Index: Educational Technology
Computer Applications (2001)
_____. (1996). ACTTive Technology, 1996. 77p. Four issues of this newsletter published by Project ACTT (Activating Children Through Technology), an Early Education Program for Children with Disabilities Outreach Project on educational technology, include the following major articles: "Computer Applications and Young Children with Disabilities: Positive Outcomes" (Patricia Hutinger); "Project ELIPSS (Emergent Literacy Instructional Program and Support Services) To Broadcast Six Interactive Satellite Programs Focusing on Literacy"; "Where There's a Will, There's a Way: Successful Technology Integration: One School's Story" (Letha Clark); "Building Access Bridges with Help from Technology" (Jennifer Bosworth); "Project ECCTS Early Childhood Comprehensive Technology System : Putting It All Together" (Robert Rippey); "What Can You Do with Spiders and Ducks?" (Judy Potter and Amy Betz); "Project ACTT Reports Outreach Survey Results"; "Portfolios in the Early Childhood Classroom"; "Imagine It Do It Create Software Unique to YOUR Classroom " (Carol Bell); "Technology that Works: A Research to Practice Approach" (Robert Rippey); "Using Nursery Rhymes and Song Lyrics with Emergent Readers" (Kathy Barclay); and "Curriculum Guide Enhances Software's Focus on Art Activities, Museum Exploration." Also included in each issue are numerous product reviews and announcements, editorials, suggestions for classroom activities, and a conference calendar. (DB) ED414686
Abdal-Haqq, I. (1995). Infusing Technology into Preservice Teacher Education. ERIC Digest. ED389699
Abramson, G. W., Ed. (1998). HyperNexus: Journal of Hypermedia and Multimedia Studies, 1997-1998. HyperNexus: Journal of Hypermedia and Multimedia Studies, v8, 1-3 1997-Jun 1998 Page Length: 114. This documents consists of articles on hypermedia and multimedia use in education. Article titles include: (1) Teaching HyperStudio Multimedia (Thomas A. Drazdowski); (2) PowerPoint '97 as an Authoring Tool (George K. Fornshell); (3) Ten Web Sites for Educators (Trudy Abramson); (4) Bloodbourne Pathogens Training Program (Vernon Czelusniak); (5) Security in the Telelearning Environment (Marlyn K. Littman); (6) French Immersion Content Taught via the Internet (Michelle Haj-Broussard and Alex Rath); (7) The Wonderful World of Time (Bart Hoffman); and (8) A Lesson Plan for Integrating Technology with Social Studies and Language Arts, Grade 5 (Linda Aubry). Additional articles include: (1) Integrating the Internet in the Elementary Classroom (Kevin Andreyo); and (2) A Model for Teaching Multimedia Computer Applications in Preservice Teacher Education (Gregory MacKinnon). Columns include editorials; messages from the Chair of the HyperSIG Board of Directors; and courseware, report, and book reviews. (AEF) ED437901
Ahtee, M., Ed., Meisalo, V., Ed., & Lavonen, J., Ed. (1994). Proceedings of the Finnish-Russian Symposium on Information Technology in Modern Physics Classroom (Halsinki, Finland, April 21-24, 1993). Research Report 123. 98p. The 15 conference papers in this report address a variety of issues such as computer applications in mechanics and optics, three-dimensional representation in physics teaching, computers in the physics laboratory, information technologies, the perceptual approach in physics education, improving students' conceptual understanding in physics, using computers in teaching physics to medical students, physics curriculum reform, and the examination of two-dimensional motion with video and computer programs. Papers include: (1) "Computer Practical Works in Physics: Mechanics and Optics" (Vasily A. Davydov, Sergey V. Lavristchev, and Alexandre V. Skurikhin); (2) "Animation Programs and Three Dimensional Presentations in the Teaching of Physics" (Jyrki Hokkanen and Peter Holmberg); (3) "Computers in Physics Laboratory" (Ari Hamalainen); (4) "An Approach to Computer Based Educational Environment on Physics" (Vladimir A. Karpov); (5) "New Information Technologies in Education: Mathematical Simulation Processes and Systems" (V.P. Konovalov); (6) "'Physics by Pictures': Simulation of Physical Experiments and Problems on PC in School-Physics Teaching" (Stanislav Kozel and Nataly Soboleva); (7) "Perceptional Approach in Physics Education" (Kaarle Kurki-Suonio); (8) "Using Microcomputer-Based Data Acquisition To Improve Pupils' Conceptual Understanding in Physics (Jari Lavonen); (9) Information Technology in a Modern Physics Classroom" (Veijo Meisalo); (10) "The Renewal of Physics Curriculum in Finland" (Veijo Meisalo); (11) "Computers in Teaching of Physics for Medical Students" (Tiiu Muursepp and Toomas Muursepp); (12) "Computer Models of Physical Processes in School Education" (A.M. Popov, O.B. Popovicheva, and E.A. Volkova); (13) "Examination of Two-Dimensional Motion with Video and Computer Program" (Reima Rouvinen); (14) "An Analysis of Some American and German Simulation Programs" (Martti Vulli); and (15) "Educational Software Package 'Physical Games on the Display'" (M.G. Zaitsev and S.A. Stremyakov). Contains 123 references. (DDR) ED419709 Available from: University of Helsinki, Department of Teacher Education, P.O. Box 38 (Ratakatu 6A), Helsinki 00014, Finland.
Alessi , S. M. (1996). Seeking common ground: Our conflicting viewpoints about learning and technology. The Peter Dean Lecture at the National Convention of the AECT.
Anandam, K. (1994). The Challenge of Institutionalizing Technology. 14pp. Paper presented at the Annual Technology Conference of the League for Innovation in the Community College (Houston, TX, November 13-16, 1994). In order to meet the challenge of institutionalizing technology, community college educators must first define their needs; second, delineate the physical, social, and cultural conditions that affect the environment; and third, examine the knowledge made available through the computer and its paraphernalia. Institutionalizing technology requires: (1) establishing institutional policies that address themes of funding; human infrastructure; rights and responsibilities of students, faculty, and staff; faculty and staff recruitment; and criteria for promotions, honors, and awards; (2) obtaining external funding; (3) undertaking a cost effectiveness study; (4) restructuring the human infrastructure; (5) using a 1:1:1:1/2 ratio in budgeting for hardware, software, personnel, and upgrading; (6) involving department heads in the integration of computing and curriculum; (7) promoting discipline-based training of faculty in computer applications; (8) promoting collaborative projects among faculty; (9) recognizing and rewarding employee contributions to the achievement of institutional goals; (10) providing pedagogical and research support to discipline coordinators and faculty; (11) shifting the role of faculty to become facilitators of learning; (12) encouraging faculty to become their own researchers as they integrate computer applications into their curriculum; (13) providing discipline-based support at the developmental level; and (14) informing administrators and staff of faculty's role in the integration of teaching and technology. (KP) ED379009
Avitabile, J. (1996). Assessing Change after a Computer Course for At-Risk Students. 6pp. In: Call of the North, NECC '96. Proceedings of the Annual National Educational Computing Conference (17th, Minneapolis, Minnesota, June 11-13, 1996); see IR 018 057. This paper describes the change in student attitudes after taking a computer literacy course which is part of a 6-week pre-college summer session. The summer session is designed for the educationally and financially disadvantages students of the Higher Education Opportunity Program (HEOP) and students from the ACCESS program who do not meet normal admissions criteria. The computer literacy course is taught in a Macintosh teaching lab, to classes of 12 to 14 students. The aim is to teach students how to use computers for all their coursework and to encourage students to be comfortable using technology. The course syllabus includes units on Microsoft Word, SuperPaint, the Internet, and HyperCard. To obtain a qualitative assessment of whether the course was meeting its objectives, a survey was distributed at both the beginning and the end of one summer session, asking students to rank their attitudes towards using computers on a scale of one to five, from completely disagree to completely agree. The overall change in student attitudes shows that students learn content and are more confident when they develop computer applications where they can implement their own ideas. (SWC) ED398879Ayersman, D. J. (1995). Effects of knowledge representation format and hypermedia instruction on metacognitive accuracy. Computers in Human Behavior, 11(3-4), 533-555.
_____. (1994). Business Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards. 300pp. Supersedes ED 358 266. This document contains vocational education program courses standards (curriculum frameworks and student performance standards) for business technology education programs in Florida. Each program courses standard is composed of two parts: a curriculum framework and student performance standards. The curriculum framework includes four major sections: major concepts/content, laboratory activities, special notes, and intended outcomes. Student performance standards are listed for each intended outcome. Other information provided is as follows: code number; secondary, college, and/or postsecondary adult vocational credits; applicable level(s); and certification coverage. The standards cover the following subjects: orientation to and exploration of business occupations; computer applications; practical computer and keyboarding skills; academy of desktop publishing; accounting and accounting applications, operations, records, and technology; business administration, management, and operations; business computer programming; business cooperative education, organization, and management; business data processing; business education directed study; business management; business software applications; computer applications, information systems analysis, programming, and programming applications; court reporting and technology; data entry; electronic/desktop publishing; financial records; general office clerk; information processing; international business management; legal secretarial and technology; medical secretarial and technology; office management technology, supervision, support services, support technology, systems specialist, and systems technology; postal service management; recordkeeping; records management and specialist; secretarial and secretarial services; small business management and operations; and word processing and technology. (YLB) ED374255
_____. (1996). Business Education. Preparing Students for Employment in Business Occupations. Alabama Course of Study. Bulletin 1996, No. 16. 100p. This guide, which is intended for classroom teachers, supervisors, and administrators in Alabama, contains the minimum required content (core program) for public school instruction in business education in grades 7-12. Presented first are the following: introduction examining the mission, purpose, goals, and structure of business education; conceptual framework of Alabama's business education course of study; discussion of instruction-related elements; and directions for interpreting the minimum required content. The next two sections consist of parallel lists of topics and content standards for courses in the following: accounting I and II, administrative office management, business careers, business computer applications, business communications, business law, business mathematics, business organizations and management, computer applications, financial management, keyboarding applications, rapidwriting, related study, and word processing and desktop publishing. For each course, the curriculum includes a course description and topics linked to content standards. Two appendixes provide diploma requirements and guidelines for local time requirements and homework. Contains 20 references. (KC) ED400428
_____. (1997). Business Technology Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards. 410p. This document contains vocational education program course standards (curriculum frameworks and student performance standards) for exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary and postsecondary level as part of the business technology education component of Florida's comprehensive vocational education program. Curriculum frameworks are provided for 54 programs/clusters: business systems and technology 1 and 2; academy of international business; academy of desktop publishing; accounting; accounting applications; accounting operations; accounting records; accounting technology; business administration and management; business administration operations; business computer programming; business cooperative education organization management; business cooperative education; business data processing; business education directed study; business keyboarding; business management; business software applications; computer applications in business 1 and 2; computer information systems analysis; computer programming; computer programming and applications; court reporting; data entry; electronic/desktop publishing; financial records; general office clerk; information processing; international business management; legal secretarial technology; medical secretarial technology; office management technology; office supervision; office support technology; office systems technology; postal service management; practical computer skills; practical keyboarding skills; recordkeeping; records management; records specialist; secretarial services; small business management; small business operations; and word processing technology. Each curriculum framework includes some or all of the following: program title, occupational area, grade level, length, certification awarded; major concepts/content covered in the course; laboratory activities; special notes; and intended outcomes. (MN) ED409429
Bailey, M., & Others, A. (1995). The Impact of Integrating Visuals in an Elementary Creative Writing Process. 11pp. In: Eyes on the Future: Converging Images, Ideas, and Instruction. Selected Readings from the Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (27th, Chicago, IL, October 18-22, 1995); see IR 017 629. Most children's books are filled with pictures, yet when schools design curricula to teach writing, they often ignore the role of visual images in the writing process. Historically, methods for teaching writing have focused on text. Even relatively recent techniques like brainstorming and story webbing still focus on verbal information. In some cases, however, visuals have been used as a story stimulus to generate writing ideas or evoke emotional expression. This paper describes a study which sought to measure the effects of the introduction of computer clip art and graphical presentation software on the writing process. In particular, researchers wondered if the use of these visuals would affect length and quality of compositions, student motivation and esteem, student ability to organize thoughts into paragraphs, and student reaction to sharing compositions. The study examined 25 second-graders engaged in a daily writer's workshop that included brainstorming, story webbing, drafting, editing, publishing, and presenting. Data was collected via observation, a final group debriefing, interviews with both teachers and students, and analysis of the final creative papers themselves. Children used clip art as icons as aids for mapping sequences and chronologies, and as trial-and-error aids in story planning. Many students had difficulty applying themselves to the writing process once they learned that a computer would assist them at the editing stage, but the computer's presence also lent fun to preparing the final draft, which can become mundane or frustrating. Graphical presentation software also took some of the anxiety out of sharing papers with the whole class; attention was drawn away from the child to the onscreen graphics. There was ample evidence to support the conclusion that these computer applications enhanced length and quality of compositions; increased student self-esteem; enhanced, helped students organize their thoughts via storyboarding; and got good overall reaction from the students. (BEW) ED391492
Barker, B. O., & Others, A. (1995). Reforming Teacher Education through the Integration of Advanced Technologies: Case Study Report of a College Model. 23pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (47th, Washington, DC, February 12-15, 1995). The College of Education and Human Services at Western Illinois University has established a model to prepare teachers with technical expertise and new methodologies for using educational resources, in order to enable students to use audio, video, computer, telecommunications, distance learning, and interactive multimedia technologies as essential tools for teaching and learning. The project, made possible by a $500,000 grant from Ameritech Corporation, has involved: (1) development of a Professional Development School relationship with a Springfield (Illinois) public school district linked by distance learning technologies; (2) design of a teacher education curriculum focusing on instructional design, interactive multimedia, distance learning, instructional video, telecommunications, and computer applications; (3) linking these advanced technologies to teaching strategies through cooperative learning, electronic field trips, and other techniques; (4) integration of technology into the teacher education curriculum; (5) training teacher education faculty to model use of information technologies; and (6) acquisition of technology resources for faculty and students. Lessons learned from developing the project are outlined. Appendixes present a schematic representation of a multimedia lab floor plan and lists of equipment. (JDD) ED379274
Berggren, A. G. (1996). Writing as Involvement: A Case for Face-to-Face Classroom Talk in a Computer Age. 9pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (47th, Milwaukee, WI, March 27-30, 1996). The abandonment of face-to-face voice conversations in favor of the use of electronic conversations in composition classes is an issue to be interrogated. In a recent push to "prepare students for the 21st century," teachers are asked to teach computer applications in the humanitiesand composition teachers, who will teach writing in computer labs using, among other techniques, electronic classroom conversations, are being recruited. Enthusiasts claim that this will ensure more student and less teacher participation and overcome hierarchies based on sex, race, class, attractiveness, personal charm, or status, leading to more equalization of power. But should voice conversation, face-to-face talk, be uncritically abandoned? Voice conversation can aid the development of writing by emphasizing what is missing in writing, what must be made up for, and what contextual clues, elaborations, and tones have to be inserted to guide readers. Voice conversation in the classroom also helps develop the kinds of oral practice that are part of writing in the academy as well as in the outside world. An important forum for both invention and feedback be lost when students are required to write their conversation. Replacing voice with electronic conversations in the classroom put too much emphasis on the "how" of writing rather than the "why" of writing and class rapport not be established via computer because too few facets of personality get translated electronically. (Contains 8 references.) (CR) ED402591
Binion, M., Ed. (June 22, 1994). Tuning in to the 21st Century through Assistive Technology: Listen to the Music. Proceedings of the RESNA '94 Annual Conference (Nashville, TN, June 17-22, 1994). Volume 14. Papers in this conference proceedings focused on the progress and potential of assistive and rehabilitation technology for individuals with disabilities and ways that RESNA members could help these ideas to be realized. Presentations were delivered on the following topics: (1) service delivery and public policy issues; (2) personal transportation; (3) augmentative and alternative communication; (4) drooling; (5) quantitative assessment; (6) special education, including telephone technology for sensory integration, assessing predispositions to technology use in special education, explaining legal ramifications of the appropriate application of assistive technology in the Individualized Education Program, voicing dyslexia remediation, speech evaluation of habilitation training of children with hearing impairments, and innovative interagency collaboration; (7) technology transfer; (8) sensory aids; (9) wheeled mobility and seating; (10) electrical stimulation; (11) computer applications; (12) rural rehabilitation; (13) assistive robotics and mechatronics; (14) job accommodation and employment issues; (15) information networking; (16) gerontology; (17) international appropriate technology; (18) Easter Seal Student Design Competition; and (19) Whitaker Student Scientific Paper Competition. Presentations include references. (CR) ED431281
Bishop, J. H. (1995). Expertise and Excellence. Working Paper 95-13. 154p. The research literature on the preparation of young people for work proves that policy recommendations are based on two false premisesacademic skills are good substitutes for occupation-specific skills and increases in job turnover and skill obsolescence rates have caused a decline in the return to occupation- specific training by schools. Analyses provide strong evidence that both generic technical competence and occupation-specific competencies have large effects on worker productivity and other indicators of labor market success. The decline in occupational turnover means the social returns to occupational skills training have increased. The rapid obsolescence of skills implies greater need for occupational skills development, not reduced need. If vocational students learn less mathematics and science than many academic students, it is because they take less demanding, not fewer, academic courses. School-based occupational training produces four effects: within-job productivity, technology-skill transfer, job access, and job stability. Because getting a training-related job is essential for the training to pay off, greater emphasis needs to be given to ensuring that graduates find such employment. The payoff to teaching computer applications is very large. Most high school vocational students could develop their skills more rapidly if their program presented greater challenges and expected more of them. (Includes 12 figures and 18 tables. Appendixes contain 172 references and 38 endnotes.) (YLB) ED389853
Black, E. D. (1998 Length: 30 Page(s); 1 Microfiche). Staff Development Baseline Needs Assessment. Analysis of a Statewide Survey of Directors and Full-Time Instructors. A survey was conducted to determine the technical curriculum needs of adult basic education (ABE) directors and full-time instructors employed through the Georgia Department of Technical and Adult Education's Office of Adult Literacy. Data were gathered through a 93-item survey that was developed and administered to all the 37 directors at a conference in February 1998 and by mail to 159 instructors, with 117 instructors (73 percent) responding. Results of the data analysis yielded implications for staff development planning for computer technology integration in adult basic education. Findings were as follows: (1) 94 percent of the ABE professionals had access to computer technology; (2) these educators want to know the advantages of computer-facilitated training; (3) they face time constraints as barriers to use of computer technology and do not want to work with complex computer applications; (4) they want curriculum compatible with their values and experiences as adult educators; (5) they need time to experiment with computer applications; (6) they want to see how other adult educators use computer technology; and (7) ABE professionals need technical support. (The survey instrument is included.) (KC) ED428176
Bowen, B., Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1991). Computer-supported intentional learning environments. In F.V. Phillips (Ed.), Thinkwork: Working.learning, and managing in a computer-interactive society. New York: Praeger. Pp. 87-98.
Breunig, N. A. (1995). Understanding the Sampling Distribution and Its Use in Testing Statistical Significance. 25pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association (Biloxi, MS, November 1995). Despite the increasing criticism of statistical significance testing by researchers, particularly in the publication of the 1994 American Psychological Association's style manual, statistical significance test results are still popular in journal articles. For this reason, it remains important to understand the logic of inferential statistics. A fundamental concept in inferential statistics is the sampling distribution. This paper explains the sampling distribution and the Central Limit Theorem and their role in statistical significance testing. Included in the discussion is a demonstration of how computer applications can be used to teach students about the sampling distribution. The paper concludes with an example of hypothesis testing and an explanation of how the standard deviation of the sampling distribution is either calculated based on statistical assumptions or is empirically estimated using logics such as the "bootstrap." These concepts are illustrated through the use of hand generated and computer examples. An appendix displays five computer screens designed to teach these topics. (Contains 1 table, 4 figures, and 20 references.) (Author/SLD) ED393939Burton, J. K., Moore, D. M., & Holmes, G. A. (1995). Hypermedia concepts and research: An overview. Computers in Human Behavior, 11(3-4), 345-369.
6 .Clark, R. E. (1983). Reconsidering research on learning from media. Review of Educational Research, 53(4), 445-459.
Castleman, J. B. (1995). Decreasing Computer Anxiety and Increasing Computer Usage among Early Childhood Education Majors through a Hands-On Approach in a Nonthreatening Environment. 62pp. Ed.D. Practicum, Nova Southeastern University. This practicum was designed to lessen the computer anxiety of early childhood education majors enrolled in General Curriculum or General Methods courses, to assist them in learning more about computer applications, and to increase the amount of time spent using computers. Weekly guidelines were given to the students, and a hands-on approach was used in a laboratory setting. Students were encouraged to explore applications beyond the minimal guidelines with the understanding that their grades would not be affected adversely by their computer experiences. The 10 students were allotted a 2-hour block of time each week in the technology lab and were encouraged to use the facilities during regular lab hours. Each student used the various types of computers available. Analysis revealed that all of those enrolled demonstrated basic knowledge about computers and basic operating skills, with a majority indicating an increase in their knowledge of computer applications. All students showed an increase in computer usage and a majority of participants expressed a higher level of confidence in using computers and a reduced level of anxiety, and all indicated that they would use computers more extensively in the future. Three appendixes present a use checklist, a usage log, and the study questionnaire. (Contains 2 tables and 20 references.) (Author/SLD) ED389271
Cates, D. L., & Smiley, F. M. (1999). Multiple Disabilities: Is Rural Inclusion Possible? In: Rural Special Education for the New Millennium. Conference Proceedings of the American Council on Rural Special Education (ACRES) (19th, Albuquerque, New Mexico, March 25-27, 1999); see RC 021 888. Page Length: 6. This paper focuses on the difficulties faced by rural school districts in their efforts to serve children with severe multiple disabilities. Both historic and contemporary views on mainstreaming and inclusion of students with multiple disabilities are presented. Concerns of educators about the inclusion of such students center around the amount of time required to ensure appropriate inclusion. Suggestions offered include the use of student-centered learning approaches such as cooperative learning, holistic approaches to reading and language instruction, and curricular modification. Mainstreaming advocates believe that special education teachers require in-depth training and extensive support. Suggestions for rural schools include: (1) computer applications utilizing Internet, e-mail, and distance learning; (2) team teaching interactions at both the elementary and secondary levels; (3) peer tutoring and service education (experiences in volunteerism) of mainstreamed public school students who can assist their special education counterparts; (4) collaboration between nondisabled and disabled students in after-school activities; (5) involvement of faculty in nonschool activities; (6) working relationship with community medical and health care professionals; and (7) professional educators serving as an integral part of family support systems. Contains 14 references. (CDS) ED429785
Chaiklin, S., & Lewis, M. W. (1988). Will there be teachers in the classroom of the future? ... But we don't think about that. Teachers College Record, 89(3), 431-440.
Chen, C.-H., & Brown, S. W. (1994). Results of the Computer Use Survey for School of Education Students. 29pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Education Association (New Orleans, LA, April 4-8, 1994). To gather information on the importance of current educational-technology innovations for students in the IBM Teacher Preparation Program (an integrated Bachelor's and Master's program) at the University of Connecticut's School of Education, a survey was sent to all students enrolled in the program in April 1993. Responses were received from 115 students, 93 of whom were female. Almost 95% had taken a course that taught them to use computers, with 80.5% of these courses at the college level. Approximately 56% reported that they often used computers. As teachers, 35.4% indicated that they seldom used a computer, while 27.4% used one often, and 22.1% never used one. Nearly 16% used computers often as an instructional tool. A majority (79.6%) used computers for word processing, but almost 57% did not use any computer applications to develop instruction. Subjects had the greatest degree of confidence in computer use for individualized instruction and the least confidence in computer use for large group instruction. Overall, it is evident that students are learning with and about computers. Nine figures present survey findings. An appendix presents the survey itself. (SLD) ED372098
Clagett, C. A., & Alexander, H. J. (1995). Maryland Community College Workforce Training Evaluation and Needs Assessment Survey. 35pp. Prepared with support from the Maryland Community College Research Group. In January 1995, the Maryland Association of Deans and Directors of Continuing Education/Community Services undertook a study of all state organizations that had received workforce training under contract arrangements during 1993-94. The study sought to develop a profile of organizations served, determine employer satisfaction with training, and identify future workforce training needs. A total of 1,021 employers were surveyed, with responses being received from 561, representing organizations ranging in size from less than 25 employees to firms with over 5,000 workers. Government, manufacturing, and healthcare represented 63% of the respondents. An analysis of responses indicated the following: (1) the median number of employees participating in contract training at each site was 25, while the primary goal of training for 74% of the respondents was to upgrade the quality of employee performance in a current job; (2) cost-effectiveness was cited by 69% of respondents regarding their choice of a community college for training; (3) 60% of respondents were very satisfied with the training and 37% were satisfied; (4) 96% would recommend their community college to others, 57% indicated that they would definitely use the college again, and 36% that they probably would; (5) top anticipated employee training needs cited by respondents were computer applications, interpersonal relations, written/oral communications, and customer service training; (6) top anticipated management training needs were supervision/leadership, total quality management/continuous improvement, and personnel and labor law; and (7) top anticipated needs for training-related services were customized job-skill training, help in seeking funds for training, and analysis to assess employee needs. (KP) ED384376
Clawson, T. (1995). The Role of Assessment in Counselor Certification. ERIC Digest. ED388885
Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt. (1993). Designing learning environments that support thinking: The Jasper series as a case study. In Duffy, T.M., Lowyck, J., &
Connell, M. L., & Abramovich, S. (March 1999). New Tools for New Thoughts: Effects of Changing the "Tools-To-Think-With" on the Elementary Mathematics Methods Course. In: SITE 99: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (10th, San Antonio, TX, February 28-March 4, 1999); see IR 019 584. A central tenet of mathematics education reform is the integral role of technology at all grade levels. Current technological changes combined with changes in mathematics content and instructional method require elementary mathematics teachers to be able to design technology intensive lessons for exploration and discovery of these concepts through appropriate computer applications. In actual practice, however, most computer applications provided for mathematics education consist of software designed for a specific educational purposethe "solution in a can" scenario. Furthermore, economical constraints often stand in the way of incorporating such special purpose software into an instructional setting. This paper discusses an alternative to this traditional approach which shifts the instructional focus from specific computer applications to more sophisticated uses of general purpose software. In particular, educational uses of spreadsheets are developed as an exemplar for this approach. The methods and approaches described were presented to graduate and undergraduate mathematics education majors in a continuing education course on microcomputers in the elementary mathematics classroom. (Author/AEF) ED432267Cooper, P.A. (1993). Paradigm shifts in designed instruction: From behaviorism to cognitivism to constructivism. Educational Technology, 23(5), 12-19.
Davis, J. B. (1999). Improving Transfer of Learning in a Computer Based Classroom. Masters Action Research Project, Saint Xavier University & IRI/Skylight. Page Length: 53. This report describes a program for improving the transfer of the learning of different techniques used in computer applications. The targeted population consisted of sophomores and juniors in a suburban high school in a middle class community. The problem was documented through teacher surveys, student surveys, anecdotal records and behavioral checklists. Analysis of probable causes revealed that students lack motivation, have an inability to organize their thinking, and lack confidence and prior knowledge of computer applications. Faculty reported that students have inability to share ideas and knowledge, that they easily give up on a problem, and have difficulty transferring techniques from one problem to another. A review of research literature suggested that students are not taught how to transfer and that transfer will happen on its own. Students do not have a mental working model of the actual workplace setting and do not understand how their present learning will transfer into a real world problem. A review of solutions strategies by researchers in the field, combined with an analysis of the problem setting resulted in the selection of three major categories of intervention: provide a real world problem for the students to solve, demonstrate computer application techniques that transfer from one application to another, and make the students more aware of their own thinking. Post intervention data indicated that the targeted students demonstrated an improvement of their transfer of learning skills. (Contains 26 references.) (AEF) ED437905Draude, B., & Brace, S. (March 1999). Assessing the Impact of Technology on Teaching and Learning: Student Perspectives. In: Proceedings of the Mid-South Instructional Technology Conference (Murfreesboro, TN, March 28-30, 1999); see IR 019 734. For the 1998 study, see ED 431 392. A 1998 study of Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) faculty assessed the impact of technology on teaching and learning; this present study of MTSU students extends the 1998 study by measuring student perceptions about instructional technology and the impact it has on learning. A four-part questionnaire was distributed to 1,900 students in technology-equipped classrooms across campus. The first part of the questionnaire measured student perceptions and skills related to various types of technologies. The second part measured frequency of use of various instructional technology applications, including computer applications to present lecture outlines or demonstrate concepts, audio/visual equipment, electronic communication, and supplementary use or development of materials such as World Wide Web pages, computer-assisted instruction modules, and computer- based applications. The third segment of the questionnaire gathered information about the projected future use of instructional technology by students, and the final portion gathered demographic information. Survey results led to the following major findings: (1) use of instructional technology positively affects student learning; (2) use of instructional technology increases student interest and satisfaction; (3) role of faculty and their ability to use instructional technology are major factors; (4) certain instructional technology techniques better facilitate certain learning activities; and (5) instructional technology is an integral part of today's learning environment. (MES) ED436118
Edyburn, D. L., & Others, A. (1995). The View Finder: International Perspectives on Special Education Technology. Volume 3. 51pp. For Volume 2, see ED 366 155. The four articles in this monograph present issues in the application of technology to special education from an international perspective. In the first chapter, "Augmentative and Alternative Communication SystemsComputer Applications for Individuals with Disabilities: An International Perspective," Richard Cardinali and George McMurdo provide a comparative review of the developments in technology-based communication systems in the United States and Scotland (United Kingdom). They argue that use of augmentative and alternative communication is currently limited due to a lack of role models, a lack of vision, and insufficient training. The second article is titled "Computer Applications for Special Needs Students: What Canadian Teachers Use and Need," by C. Laine and others. This paper reports the results of a national survey of Canadian special education teachers on special education technology including such issues as access, use, and unmet needs. The third paper is "Technology and Social Skills Training Program for Students with Special Needs in Israel: 'I Found a Solution,'" by Malka Margalit. This paper reports on five studies of students with mild disabilities who used a computer-assisted social skills program called "I Found a Solution." It suggests such programs have tremendous value in enabling students to experiment and rehearse solutions for social conflicts. The final paper is "The Indonesian System of Caring: Beyond Technology Solutions to Human Problems" by Judy W. Kugleman. It raises questions concerning unanticipated outcomes that arise from over-reliance on technology and the dangers of assumptions about shared beliefs and values in multicultural societies. (Papers contain references.) (DB) ED393245Eisenman, J. G., Jr. (1995). An Evaluation of the Higher Order Thinking Skills Program with Fourth and Fifth Grade Students. 30p. The Higher Order Thinking Skills Program (HOTS) is a computer-based program for teaching thinking skills developed by Stanley Pogrow at the University of Arizona. It is now used in over 800 U.S. schools. This study investigated the effects of the HOTS program versus the traditional Chapter 1 program on fourth and fifth grade students' self-concepts, reading achievement, and higher order thinking skills. Of secondary interest was the examination of gender differences in the HOTS and Chapter 1 programs. Subjects included 113 students in the HOTS group and 72 in the traditional Chapter 1 group. HOTS subjects received 45 minutes of instruction each day using the HOTS curriculum and computer applications. Student self-concept, achievement, and thinking skills were measured before and after the intervention. Findings suggested that the HOTS program was effective in raising student self-concept and some higher order thinking skills in grade 5. The program appeared to be more effective after 2 years of treatment, with females affected more than males. Both HOTS and Chapter 1 raised student achievement scores, but there were no statistically significant differences in achievement between the two groups. Results also suggested that more coordination is needed between the HOTS program and the regular classroom. (Contains 12 tables and 27 references.) (SLD) ED393873
FFago, G. C. (1995). Teaching Statistics: Shaping, Fading and Concept Formation. 16pp. In: Teaching of Psychology: Ideas and Innovations. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Undergraduate Teaching of Psychology (9th, Ellenville, NY, March 22-24, 1995); see JC 960 009. Based on the assumption that a hands-on approach would enable students to better grasp the usefulness of concepts presented, a course and laboratory component in non-experimental research methodology, statistics, and computer applications for beginning students was implemented at Ursinus College, in Pennsylvania. The course meets 3 hours a week for lecture and 1 hour for the laboratory, and students are primarily freshmen and sophomore psychology majors. The course, and specifically the laboratory experiences, place an emphasis on the principle of "shaping," as students progress in discrete and detailed modules from very elemental instruction in and practice with basic computer commands to analyses of their own psychometric scales using correlation and regression routines. The course also emphasizes the principles of "fading" and "concept formation" in that exact commands for accessing data are provided in lab instructions early in the term, with students merely typing in what they are given, but are gradually eliminated from instructions so that students must use acquired concepts. Lab sessions also offer students an opportunity for collaborative learning, as they cooperate and share insights to help each other. Sample student instructions from laboratory sessions related to frequency and correlation exercises are appended. (BCY) ED389377
Giles, L., & Others, A. (1996). A New Deal for Secretaries? Report 313. 83p. A study identified the current and future skill requirements of secretaries through a review of available data and research literature; interviews with key players in the secretarial field and employers and secretaries in 20 British organizations; and a forum where research findings were discussed. Findings indicated that in the majority of organizations the number of secretaries had declined. Key factors driving changes in secretarial roles and functions were advances in information technology and increased computerization; changes in organizational structures; and changes in organizational cultures and working practices. The traditional secretarial role as support worker still predominated but research pointed to the emergence of two new secretarial roles: the team player and the independent worker. As support workers, secretaries were expected to have good oral and written communication skills, interpersonal skills, understanding of the organizational structure and nature of business, and ability to use a range of computer applications, office equipment, and technology. As team workers, they needed to be assertive, be able to manage pressure and conflicting demands, have an understanding of group dynamics, be both cooperative and collaborative, and be able to manage conflict and consensus. As independent workers, secretaries were developing their own areas of work and responsibilities. Little evidence was found that development and career opportunities for secretaries were improving significantly. (Contains 31 references.) (YLB) ED398451
Glowacki, M. L., & Others, A. (1995). Developing Computerized Tests for Classroom Teachers: A Pilot Study. 13pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association (Biloxi, MS, November 8-10, 1995). Two types of computerized testing have been defined: (1) computer-based testing, using a computer to administer conventional tests in which all examinees take the same set of items; and (2) adaptive tests, in which items are selected for administration by the computer, based on examinee's previous responses. This paper discusses an option for classroom teachers that is easier to develop than a computerized adaptive test, but more secure and sophisticated than a computer- based test. The process of developing and pilot testing the computer-administered test and the results of a survey of student reactions are described. Subjects for the study consisted of 108 undergraduates taking summer educational technology courses in computer applications at a Southern university. Identical items were used for paper-and-pencil and computerized tests. No significant differences were found for either administration. Student responses indicated that: all of the students had familiarity with computers; 94% had no problems understanding the test directions; 53% initially experienced anxiety about taking the test on a computer; 89% indicated that the computer test was as fair as a paper test; and 61% indicated a preference for the computer test, while 19% indicated that both methods worked equally well. Four tables depict results for computerized tests versus paper-and-pencil tests; descriptive data for both kinds of tests; students' yes/no responses to the attitude survey; and examinee's comments regarding computerized testing. (AEF) ED391471Gruender, C. D. (1996). Constructivism and learning: A philosophical appraisal. Educational Technology, 36(3), 21-29.
Hallis, R. H., Jr. (1996). Authoring Multimedia in an Academic Library. 14p. The term "multimedia" is defined as the integration of text, audio sound, static graphic images, animations, and full motion video. Multimedia encompasses a number of components and levels of sophistication, and has come to denote the cutting edge of a technology that continues to change with unprecedented speed. Gaining a proficiency in authoring multimedia resources involve a steep learning curve and significant cost to implement the infrastructure needed to support the work. This paper discusses the elements of a multimedia presentation; the structure and procedure for authoring multimedia resources; the types of computer applications that be used; the opportunity costs associated with the allocation of staff time and equipment for different levels of multimedia resources; and provides examples of successes and failures encountered with the use of multimedia presentations in library instruction and expert systems at the University of Nebraska at Omaha. Authoring multimedia resources can make one's job easier and can provide expanded service to the academic community. (SWC) ED400822
Hannafin, M. J., Dalton, D. W., & Hooper, S. R. (1987). Computers in education: Barriers and solutions. In. E. E. Miller & M. L. Mosley (Eds.), Educational media and technology yearbook. Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited.
Herr, E. L. (1998). Assessment '98: A Hotbed of Issues and Challenges. 34pp. Paper presented at the ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Student Services Conference: "Assessment '98: Assessment for Change - Changes in Assessment" (St. Petersburg, FL, January 16-18, 1998). The status of assessment in terms of federal policy, the social or economic climate related to education, the role of testing in counseling, assessment as an intervention in its own right, and assessment as it is affected by technology are important components of the context of issues and challenges related to assessment at the edge of the 21st century. This lecture raises questions about assessment and its uses in education, the workplace, and society. Because bias is intrinsic to the form of assessment used, the problem cannot be eliminated simply by changing the test questions. The sociopolitical context as well as the psychometric properties of tests, the use of tests for accountability, the relationship of standards to the means provided for meeting those standards, and the several validities that any measurement procedure has, must be considered. Questions are raised on issues surrounding infrastructure, changing social values, the political nature of the debate, technical capacity, national standards, training, response to media and policy makers, and purposes of testing by school counselors. Several issues such as those concerning testing and licensing between the several professional organizations involved and issues of "teaching the test," computer applications, ethics and the Internet, and training counselors, are discussed. (EMK) ED426331 You be able to order this document from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service.
Howley, A. A., & Howley, C. B. (1994). Receptivity to Telecommunications among K-12 Teachers in a Rural State: Results of a West Virginia Survey. 31pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Rural Education Association (Tuscaloosa, AL, October 1994). Distance education is a way to provide needed instructional resources to rural schools, and the Internet and other telecommunications networks are the newest addition to the distance education toolkit. However, little is known about rural teachers' technological skills and attitudes in this area. A mail survey of 262 K- 12 teachers in West Virginiaa predominantly rural stateexamined their computer and telecommunications skills, resources available to support telecommunications networking, teacher attitudes about the utility of classroom and professional development applications of telecommunications, and background variables contributing to teacher attitudes. Teachers were familiar with various computer applications, particularly instructional applications and word processing. Although much less familiar with possible applications of telecommunications, teachers were generally receptive. Few had the hardware and software necessary to use telecommunications, however. While few teachers had actually used telecommunications services, nearly 70 percent wanted access so that students could get information for class projects, and 65 percent wanted access to full-text materials for themselves. Teacher attitudes were influenced by instructional level and teaching experience, while level of technological skills was related to gender and access to technology. Despite high teacher interest, future usage patterns of rural teachers are more likely to be influenced by state concerns for control, uniformity, and "efficiency," and by the extent to which private enterprise takes over the information superhighway for profit and limits access for rural areas. (SV) ED374958
Hruskocy, C., Ertmer, P. A., Johnson, T., & Cennamo, K. S. (1997). Students as Technology Experts: A "Bottom-Up" Approach to Teacher Technology Development. 16pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, March 24-28, 1997). The intent of this "bottom-up" project was to create a community of learners to facilitate the implementation of computer technologies in the elementary school curriculum. The participants were 6 graduate students and their professor, 10 teachers (grades 1-5), their students, and the librarian in a Professional Development School. Each week on "Tech Days" the students received training for one-half hour, with the graduate students and the professor providing training in computer applications. Second semester, in addition to "Tech Day" instruction, some students received extra intensive training to enable them to serve as "experts" in the classroom environment. University team members were responsible for planning activities with the teachers and librarian and providing after- school sessions for teachers. Study findings revealed both benefits and limitations to this approach. Benefits included increased motivation for teachers to learn about and use technology in their classrooms, changes in the attitudes and motivation of the students, and more independence and confidence in using technology. Limitations focused on logistics (number of available computers, time problems, inadequate staffing and funding). As a result of this "bottom-up" approach, teachers became more for frequent users of technology, and they began to use their students' expertise to increase their own computer skills. (Contains 16 references.) (ND) ED411237Huston, R., Ed., & Armel, D., Ed. (1994). Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) Summer Conference. Proceedings (27th, North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, June 12-16, 1994). 349pp. For 1992 proceedings, see ED 357 732. Topics addressed by 40 papers from a conference on microcomputers include: developing a campus wide computer ethics policy; integrating new technologies into professional education; campus computer networks; computer assisted instruction; client/server architecture; competencies for entry-level computing positions; auditing and professional development; mobile computing; computer applications in physics; artificial neural networks; virtual classrooms; the North Carolina Information Highway; Computer Science curriculum; expert systems; ethics for information systems professionals; listservs; local area networks; computer security; computer simulations; telecommunications and education; campus- wide information systems (CWIS); and the Internet. This volume also includes information about ASCUE; a list of ASCUE board members; and a presenters index. Most of the papers include references. (JLB) ED372752
I_____. (1994). Implementation Guide for Educational Technology. 23p. This guide for the implementation of educational technology in the Troy (Ohio) City Schools begins with a discussion of the advantages of technology use in schools; the mission statement for the Troy schools; educational technology- related goals for the school district; the educational technology mission statement; and educational technology beliefs/guiding principles. The overall mission of the education technology program is given as providing students with an environment that fosters and promotes the use of technology as an essential skill for a productive life; some of the beliefs and guiding principles of the program include: teaching technological skills is a shared responsibility between teachers and media/technology staff members; technology facilitates student- directed learning and personal growth; and technology enhances four key elements of effective classroom learningactive, cooperative, interdisciplinary, and individualized learning. The handbook then presents ten district goals and six student goals. Each goal is followed by its corresponding implementation methods and activities, with activities for the student goals presented in separate lists for the elementary, junior high, and high school levels. Issues addressed by the district goals include staff development; planning, selection and implementation of technology; provision of current and appropriate resources; computer networking for information; and integration of technology into the curriculum. Issues addressed by student goals include educational and career related-computer applications, and the use of technology to gather information and for problem solving. Ethical conduct in technology use is a concern for both teachers and students. (JLB) ED375823
John, M. T., & John, F. I. (1998). Technology Builds Global Acceptance among African Students. 24pp. Paper presented at the International Conference on Thinking (7th, Singapore, June 1997). This paper describes how a new university, African Nazarene University (ANU) in Kenya, used various means, including computer technology, for implementing learning goals for students from a wide variety of African countries and tribes. The paper stresses that the school, which opened in 1994 with 65 students, emphasized tolerance of differences from its inception. The paper reviews land acquisition, building, and such problems as frequent break-ins and unreliable electricity. Also addressed are faculty use of informal communication with students, the dedication of faculty, and developing student tolerance for different customs and foods. Specific strategies used to build tolerance are discussed. These included an open-door policy; the use of technology as a leveler, including required courses in keyboarding and computer applications; posting of "hallmarks" or goals of ANU students; and a view of faculty, staff, and administrators as positive role models. The paper notes that student and faculty unity were also furthered by a succession of crises during the school's first year. Samples of student comments on their ANU experience are attached. (Contains 14 references.) (DB) ED423759
Johnson, R. T., Johnson, D. W., & Stanne, M. B. (1986). Comparison of computer-assisted cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. American Educational Research Journal, 23(3), 382-392.
Johnson, R., McKnight, T., & Tackett, B. (1997). Introduction to Computer Applications. 61pp. For related curriculum guides, see CE 074 825-833. This document is designed for high school teachers to use in teaching a course that introduces students to computing through hands-on experience with databases, spreadsheets, desktop publishing, and word processing. The document begins with a rationale, brief course description, list of course objectives, and list of 10 innovative teaching strategies. The remainder of the guide consists of units devoted to the following topics: word processing (improve keyboarding and language skills and use word processing software to create and format formal and simplified memorandums, reports, and business letters); desktop publishing (create documents with borders, original drawings, color; clip art, and original art; use draw and paint tools; and apply effective design principles); spreadsheets (become familiar with spreadsheet components, navigate in a spreadsheet, change cells' sizes, enter data and simple formulas, use simple formatting features, and save and print a spreadsheet); and databases (plan, create, and modify a database; enter records; format fields; show records; sort a database; execute queries to find specific information in a database; and create, format, and print database reports). The units include exercises, sample documents, and self-assessments. Contains 11 references. (MN) ED412345
Jonassen, D.H. (eds.). Designing Environments for Constructive Learning. Springer-Verlag: Berlin Heidelberg.
Jones, B., Comp. (1996). Promising Practices in Florida: Integrating Academic and Vocational Education. 102p. This document is a compilation of 90 successful interdisciplinary projects and activities and integrated academic and vocational curriculum ideas implemented in Florida during the past 3 years. The activities and projects have been submitted by teachers and have not been officially evaluated or reviewed. Each description provides this information: school/district; contact person with address and telephone number; subject/program area(s); grade(s); description; instructional activities; materials and resources; and comments. Broad topic areas include the following: agriculture; algebra; U.S. government; U.S. history; art; automotive; biology; building construction; business education; accounting; computer applications; keyboarding; office technology; word processing; business law; business mathematics; carpentry; chemistry; child care; child development; computer literacy; construction trades; criminal justice; diversified cooperative training; drafting; drama; drivers education; dropout prevention; economics; electronics; English; applied communication; language arts; family and consumer sciences; foreign language; graphic arts; health occupations; history; home economics; journalism; marketing; masonry; mathematics; applied mathematics; music; personal fitness; physical education; physical science; physics; principles of technology; science; small engines; social studies; Spanish; technology; technology education; and television production. An index is provided. (YLB) ED391099Jones, D. A., & Others, A. (1996). Twin Tandem Science Initiative: A Celebration of Diversity. 11p. This Dwight D. Eisenhower Mathematics and Science Education in-service project in northwest Indiana, based on a contextual constructivist perspective, sought to enhance science learning by improving science teaching in grades K-8. Elementary and middle school teachers from urban, suburban, and rural public and parochial schools attended a summer workshop in which they engaged in activity-based science learning; participated in exercises in cooperative planning, science concept enrichment, process skills development, and relevant computer applications; and discussed options for interdisciplinary science learning. After school began, the teachers attended assessment training workshops during which they developed pre- and post-test instruments for evaluating student science learning. Lesson plans developed during the summer workshop were implemented during the school year, and assessment instruments were submitted, including journals, data record sheets, notebook entries, charting and graphing, laboratory techniques and reports, written tests and concept mapping, observations and oral exchange, and drawings and art projects. Nearly all teacher reported improved student attitudes and science learning among the 1,772 project students. Project results underscore the value of teacher-prepared multiple assessment measures for equitable and realistic evaluation of science learning. (NAV) ED391797
Kahn, R., & Others, A. (1994). How To Plan a Conference for Student Scholars. 65pp. An AACC Beacon College project, conducted in collaboration with Bergen Community College, Brookdale Community College, Catonsville Community College, Dutchess Community College, Harford Community College, Kingsborough Community College, Middlesex Community/Technical College, Nassau Community College, and Westchester Community College. Through a Beacon grant from the American Association of Community Colleges and the Kellogg Foundation, Rockland Community College, in association with nine other Mid-Atlantic community colleges, organized two conferences for student scholars at two-year colleges. Students were invited to submit papers in all disciplines (e.g., the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, technical fields, and special areas such as creative writing, computer applications, and multicultural areas). The papers originated from classroom assignments or from independent student work conducted under the guidance of a faculty member. Prizes were awarded to both students and their faculty mentors. The 1993 conference received 99 submissions from 28 different colleges. Of these 41 were chosen for presentation, and 15 students and their mentors were awarded $100 cash prizes. Faculty judges from four-year institutions determined the prize-winning presentation in each subject-organized panel. This booklet explains the processes used by Rockland and the other participating colleges in organizing, publicizing, and administering the conferences. The booklet covers: (1) the formation and tasks of the planning consortium; (2) possible funding sources; (3) publicity; (4) the role of faculty mentors in guiding the students through revisions, identifying additional sources, or editing the paper; (5) processing submissions; (6) conference registration; (7) the conference day; and (8) evaluation. A possible budget and copies of various letters and forms are included. (KP) ED376875
Koumi, J. (1994). Media comparison and deployment: A practitioner's view. British Journal of Educational Technology, 25(1), 41-57.
Kozma, R. B. (1991). Learning with media. Review of Educational Research, 61(2), 179-211.
Kress, M. E., & Hafner, A. W. (1996). Process and Facilities as Critical Success Factors in Training and Supporting Faculty To Use Multimedia/Computer Technologies. 5pp. In: Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) Summer Conference Proceedings (29th, North Myrtle Beach, SC, June 9-13, 1996); see IR 018 247. As the College of Staten Island (New York) completes the installation phase of establishing the computer network and installing computers in most faculty offices and teaching laboratories, the priority activities have become faculty training and curriculum development. Members of the Pedagogy and Media Committee have coordinated campus-wide media-focused demonstrations and special events to promote faculty awareness and to create broader interest; they have sponsored hands-on workshops featuring elementary through advanced media technology applications. As faculty developed interest and expanded their proficiency in multimedia technology, various other catalytic events occurred on campus, which included computer laboratories going online for several academic departments; some faculty using programs they individually developed in their classroom instruction; and all faculty and staff and many students gaining access to electronic mail. To support faculty who use technology as a part of their regular classroom instruction, the college administration provided funding and space for a faculty center, located within the Library, which offers faculty access to a range of sophisticated software and equipment. Training needs of faculty were provided through a faculty-to-faculty mentoring program. The program features exposure to media/computer applications that underpin and enhance classroom instruction; its purpose is to provide a standard for quality control and strategies for the effective implementation of these instructional technologies. Faculty who are selected to participate in the program keep a log of their activities and are asked to make a presentation at the end of the semester. Preliminary evidence suggests that faculty interest in implementing educational technology in the classroom will remain strong. (AEF) ED405824
Kulik, C.-L. C. & Kulik, J. A. (1991). Effectiveness of computer-based instruction: An updated analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 7, 75-94.Kumar, D. (1996). Computers and Assessment in Science Education. ERIC Digest. ED395770
LaBonty, D., Ed. (1998). Integrating the Internet into the Business Curriculum. National Business Education Association Yearbook, No. 36. 182p. This book contains 15 papers devoted to the following topics of interest to business educators: the Internet's history and management; Internet applications related to the National Standards for Business Education; and the Internet's connection with the business education profession. The following papers are included: "Vignettes in the History of the Internet" (Jay Stephens); "Acceptable Use Policy" (Billie J. Herrin, Jon Robinson); "Policing the Internet: Developing an Acceptable Use Policy" (Wayne A. Moore, Raymond Rakvic, Jr.); "Career Development" (Nancy D. Zeliff); "Basic Business and Personal Finance" (Jim Mansfield, Lonnie Echternacht); "Internet Tools" (Ken Quamme, Kent Quamme); "The Development of an Internet- Based Course Support System for an Introductory Computer Course" (William C. Ward, III); "Online International Business" (Robert J. Matyska, Jr.); "Use of the Internet in Management and Marketing" (Bobbye J. Davis, Josie V. Walker); "Integrating the Internet into a Methods Class" (Margaret J. Erthal); "Internet Use in Document Processing and Computer Applications" (Dennis Boldt, Nancy Groneman); "The Cyberprofessional Association" (Bridget O'Connor, Michael Bronner); "Using an Intranet in Business Education" (James E. Bartlett, II); "Community Networks: Pathways to a Revitalized Society" (Douglas Schuler, Cynthia Denton, Larry Denton); and "Beyond the Internet: A Virtual Education Environment" (Hazel R. Walker). A few papers include substantial bibliographies. (MN) ED418314 Available from: National Business Education Association, 1914 Association Drive, Reston, VA 20191-1596 (Catalog No. 116.70, $15 members; $30 nonmembers).
Law, D., & Morgan, M. (1997). Computer Applications Course Goals, Outlines, and Objectives. 20pp. For related curriculum guides, see CE 074 825-833. This document contains a curriculum model that is designed to provide high school computer teachers with practical ideas for a 1-year computer applications course combining 3 quarters of instruction in keyboarding and 1 quarter of basic instruction in databases and spreadsheets. The document begins with a rationale and a 10-item list of recommended teaching strategies, teaching methods, and assessment tools. Presented next are a list of 14 goals for a computer applications course and a course outline that calls for structuring the 4-quarter course as follows: first quarteroperating a computer in a Windows environment, understanding copyright laws, and learning keyboarding and language skills; second quarterformatting various documents; third quarterformatting simple tables, using graphics tools, producing office employment documents, and processing special documents; and fourth quarterusing databases and spreadsheets. The following items are included in the more than 75% of the document that is devoted to the course's databases and spreadsheets components: exercises and handouts, final exams, final exam rubrics, test keys, information about the cost and requirements of database and spreadsheet software packages currently being used in the course; and description of a cooperative learning project. The bibliography contains 20 references. (MN) ED412344
Lepper, M. R., & Chabay, R. W. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and instruction: Conflicting views on the role of motivational processes in computer-based education. Educational Psychologist, 20(4), 217-230.
Lieberman, D. A. & Linn, M. C. (1991). Learning to learn revisited: Computers and the development of self-directed learning skills. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 23(3), 373-395.
Lockard, J., Abrams, P. D., & Many, W. A. (1994). Chapter 18: Beyond computer literacy: Curriculum integration and transformation. In J. Lockard, P.D. Abrams, & W.A. Many, Microcomputers for twenty-first century educators, 3rd ed. New York, Harper Collins.
Lockard, J., Abrams, P. D., & Many, W. A. (1994). Chapter 21: Today and tomorrow: What may lie ahead. In J. Lockard, P.D. Abrams, & W.A. Many, Microcomputers for twenty-first century educators, 3rd ed. New York, Harper Collins.
Lockard, J., Abrams, P.D., & Many, W.A. (1994). Chapter 19: Technology implementation. In J. Lockard, P.D. Abrams, & W.A. Many, Microcomputers for twenty-first century educators, 3rd ed. New York, Harper Collins.
Lohr, L. (1998). Using ADDIE To Design a Web-Based Training Interface. 6pp. In: "SITE 98: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (9th, Washington, DC, March 10-14, 1998). Proceedings"; see IR 018 794. Figures are illegible. Modeling the functions of a teacher in a computer interface is not a new practice; most computer applications employ electronic performance support systems (EPSS) such as online help, wizards, coaches, and even some forms of artificial intelligence. This paper presents easy-to-implement strategies for increasing learner autonomy by embedding teacher functions within the World Wide Web-based graphical user interface (GUI). The embedded teacher (ET) model proposed in this paper is similar to the butler model, which describes a good interface as performing many of the roles of a good butler (e.g., helping a person enter, exit, and move from room to room). The ET model combines the butler model with core and complementary information zones by recommending that four overall teacher functions be embedded into a GUI: (1) orienting the learner; (2) providing navigational assistance; (3) providing instructional strategies; and (4) providing interactive feedback. Altogether these four elements work to perform the essential tasks of a live teacher. Anticipated questions for each of the four teacher functions are listed. A description is then provided of how each stage of the ADDIE model (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation) was used to address the ET when creating a GUI for a university computer course. (AEF) ED421139Lundgren, C. A., & Others, A. (1995). Teaching Computer Applications. 72p. This document, which is designed to provide classroom teachers at all levels with practical ideas for a computer applications course, examines curricular considerations, teaching strategies, delivery techniques, and assessment methods applicable to a course focusing on applications of computers in business. The guide is divided into three sections. Section 1 presents an overview of teaching computer applications. Discussed in section 2 are the following topics related to teaching spreadsheet and database software applications: curriculum considerations; evolution of spreadsheet software, evolution of database software; teaching materials and software; technology for teaching; teaching environments, strategies, and evaluation; and evaluation of performance. Section 3 covers the following topics within the context of teaching word processing and desktop publishing: technological influences and the curriculum; teaching strategies and delivery; delivery techniques; and testing and evaluation. Contains 24 figures and 19 references. (MN) ED401399
Maddux, C. D. (1994). The Internet: Educational prospects-and problems. Educational Technology, 34(7), 37-42.
Maule, R. W., Oh, B., & Check, R. (1998 Length: 7 Page(s); 1 Microfiche). Virtual Reality Hypermedia Design Frameworks for Science Instruction. In: ED-MEDIA/ED-TELECOM 98 World Conference on Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia & World Conference on Educational Telecommunications. Proceedings (10th, Freiburg, Germany, June 20-25, 1998); see IR 019 307. This paper reports on a study that conceptualizes a research framework to aid software design and development for virtual reality (VR) computer applications for instruction in the sciences. The framework provides methodologies for the processing, collection, examination, classification, and presentation of multimedia information within hyperlinked VR environments. Traditional teaching and VR are referenced. The analysis also provides a framework to help assess whether children can use VR to supplement their traditional education and learn concepts in science, and thus seeks to help justify VR instruction as a viable supplement for standard teaching methods in science. Topics discussed include: VR environments, including immersive VR and VR modeling language (VRML); VR science instructional designs, including science instruction, and VR and science; and VR hypermedia component integration frameworks, including VR and classroom integration, VR and learning objectives, and VR and hypermedia components. Contains 19 references. (DLS) ED428698
McCormack, V. (1995). Training Preservice Teachers in Applying Computer Technology to Lesson Planning as a Component of the Elementary School Methods Curriculum. 67pp. Ed.D. Practicum, Nova Southeastern University. This practicum was designed to expand the preservice teacher's ability to understand and demonstrate the use of computers and new technologies in elementary school lesson planning. Teachers were expected to focus on acquiring skills to operate a computer, computer applications, and other technological resources as tools for learning and instructional practice during a 12-week period. Pre- and post-implementation questionnaires were administered to test teacher attitudes on recognizing, valuing and believing in the advantages of technology in the elementary classroom, especially in future lesson planning. A checklist of word processing skills was used to measure actual achievement. Questionnaire results showed that all participating preservice teachers valued and recognized technology use. Outcomes also revealed that all teachers were able to demonstrate their abilities in word processing and multimedia design in lesson planning. An analysis of data from the practicum indicated that with basic word processing, multimedia skills, and a hands-on approach, technology can be integrated with lesson planning. Data is illustrated in four tables. Appendices include: teacher questionnaires, word processing skills and multimedia knowledge checklists, and lesson plan checklists. Contains 40 references. (MAS) ED382190
Merrill, M. D. (1991). Constructivism and instructional design. Educational Technology, 31(5), 45-53.
Mikovec, A. E. D., Dennis M. . Tying Theory To Practice: Cognitive Aspects of Computer Interaction in the Design Process. The new medium of computer-aided design requires changes to the creative problem- solving methodologies typically employed in the development of new visual designs. Most theoretical models of creative problem-solving suggest a linear progression from preparation and incubation to some type of evaluative study of the "inspiration." These models give a communicable structure to infinitely variable creative experiences, but that perspective need to be altered in the integration of computer applications into design education. In its infancy, computer-aided design merely saved engineering students the tedium of computation. Later on, computers were used to assist in drafting. Currently the computer can help with many aspects of visual design, including allowing for three-dimensional study models and providing access to helpful newsgroups and remote resources through the Internet. As long as students have the advantages of some previous knowledge of the programs and of appropriate hardware, computer applications can help them represent their ideas graphically. The computer-aided design environment is characterized by several qualities that require a move away from the linear problem-solving paradigm: (1) interactivity with programs, or even with the Internet, provides a cycle of immediate feedback which does not lend itself to assembly-line design or learning; (2) the visually mediated form of thinking is more holistic than linear; (3) the open-ended, discovery-oriented dynamic seems to operate without strict rules of causation; and (4) its ability to empower individual designers to make decisions conflicts with older views of the designer as a detached observer. The new model for creative problem solving is a feedback loop, an ongoing cyclical process of discovery and evaluation. Three separate studies of computer-aided design studios fromMyers, J. E., & Gibson, D. M. (1999). Technology Competence of Counselor Educators. ERIC Digest. The increasing availability of inexpensive computer applications has become a major force in promoting the infusion of technology into the counseling field, yet the extent to which counselors and counselor educators use these resources is largely unknown. This Digest describes a survey to assess how competent counselor educators are in the technology skills they require their students to possess. The results of the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) survey on technology competencies for counselor educators and students indicate that counselor educators and counseling students lack a uniform high level of technology competence. Given the likelihood that individuals interested in technology completed the survey, the results overestimate the actual level of competence among counselor educators and students. The paper suggests that research is needed to determine the relative importance of each of the technology competencies in the various settings in which counselors work. It states that it is also important to establish the extent to which the competencies are currently infused into counselor preparation programs, as well as determining strategies to promote technology training. Table one lists the technology competence of counselor educators. (Contains six references.) (JDM) ED435947
NNorthrup, P. T. (1996). Concurrent formative evaluation: Implications for multimedia designers. Educational Technology, 35(6), 24-36.
O_____. (1999). Ohio Information Technology Competency Profile. This profile includes a comprehensive set of information technology competencies that are grounded in core academic subject areas and built around four occupational clusters (information services and support, network systems, programming and software development, and interactive media) that reflect the job opportunities and skills required for Ohio's information technology workers. The main part of the document is made up of 49 units that contain competencies and competency builders for the following knowledge and skills areas: information technology basics; computer applications; data communications; programming theory; applied programming languages; computer user support; software development; software systems management; appreciation of the arts; graphic design fundamentals; photography; digital media design; video and film production; audio production; the Internet; Web page design; interactive multimedia production; hardware design, operation, and maintenance; operating systems; networking; network architectures; network operating systems; wide-area networks; network management; basic mainframe concepts; database management system basics; database administration; data warehousing; application development life cycle; information systems theory; information systems management; information system analysis and design; system installation and maintenance; system administration and control; project management; communication; technical writing and documentation; customer relations; economic and business concepts; financial management functions; international business; management and supervision; business law, ethics, and legal issues; quality assurance; training products; statistics; basic electricity; fundamentals of electronics technology; and telecommunications. Two appendixes contain summaries of academic connections of the Ohio Model Competency-Based Programs in Language Arts, Mathematics, and Science, and a certification crosswalk summary. (KC) ED431926
Paddison, J. H. (1995). Portfolio Assessment and Computerized Composition Instruction: Combining the Best of Both Worlds. 14pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (46th, Washington, DC, March 23-25, 1995). In the field of composition instruction, word processors can provide a new writing environment and a wealth of teaching possibilities. Integrating portfolio assessment and its benefits into computer-assisted composition instruction, however, is not easy. Recently implemented at Yavapai College (Arizona), portfolio assessment allows instructors to respond to student work that is still in progress without the pressure of applying a grade. Second, portfolios offer proof of learning by showing changes in skill levels as students move from one project to another. To test computer applications for the new portfolio assessment approach, three students from a composition class taught in a computer lab were chosen. They turned in their assignments on disks, with files indicating the various drafts of each assignment. The instructor/researcher then put his comments on the disk also. This arrangement also allowed the instructor to assign additional activities, such as sentence and paragraph review exercises and style analysis tasks to be completed on the disk. The project was not without difficulties, however. Continuous transfer and handling of disks can at times create record-keeping problems. Also, because students are required to keep a copy of the disk, the handing in of the most current disk can sometimes be a problem. New innovations in computer technology, such as electronic mail and other network systems, should address these problems. (Appended are a sheet on common characteristics of portfolios and a file indexsample student electronic portfolio.) (TB) ED392063
Pan, A. (1998). Effective Means To Help Teachers Master Computer Applications. 11pp. In: NECC '98: Proceedings of the National Educating Computing Conference (19th, San Diego, CA, June 22-24, 1998); see IR 018 902. The computer has become an indispensable tool for teachers. Presently, many teachers are making efforts to master needed computer application skills. This study first focused on the differences between novice and experienced users to identify possible task-oriented factors that might help novice users overcome the learning curve. Errors frequently committed by novice and experienced users were compared. Also examined were the implementation results of several instructional devices throughout a microcomputer application course to determine the effects based on students' performance. In addition, students were surveyed for their opinions about which means they believed to be beneficial to their learning. Results suggest that practicing on integrative procedural tasks might help computer learners to perform better. The results also suggest that it is important to relate the computer tasks to the practical classroom setting and to lead undergraduate preservice students to become more aware of practicing teachers' tasks. (Author/AEF) ED419504
Pan, A. C. (March 1999). Effective Approaches To Teach Computer Applications to Teachers. In: SITE 99: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (10th, San Antonio, TX, February 28-March 4, 1999); see IR 019 584. Having a good command over basic computer applications is essential for teachers to integrate technology in school. Teachers should learn how to maximize the power of computers for their teaching and administrative work. This paper focuses on some effective approaches that can help teachers learn to use computer applications successfully. First, common computer tasks were categorized based on their features into conceptual, declarative, and procedural tasks. A series of enhancement instruments was designed, developed, and implemented in computer application courses throughout a two-year period; subjects were 186 undergraduate preservice teachers and 112 graduate inservice teachers. Data were gathered and interpreted about effective approaches. The study focused on various tasks, instructional devices, and factors that have contributed to teachers' successful learning of computer applications. Goals of the study were to explore: (1) how novice computer-using teachers differ from experienced computer-using teachers; (2) how inservice teachers differ from preservice teachers in computer learning; (3) what kinds of devices can help novice users master the computer tasks and accelerate the learning curve; and (4) what factors can contribute to effective learning about computer applications for teachers. (Author/MES) ED432290
Patton, J. (1994). Learning Style Activities for Computer Applications. Field Review. 319p. This document contains a composite of learning activities for use in a secondary- level course in business computer applications. The collection is unique in that the individual learning activities constituting it have each been tailored to one or more of the diverse learning styles possessed by individual students. The activities are grouped into the following categories: computer related, word processing, spreadsheet, database, desktop publishing, graphics, telecommunications, and social implications. Each learning activity is presented on a learning style activity form containing some or all of the following: competency addressed; activity name; learning style strategy used; perceptual strength(s) targeted; desired student outcome; summary of the activity; suggested modifications; teacher preparation required; suggested means of assessment/evaluation; feasibility of saving all or part of the activity for inclusion in a portfolio; suggested time frame; and nationally/state-identified competencies addressed. Appended are the following: information about the 17 learning styles to which the various activities have been tailored; additional information about typical right and left brain behaviors and characteristics of analytical and global students; and lists of the business computer applications essential elements and competencies addressed by the individual activities. Also included are the forms developed for field review of the activities. (MN) ED376290
Patton, J. C. (1994). Secondary Office Education Curriculum and Instructional Materials Development. Final Report. 65p. A project was conducted in Texas to update office education curriculum based on previously developed workplace outcomes and integration of competencies identified by the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS). One course, Business Computer Applications I, was chosen as the model for the project. During the project, activities and assessment materials were developed for the course. The following activities were conducted: training a selected core group teachers in student-centered teaching methodologies, revising and redirecting activities and assessments materials to reflect the student-centered teaching activities, developing an inservice model for teachers on new methodology, and validating the business performance standards and SCANS specifications developed in an earlier project. The project also prepared, printed, and disseminated 3,000 copies of 2 issues of an office education newsletter. Office education teachers were involved in both assessing and evaluating the completed products. (The report includes a copy of the validated SCANS competencies, as rated by educators and business and industry representatives, and copies of the two newsletters produced during the project.) (KC) ED375325Pavliscak, P., & Others, A. (1997). Information Technology in Humanities Scholarship: Achievements, Prospects, and Challenges. The United States Focus. ACLS Occasional Paper No. 37. 55p. This report surveys the various applications of information technology to research in the humanities and examines challenges that need to be overcome. The document is divided into five sections. The first section provides a background on changes brought on by technology in the humanities. The second section focuses on information technology and scholarship. Topics include: electronic communication; text; data; images; sound; combined sources/multimedia/World Wide Web; retroconversion projects; original and creative works; electronic publication; and tools. A summary of computer applications in humanities research and future outlook are included at the end of this section. New developments and change are discusses in the third section. The fourth section outlines institutional changes that are necessary to enable effective technology use in humanities scholarship. Topics include: training and support; project management; research infrastructure; digital libraries and archives; information resources; regulatory issues; preservation and access; funding; and humanities support services. The fifth section makes recommendations and lists priorities for humanists, technical experts, librarians, and administrators. Appendices in the final section include acknowledgments, bibliographies, and abbreviations and acronyms. (Contains 37 references.) (AEF) ED409002
Reeves, T. C. (1992). Evaluating interactive multimedia. Educational Technology, 32(5), 47-53.
Reimer, J. (1997). Transition Academy: An Alternative School-to-Work High School Curriculum. 8pp. Paper presented at the American Vocational Association Convention (Las Vegas, NV, December 13, 1997). An alternative curriculum program, a School-to-Work Transition Academy, has the potential to assist secondary special education students in developing workplace skills, knowledge, and competencies. Major elements are as follows: a collaborative team of special, regular, and career/technology teachers; advisory committee; transition-specific, competency-based curriculum that integrates computer applications with all curricula concepts; academics presented through contextual, authentic teaching strategies; and performance-based, authentic student assessments. Student placement is determined by student and parent interviews and career interests, aptitude, and achievement assessments. The transition curriculum is an integrated, circular continuum of academic skills, career/employability skills, and the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills competencies. Academic core content is organized into five coherent, sequential, competency-based strands: applied communications, applied mathematics, life management education, applied solutions, and career and employability skills. Mastery of specified core content competencies is the prerequisite for entering the local high school's Career and Technology Work Programs or Special Education Vocational Work Program. Teachers act as facilitators of activity-based, applied learning pedagogy. Other aspects of the academy are business partnerships, attendance standards, effort standards, and community-based learning opportunities. (20 references) (YLB) ED416420
Rogers, C. F., & Randall, C. (1997). Evaluating the Skills & Learning Expectations of Students Enrolled in the Introductory CIS Course. 6pp. In: Proceedings of the International Academy for Information Management Annual Conference (12th, Atlanta, GA, December 12-14, 1997); see IR 057 067. This study evaluated the computer skills and learning expectations of students in an introductory course at a regional university in the southeastern United States. A survey was administered to 595 students enrolled in sections of the Introduction to Computer Information Systems (CIS) course. The survey instrument charted such things as major and academic standing, focusing primarily on two issuesknowledge the students hoped to gain from the class and existing computer knowledge that students brought with them into the class. In addition to the survey results, 30 course catalogs from other institutions around the region were examined in order to discover what their course content included for the first computer course, whether it was identified as Introductory Computer Applications, Introductory Management Information Systems (MIS), or an equivalent class. Results indicate that more students are coming to college with computer skills, and therefore educators should move away from teaching some of those identical skills in college. In regards to different courses for business students and non-business students, this does not appear to be a trend in most institutions, but it is an option, particularly for schools where a majority of the students enrolled in the class are not business majors. (AEF) ED422940
Rosengarten, E., & Fletcher, D. (1994). Rejuvenating Instruction through Development of an Applied Lab for Sociology Students. 6pp. In: Proceedings of the National Conference on Successful College Teaching (18th, Orlando, Florida, February 26-28, 1994); see JC 960 033. The Center for Applied Social Issues (CASI), at Ohio's Sinclair Community College, is an interactive environment for sociology students, providing hands- on, course-integrated opportunities for learning sociological principles. Opened in ED390472Rysavy, S. D. M., Sales, G. C. (1991). Cooperative learning in computer-based instruction. Educational Technology Research & Development, 39(2), 70-79.
_____. (1994). Specific Job Competencies. 70p. This document consists of 12 separate folders each listing a set of job competencies for a specific occupation or function area (e.g. television, wood construction) that is the subject of vocational and technical education courses at the middle and high school level in the Seattle (Washington) Public Schools Vocational/Technical Education Department. The job competencies listed should be acquired during the courses. The checklists rate the job skills on three levels: level one (performed independently), level two (can complete job with limited supervision), and level three (general information provided). Space is also provided for student name, school, date, semesters completed, and related job site and work experience information. Job competency profiles for the following programs are included: (1) Applied Mathematics; (2) Automotive Technology, (3) Wood Construction; (4) Computer Applications I and II; (5) Information Processing I and II; (6) Children and Parenting; (7) Middle School Technology Education; (8) Food Education and Service Training; (9) Drafting; (10) Television; (11) Radio; and (12) Horticulture. (KC) ED407492
Sampson, J. P., Jr. (1994). Computer-Assisted Career Guidance: Ethical Issues Bibliography. 7pp. For the September 1993 version, see ED 363 820. This unannotated bibliography is intended to assist practitioners, researchers, policy makers, and system developers in identifying and locating sources of information on the design and use of computer-assisted career guidance (CACG) systems and ethical issues. It begins with ethical standards that specifically deal with computer technology and concludes with citations that deal with one or more ethical issues related to using computer applications in counseling, testing, and guidance. Citations cover a variety of ethical issues such as: confidentiality; counselor intervention; assessment; quality of computer-based information; use of computer-assisted instruction; equality of access to computer applications; and counselor training. Sixty-seven references ranging from 1966- 1992 represent handbooks, professional journals, codes of ethics, unpublished manuscripts, conference papers, and books. (JBJ) ED388934
Sampson, J. P., Jr. (1995). Computer-Assisted Testing in Counseling and Therapy. ERIC Digest. ED391983
Savery, J. R., & Duffy, T. M. (1995). Problem based learning: An instructional model and its constructivist framework. Educational Technology, 35(5), 31-38.
Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (1992). Technologies for knowledge-building dicourse. Communications of the ACM, 36(5), 37-41.
Schiferl, E. (1995). Thinking Egyptian: Active Models for Understanding Spatial Representation. 16pp. In: Imagery and Visual Literacy: Selected Readings from the Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (26th, Tempe, Arizona, October 12-16, 1994); see IR 016 977. This paper highlights how introductory textbooks on Egyptian art inhibit understanding by reinforcing student preconceptions, and demonstrates another approach to discussing space with a classroom exercise and software. The alternative approach, an active model for spatial representation, introduced here was developed by adapting classroom approaches to multimedia computer applications, and differs from textbook approaches in the following ways: (1) establishes connections between students' patterns of thought and those of Egyptian artists, rather than concentrating on comparisons which reinforce differences; (2) invites student participation in other methods of thinking; and (3) concludes with a comparison that reveals the limitations of a traditional approach. The classroom exercise involves an eye and hand exercise, and the interactive multimedia software, "Thinking Egyptian," which uses animation, interactive responses, and problem solving approaches to involve the user in the visual logic of Egyptian art. To help students stretch beyond the comfortable visual assumptions of a lifetime, instructors are encouraged to develop active methods for involving students in different approaches to visual thinking. The classroom exercise and software present methods for expanding visual thinking and helping students recognize the logic and limitations of both the familiar and the foreign. Twelve figures offer examples of Egyptian art and provide reproductions of screens of the "Thinking Egyptian" software. (Contains nine references.) (MAS) ED380088
Schroeder, E. E., & Grabowski, B. L. (1995). Patterns of exploration and learning with hypermedia. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 13(4), 313-335.
Shore, A. (1993). Interactive multimedia and student assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Atlanta, GA, April, 1993.
Smith, B., & Others, A. (1996). Tools for Teaching with Technology: The WIU Approach for Technology Integration into Teacher Education. 471pp. Package includes two videotapes (not available from EDRS): "Using Video To Enhance Understanding of Human Growth and Development" and "Breaking Barriers, Meeting Challenges.". This collection of 21 booklets about the Western Illinois University (WIU) model for teacher education, centered on principles of instructional designs, targets five technologies: computer applications, telecommunications, distance learning, interactive multimedia, and instructional video. Teacher competencies are specified for instructional design and the five targeted technologies; they are achieved through core and content-based modules. After an extensive overview, "Breaking the Barriers, Meeting Challenges," core modules include: (1) "Using the Computer to Enhance Teacher Productivity"; (2) "Telecommunications for the K-12 Classroom"; (3) "Distance Education in the K-12 Classroom"; (4) "Interactive Multimedia for the Classroom"; (5) "Instructional Video Production for the K-12 Classroom"; and (6) "Planning for Effective Technology Integration." The 12 content-based modules are: (1) "Technology Applications in the K-8 Science Classroom"; (2) "Teaching Social Studies with Historic Landmarks"; (3) "Electronic Resources for Teaching Secondary Social Studies"; (4) "Integrating Technology into Early Childhood Thematic Teaching"; (5) "Using Technology To Enhance Parent/Community Involvement"; (6) "Producing and Integrating Instructional Video"; (7) "Early Childhood Behavioral Assessment"; (8) "Exploring Planning Approaches for Teaching Thematically"; (9) "Your First Trip on the Internet"; (10) "Using Video To Enhance Understanding of Human Growth and Development"; (11) "Electronic Searching for Children's Literature Resources"; and (12) "Microteaching, Reflective Processing, and Video: A Metacognitive Twist." A program overview, a booklet for each module, a faculty support booklet, description and illustrations of equipment and infrastructure, and two videos are packaged in a file box. (ND) ED404307Swanson, J. A., & Mead, J. p. H., Heidi L. (1998). Using Internet Resources To Strengthen Community Programs and Collaborations for Children, Youth, and Families At Risk. 13pp. In: Proceedings of the Families, Technology, and Education Conference (Chicago, IL, October 30-November 1, 1997); see PS 027 175. A New York State Cornell Cooperative Extension project for children, youth, and families is implementing electronic connectivity or Internet access to support the development of computer literacy among staff and program participants and to promote positive program outcomes in communities at risk. Reducing Risks and Increasing Capacity (RRIC) is a 5-year annually renewable Cooperative State Research Education and Extension Service (CSREES) and U.S. Department of Agriculture State Strengthening Project now in its fourth year of funding. The project supports eight targeted New York State community programs located in Chemung, Jefferson, Monroe, Oneida, Onondaga, Orange, St. Lawrence, and Tompkins counties; each program is led by a professional Extension educator. Through connectivity, volunteer and salaried educators can locate educational and other program and fund development resources. Internet access supports communication among multiple sites in a community project, among the eight New York State RRIC- targeted community programs, and across all parts of the RRIC project. Elect ronic mail and listservs are used for communication and information sharing. Connectivity allows all sites and the state project staff to interact on sustainability issues. The project has ongoing formative and summative evaluation strategies in place, including evaluation of Internet use. The RRIC project strives to tap the potential of the Internet to strengthen program outcomes and to integrate technology, wherever possible, within the educational activities conducted. A baseline and follow-up study were conducted on Internet use. Data on expectations of educators, volunteers, and collaborators for use of the Internet were gathered. Preliminary findings from the Year 1 follow-up survey include large gains in use of the Web for program support and increased project communication. Experiences in designing and supporting the computer applications of the project are detailed. (LPP) ED425015 You be able to order this document from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service.
Thompson, A. R., & Others, A. (1997). College Students with Disabilities and Assistive Technology: A Desk Reference Guide. 95p. This resource guide is designed to provide a quick reference for professionals (employment recruiters and counselors in vocational rehabilitation, disability services, and career services), who work with college students with disabilities, in incorporating assistive technology into planning for postsecondary education and employment. First, types of assistive technology and assistive technology evaluations are reviewed. Steps for using the guide are described and assistive technology categories are outlined, including adaptive computer applications, aids for communication, aids for daily living, environmental control systems, home/work site modifications, prosthetics and orthotics, seating and positioning, wheelchairs/mobility aids, and vehicle modifications. The benefits of using assistive technology are also identified. The next part of the guide is divided into sections on possible disability deficits and their technological solutions. Disability categories discussed include blindness/visual impairments, deafness/hearing impairments, learning disabilities and attention deficit disorders, orthopedic/mobility impairments, speech and language disorders, and other disabilities. Each disability is described, a chart illustrating possible deficits and possible technology solutions is provided, and a case study is presented along with the assistive technology solution. The guide also includes lists of different types of specialists, funding resources, electronic mail resources, national organizations, and state resources. A check list of comprehensive career planning and a glossary of terms is also included. (CR) ED407810Thomson, J. R., Cooke, J. E., & Greer, J. E. (1996 Length: 7 Page(s); 1 Microfiche). The MicroWeb Toolkit: Bringing the WWW to the Classroom. In: WebNet 96 Conference Proceedings (San Francisco, CA, October 15-19, 1996); see IR 019 168. Computer applications that facilitate the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) within elementary and secondary education must provide support for educators to locate materials quickly and easily; they must minimize the amount of time spent waiting for files to traverse the network; and they must deal sensitively with censorship. The MicroWeb Toolkit is designed to provide software tools to organize and present educational information using WWW resources. The MicroWeb Toolkit assists with the construction and organization of resource collections rather than with the authoring of individual pages by providing tools to organize and classify WWW resources around a specific topic. A MicroWeb collection is designed to minimize the cognitive overhead of the user and to reduce network traffic through resource caching. Topics discussed include using hypermedia collections; features of the MicroWeb Toolkit; creating a MicroWeb collection from the developer and teacher/trainer viewpoints; and conclusions and plans for future development. A diagram illustrates the components of the MicroWeb Toolkit. (Author/DLS) ED427673
Vigilante, A. (1994). Integrating Computer-Aided Instruction for Improving Reading Skills with Juvenile Delinquents. 194pp. M.S. Practicum, Nova University. A practicum encapsulated a reading skills assessment and intervention program utilizing computer-aided instruction and support activities for four 3-week sessions. The primary target population was the 43 juvenile delinquents at a Florida juvenile detention center who completed posttest measures. A total of 280 students participated in the program. The secondary target population was the teaching staff. The practicum problem was the target population's marked deficiencies in reading skills. The secondary population received training to help them understand, plan, and implement the classroom activities. Computer aided pre- and posttest measures were employed to measure the primary target population's gains in reading skills. Pre and poststudy reading attitudinal surveys were used to measure the primary target population's inclinations toward reading and the effect of the program. Secondary target population's objectives included scoring 80% or more on poststudy tests covering the areas of onsite hardware and software and computer-aided assessment and intervention. Results of the primary target population indicated that 76.7% improved their reading skills by 10% and 56.8% improved their attitudes toward reading by 15%. The secondary target population met all the objectives. (Seven tables, 53 appendixes including reading assessment and intervention surveys, a software evaluation form, and computer applications tests are included. Contains 26 references. (Author/RS) ED367960Vopal, J. R. (1997). A Study of the Correlation between In-House Computer Training and Middle School Teachers' Use of Computers in the Classroom. 71pp. Masters Thesis, Caldwell College. Much has been studied and written in the last several years about computer technology in the classroom, teacher training in computer applications, and teacher use of the computer in the classroom. An evaluation was conducted of a school-based computer course on classroom applications with an emphasis on science material above elementary level. The course was designed to provide teachers with a preliminary knowledge of the Macintosh computer, available software, and applications. A pre-test, post-test, and computer course evaluation was given to 19 middle school teachers in a suburban New Jersey school to determine whether a correlation exists between in-house computer training and teachers' computer use in the classroom. The findings indicate that a correlation exists and that the participants liked taking the course and now have a better understanding of how to use the computer as a teaching tool. Appendices include a request for permission from the instructor of the in-house computer class; teachers' computer assessment questionnaire, computer course assessment, and evaluation of instructor and course; and e-mail requests and responses for permission to use other scholars' related papers. (Contains 33 references.) (Author/SWC) ED414876
Ward, H. C., Jr. (1994). Effectiveness of a Standard Computer Interface Paradigm on Computer Anxiety, Self- Direction, Efficiency, and Self-Confidence. 166pp. Ed.D. Dissertation, University of Florida. A study was undertaken to explore whether students using an advance organizer- metacognitive learning strategy would be less anxious, more self-directing, more efficient, and more self-confident when learning unknown computer applications software than students using traditional computer software learning strategies. The first experiment was conducted with 164 students (average age 22) from a freshman orientation course which included a 1-hour word-processing applications software instructional component. The second experiment was conducted with 76 students (average age 33) from an introduction to computer course which included introductory presentations on three software applications types. Scores were gathered on each of four variables from two experiments which differed in the amount of time dedicated to exposure to the software strategies. Results indicate that the advance organizer-metacognitive learning strategy is somewhat more effective in improving student performance than traditional learning strategies, but the use of the learning strategy is only marginally more effective in improving students' self-concept of their capabilities to learn software than traditional learning strategies. Appendices include the teacher presentation outline; student notes for WordPerfect 5.1 (DOS); self-reporting 1-minute typing measure; the word-processing exercises and student computer exercise forms from both experiments; and the postcourse survey. (Contains 154 references.) (Author/AEF) ED396663
Wasilko, P. J. (1997). The Continuity Project, 26p. The Continuity Project is a research, development, and technology transfer initiative aimed at creating a "Library of the Future" by combining features of an online public access catalog (OPAC) and a campus wide information system (CWIS) with advanced facilities drawn from such areas as artificial intelligence (AI), knowledge representation (KR), natural language processing (NLP), computer applications and software engineering (CASE), literate programming, hypertext research, and computer supported cooperative work (CSCW). By taking this approach, Continuity will be able to provide an intelligent, unified, and proactive information infrastructure for the learning organization of the future. The explosive growth rate of the body of accumulated knowledge and increasingly powerful information technology and computing tools have exceeded the capabilities of traditional approaches to cataloging and collection management. In the new millennium, the ability to find and integrate relevant existing knowledge is the new limiting factor on the rate of scientific and commercial innovation. This report describes the Continuity Project and contains the following sections: Project Overview; Project Update; Project's Inspiration; Philosophy Behind the Project; Need and Prospects for the Project; Desiderata; Scenarioillustrating system capabilities; Simulated User Session; We Can Build It; Director personal description; Project Advisory Board; Managing the Project; Common Concernsquestions and answers; Project on the Webdescription of further information on the Web; and the project director's resume. (SWC) ED414913
Wasilko, P. J. (1998). The Continuity Project. Spring/Summer 1998 Report. 18p. The Continuity Project is a research, development, and technology transfer initiative aimed at creating a Library of the Future by combining features of an online public access catalog (OPAC) and a campuswide information system (CWIS) with advanced facilities drawn from such areas as artificial intelligence (AI), knowledge representation (KR), natural language processing (NLP), computer applications and software engineering (CASE), literate programming, hypertext research, and computer supported cooperative work (CSCW). By taking this approach, Continuity will be able to provide an intelligent, unified, and proactive information infrastructure for the learning organization of the future. The explosive growth rate of the body of accumulated knowledge and increasingly powerful information technology and computing tools have exceeded the capabilities of traditional approaches to cataloging and collection management. In the new millennium, the ability to find and integrate relevant existing knowledge is the new limiting factor on the rate of scientific and commercial innovation. This report contains the following sections: "The Continuity Project"; "Continuity at a Glance" graphics that embody the most salient features of the Project; "The Continuity Experience" an informal treatment of what it would be like to use Continuity in an academic setting; "Project Participants; and Sources of Inspiration." (DLS) ED422025
Wasley, P. A. (1998 Length: 7 Page(s); 1 Microfiche). Rigor and Innovation: Getting Both. Paper presented at the Fall Forum of the Coalition of Essential Schools (Kansas City, MO, November 1998). This paper describes how two middle-school teachers teamed up to teach a grouping of ten- to eleven-year old students with a focus on innovation. They agreed to emphasize the use of a student-centered curriculum, letting the students select a topic or project that interested them as a group and that would take them out into the community. The project had to include note-taking, creative and transactional writing, computer applications, skill building in mathematics, and observation. Students decided to cross-age tutor local K-1 students and keep a record of their progress in order to develop a cross-age tutoring manual to help other students get started tutoring. They put it on a web page in order to gain computer skills. The innovation had to be tied to rigor in order for the teachers to be sure that their students were reaching higher levels of accomplishment. They believed that the innovation went very well, with students doing a good job of tutoring and creating a web page, but they were not sure that the project was rigorous enough. This paper examines what rigor is and why it is receiving so much attention, and it discusses what has fueled the push for innovation. It looks at the differences between rigor and expectations and between rigor and standards. Finally, it discusses teachers' definitions of rigor and beliefs about innovation. (SM) ED429058
Wilkinson, K. S., Ed. (December 1999). Connecting Education with Careers. Business Education Association for Career and Technical Education Annual Convention Proceedings (Orlando, Florida, December 11-15, 1999). This document contains five refereed research papers on connecting education with careers through business education. "The Different Skill Levels Students Possess When Entering Computer Software Applications College Courses" (Michael McDonald) reports on a 1998 survey examining the perceived skill level differences of college students from six universities in five states who were enrolled in introductory computer applications courses. "Human Resource Managers' Perception of Nonverbal Communication" (Donald English, Janet Walker, Edgar Manton) presents the results of a survey of managers at the 200 largest companies in the Dallas/Fort Worth area. "Learning Plateaus in Student Skill Development: Perception of Court Reporting Instructors" (Joyce L. Sheets, Marcia A. Anderson) examines the rates and duration of learning plateaus among students learning court reporting skills. "Managers' Perceptions and Attitudes towards Gays and Lesbians in Business" (Lisa O'Hara, Bill McPherson) explores existing employer attitudes toward gays and lesbians and the types of instruction needed to improve awareness and understanding of gay and lesbian students. "Training Needs of Office Managers and Supervisors in State Government: Implications for Business Education" (Donna H. Redmann) reports on large- scale, statewide training needs of support/clerical employees in Louisiana state government. Four papers include substantial bibliographies. (MN) ED435844
Wimberly, S. R. (1994). Improving Written Expression of Seventh Grade Mildly Intellectually Disabled Students Utilizing a Basal Reading Program, Journal Writing and Computer Applications. 53pp. Ed.D. Practicum, Nova Southeastern University. A practicum was designed to increase mildly intellectually disabled students' written communication skills by demonstrating functional written expression skills in daily assignments and in social communication. A sequenced reading and language program with the integration of journal writing and computer applications was utilized. Seventh- and eighth-grade students with mild disabilities were provided a structured, language-rich environment in which to communicate. The instructor planned structured activities that involved reading, audiovisuals, current events, and cooperative activities along with a structured, daily writing program. Collaboration was an important aspect in that students were involved in many role playing and verbal rehearsal activities to increase conversation and writing skills. Writing to convey a message was emphasized initially and students were introduced to the function of words in sentences. Progress was monitored using holistic scoring methods. Review of the practicum outcomes revealed 7 out of 10 students were able to demonstrate functional written expression skills in journals and on daily assignments after a competent writer had modeled structure. Students interaction in cooperative activities provided an excellent platform for writing. Students displayed motivation to communicate. Appropriate use of mechanics was documented along with increases in spelled words, sentence length, and legibility. Reading and language instruction reinforced mechanics rules and built upon them. Increased success is predicted if more time is provided for the program. (Contains a figure and 23 references.) (Author/TB) ED381791Wright, J. L., Ed., & Shade, D. D., Ed. (1994). Young Children: Active Learners in a Technological Age. 403p. This book addresses the issues of appropriate use of computers with young children and how children and early childhood educators interact with the computer in early childhood settings. Part 1, "Young Children as Active Learners," contains chapter 1: "Listen to the Children: Observing Young Children's Discoveries with the Microcomputer" (June L. Wright); chapter 2: "Thoughts on Technology and Early Childhood Education" (Barbara T. Bowman and Elizabeth R. Beyer); and chapter 3: "The Uniqueness of the Computer as a Learning Tool: Insights from Research and Practice" (Douglas H. Clements). Part 2, "The Role of Technology in the Early Childhood Curriculum," includes chapter 4: "Learning and Teaching with Technology" (Sue Bredekamp and Teresa Rosegrant); chapter 5: "Software Evaluation for Young Children" (Susan W. Haugland and Daniel D. Shade); chapter 6: "The Potential of the Microcomputer in the Early Childhood Classroom" (Jane Davidson and June L. Wright); chapter 7: "Staff Development Practices for Integrating Technology in Early Childhood Education Programs" (Charles Hohmann); chapter 8: "Computer Applications in Early Childhood Special Education" (Michael M. Behrmann and Elizabeth A. Lahm); and chapter 9: "Family Involvement: Family Choices at Home and School" (Patricia A. Ainsa and others). Part 3, "The Challenge for Early Childhood Educators" includes chapter 10: "Moving Early Childhood Education into the 21st Century" (Gwendolyn G. Morgan and Daniel D. Shade); chapter 11: "Replicating Inequities: Are We Doing It Again?" (Suzanne Thouvenelle and others); and chapter 12: "Interactive Technology and the Young Child: A Look to the Future" (Cynthia Char and George E. Forman). The following articles are appended: (1) "Using Computers to Support Thematic Units" (Jane Davidson); (2) "Early Childhood Education and Computer Networking: Making Connections" (Bonnie Blagojevic); and (3) "Helpful Hints on Acquiring Hardware" (Daniel D. Shade). A glossary and a list of software for young children is also provided. All chapters contain references and 55 additional resources are provided. (BAC) ED380242
Zhiwei, F. (1995). Language Technology and Language Resources in China. 16pp. In: Language Resources for Language Technology: Proceedings of the TELRI (Trans-European Language Resources Infrastructure) European Seminar (1st, Tihany, Hungary, September 15-16, 1995); see FL 024 759. Trends and developments in computer applications in Chinese language research are described, focusing on these areas: input of Chinese characters and Chinese corpus; automatic segmentation of Chinese written text in corpus; development of a grammar knowledge base for Chinese words to be used as a resource for text segmentation and corpus annotation; automatic part-of-speech tagging for the corpus; automatic phrase bracketing and syntactic annotation for the corpus; creation of specialized terminology data banks; and machine translation systems. Specific projects, cooperative efforts, and resulting resources are noted. (MSE) ED413740Zhou, G. (1994). Curriculum Knowledge Representation in SQL-TUTOR. 7pp. In: Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 1994. Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 94 World Conference on Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, June 25-30, 1994); see IR 017 359. Research in the area of knowledge-based tutoring systems (KBTS) and intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) has great implications for computer applications in education and training. In a KBTS, course material is represented independently of teacher procedures, so that problems and remedial comments can be generated differently for each student. Such a system offers instructions in a manner that is sensitive to the student's strengths, weaknesses, and preferred style of learning; in addition, individualized tutoring can be provided. The objective of the research presented in this paper is to develop a framework upon which effective KBTSs can be built. SQL-TUTOR was developed for the domain of SQL programming. In the design of SQL-TUTOR, an architecture based on a layered curriculum is used to organize the system into components. The course curriculum is represented by a curriculum graph; this architecture has such features as explicit curriculum knowledge representation, multiple teaching sequences, multiple viewpoints of a teaching goal, and overall skill training for students. (AEF) ED388307
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