A Seminal Self-Efficacy Study
(There have since been hundreds of studies)
Bandura, A., Adams, N. E., & Beyer, J. (1977). Cognitive processes mediating behavioral change, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 125-139.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change, Psychological Review, 37(2), 122-147.
Administered a multi-level treatment program for snake phobics.
Participants either received
control condition, assessment but no treatment
participation treatment with a therapist
observed a therapist handle a snake
Controls reported no change in perceived capabilities to handle snakes.
Participants reported improved perceived capabilities to handle snakes
observers also reported improved perceived capabilities to handle snakes
Lessons from the Study
Correspondence, the positive correlation of self-efficacy for being able to perform a given task, and then performing it was high for all conditions...
enactive experience may change one's perceptions of capabilities, but also one's performance of the task
observation may change one's perceptions of capabilities, but also one's performance of the task
ISSUE: If we incorrectly underestimate our capabilities to perform a given task, then are we likely to avoid the task, give insufficient effort, or quit when the going gets tough?
Five Basic Personal Capabilities to Influence Self-Beliefs
|Symbolizing||students and teachers are able to process abstract experiences into models that guide their learning; e.g. from a storybook or videotape|
|Forethought||students and teachers can foresee success or failure for a given task|
|Vicarious||students and teachers can learn by observing|
|Self-regulatory||students and teachers can determine how much effort to give to a certain task|
|Self-reflective||students and teachers conduct self-evaluations, and sometimes overestimate or underestimate their capabilities|
Brown, I. J. & Inouye, D. K. (1978). Learned helplessness through modeling: The role of perceived similarity in competence, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 900-908.
Sought to test whether learned helplessness one's expectations of inevitable failure due to lack of control over proposed circumstances could be induced by vicarious modeling.
Participants observed models demonstrate frustration and failure with an anagram task, and were told they were either of
superior competency to the model
similar competency to the model
nothing, but observed the model
nothing, and didn't observe the model
Results of the Study
Observers in similar-competency group persisted less than all other groups.
Observers in superior-competency group persisted longer than all other groups.
model similarity may affect one's persistence and expectations for success
social comparison is an influential and vicarious source of one's perceived self-efficacy, and performance
EDUCATION ISSUE: How can teachers and parents help students to avoid learned helplessness?
Personal Determinants that Influence School Performance
Note: Self-efficacy is shown to hold greater explanatory and predictive power for academic outcomes than many other determinants (Pajares & Miller, 1994a, 1994b, 1994c; Zimmerman, Bandura, and Martinez-Pons, 1992).
|Self-concept||"... a composite view of oneself that is formed through direct experience and evaluations adopted from significant others" (Bandura, 1986, p. 409).|
|Self-esteem||"...pertains to the evaluation of self-worth, which depends on how the culture values the attributes one possesses and how well one's behavior matches personal standards of worthiness" (Bandura, 1986, p. 410)|
|Personal background|| |
|Bandura, 1986 (p. 391)||"Perceived self-efficacy is defined as people's judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances. It is concerned not with the skills one has but with judgments of what one can do with whatever skills one possesses."|
|My definition||Self-efficacy is one's judgments of personal capabilities to initiate and successfully perform specified tasks, expend greater effort, and persevere in the face of adversity.|
Sources of Self-Efficacy Information
|Enactive Attainment||Vicarious Experience||Verbal Persuasion||Physiological State|
|direct experience||observing others||feedback from teachers||sweaty palms|
|actual performance||modeling||expectations of peers||rapid heartbeat|
|achievements||media|| || |
|authentic mastery experiences|| || || |
Teacher Efficacy Studies
|Allinder, 1995||found that teachers with higher levels of personal and teaching efficacy more often help students to achieve their end-of-year goals|
|Fasko & Grubb, 1995|
|Weber & Omotani, 1994||found that teacher self-efficacy ratings are predictive of student achievement|
|Moore and Esselman, 1994||conducted a study of historical patterns and workplace context, tracking student achievement for five years. Their findings suggest that teaching efficacy is highly influence by contextual factors, such as positive school psychological climate, greater teacher autonomy, and more freedom to concentrate on instructional matters. In historically low-performing schools, teachers reported lower levels of these factors and thus lower levels of teaching efficacy|
|O'Connor & Korr, 1996||Tested a model designed to improve teacher empowerment and self-efficacy. They found that teachers participating in the model would more often sought and gave advice to each other. They also were more likely to identify problems as system-oriented rather than child oriented.|
|Ramey-Gassert (1996)||Found that teaching efficacy of preservice and inservice teachers was highly influenced by the quality of courses they took, access to resources, time, and supportive colleagues.|
|Rich, et al. (1996)||Found that two teacher efficacy scales used in the U.S.A. were also reliable when translated into Hebrew and used with Israeli teachers.|
|Romano, 1996||Found that trained teachers were more likely to retain their gains in self-efficacy over time.|
|Ross, 1995||In reviewing the research on teaching efficacy, he found that teachers with greater efficacy judgments set more challenging goals for themselves and their students, took credit for student outcomes, and persisted longer on challenges to learning.|
|Ross, 1994||conducted a meta-analysis of 88 teacher efficacy studies and concluded that teachers with higher-levels of reported self-efficacy are more likely to set high goals for students, and themselves as teachers, and believe that they have more responsibility for student achievement|
|Soodak & Podell (1996)||Analyzed responses on the Teacher Efficacy Scale and found that it actually is comprised of three uncorrelated factors: 1) personal efficacy, 2) outcome efficacy, and 3) teaching efficacy|
|Weber & Omotani, 1995||"Low-efficacy teachers blame failure on students' family background and motivation, deprecate low achievers, and stratify their classrooms according to ability." Authors describe ways of improving teacher efficacy through collegiality, reduced workload and appropriate evaluation.|
|Personal Factors||Behavior/Performance||Environmental Influences|
|biological events||lessons learned||facilitators|
Ways of Changing Self-Efficacy
|Successful experiences||Modeling failures|
|High expectations||Low expectations|
|Debunking gender myths||Domain stereotyping|
|Teachers suggestions of adequate capabilities to perform a given task||Teachers suggestions of inadequate capabilities to perform a given task|
| ||Gender stereotyping
Enter feedback, comments, questions, or suggestions:
Email this page
Add or change any text to your message in the text field below:
Interventions Enhancing Self-Efficacy
Math Self-Efficacy (A-G)
Math Self-Efficacy (H-O)
Math Self-Efficacy (P-Z)
Teacher Efficacy (A-E)
Teacher Efficacy (F-L)
Teacher Efficacy (M-R)
Teacher Efficacy (S-Z)
Caution: Machine generated language translations may contain significant errors. Use with care.