Math Self-Efficacy (P-Z)
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P______. (1991). Project 30 Year Two Report: Institutional Accomplishments. 178pp. For the year 1 report, see SP 034 168. Project 30 is a national initiative of 30 representative institutions of higher education charged with redesigning teacher education programs. Objectives include implemention of reforms that will increase the competence and authority of teachers, provide for the substantive and imaginative development of the intellect of students, and strengthen the teaching profession. This report, based on a Project 30 national conference devoted to exploring implications of the five project themes or conversations is organized into three sections: (1) Education Program Reform in Method and Content; (2) Education Program Reform in Service; and (3) Limitations and Possibilities. Section 1 focuses on: initiation of dialogue between faculty from different disciplines and departments within the institution; team formation, for work on specific projects; and curriculum reform including creation of new courses, new majors, or new requirements in an attempt to improve their teacher education programs. Section 2 reports on collaboration between colleges and universities, and improvement of mathematics and science instruction (giving specific project description) and on efforts to integrate math and science instruction. Section 3 provides reports from several schools on problems encountered and the need for understanding real limitations, constraints, and politics of reform; and recommendations for the future. The final section is an epilogue entitled "Getting beyond the Reform Slogans." Information on the institutional characteristics of each of the Project 30 team members is provided. (LL) ED355179
Pajares, F. (1996). Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Mathematical Problem-Solving of Gifted Students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21(4), 325-344(320). Path analysis was used to test the predictive and mediational role that self-efficacy beliefs play in the mathematical problem-solving of middle school gifted students ( n = 66) mainstreamed with regular education students ( n = 232) in algebra classes. Self-efficacy of gifted students made an independent contribution to the prediction of problem-solving in a model that controlled for the effects of math anxiety, cognitive ability, mathematics GPA, self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, and sex. Gifted girls surpassed gifted boys in performance but did not differ in self-efficacy. Gifted students reported higher math self-efficacy and self-efficacy for self-regulated learning as well as lower math anxiety than did regular education students. Although most students were overconfident about their capabilities, gifted students had more accurate self-perceptions and gifted girls were biased toward underconfidence. Results support the hypothesized role of self-efficacy in A. Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory.
Pajares, F., & Graham, L. (1999). Self-Efficacy, Motivation Constructs, and Mathematics Performance of Entering Middle School Students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 24(2), 124-139(116). The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of various motivation variables on task-specific mathematics performance and to explore whether these variables change during the first year of middle school (N = 273). Students task-specific self-efficacy was the only motivation variable to predict performance and did so both at start and end of year. There were no differences in anxiety, self-concept, or self-efficacy for self-regulation between start and end of year, but, by end of year, students described mathematics as less valuable and reported lower effort and persistence. Gifted students had stronger mathematics self-concept beliefs, and they had more accurate and less overconfident self-efficacy beliefs than did regular education students. There were no gender differences in any of the motivation constructs. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
Pajares, F., & Kranzler, J. (1995). Role of Self-Efficacy and General Mental Ability in Mathematical Problem-Solving: A Path Analysis. 37pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, April 18-22, 1995). According to social cognitive theorists, people's judgments of their own capabilities to accomplish specific tasks strongly influence human motivation and behavior. Path analysis was used to test the influence of math self-efficacy and general mental ability on the math problem-solving performance of 329 high school students. A model that also included math anxiety, gender, and math background accounted for 61% of the variance in performance. Ability and self-efficacy had strong direct effects on performance. Ability also had a strong direct effect on self-efficacy, which largely mediated the indirect effect of ability and background on performance. Self-efficacy had a strong direct effect on anxiety, which, in turn, had a weak direct effect on performance. Although girls and boys did not differ in ability, self-efficacy, or performance, girls reported higher anxiety. Most students were overconfident about their mathematics capability. Results support the hypothesized role of self-efficacy in Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Contains 51 references. (Author/MKR) ED387342
Pajares, F., & Miller, M. (1995). Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Mathematics Performances: The Need for Specificity of Assessment. Journal of counseling psychology, 42(2), 190.
Pajares, F., & Miller, M. (1997). Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Mathematical Problem Solving: Implications of Using Different Forms of Assessment. The Journal of experimental education, 65(3), 213.
Pajares, F., & Miller, M. D. (1994). Role of Self-Efficacy and Self-Concept Beliefs in Mathematical Problem Solving: A Path Analysis. Paper presented at the Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 2, 193-203 Jun 1994. Path analysis was used to test the predictive and mediational roles of self- efficacy beliefs in mathematics problem solving for 350 undergraduates. The predictive role of self-efficacy supports the hypothesized role of self-efficacy in the social cognitive theory of A. Bandura (1986). (SLD) EJ490260
Pajares, F., & Zeldin, A. L. (1999). Inviting Self-Efficacy Revisited: The Role of Invitations in the Lives of Women with Mathematics-Related Careers. Paper presented at the Journal of Invitational Theory and Practice, 6, 1, 48-68 1999. Examines personal stories of women to assess whether verbal persuasions and invitations influenced their academic paths. Three themes emerged: (a) invitations and verbal persuasions were instrumental sources for the development of confidence; (b) self-efficacy beliefs fostered resilience to academic and social obstacles; (c) invitations reemerged at critical points as self-invitations that woman used to buttress themselves against challenges. (Author/JDM) EJ600944
Pandey, T. (1990). Authentic Mathematics Assessment. ERIC/TM Digest. ED354245 Available from: ERIC Clearinghouse on Tests, Measurement, and Evaluation, American Institutes for Research, 3333 K Street, N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20007 (free).
Post, P., & others (1991). Self-Efficacy, Interest, and Consideration of Math/Science and Non-Math/Science Occupations among Black Freshmen. Paper presented at the Journal of Vocational Behavior, 38, 2, 179-86 Apr 1991. Ratings of 12 math/science careers and 12 other careers were made by 82 female and 29 male African-American first-year college students. More factors influenced consideration of math/science occupations. Males considered more career choices than did females. Self-efficacy and confidence influenced males more, whereas interests were the predominant influence for female career considerations. (SK) EJ446795
Post, P., Stewart, M., & Smith, P. (1991). Self-Efficacy, Interest, and Consideration of Math/Science and Non-Math/Science Occupations among Black Freshman. Journal of vocational behavior, 38(2), 179.
Potter, E. F., & James, C. (1996). Children's Goals and Standards for Work: Evaluation in a First Grade Classroom. 23pp. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Educational Research Association (77th, New York, NY, April 8-12, 1996). Research indicates that the goals and evaluative standards held by young children are influenced by developmental factors and the classroom context. This study investigated the goals held by first grade students as they undertake classroom activities and the criteria by which they evaluate their work. The larger purpose was to explore the specificity of goals and standards in classrooms for young children and the ways in which teachers help students construct functional views of classroom expectations. The subjects were 19 students attending a pre-K and first grade school located on a southeastern military base. Data were collected through weekly observations and through individual student interviews in which subjects were asked why they chose to complete certain learning centers within the classroom and also to evaluate work from their portfolio. The results indicated that classroom practices and teacher statements were influential in students' perception of goals and standards in their classroom. In addition, different students described different criteria, suggesting that there was not uniformity in the class's understanding of standards. High achievers were more likely than low achievers to make evaluative differentiations among subject areas such as math, writing, and art. It appeared that many standards were inferred by the students on the basis of teacher feedback and whether or not work (for example, math versus art) was checked for accuracy. (Contains 27 references.) (MOK) ED400096
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Randhawa, B. S. (1994). Theory, Research, and Assessment of Mathematical Problem Solving. Paper presented at the Theme issue on cognition and assessment. Examined differences in cognitive and metacognitive processes of 40 high- and low- mathematics-ability students in grade 12 as they solved 5 everyday mathematics problems. Competence in problem solving was characterized by a rich knowledge base, metacognitive strategies, and confidence. Boys and girls exhibited different cognitive structures for processing mathematical problems. (KS) EJ488568
Randhawa, B., Beamer, J., & Lundberg, I. (1993). Role of Mathematics Self-Efficacy in the Structural Model of Mathematics Achievement. Journal of educational psychology, 85(1), 41.
Raudenbush, S. W., & others (1992). Contextual Effects on the Self-Perceived Efficacy of High School Teachers. Paper presented at the Sociology of Education, 65, 2, 150-67 Apr 1992. Discusses the self-perceived efficacy of high school teachers. Offers survey results suggesting that teachers tend to feel most efficacious when teaching high track students, particularly in the areas of mathematics and science. Explores the relevance of teacher preparation, grade level, teacher influence upon working conditions, and degree of collaboration. (SG) EJ455102
Reynolds, A. J. (1992). Grade Retention and School Adjustment: An Explanatory Analysis. Paper presented at the Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 14, 2 p101-21 Sum 1992. Studied effects at grade 4 of early grade retention for 1,255 low-income mostly African-American children (20.4 percent had been retained from kindergarten to grade 3). Retention negatively affected cognitive reading and mathematics achievement, had no relation to teacher ratings of school adjustment, and positively affected children's perceived school competence. (RLC) EJ450931
Risnes, M. (1998). Self-efficacy beliefs as mediators in math learning: A structural model. Paper presented at the Pme Conference.
Ross, J. A. (1994). Effect of Feedback on Student Behavior in Cooperative Learning Groups: A Case Study of a Grade 7 Math Class. 28pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 4-8, 1994). Grade 7 mathematics students (n=18) were audiotaped while working in cooperative learning groups on 4 occasions over a 16 week period. After the second and third recordings, students were given edited transcripts of their discussions and were trained in how to interpret them. They used an instrument to appraise their group processes 1-2 times per week thereafter. The self-assessment had a beneficial impact on the frequency and quality of help seeking and help giving, and on student attitudes toward asking for help. The effect of the assessment procedures was attributed to three factors: (1) the feedback strengthened helpfulness norms built up in the classroom over the previous 4 months of cooperative learning implementation; (2) the feedback increased students' skill in asking for and giving help; and (3) the assessment enhanced students' self-efficacy. The paper includes the group appraisal instrument, coding scheme, and questions for comparing transcripts. Contains 65 references. (Author/MKR) ED374980
Ross, J. A., McKeiver, S., & Hogaboam-Gray, A. (1997). Fluctuations in Teacher Efficacy During Implementation of Destreaming. Paper presented at the Canadian Journal of Education, 22, 3, 283-96 Sum 1997. Four grade-9 mathematics teachers in Canada were studied over one year as they implemented destreaming (detracking), which was an externally induced reform in their school system. Implementation of the destreaming had an immediate negative effect on teacher expectations of their own efficacy, but their beliefs rebounded over the year. (SLD) EJ553104
Rouxel, G. (2000). Cognitive-affective determinants of performance in mathematics and verbal domains - Gender differences. Learning and Individual Differences, 12(3), 287-310(224). Reviewed in this article are the few previous studies that addressed the application of structural modeling to specify the systemic organization of the relations between self-efficacy, anxiety, gender, and performance. According to an interactionist approach, one can expect rather different systems of relations when people are confronted with different academic areas and when gender is taken into account within the same area. For this study, 476 students in the fourth and fifth grades were asked to take examinations in mathematics and verbal domains and to complete several questionnaires relative to these specific domains. Quantitative, rather than qualitative, differences were observed between genders (i.e., multisample analyses). In accordance with an interactionist approach, there were structural differences between the models tested in the two domains. Finally, the results demonstrated the value of repeated measures of state anxiety to understand the evolution of the relationships with the other variables over time.
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Randhawa, B. S., & others (1989). Mathematical Competence: Personal and Social Influences. 46p. In mathematics, Canadian students perform poorly, and enrollment in Canadian postsecondary institutions is low, particularly for women. Clearly, there is a need to understand the personal and social factors that influence mathematics achievement and academic choices. A. Bandura's self-efficacy theory (1977, 1982) implies that academic choices are based on expectations of personal efficacy. In this study, differences distinguishing students who did and those who did not plan to pursue math-related postsecondary programs, and those distinguishing males and females with respect to math achievement, learning and instructional processes, and internal motivation variables were assessed. A total of 191 12th- grade algebra students (99 males and 92 females) enrolled in three Canadian schools were administered a mathematics test, three rating scales, and a questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance showed that the effects of gender and intention to pursue a program were significant, but interaction effects were not. These findings suggest that, for both male and female students, instructional approaches that increase student motivation for and enjoyment of mathematics are most likely to increase participation and achievement in mathematics. More emphasis should be placed on the usefulness and relevance of math to everyday life. Five data tables are included. (Author/TJH) ED320963
Rector, J. (1993). Beliefs, Autonomy, and Mathematical Knowledge., 60pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Atlanta, GA, April 1993). This paper describes a study of the connections between beliefs about mathematics, autonomy, and knowledge structures in mathematics. Assumptions underlying the study were (1) that students' beliefs and knowledge are constructs of the individual and play a dynamic role in the learning and doing of mathematics; and (2) that autonomy theoretically affects persistence, confidence, and mathematical growth. The study was conducted in a high school in a university town in New Hampshire. Six volunteers distributed evenly across Algebra I and II courses were interviewed after participating with their class in a unit on functions. Eight 45-minute interviews were conducted with each student to gather information on their beliefs about mathematics as conceptual versus procedural, their beliefs about their role and the teacher's role in learning mathematics, their autonomy with mathematics, and their constructed knowledge from the unit on functions. The interviews were treated as case studies and were examined individually and then cross-compared. Autonomy and beliefs were found to be integral to the students' conception of mathematics and influenced how problems were approached and mathematics learned. Further study in the formation and modification of beliefs and in the interplay between beliefs, autonomy, and learning in actual classroom contexts is suggested. Contains 71 references. (PDD) ED364410
Reyhner, J., Ed. (1988). Teaching the Indian Child. A Bilingual/Multicultural Approach. 2nd Edition., 331pp. For earlier edition, see ED 283 628. This collection of 20 essays by 21 authors presents teaching methods and resource material promoting productive school experiences for American Indian students. The chapters are organized into five sections. The opening chapter of section 1 emphasizes that teachers must understand and respect the cultures and backgrounds of their students, an attitude essential to a bilingual and multicultural approach to Indian education. Other chapters in this section (1) outline the historical background of Indian education; (2) discuss tribal language policies and the ingredients of a successful bilingual program; and (3) examine multicultural education goals and the value of cultural relativism for minimizing ethnocentrism and eliminating racism. Section 2 (1) describes the stages of oral language development and the role of the first language in second language development; (2) provides practical suggestions for teaching English as a second language; (3) discusses necessary elements for reading comprehension; and (4) presents a whole-language approach to language arts. A section on teaching Indian literature discusses the inadequacies of basal reading textbooks, examines the use of storytelling in the classroom, provides a motif bibliography, and lists sources of culturally appropriate books for different grade levels. Section 4 makes specific suggestions for teaching social studies, science, mathematics, and physical education to Indian students. The final section discusses the parents' role as first teachers, a positive working relationship between parents and teachers, theories concerning self-efficacy, and means to empower Indian students. (SV) ED301372
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S_____. (1987). So You Want To Be a Teacher. ERIC Digest 19. ED282860
Schunk, D. H. (1982). Progress-Contingent Rewards: Do They Boost Children's Achievement?, 18pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New York, NY, March 18-23, 1982). Some pages may not reproduce well due to lightness of original. This experiment tested the hypothesis that rewards given for progress during competency development promote children's mathematical skill development, percepts of self-efficacy, and interest. Children received didactic instruction in division operations and were offered rewards contingent on their actual progress, rewards for simply participating, or no rewards. Results showed that progress-contingent rewards led to higher task involvement, skill development, perceived efficacy, and interest. Regardless of treatment, perceived efficacy bore a significant and positive relationship to subsequent task interest in the absence of incentives. (Author/MNS) ED216872
Schunk, D. H. (1983). Ability versus Effort Attribution Feedback: Differential Effects on Self-Efficacy and Achievement. Paper presented at the Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 6, 848-56 Dec 1983. This experiment explored the effects of ability and effort attributional feedback given during subtraction competency development on third-grade children's perceived self-efficacy and achievement. Children given ability feedback demonstrated the highest subtraction skill and self-efficacy; the effort and ability plus effort conditions did not differ, but each outperformed the no- feedback condition. (Author/PN) EJ292496
Schunk, D. H. (1983). Reward Contingencies and the Development of Children's Skills and Self-Efficacy. Paper presented at the Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 4, 511-18 Aug 1983. The present study provides evidence that offering performance-contingent rewards promotes children's task accomplishments, percepts of efficacy, and skill development. These findings are consistent with predictions from Bandura's theory of self-efficacy. (Author/PN) EJ284896
Schunk, D. H. (1984). Participation in Goal Setting among Learning Disabled Children., 25pp. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Educational Research Association (68th, New Orleans, LA, April 23-27, 1984). An experiment involving 30 sixth graders with learning disabilities in mathematics tested the hypothesis that participation in goal setting enhances achievement outcomes. Ss received subtraction training that included instruction and practice opportunities over several sessions. Some Ss set proximal performance goals each session, others had goals assigned, Others received training but no goals. Although proximal goals promoted motivation more than no goals, participation in goal setting led to the highest self efficacy and subtraction skill. It is suggested that participation in goal setting may help promote more active task engagement. (Author/CL) ED246569
Schunk, D. H. (1985). Participation in Goal Setting: Effects on Self-Efficacy and Skills of Learning- Disabled Children. Paper presented at the Journal of Special Education, 19, 3, 307-17 Fall 1985. Sixth-graders learning disabled in mathematics (N=30) received subtraction training that included instruction and practice opportunities. Some children set proximal performance goals, others had comparable proximal goals assigned, and some received training without goals. Participation in goal setting led to the highest self-efficacy and subtraction skill. (Author/CL) EJ338866
Schunk, D. H. (1994). Goal and Self Evaluative Influences during Children's Mathematical Skill Acquisition., 16p. This paper describes an experiment that investigated the effects of goals and self-evaluation on self-regulation processes and achievement outcomes of (n=44) fourth grade students who received instruction and practice on fraction operations. Half of the students were provided with the goal of learning how to solve problems (learning goal) and the other half were given a goal of solving problems (performance goal). Within each goal condition, half of the students regularly assessed their problem-solving capabilities. Providing a learning goal with or without opportunities for self-evaluation or a performance goal with self- evaluation led to higher self-regulated performance, self-efficacy, skill, and task orientation, as well as lower ego orientation, compared with providing a performance goal without self-evaluation. The learning goal with self-evaluation led to greater persistence than the performance goal without self-evaluation. Task orientation correlated positively with self-efficacy and skill, and ego orientation related negatively to these measures. Implications of the results for educational practice are discussed. Contains 34 references. (Author/MKR) ED372932
Schunk, D. H. (1995). Learning Goals and Self-Evaluation: Effects on Children's Cognitive Skill Acquisition., 14pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting and Exhibit of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, April 18-22, 1995. This study explored the conditions under which learning goals might be more effective than performance goals in raising achievement outcomes. Following a pretest, 40 fourth-grade students received instruction and practice on fractions operations. Half of the students were provided with the goal of learning how to solve problems (learning goal); the half were given a goal of solving problems (performance goal). All students in each goal condition evaluated their progress in skill acquisition. Results of the posttest indicated that, compared to the performance goal, the learning goal led to higher self-regulated performance, self-efficacy, skill, task orientation, self-evaluations, and self-satisfaction, as well as lower ego orientation. Self-evaluation and self-satisfaction scores correlated positively with self-efficacy, skill, and task orientation. Contains 21 references. (HTH) ED389385
Schunk, D. H. (1995). Self-Monitoring of Skill Acquisition through Self-Evaluation of Capabilities., 26pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, April 18-22, 1995). Using a common methodology, two experiments examined the effects of learning and performance goals in conjunction with self-evaluation as fourth-graders acquired mathematical fraction skills. After a pretest on fractions, self-efficacy, skill persistence, and goal orientation, children in the first studywho were average achievers in mathematicsreceived instruction on addition and subtraction of fractions over seven sessions, and worked under conditions involving learning goals or performance goals. Six self-evaluations were conducted, and a posttest followed. In the second study, which was designed to explore conditions under which learning goals might be more effective than performance goals in raising achievement outcomes, self-evaluation and pre- and posttests were also included. The two studies showed that providing students with a goal of learning to solve problems enhances their self-efficacy, skill, motivation, and task orientation, and that these achievement outcomes also are promoted by allowing students to evaluate their performance capabilities or progress in skill acquisition. (DR) ED381276
Schunk, D. H. (1996). Self-Evaluation and Self-Regulated Learning., 27pp. Paper presented at the Graduate School and University Center, City University of New York, New York, NY (October 1996). This paper focuses on the role of self-evaluation during self-regulated learning. After a discussion of the social cognitive theory of self-regulation, self- efficacy, and achievement goals, two studies of fourth graders who were learning fraction skills and one ongoing research project with college students enrolled in their first computer class are described. The ongoing research with the college students, elementary education majors, represents a follow-up to the prior research in elementary students' learning of mathematics skills in that it also looks at goals and self-evaluation in the context of self-regulatory learning. Findings reveal that: (1) learning goals are important for self- regulation; (2) self-evaluation is important when it is frequent or conveys information that students may not acquire on their own; and (3) the combination of learning goals and self-evaluation is powerful when self-evaluation is linked directly to the goals and when other factors may preclude self-evaluation. Further research directions in this area are suggested as well as implications for teaching and learning. (Contains 20 references.) (ND) ED403233
Schunk, D. H. (1997). Self-Monitoring as a Motivator during Instruction with Elementary School Students., 22pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, March 24-28, 1997). Self-monitoring refers to deliberate attention to aspects of one's behavior, and is an important component of self-regulated learning, which depends on favorable self-evaluations of one's capabilities and progress toward learning goals. This paper argues that self-regulated learning is enhanced when students self-monitor their learning progress, and that positive self-evaluations sustain learning by sustaining motivation. The paper begins by summarizing social cognitive theoretical ideas on self-regulation, self-efficacy, and achievement goals and then describes a social cognitive model of self-regulated learning. The paper next describes several research projects that explored the role of self- monitoring during cognitive skill acquisition. The studies involved elementary school students learning mathematical skills; in the first study, students self- monitored their completed work, and in the next two studies the focus of self- monitoring was on learning progress and performance capabilities. All three studies supported theory and research on the benefits of self-monitoring in learning. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of self- regulation for teaching and learning. Contains 26 references. (EV) ED404035
Schunk, D. H., & And, O. (1986). Peer Models: Effects on Children's Achievement Behaviors., 25pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association (Washington, DC, August 22-26, 1986). This experiment investigated how sex of model and type of modeled behavior influenced achievement outcomes among elementary school children who had experienced difficulties learning mathematical skills in school. Children observed either a same- or opposite-sex peer model demonstrate either rapid (mastery model) or gradual (coping model) acquisition of skill in calculating with fractions. Findings indicated that observing the coping model led to higher self-efficacy, skill, and training performance. Children who observed coping models judged themselves more similar in competence to the models than did subjects who observed mastery models. Sex of model did not differentially affect achievement behaviors, and the sex of model x sex of subjects interaction was nonsignificant. Thirty-six references are provided. (Author/RH) ED278499
Schunk, D. H., & And, O. (1987). Peer-Model Attributes and Children's Achievement Behaviors. Paper presented at the Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 1, 54-61 Mar 1987. Two experiments investigate how attributes of peer models influenced achievement behaviors among children who had experienced difficulties learning mathematical skills in school. Children in the single-coping-model, multiple-coping-model, and multiple-mastery-model conditions demonstrated higher self-efficacy, skill, and training performance, compared with subjects who observed a single mastery model. Author/JAZ) EJ348467
Schunk, D. H., & Gunn, T. P. (1984). Modeled Importance of Learning Strategies and Children's Achievement Behaviors., 26pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (68th, New Orleans, LA, April 23-27, 1984). This experiment explored how incorporating the importance of task strategy use and positive achievement beliefs into cognitive modeling affected self-efficacy and skill acquisition. Students deficient in division skills received cognitive modeling of division solution strategies and practice opportunities. For one group of students the cognitive modeling stressed the importance of using task strategies, for a second group it emphasized the importance of positive achievement beliefs, students in a third condition received modeled importance of both task strategy use and positive achievement beliefs, and those in a fourth condition received cognitive modeling alone. Modeling the importance of using task strategies enhanced students' motivation and skill development, but modeling the importance of both task strategies and achievement beliefs led to the highest self-efficacy. Implications for teaching are discussed. (Author) ED243966
Schunk, D. H., & Gunn, T. P. (1985). Strategy and Attributional Effects on Children's Self-Efficacy and Skills., 28pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (69th, Chicago, IL, March 31-April 4, 1985). This study explored how task strategies and attributions for success during cognitive skill acquisition influenced self-efficacy and skillful performance. Fifty children aged 9 to 10 who lacked division skills received instruction and practice opportunities. Task strategies were assessed by recording children's verbalizations while they solved problems. Ability attributions exerted the strongest influence on changes in self-efficacy, and improvements in division skill largely depended on self-efficacy and effective strategy use during the training program. Future research should explore the relationship between strategy use and self-efficacy during various phases of skill acquisition. Implications for teaching are discussed. (Author/MS) ED254398
Schunk, D. H., & Gunn, T. P. (1986). Self-Efficacy and Skill Development: Influence of Task Strategies and Attributions. Paper presented at the Journal of Educational Research, 79, 4, 238-44 Mar-Apr 1986. This study investigated how task strategies and attributions for success during mathematics learning influenced children's self-efficacy and skills. Attribution of success to high ability exerted the strongest influence on increases in self- efficacy. Implications for teaching are discussed. (Author/MT) EJ332375
Schunk, D. H., & Hanson, A. R. (1985). Influence of Peer Models on Children's Self-Efficacy., 30pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (69th, Chicago, IL, March 31-April 4, 1985). This experiment investigated how children's self-efficacy and achievement were influenced by their observing peer models learn a cognitive skill. Within this context, the effects of modeled mastery and coping behaviors were explored. The subjects were 72 children aged 8 to 10 who had experienced difficulties learning subtraction with regrouping operations in their classes. Children observed a same- gender peer demonstrate either rapid (mastery model) or gradual (coping model) acquisition of subtraction skills, observed a teacher model demonstrate subtraction operations, or did not observe a model. Children then judged self- efficacy for learning to subtract, and received subtraction training. Observing a peer model led to higher self-efficacy for learning, posttest self-efficacy, and achievement, than did observing the teacher model or not observing a model. Children who observed the teacher model scored higher than no model subjects on these measures. No significant differences were obtained on any measure due to type of peer modeled behavior (mastery/copying). (Author/MS) ED254397
Schunk, D. H., & Hanson, A. R. (1985). Peer Models: Influence on Children's Self-Efficacy and Achievement. Paper presented at the Research was supported by a grant from The Spencer Foundation. The influence on children's self-efficacy and achievement through observation of peer models learning cognitive skills was investigated. The effects of modeled mastery and coping behaviors were explored. Observing a peer model led to higher self-efficacy for learning, posttest self-efficacy, and achievement. (Author/DWH) EJ319329
Schwartz, W. (1987). Teaching Science and Mathematics to At Risk Students. ERIC Digest. ED289948 Available from: ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, Institute on Urban and Minority Education, Box 40, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (single copies free).
Schwartz, W. (1995). Opportunity To Learn Standards: Their Impact on Urban Students. ERIC/CUE Digest Number 110. ED389816 Available from: ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, Institute for Urban and Minority Education, Teachers College, Box 40, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (free).
Schwartz, W., & Hanson, K. (1992). Equal Mathematics Education for Female Students. ERIC/CUE Digest, Number 78., 4pp. Digest is based on a monograph, "Teaching Mathematics Effectively and Equitably to Females" by K. Hanson. ED344977 Available from: ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, Institute for Urban and Minority Education, Box 40, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (free).
Scott, M. (1993). The Relationship between Motivational Pattern, Conceptual Level of the Course, and Academic Achievement., 13pp. Paper presented at the International Conference of the World Association of Educational Research (11th, Jerusalem, Israel, June 27-July 2, 1993). This study sought to determine whether the motivational patterns of first-year university students differed between courses of varying difficulty levels, and the nature of the interactions between self-efficacy, attributional style, and academic achievement. A total of 509 students majoring in history, physical education, mathematics, and private law at an independent, rural South African university were surveyed. A two-part subject-specific questionnaire was developed for each of the four courses of study to assess how students in the specific majors rated their self-efficacy, goal-orientation, attributional choice, and attributional style. The results indicated a relationship between motivational pattern and course difficulty, but not between motivational variables and academic achievement. Based on the results, it would seem that students need to have an adaptive motivational pattern before they would accept the challenge of a difficult course of study such as mathematics or private law. (Contains 28 references.) (MDM) ED372712
Sensenbaugh, R. (1993). Writing across the Curriculum: Toward the Year 2000. ERIC Digest., 3pp. For a related digest, see ED 327 879. ED354549 Available from: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Indiana University, 2805 E. 10th St., Suite 150, Bloomington, IN 47408-2698.
Shafer, M. M. (1992). National Assessments in Europe and Japan. ERIC/TM Digest. ED355251 Available from: American Institutes for Research, 3333 K Street, N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20007 (free).
Shiomi, K. (1992). Association of Attitude Toward Mathematics With Self-efficacy, Causal Attribution, and Personality Traits. Perceptual and motor skills, 75(2), 563.
Sia, A. P. (1992). Preservice Elementary Teachers' Perceived Efficacy in Teaching Environmental Education: A Preliminary Study., 17pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the ECO-ED North American Association for Environmental Education (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, October 20, 1992). This study was designed to develop an instrument that would measure preservice teachers' belief efficacy in teaching environmental education (EE). This belief efficacy includes a person's perception of ability to perform the behavior (self- efficacy) and a person's expectation that a specific behavior will result in desirable outcomes (outcome efficacy). It was hypothesized that preservice teachers (the respondents in this preliminary study) would display lack of confidence in their own abilities to teach EE concepts (negative self-efficacy beliefs), but would show confidence that student learning in EE can be improved by effective teaching (positive outcome expectancy beliefs). The Environmental Education Efficacy Belief Instrument (EEEBI) containing self-efficacy belief and outcome expectancy scales was developed and administered to 40 preservice elementary teachers enrolled in a science/mathematics methods course. Results confirm the hypothesis as stated and support the need to address training in EE teaching among preservice teachers by either integrating environmental themes across disciplines or through a separate course. A copy of the EEEBI is included and four tables display the results. (Contains 13 references.) (LL) ED362487
Smith, J. P., III. (1996). Efficacy and Teaching Mathematics by Telling: A Challenge for Reform. Paper presented at the Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 27, 4 p387-402 Jul 1996. Analyzes the tension between the traditional foundation of efficacy in teaching mathematics and current reform efforts in mathematics education. Presents suggestions for research to chart the development of, and change in, mathematics teachers' sense of efficacy. Contains 56 references. (Author/MKR) EJ526554
Steinhauer, A., & And, O. (1993). An Assessment of the Self-Protective Function of Self-Handicapping., 18pp. Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development (70th, New Orleans, LA, March 25-28, 1993). Self-handicapping is the phenomenon of setting oneself up to fail a feared evaluation task to protect a sense of self-worth. A study examined whether individuals self-handicap to protect a general or global perception of themselves or to protect perceptions of competence in the specific domain being evaluated. Handicapping behaviors related to preparation for and completion of a mock math quiz were examined in 495 junior high school students. Students' perceptions of their math competence were assessed through four scales of self-reported competence, and actual competence was measured through two standardized arithmetic tests. Overraters were expected to self-handicap to sustain their exaggerated positive self-view. In a second test session, student's preparation and handicapping behaviors were determined through a quiz practice sheet, questionnaires regarding claimed effort and excuses, an anxiety inventory, and completion of a math quiz with optional levels of difficulty. Study findings included the following: (1) perceived math competence was generally accurate for most of the students; (2) students who did overrate their math competence did not self-handicap as expected, while underraters did, indicating that the motive was not self-protection but self-consistency or verification, allowing individuals to maintain their current self-view; and (3) students who overrated their competence claimed less anxiety and fewer excuses but tended to choose easier questions than other students, in effect setting themselves up to do well in a self-enhancing way. (BCY) ED363435
Strein, W. (1995). Assessment of Self-Concept. ERIC Digest. ED389962
Sumartojo, E. (1988). An Evaluation of the Houston Job Training Partnership Council's Summer Basic Training Programs for Secondary Students., 33pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 5-9, 1988). The Houston Job Training Partnership Council's (HJTPC) Summer Basic Training Programs consisted of eight-week summer training programs at 14 sites that were provided by six organizations under contracts. Evaluation of the program involved pre-testing and post-testing at each site on achievement in reading, mathematics, and writing; pre-testing and post-testing on self-esteem and self-efficacy; and surveying participants, teachers, and program coordinators on their assessments of the programs. A total of 1,182 participants and 47 teachers completed assessment surveys. During the subsequent school year (1986-87), 1,128 HJTPC students were tracked in terms of: course grades, course proficiency test scores, performance on the Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills, school attendance, and dropout rates. Comparison data were obtained on 1,128 Houston Independent School District students. Results indicate that: (1) program providers should be required to demonstrate the adequacy of their facilities; (2) a longer planning period is needed; (3) each program site should have a coordinator; and (4) a system for receiving and reviewing complaints should be established. The HJTPC programs were not particularly effective in improving the performance or attendance of participants. However, upper-level high school students were helped by the program; they were probably motivated to complete academic requirements for graduation. (TJH) ED298139
Suydam, M. N. (1984). Achievement in Mathematics Education. ERIC/SMEAC Mathematics Education Digest No. 1. ED260890 Available from: SMEAC Information Reference Center, The Ohio State Univ., 1200 Chambers Rd., 3rd Floor, Columbus, OH 43212 ($1.00).
Suydam, M. N. (1985). Recent Research on Mathematics Instruction. ERIC/SMEAC Mathematics Education Digest No. 2. ED266019 Available from: ERIC/SMEAC, The Ohio State Univ., 1200 Chambers Rd., 3rd Floor, Columbus, OH 43212 ($1.00).
Suydam, M. N. (1990). Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for Mathematics Education. ERIC/SMEAC Mathematics Education Digest No. 1, 1990. ED319630 Available from: ERIC/SMEAC, The Ohio State University, 1200 Chambers Road, Room 310, Columbus, OH 43212 ($1.00 single copy; ordered in sets by year and area $3.00).
Swanson, B. B. (1991). The National Education Goals: Questions and Answers. ERIC Digest., 3pp. In: Striving for Excellence: The National Education Goals, 3-4, Oct 1991; see EA 023 354. ED334715
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Sanders, B. J., Parkay, F. W., Shen, J., & Xin, T. (1998). A Cross-National Comparison of Fourth-Grade Mathematics Instruction in the United States and China., 18pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Diego, CA, April 13-17, 1998). The superiority of Asian students in cross-cultural comparisons of mathematical achievement has been well documented. U.S.-Chinese comparative studies have investigated a variety of factors related to student achievement in mathematics including societal and cultural influences, and student and school characteristics. This study investigates the similarities and differences between Chinese and American teachers in three areas: 1) sense of personal efficacy in teaching mathematics; 2) perceived ability to improve mathematics instruction; and 3) perspective on the relationship between lesson preparation and delivery and student mathematical understanding. Fourth grade teachers were randomly selected 79 in China, 50 in the United Statesto receive the survey. Smaller random samples were audio or videotaped teaching mathematics and interviewed regarding their mathematics instruction. Results indicate that many similarities exist between Chinese and U.S. teachers with regard to perceived competence, effort, and the importance of assessments and student studying of material to success in mathematics. (Contains 17 references.) (ASK) ED421344
Schimmel, B. J. (1988). Patterns in Students' Selection of Feedback in Computer-Based Instruction., 40pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 4-9, 1988). This study investigated the relationship between learner attitudes (self-efficacy and anxiety), students' selection of feedback containing different amounts of information (no feedback, correct answer, the explanation alone, and the answer with an explanation), and achievement. Subjects were two clusters of college students (N=49) enrolled in a computerized remedial mathematics course. Data were obtained from pre- and post-instruction measures, online feedback and progress records, and self-reports. Analyses of these data showed that, although individual students exhibited wide differences in selecting feedback information, the choice of feedback followed two general patterns for the two clusters: the 26 students in cluster 1 chose correct response feedback after 71% of their incorrect answers, while the 23 students in cluster 2 showed greater diversity in their selection of feedback information, more frequent selection of feedback information, and more frequent selection of high information feedback. Students in cluster 2 tended to have greater confidence that their answers were correct. It was also found that feedback selection patterns were related to achievement for those students who, after incorrect answers, tended to choose feedback other than the correct response feedback; these students showed better performance, on average, than students choosing other feedback forms. The results of the study suggest at least two possible interpretations regarding cognitive processing: the cluster differences may simply be associated with differences in self-confidence between the students in the two clusters, or the second cluster's diversity in feedback information selection and selection of high information feedback may indicate more intense feedback processing. The text is supplemented by 12 tables, and 41 references are provided. (EW) ED301165
Schunk, D. H. (1981). Development of Children's Achievement and Interest Through Overt Verbalization., 20pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association (Los Angeles, CA, August, 1981). Not available in paper copy due to light and broken type throughout entire document. This experiment tested the hypothesis that combining operational strategies with free verbalization facilitates development of competencies, percepts of self- efficacy, and interest in arithmetic activities. Children lacking division skills received treatments in which they either verbalized division strategies, verbalized freely, did both, or did not verbalize while learning to solve division problems. Results showed that combining operational strategies with free verbalization produced greater skill development, higher percepts of efficacy, and greater subsequent interest. Free verbalization alone led to equally high skill development. Verbalizing only strategies resulted in no benefits compared with not verbalizing. Regardless of treatment condition, self-percepts of efficacy were positively related to arithmetic interest. (Author) ED209083
Schunk, D. H. (1981). Modeling and Attributional Effects on Children's Achievement: A Self-Efficacy Analysis. Paper presented at the Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 1, 93-105 Feb 1981. Hypotheses from self-efficacy theory in the area of children's arithmetic achievement were tested. It was hypothesized that compared with didactic instruction, cognitive modeling would result in higher arithmetic achievement, self-efficacy, and accuracy of self-appraisal. (Author/GK) EJ244931
Schunk, D. H. (1982). Progress Self-Monitoring: Effects on Children's Self-Efficacy and Achievement. Paper presented at the Journal of Experimental Education, 51, 2, 89-93 Win 198 1982. This experiment investigated the effects of progress self-monitoring on children's achievement and percepts of self-efficacy in the context of mathematical competency development. Results showed that self- and external monitoring led to significantly higher percepts of efficacy, skill, and persistence compared with no monitoring. (Author/PN) EJ280291
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Tosun, T. (2000). The Beliefs of Preservice Elementary Teachers toward Science and Science Teaching. Paper presented at the School Science and Mathematics, 100, 7, 374-79 Nov 2000. Examines the beliefs of preservice elementary teachers toward science and science teaching. Analysis of the interview responses yielded both interesting and, at times, predictable patterns. Descriptors used by study participants were overwhelmingly negative, suggesting that negative feelings overshadow achievement in science as an influence on science teaching self-efficacy. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/ASK) EJ616968
Tracz, S. M., & Gibson, S. (1986). Effects of Efficacy on Academic Achievement., 8pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the California Educational Research Association (Marina del Rey, CA, November 13-14, 1986). Teacher efficacy is a critical variable in teacher and school effectiveness. The Teacher Efficacy Scale was used to assess teacher efficacy and investigate its relationship to teacher use of time, student time on task, and student achievement. Classroom observations were gathered from 14 teachers, grades 4-6, at two schools. Teacher allocation of time, student engagement, and student achievement were measured. Means and standard deviations and correlations among variables for teacher efficacy, teacher academic focus, student engagement rates and achievement were derived. Personal teaching efficacy (level of confidence in personal teaching abilities) correlated positively with reading achievement and whole class instruction and negatively with small group instruction. Teaching efficacy (general expectation of student success) correlated significantly with language and mathematics achievement. This study supports the contention that a teacher's sense of efficacy is significantly related to classroom grouping of students and to student achievement outcomes. (BAE) ED281853
Trice, A., Elliott, K., & Pope, N. (1991). Self-Efficacy as a Moderator of the Effects of Failure at a Mathematics Task. Journal of social behavior and personality, 6(3), 597.
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Urdan, T., Pajares, F., & Lapin, A. Z. (1997). Achievement Goals, Motivation, and Performance: A Closer Look., 10pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, March 24-28, 1997). An achievement goal theory framework was used to examine the relations among goals and a number of other motivational constructs in a sample of middle school students. Participants were 189 eighth graders from a public school in the south. In one session students completed the attitude measures and in another session they completed a mathematics performance measure. The attitude instrument consisted of 15 items assessing task and ability goals. Results indicate that task and ability goals were moderately related. In this sample, task goals were moderately to strongly related with the performance and motivation variables in favorable ways. They were positively related to self-efficacy, self-concept, grade point average, persistence, importance, and self-efficacy for self- regulated learning. They were negatively related to anxiety. Ability goals did not have a negative pattern of relationship with other variables, but were unrelated or weakly positively correlated with the motivation and performance variables. When gender, grade point average, and task goals were controlled, ability goals had little or no effect on motivation or performance outcomes. Results suggest that for students strong in their pursuit of task goals, the simultaneous pursuit of ability goals is not helpful. This study does support previous results indicating a beneficial relationship between task goals and a variety of motivational and performance outcomes. (Contains 2 tables and 15 references.) (SLD) ED412268
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Vinson, B. M. (1995). A Comparison of Sense of Efficacy before and after Clinical Experience for Pre- Student-Teaching Novices in an Elementary Methods Program., 51pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association (Biloxi, MS, November 9, 1995). This investigation was conducted to determine changes in the levels of teaching efficacy as a function of the clinical experience in six public elementary schools, among pre-student-teaching novices in four subject areas: science, social studies, language arts, and mathematics. The sample included 58 novices who participated in the semester block of methods classes at the University of Alabama. Data for the study were gathered, before and after full-time clinical experience in the public elementary schools, using two strategies. First, all novices completed 23-item, Likert-type questionnaires. Second, through the use of questionnaire-guided narrative interviews, some of the factors that influenced novices' levels of efficacy were sought. Quantitative comparisons were made between novices' sense of efficacy before and after clinical experience by utilizing both multivariate and univariate analysis of variance. Findings revealed statistically significant personal teaching efficacy gain scores. Analysis also revealed significant differences between science and social studies scores, with the latter being the highest. No significant differences were found between the general teaching efficacy gains scores. Results of the study have implications for teacher education programs concerning levels among novices and the determination of specific contexts in which that efficacy can be interpreted. Appendixes contain five tables, a copy of the questionnaire, and a scoring guide. (Contains 36 references.) (Author/JB) ED394914
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Weaver, J. F. (1985). The Learning of Mathematics. ERIC/SMEAC Mathematics Education Digest Number 1. ED265050 Available from: SMEAC Information Reference Center, The Ohio State Univ., 1200 Chambers Rd., 3rd Floor, Columbus, OH 43212 ($1.00).
Webb, M. (1990). Multicultural Education in Elementary and Secondary Schools. ERIC Digest Number 67. ED327613
Wenner, G. (2001). Science and Mathematics Efficacy Beliefs Held by Practicing and Prospective Teachers: A 5-Year Perspective. Paper presented at the Journal of Science Education and Technology, 10, 2 p181-87 Jun 2001. Presents a compilation of results from three studies conducted over a 5-year period to compare and contrast efficacy beliefs held by prospective and practicing teachers toward science and mathematics instruction. Offers recommendations for teacher education programs. (Author/SAH) EJ627159
Williams, J. E. (1994). Gender Differences in High School Students' Efficacy-Expectation/Performance Discrepancies across Four Subject Matter Domains. Paper presented at the Psychology in the Schools, 31, 3, 232-37 Jul 1994. Investigated gender differences in efficacy-expectation/performance discrepancies of high school students (n=131) in English, mathematics, reading, and science. Students reporting greater efficacy expectation performed at higher levels, particularly in mathematics. Majority of student efficacy/performance discrepancy scores fell outside congruent range in all content areas. Approximately equal numbers of male and female students inaccurately estimated performance capabilities. (Author/NB) EJ494441
Williams, J. E. (1996). Promoting Rural Students' Academic Achievements: An Examination of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies., 12pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New York, NY, April 8-12, 1996). Identifying the specific self-regulated learning strategies students use as they move toward higher academic achievement has important educational implications. This may be particularly true for rural students, who often have fewer available resources than their suburban peers. In this study, 75 eleventh- and twelfth- graders in 12 rural high schools completed Iowa achievement tests and Bandura's Self-Regulated Learning subscale, which measures perceived self-efficacy in using 11 self-regulated learning strategies. Multiple regression was used to assess the relative influence of the self-regulatory strategies on achievement in four content areas: mathematics, science, social studies, and reading. Overall, increased self-regulated learning was associated with higher student achievement in all four domains. A surprisingly similar pattern of influence was uncovered in which "remembering information presented in class and textbooks" and "organizing schoolwork" uniformly affected achievement across content areas. The influential strategies uncovered here involve skills that may be amenable to further development through training and practice. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/SV) ED396890
Williams-Miller, J. E. (1998). Student Use of Internal and External Comparisons in Determining Efficacy for Self-Regulated Learning., 8pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Diego, CA, April 13-17, 1998). This study explored ways in which students obtained efficacy perceptions of self-regulated learning. High school students (N=297) were self- administered American College Testing Assessment (ACT) practice examinations and Bandura's self-regulated learning subscale with specific reference to English and mathematics. Path analytic results suggested that these students depended primarily on external comparisons rather than on internal comparisons in determining their efficacy for self-regulated learning. This pattern was consistent for both female and male students. The strong association between the English and mathematics efficacy components may also provide some insight into the structure of self- regulated learning among students in academic settings. (Contains one figure, one table, and eight references.) (Author) ED420704
Wilson, J. D. (1994). An Evaluation of Field Experiences for the Preparation of Elementary Teachers for Science, Mathematics, and Technology., 9pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association (Nashville, TN, November 9-11, 1994). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of self-efficacy preservice teachers developed as a result of participating in field experiences, types of field experiences that were the most beneficial for the professional development of the preservice teachers, and the degree to which pre-stated outcomes were addressed by the field experiences. Data were collected through two surveys (the Science Teacher Efficacy Belief Inventory (STEBI) Form B and the Field Experience Evaluation Form (FEEF)) administered to elementary preservice teachers enrolled in an innovative certification program. Personal interviews were also conducted and analyzed using comparative analysis techniques. Results of the study indicated: (1) the self-efficacy of preservice teachers increased with field experiences that were clearly defined, logically sequenced with a pattern of slow introduction into the clinical sites, and planned for and practiced before implementation; and (2) field experiences that allowed the preservice teacher to participate in small teams were found to be more beneficial to the professional development of the preservice teachers. Results of the interviews were congruent with the FEEF results. Club activities and the classroom team presentations were identified as the field experience activities which were most beneficial to the professional development of the preservice teachers because they allowed them to spend time in the classroom setting and to practice developing lesson plans and presenting the lesson. Contains seven references. (JB) ED383656
Wilson, J. D. (1996). An Evaluation of the Field Experiences of the Innovative Model for the Preparation of Elementary Teachers for Science, Mathematics, and Technology. Paper presented at the Journal of Teacher Education, 47, 1, 53-59 Jan-Feb 1996. Field experiences in a teacher certification program for elementary science, math, and technology were evaluated for their effectiveness in improving participants' cognitive, affective, and psychomotor ability. Surveys and interviews indicated participants felt little connection between the content coursework and educational methods course. They preferred small group activities (which increased self-efficacy). (SM) EJ536856
Wingfield, M. N., Janice L.; Freeman, Lynn; Cohen, Myrna. (2000). The Effect of Site-Based Preservice Experiences on Elementary Social Studies, Language Arts, and Mathematics Teaching Self-Efficacy Beliefs., Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 24-28, 2000). Page Length: 16. This study examined the effectiveness of a Professional Development School (PDS) student teaching program within one university's teacher education program. The program is field-based during students' entire senior year, which is divided into a PDS semester and student teaching. During the PDS semester, students are placed in PDS sites around a large metropolitan area with diverse children and lower socioeconomic conditions. During student teaching, students are placed with mentor teachers at schools and monitored by university supervisors. They observe teaching and gradually take over classroom duties. Study participants were preservice teachers who had been placed at PDS sites and who were in the semester preceding student teaching. For two semesters, two groups of preservice teachers completed a pretest and posttest, the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument and a modified version of the same instrument, to measure self-efficacy beliefs in various subject areas. Results indicated that the PDSs were successful training sites for these students. PDS participants with low self-efficacy at the beginning of the semester made positive judgments about how well they could teach at the end of the semester. Students had opportunities for authentic performance, vicarious experiences, encouragement from others, and positive emotional tones. (Contains 32 references.) (SM)
Wolters, C. A., & Pintrich, P. R. (1998). Contextual Differences in Student Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning in Mathematics, English, and Social Studies Classrooms. Paper presented at the Instructional Science, 26, 1-2, 27-47 Mar 1998. Examines contextual differences in student motivation and self-regulated learning in seventh- and eighth-grade mathematics, social studies, and English. Results revealed differences by subject area and gender in motivation and cognitive strategy use variables, but not in regulatory strategy use or academic performance; relations among these constructs was similar across the three subject areas. (AEF) EJ565435
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Zeldin, A. L., & Pajares, F. (2000). Against the Odds: Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Women in Mathematical, Scientific, and Technological Careers. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Journal, 37, 1, 215-46 Spr 2000. Examined the personal narratives of 25 women excelling in mathematics, science, and technology careers to understand the importance of their self-efficacy beliefs. Findings suggest that the perceived importance of self-efficacy beliefs may be stronger for women in male-oriented domains than for those operating in traditional settings. (SLD) EJ620779
Zimmerman, B. J., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1990). Student Differences in Self-Regulated Learning: Relating Grade, Sex, and Giftedness to Self-Efficacy and Strategy Use. Paper presented at the Special section with title "Motivation and Efficacy in Education: Research and New Directions.". Forty-five boys and 45 girls in grades 5, 8, and 11 from schools for academically gifted students and 90 students in the same grades from regular schools described their uses of 14 self-regulated learning strategies and estimated their verbal and mathematical efficacy. Results support a triadic view of self-regulated learning. (SLD) EJ442294
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Updated: Thursday, May 23, 2002
by Alejandra Martinez
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