Math Self-Efficacy (A-G)
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a______. (1997). Assessing Employee Skills., In: Academy of Human Resource Development Conference Proceedings (Atlanta, Georgia, March 6-9, 1997); see CE 078 221. This document contains four papers from a symposium on assessing employee skills. "Bridging the Training Gap: Identifying Work Place Transferable Skills Needs in Manufacturing Organizations in East Central Minnesota" (K. Peter Kuchinke, James M. Brown, Howie Anderson, Joe Hobson) reports a study of a workplace education program in rural Minnesota that examined the following: nature of the study organizations' training needs, expectations of production-level trainees, experiences of the program staff, and the nature of public-private collaboration. A diagnostic study of the learning network and work performed in a Dutch service organization is detailed in "Diagnosing the Learning Network in a Changing Organization" (Ferd J. Van der Krogt). "Employee Efficacy Generalization of Basic Mathematics Skills" (Alan J. Coleman, Patricia E. Boverie) discusses a quasi-experimental study demonstrating that, as individuals are given the opportunity to develop their basic mathematics skills, their perceptions of their own ability for skills associated with personal and work-related daily activities increase as well. The process used to develop a writing test for technical writers in a high-technology company is described in "A Case Study of the Feasibility of Developing a Writing Test for Hiring Technical Writers and Instructional Designers" (Rosemarie J. Park). (MN) ED428222
Allinder, R. M. (1995). An Examination of the Relationship between Teacher Efficacy and Curriculum-Based Measurement and Student Achievement. Paper presented at the Remedial and Special Education, 16, 4, 247-54 Jul 1995. The effects of personal and teaching efficacy on teachers' use of curriculum- based measurement (CBM) and on student achievement were studied. Nineteen special education teachers each monitored 2 elementary school students with mild disabilities over 16 weeks in math computation using CBM. Teachers with high personal and teaching efficacy more often increased students' end-of-year goals. (Author/SW) EJ506713
Anderson, S. L., & Betz, N. E. (2001). Sources of Social Self-Efficacy Expectations: Their Measurement and Relation to Career Development. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 58(1), 98-117(120). The present study resulted in the development of a measure for the four sources of self-efficacy expectations postulated by Bandura's (1977, 1997) theory in the domain of social behaviors. The four sources subscales were internally consistent and related as postulated to relevant criterion measures and theoretical constructs. Examination of the degree to which the four sources of social self-efficacy were empirically (as opposed to theoretically) distinct provided conclusions similar to those of previous research on the sources of mathematics self-efficacy expectations, most importantly the clustering of Past Performance, Emotional Arousal, and Social Persuasion (all direct learning experiences) distinct from Vicarious Learning, an indirect learning experience. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
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Bandalos, D., Yates, K., & ThormdikeChrist, T. (1995). Effects of Math Self-Concept, Perceived Self-Efficacy, and Attributions for Failure and Success on Test Anxiety. Journal of educational psychology, 87(4), 611.
Barrett, J. (1986). The Evaluation of Teachers. ERIC Digest 12. ED278657
Berger, S. L. (1991). Developing Programs for Students of High Ability. ERIC Digest #E502. ED334806 Available from: Council for Exceptional Children, 1920 Association Dr., Reston, VA 22091- 1589 ($1.00 each, minimum order $5.00 prepaid, product no. E502).
Bernhard, J. K., & Siegel, L. S. (1994). Increasing Internal Locus of Control for a Disadvantaged Group: A Computer Intervention. Paper presented at the Computers in the Schools, 11, 1, 59-77 1994. Discussion of locus of control (LOC), gender, and mathematics and technical subjects focuses on a study of preschool girls and boys that investigated the effects of a LOGO program on efficacy and LOC. Highlights include treatment of experimental and control groups; gender differences; parent questionnaires; and pretests and posttests. (69 references) (LRW) EJ501675
Betz, N. E. (2000). Self-Efficacy Theory as a Basis for Career Assessment. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (Boston, MA, March 28-31, 1999). Page Length: 9 Special Issue: Career Assessment and Self-Efficacy. Discusses issues involved in the measurement of occupational, math, and career decision-making self-efficacy. Addresses the relationship of self-efficacy to vocational interests and to the career development of women and minority groups. (Contains 97 references.) (SK) EJ609266
Betz, N. E., & Gwilliam, L. R. (2001). Validity of Measures of Math- and Science-Related Self-Efficacy for African Americans and European Americans. Paper presented at the Journal of Career Assessment, 9, 3, 261-81 Sum 2001. Measures of science and math self-efficacy and self-efficacy in scientific/technical fields (STF) were completed by 363 students (111 African Americans). Significant gender differences in favor of males were found in math and science self-efficacy, but there were no significant racial differences. Results suggest the STF self-efficacy measure may be inappropriate for use with unselected student samples. (Contains 50 references.) (SK) EJ629006
Betz, N. E., & Hackett, G. (1983). The Relationship of Mathematics Self-Efficacy Expectations to the Selection of Science-Based College Majors. Paper presented at the Journal of Vocational Behavior, 23, 3, 329-45 Dec 1983. Investigated the relationship of mathematics self-efficacy expectations to the selection of science-based major in 261 college students. Results indicated that mathematics self-efficacy expectations were significantly related to students' selection of science-based college majors. The math-related self-efficacy expectations of males were significantly stronger than were those of females. (JAC) EJ297710
Betz, N. E., & Hackett, G. (1997). Applications of Self-Efficacy Theory to the Career Assessment of Women. Paper presented at the Journal of Career Assessment, 5, 4, 383-402 Fall 1997. Summarizes Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Reviews occupational, scientific- technical, and mathematics self-efficacy, Holland's hexagonal model, the Occupational Self-Efficacy Scale, and the relationship of self-efficacy to vocational interests. Considers the applicability of these concepts to women's career development and assessment. (SK) EJ553306
Bieschke, K. J. (1991). A Causal Model of Career Aspirations.
Bieschke, K. J., & Lopez, F. G. (1991). A Causal Model of Career Aspirations., 75pp. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association (99th, San Francisco, CA, August 16-20, 1991). Although women are entering male-dominated occupations at a greater rate, they still tend to avoid those occupations, as well as college majors that require math. Lack of an adequate math background, and thus lower math achievement, seems to effectively bar women from high level, technological, and male-dominated occupations. This study examined the relationship of identity development to the development of math self-efficacy beliefs in an effort to clarify career decision- making behaviors of men and women. The purpose of this study was to test a causal model of math/science career aspirations that incorporated key elements of math self-efficacy and identity development theories. The extent to which socioeconomic status, sex role identity, gender, math ability, number of math/science high school courses, identity status, math anxiety, math self- efficacy, and interests influence occupational aspirations of high school students (N=136) and college students (N=153) were evaluated. Structural modeling using LISREL was supportive of math self-efficacy and research, though unsupportive of the inclusion of identity status variable in the model. Separate models were fit for the entire sample and the male and female subsamples. (ABL) ED343058
Bong, M. (1996). Direct and Indirect Tests of Internal/External Frames of Reference Model with Measures of Academic Self-Efficacy., 15pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New York, NY, April 8-12, 1996). The internal/external (I/E) frames of reference model proposed by H. Marsh (1986, 1990) points to the relativistic nature of academic self-concept formation. It argues that students compare their own academic ability to that of their peers in an external comparison, and they compare their own verbal skills to their mathematics skills in an internal comparison. The relative superiority of one set of skills over the other becomes salient in this comparison, yielding a negative correlation between verbal and mathematics self-concept. This study tested the I/E model with typical measures of academic self-efficacy with 588 students from 4 Los Angeles (California) high schools. Students rated their confidence in their ability to solve problems and their perceptions of ability in each school subject. Overall, results do not provide clear support for the I/E model. Even when students were explicitly told to compare their capability in one domain to that in the others, their verbal and mathematics self-perception failed to exhibit a negative relationship. It is difficult to accept the I/E model's contention that students spontaneously, if not voluntarily, undergo two separate comparison processes when asked to report their own perceived competence. It appears that their perceptions of capability are constructed without the internal comparison process. (Contains three figures and nine references.) (SLD) ED411259
Bong, M. (1996). Perceived Similarity among Tasks and Generalizability of Academic Self-Efficacy.
Bong, M. (1996). Perceived Similarity among Tasks and Generalizability of Academic Self-Efficacy. 29pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New York, NY, April 8-12, 1996). The degree of and the cognitive basis for the generalizability of academic self- efficacy were examined among 588 high school students from the greater Los Angeles (California) area. Students' self-efficacy perceptions clearly generalized beyond boundaries of specific tasks and also of specific school subjects, albeit to a lesser degree. There was greater generalizability of academic self-efficacy among math and science subjects than among verbal ones. The degree of academic self-efficacy generalization partly depended upon the degree of perceived similarity among tasks. Students reported more comparable levels of self-efficacy as they perceived greater similarity in the set of problems presented. Subject-specific and more global measures of academic self- efficacy (i.e., verbal and quantitative) preserved the strong predictive utility for students' effort expenditure and academic achievement. (Contains 1 table, 3 figures, and 15 references.) (Author) ED411258
Bong, M. (1998). Effects of Scale Differences on the Generality of Academic Self-Efficacy Judgments., 11pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Diego, CA, April 13-17, 1998). For a related paper, see TM 028 967. Two of the most widely used academic self-efficacy assessment techniques, problem-referenced measurement and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) were compared. Participants were 383 high school students from 4 Los Angeles (California) schools. Multi-trait multi-method analyses revealed that the two techniques were not measuring exactly the same thing. In particular, students' responses became more uniform in each school subject as the assessment procedures referred to more global events than specific problems. The two techniques also differed in generality. The relationship between students' verbal and mathematics self-efficacy perceptions was noticeably stronger with the problem-referenced technique than with the MSLQ. (Contains one table, three figures, and six references.) (Author/SLD) ED422379
Bong, M. (1998). Personal Factors Affecting the Generality of Academic Self-Efficacy Judgments: Gender, Ethnicity, and Relative Expertise. 9pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Diego, CA, April 13-17, 1998). For a related paper, see TM 028 941. The generality of academic self-efficacy judgments was compared between groups of students with different personal characteristics, using the sample drawn from a previous study (M. Bong, 1997) (n=383). Confirmatory factor analyses showed that boys demonstrated more comparable strengths of self-efficacy across the academic domains compared to girls, who distinguished between their verbal and math efficacy more clearly. Hispanic students made a clearer distinction between their Spanish efficacy and their self-efficacy in other verbal subjects compared to their non-Hispanic peers. In addition, students who belonged to advanced placement classes demonstrated more conservative generality of their academic self-efficacy judgments than those from regular classes. It appears that students make more context-specific judgments of their academic self-efficacy as they gain increased expertise in the academic domain. (Contains two figures and nine references.) (Author/SLD) ED422405
Bong, M. (1998). Tests of the Internal/External Frames of Reference Model with Subject- Specific Academic Self-Efficacy and Frame-Specific Academic Self-Concepts. Paper presented at the Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 1, 102-10 Mar 1998. Whether students' verbal and mathematics self-concepts were indeed positively correlated after an external comparison, and negatively correlated after an internal comparison, as predicted by the internal/external frames of reference model (H. Marsh, 1986), was studied with 383 high school students. Results support most of the model predictions. (SLD) EJ571174
Bong, M. (1999). Comparison between Domain-, Task-, and Problem-Specific Academic Self- Efficacy Judgments: Their Generality and Predictive Utility for Immediate and Delayed Academic Performances. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association (107th, Boston, MA, August 20-24, 1999). Academic self-efficacy beliefs of 204 Korean high school freshmen were solicited in Korean, English, and math by using (a) specific problems, (b) task descriptions, and (c) general statements referring to each domain. Regardless of the assessment specificity, self-efficacy judgments demonstrated certain degrees of generality. Cross-domain correlations were stronger with problem- and task-specific self-efficacy beliefs than with domain-specific perceptions. Magnitude of within-domain correlations between any two self-efficacy measures decreased as the difference in their measurement levels increased. Problem- and task-specific assessments seemed to instigate fairly equivalent competence appraisals, whereas domain-level measures entailed somewhat idiosyncratic estimation. Though not definitive, some evidence of the need for specificity correspondence and temporal proximity between self-efficacy and performance evaluation was found. Task- specific efficacy beliefs proved more useful compared with the other two self-efficacy measures in predicting temporally distant performances. (Contains 39 references, 4 tables, 3 figures, and 2 appendixes.) (Author) ED435080
Borchers, C. A., & And, O. (1992). A Staff Development Model to Encourage the Use of Microcomputers in Science Teaching in Rural Schools. Paper presented at the School Science and Mathematics, 92, 7, 384-91 Nov 1992. Documents and evaluates effects of inservice teacher education on rural-school teachers' behaviors and beliefs about microcomputers in science teaching. Describes the ENLIST Micros training program and the beliefs, behavior, and evaluation instruments utilized. Results indicated significant changes in teachers' beliefs toward and use of microcomputers in science instruction. (36 references) (MDH) EJ458184
Borget, M., & Gilroy, F. (1994). Interests and Self-efficacy as Predictors of Mathematics/Science-based Career Choice. Psychological reports, 75(2), 753.
Borman, G. D., & Rachuba, L. T. P. L. (2001). Academic Success among Poor and Minority Students: An Analysis of Competing Models of School Effects. Based on national data from Prospects: The Congressionally Mandated Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity, researchers identified individual characteristics that distinguished academically successful, or resilient, third grade students from minority and low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds from their less successful, or nonresilient, counterparts. They also formulated and tested four distinct models of the risk factors and resilience-promoting features of schools: the effective schools model, peer group comparison model, school resources model, and supportive school community model. Results suggest that minority students from low-SES backgrounds were exposed to greater risks and fewer resilience-promoting conditions than otherwise similar low-SES White students. Researchers conclude that minority students had poorer levels of internal locus of control and academic self-efficacy and were exposed to school environments that were less conducive to academic resilience. Greater engagement in academic activities, and internal locus of control, efficaciousness in math, a more positive outlook toward school, and a more positive self-esteem were characteristic of all low-SES students who achieved resilient outcomes. Some evidence suggests that effective school practices and an internal locus of control may be more important to the academic resilience of African Americans than for that of White and Latino students. The most powerful school characteristics for promoting resiliency were represented by the supportive school community model, which, unlike the other school models, included elements that actively shielded children from adversity. (Contains 38 references.) (Author/SM) ED451281
Borton, W. M. (1991). Empowering Teachers and Students in a Restructuring School: A Teacher Efficacy Interaction Model and the Effect on Reading Outcomes., 24pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, April 3-7, 1991). This study was conducted to examine one suburban San Diego (California) school's attempt, under a restructuring plan, to correct resegregation in classroom assignments. A program was developed which combined gifted, regular education, and bilingual students (n=79) in grades three and four with three teachers in a team-teaching approach. Students were redeployed for reading and mathematics based on skill level, but were heterogeneously grouped for other subjects. Research literature suggests that students in such a program should receive the double benefit of working at a level of success while engaging in cooperative learning activities with other students of varying ability; the success of such restructuring efforts is often dependent on teacher and student attitudes toward change. The focus of this paper is on the interaction between teacher efficacy and student attitudes during implementation of a locally designed, cooperative learning strategy aimed at improving learning for all students. Students were assessed three times over a school year for reading scores using the Durrell- Sullivan Reading Test. Teachers were given Gibson and Dembo's Teacher Efficacy Survey. The findings show that student self-esteem is the only significant predictor for reading outcomes. All three groups of students showed Pareto improvement gains in reading skills, and limited-English-proficient students showed significantly greater learning. (LL) ED335341
Bradshaw, R. A. (1995). Delivery of Career Counseling Services: Videodisc & Multimedia Career Interventions: ERIC Digest. Over one-third of high school students in Canada are dropping out of school. However, the advent of multimedia computer technology has increased the potential of career interventions, particularly for at-risk youth. This digest describes such a program entitled Knowledge for Youth About Careers (KYAC). KYAC is based on attribution change theory and self-efficacy theory. Its video scenes model career development skills like information interviewing, networking, and other strategies. In KYAC, students select one of two main characters and then follow the character as he or she ages from 17 to 28 years old by touching their chosen character's face on the computer screen. During scenes, the action stops at key points and small graphic "thought balloons" appear on the screen so as to enhance user identification with characters. Users will actively seek the information in the thought balloons. Approximately two and a half hours of interaction time is available in the main character decision sequences. In addition, 32 hours of classroom and workshop activities reinforce and provide more personal application of the skills. Some 275 youth were used to evaluate the KYAC program; it was found that students sought better ways to resolve problems with learning, math, reading, and other skills and that they discovered good reasons to finish high school, among other findings. (RJM) ED414516
Brahier, D. J. (1995). Mathematical Dispositions of Students Enrolled in First-Year Algebra., 8pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (17th, Columbus, OH, October 21-24, 1995). For entire conference proceedings, see SE 057 177. Dispositions of eighth graders accelerated into first-year algebra were described in this study. Data were collected through surveys, observations, interviews, and cumulative academic files. The most frequently reported reasons for enrolling in algebra were for acceleration of course-taking and preparation for high school. Males demonstrated a higher level of self-efficacy to perform in algebra and secondary mathematics. Students showed a high level of perseverance in terms of sacrifices made to take the course, but classroom performances indicated negative dispositions toward mathematics. Students were driven by a desire to please the teacher and earn grades rather than out of natural curiosity and interest. Neither students nor their parents recognized the real-world applications of algebra. Certain teaching methodologies appeared to evoke positive dispositions. Contains 17 references. (Author) ED389590
Brookhart, S. M., & DeVoge, J. G. (2000). Classroom Assessment, Student Motivation, and Achievement in Elementary and Middle School., Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 24-28, 2000). Page Length: 15. Classroom assessment events were studied by investigating students' perceptions of task, self-efficacy, effort, and goal orientations and achievement levels in third-grade language arts and fifth-grade mathematics and social studies. Whether student descriptions differ from one assessment event to the next was also studied. Subjects were students from two third-grade classes and two fifth-grade classes, each with from 13 to 28 students (median 20 students). Observation and survey responses were used to gather data about student perceptions. Findings provide evidence that classroom assessments do differ based on their context, the teachers, the students, the subjects, and the grade levels at which they are used. This theory represents an integration of the concept of the classroom assessment environment with concepts from cognitive psychology explored at the event level. Evidence from this study and preceding investigations suggests that events differ, so that it will be important to develop a large enough catalog of event descriptions to be able to see reliable patterns. (Contains 6 tables and 12 references.) (SLD) ED440999
Brown, M. T., & And, O. (1997). Traditionality and the Discriminating Effect of Expectations of Occupational Success and Occupational Values for Women within Math-Oriented Fields. Paper presented at the Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50, 3, 418-31 Jun 1997. Results of a study of 31 women majoring in engineering and 43 women majoring in mathematics education showed the following variables distinguished between the two groups: success expectations for traditional and nontraditional occupations, self-efficacy for traditional occupations, and outcome desirability. (SK) EJ543997
Brown, P. J., Kreisman, M. B., & Noble, A. J. (1999). What Students Have To Say About Mathematics: Education Reform & Students' Reality., Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Montreal, Quebec, Canada, April 19-23, 1999). Page Length: 36. This study was conducted to explore the views of the absentee partner by examining students' perspectives of education reform, specifically with regard to their experience with instruction in a school district committed to K-12 mathematics reform. Survey data for this study were drawn from the responses of 1,176 elementary and secondary education students on a locally-developed mathematics attitude survey. Academic self-efficacy was examined in light of the instructional strategies reported by students to be used most frequently in classrooms. While there are several significant relationships between self-efficacy and the instructional strategies used in the classroom, students' grade levels are strongly related to their levels of academic self-efficacy and the presence of reform-inspired instructional strategies. (Contains 15 references.) (ASK) ED443727
Bryan, T., & Bryan, J. (1991). Positive Mood and Math Performance. Paper presented at the Journal of Learning Disabilities, 24, 8, 490-94 Oct 1991. In two studies involving 18 secondary-level students with learning disabilities and 32 elementary-level at-risk African-American and Hispanic students, it was found that students exposed to positive-mood induction completed more math problems accurately than control children, and the secondary-level experimental students expressed greater self-efficacy for math than controls did. (Author/JDD) EJ437715
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Cahill, M., & Martland, S. (1995). Counseling Career Drifters. ERIC Digest. ED401498
Case, L. P., & Harris, K. R. (1988). Self-Instructional Strategy Training: Improving the Mathematical Problem Solving Skills of Learning Disabled Students., 23pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 5-9, 1988). Master's Thesis, University of Maryland. This study sought to determine the effectiveness of self-instructional strategy training on the addition and subtraction problem-solving skills of four upper elementary-level learning-disabled students, and to evaluate maintenance and generalization of the trained skills. Each subject received individual criterion- based training in self-instructional strategies. Training emphasized the student's role as an active collaborator in the learning process, with responsibility for recruiting and applying strategies gradually placed upon the student. Strategies were explicitly and overtly modeled in context. Subjects' scores on one-step word problems in addition and subtraction significantly improved following training. All subjects showed that the skills were generalized across settings and were maintained 3-5 weeks after training. Subjects were more confident of their ability to complete the word problems following training, though they had overestimated their pre-training ability. The four students and their teacher evaluated the self-instructional strategy training positively. Inspection of students' papers collected when probes were administered provided concrete evidence of post-training use of the instructed problem-solving strategy. (JDD) ED301001
Chapman, C. (1990). Authentic Writing Assessment. ERIC Digest. ED328606
Cooper, S. E., & Robinson, D. A. G. (1989). The Influence of Gender and Anxiety on Mathematics Performance. Paper presented at the Journal of College Student Development, 30, 5, 459-61 Sep 1989. Investigated mathematics anxiety effects in engineering and technical college students (N=381). Found lack of any significant gender differences in regard to mathematical ability, anxiety, and performance. Recommends further research in differences in mathematics experience, self-efficacy beliefs, or interpersonal processes. (ABL) EJ406571
Cooper, S., & Robinson, D. (1991). The Relationship of Mathematics Self-Efficacy Beliefs to Mathematics Anxiety and Performance. Measurement and evaluation in counseling and development, 24(1), 4.
Coyle, N. C. (2001). Why Math Careers? Women's Self-Efficacy Beliefs., Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Louisiana Educational Research Association (Baton Rouge, LA, March 8-9, 2001). Page Length: 10. This study determined the role of self-efficacy on women's selection of math-related careers. Unlike a similar study conducted by Zeldin and Pajares (2000), this study included African-American women. It centered on Banduras (1986, 1987) four sources for self-efficacy perceptions (mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasions, and physical and emotional states) by reviewing the personal narratives of women who selected and continued to excel in careers in the area of mathematics. The research question was which of the four sources contributed the most to self-efficacy. Participants were five women (three Caucasian and two African-American) in math-related careers. Zeldin and Pajares semi-structured, open-ended interview protocol was used. Analysis of participants responses indicated vicarious experiences and verbal persuasions were instrumental sources for the development and maintenance of self-efficacy beliefs for women in math-related careers, and these women demonstrated a great amount of persistence and effort while they continued along their academic and career paths. Participants did not rely totally on skill to succeed in pursuing math-related careers; instead, they relied on people with whom they had positive relationships. (Contains 22 references.) (YLB) ED452364
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D'Ambrosio, U. (1990). The Role of Mathematics in Building a Democratic and Just Society. Paper presented at the For the Learning of MathematicsAn International Journal of Mathematics Education, 10, 3, 20-23 Nov 1990. Given that mathematics is the essence of scientific and rational thinking, and that mathematics is the imprinter of both modern society and modern thought, implicit curricular proposals for both pre- and in-service mathematics teacher training are suggested for the revitalized teacher promotion of students' just and democratic behaviors. (JJK) EJ430491
D'Emidio-Caston, M. (1993). Ambition, Distraction, Uglification and Derision: The Case for Confluent Education in Math Procedures., 18pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Atlanta, GA, April 12-16, 1993). Many preservice teachers confront their own lack of confidence and actual mathematics phobia for the first time in their math procedures classes. This study was designed to explore the application of a confluent education intervention, a model based on the premise that all learning is accompanied by an affective as well as a cognitive component, to the problem of improving the disposition towards mathematics of 70 student teachers enrolled in a fifth-year multiple subject teaching credential program at the University of California. Using the framework of constructivist theory as a foundation, the paper discusses the effects of prior experience on affective disposition towards mathematics and teachers' sense of self-efficacy. Data were collected in three stages following "The Mathe Teakst Buk," an intervention that involves students in a simulation to reconstruct prior experience by coupling it with affective processing. Results indicate types of changes in disposition and self-efficacy experienced by students after the confluent intervention. A complete description of the intervention is appended. (Contains 29 references.) (LL) ED362508
D_____. (1987). Developing Social Vocational Skills in Handicapped Individuals. Digest #447. ED287263 Available from: ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, 1920 Association Dr., Reston, VA 22091 (4 titles free, $1.00 for each additional set of 4 titles).
Dollison, R. A. (1998). A Comparison of the Effect of Single-Sex and Coeducational Schooling Arrangements on the Self-Esteem and Mathematics Achievement of Adolescent Females., 34p. Coeducation has been nearly universal in public schools in the United States during the 20th century. Research conducted in the last decade has questioned the effectiveness of coed schooling with regard to the self- esteem and mathematics achievement of adolescent females. Early research reported that single-sex schools where superior to coeducational schools, yielding higher levels of achievement and a greater sense of self-efficacy. More recent research challenges the methods and interpretation of earlier findings. Studies of student performance in single-sex schools lessens the school effect, attributing gains to family background factors. Current findings do not totally dismiss school effects, as class size and curriculum are seen as important factors effecting female student achievement. Analysis of single-sex classes within coeducational schools reveals improved locus-of-control and more positive feelings for mathematics with modest improvement in mathematics achievement. The literature indicates that a sex segregated school environment is not the most critical variable effecting the mathematics achievement of adolescent females. Contains 57 references. (Author) ED422188
Dorman, J. p. A., Joan E., & Ferguson, J. M. (2001). The Relationship between High School Mathematics Classroom Environment and Student Self-Handicapping., Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Seattle, WA, April 10-14, 2001). Page Length: 20. Classroom environment research investigating the relationship between classroom environment and self-handicapping was conducted in Australian, Canadian, and British high schools. A sample of 3,602 students from 29 schools responded to a questionnaire that assessed student perceptions of classroom environment, self-handicapping, and academic efficacy. Simple and multiple correlation analyses between 10 classroom environment dimensions and self-handicapping were conducted separately for 2 units of analysis (individual student and school grade group means) and separately with and without control for academic efficacy. Results showed that classroom environment accounted for appreciable proportions of variance in self-handicapping beyond that attributable to academic efficacy. Enhanced affective dimensions of the classroom environment were associated with reduced levels of self-handicapping. (Contains 24 references.) (Author) ED452075
Downing, J. E., Filer, J. D., & Chamberlain, R. A. (1997). Science Process Skills and Attitudes of Preservice Elementary Teachers. 12pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association (Memphis, TN, November 12, 1997). This study examined whether there was a relationship between preservice elementary teachers' competency in science process skills and attitudes toward the field of science. Study data came from 46 students enrolled in an elementary math and science methods course during their first senior semester, just before entering student teaching. Study instruments included: (1) the Test of Integrated Processing Skills (TIPS II), which measured science process skills (identifying variables, operationally defining variables, identifying appropriate hypotheses, interpreting data, and designing instruments) and (2) a revision of the Fenneman- Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scale, which predicted attitudes toward science using six subscales (confidence in learning science, teacher, usefulness of science, science as a male domain, science anxiety, and effectance motivation in science). Data analysis found a significant positive relationship between how well teachers performed science process skills and their attitudes toward science. The two subscales that significantly correlated with the performance of science process skills were the confidence in learning science scale and the teacher scale (which measured confidence in the ability to learn and perform well in science and how participants perceived their teachers' attitudes toward them in relation to their performance and/or their potential to do well in science). (Contains 23 references.) (Author/SM) ED416191
Dunham, P. H. (1990). Procedures To Increase the Entry of Women in Mathematics-Related Careers. ERIC/SMEAC Mathematics Education Digest No. 3. ED324195 Available from: ERIC/SMEAC, The Ohio State University, 1200 Chambers Road, Room 310, Columbus, OH 43212 ($1.00).
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Enochs, L. G. S., Phillip L.; Huinker, DeAnn. (2000). Establishing Factorial Validity of the Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument. Paper presented at the School Science and Mathematics, 100, 4, 194-202 Apr 2000. Discusses the Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (MTEBI) for preservice teachers which consists of 21 items, 13 items on the Personal Mathematics Teaching Efficacy (PMTE) subscale and eight items on the Mathematics Teaching Outcome Expectancy (MTOE) subscale. Produces the alpha coefficient of 0.88 for PMTE scale and 0.75 for MTOE scale (n=324). (Contains 30 references.) (Author/ASK) EJ607161
Enochs, L. G., & And, O. (1993). The Development and Partial Validation of Microcomputer Utilization in Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument in a Science Setting. Paper presented at the This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant No. TPE 8851003). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Presents a study to develop and partially validate an instrument to measure the self-efficacy beliefs of teachers related to utilizing microcomputers in science instruction. The resulting instrument contained two subscales: the Outcome Expectancy and Personal Self Efficacy Scales. Appendices include the instrument and scoring instructions. (17 references) (MDH) EJ463116
Enochs, L. G., & Riggs, I. M. (1990). Further Development of an Elementary Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument: A Preservice Elementary Scale. Paper presented at the School Science and Mathematics, 90, 8, 694-706 Dec 1990. Described is a measure of the self-efficacy of preservice elementary science teachers. Field experiences, peer teaching, and the self-evaluation of microteaching are introduced as ways to enhance science teaching self-efficacy. Validity and reliability data are presented. (KR) EJ419040
Ewers, C., & Wood, N. (1993). Sex and Ability Differences in Children's Math Self-Efficacy and Prediction Accuracy. Learning and individual differences, 5(3), 259.
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Ferry, T. R., Fouad, N. A., & Smith, P. L. (2000). The Role of Family Context in a Social Cognitive Model for Career-Related Choice Behavior: A Math and Science Perspective. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 57(3), 348-364(317). This study applied causal modeling techniques to the Lent, Brown, and Hackett (1994) model of person, contextual, and experiential factors affecting career-related choice behavior. The effects of family context and person input variables on learning experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, interests, and goals were examined. Data on undergraduate students (n = 791) enrolled in psychology classes at two universities were collected. Results based on a revised path model provided empirical validation of the Lent et al. (1994) model for this college student population. As a family background context variable, parental encouragement was found to have significant direct effects on learning experiences (grades in math and science) and outcome expectancies. Significant direct effects were also found between gender and learning experiences and age and learning experiences. In turn, learning experiences were found to directly influence self-efficacy and outcome expectancies, while self-efficacy and outcome expectancies were both directly related to interests and goals. Self-efficacy also had a significant direct effect on outcome expectancies and interests had a significant direct effect on goals. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
Fouad, N. A., Smith, P. L., & Enochs, L. (1997). Reliability and Validity Evidence for the Middle School Self-Efficacy Scale. Paper presented at the Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, v30, 1, 17-31 Apr 1997. Provides validity evidence for a new instrument that assesses a career-related self-efficacy intervention for Hispanic and Latino students. Focuses on the broad area of career decision making and on math and science tasks. Results indicate adequate validity of the instrument, particularly for women and minority students. (RJM) EJ551709
Frye, S. M. (1991). Communicating the Next Message of Reform through the Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics. ERIC/SMEAC Mathematics Education Digest. ED335238
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Updated: Thursday, May 23, 2002
by Alejandra Martinez
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Gainor, K. A., & Lent, R. W. (1998). Social Cognitive Expectations and Racial Identity Attitudes in Predicting the Math Choice Intentions of Black College Students. Paper presented at the Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45, 4, 403-13 Oct 1998. The math-related interests and academic-choice intentions of black college students (N=164) are explored. A social cognitive path model offered good overall fit to the data. Although racial identity contributed little to the model, self-efficacy and outcome expectations predicted interests, which predicted choice intentions across racial attitude levels. (Author/EMK) EJ581242
Garcia, T., & Pintrich, P. R. (1995). The Role of Possible Selves in Adolescents' Perceived Competence and Self- Regulation., 18pp. Paper presented at a the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, April 18-22, 1995). The goal of the study described in this paper was to examine the role of possible selves in perceptions of competence and in self-regulation. The study investigated whether possible selves, or individuals' perception of what they might be like in the future, exert their influence on self-efficacy and self relation via the dimensions associated with possible selves. It was expected that the salience of "hoped-for" and "feared" possible selves should be more closely aligned to expectancies, whereas the importance assigned to hoped-for and feared possible selves should be more closely related to behavior. Path analyses performed on data collected from 287 seventh-grade students generally supported this premise, although the pattern of effects differed slightly across the four academic domains examined (mathematics, English, science, and social studies). The results suggest that possible selves can add to the understanding of student motivation and self-regulation. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/ND) ED386437
Gardner, P. L., Ed. (1994). Research in Science Education, 1994. Selected Refereed Papers from the Annual Conference of the Australasian Science Education Research Association (25th, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, July 10-13, 1994). Paper presented at the 402pp. For volumes 19 and 21, see ED 327 377 and ED 351 190. For volumes 22 and 23, see SE 057 424-425. This volume contains 41 papers, 10 abstracts/research notes, and an after-dinner speech "The Book of Genesis and the Chronicles of the People of ASERA (Australasian Science Education Research Association). Paper titles include: "Improving students' understanding of carbohydrate metabolism in first-year Biochemistry at tertiary level"; "Students' learning in science lessons: towards understanding the learning process"; "Intention and practice in school science education"; "Teaching science in primary schools: what knowledge do teachers need?"; "Pre-service teachers' use of problem-solving in primary science"; "Group interactions in science practical work"; "Teaching portfolios: developing quality learning in pre-service science teachers"; "From science teacher to technology facilitator: a case study of Katherine"; "Progression in school science curriculum: a rational prospect or a chimera?"; "The development of a K-3 science profile in the context of the National Science Statement and Profile"; "Newton's Third Law after Newton"; "Concept substitution: an instructional strategy for promoting conceptual change"; "An examination of the predictions and explanations of pre-service nurses across a range of contexts involving the same principles of fluid physics: a preliminary study"; "Learning to learn in informal science settings"; "Technology education and science education: engineering as a case study of relationships"; "First-year tertiary students' understanding or iron filing patterns around a magnet"; "Application of genetics knowledge to the solution of pedigree problems"; "Student beliefs and learning environments: developing a survey of factors related to conceptual change"; "Subject competency of teachers and level of dependence on resource packs to teach levers, gears and pulleys"; "Explainers' perceptions of visitors' learning at an Interactive Science and Technology Centre"; "Technological problem solving in two science classrooms"; "Images in mirrors: recollections, alternative explanations and modes of cognitive functioning"; "Responses to an interactive science exhibit in a school setting"; "Diagram predication and higher order structures in mental representation"; "Perceptions of assessment in a senior physics class"; "Gender inclusive curricula: a focus on two responses"; "Knowing and learning about science in a preservice setting: a narrative study"; "Factors perceived to have enabled 25 women to develop expertise to teach primary science"; "The effect of the direction of motion on students' conceptions of forces"; "Measuring affective outcomes from a visit to a Science Education Centre"; "Students' thinking in a chemistry laboratory"; "Data handling in the primary science classroom: children's perception of the purpose of graphs"; "'Have you got any cholesterol?': Adults' views of human nutrition"; "A constructivist approach to secondary school science experiments"; "'I want to find out how the sun works ' Children's sociodramatic play and its potential role in the early learning of physical science"; "Narrative in the science curriculum"; "Comprehension of non- technical words in science: the case of students using a 'foreign' language as the medium of instruction"; "Children's interests in geology and biology"; "Consistency of children's use of science conceptions: problems with the notion of 'conceptual change'"; "Self-efficacy and science anxiety among pre-service primary teachers: origins and remedies"; and "Teacher professional development: which aspects of in-service do teachers believe influence their classroom practice?" (MKR) ED404152
Garduno, E. (2001). The Influence of Cooperative Problem Solving on Gender Differences in Achievement, Self-Efficacy, and Attitudes Toward Mathematics in Gifted Students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 45(4), 268-282.
Gibbons, S., Kimmel, H., & O'Shea, M. (1997). Changing Teacher Behavior through Staff Development: Implementing the Teaching and Content Standards in Science. Paper presented at the School Science and Mathematics, 97, 6, 302-09 Oct 1997 1997. Describes the Outreach Program that has attempted to provide teachers with sustained support through training and direct classroom assistance in an effort to develop a sense of self-efficacy with regard to desired teacher and student behaviors that are part of a standards-based learning experience. Contains 21 references. (Author/ASK) EJ591984
Glick, J. G., & And, O. (1992). Sources Used by Student Teachers in Lesson Planning., 13pp. Paper presented at the Meeting of the National Science Teacher Association (March 27, 1992) and at the Oregon Academy of Science (February 21, 1992). Pedagogical content knowledge is defined as the blending of subject matter knowledge, general knowledge of learning and teaching, knowledge about specific learners, and knowledge of instructional representations of subject matter such as activities, examples, demonstrations, analogies, and illustrations. This study was conducted to identify sources used by secondary school science and mathematics student teachers (N=14) in developing instructional representations of subject matter. All participants' preservice teacher education included classes in which teaching resource ideas were collected. Data were gathered through a questionnaire regarding sources of instructional representations. Data analysis suggests that: student teachers rely heavily on themselves for planning of instruction; curriculum material is seldom used as designed; teacher preparation course content or materials are not used; and the cooperating teacher and university personnel are considered important sources of materials and suggestions. Implications are that teacher education programs need to place more emphasis on how to effectively modify existing materials and create original products. (LL) ED350289
Golden, J. (1996). The Care of the Self: Poststructuralist Questions about Moral Education and Gender. Paper presented at the Journal of Moral Education, 25, 4, 381-93 Dec 1996. Maintains that the introduction of poststructuralist theory in moral education is often damaged and weakened by referencing the models of liberal humanism. Argues that the introduction, use, and analysis of various narrative strategies can support a poststructuralist teaching effort. Includes examples of this from an elementary mathematics class. (MJP) EJ561908
Grant, J. (1998 Length: 27 Page(s); 1 Microfiche). Does Integrating Technology into the Curriculum Increase Student Learning? This paper attempted to determine whether increasing technology, specifically a computer-based instructional approach, into the curriculum increases student learning, focusing on effects on student attitudes and self-efficacy. Participants were 47 fifth graders in a private school. One group received computer-based instruction in English grammar, and the other received computer-based instruction in mathematics. The instructional programs included drill and review. To determine self-efficacy and attitudes toward school, English, and mathematics, students completed the Student Opinion Survey (J. McMillan). Two other instruments were administered to provide evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. Findings suggest that the computer-based instruction increased student interest in school and learning in general. Students described an increase in satisfaction of learning with immediate responses. Implications for instruction are discussed in the context of the Massachusetts State Standards. Appendixes contain an Excel chart of study figures, the student opinion survey, and the Systat calculations. (Contains four figures, four tables, and nine references.) (SLD) ED431006
Grant, J. (1998). Does Integrating Technology into the Curriculum Increase Student Learning? This paper attempted to determine whether increasing technology, specifically a computer-based instructional approach, into the curriculum increases student learning, focusing on effects on student attitudes and self-efficacy. Participants were 47 fifth graders in a private school. One group received computer-based instruction in English grammar, and the other received computer-based instruction in mathematics. The instructional programs included drill and review. To determine self-efficacy and attitudes toward school, English, and mathematics, students completed the Student Opinion Survey (J. McMillan). Two other instruments were administered to provide evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. Findings suggest that the computer-based instruction increased student interest in school and learning in general. Students described an increase in satisfaction of learning with immediate responses. Implications for instruction are discussed in the context of the Massachusetts State Standards. Appendixes contain an Excel chart of study figures, the student opinion survey, and the Systat calculations. (Contains four figures, four tables, and nine references.) (SLD) ED431006
Greenberg, R. C. (1998). Students' Perceptions of Self and Classroom Environment and Their Reported Help Seeking Behaviors., 25pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Diego, CA, April 13-17, 1998). This study explored possible relationships between sixth-grade students' perceptions of themselves and their classroom environments and their help- seeking behaviors in mathematics classes. Researchers administered a city- wide survey to sixth-grade Chicago public school students. Half the students answered items regarding their reading/language arts classes and half answered items regarding their math classes. This paper discusses only students who completed the math section. The survey had students report their levels of competence, classroom social support, collaboration and autonomy, the frequency of asking the teacher and other students for help, and their preferred helping strategies. Results indicated that the frequency of asking the teacher for help was influenced by achievement, the presence of collaboration in the classroom, and a student's sense of autonomy and competence. The overall achievement of the school had a direct relationship with amount of help requested of the teacher. The frequency of asking other students for help was influenced by gender, sense of autonomy, and presence of collaboration and social supportiveness in the class. Autonomy and collaboration related to both asking the teacher and asking another student for help. Overall, students preferred receiving instrumental and indirect types of help rather than direct help. (Contains 14 references.) (SM) ED423221
Gubbins, E. J., Ed., & Siegle, D., Ed. (1995). The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented (NRC/GT) Newsletter. Fall 1994-Spring 1995. Paper presented at the 50p. This document consists of three consecutive but unnumbered issues of a newsletter from the National Research Center on the Gifted and Talended (NRC/GT) containing articles on the education of gifted and talented students: "NRC/GT Destination: Around the Corner" (E. Jean Gubbins); "New NRC/GT Studies for Year 5" (on implementing enrichment clusters, underachievement among Black youth, instructional practices in middle schools, and achievement among American Indian students); "Examining a Tool for Assessing Multiple Intelligences" (Cheryll M. Adams and Carolyn M. Callahan); "Guiding the Development of Mathematically Talented Students" (M. Katherine Gavin); "Three Models of Curriculum for Gifted and Talented Students" (Bruce N. Berube); "Talents Unveiled and Nurtured: Words & Images" (E. Jean Gubbins); "Javits Act: Charting Directions" (E. Jean Gubbins); "Identifying Traditionally Underrepresented Children for Gifted Programs" (Dennis P. Saccuzzo and Nancy E. Johnson); "Gender Differences between Student and Teacher Perceptions of Ability and Effort" (Del Siegle and Sally M. Reis); "Unique Identification for Unique Talents" (Bruce N. Berube); "Classification Procedures for Gifted/Learning Disabled Students: A primer for Parents" (Mary Rizza); "Reaching the Destination" (E. Jean Gubbins); "Multiple Intelligences Help Teach Culturally Diverse Learners" (Carol Ann Tomlinson); "A Follow-Up Study of the Interaction Effects on the Classroom Practices Survey" (Scott W. Brown Others); "The Paradox of Academic Achievement of High Ability, African American, Female Students in an Urban Elementary School" (Jann Harper Leppien); "Effects of Teacher Training on Student Self-Efficacy" (Del Siegle); "Regular Classroom Practices with Gifted Students in Grades 3 and 4 in New South Wales, Auystralia" (Diana Ruth Whitton); "The Successful Practices Study" (Karen L. Westberg and Francis X. Archambault, Jr.; and "Motivating Our Students: The Strong Force of Curriculum Compacting" (Heather Allenback). Some articles contain references. (DB) ED388026
Gubbins, E. J., Ed., & Siegle, D., Ed. (1997). The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented (NRC/GT) Newsletter, 1997. Paper presented at the Newsletter published biannually. These two newsletters of The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented (NRC/GT) present articles concerned with research on the education of gifted and talented students. The articles are: "NRC/GT: Research Should Inform Practice" (E. Jean Gubbins); "Building a Bridge: A Combined Effort between Gifted and Bilingual Education" (Valentina I. Kloosterman); "Talent Development for Everyone: A Review of 'Developing the Gifts and Talents of All Students in the Regular Classroom'" (Bruce N. Berube); "Gender Differences in High School Students' Attitudes toward Mathematics in Traditional versus Cooperative Groups" (Lisa A. Drzewiecki and Karen L. Westberg); "NRC/GT: The Parent Connection" (E. Jean Gubbins); "A Parent's Guide to Helping Children: Using Bibliotherapy at Home" (Mary Rizza); "Parents, Research, and the School Curriculum" (Mallory Bagwell); and "Cluster Grouping Coast to Coast" (Patricia A. Schuler). Also included are the following brief research summaries: "The Effectiveness of Peer Coaching on Classroom Teachers' Use of Differentiation for Gifted Middle School Students" (Caroline Sarah Cohen); "Effects of Teaching Problem Solving through Cooperative Learning Methods on Student Mathematics Achievement, Attitudes toward Mathematics, Mathematics Self-Efficacy, and Metacognition" (Edna Leticia Hernandez Garduno); "A Gender Study of Students with High Mathematics Ability: Personological, Educational, and Parental Influences on the Intent To Pursue Quantitative Fields of Study in College" (Mary Katherine Gavin); "Characteristics and Perceptions of Perfectionism in Gifted Adolescents in a Rural School Environment" (Patricia Ann Schuler); "Gifted, but Gone: High Ability, Mexican-American, Female Dropouts" (Nancy Lashaway-Bokina). (Individual papers contain references.) (DB) ED436908
Gwilliam, L., & Betz, N. (2001). Validity of Measures of Math- and Science-Related Self-Efficacy For African Americans and European Americans. Journal of Career Assessment, 9(3), 261-282.
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