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Abdal-Haqq, I. (1998). Professional Development Schools: Weighing the Evidence., 99p. This book examines U.S. progress in revitalizing teacher education and reforming K-12 education via Professional Development Schools (PDS's). The book discusses whether PDS's are: improving K-12 curriculum and instruction through faculty development; making substantive, positive differences in students' learning levels; addressing the needs of marginalized or vulnerable learners; merging with other reform initiatives; and meeting time and financing challenges. Data come from mainstream and fugitive sources, including student interviews and followup studies with teacher education graduates; surveys with preservice teachers on attitudes, beliefs, and self-efficacy; and reviews in student journals. Chapter 1 examines features and practices characterizing initial teacher preparation and professional development for teachers in PDS's, considering the impact of teacher development on participants. Chapter 2 examines activities, characteristics, and outcomes of PDS programming that target student achievement, discussing inquiry in PDS's and inquiry about PDS effectiveness. After summarizing major concepts that define teaching and learning in PDS's, the chapter describes programs that attempt to implement practices reflecting these concepts and themes. Chapter 3 examines problems of time and financing in PDS's, exploring additional fiscal and human resources necessary to start up and sustain them. Chapter 4 summarizes the benefits of parent involvement, integrated services, and technology infusion, examining the extent to which PDS programming incorporates them. Chapter 5 describes the extent to which equity of diversity-related programming and practices in PDS's reflects unequal power relationships between and within schools and universities and between historically dominated groups and schools, universities, and society. (Contains 149 references.) (SM) ED415226
Adams, M. J. (1996). The perception of high school athletes and coaches in regard to individual and team efficacy in basketball. Micro 4
Adunyarittigun, D. ([1997). Effects of the Parent Volunteer Program upon Students' Self-Perception as a Reader., 39p. A study investigated effects of a parent volunteer programa component of the Summer Reading Program of the University of Maryland at College Parkupon children's self-perceptions as readers and their motivation to read. Subjects were 10 students in grades 4 or 6 who were identified as achieving below grade level and who were low motivated readers, and 13 parents of the children. Students were provided instruction on a group basis by 2 clinicians for 3 hours a day, 3 days a week, for 5 weeks. Volunteer parents assisted the students to improve their reading, either on a group basis or an individual basis. Students were administered the Reader Self-Perception Scale as a pretest and posttest. Parents and 2 teachers completed questionnaires. Results indicated that by the end of the program, the students (1) had more confidence in their capacities and self-efficacy of being a reader; (2) were more motivated to read; and (3) voluntarily got involved in literacy activities. Findings suggest that parent involvement had an impact upon increments of students' self-perception as a reader and writer. (Contains 41 references and 3 tables of data. An appendix presents an interview protocol.) (RS) ED404617
Aleksiuk, M. (1996). Power therapy: maximizing health through self-efficacy. Seattle [Wash.]: H&H Publishers. Bf637.s38 a44 1996
Allinder, R. M. (1994). The Relationship between Efficacy and the Instructional Practices of Special Education Teachers and Consultants., Teacher Education and Special Education, 17, 2, 86-95 Spr 1994. Comparison of 73 special education teachers providing direct instructional services and 43 educators providing mostly indirect services found that both teaching efficacy and personal efficacy were related to instructionally relevant effective teaching components. Type of service (direct or indirect) was not significantly correlated with either facet of efficacy, but indirect service providers were more likely to be experimental. (DB) EJ493054
Allinder, R. M. (1995). An Examination of the Relationship between Teacher Efficacy and Curriculum-Based Measurement and Student Achievement., Remedial and Special Education, 16, 4, 247-54 Jul 1995. The effects of personal and teaching efficacy on teachers' use of curriculum- based measurement (CBM) and on student achievement were studied. Nineteen special education teachers each monitored 2 elementary school students with mild disabilities over 16 weeks in math computation using CBM. Teachers with high personal and teaching efficacy more often increased students' end-of-year goals. (Author/SW) EJ506713
Allinder, R.M. (1994). The relationship between efficacy and the instructional practices of special education teachers and consultants. Teacher Education and Special Education, 17, 86-95.
Alter, C. F. (1996). Family Support as an Intervention with Female Long-term AFDC Recipients., Social Work Research, 20, 4, 203-16 Dec 1996. Presents the results of an evaluation of a family support program for female, long-term recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children. Findings show that program participants perceived that training had given them greater self- efficacy and competence, but not increased self-confidence, when compared to control group members. (RJM) EJ545690
Alvarez, D. S., & And, O. (1994). Patterns of Communication in a Racial/Ethnic Context: The Case of an Urban Public High School., Urban Education, 29, 2, 133-49 Jul 1994. Data from interviews with 475 parents of students (and 84 nonparent controls) at a multiracial-multiethnic high school were used to test hypotheses about communication between parents and their children's schools. Results suggest differences between parents and nonparents and between racial groups in their recognition and solution of problems and in their sense of self-efficacy. (SLD) EJ490354
Ancis, J. R., & Phillips, S. D. (1996). Academic Gender Bias and Women's Behavioral Agency Self-Efficacy., Journal of Counseling & Development, 75, 2, 131-37 Nov-Dec 1996. Examined 67 upper-level college women enrolled in traditional, nontraditional, and gender-neutral majors to study the relationship between academic gender bias and female students' agentic self-efficacy expectations. Results indicate that perceived academic gender bias predicted agentic self-efficacy expectations, beyond the contributions of sex role attitudes, and other factors. (RJM) EJ548652
Anderson, R., Greene, M., & Loewen, P. (1988). Relationships among teachers╣ and students╣ thinking skills, sense of efficacy, and student achievement. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 34 (2), 148-165.
Anderson, S., & Brown, C. (1997). Self-Efficacy as a Determinant of Career Maturity in Urban and Rural High School Seniors., Journal of Career Assessment, 5, 3, 305-15 Sum 1997. Urban (n=51) and rural (n=43) high school seniors completed measures of career maturity and career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE). Career development attitude was the most significant predictor of CDMSE. Rural seniors scored significantly higher on career development knowledge. (SK) EJ546883
Armor, D., Conroy-Oseguera, P., Cox M., King, N., McDonnell, L., Pascal, A. Pauly, E., & Zellman, G. (1976). Analysis of the school preferred reading programs in selected Los Angeles minority schools. (REPORT NO. R-2007-LAUSD). Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 130 243).
Ashton, P. T., Olejnik, S., Crocker, L. & McAuliffe, M. (1982, April). Measurement problems in the study of teachers╣ sense of efficacy. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York.
Ashton, P., Buhr, D., & Crocker, L. (1984). Teachers╣ sense of efficacy: A self- or norm-referenced construct? Florida Journal of Educational Research, 26 (1), 29-41.
Ashton, P.T. (1985). Motivation and teachers╣ sense of efficacy. In C. Ames and R. Ames (Eds.) Research on Motivation in Education Vol. 2: The Classroom Milieu. (pp. 141-174) Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
Ashton, P.T., & Webb, R. B., (1986). Making a difference: Teachers╣ sense of efficacy and student achievement. New York: Longman.
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Bong, M. (1996). Direct and Indirect Tests of Internal/External Frames of Reference Model with Measures of Academic Self-Efficacy., 15pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New York, NY, April 8-12, 1996). The internal/external (I/E) frames of reference model proposed by H. Marsh (1986, 1990) points to the relativistic nature of academic self-concept formation. It argues that students compare their own academic ability to that of their peers in an external comparison, and they compare their own verbal skills to their mathematics skills in an internal comparison. The relative superiority of one set of skills over the other becomes salient in this comparison, yielding a negative correlation between verbal and mathematics self-concept. This study tested the I/E model with typical measures of academic self-efficacy with 588 students from 4 Los Angeles (California) high schools. Students rated their confidence in their ability to solve problems and their perceptions of ability in each school subject. Overall, results do not provide clear support for the I/E model. Even when students were explicitly told to compare their capability in one domain to that in the others, their verbal and mathematics self-perception failed to exhibit a negative relationship. It is difficult to accept the I/E model's contention that students spontaneously, if not voluntarily, undergo two separate comparison processes when asked to report their own perceived competence. It appears that their perceptions of capability are constructed without the internal comparison process. (Contains three figures and nine references.) (SLD) ED411259
Bong, M. (1996). Effects of Structural versus Surface Similarity on Transfer of Motivation., 14pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New York, NY, April 8-12, 1996). The relative contribution of students' capability to perceive structural versus surface similarity on their motivation transfer was studied. It was hypothesized that surface similarity would lead to greater transfer of self-efficacy among tasks due to its readily perceptible nature. More specifically, it was hypothesized that the perception of structural and surface similarity would affect the degree of similarity perceived in the problem pairs, which, in turn, would directly influence the degree of self-efficacy transfer. Participants were 588 students from 4 Los Angeles (California) high schools. Eight pairs were constructed for comparison from four problems in arithmetic-progression, algebra and four constant-acceleration problems in physics. Students were asked to relate their self-efficacy for solving each of the problems and to rate the similarity of the problems and report the reasons similarity existed. Results support the idea that surface similarity among tasks exercises greater influence on students' perceptions and on their transfer of motivation, at least in the initial stage. Perception of similarity among tasks rooted in surface-level characteristics might not help students solve problems, but it can help produce confident learners who persist in the face of difficulties. (Contains one table, five references, and two figures.) (SLD) ED411260
Bong, M. (1996). Perceived Similarity among Tasks and Generalizability of Academic Self-Efficacy., 29pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New York, NY, April 8-12, 1996). The degree of and the cognitive basis for the generalizability of academic self- efficacy were examined among 588 high school students from the greater Los Angeles (California) area. Students' self-efficacy perceptions clearly generalized beyond boundaries of specific tasks and also of specific school subjects, albeit to a lesser degree. There was greater generalizability of academic self-efficacy among math and science subjects than among verbal ones. The degree of academic self-efficacy generalization partly depended upon the degree of perceived similarity among tasks. Students reported more comparable levels of self-efficacy as they perceived greater similarity in the set of problems presented. Subject-specific and more global measures of academic self- efficacy (i.e., verbal and quantitative) preserved the strong predictive utility for students' effort expenditure and academic achievement. (Contains 1 table, 3 figures, and 15 references.) (Author) ED411258
Bong, M. (1997). Congruence of Measurement Specificity on Relations between Academic Self- Efficacy, Effort, and Achievement Indexes., 13pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, March 24-28, 1997). Students are often evaluated on the basis of their aggregate or average performance on diverse tasks in each school subject. When the target of prediction is such global measures as course grades, academic self-efficacy, too, should be able to reflect equivalent scope and generality to maximize its predictive utility. Academic self-efficacy in the present study was assessed as either confidence ratings toward samples of problems typically performed in each school subject or responses on the self-efficacy scale of the Motivated Learning Strategies Questionnaire (MSLQ), which asks for students' overall academic confidence in a given domain without making any explicit reference to individual tasks. Participants (588 high school students) reported both types of efficacy in English, Spanish, American history, algebra, geometry, and chemistry. Results show that, in general, relations of the MSLQ self-efficacy results to effort and grades are stronger than those of the problem-referenced efficacy. It is interesting to note that predictive superiority of the MSLQ scale is more predominant in verbal subjects than in quantitative domains. It is concluded that relationships between academic self-efficacy and outcome measures would be less influenced by the specificity mismatch in subject matters that are clearly definable in terms of the skills and tasks performed. (Contains two figures and eight references.) (Author/SLD) ED411261
Bong, M. (1997). Generality of Academic Self-Efficacy Judgments: Evidence of Hierarchical Relations., Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 4, 696-709 Dec 1997. The generality of academic self-efficacy judgments was examined among 588 high school students who rated their confidence for problem solving. A first-order model with a separate self-efficacy factor for each school subject displayed the best fit, so that verbal and quantitative self-efficacy were more meaningful than general academic self-efficacy. (SLD) EJ560302
Bottomley, D. M., Henk, W. A., & Melnick, S. A. (1998). Assessing Children's Views about Themselves as Writers Using the Writer Self- Perception Scale., Reading Teacher, 51, 4, 286-96 Dec-Jan 1997- 1998. Addresses the role of affect in writing by describing the psychological construct of writer self-efficacy. Presents the Writer Self-Perception Scale that teachers may use to assess classroom writing climates and children's perceptions of themselves as writers. Describes the instrument, its administration and scoring, assessment and instructional use, as well as one teacher's use of it. (SR) EJ559412
Bouffard-Bouchard, T. (1994). Effect of Activating Conditional Knowledge on Self-Efficacy and Comprehension Monitoring., International Journal of Behavioral Development, 17, 3, 577-92 Sep 1994. Examined whether activating conditional knowledge about appropriate strategies for studying a text would enhance self-efficacy and comprehension monitoring in college students. Found that subjects in the activation condition outperformed those in the control condition on reading comprehension monitoring and on comprehension performance but not on self-efficacy. (HTH) EJ495299
Brackney, B. E., & Karabenick, S. A. (1995). Psychopathology and Academic Performance: The Role of Motivation and Learning Strategies., Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42, 4, 456-65 Oct 1995. Found that the correlation between psychopathology and course grades in a sample of college students (n=326), was not significant. However, psychopathology was significantly related to students' motivation and use of learning strategies that were, in turn, related to academic performance. Structural equation modeling provided evidence that psychopathology had a significant indirect effect. (JPS) EJ519479
Bradshaw, R. A. (1995). Delivery of Career Counseling Services: Videodisc & Multimedia Career Interventions: ERIC Digest. Over one-third of high school students in Canada are dropping out of school. However, the advent of multimedia computer technology has increased the potential of career interventions, particularly for at-risk youth. This digest describes such a program entitled Knowledge for Youth About Careers (KYAC). KYAC is based on attribution change theory and self-efficacy theory. Its video scenes model career development skills like information interviewing, networking, and other strategies. In KYAC, students select one of two main characters and then follow the character as he or she ages from 17 to 28 years old by touching their chosen character's face on the computer screen. During scenes, the action stops at key points and small graphic "thought balloons" appear on the screen so as to enhance user identification with characters. Users will actively seek the information in the thought balloons. Approximately two and a half hours of interaction time is available in the main character decision sequences. In addition, 32 hours of classroom and workshop activities reinforce and provide more personal application of the skills. Some 275 youth were used to evaluate the KYAC program; it was found that students sought better ways to resolve problems with learning, math, reading, and other skills and that they discovered good reasons to finish high school, among other findings. (RJM) ED414516
Brookhart, S. M. (1997). A Field-Based Introduction to Urban Education at the Middle School., Mid-Western Educational Researcher, 10, 2, 2-8 Spr 1997. Nine middle school teachers developed objectives and activities for a pilot early field experience to introduce freshman teacher candidates to the complexity and student diversity of urban education. Compared to 30 freshmen placed in a traditional (tutoring) field experience, project freshmen demonstrated greater personal teaching efficacy, flexibility, and awareness of the urban environment, but less sense of accomplishment. (Author/SV) EJ543450
Brooks, L., & And, O. (1995). The Relation of Career-Related Work or Internship Experiences to the Career Development of College Seniors., Journal of Vocational Behavior, 46, 3, 332-49 Jun 1995. A study of 165 college seniors included 45 in internships/career-related work, 36 with neither, 42 in internships only, and 42 with work experience only. Internships alone or with work experience related to higher levels of self- concept crystallization. Task variety, feedback, and dealing with people were significantly related to self-concept and self-efficacy. (SK) EJ504525
Brown, B. R., Jr., & And, O. (1996). Searching for the Magic Johnson Effect: AIDS, Adolescents, and Celebrity Disclosure., Adolescence, 31, 122, 253-64 Sum 1996. Measured changes in AIDS-related attitudes/behaviors in adolescents (n=181) in the 13 months following Magic Johnson's disclosure that he was HIV positive. Tested whether gender, race, age, sexual experience, and preexisting HIV-avoidant behaviors would be significant dependent variables. Sixty percent of respondents reported the announcement increased their AIDS awareness, 65.4% increased self- efficacy in a sexual situation. Discusses other findings. (KW) EJ528968
Brown, M. T., & And, O. (1997). Traditionality and the Discriminating Effect of Expectations of Occupational Success and Occupational Values for Women within Math-Oriented Fields., Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50, 3, 418-31 Jun 1997. Results of a study of 31 women majoring in engineering and 43 women majoring in mathematics education showed the following variables distinguished between the two groups: success expectations for traditional and nontraditional occupations, self-efficacy for traditional occupations, and outcome desirability. (SK) EJ543997
Brown, S. D., & Lent, R. W. (1996). A Social Cognitive Framework for Career Choice Counseling., Career Development Quarterly, 44, 4, 354-66 Jun 1996. Extends social cognitive career theory by suggesting how several of its major hypotheses can be applied to counseling. Describes strategies for assisting clients in developing a broad array of career options, analyzing and overcoming barriers to career choice, and counteracting choice-limiting self-efficacy beliefs. Discusses future research needs related to the counseling model. (FC) EJ529066
Browne, C. V. (1995). Empowerment in Social Work Practice with Older Women., Social Work, 40, 3, 358-64 May 1995. Discusses and contrasts varying definitions of empowerment from social work and feminist literature. Describes what is problematic in the definitions of empowerment practice with older women and suggests reasons for broadening the definition and concept of empowerment so that social welfare professionals can meet the needs of this growing population. (RJM) EJ507887
Browne, S. H. (1996). Encountering Angelina Grimke: Violence, Identity, and the Creation of Radical Community., Quarterly Journal of Speech, 82, 1, 55-73 Feb 1996. States that Angelina Grimke's 1835 letter to William Lloyd Garrison announced her entrance into public life and her work of moral reform. Suggests that the text represents rhetorically a display of commitments put at risk. "Reads" the text to demonstrate how Grimke construes violence into a source for the refashioning of self and community into forces of change. (PA) EJ530557
Brownell, M. (1997). Coping with Stress in the Special Education Classroom., TEACHING Exceptional Children, 30, 1, 76-79 Sep-Oct 1997. Discusses the stress that special education teachers may feel by role overload and lack of autonomy. Stress relieving strategies are described, including setting realistic expectations, making distinctions between the job and personal life, increasing autonomy, looking for alternative sources of reinforcement, increasing efficacy, and developing personal coping strategies. (CR) EJ554015
Brownell, M. (1997). Coping with Stress in the Special Education Classroom: Can Individual Teachers More Effectively Manage Stress?. ERIC Digest #E545. This digest discusses why special education teachers may become stressed by role overload and lack of autonomy, and presents strategies for successfully managing stresses related to teaching. Strategies include: (1) setting realistic expectations; (2) making distinctions between job and personal life; (3) finding ways to exercise professional discretion and increase autonomy by evaluating each aspect of the job and determining changes to improve the environment that can be reasonably made; (4) not expecting praise from the boss and looking for alternative sources of reinforcement, such as students, colleagues friends, or parents; (5) increasing efficacy by keeping records of student progress to receive direct feedback on efforts; and (6) developing personal coping strategies, particularly active coping strategies. The digest highlights direct active coping strategies, including changing the source of the stress, confronting the source of the stress, and adopting a positive attitude. Indirect strategies that rely on activities known to reduce stress are also discussed, including talking about the source of stress, changing the way the source of the stress is perceived, getting involved in activities that are unrelated to school issues, and altering diet to reduce stress. (Contains 14 references.) (CR) ED414659
Brownell, M. T., & And, O. (1995). Career Decisions in Special Education: Current and Former Teachers' Personal Views., Exceptionality, 5, 2, 83-102 199 1995. Variables related to special education teacher attrition were examined by qualitative interviews with 14 current and 10 former special education teachers. Analysis indicated that stayers were more committed to teaching students with disabilities, had a higher sense of efficacy, felt more prepared by their preservice and initial teaching experiences, and exhibited more effective coping strategies. (Author/DB) EJ501324
Brownell, M. T., & Pajares, F. M. (1996). The Influence of Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs on Perceived Success in Mainstreaming Students with Learning and Behavior Problems: A Path Analysis., 23p. This study examined factors that predict a general education teacher's efficacy beliefs for instructing students with learning and behavior problems and whether a teacher's perceived efficacy has a stronger direct effect on reported success than other variables. One hundred twenty-eight second grade teachers completed a survey instrument designed to examine the following variables: preservice and inservice preparation, administrative support, class size, socioeconomic status, collegiality, and teacher efficacy. Path analysis techniques were used to test the initial theoretical model. Reduced models were retested and compared to previous models to develop a final model. As hypothesized, teacher's efficacy beliefs had the strongest direct effect on reported success. Collegiality with special education teachers and quality inservice in special education also directly affected teachers' reports of success, but to a lesser degree. However, general education teachers who experienced better collegial relationships with general education peers and students with higher socioeconomic status were less likely to report success in instructing students with learning and behavior problems. Also, quality of preservice preparation had a strong direct effect on teachers' efficacy beliefs as did collegiality with special education teachers. Finally, quality of special education inservice and principal support for mainstreaming students with disabilities positively affected collegiality with special education teachers. (Contains 23 references.) (DB) ED409661
Bruckman, A. (1998). Digital Perfection., Technology Review, 100, 9, 60-61 Jan-Feb 1998. Children are under constant pressure to excel, and the computer could be intensifying this pressure, fostering a generation who will never live up to their own expectations. This article argues that the solution is not to get rid of computers but to put less pressure on children, to encourage their interests but not expect them to be perfect. (PEN) EJ558496
Brustad, R. J. (1996). Attraction to Physical Activity in Urban Schoolchildren: Parental Socialization and Gender Influences., Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 67, 3, 316-23 Sep 1996. This study examined the contribution of parent socialization and gender to urban elementary students' (N=107) interest in physical activity. Questionnaires indicated significant relationships between parental socialization processes and children's perceived physical competence and attraction to physical activity. (SM) EJ535085
Bryan, T. (1997). Assessing the Personal and Social Status of Students with Learning Disabilities., Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 12, 1, 63-76 1997. A model is presented for assessing students with learning disabilities suspected of having social difficulties. Categories for assessment are described, including affective status, self-efficacy, social status, social skills, and the absence of destructive behaviors. Examples of assessment measures are provided for each category and the model's limitations are discussed. (Author/CR) EJ541025
Bryson, J. R. (1997). Breaking through the A Level Effect: A First-year Tutorial in Student Self- Reflection., Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 21, 2, 163-69 Jul 1997. Identifies the A level as an advanced placement examination given to high school students in the United Kingdom. Discusses the dichotomy between the A level students' knowledge of geography (dependent upon rote memorization) and the requirements of university geography (critical thinking and application). Recommends the adoption of reflective learning practices. (MJP) EJ554688
Bullock, K., & Jamieson, I. (1995). The Effect of Personal Development Planning on Attitudes, Behaviour, and Understanding., Educational Studies, 21, 3, 307-21 Oct 1995. Explores the impact of a personal development project on the attitudes, behavior, and understanding of British high school students. The study circulated questionnaires to students from nine different locations in two districts. Responses clearly demonstrated that Personal Development Planning results in more appropriate choices being made at key transition stages. (MJP) EJ523743
Busch, T. (1995). Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Computers., Journal of Educational Computing Research, 12, 2, 147-58 1995. Investigates gender differences in computer use among 147 college students. Students completed a questionnaire designed to measure self-efficacy, computer anxiety, computer liking, and computer confidence. Results indicate gender differences in perceived self-efficacy in word processing and spreadsheet software. No gender differences were found in attitudes or self-efficacy in simple computer tasks. (Author/AEF) EJ503531
Busch, T. (1996). Gender, Group Composition, Cooperation, and Self-Efficacy in Computer Studies., Journal of Educational Computing Research, 15, 2, 125-35 1996. Describes a study of Norwegian college students that investigated whether gender, group composition, or self-efficacy in computing has any impact on cooperation, giving or getting task-related help, and level of activity in student groups. Results confirms gender differences in self-efficacy in computing. (Author/LRW) EJ544705
Butler, D. L. (1995). Promoting Strategic Learning by Postsecondary Students with Learning Disabilities., Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28, 3, 170-90 Mar 1995. The effectiveness of Strategic Content Learning, an intervention model to promote self-regulated and strategic learning, was investigated. Six adults with learning disabilities chose a task of importance to current or future academic work and were provided individualized support on relevant tasks. Results indicated student gains in task performance, metacognitive knowledge, self-efficacy, and attributional patterns. (Author/DB) EJ499323
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Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28(2), 117-148.
Bandura, A. (1995). Self-efficacy in changing societies. Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press. Bf637.s38 s45 1995
Bandura, A. (1996). Self-efficacy in changing societies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman. Bf637.s38 b36 1997
Bandura, A., & And, O. (1996). Multifaceted Impact of Self-Efficacy Beliefs on Academic Functioning., Child Development, 67, 3, 1206-22 Jun 1996. Analyzed the psychosocial influences through which efficacy beliefs affect academic achievement. Found that parents' sense of academic efficacy and aspirations for their children, children's beliefs in their efficacy to regulate their own learning and academic attainments, children's perceived social efficacy and ability to manage peer pressure, and children's perceived self-regulatory efficacy were found to influence scholastic achievement. (HTH) EJ528236
Bandura, A., (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
Bandura, A., (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Barab, S. A., Bowdish, B. E., & Lawless, K. A. (1997). Hypermedia Navigation: Profiles of Hypermedia Users., Educational Technology Research and Development, 45, 3, 23-41 1997. Describes a study that explored the use of log files to investigate the process of hypermedia navigation at the University of Connecticut's information kiosk. Highlights include the use of cluster analysis; four different types of navigational performance; and external validation criteria, including self- efficacy, perceived utility, and interest. (Author/LRW) EJ552524
Barrios, A. A. (1997). The Magic of the Mind (MOM) Program for Decreasing School Dropout., 21p. A comprehensive program for dealing with some of the key factors causing school dropout is described and evaluated. The Magic of the Mind program has four basic components, each addressing one of the following: (1) building self-efficacy in students; (2) teaching students learning skills; (3) teaching stress management to the students; and (4) building self-efficacy and stress management skills in teachers. Initial tests of the program at East Los Angeles Community College (California) with students (predominantly Mexican American) on scholastic probation have provided strong evidence of the program's effectiveness. Over a 1 and 1.5 year period, the MOM group increased an average of 3.8 grade points (grade points are equal to grade point average times units completed) and had a dropout rate of only 16% compared with the control group taught learning skills only. The control group's grade points decreased by an average of 5.45 and the dropout rate was 56%. Similar controlled studies are planned to test the program's effectiveness at the elementary through high school levels, but the program's effectiveness at these levels is already supported by considerable anecdotal evidence. The major reason for program success is thought to be its dramatic belief-building capabilities. By providing immediate feedback in all the techniques used, the program develops a strong belief in the ability to achieve for both students and teachers. (Contains 27 references.) (Author/SLD) ED405436
Bembenutty, H., & Karabenick, S. A. (1997). Academic Delay of Gratification in Conditionally-Admissible Minority College Students., 12pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, March 24-28, 1997). This study compared academic delay of gratification (ADOG) among conditionally- admitted African-American, regularly-admitted African-American, and regularly- admitted white college students. A total of 44 conditionally-admitted African- American students, 43 regularly-admitted African-American students, and 273 regularly-admitted Caucasian students from the same university completed the Academic Delay of Gratification Scale (ADOGS) and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). It was found that although there were no significant differences between the reported ADOG of regularly- and conditionally- admitted African-American students, the conditionally-admitted group was higher in extrinsic motivation, organization, critical thinking, peer learning, and help seeking. Overall ADOG scores were significantly higher for the regularly-admitted African-American students than for the Caucasian students, however. In addition, regularly-admitted African-American students reported higher use of rehearsal and metacognition than regularly-admitted Caucasian students, although the reverse obtained for control beliefs and self-efficacy. A copy of the ADOGS is included. (Contains 15 references.) (MDM) ED411721
Benton, J. M. (1991). Pygmalion goes to school: the effects of goal setting, the self-fulfilling prophecy and self-efficacy on trainee performance. Bf503
Benzel, N. B. (1994). The relationship between physical activity and self-efficacy in older adults. Micro 4
Bergeron, L. M., & Romano, J. L. (1994). The Relationships among Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy, Educational Indecision, Vocational Indecision, and Gender., Journal of College Student Development, 35, 1, 19-24 Jan 1994. Examined three levels of vocational and education indecision (decided, tentatively decided, undecided) among university students (n=124). Results showed significant differences between career self-efficacy and educational and vocational indecision, but gender differences were not found. If student reported having decided upon college major, he or she likely reported same level of decision concerning career choice. (Author/NB) EJ478903
Berman, P., McLaughlin, M., Bass, G., Pauly, E., Zellman, G. (1977). Federal Programs supporting educational change. Vol. VII Factors affecting implementation and continuation (Report No. R-1589/7-HEW) Santa Monica, CA: The Rand Corporation (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 140 432).
Bernard, L. C., Hutchison, S., Lavin, A., & Pennington, P. (1996). Ego-Strength, Hardiness, Self-Esteem, Self-Efficacy, Optimism, and Maladjustment: Health-Related Personality Constructs and the "Big Five" Model of Personality., Assessment, 3, 2, 115-31 Jun 1996. Six personality measures, measures of stress, self-reported health status and coping, and a measure of social desirability were administered to samples of college students and adults (n=589) in a series of four studies. Correlations among these measures and evidence for a higher order factor called Health Proneness factor are discussed. (SLD) EJ553129
Bernhard, J. K., & Siegel, L. S. (1994). Increasing Internal Locus of Control for a Disadvantaged Group: A Computer Intervention., Computers in the Schools, 11, 1, 59-77 1994. Discussion of locus of control (LOC), gender, and mathematics and technical subjects focuses on a study of preschool girls and boys that investigated the effects of a LOGO program on efficacy and LOC. Highlights include treatment of experimental and control groups; gender differences; parent questionnaires; and pretests and posttests. (69 references) (LRW) EJ501675
Betz, N. E. (1994). Self-Concept Theory in Career Development and Counseling., Career Development Quarterly, 43, 1, 32-42 Sep 1994. Reviews status of Super's emphasis on career development as process of self- concept implementation. Presents overview of research and measurement issues, then discusses contemporary research programs, including those on career self- efficacy and Gottfredson's theory of circumscription and compromise, relating specific aspects of self-concept to career development. Offers recommendations for future theoretical developments, research, and career counseling. (Author/NB) EJ490633
Betz, N. E., & And, O. (1996). Evaluation of the Short Form of the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale., Journal of Career Assessment, 4, 1, 47-57 Win 1996. Analysis of scores of 180 college students on the short form of the Career Decision Making Self Efficacy Scale suggests that the short form possesses psychometric characteristics comparable to or better than the long form. Short form subscales are sufficiently reliable, and concurrent validity correlations are largely better, with only half the length of the long form. (SK) EJ528940
Betz, N. E., & And, O. (1996). The Relationships of Self-Efficacy for the Holland Themes to Gender, Occupational Group Membership, and Vocational Interests., Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43, 1, 90-98 Jan 1996. The studies presented in this article resulted in the findings that gender differences in self-efficacy for the Holland themes are consistent with previous findings regarding gender differences in Holland interest patterns, although the gender differences are less pronounced in employed adults than in college students. Discusses other findings. (KW) EJ530413
Betz, N. E., & Hackett, G. (1997). Applications of Self-Efficacy Theory to the Career Assessment of Women., Journal of Career Assessment, 5, 4, 383-402 Fall 1997. Summarizes Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Reviews occupational, scientific- technical, and mathematics self-efficacy, Holland's hexagonal model, the Occupational Self-Efficacy Scale, and the relationship of self-efficacy to vocational interests. Considers the applicability of these concepts to women's career development and assessment. (SK) EJ553306
Betz, N. E., & Klein, K. L. (1996). Relationships among Measures of Career Self-Efficacy, Generalized Self-Efficacy, and Global Self-Esteem., Journal of Career Assessment, 4, 3, 285-98 Sum 1996. College students (n=200) completed the Career Decision Making Self-Efficacy Scale- Short Form (CDMSE-SF) and Skills Confidence Inventory; 147 completed the CDMSE-SF and Occupational and Mathematical Self-Efficacy Scales. Career decision-making self-efficacy was more highly correlated with generalized self-efficacy than global self-esteem, especially for males. (SK) EJ528954
Betz, N. E., & Luzzo, D. A. (1996). Career Assessment and the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale., Journal of Career Assessment, 4, 4, 413-28 Fall 1996. The Career Decision Making Self Efficacy Scale is based on self-efficacy and career maturity theories and research showing the strong relationship of career self-efficacy to career indecision. The scale is useful in designing and evaluating education and counseling interventions intended to increase perceptions of self-efficacy. (SK) EJ531914
Bieschke, K. J., & And, O. (1996). The Utility of the Research Self-Efficacy Scale., Journal of Career Assessment, 4, 1, 59-75 Win 1996. Hierarchical regression analyses of the scores of 136 doctoral students on the Research Self-Efficacy Scale indicate that 3 subscales (early tasks, conceptualization, and implementation) account for the variance in prediction of interest in research. Number of years in graduate school and research involvement are significant predictors of research self-efficacy. (SK) EJ528941
Bingham, R. p. W., Connie M. (1997). Theory into Assessment: A Model for Women of Color., Journal of Career Assessment, 5, 4, 403-18 Fall 1997. Defines women of color as African American, Asian American, Hispanic/Latina American, or Native American. Critiques the Culturally Appropriate Career Counseling Model and suggests a four-step process for career assessment of women of color that includes evaluation of cultural, gender, self-efficacy, and traditional career assessment variables. (SK) EJ553307
Blair, D. V., & Price, D. J. (1998). Persistence: A Key Factor in Human Performance at Work., Performance Improvement, 37, 1, 27-31 Jan 1998. Reviews the construct of persistence as it relates to achievement motivation at work. Topics include foundational concepts of persistence; achievement motivation theory; a human motivation model; goal-setting theory; self-efficacy theory; expectancy theory; task assignments; confidence; and perceived value. (LRW) EJ559750
Bolton, C. (1996). Preservice Teachers' Sense of Efficacy and the Influence of Performance Assessment., 15p. This study investigated the impact of performance assessment on the self-efficacy of undergraduate education majors. The students enrolled in an undergraduate educational psychology course were assessed using two different methods: traditional objective exams and performance assessment through microteaching episodes. Data were collected to examine the students' levels of self-efficacy in developing learning objectives, lesson plans, and task analysis as well as implementing the lesson, all of which are central to the course objectives. Statistically significant findings were detected on four out of five pedagogical skills measuring perceived self-confidence (writing objectives, developing task analyses, developing lesson plans, and teaching a lesson). Participants also reported having more practice in these skills and higher levels of confidence in carrying out performance assessment tasks. (A table and five diagrams in the form of bar graphs and pie charts are attached.) (Author/ND) ED406366
Brookover, W., Beady, C. Flood, P., Schweitzer, J., & Wisenbaker, J. (1979). School social systems and student achievement: Schools can make a difference. New York: Bergin.
Brookover, W., Schweitzer, J., Schneider, C., Beady, C. Flood, P., & Wisenbaker, J. (1978). Elementary school social climate and student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 15, 301-318.
Buhendwa, F. M. (1996). Preservice Teachers' Computer Literacy: Validation of an Instrument To Measure Self-efficacy for Computer-based Technologies., 67p. Instruments used in a study by M. B. Kinzie and M. A. Delacourt (1991), the Attitude towards Computer Technologies (ACT) and the Self-efficacy for Computer Technologies (SCT), assess preservice teachers' perceived usefulness of and comfort level with specific computer technologies. This study uses a population confirmed to be similar to that used by Kinzie and Delacourt and a similar two- pronged approach to study the evaluation of teacher education programs that are implementing specific computer literacy content. Data were obtained from students across courses and over three semesters in a representative teacher education program in a small private liberal arts college. In all, 58 students were assessed using a single computerized instrument, the Computer Confidence/Self- efficacy Scale that combines features of both previous instruments. Data reveal that the Computer Confidence/Self-efficacy Scale is a highly reliable instrument for measuring the levels of confidence of preservice teachers under the conditions of a teacher education program. The instrument must be interpreted under the assumptions of a construct of computer confidence that consists of general computer confidence and efficacy and specific computer competence and efficacy as identified in the course focus. Appendixes present the scale itself, significant group differences by selected group variables, and bar graphs of the mean scores for specific categories. (Contains 14 tables, 5 appendix tables, 6 appendix figures, and 25 references.) (SLD) ED404355
Burley, W. W., Hall, B. W., Villeme, M.G., & Brockmeier, L. L. (1991, April) A path analysis of the mediating role of efficacy in first-year teachers╣ experiences, reactions, and plans. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago.
Butler, D. L. (1997). The Roles of Goal Setting and Self-Monitoring in Students' Self-Regulated Engagement in Tasks., 20pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, March 24-28, 1997). This paper describes research evaluating one intervention model designed to promote self-regulated learning by postsecondary students with learning disabilities, the Strategic Content Learning (SCL) approach. SCL aims to teach students to engage recursively in the full set of activities central to self- regulation by providing calibrated (scaffolded) support as students self-regulate their engagement in tasks. The paper summarizes results from four studies evaluating SCL efficacy as a model for providing individual tutoring for learning disabled postsecondary students. In the first study, one instructor provided individualized tutoring to 6 students, and in the second, 3 instructors tutored 13 students. The third and fourth studies provided SCL support to 12 and 9 students respectively. Results of the four studies suggest that participants benefit from SCL instruction. Analyses reveal positive shifts in students' knowledge and beliefs central to effective self-regulation, including metacognitive strategies about tasks, strategies, and self-monitoring, perceptions of task-specific self-efficacy, and attributional beliefs. Findings suggest that students improved in implementation of component cognitive processes and in coordination of learning activities. (Contains 3 figures, 3 tables, and 58 references.) (SLD) ED409323
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Cannon, J. R., & Scharmann, L. C. (1996). Influence of a Cooperative Early Field Experience on Preservice Elementary Teachers' Science Self-Efficacy., Science Education, 80, 4, 419-36 Jul 1996. Interviews and surveys using the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Inventory of (n=120) preservice elementary teachers' science teaching self-efficacy before and after planning and teaching a cooperative elementary science lesson at a local public school found evidence that early cooperative field experience had a positive influence on the subjects' science teaching self-efficacy. Contains 57 references. (Author/MKR) EJ528388
Carter, M. A. T., & Cook, K. (1995). Adaptation to Retirement: Role Changes and Psychological Resources., Special theme issue: "Career Transitions.". The influence of social and work roles is incorporated into a model of retirement adjustment, along with two psychological moderators that may aid in retirement transition. These psychological resources, locus of control and self-efficacy, are those behavioral predispositions that lead one to engage in proactive strategies for mastering role changes inherent in retirement transition. (Author/JBJ) EJ519457
Carter, N., & Kahn, L. (1996). See How We Grow: A Report on the Status of Parenting Education in the U.S., 121pp. Prepared by Parents, Inc. In response to increasing requests for funding of parenting education programs, The Pew Charitable Trusts funded a study to examine parenting education in the United States. This resulting report provides a general overview and highlights the "peaks and valleys, risks and opportunities" of the parenting education field. Chapter 1 of the report, "Introduction to Parenting Education," describes the growth of parenting education. Chapter 2, "Getting Grounded: Definitions," defines parenting education, family support, parent, and caregiver. Chapter 3, "Understanding Why: The Compelling Evidence," discusses the urgency of strengthening families because of demographic shifts and increases in child abuse and neglect, juvenile delinquency, crime, and violence. Chapter 4, "The Universe of Parenting Education; A Typology," gives examples of eight types of programs, education, health care, multiple/complex needs, normative, work, special needs, research, and advocacy. Chapter 5, "Descriptive Categories for Parenting Programs," includes discussion of service delivery methods, cultural diversity efforts, and program activities. Chapter 6, "Overview of Content in Parenting Education Programs," describes the typical content of parenting education programs. Chapter 7, "Training, Shared Learning and Practitioner Support," includes inservice and preservice training, certification and standards, and infrastructure. Chapter 8, "Evaluation, Research and Accountability," examines evaluation studies and the issues involved in evaluation. Chapter 9, "Funding of Parenting Education and Family Support," identifies public and private funding sources. Chapter 10, "Review of Key Programs," describes some leading parenting programs. Chapter 11, "Parenting Education and Fathers," outlines major issues surrounding fathering programs. Chapter 12, "Parent Leadership and Advocacy Training Programs," describes programs for parent leadership and advocacy training. Chapter 13, "Conclusions," notes the growing impact of parenting education and needs within the field. (Contains 147 references.) (KB) ED412022
Chamot, A. U., & And, O. (1996). Learning Strategies in Elementary Language Immersion Programs. Final Report. Reporting Period: FY 1993-1996., 204p. A 3-year, three-part study investigated the learning strategies (LS) of children in grades 1-4 learning a foreign language (French, Spanish, Japanese) in an immersion setting and assisted immersion teachers in using LS for instruction. A sample of 72 high-rated and low-rated students were followed for 2 to 3 years. Professional development activities familiarized teachers with ways of incorporating LS into curricula. Data were gathered from students using think- aloud interviews and questionnaires concerning LS use and self-efficacy, and from teachers using interviews. Research focused on: (1) which LS are used by more effective and less effective learners; (2) whether and how the strategies change over time; (3) whether students using LS more frequently perceive themselves as effective language learners; (4) differential LS use by language; (5) relationship between language proficiency and LS use; (6) types of teacher development supportive of LS instruction in language immersion; and (7) immersion teachers' beliefs about effectiveness of LS instruction. Results are reported and discussed. Appended materials include information on LS, questionnaires, and interview forms. Contains 37 references. (MSE) ED404878
Chase, M. A., & And, O. (1994). The Effects of Equipment Modification on Children's Self-Efficacy and Basketball Shooting Performance., Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 65, 2, 159-68 Jun 1994. Reports a study that examined the effects of modification of basketball size and basket height on shooting performance and self-efficacy of children ages 9-12 years. Subjects completed a self-efficacy questionnaire before and after shooting 10 baskets under 4 conditions. Self-efficacy was highest when children shot at a lower basket. (SM) EJ487293
Chen, C. P. (1997). Career Projection: Narrative in Context., Journal of Vocational Education and Training: The Vocational Aspect of Education, 49, 2, 311-26 1997. Constructivism is the foundation for viewing the self as an active agent in career development. As a counseling tool, narrative can be used to create life career projections from which to develop career plans. (SK) EJ551526
Cheng, P., & Tang, C. S.-K. (1995). Coping and Psychological Distress of Chinese Parents of Children with Down Syndrome., Mental Retardation, 33, 1, 10-20 Feb 1995. Coping and correlates of psychological distress of 174 Chinese parents of children with Down's syndrome, language delays, or no disabilities were compared. Down's syndrome parents more frequently used avoidance coping style. No differences were observed between Down's syndrome and language delay parents on psychological distress, optimism, self-efficacy, and self-reliance coping style. (Author/JDD) EJ499271
Chester, M. D. B., Barbara Q. (1996). Efficacy Beliefs of Newly Hired Teachers in Urban Schools., Special section on Teaching, Learning, and Human Development. Research supported by the Connecticut State Department of Education. The relationships between change in self-efficacy beliefs, teacher characteristics, and school practices were studied for 173 newly hired teachers in urban schools. Findings suggest that the previously noted decline in self- efficacy beliefs in the first year of teaching is not universal. Mediating factors are discussed. (SLD) EJ526839
Christenberry, N. J., & Glascock, P. C. (1996). Violence in Dating Relationships: A Review., 22pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association (Tuscaloosa, AL, November 6-8, 1996). Some researchers have likened an abusive relationship to the conditions encountered by hostages or prisoners of war. To better understand abusive relationships, a summary of research related to violence in dating relationships, with a particular emphasis on college students, is presented here. The review begins with a description of the most commonly used instrument for assessing violence in dating and other relationships: the Conflict Tactics Scale. This overview is followed by consideration of the prevalence and the scope of dating violence. Further consideration is given to locus of control as one factor that may affect understanding of the issues surrounding violence in dating relationships. It is noted that violence in relationships has been studied extensively since the 1970s. Individuals in psychologically abusive settings may experience isolation, loss of self-esteem, powerlessness, and feelings of helplessness. Violence can result in the victim suffering from lessened self- efficacy, emotional and physical health problems, and an increase in substance use and abuse. Among college students, dating violence can have costly consequences for self-identity, intimate relationships, academic success, and adult-like independence. Contains 67 references. (RJM) ED407640
Cifuentes, L. (1997). From Sages to Guides: A Professional Development Study., Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 5, 1, 67-77 1997. The educational technology course for preservice teachers at Texas A & M University incorporates a constructivist model for professional development. A study of this model examined how it helps teachers change from disseminators of information to facilitators of learning and how it underscores differences between preservice and inservice teachers' choices of teaching methods. (Author/LRW) EJ546205
Clark, D. O. (1996). Age, Socioeconomic Status, and Exercise Self-Efficacy., Gerontologist, 36, 2, 157-64 Apr 1996. Uses data from current research and two older adult focus groups to develop a conceptual model of exercise self-efficacy and its predictors among older adults. Specifically addresses the issue of low socioeconomic status among older adults and how to improve their health and activity level. (SNR) EJ527158
Cleaveland, B. L. (1994). Social Cognitive Theory Recommendations for Improving Modeling in Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Programs., Journal available from Haworth Press, Inc., 10 Alice St., Binghampton, NY 13904- 1580. Current state-of-the-art substance abuse prevention programs are mostly social cognitive theory based. However, there are few publications which review specifically how modeling is applied to adolescent substance abuse prevention programs. This article reviews theoretical considerations for implementing modeling for this purpose. (Author/LKS) EJ498705
Clement, R. W., & And, O. (1997). A Computerized Demonstration of the False Consensus Effect., Teaching of Psychology, 24, 2, 131-35 1997. Replicates a classic psychology laboratory experiment where students either endorsed or refuted personal statements and estimated how other people would respond. Students always overestimated an affirmative response on the statements they endorsed, thus illustrating the false consensus effect. Includes a list of the statements and statistical correlations with other variables. (MJP) EJ549842
Clifford, E. F., & Green, V. P. (1996). The Mentor-Protege Relationship as a Factor in Preservice Teacher Education: A Review of the Literature., Early Child Development and Care, 125, 73-83 Nov 1996. Reviews the literature on various factors within the mentor-protege relationship that foster preservice teachers' development of competence and self-efficacy belief. Discusses Vygotsky's mediated learning as a factor in the development of mentor-protege and protege teacher efficacy, teacher self-efficacy beliefs, roles and characteristics of mentors in education, and empathy as it relates to relationship building. (MOK) EJ533046
Coladarci, T. (1992). Teachers╣ sense of efficacy and commitment to teaching. Journal of Experimental Education, 60, 323-337.
Coladarci, T., & Breton, W. (1997). Teacher efficacy, supervision, and the special education resource-room teacher. Journal of Educational Research, 90, 230-239.
Coladarci, T., & Breton, W. A. (1997). Teacher Efficacy, Supervision, and the Special Education Resource-Room Teacher., Journal of Educational Research, 90, 4, 230-39 Mar-Apr 1997. This study examined the validity of the Teacher Efficacy Scale, modified for special education resource-room teachers. It also examined the relation between teacher efficacy and the frequency and utility of supervision. Perceived utility, but not frequency, of supervision was significantly related to teacher efficacy. (SM) EJ546701
Coladarci, T., & Fink, D. R. (1995, April). Correlations among measures of teacher efficacy: Are they measuring the same thing? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco.
Corno, L. (1995). Working toward Foresight and Follow-Through., Keynote address to Mid-Western Educational Research Assn. (1994). Considers recent investigations of conditions that promote forward-thinking in young people and their realization of personal goals. Discusses environmental affordance, environmental press, mediational strategies, consequence management, and resources for coping. Suggests ways educators may help individuals develop potentials for foresight and follow-through in spite of inequalities in preparation and support. Contains 86 references. (RAH) EJ498132
Cox, C. (1995). Comparing the Experiences of Black and White Caregivers of Dementia Patients., Social Work, 40, 3, 343-49 May 1995. Using a conceptual stress development model that treats informal supports and competency as potential mediators, examined outcomes of caregiving in samples of black and white caregivers. A perceived lack of informal supports and a sense of incompetency exacerbated stress among black caregivers but had no effects among the white caregivers. (RJM) EJ507885
Croteau, J. M., & Slaney, R. B. (1994). Two Methods of Exploring Interests: A Comparison of Outcomes., Career Development Quarterly, 42, 3, 252-61 Mar 1994. Male college students (n=95) participated in study which investigated proposed difference in how intervening with Vocational Card Sort versus Strong/Strong- Campbell would be experienced. Study included participant attribute variable (locus of control for career development) and outcome variable (career decision- making self-efficacy) related to proposed difference. Found no statistically significant intervention or intervention by participant attribute effects. (Author/NB) EJ483027
Crowther, D. T., & Cannon, J. R. (1998). How Much Is Enough? Preparing Elementary Science Teachers through Science Practicums., 16pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for the Education of Teachers of Science (Minneapolis, MN, January 9, 1998). Science education and the preparation of science teachers have been of great concern over the past two decades. This research investigated the influence of an extended elementary science teaching practicum upon preservice elementary teachers' (N=19) science self-efficacy. It explored both quantitatively and qualitatively the progression of teacher efficacy and outcome expectancy of preservice elementary education majors as well as the influence of a science methods course before, during, or after a practicum experience. The manipulated variable in this study was the practicum experience and teaching science lessons to children on a daily basis. The qualitative parameters of this study included pre- and post-interviews, supervisor and cooperating teacher observation notes, and student journal analysis. This study found that there was a significant difference in the experience of the practicum students who had previously taken science methods as compared to the participants who had not taken science methods or who were currently enrolled in the science methods course. It was also found that the period of 10 weeks actual teaching in the classroom was a good experience for the participants involved. Contains 26 references. (Author/ASK) ED415112
Crutchfield, L. B., & Borders, L. D. (1997). Impact of Two Clinical Peer Supervision Models on Practicing School Counselors., Journal of Counseling & Development, 75, 3, 219-30 Jan-Feb 1997. Examines two forms of clinical peer supervision so as to investigate whether peer- group clinical supervision can have a positive impact on the effectiveness of school counselors. Results indicate that the two treatments did have a slightly positive impact on job satisfaction, counseling self-efficacy, and counseling effectiveness. (RJM) EJ551773
Curry, C., & And, O. (1994). The Effect of Life Domains on Girls' Possible Selves., Adolescence, 29, 113, 133-50 Spr 1994. Examined differences in attainment, subject choice, attitudes toward career and family, interest and confidence in traditional and nontraditional occupations, and psychological variables between adolescent girls (n=240) categorized as careerist or noncareerist. Findings suggest that work orientation and importance of life domains may be useful factors to consider in girls' possible selves. (Author/NB) EJ484589
Czerniak, C. M., & Schriver, M. (1994). An Examination of Preservice Science Teachers' Beliefs and Behaviors as Related to Self-Efficacy., Journal of Science Teacher Education, 5, 3, 77-86 Sum 1994. The purpose of this study is to substantiate the construct of science teacher self-efficacy with qualitative data and further investigate the validity of the science teacher self-efficacy Likert instrument. Results suggest that self- efficacy is a feasible construct for examining student beliefs and behaviors in science education. (LZ) EJ504042
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Davis-Berman, J., & Berman, D. S. (1994). Research Update: Two-Year Follow-up Report for the Wilderness Therapy Program., Journal of Experiential Education, 17, 1, 48-50 May 1994. Follow-up surveys of 23 adolescent participants in the Wilderness Therapy Program examined self-efficacy, behavioral symptoms, and locus of control at 4 months, 1 year, and 2 years after the program. Results suggest a regression to pretest levels at 4 months, with a return to the original posttest change levels at 1 and 2 years. (Author/SV) EJ491790
Davy, J. A., & And, O. (1995). Outcome Comparisons of Formal Outplacement Services and Informal Support., Human Resource Development Quarterly, 6, 3, 275-88 Fall 1995. Of white-collar workers surveyed 3 and 6 months after layoff, 54 had participated in informal social support groups and 79 received formal outplacement services. The latter had higher job search self-efficacy and were more optimistic. There were no differences in number of job offers after three months, but support group members had an advantage finding jobs comparable to those lost. (SK) EJ511269
Dawes, M. E., Horan, J. J., & Hackett, G. (1997). Experimental Evaluation of Self-Efficacy Treatment on Technical/Scientific Career Outcomes., 23pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association (Chicago, IL, August 1997). A study evaluated experimentally a technology education program designed to provide mastery experiences described in Bandura's self-efficacy theory (1986) and predicted to improve career decision making. Seventh graders (n=97) and eighth graders (n=72) were stratified on grade level and randomly assigned either to a commercially published technology education program with self-efficacy components or to control curricula. Over 7 weeks, the experimental program attempted to foster exploration and performance accomplishments in the students' choice of 3 out of 21 possible technical and scientific careers. Pre- and posttest instruments assessed technical/scientific self-efficacy and career interest. Three separate MANOVAs showed no treatment effects were found, possibly because students in the experimental group were allowed to choose modules that might reflect their own interests, thus influencing their favorable ratings of the program. (Contains 37 references.) (YLB) ED410397
Day, J. M. (1994). Obligation and Motivation: Obstacles and Resources for Counselor Well-Being and Effectiveness., Journal of Counseling & Development, 73, 1, 108-11 Sep-Oct 1994. Considers the role of obligation in counselors' motivation to do their work. Observes that narrative practices related to the humanities, and to religious and spiritual traditions, may help counselors when obligation-based motivation is overwhelmed by the harsher elements of human nature and of the counseling profession. (RJM) EJ502631
Day, M. A., & Luzzo, D. A. (1997). Effects of Strong Interest Inventory Feedback on Career Beliefs., 13pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association (Chicago, IL, August 15, 1997). Research supported by the Strong Research Advisory Board. A study evaluated the effects of Strong Interest Inventory (SII) completion and participation in a theoretically based model of SII feedback/interpretation on the social cognitive career beliefs of 99 first-year students at a southwestern university. The Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy ScaleShort Form (CDMSES- SF) measured each participant's degree of belief that he or she can successfully complete tasks necessary for making effective career decisions. Career beliefs of participants were measured by the Career Beliefs Inventory. Participants completed both instruments and were randomly assigned to either the SII feedback condition, control, or SII completion-only group. Students who completed the SII and participated in the feedback session were more likely to believe that they are personally responsible for career decision making than were students who completed the SII without feedback. Students who completed the SII with or without feedback were more likely to believe that career success and satisfaction were the result of hard work and effort than were the control group. There were no significant differences in a sense of control over career decision making among the three groups. (Appendixes include 37 references and 2 tables.) (YLB) ED410396
de, L., Jenny, & Watters, J. J. (1995). Science Teaching Self-Efficacy in a Primary School: A Case Study., Research in Science Education, 25, 4, 453-64 1995. Analysis of interviews, observations, and surveys using the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument of (n=37) primary science teachers indicated teachers with high personal science teaching self-efficacy have had a long interest in science and a relatively strong background of formal science studies with opportunities for exploring out-of-school activities. (Author/MKR) EJ522182
Delcourt, M. A. B., & Kinzie, M. B. (1993). Computer Technologies in Teacher Education: The Measurement of Attitudes and Self- Efficacy., Journal of Research and Development in Education, 27, 1, 35-41 Fall 1993. Describes the development of two instruments for use with preservice and practicing teachers: Attitudes toward Computer Technologies and Self-Efficacy for Computer Technologies. Graduate and undergraduate students completed the instruments. Results provide initial instrument validation. The paper presents data on content validity and results of exploratory analysis exmining predictors of self-efficacy. (SM) EJ478568
Delgado, M. (1995). The Beauty of Scholarship., Journal availability: American Council of Learned Societies, 228 E. 45th St., New York, NY 10017. A middle school teacher describes her experiences after being awarded a one-year grant to write curriculum, highlighting the process of scholarship. Her curriculum project concerned early adolescent females' self-efficacy, so she studied feminism in all its varieties. The paper describes her feelings about the beauty and importance of scholarship. (SM) EJ522317
Demakis, G. J. (1997). Hindsight Bias and the Simpson Trial: Use in Introductory Psychology., Teaching of Psychology, 24, 3, 190-91 1997. Identifies hindsight bias as the tendency to exaggerate one's ability to have foreseen the outcome of an event after learning the outcome. Describes a class project where students predicted the verdict of the O. J. Simpson trial one week before the verdict and hypothesized a jury response a month later. (MJP) EJ551323
DiBella-McCarthy, H. O. (1995). How Efficacious Are You?, TEACHING Exceptional Children, 27, 3, 68-72 Spr 1995. A self-efficacy quiz for teachers is provided, and guidelines are offered for using the quiz to increase an individual teacher's sense of teaching efficacy. Suggestions are offered for positively altering current beliefs about teaching and students and for addressing a sense of low personal teaching efficacy. (DB) EJ497678
Dietz, B. E. (1996). The Relationship of Aging to Self-Esteem: The Relative Effects of Maturation and Role Accumulation., International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 43, 3, 249-66 1996. Examines the relationship of age and two dimensions of self-esteem using a national sample of adults in the United States. Findings indicate that those over age 65 experience heightened levels of self-esteem, especially on self-efficacy, compared to their younger counterparts. Implications for findings are discussed. (RJM) EJ548749
Digiusto, E., & Bird, K. D. (1995). Matching Smokers to Treatment: Self-Control versus Social Support., Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 2, 290-95 Apr 1995. Studied 137 smokers who were assessed on 12 predictor variables and then randomly assigned to social support or self-control treatment. Social support treatment was more effective than self-control treatment for participants with high baseline self-control orientation scores and participants with high self-efficacy scores. Implications are discussed. (RJM) EJ504616
Dimmock, C., & Hattie, J. (1996). School Principals' Self-Efficacy and Its Measurement in a Context of Restructuring., School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 7, 1, 62-75 Mar 1996. Presents a measurement scale specific to principals' self-efficacy in coping with change in a (Western Australian) restructuring context. Outlines the scale's psychometric properties and demonstrates its usefulness, using a series of regression equations. Self-efficacy can be a powerful mediator in understanding the reactions to change. (20 references) (MLH) EJ524409
Dodds, A., & And, O. (1994). The Concept of Adjustment: A Structural Model., Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 88, 6, 487-97 Nov-Dec 1994. This study analyzed scores of 469 British adult clients with recent loss of sight on the Nottingham Adjustment Scale using LISREL structural modeling techniques. Results supported a theoretical model of the self in terms of two latent factors internal self-worth and self as agent. Implications for rehabilitation and intervention with cognitive therapy are considered. (Author/DB) EJ494838
Dorfman, L. T., & And, O. (1996). Wife Caregivers of Frail Elderly Veterans: Correlates of Caregiver Satisfaction and Caregiver Strain., Family Relations, 45, 1, 46-55 Jan 1996. Investigated correlates of satisfaction and strain in 80 wife caregivers of frail elderly veterans. Support from spouse was the strongest positive predictor of satisfaction with caregiving and the strongest negative predictor of caregiver strain. Self efficacy was the strongest predictor of caregiver life satisfaction. (Author) EJ525693
Doring, A., Bingham, B., & Bramwell-Vial, A. (1997). Transition to University - A Self-Regulatory Approach., 13pp. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education (Brisbane, Australia, November 30-December 4, 1997). As part of an ongoing project being conducted at Australian Catholic University (Brisbane), this paper examines the idea of self-regulation as an inherent component of a student's transition to higher education and as a means of increasing the understanding of student difficulties, particularly academic problems. It also examines whether self-regulatory behavior can be fostered as part of the overall academic process. Self-regulation theory focuses on how students personally activate, alter, and sustain their learning practices, and self-regulated students use learning processes that involve goal-directed activities. The report examines approaches such as reflective self-monitoring to evaluate its contribution to self-regulation and academic development, and suggests several tasks that serve this function. Also examined is the need for a transition process that will provide the skills for student self-efficacy and confidencean approach which requires an active role on the part of the institution. It is noted that universities should be prepared to teach and encourage appropriate learning behavior and provide integrated intervention for students. (Contains 10 references.) (JLS) ED415776
DuFour, R., & Berkey, T. (1995). The Principal as Staff Developer., Journal of Staff Development, 16, 4, 2-6 Fall 1995. Principals must create conditions that ensure that professional growth is part of school culture, remembering to create consensus, promote shared values, monitor the effort, ensure systematic collaboration, encourage experimentation, model commitment, provide one-on-one staff development, offer purposeful staff development programs, promote self-efficacy, and sustain the effort. (SM) EJ522301
Dunkin, M. J. (1995). Concepts of Teaching and Teaching Excellence in Higher Education., Higher Education Research and Development, 14, 1, 21-33 1995. A University of Sydney (Australia) study investigated novice and expert college faculty's concepts of teaching effectiveness, self-efficacy regarding teaching, and criteria for self-evaluation as teachers. Differences were found in all of these areas, and implications for achieving excellence in teaching are discussed. (Author/MSE) EJ518199
Dunlap, K. M. (1996). Supporting and Empowering Families through Cooperative Preschool Education., Social Work in Education, 18, 4, 210-21 Oct 1996. Used a qualitative, exploratory investigation of 24 adult caregivers with low incomes to examine empowerment as an outcome of adult participation in a cooperative preschool program. The program succeeded in helping parents attain and maintain self-sufficiency. Analyzes to what extent empowerment is fostered by adult participation in a cooperative preschool. (RJM) EJ548681
Dunn, D. S. (1997). Identifying Imagoes: A Personality Exercise on Myth, Self, and Identity., Teaching of Psychology, 24, 3, 193-95 1997. Identifies imagoes as idealized and personified self-concepts that we form in early or mid-adulthood. These characters dominate life stories and personal myths. Discusses a class exercise where students review the imagoes most frequently used in journal entries concerning individual myths and major life events. (MJP) EJ551325
Durlak, C. M., & And, O. (1994). Preparing High School Students with Learning Disabilities for the Transition to Postsecondary Education: Teaching the Skills of Self-Determination., Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27, 1, 51-59 Jan 1994. Specific self-determination skills have been identified as being related to the successful transition of students with learning disabilities to postsecondary education. This study developed and validated a model program which was effective in teaching secondary students the self-determination skills of self-advocacy and self-awareness. (DB) EJ479347
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Earley, P. C. (1994). Self or Group? Effects of Training on Self-Efficacy and Performance., Administrative Science Quarterly, 39, 1, 89-117 Mar 1994. Examines the theoretical and empirical relationship of training and individualism- collectivism to self-efficacy and performance in studies of managers from Hong Kong, China, and the United States. Uses a laboratory experiment and a six-month field experiment to test hypotheses predicting self-focused training as more effective for individualists and group-focused training as more effective for collectivists. Results support hypotheses. (40 references) (MLH) EJ484939
Eaton, M. J., & Dembo, M. H. (1996). Difference in the Motivational Beliefs of Asian American and Non-Asian Students., 28pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New York, NY, April 8-12, 1996). This investigation explored the differences in the motivational beliefs of ninth- grade Asian American and non-Asian students. Participants were 154 Asian Americans of various ethnicities and 372 non-Asians. Student beliefs about achievement were explored through a questionnaire developed for the study. The statistical findings suggest that the differences in type of beliefs between the two groups may help to explain their achievement behavior. More specifically, Asian American students' fear of the negative consequences of academic failure best explained their performance on the achievement task, while fear of failure least explained the non-Asian students' performance. Asian American students reported significantly lower levels of situational self-efficacy beliefs than did their non-Asian counterparts. However, Asian students outperformed non-Asian students on the achievement task. The cultural belief, fear of academic failure, better explained achievement motivation for Asian Americans than did self- efficacy beliefs. A major implication of this investigation is that more attention should be given to how motivational beliefs elicit different responses in different cultural/ethnic groups. (Contains 5 tables and 85 references.) (Author/SLD) ED405401
Eaton, M. J., & Dembo, M. H. (1997). Differences in the Motivational Beliefs of Asian American and Non-Asian Students., Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 3, 433-40 Sep 1997. Differences in the motivational beliefs of 154 Asian American and 372 non-Asian ninth graders were studied. Asian Americans' fear of the consequences of academic failure best explained their performance, but this variable least explained results for non-Asian students. Fear of academic failure was a better explanation for Asian Americans than were self-efficacy beliefs. (SLD) EJ553138
Eby, L. T., & And, O. (1997). Employment Assistance Needs of Accompanying Spouses Following Relocation., Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50, 2, 291-307 Apr 1997. In a sample of 503 dual-income relocated couples (employee and accompanying spouse) in the United States and Canada, sex of accompanying spouses and their job-seeking self-efficacy were the primary determinants of their need for employment assistance following relocation. (SK) EJ542144
Eccles, J. S. (1994). Understanding Women's Educational and Occupational Choices: Applying the Eccles et al. Model of Achievement-Related Choices., Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18, 4, 585-609 Dec 1994. Summarizes a set of social and psychological factors thought to be responsible for the occupational and educational choices of women and men. Key features of a theoretical model are reviewed, and the implications of this model for understanding the link between gender roles and gendered educational and occupational decisions are discussed. (GR) EJ507661
Edmundson, E., & And, O. (1996). The Effects of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health Intervention on Psychosocial Determinants of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Behavior among Third-Grade Students., American Journal of Health Promotion, 10, 3, 217-25 Jan-Feb 1996. Schools within the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health intervention were randomized into control, school-based, and school-based plus family intervention conditions. Measures of third graders' psychosocial determinants of risk behavior indicated significant improvements in all psychosocial determinants following the interventions, with family intervention producing greater impact. (SM) EJ528641
Edwards, S., & Poston-Anderson, B. (1996). Information, Future Time Perspectives, and Young Adolescent Girls: Concerns about Education and Jobs., Library & Information Science Research, 18, 3, 207-23 Sum 1996. This article examines how young adolescent girls in Australia seek information when they feel concerned or anxious about future jobs and future education. Topics include the girls' doubts about personal competency and job opportunity; adults who may think they are too young for such concern; and implications of these attitudes for information services. (Author/LRW) EJ532937
Egan, K. S. (1996). Flexible Mentoring: Adaptations in Style for Women's Ways of Knowing., Journal of Business Communication, 33, 4, 401-25 Oct 1996. Identifies and tests three epistemological categories (constructivists, proceduralists, and subjectivists) for differences in women's workplace perceptions and mentoring relationship. Finds significant differences in perceptions of self-efficacy, career opportunities, and effective mentoring roles and similarities that exist between mentor and protege. (SR) EJ553652
Ehrman, M. E. (1996). Understanding Second Language Learning Difficulties., 363p. The book discusses in detail a variety of practical and theoretical issues in identifying and addressing second language learning problems. Intended primarily for classroom teachers working with late teenagers or adults, it focuses on learning styles, affective factors, and learning strategies. Real and composite case studies are presented throughout the text, and emphasis is on the teacher's role in identifying and solving problems. An introductory chapter explains the purpose and organization of the book. Subsequent chapter topics include: methods of direct data collection (observation and interviews); cognitive (learning) styles; field dependence and field sensitivity; personality models; the affective dimension (motivation, self-efficacy, and anxiety); student biographical and background information and learning strategies; using information from questionnaires and tests, and assessing language aptitude; case studies of specific situations; knowing when to seek outside help; and applying the book's content in the classroom. Appended materials include a sample biographical/background questionnaire, an instrument for assessing student study approach, and motivation and learning strategies questionnaire, notes standardized test item interpretation, and case highlights. Contains 154 references. (MSE) ED405733
Elder, R., & Colorado State University. Dept. of Occupational Therapy. (1996). Effects of gender, age, and work experience on percepts of general and domain-specific self-efficacy. Rm735.4
Elfering, M. (1998). Effects of social environment on feeling states and self-efficacy in a group exercise class. Micro 4
Ellett, C. D. M., Joanne H.; Rugutt, John K.; Culross, Rita R. (1997). Linking Personal Learning Environment, Quality of Teaching and Learning, and Learning Efficacy: An Initial Study of College Students., 47pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, March 1997). This study examined the relationships among college students' perceptions of their personal (constructivist-based) learning environments, the extent to which they viewed selected teaching and learning activities as enhancing their personal learning, and their personal learning efficacy. A total of 2,190 students in 145 evening classes offered by Louisiana State University in the 1996 fall semester participated in the study. The students completed three separate measures of assessments of the quality of teaching and learning, personal perceptions of the learning environment, and motivation and outcomes expectancy assessments of personal learning efficacy. The results support the validity of adapting the Science Laboratory Environment Inventory (SLEI), an instrument originally developed for use in secondary classrooms, to the college classroom setting. They also support the use of the Student Assessment of Teaching and Learning (SATL) measure. Correlations between the SATL and SLEI subscales generated in this study suggest that students' personal perceptions of characteristics of the learning environment and their self-reported experiences and behaviors are significantly related to their self-reports of learning enhancement. Copies of the measures used in the study are appended. (Contains 34 references.) (MDM) ED410770
Ellett, C. D., Hill, F. H., Liu, X., Loup, K. S., & Lakshmanan, A. (1997). Professional Learning Environment and Human Caring Correlates of Teacher Efficacy., 30pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, March 24-28, 1997). This paper presents the results of a study of relationships between elements of the school professional learning environment and dimensions of caring and efficacy motivation among teachers. The sample for the study consisted of 1009 elementary and secondary school teachers from 29 schools in two suburban/rural school districts in a southeastern state. The teachers completed questionnaires that measured: teachers' perceptions of a range of conditions in schools that stimulate and support professional learning and growth; teachers' personal and organizational levels of efficacy motivation; and four affective components of human caring. The results showed: that measures of the professional learning environments of schools, human caring, and efficacy motivation can be determined with reasonable reliability; that positive relationships exist between elements of the professional learning environment of schools and teacher levels of efficacy motivation related to goal persistence and response to failure; and that a strong relationship exists between good teacher and administrator relationships and opportunities for professional development. These results are important as they relate to theory building, teacher development, and perhaps school improvement. Five data tables are attached. The appendix provides copies of the demographic information form, and copies of The Professional Learning Environment Inventory, The Teacher Self and Organizational Efficacy Assessment, and The Human Caring Inventory. (Contains 11 references.) (JLS) ED411206
Elliott, K. J. (1995). Anthetic Dialogue: A New Method for Working with Dysfunctional Beliefs in Career Counseling., Journal of Career Development, 22, 2, 141-48 Win 1995. Anthetic dialogue, an adaptation of gestalt empty chair method, identifies negative messages from counseling clients' inner critics. These dysfunctional beliefs can then be addressed by cognitive restructuring. (SK) EJ511250
Emery, R. E., & Dillon, P. (1994). Conceptualizing the Divorce Process: Renegotiating Boundaries of Intimacy and Power in the Divorced Family System., Family Relations, 43, 4, 374-79 Oct 1994. Discusses conceptual model highlighting renegotiation of relationships and redefinition of boundaries in divorced family system. Considers issues of intimacy and power boundary redefinition between parents and children and between former spouses regarding grief and self-efficacy. Suggests boundaries should be formal, distant, and rigid. (CRR) EJ494354
Emmer, E. (1990, April). A scale for measuring teacher efficacy in classroom management and discipline. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Boston, MA; (Revised, June, 1990).
Emmer, E., & Hickman, J. (1990, April). Teacher decision making as a function of efficacy, attribution, and reasoned action. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Boston, MA.
Eng, D. W. (1996). Evaluating confidence and commitment as elements of success in tennis. EdD 1996 eng
Enochs, L. G., & And, O. (1995). The Relationship of Pupil Control to Preservice Elementary Science Teacher Self- Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy., Science Education, 79, 1, 63-75 Jan 1995. Examines preservice elementary teachers' sense of self-efficacy with regard to science teaching and to define the construct of self-efficacy with greater clarity. Perceived effectiveness in teaching science was significantly correlated with outcome expectancy. (ZWH) EJ498259
Enochs, L. G., Posnanski, T, & Hagedorn, E. (1999, March). Science teaching self-efficacy beliefs: Measurement, recent research, and directions for future research. Paper presented at the National Association of Research in Science Education, Boston, MA.
Erdley, C. A., & Asher, S. R. (1996). Children's Social Goals and Self-Efficacy Perceptions as Influences on their Responses to Ambiguous Provocation., Child Development, 67, 4, 1329-44 Aug 1996. Examined whether children who vary in their behavioral responses to ambiguous provocation but have similar attributional processes differ in their social goals and self- efficacy perceptions. Subjects were 781 4th and 5th graders. Found that aggressive, withdrawn, and problem-solving responders differed in the social goals and self-efficacy perceptions, suggesting the importance of a situated social-cognitive assessment. (MOK) EJ534591
Ertmer, P. A., & And, O. (1994). Enhancing Self-Efficacy for Computer Technologies through the Use of Positive Classroom Experiences., Educational Technology Research and Development, 42, 3, 45-62 1994. Describes a study of undergraduates completing electronic mail and word processing tasks that investigated the effects of experience on attitudes toward computers and judgment of confidence, or self-efficacy. Use of the Computer Technologies Survey is discussed, and treatment of experimental and control groups is described. Survey instrument and results are included. (27 references) (LRW) EJ493374
Ertmer, P. A., & Schunk, D. H. (1997). Self-Regulation during Computer Skills Learning: The Influence of Goals and Self- Evaluation., 19pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Education Research Association (Chicago, IL, March 24-28, 1997). This study examined the effects of goalssuch as denoting learning and performance outcomesand self-evaluation on the acquisition of computer skills, efficacy in performing computer tasks, perception of competence for the use of self-regulatory strategies, and frequency of strategy use while learning computer skills. Subjects were 44 college students enrolled in an "Introduction to Computers in Education" course. Subjects' learning goal was the use of specific HyperCard tasks, and their performance goal was to do their best at the tasks. Results showed that when goals are combined with self-evaluation of progress, the students' perception of efficacy and competency for the use of self-regulatory strategies when learning computer skills was raised, and the frequency of strategy use increased. This combination, however, did not lead to a significant increase in other outcome measures. There were no definite results for self- evaluation. (AS) ED408023
Essic, E. J. (1999). The multiple mentor model: getting the mentors you need-- an investigation of the effects of a skills-based program for women on perceptions of mentor relationships and self-efficacy. Hf5385
Evans, E.D., & Tribble, M. (1986). Perceived teaching problems, self-efficacy and commitment to teaching among preservice teachers. Journal of Educational Research, 80 (2), 81-85.
Everest, T. M., & Colorado State University. Dept. of Psychology. (1997). Situational constraints and intentions to put forth effort. Bf637.s38
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Faseyitan, S., & And, O. (1996). An Inservice Model for Enhancing Faculty Computer Self-Efficacy., British Journal of Educational Technology, 27, 3, 214-26 Sep 1996. To improve instructional computer use by university faculty, an inservice program consisting of showcases, seminars, and workshops was funded, designed, and implemented. The program proved to be a cost-effective way for administrators to promote classroom use of computers by fostering faculty's confidence and computer self-efficacy. Seminar topics and workshop activities are described. (PEN) EJ531062
Fasko, D., Jr., & Grubb, D. J. (1997). Implications of the Learner-Centered Battery for New Teacher Standards and Teacher Education Reform in Kentucky., 32pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association (Chicago, IL, August 1997). This study evaluated the self-assessment measures in the Learner-Centered Battery (LCB), which was developed from the theory and research base represented in the Learner Centered Psychological Principles (LCP) (American Psychological Association & McRel, 1993). The purposes of this study were: (1) to evaluate the use of the LCB self-assessment to measure experienced teachers' beliefs about and use of learner-centered practices; (2) to determine the relationship of student responses on the LCB to student motivation and achievement, and their teachers' teaching practices; and (3) to evaluate the usefulness of the LCB for teacher education reform. Participants were 6th to 12th grade teachers (N=36) and students (N=655) from a rural Kentucky school system. The teachers rated themselves using the LCB Teacher Survey and had one of their classes rate them using the LCB Student Survey. Major findings were that: effective teachers demonstrated more implementation of learner-centered domains of practice than did less effective teachers; student perceptions of teachers' implementation of learner-centered practices and student self-efficacy ratings predicted student achievement; and the LCB reliably differentiated effective from less effective teachers. With regard to teacher education reform, two dimensions need to be taken into account: the substantive content of the principles and preservice teachers' actual learning processes. A table on the learner-centered principles is attached. (Contains 25 references). (SM) ED412209
Fasko, D., Jr.; Grubb, Deborah J. (1997). Implications of the Learner-Centered Psychological Principles and Self-Assessment Tools for Teacher Education Reform., 30pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, March 24-28, 1997). The Learner-Centered Battery was administered to 38 teachers and 655 students in grades 6 through 12 in a rural school district as part of a national validation study. This Battery, developed from the theory and research base represented in the "Learner-Centered Psychological Principles" (American Psychological Association and the Mid-continent Regional Educational Laboratory, 1993) assesses: (1) teachers' beliefs about learners, learning, and teaching; (2) teachers' perceptions of their classroom practices in domains of practice identified in the "Principles"; and (3) students' perceptions of teacher classroom practices in these same domains. Major findings were that effective teachers demonstrate more implementation of learner-centered domains of practice than less effective teachers, and that student perceptions of teachers' implementation of learner-centered practices and student self-efficacy ratings predicted student achievement. The Learner-Centered Battery can be used to predict high quality teaching in that it reliably differentiates effective from less effective teachers. (Contains 4 tables and 20 references.) (Author/SLD) ED411276
Ferrari, M. (1996). Observing the Observer: Self-Regulation in the Observational Learning of Motor Skills., Developmental Review, 16, 2, 203-40 Jun 1996. Notes that observational learning of a motor skill involves both observation of the model and self-observation. Examines observation of the modeled performance, including three moderators of observational learning: the properties of the model, the nature of the task, and observer determinants. Observer determinants are examined at length, including effects of self-efficacy, goal setting, and expertise. (HTH) EJ525007
Fields, B. R. (1996). Two case studies of the effects of a clinically oriented psychological skills training program on perceived anxiety, perceived efficacy, scuba performance, and progress in therapy of scuba diving clients. Micro 4
Finley, G. (1999). Design your destiny: shape your future in 12 easy steps ( 2nd ed.). St. Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications. 158.1 Finley 1999
Folger, T., & And, O. (1997). Cognitive Processes in Problem Solving via Think-Aloud and Interview Analysis., 32p. Researchers examined data from perceptual instruments administered to participants (36 undergraduate education students) during and following problem solving sessions. Think-aloud and interview analysis resulted in combining examination of the problems with the motivations and perceptions of the problem solvers. The nonemergent qualitative design revealed themes that affected the participant's solution paths. Conditions that positively influenced the use of analogical thinking were identified as enablers; those that impaired its use were labeled as inhibitors. Enablers included positive perceptions of the self as problem solver, active engagement in the problem, perceived familiarity with the domain of knowledge, and the accurate recall and use of problem solving strategies. Inhibitors included poor self-efficacy for problem solving, recall of negative experiences, lack of background knowledge, and inaccurate application of the problem solving principles. The participants' comments revealed connections with other theory and research on problem solving and learning transfer. Future research is implicated in areas of the effects of problem-solving instruction within a contextual domain. (Contains 2 tables and 29 references.) (Author/SLD) ED409337
Forsyth, P. B. & Hoy, W. K. (1978). Isolation and alienation in educational organizations. Educational Administration Quarterly, 14, 80-96.
Foster, P., & Swander, M. (1998). The healing circle: authors writing of recovery. New York: Plume. 155.916 Healing
Fouad, N. A., & Spreda, S. L. (1996). Translation and Use of a Career-Decision Making Self-Efficacy Assessment for Hispanic Middle School Students., Journal of Vocational Education Research, 21, 4, 67-85 1996. Bilingual Spanish-speaking middle school students (n=344) completed Spanish versions of three career assessment instruments; the reliability and validity of the translations were supported. Next, instruments were completed by 105 students (63 Hispanic). Self-efficacy and outcome expectations contributed to intention and goals for minority students. (SK) EJ543957
Fouad, N. A., Smith, P. L., & Enochs, L. (1997). Reliability and Validity Evidence for the Middle School Self-Efficacy Scale., Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 30, 1, 17-31 Apr 1997. Provides validity evidence for a new instrument that assesses a career-related self-efficacy intervention for Hispanic and Latino students. Focuses on the broad area of career decision making and on math and science tasks. Results indicate adequate validity of the instrument, particularly for women and minority students. (RJM) EJ551709
Fox, B. D. (2000). Strategies to enhance self-efficacy to improve exercise adherence in a worksite fitness center. Micro 4
Fox, N. S. O. (1996). Relationships between Autonomy, Gender, and Weekend Commuting among College Students., NASPA Journal, 34, 1, 19-28 Fall 1996. Examines the differences in autonomy development between second-year college students who typically stayed on campus on weekends and those who often left campus on weekends during their freshman year. Findings show that students who stay on campus report higher levels of autonomy than students who tend to leave. (RJM) EJ547042
Fraas, J. W., Russell, G., & Newman, I. (1997). Evaluating the Impact of the FOCUS Model on the Efficacy Levels of Teachers: A Field Based Study., 33pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-Western Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, October 17, 1997). Teacher efficacy has been identified as a variable that can influence teacher effectiveness. The results of methods designed to change teacher efficacy, however, have been mixed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible impact on teacher efficacy of the FOCUS (1992) instructional method, which is designed to create an environment in teacher-education classes that is receiver- oriented, using activities and strategies designed to match students' learning styles. Participants were 68 K-12 teachers enrolled in summer graduate education classes; half were in classes that used lecture and discussion and half were in FOCUS classes. Participants completed the Teacher Efficacy Scale at the beginning and end of the term, rating 16 statements about personal and teaching efficacy. Interaction effects between the method of instruction and participants' two pretreatment efficacy levels were analyzed. Multiple regression analysis indicated that most participants had pretreatment efficacy scores at points on the regression lines where their posttreatment efficacy scores were higher when exposed to the FOCUS model. The rest of the participants had pretreatment efficacy scores that corresponded to points on the regression lines where the posttreatment scores of the participants in the two methods were not statistically different. Teachers who appear to have benefitted from exposure to FOCUS were those with initial personal efficacy levels that were average and below average and initial teaching efficacy levels that were average or above average. Two figures and three tables are attached. (Contains 40 references.) (SM) ED414268
Friedman, I. A. (1997). High and Low-Burnout Principals: What Makes the Difference?, 32pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, March 24-28, 1997). Taxing situations that threaten the administrator's sense of self-efficacy meaningfully account for burnout in human-service professionals. This paper presents findings of a study that hypothesized that environmental or role stressors could be classified as task, organization, and relations stressors, each pertaining to a different domain of the professional's sense of self- efficacy. The second hypothesis was that each of these role stressors accounted for a different proportion in the variation of the professional's perceived burnout. A total of 821 elementary and secondary school principals in Israel completed a questionnaire designed to measure stressors, coping strategies, and burnout. Factor analysis was used to test the first hypothesis, and discriminant and multiple-regression analyses were used to test the second hypothesis. Results indicated that common environmental stressors could be categorized as "organization stressors" (pressures stemming from human-resource-management issues and resource dependence); "task stressors" (overload, role ambiguity and conflict, and administrative and technical assistance in role performance); and "relations stressors" (external relations with parents and supervisors). The findings also indicate that organization stressors were the best predicting variables distinguishing between high- and low-burnout principals. Human-resource management best predicted high levels of depersonalization and exhaustion, whereas resource dependency predicted sense of accomplishment. The paper argues that perceived threat against a principal's authority acts as a strain contributing to burnout. Therefore, new boundaries and expectations should be defined to bring about more realistic relations between school principals and incumbents. Training should focus on human-resource management and how to better utilize internal and external resources. Two figures and five tables are included. (Contains 16 references.) (LMI) ED410685
Fritz, R. L. (1994). Gender Differences in Field-Dependence and Educational Style., Journal of Vocational Education Research, 19, 1, 1-21 1994. Secondary marketing students (n=144) completed the Group Embedded Figures Test and Educational Style Preference Inventory. Gender differences were found in information processing strategies and on 12 of 19 conative variables representing the way moods and emotions act as filters to produce selective attention. These differences could be most critical with complex and demanding tasks. (SK) EJ504420
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Updated: Thursday, May 23, 2002
by Alejandra Martinez
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Gaddis, M. D., & Elliott, T. (1997). An Alternative Pedagogical Approach to Teaching At-Risk and Underachieving Upper- Level Accounting Students., 12pp. Paper presented at the University of Kentucky Teaching/Learning Conference (Ashland, KY, October 11, 1997). Ways to enhance learning by both at-risk and underachieving students in upper- level accounting courses were studied at Morehead State University (Kentucky), based on the concepts of metacognition, self-regulated learning, and self- efficacy. It was hypothesized that students experience self-regulated learning when they reproduce problem solutions using strategies and solutions taught in class. Self-regulated learning involves setting realistic goals, employing strategies to achieve the goals, closely monitoring their attainment, and evaluating one's thinking. Students who did not achieve their desired outcome on the first exam could earn extra credit by attending a monitored session and retrying accounting problems that had previously been taught in class. Grades on first and second exams for students in this study were compared to those of nonparticipants for both cost accounting and intermediate accounting courses. The six cost accounting students in the study increased their average exam score, while 20 nonparticipants experienced a decline. The 10 intermediate accounting students in the study also improved in their second exam scores, while the 16 nonparticipants showed no measurable change in exam scores. (SW) ED414828
Gariglietti, K. p. M., Diane, Gingerich, K., & Hastings, S. (1997). Hope and Its Relationship to Self-Efficacy in Adolescent Girls., 18p. Adolescence is a critical time for the development of self-identity; a time which often changes enthusiastic and assertive 8- and 9-year-old girls into 11- and 12- year-old girls with poor self-images and little faith in their abilities. To better understand this process, this study investigated the relationship between hope and general self-efficacy (GSE) as a function of age and gender in adolescents. The sample consisted of a cross-sectional group of 464 girls and boys, grades 6 through 12, from both Catholic schools and public schools in two large Midwestern communities. Instruments consisted of a demographic information form, the Children's Hope Scale, and the Self-Efficacy Scale. In general, the results support the hypothesis that hope and GSE are significantly related and that hope declines in adolescence for girls. Due to limitations in this study, further investigation into the variables of hope and GSE may be more helpful in revealing which factors help individuals persevere in the adolescent years. Contains 26 references and 4 tables. (RJM) ED412456
Gelso, C. J., & And, O. (1996). Research Training Environment, Attitudes toward Research, and Research Self- Efficacy: The Revised Research Training Environment Scale., Special theme issue: "Multicultural Challenges: Theory, Evaluation, and Training.". Determines the relationship of research training environment to variables theorized to be either related or unrelated to that environment. Subjects were graduate students (n=171) who responded to the Research Training Environment Scale (RTES). The RTES was unrelated to participants' interest in the practitioner's role and minimally related to general self-esteem. (SNR) EJ527189
George, G., & Camarata, M. R. (1996). Managing Instructor Cyberanxiety: The Role of Self-Efficacy in Decreasing Resistance to Change., Educational Technology, 36, 4, 49-54 Jul-Aug 1996. Discussion of educational technology innovations focuses on some of the behavioral challenges facing the drive toward multimedia instruction and suggests a method by which instructor resistance to technological change can be lessened or eliminated based on the concept of self-efficacy. A typology of instructors is explained. (Author/LRW) EJ528023
Ghaith, G., & Yaghi, H. (1997). Relationships among Experience, Teacher Efficacy, and Attitudes toward the Implementation of Instructional Innovation., Teaching and Teacher Education, 13, 4, 451-58 May 1997. This study investigated relationships among teacher experience, efficacy, and attitude toward implementation of instructional innovation. Surveys immediately following a staff development program on cooperative learning indicated that experience was negatively correlated, personal teaching efficacy positively correlated, and general teaching efficacy not correlated with teachers' attitudes toward implementing new instructional practices. (Author/SM) EJ549925
Gianakos, I. (1995). The Relation of Sex Role Identity to Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy., Journal of Vocational Behavior, 46, 2, 131-43 Apr 1995. The Bem Sex Role Inventory and the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale (CDMSE) were completed by 134 women and 44 men. For androgynous and undifferentiated types, sex role identity was related to levels of CDMSE, number of career exploration activities, and rating given to preferred job outcomes. For masculine and feminine types, results suggest that sex typing may influence type of career activities undertaken and valuation of outcome expectations. (SK) EJ500729
Gianakos, I. (1996). Career Development Differences between Adult and Traditional-Aged Learners., Journal of Career Development, 22, 3, 211-23 Spr 1996. The career development activities of adult (n=77) and traditional-aged (n=84) learners were compared. Adults were more likely to cite personal fulfillment, younger students career-related reasons for entering college. Adults had higher levels of career decision-making self-efficacy and used more career exploration activities. (JOW) EJ517253
Gibson, S. & Dembo, M., (1984). Teacher efficacy: A construct validation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(4), 569-582.
Gin, V. J. (1998). Evaluation of a wilderness program for college students. EdD 1998 gin
Gist, M. E., & Mitchell, T. R. (1992). Self-efficacy: A Theoretical Analysis of Its Determinants and Malleability. Academy of Management Review, 17(2), 183-211.
Glass, C. R., & And, O. (1995). Cognition, Anxiety, and Performance on a Career-Related Oral Examination., Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42, 1, 47-54 Jan 1995. A four-stage model of evaluation anxiety incorporating ability, affective, cognitive, and performance variables was tested in the context of a career- related oral examination among enlisted U.S. Army personnel. Results show the influence of dispositional anxiety, preexamination anxiety, self-efficacy, and negative thoughts before and during the examination. Negative thoughts were predictive of performance, but state of mind was not. (JPS) EJ506140
Glickman, C., & Tamashiro, R., (1982). A comparison of first-year, fifth-year, and former teachers on efficacy, ego development, and problem solving. Psychology in Schools, 19, 558-562.
Godbey, G. (1997). Recreation and Parks in a Changing World: Becoming a Health Service., Parks and Recreation, 32, 3, 91-106 Mar 1997. Research shows that parks and recreation services provide people with opportunities that have substantial positive health effects, resulting in massive public-health cost savings. In a rapidly changing world, the ability to adapt and collaborate is critical for leisure services professionals. Recreation and parks must be reconceptualized to remain viable. (SM) EJ546683
Gold, V., & Williams, E. (1998). The Entrepreneurial Curriculum: Rural School-Community Process for Vocational Training of Adolescents with Disabilities., 9pp. In: Coming Together: Preparing for Rural Special Education in the 21st Century. Conference Proceedings of the American Council on Rural Special Education (18th, Charleston, SC, March 25-28, 1998); see RC 021 434. Although formal vocational training in technical high schools or community-based job placements provides opportunities for adolescents with disabilities, educators need to consider a broader continuum of vocational training options for these students. Entrepreneurial options such as school-based businesses, internships, and apprenticeships may serve to remedy many of the educational, personal, and rural issues that can contribute to poor vocational preparation, a loss of autonomy, and reduced independence for disabled students. Formal entrepreneurial programs strengthen the ties between schools and community businesses, maximize use of limited community resources, and in the long run, improve students' sense of self-efficacy and personal control in their lives. However, these programs require a significant amount of skill and commitment on the part of special educators and school administrators. Two tables summarize the career education competencies students should acquire at elementary and junior high levels as a basis for entrepreneurial training during adolescence. Educational objectives and desirable economic and job-related knowledge and skills are listed for the domains of the individual, family, community, town, region, and nation at the elementary level, and for the domains of personal, business, and global economics at the junior high level. A third table summarizes objectives and skills of the entrepreneurial curriculum suggested for adolescents with disabilities. Contains 12 references. (TD) ED417899
Goldenberg, D., & And, O. (1997). Self-Efficacy of Senior Baccalaureate Nursing Students and Preceptors., Nurse Education Today, 17, 4, 303-10 Aug 1997. Nursing students (n=23) rated their self-efficacy in nursing behaviors and clinical preceptors (n=24) rated their self-efficacy in helping students with the behaviors. Students' self-efficacy increased after the preceptorship; preceptors' scores remained high both before and after. The value of the preceptorship was supported. (SK) EJ548571
Goleman, D. (1996). Emotional Intelligence. Why It Can Matter More than IQ., Learning, 24, 6, 49-50 May-Jun 1996. Because school success is predicted largely by emotional and social measures, teachers and parents cannot start too early in helping children develop their emotional intelligence. The paper describes emotional intelligence, discusses how to teach it, and presents resources for learning how other schools are helping students build emotional intelligence. (SM) EJ530121
Gorrell, J., & Hwang, Y. S. (1995). A Study of Efficacy Beliefs among Preservice Teachers in Korea., Journal of Research and Development in Education, 28, 2, 101-05 Win 1995. This study explored differences in teaching efficacy among Korean preservice early childhood and elementary teachers beginning and completing preservice programs. Subjects completed a teacher efficacy scale. Results indicated that preservice teachers became more efficacious regarding personal efficacy and less positive about teachers' general ability to make a difference in school. (Author/SM) EJ500452
Grace, M., & And, O. (1995). The Effect of Nonverbal Skills Training on Counselor Trainee Nonverbal Sensitivity and Responsiveness and on Session Impact and Working Alliance Ratings., Journal of Counseling & Development, 73, 5, 547-52 May-Jun 1995. Counselor trainees (n=18) were randomly assigned to treatment (nonverbal sensitivity) or control (empathy training) conditions. Trainees saw a recruited client before and after a 15-week counseling methods class. Trainees rated self and clients rated sessions. Trainees in treatment condition increased their focus on client nonverbal behavior and clients showed difference in ratings. (JBJ) EJ515767
Graham, N. (1996). The Influence of Predictors on Adolescent Drug Use: An Examination of Individual Effects., Version of a paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology (Miami, FL, 1994). Findings of t-tests on results from 1,247 adolescents in South Carolina indicate that, without adjustment, whites were higher than blacks on socioeconomic status, grade point average, and attitudes favoring drug use. Blacks were higher on positive peer influence, commitment to education, self-efficacy expectations, and reported conduct disorder variables. (SLD) EJ537071
Grandey, A. A., & Colorado State University. Dept. of Psychology. (1996). Inter-and intra-role conflict and strain: do self-esteem and self-efficacy moderate these relationships? Bf575.s75
Greene, C. K., & Stitt-Gohdes, W. L. (1997). Factors that Influence Women's Choices to Work in the Trades., Journal of Career Development, 23, 4, 265-78 Sum 1997. Interviews with 10 women employed in trades revealed four significant factors in the choice of nontraditional occupations: perceived innate ability, strong sense of self, desire for independence, and role models, especially family. Formal career education/counseling was not a factor. Contrary to previous studies, only 3 of the 10 were firstborn or only children. (SK) EJ543923
Greenstein, B. (2000). Students' perceptions of the racial climate on campus and in the classroom and the relationship with academic self-efficacy and academic and intellectual development. Lc3727
Greenwood, G. E., Olejnik, S. F., & Parkay, F. W. (1990). Relationships between four teacher efficacy belief patterns and selected teacher characteristics. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 23(2), 102-106.
Gresham, F. M. (1995). Student Self-Concept Scale: Description and Relevance to Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders., Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 3, 1, 19-26 Jan 1995. The Student Self-Concept Scale (SSCS) assesses self-efficacy expectations, outcome expectations, and subjective task value across academic, social, and self- image domains. This article discusses the scale's theoretical basis, standardization, reliability, and validity and offers a case study illustrating use of the SSCS with a child who had a behavioral disorder. (JDD) EJ499287
Griffin, B. W., & Griffin, M. M. (1997). The Effects of Reciprocal Peer Tutoring on Graduate Students' Achievement, Test Anxiety, and Academic Self-Efficacy., Journal of Experimental Education, 65, 3, 197-209 Spr 1997. Two experiments involving 131 graduate students were conducted to determine effects of reciprocal peer tutoring (RPT) on graduate students' academic achievement, test anxiety, and academic self-efficacy. RPT and nonRPT groups did not differ significantly on achievement tests, but other results suggest that RPT may help students achieve learning objectives. (SLD) EJ550041
Grusec, J. M., & And, O. (1994). Parenting Cognitions and Relationship Schemas., Theme issue: "Beliefs about Parenting: Origins and Developmental Implications.". Advances an important new way to conceptualize and assess the causes of parental behavior by examining how internal working models influence parents' beliefs and behaviors. Suggests that a primary source of parents' feelings of self-efficacy with respect to child rearing, as well as their explanations for their children's misbehavior, is the mental model of relationships they have developed. (ET) EJ493688
Guskey, T. (1989). Attitude and perceptual change in teachers. International Journal of Educational Research, 13, 439-453.
Guskey, T. R. (1981). Measurement of responsibility teachers assume for academic successes and failures in the classroom. Journal of Teacher Education, 32, 44-51.
Guskey, T. R. (1982). Differences in teachers╣ perceptions of personal control of positive versus negative student learning outcomes. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 7, 70-80.
Guskey, T. R. (1984). The influence of change in instructional effectiveness upon the affective characteristics of teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 21, 245-259.
Guskey, T. R. (1987). Context variables that affect measures of teacher efficacy. Journal of Educational Research, 81(1), 41-47.
Guskey, T. R. (1988). Teacher efficacy, self-concept, and attitudes toward the implementation of instructional innovation. Teaching and Teacher Education, 4(1), 63-69
Guskey, T., & Passaro, P. (1994). Teacher efficacy: A study of construct dimensions. American Educational Research Journal, 31, 627-643.
Guthrie, J. p. S., Catherine E. (1996). Older Dogs and New Tricks: Career Stage and Self-Assessed Need for Training., Public Personnel Management, 25, 1, 59-72 Spr 1996. A training needs survey was completed by 380 of 715 managers/supervisors in a state agency. Those in later career stages perceived less need for training in management, human resource management, communication skills; they reported lower levels of self-efficacy in training effectiveness and utility of training. There appeared to be a need to encourage positive attitudes toward lifelong learning and a nonthreatening environment for training. (SK) EJ528880
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