Teacher Efficacy (S-Z)
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Sachs, J. J. (1990). The Self-Efficacy Interaction between Regular Educators and Special Education Students: A Model for Understanding the Mainstreaming Dilemma. Paper presented at the Teacher Education and Special Education, 13, 3-4, 235-39 Sum-Fall 1990. The Student-Teacher Self-Efficacy Interaction Model is described, focusing on the impact of the teacher's self-efficacy on performance, impact of teacher's performance and students' past experiences on special education students' self- efficacy, and how feedback from students' performance provides feedback on teacher abilities to meet students' needs. (Author/JDD) EJ421483
Sagor, R. (2000). Guiding School Improvement with Action Research. Action research, explored in this book, is a seven-step process for improving teaching and learning in classrooms at all levels. Through practical examples, research tools, and easy-to-follow implementation strategies, this book guides readers through the action research process. The chapters are: (1) "What Is Action Research?"; (2) "How Is Action Research Accomplished?"; (3) "Professionalism, Teacher Efficacy, and Standards-Based Education"; (4) "Teaching: A Complex Process"; (5) "Choosing the Right Research Questions and Assessment Criteria"; (6) "Using Theory To Drive Action"; (7) "Data Collection: Using Teacher Records and Observation Data"; (8) "Data Collection: Creating Instruments To Answer Research Questions"; (9) "Data Collection: Building a Valid and Reliable Data Collection Plan"; (10) "Making Sense of the Data"; (11) "Putting the Action into Action Research"; (12) "Methodological and Ethical Issues"; (13) "Collaborative Action Research and School Culture"; (14) "Inducting Teachers into a Culture of Inquiry"; (15) "The Demands of Accountability: Integrating Action Research into District Practice"; and (16) "Epilogue: Building a High-Efficacy Culture in Schools." (Contains 33 figures and 36 references.) (SLD) ED443861
Schaller, K. A., & DeWine, S. (1993). The Development of a Communication-Based Model of Teacher Efficacy., 33pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association (79th, Miami, FL, November 18-21, 1993). The study reported here tested a proposed teacher efficacy model by examining: (1) whether perceived teacher efficacy, teacher communication competence, and teacher immediacy are significant predictors of perceived affective and cognitive student learning; and (2) whether perceived teacher communication competence and teacher immediacy are significant predictors of perceived teacher efficacy. Subjects, 47 instructors and 557 students at a large midwestern university, completed questionnaires. Instructors completed self-report measures of teacher efficacy, and students completed reports of teacher communication competence and immediacy, and responded to a scale which measures cognitive and affective learning. Results indicated that: teachers who were perceived as competent and immediate positively influenced their students' affective learning; teachers who were perceived as competent and immediate had a negative impact on cognitive student learning; and student perceptions of teacher communication competence and teacher immediacy made significant contributions to the prediction of teacher efficacy. Findings represent a paradox: while perceived teacher competence and teacher immediacy were significantly predictive of student learning, perceived teacher efficacy (referring to a perception that teachers can influence student learning) was not. An unanticipated finding was that perceived teacher communication competence and teacher immediacy significantly predicted cognitive student learning, but in a negative direction. (A figure of the model and four tables of data are included. Contains 68 references.) (RS) ED362928
Scribner, J. (1999). Teacher Efficacy and Teacher Professional Learning: Implications for School Leaders. Journal of school leadership, 9(3), 209.
Scribner, J. P. (1998). Teacher Efficacy and Teacher Professional Learning: What School Leaders Should Know., 39pp. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the University Council for Educational Administration (St. Louis, MO, October 30-November 1, 1998). This study examined teachers' professional development experiences through the lenses of personal teaching efficacy and professional learning. Initiall y, 45 academic teachers from three public urban high schools were selected to participate based on their reputations as excellent teachers and their core academic content areas. These teachers were then asked to identify five peers believed to be excellent teachers. They completed the personal teaching efficacy (PTE) scales, and 10 teachers with the highest PTE and 10 teachers with the lowest PTE were selected for analysis. Teachers completed in-depth, semi-structured, and open-ended interviews to offer perspective on their professional development experiences. Observations of professional development activities also occurred. Data analysis indicated that level of personal teaching efficacy influenced how and in what ways individual teachers experienced professional development. Teachers were eager to engage or not engage in professional development for different reasons. Teac hers with high and low PTE described the relationship between their work contexts and their professional development experiences very differently. Th e two groups described uses of knowledge in different ways. The types of knowledge teachers acquired and used contributed to the manner in which they approached their work. (Contains 43 references.) (SM) ED426969 You may be able to order this document from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service.
Shachar, H., & Shmuelevitz, H. (1997). Implementing Cooperative Learning, Teacher Collaboration and Teachers' Sense of Efficacy in Heterogeneous Junior High Schools. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 22(1), 53-72(20). Four scales were employed to assess the effects on teachers' sense of efficacy of a year-long inservice teacher training program on cooperative learning methods. One hundred twenty-one teachers from nine junior high schools in one town in Israel responded to the teacher efficacy questionnaire, as well as to a questionnaire assessing the extent to which teachers collaborated with one another. The data were analyzed as a function of three different frequencies with which teachers implemented cooperative learning in their classrooms. Results indicated that teachers who implemented cooperative learning most frequently also expressed a higher level of efficacy in promoting the learning of slow students than did other teachers. Teachers who reported a higher level of collaboration with colleagues also expressed a higher level of general teaching efficacy and of efficacy in enhancing students' social relations, than did teachers who reported a low level of collaboration with colleagues. Regression analyses demonstrated that frequency of implementing cooperative learning and collaboration with colleagues explained the largest portion of the variance in teachers' sense of efficacy, while teachers' background variables accounted for only negligible amounts of variance in teachers' sense of efficacy.
Shahid, J., & Thompson, D. (2001). Teacher Efficacy: A Research Synthesis., Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Seattle, WA, April 10-14, 2001). Page Length: 17. This study synthesized research on teacher efficacy. A 14-stage model was implemented to identify and analyze characteristics found in the synthesis population of 89 primary studies which addressed teacher efficacy. The 89 primary studies yielded 789 distinct and 973 total research hypotheses; 25 distinct and 973 total teacher efficacy constructs; and 425 distinct and 973 total predictor constructs. Meta analyses were conducted on research hypotheses occurring five times or more. Seven relationships between a teacher efficacy construct and a predictor construct were addressed through a meta analytical process. Sample sizes for studies included ranged from 5-31. Size and direction of relationships identified in the 89 primary studies for the research hypotheses occurring five or more times was closely aligned with size and direction of relationships identified in the theoretical framework of this investigation. The review identified: an inverse relationship between personal teaching efficacy and general teaching efficacy; a positive relationship between female gender and personal teaching efficacy and general teaching efficacy; a positive relationship between overall teaching efficacy and general teaching efficacy with years of experience. Recommendations to guide primary studies focus on: data reporting standards, indicators of explained variance, and uniformity of measures. (Contains 46 references.) (SM) ED453170
Sheerer, M. A. (1988). An Ethnographic Investigation of Chauncey Elementary School., 30pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, March 27-April 1, 1989). An ethnographic investigation of interrelationships between teacher efficacy attitudes, teacher behavior, students' performance, and organizational climate in a total school setting was conducted at Chauncey Elementary School in Athens, Ohio. Chauncey was studied because its teachers had begun to implement an open classroom model which promoted a democratic decision-making process; had taken a position against the Athens City School District regarding the purchase of basal readers; and were actively advocating a literature-based reading program for primary grades. Questions guiding the inquiry included: (1) What was going on at Chauncy that supported innovative activity by teachers? (2) What kind of climate and organizational framework encouraged the innovative classroom activity? (3) What effect did the pattern of instruction and organizational control have on the teachers' sense of effectiveness and performance in class? (4) How was it that these particular teachers were working to bring about change? (5) Did these teachers differ significantly in socioeconcomic terms from their colleagues in more traditional schools, or from the parents of the Chauncey children? and (6) What were the social relations among teachers, administrators, and students? Results concerning educational innovation are discussed. (RH) ED307062
Soh, K.-c. (1988). Attitude towards Responsibility and Teacher Locus of Control: Predicting Teacher Stress and Attitudes. Research Paper ERU-2-88., 23pp. For related document, see TM 012 796. The relationships between teachers' attitudes toward responsibility and locus of control and other characteristics such as stress, educational attitudes, and attitudes toward change were studied in 54 (35 female and 19 male) experienced primary and secondary school teachers taking a course on classroom-based research. Attitude toward responsibility and locus of control were determined with instruments adapted for this purpose. Teacher stress was measured by an adapted version of the Wilson Stress Profile for Teachers, and educational attitude and attitude toward change were measured by scales previously developed. Responsibility correlated with teacher stress in the predicted direction, and there were significant correlations with educational attitude and attitude toward change. Correlations between locus of control and the criterion measures were not as high as expected. Teacher locus of control was thus a weaker predictor of the criterion measures than was responsibility. These constructs of responsibility and perceived teacher efficacy showed concurrent and convergent validity through the configuration of correlations of the attitude measures. Two tables present study data, and two appendices contain the Responsibility and Teacher Locus of Control Scales. (SLD) ED303522
Soodak, L. C., & Podell, D. M. (1993). Teacher Efficacy and Student Problem as Factors in Special Education Referral. Paper presented at the Journal of Special Education, 27, 1, 66-81 Spr 1993. Regular and special educators (n=192) were assigned a case study describing a student having a learning and/or behavior problem and made a placement decision. Results indicated that regular and special educators were most likely to agree with regular class placement when they were high in both personal efficacy and teaching efficacy. (Author/JDD) EJ465359
Soodak, L. C., & Podell, D. M. (1996). Teacher Efficacy: Toward the Understanding of a Multi-Faceted Construct. Paper presented at the Teaching and Teacher Education, 12, 4, 401-11 1996. To explore dimensions of teacher efficacy, researchers analyzed the responses of 310 teachers to a Teacher Efficacy Scale. Results indicated that teacher efficacy comprises three uncorrelated factors (personal efficacy, outcome efficacy, and teaching efficacy), underscoring the need for continuing exploration of the dimensions of this construct. (Author/SM) EJ533434
Soodak, L. C., Podell, D. M., & Lehman, L. R. (1998). Teacher, Student, and School Attributes as Predictors of Teachers' Responses to Inclusion. Paper presented at the Journal of Special Education, 31, 4, 480-97 Win 1998. A survey of 188 general education teachers' attitudes toward including students with disabilities identified hostility/receptivity and anxiety/calmness dimensions. Teacher attributes and beliefs, student characteristics, and school climate were related to both dimensions. Receptivity toward inclusion was associated with higher teacher efficacy, inclusion of students with physical rather than cognitive or behavioral disorders, differentiated teaching practices, and teacher collaboration. (Author/DB) EJ561028
Soto, G., & Goetz, L. (1998). Self-Efficacy Beliefs and the Education of Students with Severe Disabilities., Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 23, 2, 134-43. This article examines contributions of teacher efficacy literature to the study of teaching students with severe disabilities. The self-efficacy construct is explained, followed by a review of associated research problems. Findings on relationships between perceived self-efficacy of teachers and perceptions of student abilities, classroom practices, adoption of innovations, and collaboration with other professionals are then summarized. (Author/PB) EJ599176
Stanovich, P. J., & Jordan, A. (1998). Canadian Teachers' and Principals' Beliefs about Inclusive Education as Predictors of Effective Teaching in Heterogeneous Classrooms., Elementary School Journal, 98, 3, 221-38 Jan. Used teacher beliefs and attitudes, principal beliefs and school norms, and teacher efficacy to predict effective teaching in heterogeneous classrooms. Found that the strongest predictors of effective teaching were: (1) the subjective school norm operationalized by the principal's attitudes and beliefs about heterogeneous classroom and report of the school's pathognomonic-interventionist orientation; and (2) teachers' responses on the pathognomonic-interventionist scale. (Author) EJ558636
Starko, A. (1989). Perceived Need, Teacher Efficacy and Teaching Strategies for the Gifted and Talented. The british journal of nutrition, 33(3), 118.
Sudzina, M. R., & Newman, I. (1994). Educational Psychology: Future Directions. An Interview with Anita Woolfolk. Paper presented at the Midwestern Educational Researcher, 7, 1, 12-14 Win 1994. Anita Woolfolk, author of a best-selling educational psychology textbook, discusses format and important concepts in her text; application of educational psychology to teacher education; role of research in teacher education; her research in school climate and teacher efficacy; and her personal lifestyle. (KS) EJ480034
Sumartojo, E. (1988). An Evaluation of the Houston Job Training Partnership Council's Summer Basic Training Programs for Secondary Students., 33pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 5-9, 1988). The Houston Job Training Partnership Council's (HJTPC) Summer Basic Training Programs consisted of eight-week summer training programs at 14 sites that were provided by six organizations under contracts. Evaluation of the program involved pre-testing and post-testing at each site on achievement in reading, mathematics, and writing; pre-testing and post-testing on self-esteem and self-efficacy; and surveying participants, teachers, and program coordinators on their assessments of the programs. A total of 1,182 participants and 47 teachers completed assessment surveys. During the subsequent school year (1986-87), 1,128 HJTPC students were tracked in terms of: course grades, course proficiency test scores, performance on the Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills, school attendance, and dropout rates. Comparison data were obtained on 1,128 Houston Independent School District students. Results indicate that: (1) program providers should be required to demonstrate the adequacy of their facilities; (2) a longer planning period is needed; (3) each program site should have a coordinator; and (4) a system for receiving and reviewing complaints should be established. The HJTPC programs were not particularly effective in improving the performance or attendance of participants. However, upper-level high school students were helped by the program; they were probably motivated to complete academic requirements for graduation. (TJH) ED298139
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Tasan, A. P. (2001). Teacher Efficacy and Diversity: Implications for Teacher Training., Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Seattle, WA, April 14, 2001). Page Length: 24. This study investigated teacher efficacy in the context of diversity, focusing on: whether elementary school teachers' feelings of efficacy would differ according to their students' language backgrounds; whether the teachers' feelings of efficacy in teaching standard English speaking students would relate to their feelings of efficacy in teaching non-English speaking students; and whether, if teachers' feelings of efficacy differed by student language background, those differences would vary according their own ethnic identities, their participation in diversity training, and the interaction between their own ethnic identities and their participation in diversity training. Data from surveys of 234 public elementary teachers across Connecticut indicated that there was a clear connection between student language background and teacher efficacy. The results also suggested that teacher efficacy is more fluid than previous research has indicated, so it can be influenced by teacher preparation and professional development. No differences in teacher efficacy by student language background were found on the basis of teacher ethnicity. The results indicated that diversity training did not affect teacher efficacy favorably. (Contains 47 references.) (SM) ED453201
Thomson, J. R., Jr., & Handley, H. M. (1990). Relationship between Teacher Self-Concept and Teacher Efficacy., 11pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, November 13-16, 1990). According to the literature, high professional self-esteem among teachers is associated with efficacy. The first in a projected series of longitudinal studies was undertaken to investigate the relationship between preservice teachers' self- concept and their sense of efficacy. The subjects of the study were 220 elementary and secondary preservice teachers. At the end of their 12-week student teaching experience, 2 instruments were administered: the "Myself as a Teacher Scale" and the "Teacher Locus of Control Scale." Data from the stepwise multiple regression analysis showed a low positive relationship between the internal locus responses of the subjects and their concepts of self as a teacher. The internal positive scale was the best predictor of self-concept; i.e., the teachers' successful efforts were more related to their self-concept. The negative internal scale, however, was also associated with positive self-concept. These data show a positive relationship between teacher efficacy and self-concept, but no causal relationship is inferred. It appears that variables other than self-concept are involved in teacher efficacy. (JD) ED327508
Tolliver, J. E. (1986). Disciplined Pedagogy: Efficacy of West Point's Writing Program., 10pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (37th, New Orleans, LA, March 13-15, 1986). Poor writing among students is not necessarily a function of poor learning, but rather may be a function of poor teaching, and poor writing instruction will continue as long as English remains an undisciplined profession. Examples of the profession's lack of discipline include curricula devised by individual teachers, part-time teachers unqualified to teach writing, and discrepancies in writing techniques from one teacher to another. The preparation for English teachers at the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, presents one way to achieve the needed discipline within the faculty. This method consists of three phases: course design and planning, teacher preparation, and teacher sustainment. At the end of each academic year, faculty members list by preference their three choices for summer assignments, among which are course planning committees. They then work with the directors of the two cadet writing courses to assess, design, and plan the course for the upcoming academic year. One week prior to the start of fall classes, the instructors meet to "calibrate" criteria for evaluating and grading papers and methods for conducting classes. For teacher sustainment, the course director meets in conference with the instructors during each semester to discuss problems and their solutions, recalibrate, and reaffirmm the integrity of the course. Tenured faculty members also visit classes, especially those of new instructors, and discuss what they may do to improve their teaching, or reaffirm the more effective techniques observed. This faculty participation in assessment, designing, and planning of the writing program is the first step toward discipline in the profession. The second step is acquiring an attitude and code of conduct: faculty must be committed and loyal to the approved program and to teaching within its guidelines. (HTH) ED269806
Tracz, S. M., & Gibson, S. (1986). Effects of Efficacy on Academic Achievement., 8pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the California Educational Research Association (Marina del Rey, CA, November 13-14, 1986). Teacher efficacy is a critical variable in teacher and school effectiveness. The Teacher Efficacy Scale was used to assess teacher efficacy and investigate its relationship to teacher use of time, student time on task, and student achievement. Classroom observations were gathered from 14 teachers, grades 4-6, at two schools. Teacher allocation of time, student engagement, and student achievement were measured. Means and standard deviations and correlations among variables for teacher efficacy, teacher academic focus, student engagement rates and achievement were derived. Personal teaching efficacy (level of confidence in personal teaching abilities) correlated positively with reading achievement and whole class instruction and negatively with small group instruction. Teaching efficacy (general expectation of student success) correlated significantly with language and mathematics achievement. This study supports the contention that a teacher's sense of efficacy is significantly related to classroom grouping of students and to student achievement outcomes. (BAE) ED281853
Tschannen-Moran, M., & Hoy, A. W. (2001). Teacher efficacy: capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(7), 783-805(723). Teacher efficacy has proved to be powerfully related to many meaningful educational outcomes such as teachers' persistence, enthusiasm, commitment and instructional behavior, as well as student outcomes such as achievement, motivation, and self-efficacy beliefs. However, persistent measurement problems have plagued those who have sought to study teacher efficacy. We review many of the major measures that have been used to capture the construct, noting problems that have arisen with each. We then propose a promising new measure of teacher efficacy along with validity and reliability data from three separate studies. Finally, new directions for research made possible by this instrument are explored.
TschannenMoran, M., Hoy, A., & Hoy, W. (1998). Teacher Efficacy: Its Meaning and Measure. Review of educational research, 68(2), 202.
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Vitali, G. J. (1994). Factors Influencing Teachers' Practices in an Assessment Driven Reform., 35p. This empirical study was conducted to explore both the influence of assessment on teachers' classroom practice during an assessment driven educational reform, and the principle underlying assessment driven instruction, i.e., "what you test is what you get." Factors targeted at the level of assessment were performance-based or objective paper-and-pencil methods. Factors targeted at the level of the teacher were demographic variables, teachers' opinions of assessment, the assessment method, teachers knowledge of assessment, and teacher efficacy. In the Fall of 1992, self-report data were collected from 117 regular classroom teachers. According to the data analysis, the research did not support the "what you test is what you get" assumption. Rather, it was determined that teachers' classroom practices were influenced by methods of assessment, teachers generally taught toward the method of state-wide assessment most congruent with their existing classroom practices, and the feasibility of assessment driving teachers' classroom practices varies as a function of several factors endogenous to the teacher as well as to the assessment. Implications for educational policy-makers who plan assessment-driven reforms and statistical tables complete the document. Contains 47 references. (LL) ED373053
Volkman, B. K., & And, O. (1992). Enhancing Preservice Teachers' Self-Efficacy through a Field-Based Program of Reflective Practice., 10pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association (Knoxville, TN, November 11-13, 1992). The study described in this report investigated the effects of field-based reflective practice on preservice teachers' sense of self-efficacy. Subjects in the study were 24 senior elementary majors participating in a 4-week field experience. Twelve students were assigned to the experimental school and 12 were assigned to two control schools. Each school had a graduate teaching assistant (GTA) who observed the preservice teachers during selected teaching experiences. In addition, the GTA in the experimental group conferenced extensively with each preservice teacher after each observed lesson to help, through coaching episodes, make sense of problematic situations. Biweekly, students in the treatment group were brought together for networking where they could recast, rethink, and bring new meaning to their practice. Pre- and post-measures of subjects' self-efficacy were obtained using the Teacher Efficacy Scale, open-ended questionnaires, and reflective journals. Results suggest that sharing experiences and strategies with cooperating teachers, peers, and the GTA helped subjects in the treatment group become self-assured reflectors. The sharing also had a significant positive impact on preservice teachers' sense of self-efficacy. (Contains 9 references.) (LL) ED354232
Volkman, B., & Iran-Nejad, A. (1994). Authentic Teaching from a Wholetheme Perspective., 29pp. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Mid-South Educational Research Association (Nashville, TN, November 9-11, 1994). This study compared outcomes from undergraduate subjects (N=21) who had attended seminars in the wholetheme instructional approach with controls (N=21) who attended a seminar on the writing process. The wholetheme approach of Asghar Iran- Nejad emphasizes thematic, nondirectional, and intuitive teaching. The study was designed to determine if subjects who attended seminars on the wholetheme approach to authentic teaching were: (1) better able to differentiate between teacher-teller and teacher-facilitator; (2) practiced more authentic teaching; (3) became more personally and generally efficacious, and (4) were more willing to address diversity in the classroom than those students who attended seminars on the writing process. Subjects completed four survey instruments, including measurements of authentic teaching and teacher efficacy as well as an open-ended questionnaire. Subjects who participated in wholetheme seminars were found to be more conversant in wholetheme terminology and concepts, and posttest measures found them significantly more likely to address diversity in the classroom. Posttest ratings of teacher efficacy were significantly higher for seminar participants, as were measures of authentic teaching. The study demonstrated that seminars with an emphasis on wholetheme teaching would foster reorganization of knowledge and encourage future teachers to examine and reflect upon their role. The research helps support the premise that seminars and supervision centered on the wholetheme approach can assist preservice teachers to create authentic learning environments, to increase personal and general confidence in their teaching, and to change beliefs about inclusive education. (Contains 22 references.) (PB) ED382613
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Walker, C. A., & Cousins, J. B. (1994). Influences on Teachers' Attitudes toward Applied Educational Research., 30pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Evaluation Association (Boston, MA, November 1994). A survey was conducted of 280 teachers and principals in east-central Ontario (Canada) to investigate what variables best predict educators' attitudes toward local applied research. The four dependent variables were purpose of local research, attitudes toward participation in research, utility of research, and support for research activity. Eight predictor variables included organizational learning characteristics, elementary versus secondary level, personal teacher efficacy, prior participation in research, value of prior research course work, years of teaching experience, formal education, and gender. Results indicated that significant proportions of the variance in the dependent variables were explained by certain personal and organizational characteristics, namely: prior participation in research, sense of personal teacher efficacy, and perceived characteristics of respondent's schools (namely their propensity to learn), which were all positively correlated with the dependent variables, and years of teaching experience, which was negatively correlated. (Contains 76 references.) (JDD) ED378155
Walker, L. (1992). Mentoring: A Review of the Literature., 27pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association (Knoxville, TN, November 11-13, 1992). There continues to be a public outcry concerning the quality of education in our nation. These concerns have translated into numerous programs to improve teaching in the public schools, many of which have focused on mentoring for beginning teachers. The proliferation of programs has shown the need for research investigating the effectiveness of various mentoring programs. The literature provides extensive descriptions of these programs, but little empirical data exists for examining the outcomes resulting from the implementation of such programs (Klub and Salzman 1990). Research by Varah, Theune, and Parker (1986) and by Schlecty and Vance (1983) has shown that as many as 30 percent of beginning teachers do not teach beyond two years, and as many as 60 percent leave the profession during the first 5 years. Griffen (1985) reports that beginning teachers often lack competence in planning for instruction and in adjusting to the classroom environment. These two factors, teacher efficacy and teacher retention, can be used to direct a review of the existing literature and to separate the empirical studies of program outcomes from program descriptions. This review is needed to assess the effectiveness of mentoring programs. (Contains 38 references.) (Author/LL) ED354229
Walker, L. (1992). Perceptions of Preservice Teacher Efficacy., 46pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association (Knoxville, TN, November 11-13, 1992). The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant difference in the perceptions of student teachers' efficacy as measured by themselves, their cooperating teachers, and their university supervisors. A self-constructed instrument containing 30 items related to student teacher competencies was used for this evaluative measure. The sample consisted of 24 student teachers, 25 classroom teachers, and 8 university supervisors who completed surveys for the 34 student teachers enrolled during spring semester 1992. Several demographic areas were considered, but the area of interest was type which differentiated between the three groups listed above. One-way analysis of variance showed significant differences among the three types for the following items: using a variety of teaching methods, attending to routine tasks, demonstration of warmth and friendliness, evaluation of pupil progress, following school policies, maintaining accurate pupil records, and conferencing with parents. This study introduces a longitudinal study employing the instrument to measure perceptions of student teacher efficacy with future groups. Potential uses of the data include program modifications and/or additions as needed for specific competencies. Appendices include: Mississippi Teaching Competencies; the demographic survey instrument; and a oneway analysis of variance for item by type. (Contains 28 references.) (LL) ED354230
Warren, L. L., & Payne, B. D. (1997). Impact of Middle Grades' Organization on Teacher Efficacy and Environmental Perceptions. Paper presented at the Journal of Educational Research, 90, 5, 301-08 May-Jun 1997. This study investigated middle school organizational patterns and their impact on teachers' efficacy and perceptions of the working environment. Analysis of survey responses by 81 eighth grade teachers indicated that teachers on interdisciplinary teams with common planning time were significantly more positive than were teachers on interdisciplinary teams without common planning time or teachers who were organized departmentally. (SM) EJ549953
Wax, A. S., & Dutton, M. M. (1991). The Relationship between Teacher Use of Cooperative Learning and Teacher Efficacy., 45pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, April 3-7, 1991). This study was conducted in 1989 in a suburban school district in Oregon for the purpose of determining the impact of high, medium, and low usage levels of cooperative learning on teacher efficacy. Elementary school teachers in the district were engaged in a staff development training program for teaching cooperative learning in the classroom. This type of learning includes helping, communicating, encouraging, teaming and supporting, with the teacher acting as model. Elementary classroom teachers (N=129, a 71% response rate) responded to a questionnaire which gathered information about an independent variable, the amount of classroom time spent in cooperative learning situations within a week's time, and its effects on teacher efficacy. Results indicated that teachers using the highest level of cooperative learning experienced the highest levels of efficacy, power, confidence in working with students, and willingness to innovate. Since this study is exploratory, suggestions are made for further investigation through experimental designs. The survey form is appended. (LL) ED332977
Wei, S., & Rong, L. (2001). A Review of Theories and Researches on Teacher Efficacy. Psychological Science, 24(2), 232-233.
Wheatley, K. (2000). POSITIVE TEACHER EFFICACY AS AN OBSTACLE TO EDUCATIONAL REFORM. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 34(1), 14-27.
Wheatley, K. (2002). The potential benefits of teacher efficacy doubts for educational reform. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18(ER1), 5-22.
Wilkof, N. J. (1977). Feedback as the Crucial Variable in Conventional Instruction., 23pp. Best copy available. This paper presents a theoretical inquiry into the potential utility of a curricular view of instruction via the heuristic vehicle of the "curriculum-in- use." It is proposed that instruction must always imply a teacher, students to be taught, a curricular subject matter to be transmitted, and an evaluative mechanism. In addition, all instruction implies a classroom, which is bounded by space, and afforded a finite amount of working time. The particular utilization of these resources constitutes the instructional work performed within a given classroom and provides the means by which the classroom as a workplace can be understood. A study of how curricular work gets done ultimately rests on how the transmission of the subject matter is managed with the instructional resources at hand. Curriculum matter is explained to be textbooks, teacher guides, and supporting materials; curriculum matter is limited by its form and content and, in a sense, is inert. Evaluative mechanisms are inert also. However, because evaluative mechanisms are the basis for obtaining feedback on the efficacy of the teacher's transmission, tests allow us to perceive a dynamic image of the subject matter to be transmitted against the reflective effectiveness of the teacher's transmission. This dynamic image is the "curriculum in-use." (MM) ED138549
Wilson, J. D. (1994). An Evaluation of Field Experiences for the Preparation of Elementary Teachers for Science, Mathematics, and Technology., 9pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association (Nashville, TN, November 9-11, 1994). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of self-efficacy preservice teachers developed as a result of participating in field experiences, types of field experiences that were the most beneficial for the professional development of the preservice teachers, and the degree to which pre-stated outcomes were addressed by the field experiences. Data were collected through two surveys (the Science Teacher Efficacy Belief Inventory (STEBI) Form B and the Field Experience Evaluation Form (FEEF)) administered to elementary preservice teachers enrolled in an innovative certification program. Personal interviews were also conducted and analyzed using comparative analysis techniques. Results of the study indicated: (1) the self-efficacy of preservice teachers increased with field experiences that were clearly defined, logically sequenced with a pattern of slow introduction into the clinical sites, and planned for and practiced before implementation; and (2) field experiences that allowed the preservice teacher to participate in small teams were found to be more beneficial to the professional development of the preservice teachers. Results of the interviews were congruent with the FEEF results. Club activities and the classroom team presentations were identified as the field experience activities which were most beneficial to the professional development of the preservice teachers because they allowed them to spend time in the classroom setting and to practice developing lesson plans and presenting the lesson. Contains seven references. (JB) ED383656
Woolfolk, A. E., & Hoy, W. K. (1990). Prospective Teachers' Sense of Efficacy and Beliefs about Control. Paper presented at the Special section with title "Motivation and Efficacy in Education: Research and New Directions.". Structure and meaning of efficacy were examined for 182 prospective teachers, and efficacy was related to beliefs about control and motivation. Results support competing formulations of efficacy as teacher efficacy and personal efficacy. Interaction of these factors makes important contributions to prediction of pupil control ideology and bureaucratic orientation. (SLD) EJ442297
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Yeung, K. W., & Watkins, D. (1998). Hong Kong Student Teachers' Personal Construction of Teacher Efficacy., This research is supported by a research grant offered by the Hong Kong Institute of Education. Page Length: 42. This study employed the repertory grid technique to investigate how a sample of 27 student teachers in Hong Kong developed a personal sense of teaching efficacy. The analysis indicated that third-year students' perceptions were more homogeneous than were those of first-year students. The results also indicated that teaching efficacy was viewed in terms of the dimensions of concern for instructional participation and learning needs of students, communication and relationships with students, academic knowledge and teaching skills, lesson preparation, management of class discipline, teaching success, teaching commitment, and a sense of self-confidence. Experiences of teaching practice, electives, students, and teaching practice supervisors (electives) were the major sources for the development of a sense of teaching efficacy. Implications of how these aspects of teacher training can be more effective in engendering a sense of efficacy in student teachers are discussed. (Contains 46 references.) (Author/SM) ED439111
Yeung, K. W., & Watkins, D. (1998). The Impact of Teaching Practice on Professional Self-Esteem: A Covariance Analysis., This paper reports part of the findings of Ph.D. research conducted by Ka Wah Yeung under the supervision of David Watkins. The research is sponsored by a research grant by the Hong Kong Institute of Education. Page Length: 48. This study examined the professional self-perceptions and self-esteem of Hong Kong student teachers, investigating the impact of teaching practice. Participants were student teachers in their first or third year of full-time, 3-year courses at 1 of the 4 colleges of education in Hong Kong. A total of 424 student teachers completed a questionnaire before and after student teaching. The questionnaire measured self-esteem as a teacher, focusing on self-esteem, teacher-student relationships, teacher efficacy, teacher commitment, humanism, adequacy of teaching abilities, and classroom techniques. Data analysis indicated that student teachers' personal and professional self-esteem differed from each other as they were subject to different influences. The development of their professional self-esteem depended on the manner in which they perceived their teaching efficacy, teacher student relationships, and commitment to teaching. Student teachers' humanistic beliefs and perceptions of the adequacy of teaching skills overwhelmingly influenced the organization of self-structure. Except for their self-perceived adequacy of teaching abilities, the impact of the other teaching practice experiences on the development of self-esteem was fairly limited. (Contains 70 references.) (SM) ED439108
Young, D. J. (1998). Teacher Morale and Efficacy in Rural Western Australia., Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education (Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, November 29-December 3, 1998). Page Length: 18. This paper draws on the Western Australian School Effectiveness Study (WASES) to examine school-level factors associated with improved teacher morale as one measure of effective high schools. The 1997 WASES teacher sample included 212 teachers from 28 rural and urban high schools in Western Australia. Data analysis using the Multilevel Linear Model focused on teacher responses to the School Level Environment Questionnaire (SLEQ), which includes eight subscales measuring relationship, personal, and system aspects of the school environment; measures of general self-concept and academic self-concept (teacher efficacy); and the teacher morale scale of the School Organizational Health Questionnaire. Teacher morale varied both within and between schools. Teacher morale appeared to be a useful indicator of healthy and effective schools, with a reasonable correlation with SLEQ scales. Differences in teacher morale, both across and within schools, were explained by six SLEQ scales: teacher affiliation, professional interest, mission consensus, empowerment, innovation, and work pressure. Teacher self-concept, both general and academic, had little effect on teacher morale, suggesting that morale was influenced by outside factors. (Contains 58 references and 6 data tables.) (SV) ED442596
Young, D. J. (2000). Teacher Morale in Western Australia: A Multilevel Model. Learning Environments Research, 3(2), 159-177(119). As part of a larger longitudinal study of Western Australian high schools, 212 teachers were surveyed about their perceptions of the school in which they teach and the management of that school. In particular, teachers responded to questions about the school environment, their morale and the organisational health of the school, and they were asked some self-concept and teaching efficacy questions. A multilevel model was used to investigate the effects of these and other school characteristics on teacher morale the dependent variable, while accounting for school level differences. This study demonstrated that teacher morale varied between teachers and between schools, with school environment explaining 54 of the variability in morale. That is, when the school environment was positive, teacher morale was higher. The implications of this finding point to the importance of both improving the school environment and teacher morale in order to enhance the health of schools. This is only achieved when teachers believe that their school is improving and has a positive climate.
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Updated: Thursday, May 23, 2002
by Alejandra Martinez
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