Teacher Efficacy (M-R)
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Marchant, G. J. (1989). How Many and Why Not More: A Survey of Issues in Education., 17pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-Western Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, October 19-20, 1989). This study explored differences among elementary and secondary teachers, elementary and secondary principals, and faculty members and undergraduate education students concerning three main issues in education: (1) effective teaching; (2) educational reform and professionalism; and (3) the nature of school children. Principals were found to be more optimistic concerning the implementation of effective teaching practices, and felt that teacher inability was the major impediment. Teachers felt that lack of time and the characteristics of their students created the greatest impediment to effectiveness. All of the groups felt that the best way to learn effective teaching practices was through actual teaching. The majority of teachers were not familiar with the reform reports from the Holmes Group or the Carnegie Foundation. The undergraduate education students did not anticipate teaching low SES or low achieving children. However, teachers from the same geographic areas reported that over 50 percent of their students were low or lower middle SES and below average in achievement. The results raise questions concerning teacher efficacy, the nature of the profession, and the recruitment and training of teacher education students. (Author) ED314384
Marchant, G. J., & Schroeder, T. S. (1992). Similes for Teaching and Classroom Teaching Orientations., 11pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-Western Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, 1992). Increased interest in teacher cognition has led to new ways of explorating teachers' thoughts and beliefs. The study described here combines elements of two previous studies to make comparisons among similes and simile categories and approaches to classroom teaching. The purpose of the study was to determine the relation between support for classroom teaching approaches and support for similes for teacher, student, and classroom. Education majors (N=200) ranked a list of similes, indicating how often each simile was thought to be true, and completed an instrument rating approaches to teaching. The second sample (N=450) consisted of elementary education students only, who ranked a simile list containing only similes for the teacher. Results suggest that general relationships exist between beliefs about the nature of teaching, expressed through metaphors, and other aspects of teaching such as support for specific teaching approaches, positive self-concept, and teacher efficacy. Results suggest that if metaphors can be identified related to the goals of teacher education programs, efforts can be made to reframe education students' notion of teaching. If education students' beliefs about teaching can be shaped to reflect advocacy and change instead of authority, they may be more likely to adopt teaching approaches that facilitate learning and problem solving. (LL) ED352353
Martin, O. L. (1989). Does Teacher Efficacy Begin with Teacher Education: Implications from Student Teacher Candidates., 52pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association (Little Rock, AR, 1989). Four interval studies were conducted to examine possible developmental and transitional stages of efficacy in a teacher education program. Data were collected from 57 student teacher candidates at the beginning of their senior year. During student teaching 46 students (81 percent) participated, and during the beginning teacher year 35 first-year teachers (76 percent) participated. Four instruments were tested and employed to assess educational beliefs and preparation attainments, and student teacher and teacher efficacy. The study showed that these students did not view teaching in relation to preparing and managing students. At the preservice level, the development of pedagogical knowledge and skills appeared to mean successful performance. When the candidates were placed in classroom settings, some facets of efficacy developed during the program were strengthened. Yet, a lack of confidence to discipline students during student teaching was also felt during the beginning teaching year. The findings suggest that a high sense of efficacy begins early in teacher preparation programs. The results also suggest that there are developmental stages of teacher efficacy and that teacher candidates only experience perfunctory behaviors at the preservice level. (JD) ED324273
Mathew, N. M., & Barufaldi, J. p. B., Lowell J. (1998). The Effect of Electronic Networking on Preservice Elementary Teachers' Science Teaching Self-Efficacy., 39pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (71st, San Diego, CA, April 19-22, 1998). In this study, preservice elementary teachers were networked via the Internet, using electronic mail, newsgroups, listservs, World Wide Web access, and electronic mentoring during their science methods class and student practicum. Electronic networking was introduced as a means to provide a social context in which to learn collaboratively, share and reflect upon science teaching experiences and practices, conduct tele- research effectively, and to meet the demands of student teaching through peer support. The study employed a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design. Findings indicate that prospective teachers benefit from interactions with peers, science mentors, and science methods instructors during student teaching. (Contains 59 references.) (DDR) ED424106
Matthes, W. A. (1987). School Effectiveness: The Teachers' Perspective., 49pp. Paper prepared for the National Rural Education Research Forum (Lake Placid, NY, October 16-17, 1987). For the complete proceedings, see RC 016 624. This paper reviews the literature on effective schools from the rural teacher's viewpoint. While research on rural education has frequently focused on economic and structural issues, the teacher is the key to the quality of rural education. However, rural teachers encounter more stressful teaching conditions than urban or suburban teachers, leading to a higher attrition rate. The most significant teacher attribute in effective schools is a sense of teacher efficacy related to student achievement. Schools that nurture this sense of efficacy involve teachers in the planning process, foster faculty openness and collaborative behavior, have clear expectations for teachers and students, recognize teacher and student achievements, and encourage teachers' professional growth, entrepreneurial skills, and commitment to the community. Educators attempting to achieve educational reforms in rural settings face inherent resistance to change in education systems, complicated by the economic deficiencies found in most rural areas. The report discusses emerging trends in educator preparation and certification, conditions for professional practice, and the direction of effective school research. It evaluates these trends as they relate to effective school findings and the special needs of rural schools. Contains 87 references. (SV) ED301367
McCary, C. E., III. (1986). Organized Parents as Allies in School Improvement. Draft., 45pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association (15th, Memphis, TN, November 19-21, 1986). The results of a case study in an elementary school indicate that parents can effectively support school improvement efforts even in schools with characteristics identified in previous research as inimical to change. Administrators, teachers, and parents were interviewed about the impact of a five- part plan developed by the school's parent teacher association. The plan called for (1) awarding grants to teachers for trying new practices, (2) holding a schoolwide student awards program, (3) supporting increased use of computers in instruction, (4) continuing a publicly recognized exploratory program suggested by the principal, and (5) sponsoring social functions at which teachers could be recognized. From the literature, researchers developed a list of change variables whose impact on the PTA-initiated change process could be assessed through interviews. These variables included school culture, power and control, the clarity of the proposed changes, teacher participation, the degree of collaborative planning involved, the presence of support activities and training, the change's impact on teacher efficacy, the school's team spirit, and instructional leadership. This report reviews the literature, cites the critical incidents in the change process, assesses the impact of each variable, and summarizes the factors responsible for the effectiveness of the PTA effort. (PGD) ED277137
McDaniel, E. A., & McCarthy, H. D. (1989). Enhancing Teacher Efficacy in Special Education., Teaching Exceptional Children, 21, 4, 34-38 Sum 1989. A special education teacher's sense of teaching efficacy and personal teaching efficacy influences teacher motivation and effort, teacher-student interactions, and student achievement. Methods for enhancing teachers' sense of efficacy are suggested. (JDD) EJ392155
McKinney, M., Sexton, T., & Meyerson, M. J. (1999). Validating the Efficacy-Based Change Model. Teaching and Teacher Education, 15(5), 471-485(415). The purpose of this paper was to empirically validate the Efficacy-Based Change Model as a theoretical model of change. The model suggests that as participants are involved in an innovation, they move through stages of implementation, in the process expressing different concerns that are related to the efficacy process and are further influenced by ascribed attributions. Data analysis strongly supported the role of self-efficacy as it related to expressed concerns (those with higher efficacy expressed concerns associated with later stages). High efficacy was predicted by success attributions for effort; regression analysis for outcome expectation and value also yielded significant models.
Midgley, C., & And, O. (1989). Change in Teacher Efficacy and Student Self- and Task-Related Beliefs in Mathematics during the Transition to Junior High School., Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 2, 247-58 Jun 1989. A longitudinal study of 1,329 students and the 141 mathematics teachers they had before and after transfer to junior high examined the relationship between students' beliefs in mathematics and their teachers' sense of efficacy. Teacher efficacy beliefs had a stronger impact on low-achieving than high-achieving students. (SLD) EJ398506
Midgley, C., Felklaufer, H., & Eccles, S. (1989). Change in Teacher Efficacy and Student Self- and Task-Related Beliefs in mathematics During the Transition to Junior High. Journal of educational psychology, 81(2), 247.
Miller, P. S. (1991). Increasing Teacher Efficacy with At-Risk Students: The "Sine Qua Non" of School Restructuring. Paper presented at the Theme issue with title "Students at Risk in Our Schools.". Increasing teachers' senses of efficacy toward educating minority, poor, and low achieving students is an important element of school restructuring. Changing societal values toward individual differences and misconceptions about students' abilities to learn is essential. Teacher behaviors that are effective with low achievers are effective for all learners. (SLD) EJ436984
Miller, R., & McDaniel, E. A. (1989). Enhancing Teacher Efficacy in Special Education through the Assessment of Student Performance., Academic Therapy, 25, 2, 171-81 Nov 1989. The collection of student data, both academic and behavioral, can enhance self- assessment and self-efficacy of special education teachers. The theory of self- efficacy is explained and techniques for collecting student performance data are suggested. (DB) EJ400706
Miller, R., DiBellaMcCarthy, H., & McDaniel, E. (1994). Enhancing Teacher Efficacy in College Faculty. The Journal of staff, program & organization dev, 11(4), 203.
Milson, A. J. (2001). Teacher Efficacy and Character Education., Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Seattle, WA, April 10-14, 2001). Page Length: 32. This study applies the teacher efficacy construct to the domain of character development in order to describe the efficacy beliefs of practicing elementary level teachers regarding character education. The Character Development Efficacy Belief Instrument, developed and validated by the researchers, was distributed to a sample of 767 elementary teachers in a large midwestern suburban school district. The results suggest that elementary teachers feel efficacious regarding most aspects of character education and that teachers who earned their undergraduate degrees from private, religiously affiliated universities have a greater sense of efficacy for character development. These findings suggest that programs in private, religiously affiliated universities might serve as a model for preparing teachers for character education. The survey instrument is attached. (Contains 34 references.) (Author/SM) ED454212
Moellr, A., & IshiiJordan, S. (1996). Teacher Efficacy: A Model for Teacher Development and Inclusion. Journal of behavioral education, 6(3), 293.
Moore, W. p. E., Mary E. (1992). Teacher Efficacy, Empowerment, and a Focused Instructional Climate: Does Student Achievement Benefit?, 60pp. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, April 20-24, 1992). This paper reports on a study designed to identify the relationships among the context variables of sense of efficacy, teacher empowerment, and school climate as perceived by 1,802 Kansas City (Missouri) teachers. Factors related to teacher sense of efficacy (teaching efficacy and personal efficacy), to teacher empowerment, defined as the perceived influence of teachers in important decision- making activities, and to school instructional climate and school atmosphere, which include lack of impediments to effective learning and degree of teacher/staff collegiality, were examined. The study also attempted to identify differences in the strength of the relationships across grade levels, to examine the notion of stability of efficacy, and to delineate the extent of the relationship between the three context variables and student achievement (grades one through five). Findings included indications that: (1) efficacy, empowerment, and instructional climate factors differ significantly across schools, levels, and grades; (2) personal and teaching efficacy were highly, although inversely, related; (3) school atmosphere tended to be related to lack of impediments to effective instruction and collegiality among teachers; (4) efficacy was strongly related to both classroom and school decision making; and (5) the contribution of the context variables to achievement differed across levels, grades, and test content. (About half of the document consists of figures and tables.) (IAH) ED350252
Moore, W. p. E., Mary E. (1994). Exploring the Context of Teacher Efficacy: The Role of Achievement and Climate., 22pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 4-8, 1994). Contains occasional lines of broken type. This study hypothesizes that a sense of personal and teaching efficacy can be explained, in part, by a historical pattern of student achievement performance and workplace context. To measure perceptions of efficacy, power, and school climate, a questionnaire was completed by approximately 1,500 elementary school teachers in the spring terms of 1991, 1992, and 1993. Achievement scores on the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills for 5 years preceding the first survey determined students' historical achievement performance. Findings indicated that context was an important influence on teaching efficacy; that a positive school atmosphere (focused on instruction), the reduction of barriers to effective teaching, and classroom-based decision-making each contributed to teachers' sense of teaching efficacy; and that schools with historically poor achievement tended to have teachers who reported a poorer image of school atmosphere which contributed to poorer perceptions of teaching effectiveness. Results suggest opportunities for improving the self-view of teachers and their profession. Specific recommendations include improvement of the instructional focus and climate of schools and provision of greater opportunity for teachers to participate and be influential in instructional and curricular decisions. A path diagram linking context variables to teaching efficacy is appended. (Contains 23 references.) (LL) ED370919
Morrison, G. M., & And, O. (1994). Teacher Preferences for Collaborative Relationships: Relationship to Efficacy for Teaching in Prevention-Related Domains. Paper presented at the Psychology in the Schools, 31, 3, 221-31 Jul 1994. Examined student and practicing teacher preferences for modes of working on students' academic, behavioral, and self-esteem problems. Working preferences (working with other professionals, letting other professionals handle problems, and working alone) varied according to teacher level of experience and grade level of teaching. Found significant relationship between collaborative work preferences and personal teaching efficacy. (Author/NB) EJ494440
Muchmore, J. A., & Knowles, J. G. (1993). Initiating Change through a Professional Development School: Three Teachers' Experiences., 24pp. Revised version of a paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Atlanta, GA, April 12-16, 1993). This article tells the story of a group of teachers who experienced change in the face of a newly formed professional development schoolone that loosely implemented many of the principles associated with the Holmes Group model. Specifically, these teachers became active participants on the Steering Committee, a group formed within the context of the school district/university collaborative partnership. In presenting accounts of the early processes of instituting change, the focus is on three individuals, as the "why?" and "how?" of professional development are explored. Why did these teachers choose to become active members of the school steering committee? What motivated them to think about change and its potential? How has involvement in professional development activities changed their perceptions of themselves as educators? How has it altered their sense of voice and efficacy in the junior high school where they work? This article, therefore, explores elements of both personal experience and group dynamics within the professional development school. The initiative for the formation of this professional development school came from teachers who were dissatisfied with the environment of their school and who wanted a vehicle for improving the school and their own professional lives. (Contains 20 references.) (Author/IAH) ED364500
Mumaw, C. R., & And, O. (1995). Teacher Efficacy and Past Experiences as Contributors to the Global Attitudes and Practices among Vocational Home Economics Teachers. Paper presented at the Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 24, 1 p92-109 Sep 1995. A survey of 78 female Florida home economics teachers identified two types of teacher efficacy. Teaching efficacy as outcome expectancies was the only significant predictor of global attitudes; personal teacher efficacy (self- efficacy) was the only significant predictor of global education practices. Past experience was not significant. (SK) EJ537074
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Newman, C., Moss, B., Lenarz, M., & Newman, I. (1998). The Impact of a PDS Internship/Student Teaching Program on the Self- Efficacy, Stages of Concern and Role Perceptions of Preservice Teaching: The Evaluation of a Goals 2000 Project., 25pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, October 14-17, 1998). This study examined preservice teachers' views at the beginning and end of a Professional Development School (PDS) collaboration project in terms of their stages of concern about teaching, teacher efficacy, understanding and implementation of integrated curriculum, and implementation of technology in instruction. The study also compared traditionally prepared and PDS- prepared student teachers' levels of preparedness for the entry year. The project involved immersing 15 preservice teachers in two different PDS environments during the semester before student teaching. Students took classes designed to develop reflective practitioners who were aware of theory-practice links. The onsite field experience provided a context for reflecting upon and making sense of the site-based experiences. Data came from pretest/posttest surveys that included a self-efficacy questionnaire, a student teaching questionnaire, and a stages of concern scale. Researchers also collected journal responses and lesson plans. Data analysis indicated that students who had guided internship experiences with trained mentors, focused on-site classes, and an emphasis on reflection felt and were better equipped to enter the teaching profession. They were more efficacious and had developed a level of comfort that allowed them to focus on concerns beyond their own personal survival. (Contains 17 references.) (SM) ED425164 You may be able to order this document from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service.
Novak, J. M. (1984). Inviting Research: Paradigms and Projects for a Theory of Educational Practice., 19pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (68th, New Orleans, LA, April 23-27, 1984). Research projects needed in invitational education will vary according to the concept of invitational education held. Three paradigms for invitational education are presented, with research projects suggested for each. First, for those who see invitational education as an "integrative setting," it is suggested that the development of explicit criteria for including, excluding, and transforming available research is needed. Next, researchers viewing invitational education as primarily involving skill acquisition need to develop arguments and strategies for those who question the desirability and efficacy of such an approach. Special attention is paid in this section to research studies on teacher efficacy, self-monitoring, and the "managed heart." Finally, for those who think invitational education should be about the inviting of educative events, a 4 x 4 grid is presented using basic notions of Stephen C. Pepper's "World Hypotheses" and D. Bob Gowin's "Educating." The model provided for inviting educative events could also be used in other professions. (Author) ED243792
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Ohara, T., & Purcell, T. D. (1980). Do Student Reported Achievements Have Validity as Measures of Instructional Efficacy? A Study of the Relationship between Instructional Context and Student Reported Achievements., 12pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (64th, Boston, MA, April 7-11, 1980). The relationship between student reported achievements (SRA) and student ratings of their corresponding course and teacher was investigated, from responses to the Instructor and Course Evaluation Questionnaire. The SRA consisted of 10 commonly accepted concepts of cognitive and individual development; their average was used as a measure of instructional efficacy. The ratings were organized by four factors. (1) personal-interpersonal relationship between student and teacher; (2) course structure; (3) course quality; and (4) course difficulty. There were ten groups representing a combination of grade level, freshman to graduate, and a science versus non-science dichotomy. Correlations between SRA and the first three factors were significant, supporting the thesis that self-reported achievement may be substituted for actual achievement. After regression, course quality and structure were the most important predictors of instructional efficacy for eight of the ten groups. In the science freshman group, the personal- interpersonal factor was most important; no single factor contributed to instructional efficacy of science sophomores. Contrary to expectation, course difficulty was not a strong predictor for any group, implying that it is irrelevant to SRA if course structure and quality are adequate. (CP) ED190615 Organization. Authentic Teaching from a Wholetheme Perspective. This study compared outcomes from undergraduate subjects (N=21) who had attended seminars in the wholetheme instructional approach with controls (N=21) who attended a seminar on the writing process. The wholetheme approach of Asghar Iran- Nejad emphasizes thematic, nondirectional, and intuitive teaching. The study was designed to determine if subjects who attended seminars on the wholetheme approach to authentic teaching were: (1) better able to differentiate between teacher-teller and teacher-facilitator; (2) practiced more authentic teaching; (3) became more personally and generally efficacious, and (4) were more willing to address diversity in the classroom than those students who attended seminars on the writing process. Subjects completed four survey instruments, including measurements of authentic teaching and teacher efficacy as well as an open-ended questionnaire. Subjects who participated in wholetheme seminars were found to be more conversant in wholetheme terminology and concepts, and posttest measures found them significantly more likely to address diversity in the classroom. Posttest ratings of teacher efficacy were significantly higher for seminar participants, as were measures of authentic teaching. The study demonstrated that seminars with an emphasis on wholetheme teaching would foster reorganization of knowledge and encourage future teachers to examine and reflect upon their role. The research helps support the premise that seminars and supervision centered on the wholetheme approach can assist preservice teachers to create authentic learning environments, to increase personal and general confidence in their teaching, and to change beliefs about inclusive education. (Contains 22 references.) (PB)
Organization. (1989). The Mainstreaming Debate. Paper presented at the Harvard Education Letter, 5, 2 Mar-Apr 1989 Mar 1989. The question of responsibility for the eduction of disabled students has become a controversial issue. This article explores the debate between proponents of special education and of mainstreaming for academically handicapped children. Under Public Law 94-142, disabled children are guaranteed an appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment, as specified by an individualized education program. While this entitlement is widely supported, it entails significant administrative and budgetary problems. The Regular Education Initiative (REI), proposed by the Department of Education in 1986, is a strategy for unifying regular and special education. In question are the quality and value of special classes and "pull-out" programs for students with mild academic handicaps. REI proponents call for a fundamentally restructured mainstream that would provide a better education for all children at lower cost. The efficacy of supplementary resource room or learning center services is examined, especially in terms of reading instruction. Ramifications of handicap identification and classification, including implications for equal educational access, are also explored. Innovative programs, such as the Adaptive Learning Environments Model (ALEM) and Team Assisted Indiviualization (TAI), are described. Broadened regular education teacher training, increased special and regular education collaboration, and budgetary flexibility are suggested as key elements for change. (AF) ED336433
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Paese, P., & Zinkgraf, S. (1991). The Effect of Student Teaching on Teacher Efficacy and Teacher Stress. Journal of teaching in physical education, 10(3), 307.
Pang, I.-W., & Watkins, D. (2000). Towards a Psychological Model of Teacher-Parent Communication in Hong Kong Primary Schools. Educational Studies, 26(2), 141-163(123). Teacher attitudes and practices are considered as essential in fostering parental involvement in school education. In Hong Kong, amongst possible types of home-school links, teacher-parent communication about children's learning has been agreed to be the primary concern of both schools and parents. This paper reports a test of a psychological model of teacher-parent communication in Hong Kong primary schools. The model has taken into account the theory of planned behavior, self-efficacy theory, expectancy theory and theories of family-school relations. Scales for measuring the criterion and predictor variables have been developed. Variables that associated with teacher communication intention and practices were identified and path analyses linking the variables in a conceptual model were conducted. Results show that teacher commitment and teacher efficacy in working with parents have significant predictive power for teacher intention. Teacher intention, together with teacher commitment, has predictive power for teacher's time spent in communicating with parents. Relationships between individual teacher beliefs and the criterion variables are also described and discussed.
Peterson, A. M. (1997). Aspects of School Climate: A Review of the Literature. Paper presented at the ERS Spectrum, 15, 1, 36-42 Win 1997. This literature review addresses four variables related to school climate: teacher efficacy, collegiality (as promoted by the principal, shared decision making, and staff development), student achievement, and parent involvement. Schools attempting reform should consider how each of these variables can contribute to a positive school climate and improve the chances for lasting, meaningful school reform. (28 references) (MLH) EJ542608
Petrie, T., Hartranft, F., & Lutz, K. (1994). The Relationship Between Teacher Efficacy and Administrative Perceptions of Effectiveness. The High School journal, 78(2), 73.
Pfaff, M. E. (2000). The Effects on Teacher Efficacy of School Based Collaborative Activities Structured as Professional Study Groups., Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 24-28, 2000). Page Length: 14. This study examined the influence of participation in school-based professional study group activities on both general and personal teaching efficacy. It also examined teachers' perceptions of changes that occurred in their teaching performance as a result of participation in the study group sessions. Participants were elementary teachers who voluntarily established their own study group, engaging in professional discourse in their monthly discussions. Data collection included written questionnaires from and personal interviews with study group participants and nonparticipants. Results indicate that general teaching efficacy was clearly different from personal teaching efficacy. Differences in general teaching efficacy between the two groups at the end of the year suggest that the collaboration and purposeful discussions in which study group members engaged had a positive effect on their general teaching efficacy as compared to non-study group teachers. The study group experience influenced participants' classroom behaviors. Overall, teachers who engaged in ongoing professional study group activities were more likely to gain or sustain a sense of security and confidence that, in turn, encouraged them to transfer the content of their study group sessions into classroom practices. (Contains 33 references.) (SM) ED441791
Pigge, F. L., & Marso, R. N. (1993). Outstanding Teachers' Sense of Teacher Efficacy at Four Stages of Career Development., 11pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association of Teacher Educators (73rd, Los Angeles, CA, February 13-17, 1993). A sense of efficacy, the extent to which teachers believe that they have the capacity to affect pupil performance, is related to both teaching behaviors and pupil performance. This study was designed to test the developmental hypothesis that teachers' sense of efficacy would increase during their successful progression through preservice training and inservice teaching. Approximately 300 outstanding preservice and inservice teachers at 4 distinctly different stages of career development were administered the Teacher Efficacy Scale. The sample consisted of highly successful teachers (N=225) and of high-potential prospective teachers (N=65) at the commencement of teacher preparation and at early-, mid-, and late career development stages. Findings indicated that the four groups of outstanding preservice and inservice teachers did not report statistically significant different senses of personal teaching efficacy or teaching efficacy. Differences between the 4 groups of responses of 5 of the 16 efficacy statements were significant, but the differences were limited to those between preservice and inservice teachers. These item analyses also indicated that preservice teachers tended to report a lower sense of personal efficacy but a higher sense of the efficacy of teachers as a group than did the inservice teachers. (Contains 16 references.) (LL) ED356206
Pigge, F., & Marso, R. (1994). Outstanding Teachers' Sense of Teacher Efficacy at Four Stages of Career Development. The Teacher educator, 29(4), 35.
Podell, D. M., & Soodak, L. C. (1993). Teacher Efficacy and Bias in Special Education Referrals. Paper presented at the Journal of Educational Research, 86, 4, 247-53 Mar-Apr 1993. This study investigated teachers' sense of efficacy and bias in decisions to refer students to special education. Teachers read a case study (under different conditions with varying student socioeconomic status and etiology of learning program) then judged student placement. Teachers' decisions were biased by variables unrelated to the student's academic difficulties. (SM) EJ469768
Pontius, R. (1998). Correlation Analysis and Comparison of Two Self-Efficacy Instruments., 13pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (71st, San Diego, CA, April 19-22, 1998). Belief in the ability to teach or to teach a particular subject can help fuel success in the first stages of a teaching career. The need for a reliable instrument with which to probe preservice elementary teachers' self-efficacy beliefs in the teaching of science led to the development of two versions of a teacher efficacy scale that were tested in this study: the Teacher Efficacy Scale as modified by Kushner (1993), and the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument Form B (STEBI B) developed by Enochs and Riggs (1990). The two instruments were given to students in an elementary science methods course during the first 2 or 3 weeks of the semester. Typically students in this class were within a semester or two of student teaching. Both instruments were modifications of other instruments and the evolution of each is described. Both instruments used a Likert-type scale. The nature of this study suggested that a positive correlation might exist between the analogous scales of the two instruments. In both cases the correlation was negative. Preservice teachers with high personal efficacy tended to have lower science teaching efficacy, and those with high science teaching efficacy tended to have lower general teaching efficacy. Possible reasons for these results are discussed. (PVD) ED418854
Poole, M. G. O., Karen R. (1989). The Effects of Teacher Efficacy and Interactions among Educators on Curriculum Implementation., Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 4, 2, 146-61 Win 1989. This study examines whether three school-level factors identified in Fullan's theory of educational change would affect implementation levels in a curriculum change process. Effects of task-relevant interactions among teachers and between teachers and administrators were analyzed, along with teachers' sense of efficiency. (TE) EJ383813
Pounder, D. G. (1999). Teacher Teams: Exploring Job Characteristics and Work-Related Outcomes of Work Group Enhancement. Educational Administration Quarterly, 35(3), 317-348(332). This study explores how teacher teams (work group enhancement) influence teachers' work characteristics and other work-related variables. The study uses a comparative design to test differences between teamed and nonteamed teachers on work characteristics and work-related variables suggested by Hackman and Oldham's job characteristics model. The study results suggest that teachers whose jobs have a work group emphasis (interdisciplinary teams) report significantly higher levels of the following: (a) skill variety in their work; (b) knowledge of students (their educational characteristics, history, and personal life circumstances); (c) growth satisfaction; (d) general satisfaction; (e) professional commitment; (f) work group helpfulness and effectiveness; (g) internal work motivation; and (h) teacher efficacy than do their nonteaming counterparts. The study also reports auxiliary survey data on students' satisfaction with various aspects of a team versus a nonteam school.
Pugh, W. C. (1988). Ethnography and Teacher Efficacy: The Case for Collaborative Teacher Involvement in School Effectiveness., 30pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Ethnography in Education Forum (9th, Philadelphia, PA, February 5-6, 1988). School improvement programs emphasizing certain school effectiveness correlates are now fairly common. While program implementation is often a focus of school effectiveness research, teacher efficacy and collaboration are also important. Large-scale aggregate studies viewing students' socioeconomic status as the chief determinant of academic success have been used to support financially conservative policy views and have been criticized for failing to recognize inherent limitations that mask "pockets of excellence." Ethnographic studies of school improvement programs are increasingly being used because statistical analysis is inadequate to describe exemplary practices or to identify and suggest effectiveness models that can be replicated. This paper discusses a recently established educational program addressing student underachievement in a large urban public school system. The research and evaluation design, a classroom implementation checklist, sought to document teacher efficacy through analysis of (1) staffing and instructional grouping characteristics and (2) classroom characteristics and instructional strategies. Results show (1) that a qualitative approach to school improvement program research is needed in order to interpret quantitative findings; (2) that ethnographic or "interpretive research" encourages researchers and subjects to engage in collaborative dialogues; and (3) that critical ethnography must recognize the concept of reflective inquiry between researchers and subjects. Included are 2 summary charts, 39 references, and an appendix containing the implementation checklist. (MLH) ED295304
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Raywid, M. A. (1996). Taking Stock: The Movement To Create Mini-Schools, Schools-within-Schools, and Separate Small Schools. Urban Diversity Series No. 108., 72p. Many educators see school downsizing efforts as the linchpin of school restructuring. Several forms that school downsizing efforts are taking are explored, along with a discussion of the reasons for which small schools are being established. The types of subschools that are being launched (houses, mini- schools, schools-within-schools) are described. The largely exploratory study is derived from an extensive review of the literature and documentation, evaluation, and policy studies of 22 schools-within-schools and small schools conducted over the past 15 years. Experiences in three cities, New York (New York), Philadelphia (Pennsylvania), and Chicago (Illinois), are highlighted. The evidence suggests that there are multiple reasons for downsizing, notably the enhancement of commitment and performance and the development of teachers and students. A number of subunits, subschools, and small schools have been quite successful in achieving better attendance, more positive attitudes, and greater achievement. Schools that have been designed and operated as distinctive and autonomous entities have had a better chance of success. While downsizing is clearly no magic bullet, it can increase student participation, reduce dropouts, improve achievement, and enhance teacher efficacy. (Contains 2 figures and 136 references.) (SLD) ED396045
Reames, E. H., & Spencer, W. A. (1998 Length: 40 Page(s); 1 Microfiche). The Relationship between Middle School Culture and Teacher Efficacy and Commitment. This paper explores the relationship between the culture of the middle school and teachers' sense of efficacy and commitment. A total of 275 middle-school teachers in Georgia, representing 40 schools divided equally among rural and urban contexts, completed a 4-part instrument designed to measure perceptions of school-work culture, organizational commitment, and teacher efficacy. School-work culture was operationalized by "The School Work Culture Profile" (Snyder, 1988) which consists of 4 subscales: organizational planning, staff development, program development, and school assessment. Teacher efficacy was measured by Gibson and Dembo's (1984) "Teacher Efficacy Scale," while teacher commitment was assessed with the "Organizational Commitment Questionnaire" (Porter, Steers, Mowday and Boulian, 1974). Using canonical correlation, the responses were analyzed to investigate the relationship between school-work culture process and structure variables on the one hand and teacher beliefs of efficacy and commitment on the other. The results reveal that all four dimensions of school-work culture were approximately equally important in explaining differences in teacher commitment and efficacy. However, these dimensions were more strongly related to the level of organizational commitment than they were to personal efficacy. General teaching efficacy was determined as not being related to the work-culture dimensions. Analysis of focus groups supported the statistical results. (Author/RJM) ED428441
Reyes, P., Ed. (1990). Teachers and Their Workplace: Commitment, Performance, and Productivity., 317p. The 13 chapters of this book are written by scholars who have made significant contributions to school administration and to their own disciplines. After an introductory chapter on what research has to say about commitment, performance, and productivity, the discussion is presented in four parts: (1) empirical issues; (2) theoretical issues; (3) practical issues; and (4) epilogue. In Part 1, the data on teaching and work conditions are reviewed in the context of socio- psychological theories. The focus is on teacher efficacy at work, decision making, attitudes about work, and current efforts to enhance teacher performance. In Part 2, the theoretical issues concerning teacher commitment, performance, and productivity are addressed. Attention is given to sensitizing school administrators to the necessity of having a highly committed staff, to redefining organizational performance beyond traditional thinking, and to re-examining school productivity. Part 3 deals with the possible alternative options available for developing teacher commitment, managing school performance, and enhancing school productivity. Specific recommendations are given to the practitioner for developing effective ways to deal with these issues. Part 4 summarizes the basic themes presented in the book and addresses policy implications for school systems. It presents arguments for developing a vision that goes beyond traditional thinking for schools and school administration. Recommendations for further study of the main topics of the book are offered. (JD) ED329533
Rich, Y., & And, O. (1996). Extending the Concept and Assessment of Teacher Efficacy. Paper presented at the Educational and Psychological Measurement, 56, 6 p1015-25 Dec 1996. Two teacher efficacy subscales developed by S. Gibson and M. Dembo (1984) translated into Hebrew and administered to Israeli teachers retained their factor structures and adequate reliability. A subscale developed for the study to measure teacher efficacy in enhancing student social relations specifically also had adequate reliability. (SLD) EJ536939
Roberts, J. K. H., Robin K.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Moreno, Nancy. (2000). An Examination of Change in Teacher Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Science Education Based on the Duration of Inservice Activities., Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Southwest Educational Research Association (Dallas, TX, January 27-29, 2000). Page Length: 29. Researchers investigated the optimum length of teacher inservice activities where increasing teacher efficacy was the goal. Participants were elementary science teachers from seven teacher enhancement projects conducted from 1992-99. The length breakdown of each program was: 19926 weeks; 19946 weeks; 19954 weeks; 19964 weeks; 19974 weeks; 19983 weeks; and 19992 weeks. In each of the projects, teachers completed the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI) on the first and last days of the inservice workshops. The STEBI examined personal science teaching efficacy (PSTE) and science teaching outcome expectancy. Data analysis indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the mean PSTE gain scores on the three contrast variables among the four groups of teachers whose PSTE pretest scores were greater than or equal to 50. This may be due to the fact that teachers already scored high on the PSTE scale. Among teachers whose pretest PSTE scores were less than 50, there were significant gains when comparing the mean gain scores from teachers in the 2- and 3-week sessions and teachers in the 4- and 6-week sessions. It was found that inservice intervention programs had the greatest impact on the efficacy of those teachers who began the program with the lowest efficacy. Given the consistent relationships demonstrated between teacher efficacy and positive student outcomes, inservices impacting teachers' low efficacy are worth close examination. (Contains 32 references and 8 tables.) (SM) ED438259
Roberts, J. K., & Henson, R. K. (2001). A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of a New Measure of Teacher Efficacy: Ohio State Teacher Efficacy Scale., Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Seattle, WA, April 10-14, 2001). Page Length: 38. A promising new teacher self-efficacy instrument, the Ohio State Teacher Efficacy Scale (OSTES) (M. Tschannen-Moran and A. WoolfolkHoy, in press) was critically evaluated regarding its development and submitted to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Participants were 183 inservice teachers in Texas and Washington, DC, most of whom taught primary grades. The hypothesized three-factor structure was not supported by the CFA, but a two-factor correlated structure was retained, which consisted of the Efficacy in Student Engagement and Efficacy in Instructional Practices factors. The third factor, Efficacy in Classroom Management, was eliminated in the strongest two-factor model. Recommendations are made to: (1) further refine the OSTES by removing the third factor; (2) seek increased use of CFA methodology in teacher efficacy instrumentation and (3) foster stronger exploratory factor analytic strategies, particularly regarding factor retention. The instrument is attached. (Contains 2 tables, 5 figures, and 51 references.) (SLD) ED453254
Romano, J. L. (1996). School Personnel Prevention Training: A Measure of Self-Efficacy. Paper presented at the Journal of Educational Research, 90, 1, 57-63 Sep-Oct 1996. This study investigated self-efficacy as an outcome evaluation variable for a school personnel prevention training, "Enhancing Student Well-Being." A self- efficacy measure showed significant differences between trained educators and a comparison group. At followup, trained educators retained much of their self- efficacy gains. (SM) EJ538473
Ross, J. A. (1992). Teacher Efficacy and the Effects of Coaching on Student Achievement. Paper presented at the An earlier version of this paper was presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association of Educational Psychology (Kingston, Canada, June 1991). English and French abstracts are included. Relationships among student achievement, teacher efficacy, and interactions with 6 history teaching coaches were studied for 18 seventh and eighth grade history teachers in 36 classes. Student achievement was higher when teachers had more contact with coaches and when teachers had more confidence in education's effectiveness. (SLD) EJ453843
Ross, J. A. (1994). Beliefs That Make a Difference: The Origins and Impacts of Teacher Efficacy., 45pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association for Curriculum Studies (Calgary, Alberta, Canada, June 1994). After analysis of 88 studies of the antecedents and consequences of teacher efficacy, it was found that personal attributes and organizational characteristics were associated with higher teacher efficacy. There was consistent evidence that teacher efficacy influences teacher and student outcomes. Higher efficacy was associated with: being female, the teacher's attribution of student success and failure to forces within their control, elementary level teaching rather than middle and high school teaching, students who are relatively orderly and of higher ability, schools characterized by low stress, leadership responsive to teacher needs, the use of teaching techniques which are more challenging and difficult, teachers' willingness to implement innovative programs, developmental classroom management practices, and enhanced student mastery of cognitive and affective goals. Deficiencies of past research include inattention to within-individual differences and a failure to conduct rigorous intervention studies. It is proposed that future research focus on the use of teacher efficacy as a construct in school improvement research. (Contains 113 references.) (Author/JDD) ED379216
Ross, J. A. (1994). The Impact of an Inservice to Promote Cooperative Learning on the Stability of Teacher Efficacy. Paper presented at the Teaching and Teacher Education, 10, 4, 381-94 Jul 1994. Reports an effort to stimulate teacher efficacy by providing a teacher inservice to increase knowledge and skill in cooperative-learning techniques. Researchers measured teacher efficacy three times over eight months. Results indicated use of inservice knowledge, not exposure to it, contributed to changes in efficacy; and general, not personal, teaching efficacy, changed. (Author/SM) EJ492106
Ross, J. A. (1995). Strategies for Enhancing Teachers' Beliefs in Their Effectiveness: Research on a School Improvement Hypothesis. Paper presented at the Teachers College Record, 97, 2, 227-51 Win 1995. Reviews research on teacher efficacy, concluding that teachers who believe they are effective set more challenging goals for themselves and their students, take responsibility for student outcomes, and persist when faced with obstacles to learning. The article suggests that efforts to improve schools should include attention to teacher efficacy. (SM) EJ523876
Ross, J. A. C., J. Bradley; Gadalla, Tahany; Hannay, Lynne. (1999). The Effects of Course Assignment on Teacher Efficacy in Restructuring Secondary Schools., Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Montreal, Quebec, Canada, April 19-23, 1999). This paper examines how teachers' expectations of their ability to produce student learning varies within teaching assignments. In the study described here, 359 teachers in 9 restructuring secondary schools in 1 district estimated their ability to perform common teaching tasks in 4 of the courses they expected to teach in the coming school year. Results show that teacher efficacy was lower for courses outside the teacher's subject. The findings indicate that teacher efficacy is threatened when teachers move away from their home departments, either by teaching a course outside their subject or by facilitating curriculum activities that cross departmental lines. The effects of teaching outside one's area were greater than the effects of track and grade, two course characteristics that have been linked to teacher efficacy in previous research. The study also found that teacher efficacy was influenced by teachers' leadership roles. Teachers who were expected to promote student learning across subjects had lower teacher efficacy than teachers in traditional positions of added responsibility (department heads) and teachers who were not in leadership positions. It is suggested that if reform is to succeed, reformers need to create coping structures and strategies for enabling teachers to move out of departments. (Contains 65 references and 6 tables.) (RJM) ED430280
Ross, J. A., & And, O. (1996). Within-Teacher Predictors of Teacher Efficacy. Paper presented at the Teaching and Teacher Education, 12, 4, 385-400 1996. Experienced secondary teachers completed a survey probing their feelings of personal efficacy toward teaching different classes. Teachers' performance expectancies varied among teaching assignments. Within-teacher factors accounted for 21 percent of the variance in teacher efficacy (TE). The influence of within- teacher factors on TE was moderated by between-teacher variables. (Author/SM) EJ533433
Ross, J. A., Cousins, J. B., Gadalla, T., & Hannay, L. (1999 Length: 23 Page(s); 1 Microfiche). The Effects of Course Assignment on Teacher Efficacy in Restructuring Secondary Schools., Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Montreal, Quebec, Canada, April 19-23, 1999). This paper examines how teachers' expectations of their ability to produce student learning varies within teaching assignments. In the study described here, 359 teachers in 9 restructuring secondary schools in 1 district estimated their ability to perform common teaching tasks in 4 of the courses they expected to teach in the coming school year. Results show that teacher efficacy was lower for courses outside the teacher's subject. The findings indicate that teacher efficacy is threatened when teachers move away from their home departments, either by teaching a course outside their subject or by facilitating curriculum activities that cross departmental lines. The effects of teaching outside one's area were greater than the effects of track and grade, two course characteristics that have been linked to teacher efficacy in previous research. The study also found that teacher efficacy was influenced by teachers' leadership roles. Teachers who were expected to promote student learning across subjects had lower teacher efficacy than teachers in traditional positions of added responsibility (department heads) and teachers who were not in leadership positions. It is suggested that if reform is to succeed, reformers need to create coping structures and strategies for enabling teachers to move out of departments. (Contains 65 references and 6 tables.) (RJM) ED430280
Ross, J. A., McKeiver, S., & Hogaboam-Gray, A. (1997). Fluctuations in Teacher Efficacy During Implementation of Destreaming. Paper presented at the Canadian Journal of Education, 22, 3, 283-96 Sum 1997. Four grade-9 mathematics teachers in Canada were studied over one year as they implemented destreaming (detracking), which was an externally induced reform in their school system. Implementation of the destreaming had an immediate negative effect on teacher expectations of their own efficacy, but their beliefs rebounded over the year. (SLD) EJ553104
Ross, J., Cousins, J., & Hannay, L. (1999). Administrative Assignment of Teachers in Restructuring Secondary Schools: The Effect of Out-of-Field Course Responsibility on Teacher Efficacy. Educational administration quarterly, 35(supp), 782.
Ross, J., HogaboamGray, A., & Hannay, L. (2001). Effects of Teacher Efficacy on Computer Skills and Computer Cognitions of Canadian Students in Grades K-3. Elementary School Journal, 102(2), 141-156.
Rowe, B. W. (2000). The Influence of Teacher Efficacy and Readiness for Self-Directed Learning on the Implementation of a Growth-Oriented Teacher Performance Appraisal Process., Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 24-28, 2000). Page Length: 43. This study analyzed the implementation of a teacher performance appraisal process that encourages self-directed learning (SDL), highlighting the extent to which teacher efficacy (TE) influenced the its success. The study also examined whether lack of readiness for SDL was an implementation obstacle. Finally, it noted other barriers and obstacles to full implementation of a teacher performance appraisal policy in one Newfoundland school district. The researcher analyzed current literature dealing with teacher professional growth, teacher performance appraisal, TE, and SDL in an attempt to isolate barriers to full implementation of a teacher performance appraisal process that encourages SDL. The study analyzed the Newfoundland school district's implementation of a teacher performance appraisal policy using teacher and administrator surveys and interviews. Results highlighted several themes related to this process within the school district: rationale, implementation, barriers, responsibility, uniqueness, and growth realization. Teachers' levels of TE influenced their attitudes toward, and success in, this new process which encourages SDL. This influence, in turn, affected teachers' professional growth experiences in the process itself. Teachers believed that the most effective and meaningful teacher evaluations were self-directed. Barriers to implementation included time and teacher-administrator relationships. (Contains 54 references.) (SM) ED444942
Rugutt, J. K. E., Chad D.; Culross, Rita R. (1998). Discriminating Student Learning and Efficacy Levels in Higher Education: Contributions of Classroom Environment and Teaching and Learning Effectiveness., 30pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Southwest Educational Research Association (January 1998, Houston, TX). This study examined the contribution of classroom learning environment and teaching and learning effectiveness variables to student learning and learning efficacy in higher education settings. It attempted to identify classroom environment characteristics that differentiate high- and low- academic-efficacy student groups and the teaching and learning effectiveness variables that differentiate these groups. Also examined were how these variables differentiate levels of student course evaluations and the emphasis given in class to the development of higher-order thinking skills. Subjects were all students (n=2,190) in 145 classes offered through the evening continuing education program at Louisiana State University during the 1996 fall semester. Students completed the Student Assessment of Teaching and Learning measure and the newly developed Personal Learning Environment Measure and Student Learning Efficacy Assessment. Findings clearly indicated that student academic self-efficacy was more potent in differentiating course and learning outcomes than either students' perceptions of elements of the classroom environment or their views about their personal motivation/involvement in learning and the general quality of teaching. Other findings suggested that the three instruments used were effective in evaluating the quality of teaching and learning environments. The data collection packet is appended. (Contains 51 references.) (DB) ED426681 You may be able to order this document from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service.
Ruscoe, G. C., & And, O. (1989). Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives on Teacher Attitudes in Professional Development Schools., 23pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, March 27-31, 1989). This paper examines teachers' attitudes toward issues central to the establishment and functioning of professional development schools in Jefferson County, Kentucky. These issues are teacher effectiveness and teacher empowerment. Like the professional development school concept itself, the research reported is collaborative. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to gain a more complete picture of the day-to-day life in the professional development schools. In reporting results, both research and school-reform concerns are addressed in an effort to enhance "research conversations" within schools and between schools and universities. In the first part of the paper, the collaborative context within which professional development schools have emerged is considered. The second part examines some of the findings of a survey of the 1,065 teachers and 85 administrators in the 24 participating schools, focusing on their responses to questions related to teacher efficacy and empowerment; the response rate was 93.6%. Section three presents related evaluative data derived from participant observation in their schools and interviews with staff members. Finally, consideration is given to the implications of the research findings for school-university collaboration. (JD) ED310068
Rushton, S. (2000). Student Teacher Efficacy in Inner-City Schools. Urban Review, 32(4), 365-384.
Russell, G. F., & Shoare, L. (1994). Interactive Perceptual Psychology: The Human Psychology That Mirrors the Naturalness of Human Behavior., 31pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-Western Educational Research Association (October 1994). This study presents results of research on the impact of Interactive Perceptual Psychology (IPP) on teachers. IPP is the psychology showing human behavior as the sum of internal energy derived from thinking, feeling, and acting. This energy comes from the interaction among 10 receptors found within each human being: (1) "man's" will; (2) internal motivation; (3) psychological dimensions; (4) learning styles; (5) cognitive development; (6) belief structures; (7) physiological needs; (8) social/emotional development; (9) language development; and (10) spiritual beliefs. FOCUS, IPP's visual model, includes a four-step process producing replicable, predictable, and measurable outcomes. This study, involving teachers in graduate classes in northeastern Ohio, replicated a quantitative study performed in 1992 that assessed the impact of IPP on four affective measures and supported previously drawn conclusions. Multiple linear regression models analyzed the quantitative data in both studies. In both studies, teacher burnout reflected a linear decline as the number of FOCUS classes increased, while a significant increase in teacher efficacy resulted for teachers experiencing additional FOCUS classes. The second study revealed a positive change in self-concept as attending FOCUS classes increased. Appendix A contains the following instruments: Rosenberg's Self-Concept Study; Maslach's Burnout Scale; and Ashton's Self-Efficacy Scale. (Contains nine references.) (Author/ND) ED385516
Russell, J. F. (1994). An Evaluation of Middle Level Schooling: Implementation of Programming Concepts in Relation to Student Achievement. Summary. This paper summarizes a study undertaken to evaluate the impact of middle-level schooling upon student achievement and to provide information useful to the improvement of early adolescent education. The study drew on the following two theoretical perspectives: (1) middle level theory, which advocates organizing students and teachers and modifying curriculum and instruction to meet the needs and abilities of early adolescents; if six programming aspects are adopted, enhanced developmental and achievement outcomes will be realized; and (2) program evaluation theory, which contributed the models of objective-oriented evaluation and management-oriented evaluation used in this study. The study is significant because most research has focused on goals other than academic achievement or has been inconclusive about achievement. Identifying whether actual middle-level programming has been implemented is often unclear. In this study, educators in 10 middle-level and junior high schools were surveyed whether they believed 6 middle- level programming concepts had been implemented in their school. This data was correlated with student achievement in the eighth grade. Results indicated that middle-level programming had been implemented with varying degrees in the 10 schools. It was also found that five of the six middle-level program concepts, as well as averaged overall concepts, were related positively with enhanced student achievement. Recommendations for improving middle-level education based on the study include: movement toward full implementation of middle level programming should continue; the practices of whole group ability grouping and tracking should not be used in schools for early adolescents; developmentally appropriate teaching strategies should be maximized; student accountability should focus more on project accomplishment and skill mastery; strategies which enhance teacher efficacy should be implemented; identifying sites with high implementation of middle level programming concepts for the purpose of having practitioners visit those sites should be encouraged; and further research is needed. (TM) ED394620
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Reames, E. H., & Spencer, W. A. (1998). Teacher Efficacy and Commitment: Relationships to Middle School Culture., 36pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Diego, CA, April 13-17, 1998). This study examined Georgia middle school teachers' perceptions of their work environment, their perceived efficacy, and organizational commitment. The study included 400 full-time, certified teachers from 40 rural and metropolitan middle schools. Teachers completed a mailed survey that asked about demographics, organizational commitment, perceived efficacy, and the school work culture. Focus groups in two of the schools had teachers discuss variables from the mailed survey to examine possible relationships between all variables in question. A total of 275 teachers responded to the mailed survey. Data analysis indicated that on the surface, school culture was measured through the dimensions of planning, staff development, program development, and assessment of productivity. However, the underlying core assumptions of school culture suggested the interrelated nature of important process and structure variables. Processes included: collaboration; participatory decision making; and supportive administrative leadership. Structures included: encouragement of innovation and risk taking; school goals and planning; and staff development to further goals. The analysis suggested that organizational structure and process variables are positively related to important teacher beliefs such as personal efficacy and organizational commitment. Focus groups supported the quantitative findings. (Contains 1 table and 67 references.) (SM) ED419793
Reames, E. H., & Spencer, W. A. (1998). The Relationship between Middle School Culture and Teacher Efficacy and Commitment. This paper explores the relationship between the culture of the middle school and teachers' sense of efficacy and commitment. A total of 275 middle-school teachers in Georgia, representing 40 schools divided equally among rural and urban contexts, completed a 4-part instrument designed to measure perceptions of school-work culture, organizational commitment, and teacher efficacy. School-work culture was operationalized by "The School Work Culture Profile" (Snyder, 1988) which consists of 4 subscales: organizational planning, staff development, program development, and school assessment. Teacher efficacy was measured by Gibson and Dembo's (1984) "Teacher Efficacy Scale," while teacher commitment was assessed with the "Organizational Commitment Questionnaire" (Porter, Steers, Mowday and Boulian, 1974). Using canonical correlation, the responses were analyzed to investigate the relationship between school-work culture process and structure variables on the one hand and teacher beliefs of efficacy and commitment on the other. The results reveal that all four dimensions of school-work culture were approximately equally important in explaining differences in teacher commitment and efficacy. However, these dimensions were more strongly related to the level of organizational commitment than they were to personal efficacy. General teaching efficacy was determined as not being related to the work-culture dimensions. Analysis of focus groups supported the statistical results. (Author/RJM) ED428441
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