Math Self-Efficacy (H-O)
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Hackett, G. (1981). Mathematics Self-Efficacy and the Consideration of Math-Related Majors: A Preliminary Path Model., 31pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association (Los Angeles, CA, August, 1981). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mathematics-related self-efficacy mediates the effects of gender and mathematical preparation and achievement on mathematics-relatedness of college major. The responses of 117 undergraduates to a series of inventories and questionnaires yielded seven variables descriptive of the mathematics-related career-choice process; a causal model of the interrelationships of these variables was constructed from predictions based on self-efficacy theory. A path analysis and consequent refinement of the model resulted in a final path model which was congruent with a self-efficacy approach to women's career development. Gender was found to influence mathematics self-efficacy indirectly through two avenues of influence: (1) socialization influences, as captured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory masculinity score; and (2) mathematics preparation, as mediated by the years of high school mathematics and mathematics achievement level. Mathematics-related self-efficacy in turn influenced both mathematics anxiety and mathematics- relatedness of college major. Gender, years of high school mathematics, and mathematics anxiety were also found to influence mathematics major choice directly, as well as indirectly through mathematics self-efficacy. Unexpected results and implications of the model are discussed. (Author) ED207847
Hackett, G. (1985). Role of Mathematics Self-Efficacy in the Choice of Math-Related Majors of College Women and Men: A Path Analysis. Paper presented at the Journal of Counseling Psychology, 32, 1, 47-56 Jan 1985. Examined whether mathematics-related self-efficacy mediated the effects of gender and mathematical preparation and achievement on math relatedness of college major choice in 117 undergraduates. Results showed that math self-efficacy predicts both math anxiety and math-related major choices. Gender alone appeared insufficient to explain mathematics-related behavior in high school. (BH) EJ314977
Hackett, G., & Betz, N. E. (1982). Mathematics Self-Efficacy Expectations, Math Performance, and the Consideration of Math-Related Majors. 42pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New York, NY, March 18-23, 1982). The purposes of the present study were to develop and evaluate a measure of self- efficacy expectations with regard to the performance of mathematics-related behaviors and to investigate the relationship of mathematics self-efficacy expectations to the selection of science-based college majors. Based on results obtained from a pilot sample of 115 college students, 52 math-related tasks were selected from an initial 75-item pool. Subjects, 153 female and 109 male undergraduates, were asked to indicate their degree of confidence in their ability to successfully perform the tasks or problems or to complete the college course with a grade of "B" or better. As predicted, the mathematics-related self- efficacy expectations of college males were significantly stronger than were those of college females, particularly with regard to mathematics-related college courses. Mathematics self-efficacy expectations, but not any mathematics performance index, contributed significantly to the prediction of the degree to which students selected science-based college majors, thus supporting the postulated role of cognitive mediational factors in educational and career choice behavior. The utility of the concept and measure of mathematics self-efficacy expectations for the understanding and treatment of mathematics anxiety and mathematics-avoidant behaviors is discussed. (Author/MP) ED218089
Hackett, G., & Betz, N. E. (1984). Gender Differences in the Effects of Relevant and Irrelevant Task Failure on Mathematics Self-Efficacy Expectations., 35pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (68th, New Orleans, LA, April, 1984). This investigation, part of an on-going research program examining social learning theory applications to career development, tested several hypotheses derived from A. Bandura's self-efficacy theory in the career-related domain of mathematics. Specifically, the effects of failure on a mathematics task and on a task irrelevant to mathematics were explored. Findings indicate that, congruent with theoretical expectations, measures of mathematics self-efficacy (MSE) expectations of females were not influenced by verbal-task failure; however, contrary to predictions, MSE expectations of males rose significantly higher as a result of verbal-task failure. For the mathematics-task failure condition, again counter to expectations, females' MSE rose while males' MSE was not significantly affected. No task-failure effect was found on a global rating of subjects' mathematics ability. Findings for a global verbal ability rating were partly consistent with predictions; all subjects responded to verbal-task failure with a decrease in verbal ability ratings. Unexpectedly, subjects in the mathematics- failure condition significantly increased their ratings of their verbal ability on posttest, indicating that the effects of failure had a facilitating, rather than a debilitating influence on self-efficacy with respect to a task irrelevant domain. Implications of these results for future career-related self-efficacy research are discussed. (Author/JN) ED244831
Hackett, G., & Betz, N. E. (1989). An Exploration of the Mathematics Self-Efficacy/Mathematics Performance Correspondence. Paper presented at the Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 20, 3 p261-73 May 1989. This study investigated the relationship between mathematical performance and mathematics self-efficacy, attitudes toward mathematics, and the choice of mathematics-related majors by college women and men. Performance and self- efficacy correlate positively with attitudes, masculine sex-role orientation, and a mathematics-related major. (Author/DC) EJ394221
Hackett, G., Betz, N., & OHalloran, M. (1990). Effects of Verbal and Mathematics Task Performance on Task and Career Self-Efficacy and Interest. Journal of counseling psychology, 37(2), 169.
Hagerty, R. A. (1997). Impact of the Efficacy Process on Students in Sacramento City USD Pilot Schools. 32pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, March 24-28, 1997). Research related to the implementation and impact of the efficacy process on teachers and students in four Sacramento (California) City Unified School District pilot schools over a 4-year period is described. The study investigated three research evaluation questions: (1) the extent of teachers' implementation of the efficacy process; (2) the degree of participating students' growth in personal efficacy; and (3) the degree to which participating schools showed improved performance on the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS-U). Students enrolled in third grade in 1992-93 completed the School Attitude Measure (American College Testing) (SAM) and the CTBS-U in reading, language, and math in each of three successive years. Pilot schools were matched with comparison schools. Significant positive changes in achievement occurred over the period of the study (1992/93 to 1994/95) within the four efficacy schools and within the four non-efficacy schools selected for comparison. Math achievement rose more in the efficacy schools than in the comparison schools. Boys, African American students, and white students also experienced greater improvement in math achievement in efficacy schools than in comparison schools. Appendixes include: an assessment checklist; selection criteria for comparison schools; statistical analysis of paired (dependent) samples; charts comparing SAM of pilot schools, math scores and CTBS scores; and a comparison with the Detroit Study. (LH) ED412185
Halpin, R. (1999). Breaking the Rote Memorization Mindset of Preservice Teachers Standards-based Instruction: An Integrated Preservice Teacher Education Model. Paper presented at the Research in the Schools, 6, 2, 45-54 Fall 1999. Studied effects of a constructivist and interdisciplinary block of methods courses on the self-efficacy in mathematics of 73 preservice teachers. Significant differences were found between pretest and posttest results. Discusses implications for teacher education programs. (SLD) EJ610710
Hanlon, E. H., & Schneider, Y. (1999). Improving Math Proficiency through Self Efficacy Training., Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Montreal, Quebec, Canada, April 19-23, 1999). This paper reports the results of a pilot intervention designed to improve students' mathematics proficiency through self-efficacy training. Seventeen pre-first year college students participated in a five-week summer program that included whole class instruction, small group tutoring, and individual meetings with instructional coordinators. As part of the intervention, the students made self-efficacy judgments on each of ten daily quizzes and compared these judgments to their math quiz scores. In the individual meetings, the students identified short term goals, created and maintained self monitoring forms, and were introduced to a math heuristic: the math card. The data from the self-efficacy training intervention were then analyzed using a hierarchical linear model approach. Over time, students' achievement scores on a math proficiency exam improved significantly, as did their confidence levels about passing this exam. Students who participated in the self-efficacy intervention group outperformed students who were involved in the regular remedial classes. (Author) ED433236
Henderson, R. W., & Landesman, E. M. (1986). A Preliminary Evaluation of Student Preparation for the Study of Calculus., 51pp. A product of the Group for Research in Mathematics and Science Education. This report explores the student background characteristics that might be associated with success or failure in calculus and evaluates the effectiveness of remedial mathematics education. The sample consisted of two groups at the University of California, Santa Cruz: (1) all students (105) who took first quarter calculus in spring, 1985; and (2) all students (138) who enrolled in a remedial course during 1983-84 and 1984-85 academic years. A path analytic approach was used to evaluate the background data of sex, ethnicity, and high school grade point average (HSGPA); scores on the mathematics section of the Scholastic Aptitude Test; and performance in the calculus course. Neither the path from sex to HSGPA nor the path from ethnicity to HSGPA was found to be significant. The path from sex to Scholastic Aptitude Test was highly significant. The path from ethnicity to performance in calculus (CALCTOT) was not significant. The highest path coefficient in the model was from HSGPA to CALCTOT. A survey and interviews with a small sample also gathered information on study habits, use of support services, perception of adquacy of instruction, self-efficacy, and learning modality preference. Larger samples are needed to determine if the survey instrument might be a useful predictor of student mathematics performance. Survey instruments are appended. (BAE) ED282925
Hofer, B. K. (1994). Epistemological Beliefs and First-Year College Students: Motivation and Cognition in Different Instructional Contexts. 25pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association (102nd, Los Angeles, CA, August 12-16, 1994). Students begin their college studies with a set of epistemological beliefs about what they think knowledge is and how they think it is learned; for most students, the experience of college alters these beliefs in fundamental, transformative ways. This study explores the relation between epistemological beliefs, motivation, and cognition in two differing instructional contexts within the same mathematics course. The subjects included 438 first-semester calculus students at a large Midwestern research university. Students were enrolled in either experimental (New Wave) calculus sections or traditional calculus sections. Results indicated that intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy were correlated with sophistication of beliefs, though this was not true within the New Wave sections. This result suggests that students with more sophisticated beliefs, as measured by a strategies for learning questionnaire, are those students who reported that they are mastery-oriented and think that they are capable of doing well in mathematics. Intrinsically motivated students reported relative disagreement with the view of math as an isolated activity; the findings could be used to argue for the importance of group activities within mathematics. The results also provide some evidence for correlations between epistemological beliefs about mathematics and type of instruction. (RJM)
Hofer, B. K. (1999). Instructional Context in the College Mathematics Classroom: Epistemological Beliefs and Student Motivation. Paper presented at the Journal of Staff, Program & Organizational Development, v16, 2, 73-82 1999. Examines students' beliefs about knowledge, and their motivation, learning strategies, and academic performance in two instructional contexts in introductory Calculus classes. Sophistication of epistemological beliefs was positively correlated with motivation, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and grades. Students in the more active, cooperative classroom had more sophisticated beliefs than the students in the traditional classroom. Contains 24 references. (AMA) EJ586474
Howe, R. W., & Warren, C. R. (1988). Accountability in Mathematics Education. ERIC/SMEAC Mathematics Digest No. 3, 1988. ED319628 Available from: ERIC/SMEAC, The Ohio State University, 1200 Chambers Road, Room 310, Columbus, OH 43212 ($1.00 single copy; ordered in sets by year and area $3.00).
Huang, D., & O'Neil, H. F., Jr. (1997). The Role of Parental Expectation, Effort, and Self-Efficacy in the Achievement of High and Low Track High School Students in Taiwan., 33pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, March 24-28, 1997). In this study, the effects of perceived parental expectation, trait effort, trait self-efficacy, trait ability, state self-efficacy, state effort, and state worry on the mathematics achievement of high and low track high school students in Taiwan were investigated. A hypothesized model of these constructs was also investigated using a structural equation model. A state scale and a trait scale were translated from English to Chinese and used in a pilot study and a main study. The pilot study involved 278 tenth graders in a one public and one private school. Results supported the reliability of the measure, and it was administered to 173 high-track high school students at a public school and 210 regular-track students. Both perceived parental expectation and trait effort were important components of success for these students. Students who perceived that their parents had high expectations tended to have high trait effort and belief in effort. The more state effort students expended, the more likely they were to have high grades in mathematics. The only route to achievement without direct mediation through state effort was from perceived parental expectation to students' trait effort, leading to trait self-efficacy and reaching higher achievement. High-track students had higher trait self-efficacy and state efficacy than regular-track students, with higher mean trait effort and more state effort. In addition, students who had higher perceived parental expectations tended to worry more, expending more state effort and achieving more highly. Overall, results demonstrate the positive role of believing in effort. (Contains 3 tables, 4 figures, and 33 references.) (SLD) ED415242
Hughes, G. B. (1999). Facilitating the Development of Preservice Teachers in a Climate of Reform: Lessons Learned from Mathematics and Assessment Reform. Paper presented at the Journal of Negro Education, 68, 3, 352-65 Sum 1999. Tracked a cohort of preservice teachers to determine the effects of coursework and experiences on efficacy and knowledge of mathematics and assessment reforms and extent to which classroom practices aligned with knowledge of reforms. Pre- and post-course and post-internship evaluations indicated that sense of efficacy and classroom practices did not change over time, though knowledge of reforms increased. (SM) EJ620808
Huinker, D., & Madison, S. K. (1995). The Struggles of Kay and Aaron: Mathematics Minors in a Constructivist Paradigm of Elementary Mathematics Instruction., 25pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, April, 1995). This study investigated the struggles of two preservice elementary teachers in a mathematics methods course. Kay and Aaron elected mathematics as their content minor and indicated they had always been "good" in mathematics. In the methods course, they were challenged to rethink the nature of mathematics learning in a constructivist paradigm. Their development in learning to teach mathematics was compared to a model of teachers' developing pedagogical conceptions originally proposed by Ambon and Hutcheson and other researchers associated with the Developmental Teacher Education program at the University of California (Berkeley). Data sources included interviews, observations, artifacts, and assessments of mathematics teaching efficacy. Aaron and Kay entered the course with conceptions of learning mathematics as memorization of facts and procedures. Aaron continued to struggle with his belief regarding the nature of mathematics learning as "practice." Kay progressed in her desire to understand, explain reasons, and use manipulative materials. The development of these preservice teachers supported the Ambon and Hutcheson model and provided a useful framework for understanding the developing conceptions of mathematics teaching and learning for these prospective teachers. (Contains 18 references.) (Author/JB) ED386458
Huinker, D., & Madison, S. K. (1997). Preparing Efficacious Elementary Teachers in Science and Mathematics: The Influence of Methods Courses. Paper presented at the Journal of Science Teacher Education, 8, 2, 107-26 May 1997. Examines the efficacy beliefs preservice teachers bring to methods courses in science and mathematics and the changes in their beliefs as a result of the enriched experiences of methods courses. Contains 22 references. (DDR) EJ564507
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Johnson, P. L., & And, O. (1991). Correlates of Examinee Item Choice Behavior in Self-Adapted Testing., 15pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, April 3-7, 1991). The strategies examinees employ when making item difficulty level choices in self- adapted computerized testing were investigated. Subjects were 148 college students (88 females and 60 males) in an introductory statistics course. The primary instrument was a self-adapted computerized algebra test used to measure student readiness for the statistics course. Each examinee was administered 20 items from a pool of 93. Students rated their self-efficacy before the test and were administered measures of mathematics anxiety and test anxiety. Inspection of each student's data file provided an indicator of selection strategy. Examinees who chose a more difficult first test item expressed greater capability and higher confidence, reported less anxiety just prior to testing, and less anxiety about mathematics in general. When selecting additional items, examinees tended toward what was termed a sluggishly flexible strategy; they chose more difficult items after passing an item or string of items, and chose less difficult items after failing a single item or string of items. The most frequent choice was to remain at the same level. Results indicate that self-adaptive testing may be a viable alternative to computerized adaptive testing. Two figures and two tables contain data from the study. (SLD) ED331889
Johnson, S. T., Wallace, M. B., & Thompson, S. D. (1999). Broadening the Scope of Assessment in the Schools: Building Teacher Efficacy in Student Assessment. Paper presented at the Journal of Negro Education, 68, 3, 397-408 Sum 1999. Surveyed middle school mathematics educators from professional development workshops on performance based assessment (PBA), veteran teachers, and teacher educators to examine classroom assessment variables and views on PBA experiences. Teachers perceived high efficacy regarding ability to effect instructional change. Most improved interactions with colleagues and students due to using PBA. There was high use of other reform-based instructional practices. (SM) EJ620811
Jorde, P. (1985). Microcomputers in Early Childhood Education: Factors Influencing Administrators' Innovation-Adoption Decisions. 40pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (69th, Chicago, IL, March 31-April 4, 1985). A multivariate correlational study examined interrelationships among personal and contextual variables and early childhood administrators' willingness to implement computer technology. A total of 80 administrators of programs in the state of Illinois with a licensed capacity of 80 or more participated in the study. Dependent variables included level of administrator innovativeness with respect to managerial and classroom instructional uses of the computer. In addition to gender and age, independent variables included self-efficacy expectations, attitudes about computer technology, self-perception of innovativeness, experience with and knowledge about computers, previous experience with educational innovations, outside support and encouragement, professional orientation, and background in math and science. Data were gathered through questionnaires, follow-up telephone conversations and personal interviews. The data support a general stage theory conceptualization of innovativeness. For this sample, the stage sequence was further differentiated by a series of steps that characterized the degree of willingness individuals displayed regarding the adoption of microcomputers. Individuals varying in innovativeness with respect to microcomputers differed significantly in their self-efficacy and psychological attitudes about computers, as well as in their previous experience with and knowledge about the technology. Significant statistical associations were found between most independent variables and level of innovativeness in instructional and administrative uses of computers. Implications of the findings for teacher education are discussed. (RH) ED255324
Junge, M. E., & Dretzke, B. J. (1995). Mathematical Self-Efficacy Gender Differences in Gifted/Talented Adolescents. Paper presented at the Special Issue: Developing Talent in Science and Mathematics. Gifted/talented high school students (n=113) completed the Mathematical Self- Efficacy Scale. Analysis indicated that males had stronger self-efficacy expectations than females on more than one-fourth of the items, whereas females reported stronger self-efficacy expectations on only a few items that involved stereotypical female activities. (Author/DB) EJ499308
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Kamii, C., & Lewis, B. A. (1990). Research into Practice. Constructivist Learning and Teaching. Paper presented at the Arithmetic Teacher, 38, 1, 34-35 Sep 1990. Discussed is a constructivist view of mathematics education. The basic tenets and goals are described. The role of the student and teacher are highlighted. The constructivist and traditional views of instruction are compared and contrasted. (KR) EJ415612
Karasawa, M., & And, O. (1996). A Cross-Sectional Profile of Japanese Children's (Ages 8-13) Action-Control Beliefs. 10pp. Paper presented at the Biennial Conference of the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development (14th, Quebec City, Canada, August 12-16, 1996). This cross-sectional study examined Japanese children's action-related beliefs about school performance and compared them with comparable data available from studies of German, Russian, and American cultures. A total of 817 Japanese children aged 8 to 13 years completed the Control, Agency, and Means-Ends Interview (CAMI), which assesses general control expectancy, four self-related agency beliefs (effort, ability, luck, and teachers), and five causality-related means-ends beliefs (effort, ability, luck, teachers, and unknowns). The CAMI had shown strong cross-cultural validity, but it had not yet been validated with Japanese children. Academic performance was represented by the teachers' assigned math and Japanese language grades. The findings indicated that the original factor structure of the CAMI mostly fit the Japanese children; thus, there were many intercultural similarities in the CAMI constructs that were likely related to commonalities in teaching formats and beliefs about academic performance associated with formal schooling. However, there were differences in self-related agency beliefs that appear to stem from cultural influences specific to Japanese society. Specifically, Japanese children placed a higher relative emphasis on effort than ability than did children in other cultures. The belief in effort as a mean for academic success was quite strongly endorsed by the Japanese children, and this endorsement was stronger with older Japanese children than with younger. The correlation between agency effort and academic achievement in Japanese children was weaker in comparison to the relationship found in other Western cultures. The role of luck and the relationship between effort and ability evinced unique patterns in Japan. (Contains 20 references.) (KDFB) ED400975
Kasten, M., & And, O. (1988). The Role of Calculus in College Mathematics. ERIC/SMEAC Mathematics Education Digest No. 1. ED321970 Available from: ERIC/SMEAC, The Ohio State University, 1200 Chambers Road, Room 310, Columbus, OH 43212 ($1.00 single copy; ordered in a set of four for the year and content area, $3.00).
Kasten, M., & Howe, R. W. (1988). Students at Risk in Mathematics: Implications for Elementary Schools. ERIC/SMEAC Mathematics Education Digest No. 2. ED321971 Available from: ERIC/SMEAC, The Ohio State University, 1200 Chambers Road, Room 310, Columbus, OH 43212 ($1.00 single copy; ordered in sets by year and field of study, $3.00).
Kennedy, H. L. (1999 Length: 20 Page(s); 1 Microfiche). Second Order Model of Self-Efficacy Measures. Assumptions underlying the multifaceted, hierarchical structure of self-efficacy previously hypothesized by R. Shavelson, J. Hubner, and G. Stanton (1976) for the construct of self-concept were tested. The self-efficacy interpretation of the Science Self-Efficacy Scale (H. Kennedy, 1996), a relatively new measure, was studied with 331 (151 female and 180 male) college students and multiple measures of science, mathematics, and self-regulated learning self-efficacy facets. Results support a multifaceted, hierarchical interpretation. A second-order self-efficacy latent named academic self-efficacy was shown to be reflected by the three first-order self-efficacy factors of science, mathematics, and self-regulated learning. (Contains 2 tables, 1 figure, and 22 references.) (SLD) ED428115
Kennedy, H. L. (1999 Length: 31 Page(s); 1 Microfiche). Discriminant Validity of Self-Efficacy Measures. This study compared three measures of self-efficacy and assessed the responses of self-efficacy on the basis of A. Bandura's (1997) conceptualization. The responses of 331 undergraduates to a series of inventories yielded three variables descriptive of the self-efficacy process; a causal model of the intercorrelations of these variables was constructed from predictions based on self-efficacy theory. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the self-efficacy measures of science, mathematics, and self-regulated learning exhibited discriminant validity. (Contains 6 tables, 2 figures, and 27 references.) (Author/SLD) ED428116
Kimmel, J. C., Comp. (1998). Annual Adult Education Research Conference Proceedings (39th, San Antonio, Texas, May 15-16, 1998)., 335p. Among 51 papers and 3 symposia are the following: "Learning What?" (Andruske); "Stories Adult Learners Tell" (Armstrong); "Towards a Pedagogy for Disempowering Our Enemies" (Baptiste); "Teaching Scholarly Writing to Doctoral Students" (Barnett et al.); "The Outcomes and Impact of Adult Literacy Education" (Beder); "A Feminist Critique of Human Resource Development Research" (Bierema); "Human Capital versus Market Signaling Theory" (Blunt); "Panoptic Variations" (Boshrer et al.); "Animating Learning" (Boud, Miller); "Mentoring Revisited" (Bova); "Qualitatively Different Conceptions of Research" (Brew); "Cohort Communities in Higher Education" (Brooks); "Challenging the Myth of the Universal Teacher" (Brown); "A Critical Ethnography of Adult Learning in the Context of a Social Movement Group" (Cain); "Circuit of Culture" (Carter, Howell); "Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity and Job Satisfaction of County Extension Agents in the Georgia Cooperative Extension Service" (Chambug et al.); "Adult Education and the Body" (Chapman); "Changing Relations" (Chapman, Sork); "Incarcerated Women's Identity Development" (Clark et al.); "Development of an Instrument for Identifying Groups of Learners" (Conti, Kolody); "Novice to Expert" (Daley); "The Relationship of Adult Education Faculty to Their Schools of Education" (Day et al.); "Vital Work" (Deems); "The Formation of Identity in High-Achieving, Mexican-American Professional Women" (De los Santos); "Knowing the Self through Fantasy" (Dirkx); "Adult Education as Building Community" (Grace); "Adult Education and the Body Politic" (Grosjean); "Like Peeling an Onion" (Guy et al); "Cognition and Practice" (Hansman, Wilson); "Negotiating the Discourse of Work" (Hayes, Way); "From Global Consciousness to Social Action" (Hill); "From Motherhood to Sister- Solidarity" (Hill); "Is Our History Bunk?" (Holford); "Adult Education Programs of the New Deal" (Ice, Nolan); "Feminist Teaching, Feminist Research, Feminist Supervision" (Jarvis, Zukas); "Positionality" (Johnson- Bailey, Cervero); "How Adult Learners Change in Higher Education" (King); "Piney Woods Country Life School" (Martin); "Examining the Impact of Formal and Nonformal Learning on the Creativity of Women Inventors" (McCracken); "Preaching What We Practice" (Moore, Hill); "Are Resources and Support Necessary or Just Nice in Post-Program Application?" (Ottoson); "The Social Construction of Chinese Models of Teaching" (Pratt et al.); "'Dancing as Gracefully as I Can'" (Reeves); "Adults with Disabilities and the Accommodation Communication in Higher Education" (Rocco); "Adult's Readiness to Learn" (Rubenson); "Identifying Research Strategies for the Future" (Sanders); "An Analysis of Self-Efficacy, Welfare Status, and Occupational Choice Among Female Single Parents" (Southwick); "Listening to the Student Voice in Adult Education" (St. Pierre); "Finding a Route into Higher Education for Local Working Class Adults" (Tett); "Examining the Dynamic Relationship among Three Facets of Knowledge" (Yang); and "Transforming Intercultural Perspectives: (Ziegahn); "Rethinking Participation Research in Adult Education" (Courtney et al.). (MN) ED426247 You may be able to order this document from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service.
Kloosterman, P. (1991). Beliefs and Achievement in Seventh-Grade Mathematics. Paper presented at the Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 13, 3, 3-15 Sum 1991. This study highlights the correlation between seventh grade students' (n=429) beliefs about how mathematics is learned and their achievement in mathematics. Results from structural relation modeling indicate that, when beliefs are considered as a single construct, the relationship between beliefs and achievement is much stronger than when beliefs are considered as independent variables. (36 references) (JJK) EJ440111
Kober, N. (1991). What We Know about Mathematics Teaching and Learning. EDTALK., 72p. Promoting community awareness and understanding of the issues encompassed within the teaching and learning of school mathematics, and involving parents in their children's mathematics education are the first steps toward the goal that every child must gain mathematical power. This document helps to answer some of the most frequent questions that parents and community members ask about the teaching and learning of mathematics. The questions/answers posed here deal with the following topics: (1) student attitudes toward the utility of mathematics and toward self-efficacy with respect to mathematics; (2) the everyday relevance of the mathematical content of the curriculum, and its development; (3) the relationship and the integration of mathematics with other content domains of the curriculum; (4) the effectiveness of cooperative learning within mathematics instruction; (5) the development of higher-order, mathematical thinking skills; (6) active instruction versus information transfer in the school mathematics classroom; (7) issues concerning gender equity in mathematics instructional practices; (8) special problems and needs of minority students, learning disabled students, gifted students, and students with limited English proficiency; (9) the influence on mathematics instruction of textbooks, manipulatives, worksheets, calculators, and computers; (10) the effects of standardized tests and alternative assessment methods upon mathematical performance; (11) international comparisons; (12) the role of subject matter knowledge and other priorities in the development of teacher expertise; (13) departmentalized instruction at the elementary school mathematics level; (14) the impact of parent attitudes on mathematics achievement; (15) the role of homework; (16) reinforcements for mathematical learning found in the home; (17) the relationship between television viewing and mathematics achievement. (154 references) (JJK) ED343793
Korthagen, F. A. J., & Wubbels, T. (1991). Characteristics of Reflective Practitioners: Towards an Operationalization of the Concept of Reflection., 23pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, April 3-7, 1991). This paper seeks to contribute to construction of a theory which makes explicit the relationship between the concept of reflection and fundamental views on good teaching. The discussion draws on empirical data gathered in 10 years of research focusing on a teacher education program that seeks to promote reflective teaching. Results are reported from four studies involving teacher education students (student teachers) and graduates who participated in a program for the preparation of secondary mathematics teachers at a teacher education college, the SOL, in Utrecht (Netherlands). Data from the four studies suggest several characteristics that may be considered correlates of reflectivity. Reflective teachers have better interpersonal relationships with students than other teachers and develop a high degree of job satisfaction. Reflective student teachers: (1) consider it important for their students to learn by investigating and structuring things themselves; (2) have previously been encouraged to structure their own experiences and problems; (3) have strong feelings of personal security and self-efficacy; and (4) appear to talk or write relatively easily about their experiences. Female student teachers reflect more on their relationships with fellow students and less on subject matter (mathematics) than male student teachers. Thirty-five references are included. (IAH) ED334183
Kranzler, J., & Pajares, F. (1997). An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scale-Revised (MSES-R). Measurement and evaluation in counseling and development, 29(4), 215.
Kraus, W. H. (1993). Don't Give Up? Paper presented at the Mathematics Teacher, 86, 2, 110-12 Feb 1993. Presents three problems that help students develop a repertoire of heuristics and persistence in problem solving: the water-jug problem; the missionaries-and- cannibals problem; and the census-taker problem. Discusses methods to encourage students to persist. (MDH) EJ464694
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Langenfeld, T. E., & Pajares, F. (1993). The Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scale: A Validation Study., 57pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Atlanta, GA, April 1993). A factor analysis study provided empirical evidence of the validity of the modified Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scale (MSES) and its three subscales: mathematics problems self-efficacy, mathematics tasks self-efficacy, and college courses self-efficacy. The MSES was administered to 522 undergraduate students from three state universities and internal consistencies were calculated for each of the three scales and the composite MSES using Cronbach's alpha. A principal component analysis led to the interpretation of a five-factor solution and a higher-order analysis provided evidence of a unitary structure to the MSES. Although the general structure of the MSES was validated, the study indicated specific constructs and inadequacies that need to be carefully analyzed by researchers using MSES. The college courses self-efficacy scale measured two separate constructs that have significantly different implications for differing substantive questions. The mathematics problems self-efficacy scale has limitations that need to be evaluated. Self-efficacy is a context-specific construct, and researchers who fail to evaluate the relationship between the performance task and the efficacy measure are likely to be frustrated by confounded relationships, ambiguous findings, and uninterpretable results. Contains 18 references. (Author/PDD) ED364413
Lapan, R. T., & And, O. (1989). Self-Efficacy as a Mediator of Investigative and Realistic General Occupational Themes on the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory. Paper presented at the Journal of Counseling Psychology, 36, 2, 176-82 Apr 1989. Studied role of self-efficacy in mediating gender differences on Investigative and Realistic General Occupational Themes of the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory among 71 male and 77 female entering university freshmen. Path analyses suggested a correlation where mathematics self-efficacy and high school mathematics preparation mediated gender differences. (TE) EJ403484
Lapan, R. T., Shaughnessy, P., & Boggs, K. (1996). Efficacy Expectations and Vocational Interests as Mediators between Sex and Choice of Math/Science College Majors: A Longitudinal Study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 49(3), 277-291(215). A longitudinal study was conducted to test the mediational role of efficacy expectations in relation to sex differences in the choice of a math/science college major. Data on 101 students were gathered prior to their entering college and then again after they had declared a major 3 years later. Path analytic results support the importance of both math self-efficacy beliefs and vocational interest in mathematics in predicting entry into math/science majors and mediating sex differences in these decisions. Also, students who described themselves as more extroverted were less likely to take additional math classes in high school. Students with stronger artistic vocational interests chose majors less related to math and science. School personnel are strongly encouraged to develop programs that challenge the crystallization of efficacy beliefs and vocational interest patterns before students enter college.
Laveault, D., Leblanc, R., & Leroux, J. (1999). Self-Regulated Learning of Young Adolescents in a Mathematics Activity., Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Psychological Association (107th, Boston, MA, August 20-24, 1999). This paper examines how self-evaluation strategies contribute to helping students take control over their own learning processes. In addition to examining the role of self-evaluation when a student takes on and exercises control over an activity in the classroom, this paper takes into account homework assignments and the role of parents. Subjects (N=45) were in 6th- 8th grade. They were distributed almost equally according to gender, grade level, and ability level. Twenty-nine parents completed a questionnaire about their child's homework assignment. The activity in class and the homework assignment consisted of a real-life mathematics task. The students compared products in two stores to choose the best bargains for a pre- determined checklist of school supplies. The mathematics involved arithmetic operations, percentages, and problem solving. Findings show that results obtained by grade 6 students were significantly higher than those of grade 7 and grade 8 students. This finding might indicate that the task was easier for grade 6 students. No differences were found between boys and girls regarding success at the task completed in class or at home. Gifted students performed better and had a higher level of agreement with their parent concerning the homework. Results highlight the complexity of the interaction between metacognition and motivational self-regulated variables. The importance of further research in this area is discussed. (Contains one figure, seven tables and 17 references.) (Author/MKA) ED435958
Lent, R. W., & And, O. (1993). Predicting Mathematics-Related Choice and Success Behaviors: Test of an Expanded Social Cognitive Model. Paper presented at the Journal of Vocational Behavior, 42, 2, 223-36 Apr 1993. Comparison of scores of 166 undergraduates on the Mathematics American College Test, Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scale, and an outcome expectation scale showed that self-efficacy mediated the effects of past achievement on interest in math. Achievement and self-efficacy predicted math grades; outcome expectation and self- efficacy predicted interest and enrollment intentions. (SK) EJ458806
Lent, R. W., & And, O. (1996). Cognitive Assessment of the Sources of Mathematics Self-Efficacy: A Thought- Listing Analysis. Paper presented at the Journal of Career Assessment, 4, 1, 33-46 Win 1996. College students (n=103) cited past performance as the most influential basis for their efficacy beliefs about mathematics. Women cited physiological reactions and teaching quality more often than men did. Thought-listing procedures proved a useful means of studying phenomena not measured by standard psychometric means. (SK) EJ528939
Lent, R. W., & And, O. (1996). Latent Structure of the Sources of Mathematics Self-Efficacy. Paper presented at the Journal of Vocational Behavior, 49, 3, 292-308 Dec 1996. One study tested two- through five-factor models of math self-efficacy sources with 295 college students, supporting a four-factor structure (performance, vicarious learning, social persuasion, emotional arousal). In a second study of 481 high school students, data fit a five-factor model (performance, adult modeling, peer modeling, social persuasion, emotional arousal). (SK) EJ533774
Lent, R. W., Lopez, F. G., Brown, S. D., & Gore, J. P. A. (1996). Latent Structure of the Sources of Mathematics Self-Efficacy. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 49(3), 292-308(217). General social cognitive theory and its career-specific elaborations posit four primary sources through which self-efficacy beliefs are acquired and modified: personal performance accomplishments, vicarious learning, social persuasion, and physiological states and reactions. We present two studies exploring the dimensionality of these sources within the context of career-relevant mathematics activities. In Study 1, 295 college students completed measures of the source variables. Testing two- through five-factor models, we found strongest support for a four-factor latent structure of the efficacy sources. In Study 2, involving 481 high school students, a five-factor model fit the data well. We also found evidence of a higher order factor structure in both samples. Several directions for further research on the sources of efficacy information are considered, along with implications for career and academic interventions.
Lent, R., Brown, S., & Gore, P. (1997). Discriminant and Predictive Validity of Academic Self-Concept, Academic Self-Efficacy, and Mathematics-Specific Self-Efficacy. Journal of counseling psychology, 44(3), 307.
Lent, R., Lopez, F., & Bieschke, K. (1991). Mathematics Self-Efficacy: Sources and Relation to Science-Based Career Choice. Journal of counseling psychology, 38(4), 424.
Lent, R., Lopez, F., & Gore, P. (1996). Latent Structure of the Sources of Mathematics Self-Efficacy. Journal of vocational behavior, 49(3), 292.
Lin, S. S. J., & Tsai, C.-C. (1999). Teaching Efficacy along the Development of Teaching Expertise among Science and Math Teachers in Taiwan. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (Boston, MA, March 28-31, 1999). Page Length: 9. For many teacher education programs, the development of the effective teacher is one of their primary goals. Research has shown that teachers' sense of efficacy is a significant indicator of effective teacher teachers. This study attempts to reveal novice, beginning, and expert science and mathematics in-service or pre-service teachers' pedagogical knowledge and how the teachers' knowledge is related to their sense of efficacy. The expert and beginner teachers reported higher teaching efficacy than the novice teachers as measured by a formal psychological scale. The experts and beginners also related more teaching efficacy-related statements than novices. (Contains 33 references.) (ASK) ED445905
Lips, H. M., & And, O. (1985). Self-Schema Theory and Gender-Related Behaviors: Research on Some Correlates of University Women's Participation in Mathematics, Science and Athletic Activities. 122p. The usefulness of the self-schema construct for understanding and predicting human behavior and the reason for the gender-relatedness of certain behaviors and experiences were investigated in three studies. The studies examined cognitive correlates of two gender-related behaviors that are more characteristic of and problematic for women than for men: the avoidance of math and science, and non- participation in athletics. Subjects for Study 1 were female undergraduates at the University of Winnipeg: 184 who had taken more than the required one course in basic science; 213 who had not taken math or science courses; and 49 who were taking physical education courses but no math or science courses. Subjects completed questionnaires measuring their self-schemas for math/science ability, physical ability, and general competence; their perceived physical ability and physical self-presentation confidence; a modified Bem Sex Role Inventory; and several open-ended questions about their performance in courses and athletics. Subjects (N=113) who had been identified from Study 1 data as positive, negative, or aschematic with respect to math/science self-schema or physical/athletic self- schema participated in Study 2. These subjects completed a questionnaire measuring endorsement of self-descriptive items, a generation of behavioral examples task, a recall task, and a math performance test. Male (N=8) and female (N=31) undergraduates in a statistical methods course participated in Study 3 which gathered data on the relationship among self-efficacy, self-schema, and mastery training by using the same self-schema and self-efficacy measures used in Study 1. (Results are presented in detail; a 5-page reference list, 33 data tables, and 2 figures are included.) (NRB) ED263517
Long, H. B., & And, O. (1997). Expanding Horizons in Self-Directed Learning., 306pp. Based on papers presented at the International Self-Directed Learning Symposium (10th). The following papers are included: "Preface" (Huey B. Long); "Self-Directed Learning: Smoke and Mirrors?" (Huey B. Long); "From Self-Culture to Self- Direction: An Historical Analysis of Self-Directed Learning" (Amy D. Rose); "The Link between Self-Directed and Transformative Learning" (Jane Pilling-Cormick); "Learner Orientations among Baby Boomers: Is There More Self-Directed Learning in the Future of Higher Education?" (Gary J. Confessore, Dianne L. Barron); "Self- Directed Learning in Professional Education: Guided Self-Assessment as a Tool to Facilitate Self-Directed Learning of Medical Students" (Alahna Allen); "Managers as Self-Directed Learners: Comparing Findings of Studies in Private and Public Sector Organizations" (William J. Kops); "Learning in Adversity: Incidence of Self-Directed Learning among Downsized Employees" (Sharon J. Confessore, Dede Bonner); "Self-Directed Learning in Health Care InstitutionsAn Analysis of Policies and Practices" (Roland Foucher, Francois Brezot); "Perceptions and Intentions of Training Managers Regarding Self-Directed Learning" (Josee Landriault, Alain Gosselin); "Self-Directed Learning in the Workplace: Summary Report on Research and Practice in Quebec" (Roland Foucher); "Practitioners' Application of Self-Directed Learning: Education of the Department of Defense's Program Managers under the Defense Acquisition Workforce Improvement Act" (Jay W. Gould III); "'Squelching' Self-Directed Learning: Marginalized Learners and Their Environments" (Robert J. Bulik); "Developing Self-Efficacy among Baccalaureate Students: Pygmalion Revisited" (Gary J. Confessore, Richard W. Herrmann); "Mentoring as Self-Directed Learning for Native Americans" (Gary Luna, Deborah Cullen); "Item Analysis of Guglielmino's Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale: Revisiting the Issue of Internal Consistency" (Scott S. Morris); "Reliability and Validity of the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale and the Learning Preference Assessment" (Lucy Madsen Guglielmino); "Self-Directed Learning in MathematicsAn Impossibility in the Middle School?" (Gary J. Hoban, Claudia J. Sersland); "Relationship of SDLRS (Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale) and Family Members" (Huey B. Long, Donna Cloud); "Self-Directed Learning Effects in Voluntary Associations' Organizational Framework" (Patricia Portelli); "Midlife Adults in Self-Directed Learning: A Heuristic Study in Progress" (Michael A. Beitler); "Self-Directed Learning in the Next Century: What Should the Orientation Be?" (Rene Bedard); and "Uses of the Guglielmino Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale" (Nicole rae Winters Walker, Huey B. Long). (MN) ED408441
Lopez, D. F., Takiff, H., Kernan, T., & Stone, R. (2000). Why Art Education? Academic Implications of Art in Elementary School., Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 24-28, 2000). Page Length: 7. A study investigated the relationship between arts education and academic achievement. Of specific interest was whether teaching the arts for their own sake influenced academic achievement in language arts and mathematics. It was hypothesized that it would influence children's self-efficacy. The sample consisted of 328 children from grades 2-5. Academic efficacy was measured with the Agency for Effort and Ability subscales of the "Student Perceptions of Control Questionnaire: Academic Domain," while artistic efficacy was measured with an adapted version of the same test. Academic achievement was assessed with teacher-assigned grades for mathematics, science, and reading. A multivariate grade analysis of variance was used to examine possible gender and age-related differences in artistic ability, artistic effort, academic ability, academic effort, and achievement. The new measure of artistic efficacy used in the study did reliably differentiate between beliefs regarding artistic effort and ability. Data clearly showed a strong relationship between academic and artistic efficacy. Findings suggest that there is significant cognitive transfer from arts education to other academic areas. (Contains 4 tables of data and 17 references.) (BT) ED441743
Lopez, F. G., & And, O. (1997). Role of Social-Cognitive Expectations in High School Students' Mathematics- Related Interest and Performance. Paper presented at the Journal of Counseling Psychology, 44, 1, 44-52 Jan 1997. Tested path models of academic interest and performance that were derived from social-cognitive theory. Results supported a model in which ability helps determine self-efficacy. Findings suggest that social-cognitive theory helps explain the academic behavior of high school students that can be key to their later career options. (RJM) EJ544082
Lopez, F., & Lent, R. (1992). Sources of Mathematics Self-Efficacy in High School Students. The Career development quarterly, 41(1), 3.
Lussier, G. (1996). Sex and Mathematical Background as Predictors of Anxiety and Self-efficacy in Mathematics. Psychological reports, 79(3p1), 827.
Luzzo, D., Hasper, P., & Martinelli, E. (1999). Effects of Self-Efficacy-Enhancing Interventions on the Math/Science Self-Efficacy and Career Interests, Goals, and Actions of Career Undecided College Students. Journal of counseling psychology, 46(2), 233.
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Malpass, J. R., & And, O. (1996). Self-Regulation, Goal Orientation, Self-Efficacy, and Math Achievement. 41pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New York, NY, April 8-12, 1996). This study used a structural equation paradigm to investigate the effects of self- regulated learning, self-efficacy, learning goal orientation, and worry on high- stakes mathematics achievement in a sample of (n=144) mathematically gifted high school students in southern California. Sex and prior math achievement (the Mathematics-Scholastic Achievement Test) were used as control variables. The self- report instrument used was the Self-Regulation Questionnaire by O'Neil, Sugrue, Abedi, Baker, and Golan (1992). Analyses showed that self-regulation was negatively related to worry, and surprisingly, not related to either prior or post mathematics achievement. Other results indicated that (1) self-efficacy mediates the relationship between prior and post mathematics achievement, is related to self-regulation, and is highly and negatively related to worry; (2) learning goal orientation is positively related to self-regulation and worry, and is not related to self-efficacy or Advanced Placement mathematics achievement; (3) the Math-Scholastic Achievement Test is related to Advanced Placement math achievement; and (4) worry is negatively related to Advanced Placement mathematics achievement. With respect to gender, boys were less worried and had higher self-efficacy than girls. Contains 80 references. (Author/MKR) ED395815
Malpass, J., ONeil, H., & Hocevar, D. (1999). Self-Regulation, Goal Orientation, Self-Efficacy, Worry, and High-Stakes Math Achievement for Mathematically Gifted High School Students. Roeper review, 21(4), 281.
Marceau, D., & Gingras, M. (1995). Delivery of Career Counseling Services: Community AccessThe Role of Employers: ERIC Digest. ED414514
Markus, N. (2001). Geometry in the Adult Education Classroom. Math Literacy News, 10 Mar 2001 Page Length: 5. For many adults, geometry is a mathematics topic that immediately makes sense to them and gives them confidence in their ability to learn, while other adult learners identify geometry with failure. Most adults, however, do recognize the need for measurement, and many have a basic understanding of measurement concepts, although they may need to learn English measurements if they already know metric measurement. Implications for teaching and learning are the following: (1) teachers must use exact and estimated measurements to describe and compare phenomena to increase the understanding of the structure, concepts, and process of measurement; (2) teachers must address the impact of measurement skills on self-efficacy and self-reliance; (3) measurement skills should be extended to concept areas such as volume, proportion, and problem solving; (4) teachers must increase the awareness of acceptable tolerances and the consequences of being within and outside these tolerances; (5) teachers should start from the learners' strengths; and (6) hands-on problem solving and attention to development of spatial sense is necessary for learners to develop an understanding of geometric principles. This brief includes suggestions for classroom activities in measurement, perimeter and area, angles, and circles. (KC) ED450251
Marsh, H. W., Roche, L. A., Pajares, F., & Miller, D. (1997). Item-Specific Efficacy Judgments in Mathematical Problem Solving: The Downside of Standing Too Close to Trees in a Forest. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 22(3), 363-377(315). Educational researchers assess self-efficacy by asking students to rate their capability of succeeding at specific target tasks (e.g., math test items) and then testing their performance to actually solve similar test items. Pajares and colleagues (Pajares & Kranzler, 1995; Pajares & Miller, 1994, 1995, in press) argued for the use of identical items to assess self-efficacy and performance in order to maximize self-efficacy's predictive power. In two studies, structural equation models (SEM) demonstrated that this variation led to positively biased estimates of paths from self-efficacy to performance and negatively biased estimates of paths from self-concept to performance. Whereas corrections for this bias did not substantially alter the size of effects or substantive interpretations, results from both studies were consistent with a priori predictions about the nature of this bias. Researchers are encouraged to use similar but not identical items to assess self-efficacy and performance, a construct validity approach to interrogate their interpretations, more diverse outcome measures, and SEM approaches like those demonstrated here.
Matsui, T., Matsui, K., & Ohnishi, R. (1990). Mechanisms Underlying Math Self-Efficacy Learning of College Students. Journal of vocational behavior, 37(2), 225.
Mayer, R. E. (1998). Cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational aspects of problem solving. Instructional Science, 26(1/2), 49-63(15). This article examines the role of cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational skills in problem solving. Cognitive skills include instructional objectives, components in a learning hierarchy, and components in information processing. Metacognitive skills include strategies for reading comprehension, writing, and mathematics. Motivational skills include motivation based on interest, self-efficacy, and attributions. All three kinds of skills are required for successful problem solving in academic settings.
Meece, J. L., & And, O. (1990). Predictors of Math Anxiety and Its Influence on Young Adolescents' Course Enrollment Intentions and Performance in Mathematics. Paper presented at the Special section with title "Motivation and Efficacy in Education: Research and New Directions.". Structural equation modeling was used to assess the influence of past mathematics grades, performance expectancies, and value perceptions on math anxiety of 250 seventh through ninth graders. The importance of these variables for grades and course selection was also studied. Results are discussed concerning expectancy- value and self-efficacy theories. (SLD) EJ442295
Meyer, D. K., & And, O. (1997). Challenge in a Mathematics Classroom: Students' Motivation and Strategies in Project-Based Learning. Paper presented at the Elementary School Journal, 97, 5, 501-21 May 1997. Analyses of fifth and sixth graders' challenge seeking during project-based mathematics instruction indicated two patterns: "challenge seekers," who self- reported a tolerance for failure, and a learning goal orientation; and "challenge avoiders," who self-reported a higher negative affect after failure, a more performance-focused goal orientation, lower self-efficacy in math, and greater use of strategies that requiring minimal information processing. (HTH) EJ547981
Midgley, C., & And, O. (1989). Change in Teacher Efficacy and Student Self- and Task-Related Beliefs in Mathematics during the Transition to Junior High School. Paper presented at the Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 2, 247-58 Jun 1989. A longitudinal study of 1,329 students and the 141 mathematics teachers they had before and after transfer to junior high examined the relationship between students' beliefs in mathematics and their teachers' sense of efficacy. Teacher efficacy beliefs had a stronger impact on low-achieving than high-achieving students. (SLD) EJ398506
Miura, I. T. (1986). Understanding Gender Differences in Middle School Computer Interest and Use., 9pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (67th, San Francisco, CA, April 16-20, 1986). A 3-year study was conducted to document individual differences in computer interest and use among middle school students and the psychological and social processes that may contribute to these differences. A questionnaire was used to assess the computer interest and use of a sample of approximately 400 middle school students at the end of each of the 3 years. The dependent measures interest in learning about computers, plans to take elective computer classes, willingness to consider a computer career, and non-school computer useand outcome measures were combined into a computer interest and use composite score. Eight independent variables were selected: mathematics interest, current goals for computer use, mathematics achievement, perceived parental encouragement for computing activities, perceived peer reactions to computer involvement, perceived relevance of computing skills for the future, perceived self-efficacy for computer-related tasks, and affective responses to the computer. These variables were organized using a newly developed version of "living systems" theory and students were asked to rate them on a scale of 1 to 5. Regression analysis of the data from the questionnaires and additional demographic and descriptive data showed that: (1) the gender of the subject appears to be an important social characteristic to consider in predicting computer interest and use since there were significant differences in favor of males; (2) boys may be more involved in computers as the result of more opportunities for mastery, more role models to emulate, greater verbal encouragement, and less fear of the machines; and (3) boys express a more positive attitude about the benefits of computers to society than do girls. Although there was a decline within grade levels from year to year over the 3-year period the variables showed consistent gender differences in favor of males. (DJR) ED273248
Murphy, N. (1996). Multicultural Mathematics and Science: Effective K-12 Practices for Equity. ERIC Digest. ED402146 Available from: ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education, 1929 Kenny Road, Columbus, OH 43210-1080.
Mwamwenda, T. (1999). Gender differences in mathematics self-efficacy. Paper presented at the Research in education.
Myers, J. E. (1991). Empowerment for Later Life. ERIC Digest. ED328828 Available from: ERIC/CAPS, 2108 School of Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1259.
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Nauta, M. M., Epperson, D. L., & Kahn, J. H. (1998). A Multiple-Groups Analysis of Predictors of Higher Level Career Aspirations among Women in Mathematics, Science, and Engineering Majors. Paper presented at the Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45, 4, 483-96 Oct 1998. The influence of ability, self-efficacy, positivity of role-modeling, and role conflict on higher-level career aspirations was investigated among women majoring in (1) mathematics, physical science, engineering; and (2) biological sciences. Differences between the two groups fit the model. Findings suggest interventions to increase women's aspiration levels in these fields. (Author/EMK) EJ581248
Nichols, J. D., & Miller, R. B. (1993). Cooperative Learning and Student Motivation., 25p. The effects of a form of cooperative group instruction called Team Assisted Individualization on students in a high school Algebra II class were examined. Sixty-two (31 female and 31 male) 11th-grade students were randomly assigned to either a cooperative learning (32 students) or traditional lecture (30 students) group. Students completed an instrument that assessed efficacy, intrinsic valuing, and goal orientation on 3 occasions: at the beginning of the school term, after the first 18 weeks of the project, and at the end of the school term. Algebra achievement was assessed at the same times using teacher-made examinations. Students in the cooperative classroom exhibited significantly higher gains than did the control group in algebra achievement, efficacy, intrinsic valuing of algebra, and learning goal orientation. Surprisingly, the achievement and motivational gains were completely reversed when the cooperative class was switched to traditional instruction for the last 18 weeks of the project. The implications of these findings for motivational theory and cooperative group structures are discussed. Four tables present study data. (Author/SLD) ED359254
Norwich, B. (1994). Predicting Girls' Learning Behaviour in Secondary School Mathematics Lessons from Motivational and Learning Environment Factors. Paper presented at the Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 14, 3, 291-306 1994. Reports on a study of 70 secondary female students in mathematics classes over a period of 7 weeks. Finds that self-efficacy was the best predictor of learning intentions. Recommends further research on the relationships between perceived learning environment, self-efficacy, and learning intentions. (CFR) EJ510844
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OBrien, V., MartinezPons, M., & Kopala, M. (1999). Mathematics Self-Efficacy, Ethnic Identity, Gender, and Career Interests Related to Mathematics and Science. The journal of educational research, 92(4), 231.
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Updated: Thursday, May 23, 2002
by Alejandra Martinez
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