstract of the document or article. (BC) ED360104

Keiny, S. (1994). Constructivism and Teachers' Professional Development. Teaching and Teacher Education, v10 n2 p157-67 1994. The postgraduate Teacher Thinking Seminar (TTS) was created to explore the implications of constructivist theory for teachers' education and development. Using participants' own practical knowledge, the main strategy was the dialectical process of group reflection. The article elaborates four seminar examples, suggesting that TTS can effectively teach educators to teach. (SM)

Kelchtermans, G., & Vandenberghe, R. (1993). A Teacher Is a Teacher Is a Teacher Is a...: Teachers' Professional Development from a Biographical Perspective. The main aim of this project was to understand teachers' professional development by reconstructing their career experiences. The study examined the ways in which 10 experienced primary school teachers from 4 different Flemish schools experienced their careers, focusing on the personal perception and the subjective meaning of these experiences. Data were analyzed in two steps: (1) vertical analysis, which imposed a fixed structure to each teacher's data concerning formal career, professional biography, professional self, and subjective educational theory; and (2) horizontal analysis, which identified commonalities, differences, and patterns among the data from all respondents. The analysis examined teachers' self-image, self-esteem, job motivation, task perception, and future perspective. Recurring themes included teachers' perceived vulnerability and their need to cope with the limitations of their impact on pupils' results. The paper concludes that the study showed the usefulness of the biographical perspective for a better understanding of why teachers act the way they do. However, teachers' stimulated reflection on their career and personal development did not automatically change or improve their teaching practice. (Contains 51 references.) (JDD) ED360292

Kennedy, R. L., & Wyrick, A. M. (1995). Teaching as Reflective Practice. This paper describes a method of reflective practice called "critical incident" which was used to examine teacher trainees' educational assumptions. A qualitative case study of one fifth-year teaching intern (Amy) at the University of Tennessee represents the experience of seven other master's level students already practicing within the elementary classroom. The research investigated how reflective practice can serve the classroom teacher. Three major assumptions about reflective practice were that: (1) beliefs and values, learned early in life as cues and symbols from parents, will affect actions of beginning teachers; (2) teachers who practice reflection about their teaching decisions will become lifelong learners; and (3) the combined knowledge of teaching professionals as they collaborate will be greater than the sum of the parts of individual knowledge. The theoretical basis for the study was transformation theory, which implies that one's personal assumptions based on beliefs and values will change during a reflective process about actions taken during a critical incident. Study participants wrote retrospective educational autobiographies describing their experience of school, then wrote about a "critical incident" from daily practice in their own teaching experience. Finally, in classroom discussion, the graduate teacher education students searched for assumptions as a result of the learning that took place during the process. Findings led to the recommendation that reflective practice be used as an action-oriented means of understanding one's underlying assumptions about teaching in the classroom. (ND) ED393850

Kettle, B., & Sellars, N. (1996). The Development of Student Teachers Practical Theory of Teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, v12 n1 p1-24 1996. This study used qualitative methodology to explore the professional development and changes in their practical theories of two student teachers in Australia during their third year of an undergraduate program as they began actual classroom experience at the primary level. The study identified interrelated factors impinging on student professional development, especially the role of critical reflection. (DB)

Klein, A. (1996). Constructing Knowledge about Play: Case Method and Teacher Education. This paper explores the case method as a model for teaching education students about play. The case method may contribute to an examination of the barriers to children's play expression within school and create more effective classroom practice. Within the model, students can consider cases which have been carefully constructed from actual practice and designed to illuminate the complexity of human situations. Through discussion, analysis, and collaborative problem solving, the case method provides an interactive forum in which students can construct knowledge about the nature, value, and purpose of play in early education. Play education should be guided by a framework building upon and integrating: (1) theoretical knowledge regarding play; (2) practical skills applied in the classroom setting; and (3) dispositions toward play and children's learning. The case method facilitates self-governed learning; produces cognitive dissonance; requires students to apply theories, use analytical skills, and create innovative approaches to resolving problems; and fosters independent thinking and reflection. It is important to develop with care the written narrative and case questions, to conduct the case discussion, and teach case writing to students. A play case bank may be built with teacher- and student-written cases, videos, films, and books. (KDFB) ED405103

Klein, J. M. (1992). Developmental Perceptions of Reality, Conventions, and Themes in Theatre: "This Is Not a Pipe Dream." Final Technical Report. A study explored a developmental theory of perceptual skills in theater, assessing developmental perception, reflection, and evaluation of theatrical reality, conventions, and themes. Subjects, 33 second graders, 33 fourth graders, 23 sixth graders, and 23 adults, viewed a 48-minute, nonrepresentational, metatheatrical play entitled "This Is Not a Pipe Dream." Children were interviewed individually and adults completed a questionnaire. Results indicated that: (1) while focused primarily on production values, children increasingly judged a playwright's text for its social believability with greater use of their interpersonal intelligences; (2) second graders relied on explicit visual and verbal cues to perceive the actuality or authenticity of theatrical reality and to describe the overt dramatic actions in themes and conventions; (3) fourth graders began a developmental shift by inferring more character's thoughts, interpreting more artistic motives for conventions, and applying more outside knowledge to judge the possibility of thematic actions; (4) sixth graders considered the plausibility of the protagonist's superobjective and reported acting as a key theater convention as they also prescribed the play's theme to follow one's dreams to society like fourth graders; (5) pre-performance elementary art training may have motivated critical, integrative perceptual searches about physical and social reality; and (6) unlike children, adults suspended disbelief more willingly by judging the performance text contextually from expressionistic conventions and propositional language with more "surrealistic" concepts. By relying primarily on textual content and overt, visual and verbal production forms, this "novice" audience indicated their stereotypical perspectives about non-linear drama and non- realistic theater. (Forty-one tables of data are included. Sixty-five references and nine appendixes containing survey instruments and data are attached.) (Author/SR) ED344246

Klein, T. E. (1992). Teaching Tolerance: Prejudice Awareness and Reduction in Secondary Schools. This study examines attitude changes among 30 college-bound high school seniors in California regarding prejudice and racism. Students were pre- tested using a 60-item Likert-style opinionnaire, received instruction about tolerance of differences and were post-tested immediately following the 3-week unit of instruction, which included reading and viewing multicultural material and performing exercises in critical thinking, esteem, and personal reflection. The findings of the study showed increased awareness and tolerance in the attitudes of the students. Student attitudes changed on a number of questions, as reflected on the post-test. A literature review and a copy of the opinionnaire are included as well as a data table showing post-test results for 10 items. (Contains 29 references.) (DB) ED356165

Knip, H., & Van der Vegt, R. (1990). Differentiated Responses to a Central Renewal Policy: School Management of Implementation. The Netherlands' New Basic School was implemented in the mid-1980s to increase individualized instruction and curriculum differentiation in the earliest grades and to improve schools' capacity to serve students with varying learning needs and ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Under the plan, preschools and primary schools were brought together, combining professionals with quite different orientations and training. This paper reports on a study examining educators' implementation of this comprehensive change in 25 schools. The report shows how principals developed coherent change scenarios (for transformation, partial change, or description of current practices) that blended the local implementation agenda with temporary structural arrangements facilitating change. The principals' design of local scenarios reflects the contexts of national policy, the local community, and the school's internal environment. As social systems, schools are not well equipped to handle continual change and innovation. Implementation of complex innovation necessitates new coupling patterns or puts existing weak couplings under pressure. Scenarios for change may be viewed as a response pattern, a school's adaptation to an external policy maker's intervention. Change scenarios should also be conceived as an outcome of self-reflection and organizational self- production. Policy linkage then becomes an active process in which schools (re)produce and transform themselves as organizations. (Eight references) (MLH) ED325953

Krasnow, J. (1990). Building Parent-Teacher Partnerships. Prospects from the Perspective of the Schools Reaching Out Project. The Schools Reaching Out project attempts to demonstrate that urban public schools can improve their students' academic and social success by fundamentally changing their relationship with low-income parents and their communities. The project began in 1988 with two elementary schools in Boston and New York serving as laboratory schools. The following themes form the basis of the program: (1) a blend of good theory and practice can help schools improve; (2) school reform requires changes in teachers, administrators, families, communities, and social service agencies; (3) all children can learn and achieve social and academic success through collaborative effort; (4) efforts to improve families and teachers should build on their strengths; and (5) organizational change in schools is best seen as a slow, developmental collaborative process by all individuals involved. The following challenges to program implementation are discussed: (1) the structure and time constraints in schools make collaborative inquiry, reflection, and participatory planning difficult to achieve; (2) isolation of teachers from other teachers, teachers from administrators, and teachers and administrators from families and other parts of the community are "school traditions" and "mind sets" that are difficult to overcome; (3) urban families face multiple economic and social problems; (4) many urban families fear schools and educators and resist efforts to have them conform to many of the traditional forms of parent involvement; and (5) many educators and parents do not see the connection between school- family-community collaboration and improving academic and social success. A list of 115 references is appended. (FMW) ED318817

Krasnow, J. H., & Others, A. (1992). The Social Competency Program of the Reach Out to Schools Project. Project Report, 1990-91. No. 1. The Reach Out to Schools: Social Competency Program is an elementary school curriculum project based on the understanding that improving the nature and quality of classroom relationships is the key to increased social and academic success for all children. The program includes a year-long elementary school curriculum, an experiential teacher training program, a train-the-trainer model of dissemination, and an evaluation strategy emphasizing reflection through teacher research. Structured class meetings in an open-circle format provide a predictable and supportive format for instruction and practice in three competency areas: creating a cooperative classroom environment; building self-esteem and positive relationships; and solving interpersonal problems. Second-year teachers participate in action research and peer coaching. This paper summarizes findings of interviews conducted with 15 of the 18 teacher participants new to the 1990-91 program and with 3 classes of students. Teachers reported that the program was particularly successful in helping them to distinguish between the roles of teacher as teller and teacher as facilitator and in encouraging changes in their teaching behavior. They reported that the curriculum affected the classroom in several areasmanagement, student participation, inclusion of special education students, group problem solving, and improved schoolwide behavior. The students expressed positive attitudes toward the curriculum, particularly toward the ways in which the lessons encouraged listening, inclusion, and group problem solving. (Contains 28 references.) (LMI) ED361830

Krause, S. (1996). Portfolios in Teacher Education: Effects of Instruction on Preservice Teachers' Early Comprehension of the Portfolio Process. Journal of Teacher Education, v47 n2 p130-38 Mar-1996. Describes how one group of beginning preservice teachers constructed meaning about portfolios during an introductory course in the teacher education programs. Surveys of students who had and had not participated in a portfolio-like intervention indicated that intervention students had significantly increased knowledge and understanding of the portfolio process. (SM)

Kreidler, W. J. (1996). Caring Classroom. Instructor, v106 n1 p98-99 1996. Strategies for creating caring, positive classroom environments from the start include hanging pictures of people from around the world with mirrors to promote reflection, making signs that present concepts about rights, and creating name cards for saving work in progress. Questions for teachers to ask before school begins are included. (SM)
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_________. (1994). Laying a Foundation in Health and Wellness. Training Guides for the Head Start Learning Community. This training guide is designed to aid Head Start staff in exploring personal understandings of health and wellness and to further their contribution to the health of coworkers, children, and families. It explains the importance of health to Head Start's missionto encourage social competence; promote the development of personal definitions of health; and present a vision of health services that begins with basic health needs and expands to the promotion of positive health behaviors. Each training module consists of the following segments: expected outcomes, key concepts, background information, questions for discussion/reflection, outlines of learning activities, handouts, points to consider, and ideas to extend practice. The three modules are: (1) "Health and WellnessWhat Do They Mean?," aimed at developing individual definitions of health, increasing communication about health issues, and increasing effectiveness as resource persons; (2) "Linking Health and Social Competence," focusing on identifying health issues in children and designing an action plan; and (3) "Planning for a Healthier Tomorrow," helping individuals and teams develop strategies that incorporate health promotion into interactions with Head Start staff, children, and families. The conclusion suggests actions for continuing professional development. Contains 14 references. (BGC) ED394737

Lambdin, D. V., & Others, A. (1996). A Hypermedia System To Aid in Preservice Teacher Education: Instructional Design and Evaluation. This research investigated how use of an interactive videodisk information system, the Strategic Teaching Framework (STF), helped preservice teachers expand their visions of teaching, learning, and assessment in mathematics, and helped develop their skills in translating that vision into action in the classroom. STF consisted of videos of classroom situations, with various behaviors and techniques on display. The technology was used as one element in the field experience component of a Master's certification program for prospective elementary teachers, and provided them with models of effective teaching around which class discussions and individual journal reflections were based. The data that was collected documents how students felt about the value of specific STF features, STF's "fit" as a curriculum component, and STF's impact on understanding. Reactions indicated that STF aided students in class arrangement, self-criticism, and feedback to fellow learners. It also stimulated reflection about teaching philosophies that continued to develop throughout the course. (Contains 24 references.) (Author/BEW) ED397808

Lamm, O., & Epstein, R. (1997). Dichotic Listening in Children: The Reflection of Verbal and Attentional Changes with Age. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, v65 n1 p25-42 1997. Examined digit and word dichotic listening in children in kindergarten and again one year later. Found that in the second digit test, between-ears performance difference decreased; overall performance increased. Between- ear differences across the two word tests were not significant, but overall performance improved over time. Age changes in the between-ears difference is probably related to improving verbal processing efficiency. (KDFB)

Larson, N., & Others, A. (1994). Transition Magician: Strategies for Guiding Young Children in Early Childhood Programs. Providing suggestions on how to develop an age-appropriate schedule for guiding children through daily transitions, this guide serves as an evaluative tool as well as a transition resource book. A transition is the movement of children between one activity or routine to another. Children are in transition during clean-up, while waiting for group time to begin, or while moving from one place to anotherall situations which may be problematic. The guide is based on a positive classroom management strategy for anticipating and avoiding problem situations. Part 1 provides a checklist and evaluation tools that can help teachers identify problem areas created by environmental arrangements and planning for children ages 3 to 5 years. Part 2 provides reliable transition ideas. The ideas proposed promote self-control, self-management, and cooperation among children during transitions, with the intention of getting children's attention, settling them, extending activities, making valuable use of wait time, and promoting constructive child-to-child interactions. For each idea proposed, the material and the preparation needed are discussed as well as possible variations of the basic activity. A teacher's resource list, patterns and directions for making activity materials, and forms for evaluation and reflection are appended. (AA) ED386292

Lee, I.-S. (1994). Identifying Values: The Front-End of Systemic School Restructuring. The comprehensive categories of values, and the values in each category, to be articulated and consented to by stakeholders in school restructuring are explored through a qualitative case-study approach. A public elementary school that had approximately 530 students and that was undergoing restructuring was selected. Site visits, document reviews, and interviews with an administrator, two teachers, two parents, and one community member provided information about the restructuring. Three value domains (seminal, strategic, and core) were identified and broken down into value categories of (1) nature of learner; (2) nature of learning; (3) general principles of restructuring; (4) procedural principles; (5) outcomes of learning; (6) process of learning; (7) assessment of learning; (8) learning environment; (9) organizational structure and culture; and (10) function of education within the larger society. Shared values within each category are reviewed. It must be remembered that the clarification of values is not a one-shot activity, but rather a continuous reflection and reconstruction process. Eight appendixes present forms used in the study, codes used in analyzing the data, and definitions of value categories. Two tables and two figures illustrate findings. (Contains 58 references.) (SLD) ED373731

Lewis, C. C. (1995). Educating Hearts and Minds: Reflections on Japanese Preschool and Elementary Education. Based on observations of more than 50 Japanese preschool and elementary classrooms over a 14-year period, this book offers a fresh perspective on how children become eager, motivated learners and caring responsible citizens. In a sharp departure from most previous accounts, this book suggests that Japanese education succeeds because all childrennot just the brightest or best behavedcome to feel like valued members of the school community. The book notes that Japanese teachers credit John Dewey and other progressive Western educators for many of the techniques that make Japanese schools both caring and challenging. The introductory chapter notes that, like their Japanese counterparts, American teachers see friendship and belonging as central to children's growth, but that the American school system is not designed with these goals in mind. This chapter also describes observation techniques, and a reinterpretation of the roots of Japanese educational achievement, noting some of the shortcomings of Japanese education. Chapters in the book are as follows: (1) "A Brief Background on Japan's Educational System"; (2) "The Preschool Experience: Play, Community, Reflection"; (3) "The Whole Child Goes to Elementary School"; (4) "The Small Group: A Home Base for Children"; (5) "The Roots of Discipline: Community and Commitment"; (6) "Discipline: How Peers and Teachers Manage Misbehavior"; (7) "Learning and Caring"; (8) "What Is a Successful School?"; and (9) "Summary: Questions to Ask Ourselves." Characteristics of the preschools studied are appended. Contains 169 references. (HTH) ED382383

Lewis, C. C. (1995). The Roots of Japanese Educational Achievement: Helping Children Develop Bonds to School. Educational Policy, v9 n2 p129-51 1995. Japanese schools succeed in promoting student achievement because they meet children's human needs, thereby fostering strong, positive emotional bonds between child and school. Several factors make Japanese schools extraordinarily responsive, including their whole-child, values-rich pedagogy; caring, supportive community; group orientation; and stress on reflection (Hansei) and values-oriented discipline. (35 references) (MLH)

Lowell, L., & Willard, C. (1997). Sifting through Science. Teacher's Guide. K-2. The physical science activities contained in this guide extend the natural curiosity of K-2 students (can be adapted for Prekindergarten) by providing them with: (1) objects and time for free exploration; (2) challenges to focus further explorations; and (3) opportunities for meaningful reflection. Throughout the unit students engage in many of the same kinds of activities that scientists do as they observe, predict, test, communicate, record, and apply their findings. The unit consists of a series of three free- exploration learning stations and a concluding whole-group activity. Summary outlines are provided to guide students through the activities, and a section on literature connections lists books that make meaningful connections to these activities. A list of resources, a special note on graphing, and assessment suggestions are also included. (JRH) ED407282

Lyons, C. A. (1993). The Use of Questions in the Teaching of High-Risk Beginning Readers: A Profile of a Developing Reading Recovery Teacher. Reading and Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, v9 n4 p317-27 Oct-1993. Describes the development of a Reading Recovery teacher's understanding and use of effective questioning practices for low-progress first-grade readers. Finds that teachers' awareness of their own interactive behaviors is developed through ongoing, deliberate reflection and discussion with others and that this awareness is related to student learning. (RS)
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MacKinnon, A. (1996). Learning To Teach at the Elbows: The Tao of Teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, v12 n6 p653-64 1996. The dialogical relationship between Confucianism and Taoism serves as a framework for examining the interplay between learning as socioculturally mediated activity and critical reflection in preservice teacher education. Article highlights a summer elementary school science program that involves preservice teachers, university faculty, and a local school district. (SM)

Majhanovich, S., & Gray, J. (1992). The Practicum: An Essential Component in French Immersion Teacher Education. Canadian Modern Language Review, v48 n4 p682-95 1992. Important features of practicums for teachers of elementary school language immersion programs include: mentoring and peer coaching; guidance in self- analysis, observation, and reflection on teaching practices; and experience with realities of immersion. A period of induction beyond the practicum is also recommended. (19 references) (MSE)

Manners, P. A., & Smart, D. J. (1995). Moral Development and Identity Formation in High School Juniors: The Effects of Participation in Extracurricular Activities. The research described in this paper is from the fifth year of a 6-year longitudinal study investigating psychosocial and demographic factors associated with a wide range of behaviors among adolescents. The present analyses investigate the relationship between students' participation in extracurricular activities (athletic teams, musical groups, and school clubs) and their moral reasoning level and identity status. Participants were 209 high school juniors from a medium-sized southeastern town. Students' levels of moral development were assessed by the Sociomoral Reflection Objective Measure (SROM); their levels of identity achievement, moratorium, foreclosure, and diffusion in the interpersonal and ideological domains were measured by the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (EOM-EIS). Findings indicated that students' ability to make mature moral judgments appears to be unaffected by their extracurricular activities; membership in school clubs is related to higher levels of ideological identity achievement and lower levels of ideological moratorium and diffusion; girls are more likely than boys to score high on identity achievement; race influences moral reasoning level and identity achievement; membership in the school band or chorus is unrelated to identity formation; students who do not participate in any of the activities studied were high on both interpersonal diffusion and ideological moratorium when compared to their classmates who reported membership in at least one group; and athletic team participation is related to identity foreclosure, particularly for males. Findings suggest that school clubs facilitate development in ways other activities do not, and that the high status afforded male athletes is detrimental to their overall psychological development. Data tables are included. (Contains 52 references.) (ND) ED385496

Marran, J. F. (1992). The World According to a Grade 12 TeacherA Reflection on What Students of Geography Should Know and Be Able to Do. Journal of Geography, v91 n4 p139-42 Jul-1992. Discusses the challenges of teaching high school geography in a way that enables students to develop an informed, spatial view of the world. Discusses the High School Geography Project and its effect on geography instruction. Suggests a map drawing exercise for students to demonstrate the importance of mental maps. (DK)

Martens, M. L., & Crosier, S. (1994). Sharon's Story: The Usefulness of Conceptual Change Constructs in Promoting Student Reflection. Journal of Science Teacher Education, v5 n4 p139-45 Fall 1994. Explores the usefulness of the Conceptual Change Model for examining the relationship between the pedagogical experiences provided in a science methods class and preservice elementary teachers' changing concepts about teaching and learning science. A case study format is used to report and discuss findings. (LZ)

McEachern, W. R. (1990). Supporting Emergent Literacy among Young American Indian Students. ED319581

McFarland, K. (1992). Case Studies of the Dialogue Journal in Multicultural Education. Working Draft. This study examined reflective writing as a vehicle for learning through the use of dialogue journals to synthesize relevant classroom materials and help students examine multicultural issues. Thirty-one elementary education students enrolled in a course titled "Foundations of Education in a Multicultural Society" participated in the study. The dialogue journals are analyzed in terms of literal understanding, lack of understanding, self in context, evaluation, implementation, new insights, and heightened awareness, with eight case studies summarized in detail. Analysis showed that students preferred to write showing literal understanding, while they less frequently explored issues in terms of new insights and heightened awareness. Many students reported having trouble finding the time for the journals. The expected written conversation between student and instructor did not happen, as the instructor's feedback questions seemed to encourage reflection rather than written response; still some students found the journal a valuable way to communicate one-on-one with the instructor. The journals did not hold the same value for all students, though the journals were perceived by all students as a safe environment in which to vent frustrations and explore feelings. Some students seemed to lack an understanding of reflection and never went beyond a literal level in their journals. Based on the findings, the following conclusions are suggested: (1) the dialogue journal has the capability to allow both the preservice teacher and teacher educator to work together closely; (2) trust is an important element in the collaboration between teacher educator and student; (3) students need a definition of reflection and should be taught how to use reflection in their journals; and (4) the dialogue journal provides an important voice for the preservice teacher to share thoughts one-on-one with an interested listener. Specific recommendations and suggestions for using dialogue journals are included. (Contains 33 references.) (ND) ED387478

Mehaffy, G. L. (1992). Issues in the Creation and Implementation of a Professional Development School. Four major elements were critical in the creation of the Chula Vista Professional Development School (CVPDS), a joint venture of Chula Vista City Schools (California) and San Diego State University: strong central figures in the university and public schools; powerful, well presented ideas; inclusion of key university and public school figures early in the planning process; and adequate resources. Important factors in the implementation stage were careful attention to communication and to nurturing relationships. An attachment to this paper, "The Chula Vista Professional Development School," describes CVPDS as a specially designed facility inside a new elementary school, Clear View Elementary, that has three specific goals: (1) to develop and offer a comprehensive field-based collaborative preservice teacher preparation program; (2) to create and manage comprehensive programs for extended development of teaching professionals in the Chula Vista Schools; and (3) to provide a setting for educational professionals to come together to examine, evaluate, and reflect on teaching and learning. The program description includes outlines of the program goals and curriculum content of the preservice and inservice programs, the site-based master's program, and specific program plans for 1991-1992; discussion of systematic reflection and disciplined inquiry in the PDS; a conceptual outline of how technology may be used to address specific program issues; and a brief physical description of the PDS. (IAH) ED346031

Miller, S. M. (1996). Making the Paths: Constructing Multicultural Texts and Critical-Narrative Discourse in Literature-History Classes. Report Series 7.8. Developing students' ability to use multicultural perspectives and knowledge to think about literature, history, and society is emerging as an important part of a pluralistic approach to education. Am ethnographic study examined three innovative eleventh-grade literature-history classes as they were negotiated over 2 school years by a pair of English and social studies teachers with pluralistic goals for curriculum and pedagogy. Reading texts from different cultural perspectives, engaging in open-forum discussion and writing, and participating in other dialectical activities fostered student awareness of the multiple, sometimes conflicting languages for understanding texts and social issues. Teachers provided assistance at points of need, sometimes in the form of posing problems, juxtaposing texts/perspectives (e.g. stories, reports, personal experiences), and initiating multivocal activities, often in the form of conversational strategies for moving from unreflective speech to conscious reflection about personal and others' assumptions and values. In this class, critical thinking and narrative thinking came to develop in a dialogic relationship, what can be seen as a critical-narrative discourse acquired and learned through dialectical talk and activity. These dialogic means of moving beyond sociocentrism toward reflection influenced individual students differently, depending on numerous personal and sociocultural forces shaping the nature of their active response or resistance. Findings contribute to a theoretical framework for understanding how interdisciplinary study of multicultural texts in problem-posing contexts contributes to specific forms of critically reflective literacy practice. (Contains 115 references and 4 tables of data.) (Author/RS) ED402600

Moller, J. (1996). Educating Reflective Principals in a Context of Restructuring. Educational reform in Norway has led to increasing decentralization and a redefinition of the role of the school principal. Action research is an approach enabling principals to clarify alternative actions, consider appropriate action, and become aware of the relationship between agency and structure. Systematic reflection is a tool for self-analysis that can be used effectively by school leaders. This reflective process consists of returning to experience, reflecting on the facilitators' questions and perspectives, attending to feelings, and re-evaluating the experience. Qualitative data were collected from 27 school leaders in 3 municipalities in Norway. The research questions addressed were: (1) meaning of educational leadership in the Norwegian context and how it is understood by principals; (2) what happens when principals establish inquiries into their own practice and how these inquiries can contribute to the development of a knowledge base in educational administration; and (3) cost and benefits of action research as an approach to the development of educational leadership. The 2-year study incorporated observation, counseling, peer review, journals, and reflection in a collaborative setting. The typically Norwegian dual role of principals as classroom teacher and administrator is also explored. The appendix contains a descriptive summary of the educational system in Norway. (Contains 41 references.) (JLS) ED399245

Moreau, A. S. (1994). Improving Social Skills of Third Grade Students through Conflict Resolution Training. Third-grade students generally lack the social skills needed to resolve conflicts. This report describes a program for improving the social skills of third graders attending a middle-class suburban school. The researcher selected a resolution program which would address those problems outlined by a classroom teacher in an incident report, a teacher reflection journal, and the teacher's record of time spent on conflict resolution in the classroom. An analysis of the probable cause data revealed that students were unaware of options available to them to solve problems on their own. Likewise, many of the strategies students used to resolve conflict were ineffective. Solutions suggested by experts, combined with an examination of the problem setting, resulted in the selection of two major categories of intervention: (1) develop lesson plans to teach the prescribed steps for conflict resolution; and (2) teach conflict resolution for thirty minutes daily over a six week period. After training, students learned how to communicate and how to understand the severity of their problems. Results also indicate that parents who adopted a conflict resolution program at home increased the effectiveness of the conflict resolution program. The conflict resolution program may be used from kindergarten up to grade 12. (RJM) ED375334

Munarriz, B., & Others, A. (1995). Cooperative Research: An Experience Developed between Theorists and Practitioners. This project brought together educational theorists and practitioners in Spain to create a model of teacher training based on research by trainees into their own practice and to create a curriculum of Spanish language adapted to the students of the location where it was developed. The project was undertaken in the context of educational policy reforms which called for cooperation among education professionals and for teachers to make their own curricula adapted to their own schools with the general curriculum as a guide. The project took four stages each of which required a dynamic process in which the four moments of planning, action, observation, and reflection occurred in a spiral pattern. Specific components included weekly meetings of all members and putting plans into practice. Data collection included tape recording of the sessions of seminars, records of seminars, working documents, participant observation of classrooms, video recording, and partial reports. The process made possible a joint reflection on the questions and hypotheses arising from the dynamics of the members' interaction. Among the conclusions were: (1) setting into practice the model of action research creates a new perspective on the approach itself; (2) theorists had the chance to acquire practical competence without disturbing class life; and (3) working on a specific project served as a model for generalization to other levels. (JB) ED382606

Munro, J. K. (1994). Students Learning More about Learning. Facilitating Effective Learning and Teaching (FELT) is a program that involves the systematic analysis of learning by students. It identifies the processes of reflection and making implicit knowledge explicit in changing one's understanding of learning. The present investigation examines the prediction that students can enhance their self-perception and effectiveness as learners by understanding and valuing both the learning process and themselves as learners. The FELT program affords the opportunity for students to evaluate and to modify the concepts of learning in the light of increasing knowledge and experience as learners. The basis of the FELT program is an examination of the learning process by learners. The following aspects of the learning experience are examined: (1) the meaning of learning; (2) individual ways of learning; (3) feelings of the learner; (4) displaying knowledge; (5) learning new ideas; (6) concentrating; (7) learning by reading, writing, and listening; (8) remembering; (9) learning in different contexts; and (10) organizing. The FELT program is based on eight assumptions. One assumption of the FELT program is knowledge is acquired through active construction. An investigation of 137 students in grades 5-8 reports an evaluation of the effect of studying the first aspect of learning on students's knowledge of learning and beliefs about themselves as learners. (KDP) ED368079

Murray, J. (1996). Constructivism, Collaboration and the Certificate of Teaching and Learning (CTL). This paper describes a professional development program for teachers. The Certificate of Teaching and Learning (CTL), developed in Australia for Kindergarten through Year 12 teachers across all subject areas. It outlines the process of conceptualization, the dilemmas faced by the development team, and the final implementation across Australia. Action research, critical reflection, and self-assessment are central to the CTL philosophy. Participants design their own program of study with learning partners or mentors, select an assessor, and negotiate details of their learning assessment. The compulsory core unit provides a framework for the course, and instruments to assist participants in observation methods, discourse analysis, and action research. Two additional compulsory units, "The Learning Continuum" and "Student and Teacher Roles and Relationships," address learning models and theories, classroom ethics, and the role of relationships in teaching. Participants select an additional two optional units. Each unit includes course work and action research. The CTL was developed by a group of teachers, academics, and education consultants. Emerging from discussions with academics came the foci on the role of teacher as facilitator and collaborator engaged in action research, the emphasis on self-reflection using a CTL journal, and the consideration of participants' learning styles. Various methods used to implement the CTL are described, including distribution by the New South Wales Department of School Education to its 40 districts and possible inclusion in a Master's degree program. (Contains 34 references.) (KDFB) ED400999

Myers, B. K., & Martin, M. P. (1993). Faith Foundations for All of Our Children. Young Children, v48 n2 p49-55 1993. Provides a framework that early childhood professionals can use to think and talk about faith and institutionalized religion in terms of the social contexts of young children. Suggests ways in which issues related to faith can be appropriately addressed in nonsectarian early childhood programs. (BB)

Myers, J. S., & Philbin, M. M. (1990). Classroom Drama: Discourse as a Mode of Inquiry. One means of understanding literature or historical events is to construct events, or go beyond the text or event. This technique enables students to use their own bodies and voices to understand the dynamics of a situation and add additional material that may not have existed at the time the event occurred. Such a practice provides opportunities for children to develop problem-solving skills and critical thinking skills, and to engage in active learning. This project involved a group of pre-service teachers working with fifth grade children. All students participated in dramatic improvisation as a means of experiencing the event being examined. The concluding activities for the exercise involved reflection through discourse and written language experiences. (NL) ED323144
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Newman, V. (1994). Math Journals: Tools for Authentic Assessment. This book is designed to help teachers use journals to integrate authentic assessment with the instruction of mathematics. It provides a structure to encourage students to write regularly in mathematics. The book is designed to help teachers develop their own assessment questions and activities for additional mathematical explorations. For each grade level (kindergarten through grade 5), the book includes questions for reflection and two mathematical explorations that culminate in journal writing. Concepts explored include plane figures, money, measurement, geometric solids, multiplication, and fractions. (MKR) ED394806

Nihlen, A. S. (1992). Schools as Centers for Reflection and Inquiry: Research for Teacher Empowerment. This paper describes an ongoing case study of how a group of teachers are becoming researchers and what this means for their classrooms and the professional development school where they work. A collaborative teacher development program was implemented in Dickinson Elementary School of Albuquerque (New Mexico) which serves a mobile and mixed ethnic community. In phase 1, a group of teachers in the school worked with graduate students enrolled in a university ethnography class to formulate research questions and to engage in ethnographic inquiry. In the second phase, a collaborative, onsite course was taught at the school that helped teachers use qualitative research methods in their classrooms. A year-round professional development school is now in place. Findings indicate that teachers learning to be researchers: learn to see research as praxis and develop their understandings of the world; learn the language of research and critical analysis; and develop true collaborative relationships. The next step is to understand how subordinate student groups are silenced in their schools. University professors in colleges of education must join with school teachers in rethinking and reforming the pedagogy in teacher education programs which has promoted an ideology of teachers as technocrats and public servants. They must begin to be seen as active, reflective scholars and empowered practitioners in their school. (Contains 13 references.) (LMI) ED354584

Nistler, R. J., & Shepperson, G. M. (1990). Exploring New Directions for Staff Development: Teachers in Charge of Change. After a decision was made at a Texas elementary school to adopt a whole language philosophy toward literacy instruction, a study was designed to address three research questions: (1) What levels of concerns are raised by teachers in the areas of "self," "task," and "impact"? (2) What responses do these concerns elicit from university researchers and other participants? and (3) What changes occurred among participants during their involvement in the initial phase of this project? Data sources included: audio tapes of weekly inservices with 2 university researchers, 23 teachers, and the school principal; teacher journals; participant responses to questionnaires; field notes of classroom observations; and collaborative interactions with teachers. Initial inservices were designed to help participants identify current practices in order to facilitate their assimilation of new knowledge at later stages of the program. Activities promoting individual reflection and talk among teachers provided opportunities for new understandings and beliefs to be confirmed or rejected, with the eventual goal of establishing a common knowledge base. Other inservice meetings were designed to guide individual exploration into whole language instruction, to identify instructional themes/topics and accompanying children's literature by grade levels, and to provide an opportunity for participants to report on the themes and supporting literature they had compiled. In their journals, essays, concern surveys, and conversations, the voices of teachers confirmed the efficacy of the following change factors: change is a process, not an event; change is a highly personal experience; change involves developmental growth; and change is best understood as it directly affects classroom practice, students and preparation time. (One figure is included and nine references are attached.) (MG) ED329895

Noori, K. K. (1994). A Constructivist/Reflective Paradigm: A Model for the Early Childhood Program at Tuskegee University. The Early Childhood Program in the Department of Curriculum, Instruction and Administration at Tuskegee University (Alabama) is described as a convergence of Jean Piaget's constructivism and John Dewey's progressivism. It is designed to provide preservice teachers with experiences that promote reflective practice and that view the learner as an autonomous, inquisitive thinker. This paper discusses the program's philosophical assumptions, which are based on learning as a process of knowledge construction, not knowledge recording or absorption, and on the importance of reflection as a means of learning from experience. Program components that are believed to foster reflective thinking include: dialogue; learning through active participation; learning from practicing in actual situations; and reflecting through videotaping lessons, journal writing, and planning. Three interrelated elements of the developmentalist tradition of reflective teaching are discussed, emphasizing focused observation of children's behavior and the creation of learning environments that support children's development and interests, encouraging students to adopt an experimental attitude towards practice, and placing a premium on the artistic aspect of teaching. Feedback from students is reported, providing evidence that students are internalizing the program's basic tenets, are involved in problem-solving, and are reflecting on and questioning their practice. (Contains 32 references.) (JDD) ED370888
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_________. (1992). Opening up the Mathematics and Science Filters: Our Schools Did It, So Can Yours A Nine Step Guide to Increasing Minority Student Participation in Mathematics and Science. This publication is a practical guide to implementing the Mathematics, Science, and Minorities: K-6 (MSM: K-6) Project, a program to increase minority student participation in mathematics and sciences in the kindergarten through sixth grade levels. The guide is organized into five parts. Part 1 is an introduction that explains why minority participation in mathematics and sciences is important, describes how this particular project began, notes typical obstacles to be overcome, and describes project components. Part 2 contains four testimonials from different schools that have implemented the project in the District of Columbia metropolitan area. Two accounts are told from the teacher's point of view, one is a principal's reflection, and the other is told from the guidance counselor's point of view. Part 3 is the key section that describes a nine- step implementation process (determining the nature of the problem, deciding how to get started, developing goals, identifying leadership teams, developing intervention plans, implementing a staff development program, implementing a school-based intervention plan, disseminating and institutionalizing, and evaluating). Part 4 offers reflections on what might have been done differently at locations where the program is in place. Part 5 is a summary. Four appendixes contain research study information, a list of project consultants, a checklist for reformers, and first year reflections. (JB) ED351402

O'Donoghue, T. A., & Brooker, R. (1996). The Rhetoric and the Reality of the Promotion of Reflection during Practice Teaching: An Australian Case Study. Journal of Teacher Education, v47 n2 p99-109 Mar-1996. Presents a literature review on reflective thinking in reference to teaching and teacher education and reports findings of a study at one Australian university that investigated the importance of supervisors promoting reflection in meetings between supervisors and student teachers before and after practice teaching. Recommendations for teacher education programs are made. (SM)

O'Neill, S., & Shallcross, D. (1994). Sensational Thinking: A Teaching/Learning Model for Creativity. Journal of Creative Behavior, v28 n2 p75-88 1994. A five-step model intervention called "Sensational Thinking," which incorporates readiness, reception, reflection, revelation, and re-creation activities, was evaluated with four kindergarten classes. Experimental groups showed increased creativity over control groups in solving paradoxical problems. The study is seen as supporting the premise that every individual has creative potential. (DB)

Organization. (1992). Opening up the Mathematics and Science Filters: Our Schools Did It, So Can Yours A Nine Step Guide to Increasing Minority Student Participation in Mathematics and Science. This publication is a practical guide to implementing the Mathematics, Science, and Minorities: K-6 (MSM: K-6) Project, a program to increase minority student participation in mathematics and sciences in the kindergarten through sixth grade levels. The guide is organized into five parts. Part 1 is an introduction that explains why minority participation in mathematics and sciences is important, describes how this particular project began, notes typical obstacles to be overcome, and describes project components. Part 2 contains four testimonials from different schools that have implemented the project in the District of Columbia metropolitan area. Two accounts are told from the teacher's point of view, one is a principal's reflection, and the other is told from the guidance counselor's point of view. Part 3 is the key section that describes a nine- step implementation process (determining the nature of the problem, deciding how to get started, developing goals, identifying leadership teams, developing intervention plans, implementing a staff development program, implementing a school-based intervention plan, disseminating and institutionalizing, and evaluating). Part 4 offers reflections on what might have been done differently at locations where the program is in place. Part 5 is a summary. Four appendixes contain research study information, a list of project consultants, a checklist for reformers, and first year reflections. (JB) ED351402
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Pandey, T. (1990). Authentic Mathematics Assessment. ERIC/TM Digest. ED354245

Paris, S. G., & Ayres, L. R. (1994). Becoming Reflective Students and Teachers with Portfolios and Authentic Assessment. Psychology in the Classroom: A Series on Applied Educational Psychology. This book guides teachers on using portfolios and authentic assessment to create reflective students and teachers through specific instruction, examples, and descriptions of many actual elementary school classrooms, teachers, and students who use this approach. Authentic assessment allows students to participate actively in their own learning. Portfolios, a collection of student work, are an important tool in this approach. An introduction describes in detail a classroom where this approach has been implemented and offers actual views of students, parents, and teachers who were involved. The first section explains self-regulated learning including characteristics, psychological principles, and how traditional practices undermine it. The second section treats learner-centered principles of assessment and looks at assessments that promote reflection and students' self-assessment. The third section examines promoting student self- reflection through class activities such as portfolios, self-evaluations, inventories, and surveys, journals, self-portraits, letters and conferences. The next section discusses strengthening home-school connections through letters, parent profiles of their children, parent-teacher conferences, home portfolios, dialogue journals, and home-school classroom activities. The next section on becoming reflective teachers discusses the characteristics of reflective teachers and the consequences of being reflective. The last section offers a final review. An appendix provides a brief description of each of 12 learner-centered psychological principles. Includes a glossary. Contains 57 references. (JB) ED378166

Peirce, B. N. (1994). Using Diaries in Second Language Research and Teaching. English Quarterly, v26 n3 p22-29 Spr 1994. Explores the language learning and social adaptation of five immigrant women by using diaries and critical dialogue for collaborative research. Highlights the construct of social identity as central to the adaptation process. Advocates critical reflection by students on the process of identity negotiation, especially through diary-keeping. (HB)

Perrone, V. (1991). On Standardized Testing. ERIC Digest. ED338445

Philbin, M. M., & Solanch, L. S. (1991). School-Based Children's Drama Outreach: A Case Study. A study addressed the general issue of whether or not a touring college drama production would somehow stimulate greater interest, on the part of elementary teachers and students, in the use of drama as a classroom learning medium. Specifically addressed were whether (1) educational gains would be realized; (2) data would show measurable gains in classroom learning; and (3) formal "a priori" hypotheses could be tested in any subsequent investigations of drama outreach programs in school-based settings. Second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students from three rural St. Lawrence County, New York schools participated in pre- and post- production visits which focused on interactive work and addressed themes associated with the play itself. Case studies of the classroom visitations consisted of the general framework of, as well as any interactions observed during, the visits. These records were used for subsequent reflection and formed the basis of future decisions regarding the goals of touring company outreach as well as future efforts involving action research and encouragement of the use of drama as a classroom learning medium. Results indicated that the anecdotal data was insufficient and inconclusive, and a more empirical approach was needed. Teachers' and students' favorable responses to the classroom visitations indicated, however, that the effort and expense entailed in the design and implementation of an educational drama outreach program in actual classroom settings appeared justified. (Twenty tables of data and two appendixes are attached.) (PRA) ED333514

Pommerich, M. (1995). Demonstrating the Utility of a Multilevel Model in the Assessment of Differential Item Functioning. When tests contain few items, observed score may not be an accurate reflection of true score, and the Mantel Haenszel (MH) statistic may perform poorly in detecting differential item functioning. Applications of the MH procedure in such situations require an alternate strategy; one such strategy is to include background variables in the matching criterion. Techniques for incorporating external information are presented here that match on a weighted score that combines the observed score and background data, using either ordinary least squares regression or a multilevel model. The regression and multilevel models were constructed using data obtained with the Grade 3 North Carolina End of Grade Mathematics Test. A simulation study was performed in which the prediction models were used to generate data, and three MH statistics were computed matching on observed scores, regression weighted scores, and multilevel weighted scores. The results showed similar performance for the regression and multilevel weighted score methods. The observed score and weighted score methods demonstrated advantages over the observed score method for test lengths of 5 and 10 items, but the improvement was small and inconsistent. Techniques for improving the performance of the weighted score methods are discussed. (Contains 21 references and 12 tables.) (SLD) ED384626

Pontecorvo, C., & Zucchermaglio, C. (1991). Computer Use in Learning about Language. European Journal of Psychology of Education, v6 n1 p15-27 1991. Presents results of a study of six kinds of linguistic education software. Discusses treatment of language as an object rather than as a means of communication. Reports that the software promotes reflection on language and metalanguage awareness in a social and educational context by stimulating children's interest in playing with language. (DK)

Preece, A. (1995). Talking about Learning: Making Reflection Meaningful in Elementary Classrooms. English Quarterly, v27 n4 p18-21 Sum 1995. Argues that time spent encouraging students to reflect about their learning is well invested. Offers four specific statements about what helps students to reflect: (1) students need relevant reasons for reflection and assurance that their reflections will be accepted; (2) students' opinions and judgments must be generally valued; (3) students need vocabulary; and (4) students need relevant criteria to judge their efforts. (TB)

Pugach, M. C. (1990). Self-Study: The Genesis of Reflection in Novice Teachers? The purpose of this study was to explore the potential of a self-study project which required explicit self-monitoring as a tool for initiating reflection in a group of novice teachers during their student teaching experience. The study was structured to encourage student teachers to bring to a conscious level of awareness a problem within their own teaching practice to enable the ongoing monitoring of changes in teaching performance and the effects of the changes on students. A premise of this work was that it is essential for student teachers to be placed in a position of having to reflect on problems of practice which are of current concern to them. An important aspect of this exploratory study was the opportunity to examine the range of problems that student teachers would consider problematic. The student teachers were directed to identify a problem in their own practice, develop a means of addressing it, work on the problem until change was evident and consistent, and monitor progress explicitly. The paper presents the results of 18 self-study projects conducted by elementary education teachers. The work reported indicates that self-study may hold promise as a useful means of sensitizing novice teachers to self-monitoring as a critical feature of reflective teaching. (JD) ED322124
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Quick, B. N., & Dasovich, J. A. (1994). The Role of the Supervisor: Meeting the Needs of Early Childhood Preservice Teachers. The purpose of this paper is to identify practices and trends in elementary and secondary education literature applicable to early childhood student teacher supervision. The paper begins by reviewing the relevant literature on both historical and current perspectives on early childhood teacher education programs. Then, the goals of student teaching, the characteristics of student teachers, the role of supervisors, and characteristics of effective supervisors are explored. The goals of student teaching include developing reflective individuals and affording students opportunities to implement instructive practices in a classroom and to interact with students. Supervisors should serve as a catalyst, encouraging students to formulate broad perspectives on teaching by reflecting on their student teaching experience, and helping students integrate theoretical frameworks with classroom realities. Several supervision models are outlined. Finally, six recommendations for early childhood supervision practices are suggested: (1) supervisors should emphasize constructivist methods so that student teachers learn to be self-directed in their learning; (2) supervisors should be cognitive coaches and not evaluators in guiding student teachers' learning; (3) supervisors should allow frequent opportunities for collaboration, inquiry, and reflection about the supervisor's own teaching; (4) supervisors must teach student teachers how to reflect on their own teaching; (5) the student teacher's ability to reflect upon and assess his or her own teaching and learning should be an evaluation criterion; and (6) the flexibility that qualitative methods offer for student teacher evaluation makes them appropriate for the diverse nature of early childhood settings. (Contains 32 references.) (ND) ED388637
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Ramsden, F. (1995). The Impact of the Effective Early Learning 'Quality Evaluation and Development' Process upon a Voluntary Sector Playgroup/Pre-school. This collaborative action research project focused on the educational practice of a voluntary sector playgroup (preschool) in the United Kingdom. It utilized the Quality Evaluation and Development (QED) model to conduct an evaluation phase, action plan phase, development phase, and a reflection phase over the course of the 1994-95 school year. The evaluation phase was based on playgroup documentation, photographs, physical environment schedule, staff biographies, interviews, and child tracking data. The action plan phase allowed the staff to produce plans to improve areas of practice, while the development phase allowed for the implementation of this action plan. The reflection phase allowed time to review the impact of the action plan. A review of the four stages found that the staff were able to develop an effective action plan that led to real improvements in the quality of the children's education. The playgroup practitioners showed considerable development in their style of engagement and interaction with the children. The limitations and key issues uncovered by the research are also discussed. An appendix contains information on the observation rating scales used in the research and Chatterbox Playgroup vignette. (Contains 87 references.) (MDM) ED388417

Reilly, R. C. (1997). Partnerships: Families and Communities in Canadian Early Childhood Education. Book Review. Canadian Journal of Research in Early Childhood Education , v6 n3 p279-81 1997. Notes that the strengths of this book for educators about parent involvement include its strong Canadian perspective, the variety of family forms profiled, its focus on controversial issues, and the inclusion of numerous examples. Notes, however, that the work lacks opportunities for reflection and treats some important issues superficially. (Author/KB)

Rhodes, L. K., & Shanklin, N. L. (1993). Windows into Literacy: Assessing Learners, K-8. Based on the belief that effective literacy assessment is an integral part of literacy instruction, this book provides information about the aspects of reading and writing that can be assessed and how assessing them can aid in planning instruction. Each chapter of the book includes a "reflection" section intended to encourage readers to consider several views of the information provided. Most chapters have a "teacher reflection" section, written by a teacher, about a single topic in the chapter. Chapters in the book are: (1) Reflecting on Literacy Assessment: (2) Literacy Environments and Instruction; (3) Metacognitive Aspects of Literacy; (4) Assessing Language Systems and Strategies in Reading; (5) Reading Comprehension; (6) Writing Processes and Products; (7) Emergent Reading and Writing; (8) Understanding and Challenging Traditional Forms of Evaluation; (9) Literacy Collections; and (10) Fostering Change in Literacy Assessment and Instruction. (RS) ED358428

Richardson, G. D. (1993). Student Teacher Journals: Reflective and Nonreflective. This qualitative study, conducted at Mississippi State University-Meridian Campus, examined the journal of a student who was given directions to reflect on her student teaching experiences in prescribed areas and ways, and the journals of two students who were not given any directions concerning the content of their journals. The directed student was asked to record specific reflections on teaching methods, self-as-teacher, discipline, school-wide policies, and the relationship of teacher preparatory coursework to actual practice. Examination of the contents of the student teachers' journals revealed strong similarities despite the fact that they had received different instructions. The directed student did not exhibit greater depth or breadth of reflection but did report a greater sense of success than the other student teachers reported. The general commentary centered on their perception that theoretical coursework did not prepare them for the reality of the recordkeeping and classroom organization that were required. Comments on discipline also surfaced as a distinct pattern. The paper recommends that student teachers be more thoroughly taught observational skills and the necessity of thinking critically about what is observed. (JDD) ED368684

Ridout, S. R. (1992). Do Children Come By Their Reading Problems Honestly? A study examined parents' attitudes toward reading and their children's reading problems, to investigate whether a child's reading problem may simply be a reflection of his or her parent's reading know-how. Subjects, 203 of 218 parents of children attending a university reading clinic, responded to a survey. Data were collected over the course of eight reading clinic sessions held at the Indiana University Southeast campus in New Albany, Indiana. Results indicated that: (1) parents who brought their children to the reading clinic tended to believe that their child had a "medium" reading problem; (2) the parents appeared to use the library very little; and (3) parents read to and were read to by their children very little. Findings suggest that parents need more tips and strategies to help their children with reading problems. (Five tables of data are included.) (RS) ED345216

Rodriguez, Y. E., & Sjostrom, B. R. (1997). Cultural Moments: A Teaching Strategy for Preparing Teachers for Cultural Diversity. Students in the Elementary Teacher Education Program at Rowan College (New Jersey) are predominately White and have had little previous contact with minority communities. Reflective classroom activities have been developed to facilitate critical reflection on teaching for diversity and to raise consciousness regarding educational equity. In one such exercise, the "cultural moment," students are asked for reflection about a personal experience of being in a minority status and about an experience that was bicultural, cross-cultural, or intercultural and then to respond to questions about their feelings in these situations, their understanding of the norms and roles of the group, and their own belief system and how it differed from that of the group. Field observations were made of teacher candidates in their student teaching placements (10 in urban schools and 10 in suburban or rural schools) using the Praxis III: Performance Assessment for Beginning Teachers and a pre- and post-observation interview. The education students were found to have experienced many cross-cultural situations in their own lives. Drawing on these, the cultural moments teaching strategy provided a common base for classroom discussions and helped the teacher candidates to recognize and accept individual and group differences. (JLS) ED405337

Rosaen, C., & Schram, P. (1995). Developing a Focus for Reflection and Inquiry during a Year-Long Internship. Current Conversations. Action in Teacher Education, v17 n1 p80-87 Spr 1995. This article presents excerpts from an inquiry group involving preservice teachers during a one-year internship. The inquiry group supported the interns in pursuing questions that arose out of their own practice. The excerpts illustrate three central topics (classroom management, curriculum and planning, and assessment), noting the challenges that permeated their experiences. (SM)

Roskos, K. (1996). When Two Heads Are Better Than One: Beginning Teachers' Planning Processes in an Integrated Instruction Planning Task. Journal of Teacher Education, v47 n2 p120-29 Mar-1996. Two beginning teachers were observed in an integrated instruction planning task. Their interpretations were studied when they worked collaboratively and when they worked independently. Data from interviews and field notes indicated that their individual planning lacked decision-choice flexibility and had limited strategy use. When they collaborated they made decisions at the problem processing level. (SM)

Ross, D., & Bondy, E. (1996). The Evolution of a College Course through Teacher Educator Action Research. Action in Teacher Education, v18 n3 p44-55 Fall 1996. Describes changes in the perspectives and practices of two teacher educators as a result of a series of action research projects conducted over a six-year period in an elementary education course. The studies focused on reflection, student learning, reading and writing instruction, and course impact. (SM)

Rovegno, I. (1992). Learning to Reflect on Teaching: A Case Study of One Preservice Physical Education Teacher. Elementary School Journal, v92 n4 p491-51992. Describes interpretations of one preservice elementary physical education teacher, who preferred received knowledge (i.e., coming to know by listening to others) to experiences in reflection (lesson and unit instruction, dialogue journals, and class discussions) that occurred during a methods course. Only slight changes in reflective abilities occurred. (Author/BB)

Rudd, T. J., & Gunstone, R. F. (1993). Developing Self-Assessment Skills in Grade 3 Science and Technology: The Importance of Longitudinal Studies of Learning. A year-long study in 1991 that aimed to develop self-assessment skills in one third-grade class in Australia is reported. The roles that the length and naturalistic features of the study played in the success of skill development are explored. The class contained 20 students, ages 8-9 years, present for the whole school year (four 11-week terms). Selecting a specific curriculum area made planning and post-teaching reflection more manageable for the teacher. Science and technology was chosen for teacher interest and its congruence with the research aims. A self-assessment questionnaire was developed early in the year, based on ideas that students had about the skills they needed in science and technology. Students were introduced to concept maps and learned to produce them. Additional self- assessment was recorded in self-assessment graphs created by students. Specific self-assessment concepts and techniques introduced during each term are detailed. Students accepted the self-assessment tasks as teaching and learning strategies in their own right. Student awareness and use of skills in these class activities were substantially enhanced. The teacher's role changed as students became more proficient at self-assessment, until the teacher was functioning as a delegator, rather than as a dominating instructor. Nine figures illustrate student's concepts and list statements used in self-assessment questionnaires. (SLD) ED358103

Ryan, C. W. (1994). Authentic Assessment of Self-Concept through Portfolios: Building a Model with Public Schools. Teachers commonly use only two types of assessmentwritten examinations that test basic skills and direct observation of student learning. Both assessment procedures have been the subject of intense criticism. This study was conducted to investigate the viability of the portfolio model for authentic assessment of student growth, to analyze self-concept related teaching activities, and to develop the reflective abilities of students in grades K-6. Data were gathered from three selected public schools and teachers who implemented portfolios as part of a drug education effort. All subject areas were included in the portfolios along with accompanying documentation in the areas of self-concept growth and drug education curriculum activities. Analysis of 40 portfolios revealed that the majority of students' materials included self-concept activities and some drug education information, and that student worksheets showed completion of both drug education and self-concept learning activities. However, findings provided little evidence of student-based reflection on what the portfolio entries meant to them. Student portfolio evaluations are summarized in tabular form. (LL) ED374085
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Schechter, S. L., Ed., & Bernstein, R. B., Ed. (1990). New York and the Bicentennial: Contributions to the American Constitutional Experience. This document presents learning materials designed to support school and community activities dealing with the Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution, and particularly with New York State's role in the nation's constitutional history. The following materials concerning school and community activities are included: "'Congress Shall Make No Law...' A Tribute to the Bill of Rights"; "Creating Your Own Constitutional Bicentennial Celebration" (New York State Imagination Celebration); "Critical Choices for New York: A Study Guide" (Stephen L. Schechter); "Critical Choices for Participation in Government: A Practical Manual for School Citizenship" (Stephen L. Schechter; Hugh B. Hammett); "Critical Choices in Your Community: A Practical Manual for Citizenship Programs" (Stephen L. Schechter; Hugh B. Hammett); "First Ladies of New York State: the Constitutional Era, 1777-1800: Educational Activities for the Seventh Grade Curriculum" (Jane D. Begos); "Four who Dared: Women Who Made History in Rensselaer County" (Richard Jones); "A Matter of Reflection and Choice: The Federalist/Antifederalist Debate" (Rachel Bliven); "Mock Constitutional Conventions for High School Students" (Lawrence F. Woodbridge, with a commentary by Richard B. Bernstein); "Plant a Living Legacy to the Constitution: Trees of Early New York" (Arthur H. Ode Jr.); "Teaching guide for 'The Reluctant Pillar'" (Christine Blumberg); "The United States Constitution and the State's Social Studies Program: Social Studies Grade 7/8 and Grade 11 Curriculum Have New Constitutional Units" (New York State Education Department, Social Studies Bureau); and "This Proposed Constitution: A Debate of the Times, April 1788." This document also contains, in a separate section, the annual and final reports of the New York State Bicentennial Commission. (DB) ED346009

Schumaker, K. A. (1993). A Taxonomy for Assisting Teacher Reflection and Growth in Reading Instruction. A taxonomy of teacher responses to pupils' connected reading was developed to characterize the instructional decisions and development of teacher interactions with individual readers. In developing this instrument, content analysis procedures were used to investigate actual teacher responses to readers. The X axis (reading categories) of the taxonomy displays important areas of reading skill. These skills were chosen because they are frequently considered by teachers when responding to readers. The Y axis (levels of instructional reading skill) identifies distinct states that represent progression in instructional growth exhibited by teachers. These levels characterize a teacher's development in responding to the reading needs of his/her pupils. The taxonomy was used to investigate growth in preservice teacher responses to readers during a student teaching semester. Four-way dialogue journal communication (between student teacher, program director, cooperating teacher, and university supervisor) of 15 student teachers was analyzed to determine instructional reading growth. Results of the study supported growth and also noted similarity and differences in student teacher responses to pupil connected reading. In addition to its use as a research tool, the instrument provides a framework for communication and dialogue among preservice teachers, teachers, teacher educators, and supervisors for the purpose of encouraging growth and reflection in teacher responses to the connected reading of students. Additionally, the taxonomy permits analysis of differences in levels of growth among categories for individual teachers. (Three tables of data are included; 20 references and the taxonomy are attached.) (Author/RS) ED361684

Sebren, A. (1994). Reflective ThinkingIntegrating Theory and Practice in Teacher Preparation. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, v65 n6 p23-24,57-59 1994. Learning to teach is difficult and depends upon the ability of teacher educators to help preservice teachers move from generality to real world specificity. The article describes a model of reflective thinking that was used in a field-based elementary physical education methods course. It discusses the structure of the model, conditions necessary to foster reflection, and the role of the facilitator. (SM)

Sebren, A. (1995). Preservice Teachers' Reflections and Knowledge Development in a Field-Based Elementary Physical Education Methods Course. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, v14 n3 p262-83 1995. This study used interviews; observations of methods, course meetings, and field experiences; and audiotapes of weekly reflection sessions. Data analysis indicated that preservice teachers made managerial decisions, planned lesson content, considered children's prior learning, and connected their choice of words to children's perspectives but did not develop the ability to respond pedagogically to children during a lesson. (SM)

Segal, G. (1997). A Sociocultural Model of Learning and Teaching in Early Childhood Science Education. The purposes of this study were to: (1) investigate the process of development of young children's ideas when (and if) they appropriate science from the conceptual area (i.e., light) during whole-class and small- group interactions; and (2) advance understanding of relationships between a collaboratively designed learning and teaching model and children's developing scientific knowledge. This paper discusses children's learning in a Year 1/2 class. Children cooperated with their teacher's skillful modeling of how to conduct fruitful discussion. The high engagement of children in class discussions was revealed by their ever-lengthening and increasingly fluent contributions. Children expressed complex ideas while their classmates listened intently and interacted directly with the contributor, unmodulated by their teacher. The informal inquiry sessions where children could investigate their own questions or those generated in class discussion stimulated further thinking about the learning-model context and provided material for reflection on learning. Mediational means for the development of children's thinking can be attributed to child, teacher, and parental characteristics grounded in their middle-class culture and values, in the design of the learning and teaching model, and in the use children made of their personal learning journals. Contains 51 references. (Author/PVD) ED406150

Sensenbaugh, R. (1990). Multiplicities of Literacies in the 1990s. ERIC Digest. ED320138

Severeide, R. C. (1992). Promoting Developmentally Appropriate Practice through Teacher Self-Study. Literacy Improvement Series for Elementary Educators. Advocating the creation of a school climate that allows staff to determine the match between their current practice and standards of excellence, this booklet describes a process and attendant conditions for conducting self- study, one such process that shows promise. Based on experience, the booklet offers several lessons about the self-study process for teachers in the early grades. The first category of lessons in the booklet focus on the common bonds that teachers of young children appear to share and what this suggests about the self-study process. The second category in the booklet revolves around the six critical areas of support needed to promote a professional and reflective climate: (1) offering real reasons to participate; (2) building trust slowly through meaningful work; (3) providing administrative support; (4) providing ongoing support for peer facilitators; (5) tapping into outside resources; and (6) building in reflection time. The booklet highlights these lessons, offering practical advice about the process to those who wish to engage in a guided self-study. Annotated lists of five additional readings and five self-study documents are attached. (RS) ED354485

Shanker, A. (1995). A Reflection on 12 Studies of Education Reform. Phi Delta Kappan, v77 n1 p81-83 1995. After reading the 12 OERI-funded study summaries, an intelligent insider could not easily grasp why educational reform is needed. Academic achievement is hardly mentioned. These studies show that the standardization and bureaucratization associated with systems strangle the creativity, collaboration, and applied intelligence necessary for school reform. A shared institutional mission is essential. (MLH)

Shaw, J. M. (1993). See It, Change It, Reason It Out. Arithmetic Teacher, v40 n8 p434-36 1993. Preservice elementary teachers worked cooperatively to explore the relationship between the measure of the central angle and the number of sides of regular polygons using the reflection of a line in a hinged mirror. The experience involved conjecture and experimentation, communication, and building connections between science, geometry, and numbers. (MDH)

Shenkle, A. M. (1990). Sharpen Your Lesson Plans. Learning, v19 n1 p70-71 Jul-1990. This article proposes a system for developing lesson plans which accommodate differences in student learning styles without jeopardizing the pace of learning. Four teaching styles (direct teaching, practice, reflection, application) are identified, and activities that work well with these styles are suggested. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

Shillor, I., & Egan, B. (1993). The King Alfred's College Maths Game: Problem Solving and Mathematical Activity. Educational Studies in Mathematics, v24 n3 p313-17 1993. The paper describes the details and use with primary school teachers of a problem-solving activity known as the King Alfred's College Maths Game. The game demonstrates to teachers that problem solving needs to be approached through structured learning experiences that provide material for reflection and questioning. (Author/MDH)

Simmons, J. (1990). Adapting Portfolios for Large-Scale Use. Educational Leadership, v47 n6 p28 1990. A Durham, New Hampshire, research team successfully pilot-tested an alternative to holistically scored, timed writing samples that corrects some evaluation shortcomings without added cost. The team used portfolios to measure production, perception, and reflection across a population of 27 randomly selected fifth graders. This method proved superior to the timed- test approach. (MLH)

Smedley, S. (1995). One Story amongst Many. Early Child Development and Care, v110 p101-1995. Uses an autobiographical account to draw attention to some of the traditions, histories, and cultures that position women primary teachers and their work in society. Makes a case for engaging teachers, particularly student teachers, in detailed autobiographical reflection to help them to make sense of their professional lives and to further their professional development. (HTH)

Smith, D. C. (1994). Elementary Teacher Education in Korea. This monograph describes elementary teacher education in South Korea and aspects of Korean society that have contributed to the uniqueness of this educative process. Within the context of comparative education, the essay introduces the cultural, social, and institutional attributes of Korea; discusses specifics of the educative process as a reflection of these attributes; explores both the activities that are carried out in Korea's colleges of education and ensuing relationships between teacher training, cultural development, and respect for education; and examines the concept of melding pedagogy and ethical development for young people. Following an introduction, the book is organized into three sections. Section One, "Orientations" describes South Korea under the headings: a culture of traditions, educational foundations, the law and education, modern compulsory education, higher education and lifelong learning. Section two, "Teachers Colleges in Transition," discusses the highly competitive college or university entrance examination, the teacher education curriculum, teachers college faculty, college facilities, problems facing teacher education, and Korea's future elementary teachers. The final section, "A Critical Analysis of Korean Teacher Education," addresses the need for new teachers; problems in academe; working toward gender balance; status and sociological issues; governance reforms; and the views of Horace G. Underwood, a long-time observer of Korean society. An extensive resource list of books, articles, and other documents is included. (LL) ED374122

Smith, M. S. (1992). Manifesting a Whole Language Perspective: Novice Teachers in Action. An interpretive field study examined how beginning teachers with a whole language perspective went about manifesting their beliefs. Using the methods of purposeful sampling, four student teachers who were both committed and knowledgeable concerning the tenets of whole language were observed and interviewed during the student teaching experience. Results indicated that each of the student teachers maintained her whole language philosophy. Five categories emerged depicting the beliefs and teaching practices of these student teachers: (1) existing school practices; (2) knowledge and learning; (3) curriculum; (4) concept of teacher; and (5) concept of student. Findings suggest that the student teachers' beliefs and teaching practices matched very closely with the dimensions outlined by those calling for reflective teaching and that teacher preparation programs interested in developing reflection in future teachers might consider whole language philosophy. (Contains 30 references.) (Author/RS) ED361647

Spatig, L., & Others, A. (1996). Developmentalism Meets Standardized Testing: Low Income Children Lose. In the Head Start Public School Transition Demonstration Project, 32 demonstration sites across the country have extended Head Start-like services to help low-income children transition smoothly into the elementary grades. Preliminary evaluation of a demonstration program in two West Virginia counties suggested that Head Start students receiving transition services did not gain academically. In 12 schools, standardized tests of verbal achievement and basic math problem solving were administered to 290 students entering kindergarten and 243 students at the end of second grade. Students had received no Head Start services, Head Start only, or Head Start plus transitional services. Head Start participation had no effect on kindergarten results, and neither Head Start nor transitional services affected second-grade results. Ethnographic data collected by participant-observers during the program indicate that the project encouraged teaching practices that may be inconsistent with the standardized tests used to evaluate the program. Local staff development meetings (four to seven per year) focused on practices that are child- centered, developmentally oriented, and based on constructivist principles and teacher reflection. Although teachers were given few concrete recommendations about how to implement such practices, some shifted away from their former practice of "drilling skills" and teaching to standardized tests and became more passive in guiding children toward specific learning goals. The results suggest that it may be harmful to recommend developmental, constructivist education for low-income children with limited means of acquiring the dominant cultural knowledge that comprises standardized tests. (SV) ED405149

Speer, W. R., & Dixon, J. (1996). Investigations: Reflections of Mathematics. Teaching Children Mathematics, v2 n9 p537-43 1996. Includes lesson plans and worksheets that deal with transformational geometry, specifically reflections. The lesson for grades three to four focuses on angles of incidence and reflection and that for grades five to six involves mirror images. (MKR)

Stahlhut, R. G., & Hawkes, R. R. (1997). An Examination of Reflective Thinking through a Study of Written Journals, Telecommunications, and Personal Conferences. The purposes of this study were to discover if a list of 14 common experiences would be part of the student teachers' reflective process during their two 8-week practicums, and to evaluate how different mediums (written journals, telecommunications, and personal observation/conferences) would impact the student teachers' reflection process. The participants, 20 elementary student teachers, were not given formal training or guidance related to the reflection process, but were simply told to reflect on issues and experiences that concerned them. The students were required to use each of the three mediums, selecting one as the primary medium for reflection. Analysis of the data revealed that individual student teachers tended to reflect on discipline/management issues, effective teaching practices, the success of lesson plans, relationships with faculty and students, and feelings of self worth and confidence. They tended to use journals for sharing everyday teaching events with cooperating teachers; observation sessions with professors to address administrative issues, overall performance assessment, or schoolwide issues; and telecommunications when they had a sense of urgency about a specific issue and needed to solve immediate problems. (ND) ED405305

Stahlhut, R., & Others, A. (1992). The Douma School Project. This study was conducted to compare and contrast the nontraditional placement of student teachers in a single school for an entire semester rather than the more traditional approach of placement in several buildings during the same time period. Student teachers (N=25) were assigned to the Ottumwa (Iowa) Regional Center. Of these, 19 were placed following the traditional approach, while the other 6 were assigned to the Douma School, selected as an experimental site. Data were gathered through observation and interviews of all professional personnel. Results suggest that advantages offered to Douma School teachers-in-training include: strengthened professional relationships among cooperating teachers, student teachers, pupils, and university supervisors; and expanded opportunities for collaboration, mentoring, reflection, collegiality, and bonding. In addition, student teachers were offered in-depth exposure to "real teacher" experiences such as assignment to teacher committees, placement on duty rosters, and inclusion in all inservice training. A disadvantage frequently reported was the inability to practice in another building and another environment for the purpose of starting over after having had the benefit of some teaching experience. Further research utilizing this paradigm is recommended. (LL) ED344840

Stansell, J. C. (1993). Reflection, Resistance and Research among Preservice Teachers Studying Their Literacy Histories: Lessons for Literacy Teacher Education. A study examined the impact of students' researching their own literacy histories upon their views of literacy and literacy learning but shifted to investigate sources of students resistance to the assignment. In the seven sections of a senior-level reading course, taught between 1988 and 1991, data were collected and analyzed to address the initial objectives. The 100 students who were enrolled in 4 subsequent sections of the course became the primary informants. Students were observed and interviewed as they worked both individually and with small groups. Histories (drafts and final versions) were also read and analyzed. Some students' views of their past literacy experiences, of literacy itself, and of research were transformed as they studied their own literacy histories. However, results indicated a strong theme of resistance on the part of many students as they worked in the assignment. Even after the assignment was redesigned to address issues of resistance, elements of resistance reappeared semester after semester. Some felt trapped in a game of guessing what the instructor wanted, others felt trapped by their inexperience as researchers. Signs of resistance were also not always apparent. For possibly one-third of the informants, there was no change in belief or perspective that was apparent. Findings suggest that writing literacy histories can be a useful pedagogical tool, but resistance from students should offer caution to teacher educators who see teacher research as potentially able to transform the profession's knowledge base. (RS) ED365950

Stanulis, R. N. (1995). Classroom Teachers as Mentors: Possibilities for Participation in a Professional Development School Context. Teaching and Teacher Education, v11 n4 p331-44 1995. A study of five mentors in a K-5 professional development school investigated how mentors talk about their theories of how novices learn to teach, use different sources of knowledge to help novices learn to teach, and model and encourage critical reflection about critical issues in teacher education. (IAH)

Steffel, N., & Others, A. (1996). Reflections on Our Journey: Creating a Community of Learners. Contemporary Education, v67 n4 p226-29 Sum 1996. One of four articles in the third section, "Reflection: What We Have Learned," this article describes one university's journey from a traditional teacher education program to one that included professional development schools (PDS). Presents six key elements that helped make the journey successful. (SM)

Stickel, S. A., & Trimmer, K. J. (1994). Knowing in Action: A First-Year Counselor's Process of Reflection. Elementary School Guidance & Counseling, v29 n2 p102-1994. Describes how keeping a journal can help counselors analyze their professional development as they move from training to practice. The three- step process entails keeping an unstructured journal, writing a retrospective summary of the journal, and carefully analyzing this summary. Such reflection offers a framework for examining one's autobiography. (RJM)

Stott, F., & Bowman, B. (1996). Child Development Knowledge: A Slippery Base for Practice. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, v11 n2 p169-83 1996. Examines issues pertaining to the development of a formal knowledge base to guide the thinking and practice of early childhood teachers. Discusses the authors' views on formal knowledge, practice and reflection, and the process of teacher education, and how these views are operationalized in the master's level program at Erikson Institute in Chicago. (AA)

Strachota, B. (1996). On Their Side: Helping Children Take Charge of Their Learning. This text reviews academic, emotional, motivational, and social learning theories that help children to be their own teachers and teachers to be aware of the advantages of taking charge of one's own learning, rather than depending on teacher education methodology. Learning is described as more than learning facts and figures or directive methodology; it is a child who simply wonders about something and just wants to know about something. Seven chapters review how teachers are told to teach under traditional teaching methodology and how the author discovered how to teach children to want to teach themselves, under less directive methods. Among the suggestions are that learning must come from a mix of doing and wondering, and that frequently it is more effective to start with reflection and discussion rather than action. It is important to ally with the children, to present the problem, and to listen to their solutions, before imposing the teaching methodology solution. The ultimate goal of teaching should be to help children learn to create their own solutions to the problems of learning and living ethically and to take responsibility themselves. Four stories are presented that illustrate this effort of allying with the children, posing the real questions, and sharing responsibility. (Contains 25 references.) (NAV) ED393856

Streefland, L. (1991). Fractions in Realistic Mathematics Education: A Paradigm of Developmental Research. This book has a two-fold purpose. First, it was intended as a description of the development and testing of a primary school fraction program, presently in practice. This project seeks to develop a realistic alternative to the teaching and learning of fractions. The second purpose was to produce a theory on the teaching and learning of fractions that could be an example for a theory of realistic mathematics education. The introduction gives an overview of the research and the sequential development of the course. Chapter 1, "Description of the Fraction Problem," describes an historical background of the problem created by fractions in mathematics education. Chapter 2, "Currents-Standpoint- Proposal," regards fractions from a variety of viewpoints from the background of the historical learning process. Chapter 3, "The Context of the Research," offers a framework of the circumstances and conditions of the research. Chapter 4, "The "Course in Theory and Practice", contains a general outline of the new course. Chapter 5, "Individual Portraits of the Fraction Researchers," draws portions of the individual learning processes of those 13 students who participated throughout the entire research period. Chapter 6, "Internal Evaluation of the Learning Process," illuminates the individual learning processes against the background of the type of instruction given. Chapter 7, "External or Summative Evaluation", contains the research group's results on a "cross-section test" compared to a control group. Chapter 8, "Theoretical Review", is a theoretical reflection that establishes certain links with the more general frameworks of cognitive psychology and educational psychology. (MDH) ED341566

Sumsion, J., & Fleet, A. (1996). Reflection: Can We Assess It? Should We Assess It? Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, v21 n2 p121-30 1996. A study examined the feasibility and desirability of assessing reflective practice in student teachers studying early childhood literacy. While the study reaffirmed the importance of developing reflective teachers, it also highlighted the difficulties of equitably or meaningfully assessing reflection. Use of alternative methodologies in future research on reflection is recommended. (Author/MSE)

Swanson, J. D., & Finnan, C. (1996). School Improvement and Action Research: Two Paradigms. School reform in the 1990s has been focused on school-based restructuring, with local efforts shown to be more successful than earlier central or remote control approaches. Success has followed changes in teachers' classroom behavior, in the structure of the school, and its school culture. The local school restructuring approach is illustrated through two projects: Project SEARCH, a Jacob Javits Demonstration Project, promotes change one classroom at a time, through an individual approach to teachers. The South Carolina Accelerated Schools Project (ASP) uses an inquiry approach with teams of teachers to create positive school wide change. ASP teachers are involved in school-wide action research. Both programs have been used to restructure the "Middleton School," a Schoolwide Title I Project school serving an 87 percent African American student body in a rural area of South Carolina. The school's involvement in two projects with similar premises but different paradigms resulted in positive change: (1) teacher enpowerment has been positively affected by action research with greater participation by teachers in decision making; (2) curriculum and instruction have been modified to follow a gifted and talented model for all students with positive results; and (3) all the initiatives support each other through a process that actively involves teachers in both action and reflection. (Contains 25 references.) (JLS) ED399248

Swick, K. J. (1992). Teacher-Parent Partnerships. ERIC Digest. ED351149
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_________. (1993). Science and Math Assessment in K-6 Rural and Small Schools. Rural, Small Schools Network Information Exchange: Number 14, Spring 1993. This packet includes reprints of journal articles and other resources concerning the assessment of science and math in small, rural elementary schools. Articles include: (1) "Standards, Assessment, and Educational Quality" (Lauren B. Resnick); (2) "A True Test: Toward More Authentic and Equitable Assessment" (Grant Wiggins); (3) "How World-Class Standards Will Change Us" (Arthur L. Costa); (4) "Smart Tests" (Deborah L. Cohen); (5) "Laser Disk Portfolios: Total Child Assessment" (Jo Campbell); (6) "Portfolios Invite Reflectionfrom Students and Staff" (Elizabeth A. Hebert); (7) "Portfolio Assessment in the Hands of Teachers" (Clare Forseth); (8) "Portfolio Assessment" (Susan Black); (9) "Assessing the Outcomes of Computer-Based Instruction: The Experience of Maryland" (Gita Z. Wilder, Mary Fowles); (10) "Why Standards May Not Improve Schools" (Elliot W. Eisner); (11) "Assessing Alternative Assessment" (Gene I. Maeroff); (12) "Assessment Recordkeeping in a Non-Graded Developmentally- Based Program" (Elsbeth Bellemere, Jeanne King); (13) "Strategies for the Development of Effective Performance Exercises" (Joan Boykoff Baron); (14) "Evaluating Elementary Science" (Rodney L. Doran and others); (15) "Science for All: Getting It Right for the 21st Century" (Kenneth M. Hoffman, Elizabeth K. Stage); (16) "Active Assessment for Active Science" (George E. Hein); (17) "The Nature of Elementary Science: What Does 'It' Look Like?" (Gregg Humphrey); (18) "Assessment: What Is 'IT'?" (Gregg Humphrey); (19) "What's Worth Assessing?" (Monte Moses); (20) "Creating Benchmarks for Science Education" (Andrew Ahlgren); (21) "Assessment, Practically Speaking" (Lehman W. Barnes, Marianne B. Barnes); (22) "Getting Connected to Science" (Candace L. Julyan); (23) "EDTALK: What We Know about Science Teaching and Learning"; (24) "What We've Learned about Assessing Hands-On Science" (Richard J. Shavelson, Gail P. Baxter); (25) "NCTM's Standards: A Rallying Flag for Mathematics Teachers" (Thomas A. Romberg); (26) "Measuring What's Worth Learning"; (27) "Report Offers Glimpse of Mathematics Assessment of the Future" (Robert Rothman); (28) "The Power of Thinking Mathematics" (Alice J. Gill, Lovely H. Billups); (29) "Bringing Meaning to Math with a Student-Run Store" (Deborah Black); (30) "Employer Expectations for School Mathematics" (Henry O. Pollak); and (31) "Evaluating Problem Solving in Mathematics" (Walter Szetela, Cynthia Nicol). (LP) ED384474

Shockley, B., & Others, A. (1995). Creating Parallel Practices: A Home-to-School and School-to-Home Partnership. Instructional Resource No. 13. Creating meaningful links between home and school is a particular concern of teachers and families. As classroom teachers, Betty Shockley and Barbara Michalove heard their students talk often about home literacy events. They wanted to find a way to learn what families valued and practiced, and they wanted to communicate to families how their children were becoming literate in school. By formulating a set of "parallel practices" (home reading journals, family stories, family reflection, and adult literacy conversations) sensitive to the needs and goals of both contexts, they developed respectful partnerships in support of young literacy learners. This instructional resource details the development of these "parallel practices" and features the voices and experiences of one mother and daughter as they participated in this jointly constructed opportunity through first and second grade. Contains 9 references, a bibliography of 28 works of children's literature, and 7 figures illustrating parallel practices and presenting excerpts of students' journal entries. (Author/RS) ED390033
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_________. (1994). The Academy Update (Early Childhood Professionals Collaborating for Quality), 1992-1995. Academy Update, v7 n1 Fall 1992-v10 n1 Fall 1995 1994. This document consists of six issues of a newsletter entitled "Academy Update", extending from fall 1992 through fall 1995 (three years). This serial is published by the National Academy of Early Childhood (NAEYC) programs to improve and recognize the quality of care and education provided for young children in early childhood programs. The "Academy Update" supports this goal by providing early childhood professionals (including directors, validatory members, and commissioners involved in accreditation) with current information and feedback on the accreditation system. This document contains six issues of the "Academy Update." The feature articles of Volume 7, Number 1 are: "Pennsylvania School Board Recognizes Accreditation"; "New Policies Strengthen Accreditation"; Clarifying Misinformation about NAEYC and Accreditation"; and "Thoughts on Using Media in "Programs". The feature articles of Volume 8 Number 1 are: "American Business Collaboration Supports NAEYC Accreditation"; "Public and Private Funds for Accreditation Growing"; "Children's World Accredits 100 Centers"; and "Serving Children with Disabilities; Parents Speak". The feature articles of issue Volume 8 Number 2 are: "Chicago AEYC Receives $2.1 Million Accreditation Grant"; "New Tax Credits Mean Lower Taxes or Bigger Refunds"; "NAEYC Revokes Accreditation"; and "Cautions on Supervision". The feature articles of volume 9, number 1 include: "Companies Discover Quality Child Care is Good Business"; "Continuity of Relationships among Adults and Children is Essential for Quality;" "'Validation Procedures and Ethics' Generates Diverse Views from Directors, Validators"; and "Reaccreditation: A Tool for Continuous Quality Improvement." The feature articles of Volume 9, Number 2 are: "New Child Care Study Supports Accreditation"; "Diversity and Accreditation Standards: Congruent or Conflicting"; and "Foundation Supports Professional Development for Directors and Quality for Children. The feature articles for Volume 10, Number 1 are: "Major Corporations To Invest $100 Million in Dependent Care"; "10th Year of Accreditation Is a Time for Reflection"; and "Understanding Quality and the Cultural Context." (AP) ED386272

Taylor, N. E., & Others, A. (1994). Making Connections: Aligning Theory and Field Practice. This paper reports program changes in the junior year internship that were made to bring practice closer to the theoretical goals of the Catholic University of America's teacher education program in Washington, D.C. The changes had the goal of increasing the quality and scope of education students' thinking about education, and they involved restructuring the organization of course work so students could spend a concentrated amount of time in classrooms. Juniors spent 1 day a week in field placement during their first semester. The second semester then consisted of the major methods courses (taught at the field site) and a practicum of 2 mornings a week during the first half of the semester and four consecutive days during the second half of the semester. Students planned and carried out a thematic unit that integrated science, social studies, and reading/language arts. This activity pulled the methods courses and the field experience together. Reflection about practice was encouraged throughout the semester. Data from 13 preservice teachers revealed that the revised program was effective in accomplishing its goals. Students practiced reflection not imitation, found support not isolation, connected theory and activity for transfer, and experienced normatively situated dilemmas instead of only technique. Themes emerging from the evaluation data include: ownership/partnership; risk taking; planning, teaching, and learning; realities; and relationship of changes to larger program goals. (Contains 18 references.) (JDD) ED367597

Terkel, S. N. (1993). Making Ethics a Habit in Your Family Life. PTA Today, v18 n4 p8-9 1993. Suggests family activities related to moral values: (1) instilling the giving habit; (2) using stories and games to trigger moral reflection; (3) encouraging earth ethics; (4) developing the moral opinion habit; (5) making moral reminders part of the home decor; (6) using every opportunity to teach; and (7) sharing holidays with others. (GLR)

Thomas, A., & Rao, P. (1992). Developing an Early Childhood Initiative in Post Baccalaureate Preservice Teacher Education: Reflections on Collaboration. Collaboration between university and school board seems essential in matching core objectives of teacher training with the critical skills and knowledge needed by teachers in new environments. Therefore, Brock University (Ontario, Canada) and the Niagara South Board of Education (Ontario, Canada) established a collaborative early primary teacher education initiative within an existing preservice program. They created a shared funding/shared staff arrangement; a key administrator in the early childhood program facilitated the collaboration, and key personnel met frequently before the beginning of the school year. This initiative was built upon a Brock model in which students were organized into counseling groups. One main contribution of collaboration was increased access of university personnel to cooperating teachers and more personal involvement of cooperating teachers in the supervision of student teachers. During the counseling seminars, formal time was given to reflection through shared storytelling. Both storytelling and journal writing offered insights into how collaboration worked between students and colleagues. As program management has become more routine, the focus of collaborative reflection will shift to how well it meets student needs and how it challenges student teachers to reflect critically on the practices and methods they have experienced. Appendices provide an outline of the seminar reflection process, course outline for the early childhood education methods course, and the form used for evaluation of student teacher performance. (SM) ED348343

Thomson, B. S., & Diem, J. J. (1994). Fruit Bats, Cats, and Naked Mole Rats: Lifelong Learning at the Zoo. ERIC/CSMEE Digest. ED372966

Throne, J. (1994). Living with the Pendulum: The Complex World of Teaching. Harvard Educational Review, v64 n2 p195-208 Sum 1994. A look at curricular reforms and reflection on the evolution of a kindergarten language arts curriculum lead to a description of how one teacher integrated several theoretical perspectives in her practice. An ongoing dialogue between teachers and theorists, researchers, and policymakers would foster a more comprehensive view of the learning process. (SK)

Tierney, D. S. (1993). Teaching Portfolios: 1992 Update on Research and Practice. The first section of the update lists responses received to date to a survey of teacher portfolio use. Fourteen preservice and inservice teacher education programs and 12 kindergarten through grade 12 school districts responded with brief descriptions of their portfolio use and with contacts and addresses for further information. The second section is an annotated bibliography of four studies on teacher portfolios published since November 1991. A final section reviews the state of the art in teacher portfolios. Several teacher education programs that responded appear to use portfolios as a means of increasing teacher reflection and providing a record of teacher growth to be discussed and shared with other teachers. The remainder appear to be using teacher-constructed portfolios to increase the quality and specificity of the assessment process. Some schools districts are using teacher portfolios as a way for teachers to demonstrate professional growth. A few are using or considering portfolios as part of the teacher certification system. This path seems premature, based on the experience with teacher portfolios so far. The promise of portfolios remains bright, but remaining concerns must be addressed before the relationship between the portfolio and its content and scoring can be reliably defined. (SLD) ED361357

Tindal, G., & Parker, R. (1991). Identifying Measures for Evaluating Written Expression. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, v6 n4 p211-18 1991. This study describes validation data for qualitative and quantitative writing measures useful with a full range of students, including special education students, in grades three through five. The study looked for consistent administration and scoring, sensitivity in differentiating groups of students, relation to other accepted assessments, and reflection of student improvement over time. (Author/JDD)

Tipton, G. M., III, & Samek, L. L. (1994). Reflective Infusion in Christian College Teacher Preparation. This study was conducted to examine the perceived value of reflective practices/techniques in Christian college teacher education programs; and the usage level of techniques and practices for the infusion of reflection in Christian institutions. A review of the literature determined the following 10 reflective practices and techniques as a viable sample of reflective methodologies: autobiography, case studies, critical inquiry, curriculum analysis and modification, dialoging, ethnography, forums, journals, portfolios, and problematizing (analyzing and solving problems). A survey instrument was developed and mailed to 88 individual faculty members from the Christian College Coalition. Recipients were asked to rate perceived value and usage levels of the 10 reflective practices/techniques and respond to a variety of demographic questions. The final return rate of usable surveys was 71.6 percent. According to the data analysis, respondents generally favored and hoped to increase the usage of reflective practices/techniques; and no differences were noted in the ratings of those teacher educators holding master's degrees as compared to those holding doctorates, or in the ratings of those whose background was in elementary education as opposed to secondary. Based on results of the study, recommendations and some implications for further research are included. A copy of the survey instrument is appended. (Contains approximately 30 references.) (LL) ED372047

Tomasini, N. G., & Others, A. (1990). Teaching Strategies and Conceptual Change: Sinking and Floating at Elementary School Level. This paper describes the design and results of a study carried out with elementary pupils ages 8-9 years on the topic of sinking and floating, with the aim of checking the validity of a general scheme for classroom activities based on a constructivist perspective. Children's "ways of looking" at buoyancy and the production of materials that could be used for elementary school teacher training were investigated. The idea of conceptual change as the basis of the scheme and the importance of conceptual change in teacher training are discussed. The three phases of the scheme, "messing about," "intervention," and "reflection," are discussed. The introduction is followed by a presentation of the aims, methods, and data sources of the study. A summary of the results obtained and a discussion of some general issues concerning the role of educational research towards school practice conclude the paper. Two flowcharts and a 27-item bibliography are attached. (KR) ED326428

Tomkiewicz, W. C. (1991). Reflective Teaching and Conceptual Change in an Interdisciplinary Elementary Methods Course. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which writing to learn and reflective teaching within an interdisciplinary elementary methods course gave undergraduates the opportunity to change their perspective from student to teacher. Participants were 31 preservice elementary education majors enrolled in a one semester interdisciplinary methods course involving science, reading, and language arts. A number of whole class experiences were devised both on and off campus to provide a cognitive apprenticeship through a variety of opportunities to observe classes, experience life as a teacher, and to be exposed to children. Data were collected through students' writing, videotapes of science classes, researcher's field notes of class proceedings, and small group discussions. Findings suggest that: (1) the structure of the course as an interdisciplinary workshop that asked students to consider themselves as scientists, readers, and writers forced all students to confront their self- concepts in each discipline; (2) the emphasis on written reflection allowed students to discover just what troubled them about teaching science, reading, and language arts; and (3) the course structure and activities forced students to see themselves evolving from students to thinking, rational, intuitive, and decision-making teachers. (LL) ED339689

Tsai, M.-L. (1997). Culture Reflection and Re-construction in Aboriginal Children's Community Play: An Analysis of Children's Competence in and out of School. A study applied an ethnographic approach to present a contextualized interpretation of children's competence as revealed in their play activities outside of school. The purpose of the study was to de-construct claims that Taiwan's aboriginal children cannot make it at school because of their "lacking cultural stimulus." Five play episodes, drawn from a year- long ethnographic study in a school composed of aboriginal students who belonged to the Atayal tribe in the mountain area in northern Taiwan, were videotaped and subjected to a fine-grained analysis. Results indicated that (1) the themes of the community play reflected the children's perceptions of adult concerns and role relationships in daily life; and (2) the conversation and interaction styles in these play contexts contained important elements of the local cultural ethos, such as valuing competence over the material resources, stressing "sharing" in group life, regarding fighting as justified actions for the benefit of the group, and listening to elders when conflicts arise. Findings suggest that the children were very good at taking whatever materials were available in the environment, transforming their meanings into play, and embedding them appropriately and creatively along with the construction of play. (Contains 17 references.) (RS) ED406705

Tyler, B. (1993). At Risk Students in a Whole Language Classroom: A Naturalistic Inquiry. This study sought to determine how retained first grade students function in a whole language classroom after meeting with failure in a traditional first grade setting. Data collection for the five retained students, plus six "at-risk" students, involved naturalistic observation. Reading began from language experience stories that the students dictated to the teacher. Writing stories began by drawing a picture, writing a story about it, reading the story oneself, and then reading the story to another. Students experienced success when they were reading from predictable books, but found reading from basal readers to be laborious. Traditional test scores revealed that all of the retained and "at-risk" students were on or above grade level at the end of the school year. The paper concludes that the success of the classroom is a reflection of the teacher's philosophical belief that all children can learn when the environment is conducive for learning and when the students are given the opportunity to take responsibility for their own learning. The paper also concludes that when students can function in an environment that encourages risk taking and when the curriculum is adjusted to meet the needs and interests of the learner, success will follow. (JDD) ED363604
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Ullrich, W. J. (1992). Preservice Teachers Reflect on the Authority Issue: A Case Study of a Student Teaching Seminar. Teaching and Teacher Education, v8 n4 p361-80 1992. The growth of personal autonomy was studies in a reflective, inquiry- oriented teacher education program, analyzing how often beginning teachers displayed critical reflection when their self-directed seminar focused on authority. Findings indicated the nondirective seminar devoted to promoting personal autonomy and collaboration did not meet individual student teachers' needs. (SM)
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Vandergrift, L. (1992). French as a Second Language. Student Evaluation Guide: Early Childhood Services-Grade 12 = Francais langue seconde: guide d'evaluation des eleves de la maternelle a la 12e annee. The guide is designed as a reference to student evaluation for teachers of Alberta's new French second language curriculum. It provides a suggested philosophy of student evaluation and evaluation techniques consistent with the curriculum. It is presented in its entirety in both English and French. An initial discussion of the purpose of evaluation defines evaluation, examines its rationale, presents two guiding principles, and describes in greater detail the practical application of those principles. Two subsequent sections look at specific student evaluation techniques for (1) ongoing classroom practices, including observation, error correction, comprehension/verification, and reflection/feedback, and (2) evaluation of an integrated unit or educational project. A chapter is devoted to reporting student progress, with suggestions for design of both open- and closed-ended questions and discussion of progress and achievement tests. Appended materials include a sample test, checklists for creating an integrated test, and examples of communicative test items and evaluation grids based on the guide, in French and English. (MSE) ED354764

Vaughan, R. (1996). Venturing into Co-Operative Learning in the Early Years of Schooling: A Classroom Teacher's Experience. An early childhood classroom teacher integrated academic goals with the acquisition of social skills by using a specific teaching strategy of co- operative learning. The teacher of 5- to 7-year-olds experienced a classroom environment which lacked respect, fairness, and tolerance in the following dynamics: (1) boys toward girls; (2) older children toward younger children; (3) more academically able toward less academically able; and (4) boys toward teachers and adults. The goal of the cooperative learning program was to implement explicit academic and social skill expectations whereby children are positively interdependent, feedback is constructive in manner, and reflection is encouraged utilizing a detailed eight-step, progressive methodology. The implementation of this approach resulted in four commonly encountered problems described in the literature of this subjectpassive uninvolvement, active uninvolvement, independence, and taking charge. A fifth unanticipated problem, parent resistance, was addressed via a parent informational workshop. The other problems required modification of the methodology. The use of cooperative learning in this classroom resulted in positive outcomes in the areas of cooperation and collaboration, decrease in competitive behavior, improvement in communication skills, increase in tolerance and respect, growth of self esteem, and a more productive classroom. (SD) ED402101

Veenman, S. (1995). Training in Coaching Skills. In this study, the implementation effects of a program for the training in coaching skills with Dutch school counselors are described. These school counselors are expected to provide help and support to primary school teachers. Coaching is a form of in-class support intended to provide teachers with feedback on their own functioning, thereby stimulating self- reflection and self-analysis in order to improve instructional effectiveness. A review of relevant literature revealed a number of models for the clinical supervision or coaching of teachers, each with a number of concretely designed skills. However, no direct relationship was found between coaching and student achievement. To assist school counselors in their attempts to coach teachers, a training program was designed: "The School Counsellor as Coach." A quasi-experimental, treatment-control group investigation was then set up to test the effects of this program. Based on the pre- and post-training ratings of coaching conferences, a significant treatment effect was found for the school counselors' coaching skills related to the development of autonomy (empowerment), feedback, and purposefulness. The pre- and post-training ratings from coached teachers showed no significant treatment effects. Probably this was because the teachers were not accustomed to in-class assistance and thus rated the coaching skills of the school counselors quite favorably even at pre-test. (Contains 31 references.) (Author/ND) ED386438

Venger, A. L., & Gorbov, S. F. (1993). Psychological Foundations for an Introductory Course of Mathematics for Six Year Olds. Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, v15 n1 p2-13 Win 1993. Discusses an introductory mathematics course for six year olds which incorporates visual reflection of essential links and relationships, broad and flexible approaches, student actions, and meaningful cooperation of students. The four topics covered are determination of attributes, symbolic representation of relations and transformations, the number line, and number operations. (MKR)

Vermette, P. J. (1994). Ms. Thorpe's Cooperative Learning Lesson: Analysis and Reflection. Social Science Record, v31 n2 p8-10 Fall 1994. Presents an analysis and evaluation of a fictitious case study of a student teacher using cooperative learning in a global studies class. Includes comments and suggestions made by 10 teachers who also reviewed the case study. Discusses eight "probe questions" that focus on content decisions, teacher control, and equity. (CFR)

Vizyak, L. (1995). Student Portfolios: Building Self-Reflection in a First-Grade Classroom. Reading Teacher, v48 n4 p362-64 Dec-199 1995. Describes how a first-grade teacher uses portfolios in her classroom, including a teacher-student portfolio and a student-managed portfolio which gives students practice in selecting meaningful work and reflecting on those selections. (SR)

Vogt, L. A., & Au, K. H. P. (1994). The Role of Teachers' Guided Reflection in Effecting Positive Program Change. Kamehameha Elementary Education Program (KEEP), in Hawaii, and Rough Rock (which serves Navajo students in Arizona) are dedicated to strengthening the school success of students who have not thrived in traditional mainstream school settings. Both programs have rooted change efforts in the belief that students would experience improved school success if a better match existed between the linguistic and cultural knowledge of the students and the school. In KEEP, teacher thinking and reflection have been encouraged, and teachers are provided with the tools and resources needed to facilitate this reflection. Three periods of KEEP's teacher training and support history include: the three-hat model (teachers assuming three roles: teacher, researcher, and consultant); the dissemination phase; and the whole literacy phase. Collaboration with Rough Rock began during the dissemination phase, to test hypotheses regarding the culturally compatible features of the KEEP program: student interaction at independent centers, comprehension-based reading instruction, and talk-story turn-taking. Teacher training, observation, feedback, and reflection were provided. Teacher reflection has been stimulated by participation in qualitative research aimed at program improvement, observation of teaching-learning interactions, frequent collaborative dialogue with consultants or mentor teachers, and journal writing. (Contains 23 references.) (JDD) ED377164

Vogt, L. A., & Au, K. H. P. (1995). The Role of Teachers' Guided Reflection in Effecting Positive Program Change. Bilingual Research Journal, v19 n1 p101-20 Win 1995. Examines the evolution of teacher support and development in the Kamehameha Elementary Education Program (KEEP) and Rough Rock Community School collaboration. Ongoing teacher development featured regular classroom observation and feedback with mentors and peers and self-reflection through videotaping and journal writing. (two references) (MDM)
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Walker, M. J. (1996). Images of Professional Development: Teaching, Learning, and Action Research. Action Research Series No. 2. The field work for this study was conducted in South Africa in 1987-1989, before the end of apartheid, but much of the critical reflection and engagement postdates the empirical research. The project examined the role of the facilitator in the process of educational change. The research involved 34 teachers from primary schools. Chapter one explores action research as a method, attending to questions of epistemology and research methods, especially the interview process, reflexivity and self- understandings, and validity. Chapter two sketches the historical terrain and sets the scene for the project action and, together with chapter three, maps conditions shaping the possibilities and the limits for teacher development. Chapter four examines the relationships established by the researcher with teachers and how these were shaped by relations of power which produced subjectivities within discursive practices. Chapters five and six consider teacher development through curriculum development, in particular exploring how the curriculum structures what pupils and teachers may say or do. Chapter six also revisits the limits and possibilities of professional development and action research, both as a contribution to developing a critical tradition of action research in South Africa and as a strategy for reconstructing inservice teacher education grounded in teacher development through reflective curriculum development. (Contains 185 references.) (ND) ED401231

Wallewein, D. I. (1994). "Collective Creation": A Multidisciplinary Drama Program. Clearing House, v67 n6 p345-47 Jul-1994. Describes "collective creation," an instructional technique involving drama that is useful in a wide range of disciplines. Discusses choosing the topic, gathering material, exploration, refining the collective creation, rehearsal and performance, and reflection. (SR)

Walsh, J. A. (1994). Moral Development: Making the Connection between Choices, Responsibility and Self-Esteem. This paper discusses strategies and techniques that early childhood educators can use to encourage self-esteem and responsibility in young children. It examines Kohlberg's theory of moral values, which states that children progress through three stages of moral development: (1) the pre- moral stage, based on rewards and punishments; (2) the moral stage, which involves the approval of others; and (3) the informed conscience stage, in which moral principles are internalized. Self-esteem is closely related to moral development, in that the choices children make influence their feelings of self-concept and self-worth. It suggests that teachers can build healthy self-esteem in young children by setting realistic expectations for students, accepting students unconditionally, providing emotional support to students, and maintaining their own self-esteem through recreation and reflection. (MDM) ED369555

Ward, A., & Darling, L. (1996). Learning through Conversation: A Reflection on Collaboration. Action in Teacher Education, v18 n3 p80-86 Fall 1996. This conversation between two teacher educators describes a project that integrated social studies and language arts methods classes in a cross- cultural setting. The integrated content evolved around themes of community building and cross-cultural communication. The paper reflects on teaching together in a traditional education programits pleasures, pitfalls, and effects on practice. (Author/SM)

Weir, B. (1990). Lessons from a French Class on Becoming Literate: A Personal Reflection. Reading Horizons, v31 n1 p49-58 1990. Draws a parallel between the experience of learning to read and write in a first and a second language. Notes that the experience of learning through an approach that permits talking, reading, and writing freely is satisfying whereas the experience with a text-based approach to learning is much less satisfactory. (RS)

Weldin, D. J., & Tumarkin, S. R. (1997). Parent Involvement: More Power in the Portfolio Process. Educational Assessment is at the cornerstone of education in the 1990s. Advocates for alternative assessment believe that the new tasks should be redesigned to more closely resemble real learning tasks. Portfolio assessment encourages an integration between assessment and instruction and results in several positive educational outcomes. Portfolios represent students' learning in a variety of ways, including depth, breadth, and change over time. With portfolios, the assessment activities and classroom activities can occur throughout the school day. Portfolio assessment can provide educators with an assessment system that includes multiple measures taken over time to create a complete picture of student achievement. The paper describes a portfolio assessment program at a Maryland elementary school, including requirements for implementation, staff training, involvement and support of parents, stages of portfolio assessment use, home-school connections, and a celebration of the year-long commitment to using portfolio assessment. The program placed particular emphasis on parent participation at early morning coffees and afternoon teas, parental commitment to the program, and parental involvement and training in the portfolio assessment process. Appendices include a listing of reference sources, a sample primary portfolio, portfolio conference sheet, student presentation form, partner reflection form, and parent or guardian portfolio feedback form. (Author/SD) ED411066

Werbizky, L. (1991). Block Building: Its Role in Children's Learning as Seen by One Elementary School Teacher. Insights into Open Education, v24 n3 1991 1991. The role of block building in children's learning was studied by a student teacher who observed a teacher's block building curriculum in a combined first and second grade class. The purpose was to clarify the linkage between thinking and doing, spoken intention and actual consequences, and planning and spontaneity in the curriculum. The cycle of observation, reflection, and provisioning was a feature of the teacher's learning process and a significant feature of her curriculum. ("Provisioning" is described as "implementing curriculum the teacher feels best addresses and extends the interests and learning of the children.") The teacher observed students' interests; confirmed them upon reflection; and related them to her curriculum development by provisioning the classroom with materials that matched the children's interest. Dominant motifs in this cycle were personal meaning, integration, and continuity. Each of these resulted from the teacher's background and beliefs. The physical context of the block corner and block building became a focus of the approach to curriculum development. Block building was shown to be a rich medium for learning and social negotiation. A list of types of learning that block building enables (for example, math concepts, science, symbolization, problem solving, and art) is appended. Contains 15 references. (LB) ED339490

Westerman, D. A. (1991). Teacher Decision Making by Experts and Novices across Three Stages: Preactive, Interactive, and Postactive. This study examined the thinking and decision making of expert and novice teachers in three stages of decision making: practive (planning), interactive (actual teaching), and postactive (evaluative reflection). Novices in the study were five student teachers, and experts were their five cooperating teachers in a suburban elementary school. Data sources included: (1) audiotaped planning interviews; (2) videotapes of actual lessons; (3) stimulated recall interviews; (4) postactive interviews; (5) delayed self-reports; and (6) relevant printed materials. Qualitative analysis of the data followed the constant comparative method of Glaser and Strauss (1967). Findings indicate that skills needed for teaching in a way that aids integration and organization of knowledge can be taught to future teachers. Novices can be encouraged to make preactive decisions based on an overview of objectives rather than on a narrow focus. They can be taught to adapt their lessons to student behavior rather than blindly following their plans. The integrated approach used in this study fosters insights into decision making that will be useful to both experts and novices. (Author/JD) ED330658

Wheatley, G. H. (1992). The Role of Reflection in Mathematics. Educational Studies in Mathematics, v23 n5 p529-41 1992. Discusses the limitations in the explain-practice and active learning methods of teaching mathematics. Proposes that problem-centered learning is a teaching method that encourages student reflection, and presents examples demonstrating that encouraging reflection results in greater mathematics achievement. (MDH)

Whitson, G., & Bodycott, P. (1992). Using Feedback and Reflection as Tools in Bridging the Theory-Practice Link in Language Teacher Training at the Primary Level. A study investigated the effectiveness of improvements in a Singapore graduate training program for elementary school teachers of English as a Second Language. Program changes focused on providing appropriate, constructive feedback to trainees about their teaching practice and developing trainees' skills of critical reflection. The report describes the program, origins and nature of the changes made in it, details of teaching strategies used, and results of the new approach as reflected in observed practice and trainee comments. The course is structured on a basic unit of a one hour lecture session accompanied by two hours of practice or seminar discussion. The latter portion consists of either demonstration lessons by trainers or student demonstration lessons with video review and critique. The demonstration critique includes feedback on instructional procedures used, language objectives, and teacher-pupil interaction. Another element in the course is a project to develop, with a child, a writing assignment. Trainee evaluations of the course indicate that the techniques used were helpful, promoted confidence in the classroom, and further training in the techniques was desired. (MSE) ED369282

Wien, C. A. (1995). Developmentally Appropriate Practice in "Real Life": Stories of Teacher Practical Knowledge. Based on observations, interviews, and review of videotapes with teachers, this book examines why developmentally appropriate practice is difficult to construct in early childhood settings. It focuses particularly on some teachers' simultaneous allegiance to two contradictory frameworks of practice, termed developmentally appropriate practice and teacher dominion. The book is organized in three sections consisting of an introductory chapter, five case study chapters, and three chapters addressing issues common to all teachers. The introductory chapter describes the two central frameworks under considerationteacher dominion and developmentally appropriate practiceand provides conceptual background on the concept of teacher practical knowledge. It also discusses two essential processes in the formation of teacher practical knowledge: scripts for action and reflection-in/on-action in daily work. Each of the next five chapters offers the story of one teacher, with regard to the two frameworks under discussion. Chapter 7 outlines six features of developmentally appropriate practice that were unfamiliar, in differing degrees, to several of the teachers, and indicates what they thought of them. Chapter 8 discusses scripts for action in teaching and how reflection-in/on-action breaks these open, with examples of each. The final chapter discusses criticisms of developmentally appropriate practice and sets the frameworks and teachers' negotiations of these in the notion of public and private domains of experience. Contains over 100 references. (TJQ) ED403030

Wiggins, R. A. (1994). Beyond Pragmatic Skepticism: Supporting the Continued Professional Growth of Teachers. This study sought to promote increased understanding of teachers' personal beliefs and philosophies about teaching and learning and the impact of these beliefs and philosophies on action in the classroom. Subjects were 17 elementary school regular and special education teachers who participated in an inservice course, videotaped themselves teaching before and after the course, and wrote reactions to the videotapes. The inservice workshops were based on socio-constructivist principles concerning the role of interaction and reflection in the learning of teachers. The paper discusses inconsistencies between the teachers' statements about how they felt about the experience and the actions they took in response to the experience. Teachers indicated that the workshops had not constituted a learning experience for them, but they described changes in the way they did things in the classroom as a result of participation. Pre/post-workshop questionnaires revealed changes in the way the teachers conceptualized discussion in the classroom, the importance of interaction, and their understanding of the term "scaffolding." The teachers are characterized as pragmatic skeptics who were concerned about how change would affect their students. Implications for promoting reflection and implementing staff development are discussed. (Contains 55 references.) (JDD) ED382566

Wile, J. M. (1994). Using Portfolios To Enable Undergraduate Pre-Service Teachers To Construct Personal Theories of Literacy. The portfolio procedures a teacher-educator uses in an undergraduate course in teaching reading in the elementary school have proven successful in helping students begin to articulate a philosophy of literacy instruction and assessment. The process also contributes additional benefits to students' levels of self-esteem, self-confidence, and their overall perception of the value of their teacher preparation program. The process is made up of identifiable phases, which can be described as introduction, clarification, organization, presentation, reflection, and evaluation. The teacher-educator used the process in two sections of students (approximately 60) enrolled in a course in methods of literacy instruction. As information pertaining to the portfolio procedure was collected, several patterns emerged: (1) students typically identified similar themes of key categories as they described the contents of their portfolios, but the students came away with distinctly personal notions about literacy education; (2) students' abilities to see connections between specific events and their personal development was an indicator of personal growth; (3) students were keenly aware of the progress they had made through the course; and (4) students increased their understanding of reflective portfolios and how these might be adapted to their own classrooms in the future. The process was intended as a scaffold to support students in the construction of a personally meaningful theoretical orientation towards literacy and literacy instruction. Students' evaluations of the course were considerably higher than similar evaluations for the same course offered the previous semester without a portfolio component. Contains four references. (RS) ED380766

Winitzky, N. (1992). Structure and Process in Thinking about Classroom Management: An Exploratory Study of Prospective Teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, v8 n1 p1-14 1992. Researchers collected cognitive structure and reflection data from prospective teachers to test whether schemata and reflection, structure, and process were linked. Results indicated a positive correlation between complexity of knowledge structure and reflective ability. The way teachers organized their knowledge of classroom management affected their ability to reflect about it. (SM)

Witte, R., & Fazey, M. (1990). Development of Local DIAL-R Norms: A Preliminary Analysis. The Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of LearningRevised (DIAL- R) is a standardized developmental screening instrument designed to assess the motor, language (both receptive and expressive), and conceptual skill levels of children 2 to 6 years of age. The appropriateness of national norms for children in Kentucky was studied in a norming project involving 768 kindergarten students from Jessamine County for a period of over 2 years. Local means and standard deviations were determined for comparison with national norms. Means for the Kentucky sample were significantly higher than were those for corresponding national norms, except for the 4- year, 6-month to 4-year, 8-month age interval. Reasons for these differences are discussed. The Jessamine County group also demonstrated more developmental score variability than was obtained with the national data, possibly a reflection of the heterogeneity of the entering kindergarten population. These results underscore the importance of using local norms for standardized tests; they affirm the need for comparing kindergarten pupils to their local classmates in order to obtain a better picture of developmental progress and school readiness. (SLD) ED317563

Wojcik, P. H. (1993). A Self-Study in Reflective Teaching. This self-administered self-study examined a high school teacher's thought processes during the planning and teaching of lessons, and after the lessons had been completedidentifying levels of reflectivity, interactive thoughts, and decisions. Video tapes, teacher journal entries, and peer interviews were used to help stimulate recall and explore changes in teaching practices. The teaching units examined were two literature lessons for a class of 10th graders based on "The Contender" by Robert Lipsyte. Some of the reflection correlated with reading and research on John Dewey's ideas that learning must be based on experience and with the theory of construction of new knowledge through the use of charts and graphic organizers. The study components, journal entries and peer dialogues, did stimulate recall of thoughts and feelings and encouraged reflection. The self-study provided the subject with more insights than any other previous observations or evaluations. It also raised awareness of the complexity of thought processes and suggested the rethinking of routines and strategies. (Contains 25 references.) (JB) ED383670

Wright, J. (1995). Transforming Summer School: Creating a Quality Classroom. Teaching and Change, v2 n3 p218-29 Spr 1995. A Quality and Curriculum pilot summer school program paired teachers of remedial students, provided classroom volunteers, and arranged for teachers to attend sessions on reflection and learning in quality and curriculum each afternoon. Teachers then implemented new strategies with the summer school students. This article describes the program's effects on a third- grade classroom. (JB)
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Yates, M., & Youniss, J. (1996). Community Service and Political-Moral Identity in Adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, v6 n3 p271-84 1996. Presented a theoretical framework for understanding how community service affords opportunities for stimulating identity development in adolescents. Found that service experience can stimulate reflection on society's political organization and moral order and reflection on the adolescent's role in making that order change to reflect the student's ideology. (SD)
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Zeichner, K. M. (1990). Educational and Social Commitments in Reflective Teacher Education Programs. The paper argues that it is not wise to encourage reflective teaching in general without first establishing clear priorities for the reflection that emerges out of a reasoned educational and social philosophy. It does not accept the implication that exists throughout much of the literature that teachers' actions are necessarily better merely because they are more deliberate and intentional. It recommends that people in the field of education ask themselves and others more questions about the nature and purpose of teacher reflection as a goal, suggesting a move beyond the current view of reflective teaching as a distinct programmatic emphasis. After describing the conceptions of reflective teaching practice, the paper discusses a social reconstructionist conception of reflective practice developed in the teacher education program at the University of Wisconsin- Madison. The key elements of this approach are: (1) the teachers' attention is focused both inwardly at their own practice and outwardly at the social conditions in which the practices are situated; (2) the teachers' deliberations are focused upon substantive issues that raise instances of inequality and injustice within schooling and society for close scrutiny; and (3) the teacher is committed to reflection as a social practice. (Contains 29 references) (SM) ED344855
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