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Pedagogy | W


Waddington, Sue (2002).  "When Planning for Life, Train and Educate People."  Adults Learning (England), 13, 6. 

Outlines components of the European Commission's lifelong learning strategy: valuing learning; information, guidance, and counseling; investment of time and money; connecting learners and learning opportunities; basic skills; and innovative, learner-centered pedagogy.

Wade, Suzanne E.; Fauske, Janice R.; Thompson, Audrey (2008).  Prospective Teachers' Problem Solving in Online Peer-Led Dialogues  American Educational Research Journal, 45, 2. 

In this self-study of a secondary teacher education course, the authors investigated whether there was evidence of critically reflective problem solving on the part of prospective teachers who participated in a peer-led online discussion of a teaching case about English-language learners. They also examined what approaches to multicultural education the peer-led dialogues suggested. Using the tools of discourse analysis to analyze the dialogue, they found some evidence of reflective problem solving. However, few students engaged in "critical" reflection, which entails examining the sociopolitical consequences of solutions and promoting social change through community action projects. Furthermore, many responses reflected deficit theories, stereotypical thinking, and technical-rational problem solving. Interwoven with the analysis of the students' discussion is a self-study dialogue reflecting on the instructor's curriculum and pedagogy. The self-study addresses what the authors have learned about how teacher educators foster critically reflective problem solving regarding issues of language, culture, and race.

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Wagner, Anne E. (2005).  Unsettling the Academy: Working through the Challenges of Anti-Racist Pedagogy  Race Ethnicity and Education, 8, 3. 

Teaching antiracism is a political project, which will be especially challenging in a university environment which has traditionally valued "objective" and "apolitical" knowledge. This analysis focuses on specific pedagogical practices which promote an antiracism framework, with specific attention directed to the "process" of learning antiracism and how these goals may be furthered within the academy. Exploring some of the inherent challenges and benefits associated with dominant group members assuming responsibility for antiracist teaching, the focus of the paper will also be to examine specific pedagogical practices which may be helpful in introducing students to such emotionally powerful material. The efficacy of such practices will then be explored as a means of challenging the status quo and envisioning a less Eurocentric approach to higher education.

Wagner, Anne; Magnusson, Jamie Lynn (2005).  Neglected Realities: Exploring the Impact of Women's Experiences of Violence on Learning in Sites of Higher Education  Gender and Education, 17, 4. 

Feminist pedagogy offers an exciting alternative to more conservative, traditional academic approaches, as it offers a site where women's lives and experiences are accorded a place of importance and are considered worthy of theorizing. Within the last decade, feminism has been increasingly challenged to broaden its perspective and include the standpoints of those who are not part of the dominant group, whose voices have been traditionally silenced within academia. Issues of race, class, sexuality and ability have subsequently become a core focus of most women's studies classrooms. Yet despite its transformative goals and sometimes radical pedagogical practices, these spaces often remain complicit in not fully acknowledging the impact of trauma on women's lives. Drawing on the journal entries of first year social work students, this inquiry explores the impact of trauma on three women, struggling to negotiate the demands of academia, while simultaneously coping with memories of past abuse. It is argued that violence against women is a collective responsibility, rather than an individual pathology, as it has been conceptualized in the past. The findings highlight the need to address women's experiences of violence as a legitimate barrier to learning.

Wagner, Regine; Childs, Merilyn; Houlbrook, Mick (2001).  Work-based Learning as Critical Social Pedagogy.  Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 41, 3. 

Presents economic responsiveness and critical social pedagogy as the main forces in work-based learning. Describes research of Australia's Research Centre for Learning and Social Transformation, which is guided by principles of accessibility, shared knowledge production, and multidisciplinary learning.

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Walczyk, Jeffrey J.; Ramsey, Linda L.; Zha, Peijia (2007).  Obstacles to Instructional Innovation According to College Science and Mathematics Faculty  Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44, 1. 

Numerous studies have documented the infrequent use of learner-centered instruction in college science and mathematics classrooms and its negative effects on undergraduate learning and motivation. The present research deepened understanding of why. Specifically, an Internet survey was constructed that explored obstacles, supports, and incentives for instructional innovation in the classroom and was sent out to college science and mathematics faculty of Louisiana. Results revealed that colleges generally were perceived to assign little or an indeterminate weight to instruction in personnel decision making. Faculty members generally have little training in pedagogy; but when they do, they are more likely to consult sources of instructional innovation and consider teaching an important part of their professional identities. Data concerning the most common sources of instructional innovation information are presented. Several suggestions are made for institutional reform that if enacted might contribute to systemic improvement in the quality of instruction undergraduates receive.

Walker, Erica N. (2007).  Rethinking Professional Development for Elementary Mathematics Teachers  Teacher Education Quarterly, 34, 3. 

Researchers have found that despite reformers' best efforts, teachers' mathematics classroom practice remains largely unchanged--in part because teachers hold fast to their own mathematics understandings, attitudes, and experiences. In particular, in the last decade, elementary mathematics teachers have found themselves balancing a number of sometimes competing requirements in their teaching: adhering to mathematics reform initiatives in their school, district, and/or state; meeting the expectations of principals and parents; and finding ways to ensure that their students are able to perform adequately on standardized tests that have significant ramifications for teachers and students if students fail. In recent years, many teacher education programs have begun to address elementary mathematics instruction by helping prospective elementary teachers expand their knowledge of mathematics content. This has often occurred through mandating more mathematics courses; but often these courses have not focused on the special needs of elementary teachers. Further, the support that these teachers receive once they leave teacher education programs is often sporadic and shallow. With the advent of new curricula, professional development for elementary teachers is often heavily focused on implementation of a particular curricular package, which may target organizational or logistical requirements of the curriculum rather than mathematics content or pedagogy aligned with content objectives. In this article, the author discusses a professional development model designed to address these issues as part of a larger study of an intervention, Dynamic Pedagogy, targeting Grade 3 students and their teachers in an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse school district in upstate New York. She also describes how it was reflected in the classroom practice of participating teachers. Because much of the literature in teacher education is silent on the mechanisms by which teacher education and professional development affect actual classroom practice, she also reports how this model influenced one teacher's planning and instruction in mathematics.

Walqui, Aida (2006).  Scaffolding Instruction for English Language Learners: A Conceptual Framework  International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 9, 2. 

Adolescent students learning academic subject matter in a new language face a number of challenges, both local and global in nature, as they negotiate the linguistic, academic and social world of schooling. Making a case for a pedagogy of rigour and hope, the author presents a model of scaffolding that emphasises the interactive social nature of learning and the contingent, collaborative nature of support and development. Drawing on Sociocultural Theory, as well as a large body of empirical research on effective practices with second language learners, the author examines the use of specific types of scaffolding to promote linguistic and academic development. The model, developed by the author, conceives of scaffolding as both structure and process, weaving together several levels of pedagogical support, from macro-level planning of curricula over time to micro-level moment-to-moment scaffolding and the contingent variation of support responsive to interactions as they unfold.

Walsh, Brendan (2007).  The Pedagogy of Protest: The Educational Thought and Work of Patrick H. Pearse  [Peter Lang Oxford] 

This book provides the first complete account of Patrick Pearse's educational work at St. Enda's and St. Ita's schools (Dublin). Extensive use of first-hand accounts reveals Pearse as a humane, energetic teacher and a forward-looking and innovative educational thinker. Between 1903 and 1916 Pearse developed a new concept of schooling as an agency of radical pedagogical and social reform, later echoed by school founders such as Bertrand Russell. This placed him firmly within the tradition of radical educational thought as articulated by Paulo Freire and Henry Giroux. The book examines the tension between Pearse's work and his increasingly public profile as an advocate of physical force separatism and, by employing previously unknown accounts, questions the perception that he influenced his students to become active supporters of militant separatism. The book describes the later history of St. Enda's, revealing the ambivalence of post-independence administrations, and shows how Pearse's work has had a direct influence on a later generation of school founders up to the present. Contents include: (1) Pearse and Nineteenth-century Pedagogy; (2) Pedagogy and Protest; (3) Irish and the University Question; (4) The Educational Practice of Pearse; (5) Analogous School Founders; and (6) The Legacy of Patrick Pearse.

Walsh, Kate (2006).  Teacher Education: Coming Up Empty. Fwd: Arresting Insights in Education. Volume 3, Number 1  [Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute] 

Kate Walsh, president of the National Council on Teacher Quality, takes on teacher education in this essay published for the Thomas B. Fordham Foundation's white paper series "Fwd: Arresting Insights in Education." Walsh highlights a 2005 study, "Studying Teacher Education," a nearly 800-page report by a panel of the American Educational Research Association Panel on Research and Teacher Education, in which the nation's leading teacher educators admit that there is little evidence to prove the effectiveness of the methods used to prepare the nation's teachers. While applauding the panel's admission of this failure, she calls them out on a lack of attention to both the achievement gap and scientific reading strategies. Walsh writes that "The achievement gap, unquestionably the primary education problem of the 21st Century, is mentioned by name only once in the volume, and then only to assert a baseless theory that the gap may be caused (partially) by too many White teachers in the classroom." Walsh states that the report does not mention that some pedagogies and curricula have demonstrated far more effectiveness than others. Instead, teacher candidates are encouraged to arrive at their own solutions by developing their own "equity pedagogy," meaning that the teacher candidate should devise their own "methods and materials that support the academic achievement of students from diverse and minority groups" by creating curriculum based on student's backgrounds. Walsh asks, "And if the novice gets it wrong?" She also asks what happens after the child sitting before the teacher is black and poor and says the same can said for the few references to English as a Second Language teacher preparation. Teacher candidates are taught to appreciate the diversity of the non-English speaking child, with preparation programs bearing no responsibility for imparting strategies for helping them learn the language. Walsh states that the most remarkable question that was not asked by the AERA panel was whether programs effectively teach reading instruction to teacher candidates and that reading instruction is completely missing when it comes to preparing candidates to teach high-poverty, high-minority, and special-education populations. Walsh finds the AERA panel's report omission "breathtaking" that the extensive science packaged by the National Reading Panel is ignored. Walsh concludes this article by stating that: "In ignoring the role that teacher education could play in giving teachers the necessary skills to alleviate the ill-effects of poverty, the profession misses its best chance to counter its many critics," and instead passes on its mandate to help correct educational inequities, thus consigning itself to irrelevance. | [FULL TEXT]

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Wang, C.-H. (2005).  Questioning Skills Facilitate Online Synchronous Discussions  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 21, 4. 

The results of this study show that effective questioning skills increase student intellectual moves that, in turn, facilitate the process of knowledge construction in online synchronous discussion (OSD). The open-ended questions elicited multiple perspectives by promoting student participation, while OSD enabled them to share and debate multiple perspectives simultaneously without worrying about interrupting the flow of a conversation that had moved on. Furthermore, the high level of questions engaged students in higher order thinking. That is, OSD can be productive for learning when organised with appropriate questioning skills. The implication is that educators have to re-engineer their thinking to teach with OSD in order to discover effective pedagogy that uses OSD as an integral component in teaching. Research on educational OSD should focus on how and when it is an appropriate learning tool that enhances learning processes and outcomes.

Wang, Hongyu (2005).  Aporias, Responsibility, and the Im/possibility of Teaching Multicultural Education  Educational Theory, 55, 1. 

Drawing upon Jacques Derrida's notions of aporia and responsibility, this essay discusses the dilemmas of multicultural education and the pedagogical responsibility of multicultural educators. Derrida emphasizes that there is no responsibility without experiencing aporia as the possibility of the impossible. To promote personal transformation and social justice in the multicultural classroom, we must acknowledge the aporias of teacher authority and student agency, self and other, center and margin, and intellect and emotion, and refuse to reduce them to any easy resolutions. The Derridean notions of aporia and responsibility ask us to approach multicultural education as a poetic experiencing of contradictions in order to invent new modes of subjectivity for both teacher and student. The complexity of teaching about social differences calls for creative pedagogy in which identity and community are destabilized while ambiguity and paradoxes are embraced, thus allowing us to imagine the world otherwise.

Wang, Jia Yi (2001).  The Training of Ethnic Minority Teachers: The NNU Model.  Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education & Development, 4, 2. 

China's Northwest Normal University provides preservice and inservice teacher training in northwest China. This paper reports how the university has set up an effective system to advance teaching practices and enhance innovations in teacher education for ethnic minorities, which contributes to the improvement of the quality and effectiveness of schooling and pedagogy in the region.

Wang, Sheng-mei (2004).  Preparing Tomorrow's Pedagogy: Principles and Practices  [Online Submission] 

This study is a collaborative teaching/learning pedagogy that offers an alternative teaching approach to curriculum development for early childhood education in an effort to explore how to best teach a child in English language arts classroom. This study, based on Gardner's Multiple Intelligences theory and Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development theory, emphasizes observing children closely, identifying children's areas of strength, and using those existing ones as the basis for an individualized educational curriculum along with facilitation from instructors, peers, and parents to maximize each child's learning potential. Through the use of local environment in which contains dialectical interaction relationship among peers and instructors, children effectively developed their language proficiencies. The study advocates that the teaching strategies to be employed should stress learning through class activities and through the instructors and parents. Classroom observation and parents' interview were conducted. Based on the positive findings, the combination of instructional strategies is continued.  | [FULL TEXT]

Wang, Winnie (2000).  Service Learning: Is It Good for You? 

This study explores the relationship between elements of the service learning pedagogy and the self-development of students. The study focuses specifically on undergraduates who participated in a career-based outreach program (CBOP) at the University of California, Los Angeles. Observers followed four student fellows enrolled in a Community Service Learning for Student Achievement in fall/winter 1998-99 as they attended lectures and discussion groups and visited field sites. The data included weekly ethnographic field notes prepared by the observers, as well as one-on-one interviews with students. Three self-development outcomes emerged from the data: a commitment to loving people and loving the community; self-empowerment; and the quest to find purpose and meaning. Course elements that were influential in contributing toward self-development of undergraduates included the role of the professor, lecture content, discussions, and the field experience. Two appendixes include the interview protocol and a list of optimal learning principles. | [FULL TEXT]

Wang, Xuemei; Dannenhoffer, John F. III; Davidson, Barry D.; Spector, J. Michael (2005).  Design Issues in a Cross-Institutional Collaboration on a Distance Education Course  Distance Education, 26, 3. 

Collaborative learning has been gaining momentum as a promising pedagogy in higher education. Research on student collaboration is increasing. However, one arena is often overlooked--faculty collaboration. In this article, a cross-institutional faculty collaboration is presented. The context is faculty collaboration on the design of an undergraduate engineering course. Specifically, this paper examines design issues encountered in the faculty collaborations associated with developing, delivering, and redesigning a senior-level engineering design course that was taught simultaneously at two universities. This course was taught in state-of-the-art distance learning classrooms. Both within class and outside class, participating students and faculty made use of a Web-based environment that supported a variety of synchronous and asynchronous interactions. The course itself focused on team design projects and provided instruction on the engineering design process, in various specific skills needed for the students' projects, and on how to function effectively as part of a geographically distributed engineering design team. The participating faculty members represented different backgrounds, academic disciplines, and academic cultures. Issues related to collaborations on development, delivery, and redesign are elaborated. Based on the lessons learned, suggestions for future cross-institutional faculty collaboration in course development are provided.

Wang-Chavez, Jenny; Branon, Rovy; Mikolaj, Peter (2000).  Facilitating Web-Based Instruction: Formative Research on Improving an Online Undergraduate Business Course. 

The purpose of this study was to assist an instructor in facilitating an online course while the class was being offered, and to provide timely interventions for improving the course during the semester. A formative approach was used to help deal with unforeseen issues in implementing the first online course this instructor had offered. Through data analysis of what worked well, what did not work well, and what improvements were needed, issues related to both students and instructor's perspective of the class were identified in the findings. From a student perspective, these issues included: online interactions, assessment, and course participation. For the instructor, there were concerns about new pedagogy, technology, and workload. Based on these issues, instructional interventions were suggested and an overall evaluation was conducted through an online survey. The approach adopted, findings identified, and recommendations made in this study will have implications for other instructors and instructional designers, especially those teaching online for the first time.   | [FULL TEXT]

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Ward, Martin J.; Wells, Tim J. (2006).  The Relationship between Preservice Teachers' Reading Ability and Their Achievement on Teacher Certification Examinations  Teacher Education and Practice, 19, 1. 

Graduates of teacher education programs throughout the nation must pass state-mandated standardized paper-and-pencil exit tests to become certified teachers. This study examines the relationship between the reading levels of preservice teachers enrolled in a south Texas university and their scores on the Texas Examinations of Educator Standards-Pedagogy and Professional Responsibilities exam. The validity of determining one's teaching effectiveness through standardized testing is examined in light of the emphasis that this process places on the test taker's reading abilities. Implications for teacher educators in response to the gatekeeping process of certification examinations for entry into the teaching profession are discussed.

Ward, Robin A. (2005).  Using Children's Literature to Inspire K-8 Preservice Teachers' Future Mathematics Pedagogy  Reading Teacher, 59, 2. 

A growing body of research in the fields of mathematics education and literacy supports the inclusion of children's literature with the teaching and learning of mathematics. When mathematics is couched within a story and presented using pictures and informal, familiar language, students can more readily grasp the mathematical ideas and concepts. In addition, because children's literature often depicts real-life situations, it can serve as a catalyst for engaging students in authentic problem solving and inspire them to explore mathematical concepts actively and enthusiastically. Preservice teachers need to experience for themselves the power and potential of children's literature as an educational tool in mathematics so that they are well prepared and motivated to teach in an engaging fashion with a focus on reading, writing, and communicating mathematically. The author presents a variety of activities and ideas implemented as part of an elementary mathematics methods course that modeled for preservice teachers pedagogically sound strategies for effectively integrating children's literature with the teaching and learning of mathematics in primary, intermediate, and middle school classrooms.

Warren, Wilson J. (2007).  Closing the Distance between Authentic History Pedagogy and Everyday Classroom Practice  History Teacher, 40, 2. 

One of the great challenges for the Teaching American History (TAH) grant program is changing conventional K-12 history pedagogy. The literature is full of a myriad of complaints about the traditionally poor pedagogy of secondary school history teachers. History faculty are among the most severe critics. Yet their complaints are often fuzzy and more than a bit hypocritical since history pedagogy among college and university professors is often just as hide-bound and lacking in authenticity as that found in the secondary schools. Relatively few college students, including history majors, are exposed to teaching methods that utilize what is known about how best to teach history. Nevertheless it is indeed possible to restructure secondary-level history instruction to emphasize historical thinking and approaches that are more authentic. In the context of the TAH program, however, these new approaches are not, of course, taught directly to students but are taught to their teachers. To answer the question, "How receptive are United States history teachers to more authentic historical instruction?," the author developed a survey of teachers' history dispositions for the TAH projects centered at Western Michigan University. In it, teachers are asked to evaluate their historical beliefs and attitudes using a Likert scale of strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree, or strongly agree for several statements. The survey revealed that teachers failed to understand the value and use of authentic teaching methods. It is necessary to think creatively about convincing teachers of the importance of teaching historical inquiry skills and use of authentic methods and sources. In the author's opinion, the TAH program's most important achievement would be the leveling of the barriers that exist between academic and K-12 history teaching so that all students can learn better how to "do" history.

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Wasburn-Moses, Leah (2005).  Preparing Special Educators for Secondary Positions  Action in Teacher Education, 27, 3. 

The field of special education has been consistently plagued with serious personnel shortages, high rates of teacher attrition, criticisms of inadequate teacher preparation, and questionable student outcomes. The recent focus on increased standards and improved student outcomes adds complexity to this situation. Of paramount concern are the need to address shortfalls in teacher preparation and the growing gap between that preparation and the changing world of practice. This study surveyed 191 high school learning disabilities teachers regarding these issues. Their responses lead to recommendations for the reform of special education teacher preparation. Results indicated that many teachers did not perceive they were well prepared for their positions and urged more training in areas such as curriculum and pedagogy, paperwork and legal issues, and student issues.

Wasylko, Yolanda; Stickley, Theodore (2003).  Theatre and Pedagogy: Using Drama in Mental Health Nurse Education.  Nurse Education Today, 23, 6. 

Describes how psychodrama, forum theatre, and other forms of drama can facilitate active learning, develop empathy and reflective skills, and foster emotional intelligence in nursing education. Contains 21 references.

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Watanabe, Suwako (2003).  Cohesion and Coherence Strategies in Paragraph-Length and Extended Discourse in Japanese Oral Proficiency Interviews  Foreign Language Annals, 36, 4. 

This study focused on Japanese linguistic features that contribute to producing the paragraph-length and extended connected discourse that is expected at the Advanced and Superior levels in ACTFL oral proficiency interviews (OPIs). From 15 Japanese OPIs at the Intermediate-High through Superior levels, 3,062 predicates were identified. Frequent use of embedded syntactic constructions, such as sentence modifiers and embedded interrogative and quotative constructions (approximately (t)te iu), contributed to the integration of more predicates, resulting in extended discourse at the Superior level. To link clauses, gerunds and adversative clausal particles were more prevalent than sentence-initial connectives. Adversative clausal particles and quotative constructions played an important role in signaling the meaning of the utterance in relation to the entire discourse. A qualitative analysis revealed that appropriate use of cohesive and coherence devices affected the degree of cohesiveness and coherence of discourse. The implications for Japanese language pedagogy and OPI are significant.

Water, Manon van de (2004).  Russian Drama and Theatre in Education: "Perestroika" and "Glasnost" in Moscow Theatres for Children and Youth  Research in Drama Education, 9, 2. 

Russian theatre for young audiences has had a long tradition of professional, state subsidised theatre, with a strong educational function specifically for young people. The primary task of the "tiuz" ("teatriunogo zritelia," theatre of the young spectator) was to contribute to the ideological and aesthetic education for future Soviet citizens. To that end, each theatre consisted of an artistic and an education division, which, ideally, shared the power and jointly decided the repertory. Also involved were the communist party division of each theatre and the Ministry of Culture and Enlightenment, which had the final say over the repertory and production. The repertory was directed towards three rigidly observed age groups (children, adolescents, and youth), each with its own mandatory plays. The educational section was headed by an 'experienced pedagogue' whose task was to maintain close links with the schools and other educational institutions and to guide the students in their artistic tastes and overall world view. Aesthetic education was mandatory at all schools and included field trips to, among other places, the theatre. At the schools, special clubs were formed of interested students who helped the pedagogues: in preparatory sessions at the schools; in maintaining order during performances; and in organising and sometimes leading post-performance discussions and evaluations. Questionnaires, interviews, and quantitative analyses were used for audience evaluation. All this changed with the politics of "Glasnost" and "Perestroika" in the mid-1980s. The changes in material circumstances forced the theatres for young audiences to adapt themselves to the rapid ideological and cultural shifts, contesting the legitimacy of their existence as theatres for young audiences proper. This article traces how the two oldest theatres for children and youth in Moscow adapted to the ideological shifts in repertory, practice, and pedagogy, and how these changes affected their respective identities as theatres for young people.

Waters, Tony; Leblanc, Kim (2005).  Refugees and Education: Mass Public Schooling without a Nation-State  Comparative Education Review, 49, 2. 

This article examines the schooling that is provided in the world's refugee camps. The limitations provided both by the nature of schooling itself and by the international refugee relief system are explored. It is concluded that there are actually three separate paradoxes making problematic the development of refugee education programs. The first is the challenge that the "pseudo-state" (the international refugee relief regime) faces in identifying curriculum and pedagogy. The second is that education is always embedded in political judgments, about values that are only poorly defined in refugee populations. The third is that schooling is inherently embedded in broader issues of individual and economic development that for refugee populations are inherently unclear and often unimaginable.

Watkins, Megan (2007).  Thwarting Desire: Discursive Constraint and Pedagogic Practice  International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education (QSE), 20, 3. 

This article examines the ways in which the desire to teach is often thwarted within contemporary pedagogic practice by a set of discursive constraints that draws heavily on both progressivist notions of teaching and learning and neoliberal forms of governance. In many Western countries teaching is conceived more as facilitation rather than instruction. In primary/elementary schools in Australia, for example, this has resulted in a shift in emphasis from whole-class instruction to group-based and independent learning. To investigate this shift, and its impact on teaching, a series of interviews was conducted with 12 teachers and their principals across three state primary/elementary schools. While a range of perspectives was evident, it became clear that the desire to teach was more obviously realized through whole-class instruction and teachers also considered this a more effective means of curriculum delivery. Many, however, were reluctant to admit this as they felt that instruction was not deemed "appropriate pedagogy". In addition to this, neoliberal practices concerning organization and accountability were also seen to be impacting upon these teachers, all of which had a constraining influence on their desire to teach.

Watkins, William H., Ed.; Lewis, James H., Ed.; Chou, Victoria, Ed. (2001).  Race and Education: The Roles of History and Society in Educating African American Students. 

This book contains a collection of papers on race in U.S. education written by scholars who believe that improvement in the educational achievement of African American children will not occur by changing the curriculum or achieving desegregation. True change requires innovations based on replacing constructs rooted in past white hegemony and its current vestiges and building educational programs and communities consistent with children's ethnic, cultural, social, and developmental needs. After "Introduction: The Search for New Answers" (James H. Lewis), the papers are (1) "'Race,' Identity, Hegemony, and Education: What Do We Need To Know Now?" (Asa G. Hilliard, III); (2) "Comment: The Social 'Destruction' of Race To Build African American Education" (Laurence Parker); (3)"Blacks and the Curriculum: From Accommodation to Contestation and Beyond" (William H. Watkins); (4) "Comment: Researching Curriculum and Race" (Annette Henry); (5) "The Power of Pedagogy: Does Teaching Matter?" (Gloria Ladson-Billings); (6) "Comment: Unpacking Culture, Teaching, and Learning: A Response to 'The Power of Pedagogy'" (Carol D. Lee); (7) "Identity, Achievement Orientation, and Race: 'Lessons Learned' about the Normative Developmental Experiences of African American Males" (Margaret Beale Spencer); (8) "Comment: Human Development and the Social Structure" (Enora R. Brown); (9) "Why Can't Sonya (and Kwame) Fail Math?" (Signithia Fordham); (10) "Comment: Cultural Discontinuity, Race, Gender, and the School Experiences of Children" (Vivian L. Gadsden); (11) "Culturally Appropriate Pedagogy" (Janice E. Hale); (12) "Comment: The Challenges of Cultural Socialization in the Schooling of African American Elementary School Children: Exposing the Hidden Curriculum" (A. Wade Boykin); (13) "Education and Socialization: A Review of the Literature" (Michele Foster); (14) "Comment: Schools as Contexts for Socialization" (Cynthia Hudley). (Chapters contain references.)

Watson, Anne (2004).  Red Herrings: Post-14 Best Mathematics Teaching and Curricula  British Journal of Educational Studies, 52, 4. 

The Smith Report has generated central questions about the mathematics education of UK adolescents. This paper highlights the close match between the goals of school mathematics, adolescence and exploratory pedagogy. This is contrasted with the prescriptive nature of current regimes. In particular, without careful attention to pedagogy it is possible that the introduction of different pathways may lead to a failure to achieve the outcomes desired by employers and universities, and to inequity in provision for students.

Watson, Doris L.; Crandall, Jason; Hueglin, Shawn; Eisenman, Pat (2002).  Incorporating Service-Learning into Physical Education Teacher Education Programs.  Journal of Physical Education

Outlines strategies used by one physical education teacher education program to incorporate the pedagogy of service learning into its curriculum and more completely address National Association for Sport and Physical Education and National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Educators (NASPE/NCATE) guidelines, highlighting: the department, course characteristics, site placement, course readings, student reflection, class discussion, and addressing NASPE/NCATE guidelines.

Watson, Rod; Manning, Alex (2008).  Factors Influencing the Transformation of New Teaching Approaches from a Programme of Professional Development to the Classroom  International Journal of Science Education, 30, 5. 

A programme of professional development was designed consisting of 20 hours of workshops plus in-school activities. The implementation of new pedagogy was supported by teachers bringing examples of their work in the classroom to the workshops for discussion and reflection. The purpose of this study is to explore factors that influenced what teachers took from the professional development programme and how they used it in their own classrooms. It focuses on how the teachers' perceived needs were affected by the programme and how the implementation of new pedagogy was affected the level of in-school support. Data were collected to evaluate the expertise of the teachers early in the programme, their learning through the programme and factors that affected their learning. These data included tape-recordings of selected discussions during workshops, field notes of the workshops, classroom evidence collected by the teachers and portfolios constructed from it, and interviews with teachers after the programme had finished. The results indicate that success in learning from the programme was affected by two key factors: how teachers' perceptions of their needs interacted with the learning opportunities offered by the programme and how the level of in-school support affected the introduction of new pedagogy in the classroom. Unless both factors were positive learning from the professional development programme was variable.

Watts, Emily H.; O'Brian, Mary; Wojcik, Brian W. (2004).  Four Models of Assistive Technology Consideration: How Do They Compare to Recommended Educational Assessment Practices?  Journal of Special Education Technology, 19, 1. 

Although the concept of assistive technology has been around for some time in the fields of study for rehabilitation, communication as it relates to speech and language (Bryant & Bryant, 2003; Church & Glennen, 1992) and medicine (Porter, Haynie, Bierle, Caldwell, & Palfrey, 2001), assistive technology pedagogy is relatively new to the field of special education. The purpose of this article is to provide guidance to school teams in the assistive technology consideration process by comparing and evaluating selected models of the assistive technology consideration process with respect to recommended practices in educational assessment. This article represents a beginning exploration and adaptation of a yardstick for comparing models that was proposed originally by Watts and O'Brian. In their article describing models for considering assistive technology for students with disabilities, the authors introduce the notion of cross-referencing the literature in educational assessment processes with literature in the field of assistive technology consideration process.

Watts, Jacqueline H. (2008).  Challenges of Supervising Part-Time PhD Students: Towards Student-Centred Practice  Teaching in Higher Education, 13, 3. 

The supervision of part-time doctoral students is a long-term academic enterprise requiring stamina both on the part of the supervisor and the student. Because of the fractured student identity of the part-time doctoral candidate, who is usually balancing a range of work, study, and family commitments, strategies to support their progress have to be proactive, well- planned, and sensitive to individual circumstances. Part-time students, however, cannot be seen as a unitary group as their learner motivation, personal circumstances, and support needs are highly individual. Drawing on ideas shared at a cross-faculty development workshop for PhD supervisors, this essay discusses approaches to supporting these students focusing on the themes of communication, planning, and empathy. It highlights the benefits of a student-centred pedagogy within postgraduate research education that takes account of both the pastoral and academic elements of the supervisor/supervisee relationship.

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Wearmouth, Janice; Soler, Janet (2001).  How Inclusive Is the Literacy Hour?  British Journal of Special Education, 28, 3. 

This article explores the implications of recent British government initiatives for pupils who experience difficulties in literacy development. It focuses on the contradictions between the inclusive requirements of the National Curriculum and the prescriptive pedagogy of the National Literacy Strategy. The effect of these contrasting policies and recommendations is discussed. 

Weaver, John A., Ed.; Morris, Marla, Ed.; Appelbaum, Peter, Ed. (2001).  (Post) Modern Science (Education): Propositions and Alternative Paths. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. 

This collection of essays offers new perspectives for science educators, curriculum theorists, and cultural critics on science education, French post-structural thought, and the science debates. This book contains chapters on the work of Bruno Latour, Michael Serres, and Jean Baudrillard plus chapters on postmodern approaches to science education and critiques of modern scientific assumptions in curriculum development. Chapters include: (1) "(Post)Modern Science (Education): Propositions and Alternative Paths" (John A. Weaver); (2) "Science as Curriculum Theory" (Marla Morris); (3) "The Object(s) of Culture: Bruno Latour and the Relationship between Science and Culture" (William E. Doll, Jr., Franc Feng, and Stephen Petrina); (4) "Bachelard as Constructivist" (Eva Krugly-Smolska); (5) "The Simulacra of Science Education" (David W. Blades); (6) "Serres Bugs the Curriculum" (Marla Morris); (7) "Pastiche Science: Bringing Cultural Studies of Science to Education and Education to the Cultural Studies of Science" (Peter Appelbaum); (8) "Science Education through Situated Knowledge" (Matthew Weinstein); (9) "Genre Analysis as a Way of Understanding Pedagogy in Mathematics Education" (Susan Gerofsky); (10) "A Feminist Revisioning of Infinity: Small Speculations on a Large Subject" (Elaine V. Howes and Bill Rosenthal); (11) "Cookbook Classrooms; Cognitive Capitulation" (Dave Pushkin); (12) "Modernist Traditions in Supervision and the Illusions of Science and Objectivity" (Jeffrey Glanz); (13) "Pedagogies of the Cultural Studies of Science" (John A. Weaver and Karen Anijar); (14) "Teaching in the (Crash) Zone: Manifesting Cultural Studies in Science Education" (Noel Gough); and (15) "Pedagogies of Science (In)Formed by Global Perspectives: Encouraging Strong Objectivity in Classrooms" (Annette Gough).

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Webb, Mary E. (2005).  Affordances of ICT in Science Learning: Implications for an Integrated Pedagogy. Research Report  International Journal of Science Education, 27, 6. 

This paper presents an analysis of how affordances of ICT-rich environments identified from a recent review of the research literature can support students in learning science in schools within a proposed framework for pedagogical practice in science education. Furthermore other pedagogical and curriculum innovations in science education (promoting cognitive change, formative assessment and lifelong learning) are examined to see how they may be supported and enhanced by affordances of ICT-rich environments. The affordances that I have identified support learning through four main effects: promoting cognitive acceleration; enabling a wider range of experience so that students can relate science to their own and other real-world experiences; increasing students' self-management; and facilitating data collection and presentation. ICT-rich environments already provide a range of affordances that have been shown to enable learning of science but integrating these affordances with other pedagogical innovations provides even greater potential for enhancement of students' learning.

Webb, P. Taylor (2000).  The Use of Language in Reflective Teaching: Implications for Self-Understanding.  Journal of Educational Thought/Revue de la Pensee Educative, 34, 3. 

Criticizes monologic conceptions of reflection and suggests that individual cognitive models can perpetuate poor pedagogy. Argues that teachers initially frame events to reflect upon, and that through language and dialogue teachers can better understand their reflections, practice, and themselves. Discusses three arguments that challenge agent-centered epistemologies.

Webb, P. Taylor (2001).  Reflection and Reflective Teaching: Ways To Improve Pedagogy or Ways To Remain Racist?  Race Ethnicity and Education, 4, 3. 

Discusses how some preservice teachers examine their racial and ethnic attitudes via reflection, suggesting that reflection is insufficient in helping teachers examine their ideas of teaching because it privileges the epistemology of the individual. Demonstrates how teachers' mainstream academic knowledge and personal/cultural knowledge can be negatively affected by reflection if the process does not interrogate teachers' beliefs about minorities.

Webb, Rosemary, Ed. (2006).  Changing Teaching and Learning in the Primary School  [Open University Press] 

In this topical book, leading academics in primary education evaluate New Labour's Education policy. They draw on the findings of the latest research to discuss the impact of policies on primary school practice and on the views and experiences of primary school teachers and pupils. Current issues and initiatives are analyzed to identify the extent to which policy is shaped by past events, trends and assumptions. The contributors consider the future of primary education, offer recommendations at school, LEA and national level, and make suggestions for future research. "Changing Teaching and Learning in the Primary School" emphasizes the central importance of taking children's perspectives into account when making changes in policy and practice. By focusing predominantly on teaching and learning at Key Stage 2, the book addresses the imbalance between the range and depth of information offered on pre-school and infant education and that available on junior teaching. This book begins with an introduction by Rosemary Webb, and continues with the following chapters: (1) Education Policy under New Labour (Rosemary Webb); (2) National Policy on Primary Education: Inconsistency and Uncertainty over the Whole Curriculum (Jim Campbell); (3) Teachers Perspectives on Teaching and Learning in a Performativity Culture (Rosemary Webb and Hilary Burgess); (4) From "TA" to Assessment for Learning: The Impact of Assessment Policy on Teachers' Assessment Practices (Caroline Gipps, Alison Pickering, B. McCallum, and E. Hargreaves) (5) Pupils' Views of Key Stage Two (Cedric Cullingford); (6) Learning to Love Learning? What the Pupils Think (Yolande Muschamp and Kate Bullock); (7) Creativity in Primary Education (Pamela Burnard); (8) New Technologies and "New Teaching": A Process of Evolution? (Gary Beauchamp); (9) Pedagogy at Key Stage Two: Teaching through Pupil-Teacher Partnership at Key Stage 2 (Peter Silcock and Mark Brundrett); (10) The Inclusion of Children with Special Educational Needs in Mainstream Primary Schools (Elias Avramidis); (11) Teaching Strategies for Pupils with SEN; Specialist or Inclusive Pedagogy? (Ruth Kershner and Lani Florian); (12) Widening the Inclusion Agenda: Policy, Practice and Language Diversity in the Curriculum (Jean Conteh); (13) What a Performance! The Impact of Performance Management and Threshold Assessment on the Work and Lives of Primary Teachers (Ian Menter, Pat Mahony, and Ian Hextall); (14) Leading Teaching and Learning in the Primary School (Linda Hammersley-Fletcher and Rosemary Webb); and (15) Primary Teacher Professionalism (Graham Vulliamy). A prologue by Andrew Pollard concludes this book.

Webb, Rosemary; Vulliamy, Graham (2007).  Changing Classroom Practice at Key Stage 2: The Impact of New Labour's National Strategies  Oxford Review of Education, 33, 5. 

The article examines the impact of New Labour policies--particularly the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies and the subsequent Primary National Strategy--on classroom practice at Key Stage 2 in England. Evidence is drawn from fieldwork conducted in 2003-2005 from a sample of 50 schools, replicating a study conducted a decade previously in the same schools. The data base consists mainly of 188 transcribed in-depth teacher interviews and fieldnotes from observation of 51 lessons. By comparison with other research studies on primary classroom practice from the 1970s through to the mid-1990s, our study suggests that there have been more changes in the last five years in teaching styles and in classroom organisation throughout the whole curriculum at KS2 than in the previous two decades. Such changes include a dramatic increase in whole-class teaching, the use of learning objectives shared with pupils and changes in pupil seating arrangements. Through compliance with centrally imposed changes in pedagogy, teachers' experiences have led them to change some of their professional values concerning desirable pedagogy. The article concludes by considering some of the implications of our evidence for theories of educational change and of teacher professionalism.

Webb, Sue; Ibarz, Toni (2006).  Reflecting on "What Works" in Education Research-Policy/Practice Relationships  Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 58, 2. 

There has been a policy push in several countries to encourage more evidence-based practice in education, although current knowledge shows that the relationship between education research and policy-practice is problematic. In spite of this, educational organizations have to respond to the challenges of globalisation with new pedagogic models to teach new things to new people in new ways. Therefore, researchers are being asked to consider new ways of relating with users. This article examines these "new ways" in the context of a policy initiative for English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) in the UK where, as in other countries, there is a need to provide access to learning for migrants. A qualitative methodology has been used to reflect on the outcomes of a project that researched the experiences of learners and tutors in order to outline pedagogy for learning computer-based ESOL. Characteristics of research-policy relationships that "work" by building a researcher-user community of practice are identified.

Weber, Keith (2002).  Beyond Proving and Explaining: Proofs That Justify the Use of Definitions and Axiomatic Structures and Proofs That Illustrate Technique.  For the Learning of Mathematics, 22, 3. 

Categorizes the purposes of proof in mathematics and the mathematics classroom as proofs that convince or explain knowledge about mathematical truth, proofs that justify the use of terminology, and proofs that illustrate technique. Includes suggestions for pedagogy.

Webster, Peter R. (2004).  Response to Paul Woodford, "A Liberal Versus Performance Based Music Education?"  Philosophy of Music Education Review, 12, 2. 

Peter Webster believes that a study of the history of music teaching and learning in North America will likely reveal very few examples of extended and well-argued professional discourse. By "discourse" he means a continuous expression or exchange of ideas designed to present contrasting views on important issues in the music teaching profession. Webster says that often annual teaching conventions are filled with presentations that address a single perspective in research, pedagogy, or theory. "Special theme" issues of magazines are rarely devoted to contrasting points of view about music teaching and learning. Conferences are organized to promote single views on a subject, often speaking to a partisan audience that expects to be neither challenged to think in a contrary way nor encouraged to develop alternative perspectives. Webster believes that, in his paper, Paul Woodford, makes this point forcefully and effectively as he challenges educators to consider just how few examples there are of real discourse in the profession. Webster, says that he enjoyed enormously the case made in Woodford's paper for liberal education as not defined by the teaching of a canon of great books or art works as an end, but as a thoughtful discussion of ideas in light of contemporary circumstance. Webster responds to that idea by saying that the paper reminds educators that the idea of criticism in the field of education need not be a negative concept in this current age of post-modern thought, but rather, a positive mark of a maturing profession.

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Wedege, Tine (2001).  Epistemological Questions about Research and Practice in ALM. 

The new research and practice area of "adults and mathematics" is situated within the didactics of mathematics as it is structured and delimited by the concrete forms of practice and knowledge currently regarded as mathematics teaching, learning, and knowing. "Adults Learning Mathematics" (ALM) is a community of practice and research within the didactics of mathematics in which adults' learning and numeracy are central and where the reason to teach mathematics is empowerment for social and working life. Epistemological reconnaissances have resulted in these five conclusions on ALM: (1) The ALM community of practice and research is accepted as a domain within the didactics of mathematics; (2) the learner is the focus of the ALM studies, and her/his "numeracy" is understood as mathematics knowledge; (3) didactic questions are integrated with general adult education questions in ALM and the studies are interdisciplinary; (4) the duality between the objective and subjective perspective is implicit, or explicit, in all ALM problematics; and (5) the general aim of ALM practice and research is "empowerment" of adults learning math. Interdisciplinary studies involving mathematics, sociology, and pedagogy are necessary to bridge mathematics and adult education. | [FULL TEXT]

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Wee, Bryan; Fast, Juli; Shepardson, Dan; Harbor, Jon; Boone, William (2004).  Students' Perceptions of Environmental-Based Inquiry Experiences  School Science and Mathematics, 104, 3. 

The purpose of this study was to investigate student perceptions of inquiry-based pedagogy within the context of learning about environmental concepts and issues. The study was descriptive in nature and employed a single group, pretest-posttest design, surveying 367 students. The chi-square analysis indicated that 17 of the 29 survey items were answered in a statistically different manner. This suggests that students perceived the environmental inquiry-based experiences to be nontraditional in the approach to teaching and assessment and to emphasize scientific investigations. Students, however, did not perceive science learning to be different from that of past science experiences. Implications to science instruction and teacher professional development are discussed.

Weems, Lisa (2007).  Un/Fixing the Fiend: Queering Pedagogy and Dangerous Desires  Educational Studies: Journal of the American Educational Studies Association, 41, 3. 

The notion of desire in theorizing pedagogical relations has a long tradition within foundations of education. Contemporary scholarship on desire in educational theory is informed by sexuality studies and queer theory. This article both builds and expands contemporary dialogue on desire as informed by some of the debates within sexuality studies, and feminist and queer theory. In this article, I investigate elements of desire that are considered dangerous in pedagogical contexts such as "excess" and "devotion." I then provide an interpretation of the productive nature of conflict and desire in pedagogical encounters. Finally, I explore the pleasure and pain of desires, tension, and conflict as necessarily dangerous and dangerously necessary elements of learning and pedagogical encounters.

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Wegerif, Rupert; Littleton, Karen; Jones, Ann (2003).  Stand-Alone Computers Supporting Learning Dialogues in Primary Classrooms  International Journal of Educational Research, 39, 8. 

This paper focuses on three distinctive ways in which educational software can support learning dialogues in primary classrooms. After a re-capitulation of published research on Initiation, "Discussion," Response, Feedback (IDRF) exchanges, where the computer is used to stimulate discussion and then direct it through using feedback, we ask if there are other ways in which educational software and pedagogy can combine to support learning dialogues. We describe the effect of combining preparation for exploratory talk at the computer with group strategy games played against the computer and then we discuss, with examples, the role of software (in this case Bubble Dialogue) that allows groups to externalise their thoughts in order to reflect upon them. We argue that these three types of educational activity exemplify distinctive ways in which the computer enters into and supports educational dialogues.

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Wehlburg, Catherine M., Ed.; Chadwick-Blossey, Sandra, Ed. (2003).  To Improve the Academy: Resources for Faculty, Instructional, and Organizational Development, Volume 21. 

Chapters of this annual collection explore current and new trends in the field of faculty development. Chapters in the first section, "Faculty Development and Its Role in Institutional and National Crisis," are: (1) "September 11, 2001, as a Teachable Moment" (Edward Zlotkowski); (2) "The Day After: Faculty Behavior in Post-September 11, 2001, Classes" (Michele DiPietro); and (3) "Internationalizing American Higher Education: A Call to Thought and Action" (Deborah DeZure). Section 2, "Faculty Focus in Faculty Development," contains: (4) "The Knowledge Survey: A Tool for All reasons" (Edward Nuhfer and Delores Knipp); (5) "Establishing a Teaching Academy: Cultivation of Teaching at a Research University Campus" (Patricia Kalivoda, Josef Broder, and William K. Jackson); (6) "Using Cooperative Games for Faculty Development" (Barbara J. Millis); (7) "Proven Faculty Development Tools That Foster the Scholarship of Teaching in Faculty Learning Communities" (Milton D. Cox); (8) "Assessing and Reinvigorating a Teaching Assistant Support Program: The Intersections of Institutional, Regional, and National Needs for Preparing Future Faculty" (Kathleen S. Smith); (9) "Transforming Instructional Development: Online Workshops for Faculty" (Laurie Bellows and Joseph R. Danos). Section 3, "Student-Centered Faculty Development," contains: (10) "Accommodating Students with Disabilities: Professional Development Needs of Faculty" (Sheryl Burgstahler); (11) "Integrity in Learner-Centered Teaching" (Douglas Robertson); (12) "Something More: Moments of Meeting and the Teacher-Learner Relationship" (Richard G. Tiberius, John Teshima, and Alan R. Kindler); (13) "Undergraduate Students as Collaborators in Building Student Learning Communities" (Candyce Reynolds); and (14) "Improving Teaching and Learning: Students' Perspectives" (X. Mara Chen, Ellen M. Lawler, and Elichia A. Venso). The final section, "Philosophical Issues in Faculty Development," contains: (15) "The Essential Role of Faculty Development in New Higher Education Models" (Devorah A. Lieberman and Alan E. Guskin); (16) "Are They Really Teachers: Problem-Based Learning and Information Professionals" (Michael Anderson and Virginia Baldwin); (17) "Embracing a Philosophy of Lifelong Learning in Higher Education: Starting with Faculty Beliefs about Their Role as Educators" (Carolin Kreber); and (18) "A Matrix for Reconsidering, Reassessing, and Shaping E-Learning Pedagogy and Curriculum" (Laura Bush, Barry Maid, and Duane Roen).

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Wei, Helen H. (2002).  Teachers' Responses to Policy Implementation: Interactions of New Accountability Policies and Culturally Relevant Pedagogy in Urban School Reform. 

This paper explores how new accountability policies interact with culturally relevant teaching at the classroom level. When teachers are under the constraints of accountability and student testing policies, are they able to adopt and practice culturally relevant pedagogy in their classrooms? Previous research indicates that high-stakes accountability systems connected with standardized testing are viewed as having negative effects on teachers, the teaching profession, and curriculum and instruction. As a result, teachers have reported feelings of guilt, anxiety, shame, and alienation. Teachers' relationships with administrators have become more complicated, and students have demonstrated decreased levels of trust. Accountability systems have also led to more constraints on teachers use of time, leaving little or no time to fulfill students' emotional and personal needs, and leaving teachers feeling overwhelmed. Research also suggests that the standardized testing associated with accountability systems have led to the narrowing of the curriculum, teaching to the test, and increased instructional hours spent on test preparation. Accountability policies do not necessarily exclude the principles of culturally relevant pedagogy, but mandated standardized testing policies clearly create conditions that are harmful to culturally relevant pedagogy and its goals. This raises great concern for students of color. The surface-level incompatibility of these two reforms, however, does not mean the demise of culturally relevant pedagogy. Culturally aware teachers across the United States are probably fighting to find a balance between engaging students through culturally relevant practices and attending to accountability measures. | [FULL TEXT]

Wei, Yingqi; Johnes, Jill (2005).  Internet Tools in Teaching Quantitative Economics: Why Gaps between Potential and Reality?  Journal of Further and Higher Education, 29, 2. 

The use of Internet tools in economic pedagogy is growing. This paper attempts to investigate the impact of Internet tools, as a supplement to traditional teaching methods, on teaching and learning and attempts to answer the question why there are gaps between potential and reality of using Internet tools in economics education, based on our experience of integrating e-learning into courses at Lancaster University. Responses to student questionnaires suggest that the practical features of e-learning which are most successful at enhancing the learning experience are: the noticeboard, discussion space, multiple-choice questions and freedom of expression anonymously. Moreover, the degree of the impact of these e-learning features is affected by network access, residence off campus and student gender. In spite of the enormous potential of the Internet tools in higher education, it is found that much of it is not fully realized due to the problems encountered by lecturers/tutors and students and technical difficulties. It is important to note the many challenges associated with e-learning which are yet to be debated and resolved.

Weil, Danny, Ed.; Anderson, Holly Kathleen, Ed. (2000).  Perspectives in Critical Thinking: Essays by Teachers in Theory and Practice. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education, Vol. 110. 

This publication presents essays that offer exemplary teaching practices and theoretical discussions concerning critical thinking. Covering a wide range of topics, the essays include a varied selection of readings that contemplate how teaching can become a powerful experience for both educators and students. The essays focus on classroom learning within a critical theoretical context and offer immediate strategies, techniques, and examples designed for educators interested in transforming learning into a profound experience. The essays are: "Introduction" (Danny Weil and Holly Kathleen Anderson); "Learning To Reason Dialectically: Teaching Primary Students To Reason within Different Points of View" (Danny Weil); "Making Critical Thinking Critical" (Joe L. Kincheloe); "Eight Critical Points for Mathematics" (Peter M. Applebaum); "Storytelling in the Classroom: Crossing Vexed Chasms" (Greg Sarris); "The Role of Service-Learning in Critical Thinking" (Nancy P. Kraft); "Inviting Youth into Civic Action" (Jenice L. View); "Becoming a Critical Teacher" (Raymond A. Horn, Jr.); "Using a Journal To Develop Reflective and Critical Thinking Skills in Classroom Settings" (Valerie J. Janesick); "Just Doing It: Towards a Critical Thinking of Visual Culture" (Kevin Tavin); and "Critical Thinking in Science--How Do We Recognize It? Do We Foster It?" (David B. Pushkin).

Weiler, Jeanne (2001).  Alternative Visions: (Re)Fashioning Female Gender Identities within an Urban Classroom.  Race

Explores how an invisible pedagogy (integrated curriculum) benefits young adolescent females attending a school for educationally disenfranchised students, using Bernstein's theory of pedagogic practice. Examines aspects of the curriculum that positively impact gender identity among young, working class women, emphasizing skills and knowledge that may help them more critically examine and negotiate unequal relations at home and at work.

Weinbaum, Batya (2004).  Teaching Feminist Approaches to the Classics: An Experiment with Multicultural, Student-Centered Pedagogy at an Urban University  Taboo: The Journal of Culture and Education, 8, 1. 

In this article, the author describes "Feminist Approaches to the Classics," a course she teaches at Cleveland State University. The goal of this particular course was to situate the context of western indigenous myth in relation to western classical literature and to indicate possible reasons for its reclamation in contemporary American culture. Specifically, she and her class examined and explored the myth of the Amazon as it first appeared in western civilization. They looked at how contemporary feminists have reclaimed that myth, and then explored the possible remnants of indigenous matriarchal myth in classical literature not usually read with that purpose until the development of feminist classical criticism. The author relates that her method in teaching this course has always been very student-centered and based on constructivist practices of pedagogy. A syllabus of the course is also presented in this article.

Weiner, Gaby (2000).  A Critical View of Gender and Teacher Education in Europe.  Pedagogy

Explores differences and similarities in various European national histories, politics, and traditions regarding gender relationships within and outside teacher education that affect school and college practice, discussing: the feminization of teaching and teacher education; the European Union's impact; the extent to which gender is a discourse in European teacher education; and theoretical and strategic approaches necessary to strengthen gender's influence.

Weinstein, Carol; Curran, Mary; Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra (2003).  Culturally Responsive Classroom Management: Awareness into Action  Theory Into Practice, 42, 4. 

This article expands discussions of culturally responsive pedagogy by focusing specifically on the tasks and challenges of classroom organization and management. First, we examine three prerequisite understandings that underlie teachers' ability to manage diverse classrooms in culturally competent ways. We then consider specific approaches and strategies for enacting culturally responsive classroom management (CRCM) and reflect on the ways that management practices promote or obstruct equal access to learning. We stress the fact that developing CRCM is an ongoing, long-term, and often discomfiting process, in which cultural diversity becomes a lens through which teachers view the tasks of classroom management.

Weiss, Renee E., Ed.; Knowlton, Dave S., Ed.; Speck, Bruce W., Ed. (2000).  Principles of Effective Teaching in the Online Classroom. New Directions for Teaching and Learning. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series. 

This volume highlights the challenges that electronic classrooms pose to faculty and students. The papers discuss both the pedagogy and the design of online courses. The 11 papers include: (1) "A Theoretical Framework for the Online Classroom: A Defense and Delineation of a Student-Centered Pedagogy" (Dave S. Knowlton); (2) "Designing Instruction for Learning in Electronic Classrooms" (Gary R. Morrison and Peter F. Guenther); (3) "Components of the Online Classroom" (Zane L. Berge) (4) "Making Decisions: The Use of Electronic Technology in Online Classrooms" (Michael Simonson); (5) "Students as Seekers in Online Courses" (Mark Canada); (6) "Accommodating Students with Special Needs in the Online Classroom" (Thomas J. Buggey); (7) "Humanizing the Online Classroom" (Renee E. Weiss); (8) "Promoting Deep and Durable Learning in the Online Classroom" (Douglas J. Hacker and Dale S. Niederhauser); (9) "Evaluating Students' Written Performance in the Online Classroom" (John F. Bauer and Rebecca S. Anderson); (10) "The Academy, Online Classes, and the Breach in Ethics" (Bruce W. Speck); and (11) "Epilogue: A Cautionary Note about Online Classrooms" (R. W. Carstens and Victor L. Worsfold). (Individual papers contain references.)

Weiss, Tarin H.; Feldman, Allan; Pedevillano, Dolly E.; Capobianco, Brenda (2002).  The Implications of Culture & Identity: A Professor's Engagement with a Reform Collaborative. 

This study, which occurred within an introductory-level biology course, examined how participation in a large-scale reform effort (the Collaborative) affected a science professor's conceptions of teaching, teachers, and reform. The Collaborative brought together a community of people who were part of a culture and co-created a culture of reform-mindedness. It taught participants to view the classroom environment as a place where learning was cooperative, active, and negotiated. The study examined how the professor's teaching identity was modified and created by the reform effort as she mediated her participation. Data collection involved interviews/correspondence with four students and the professor, classroom observations, and field notes. Overall, although the professor was inclined to try reformist strategies in her classroom, the project failed to create pedagogical dissonance, resulting in her inability and lack of desire to fully accommodate reformist pedagogy. Though she aligned herself with other participants motivated to improve their practice, she was not dissatisfied with her pedagogy at the outset. She became increasingly frustrated with the misalignment of her needs and interests with those of the project. She had a highly developed identity as a scientist and educator and valued her role as an educator. | [FULL TEXT]

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Welch, Anthony (2004).  Lessons from the Civil Rights Movement for the Long-Term Success of Service-Learning and Citizenship Education  [Education Commission of the States] 

When service is linked to learning and placed at the core of the curriculum, the combination opens the door to the multifaceted education we Americans want for all young people, equipping them for their roles not just as learners, but also as community members and workers. In addition, there is growing agreement that school-based civic education is critical to the development of a new generation of young people with the values, knowledge, skills, sense of efficacy and commitment that define an active and principled citizen. Properly seen, there are meaningful connections between service-learning and civic education; service-learning can be a critical pedagogy for students to acquire and enhance citizenship knowledge and skills, and civic education can be a critical avenue through which students connect their academic learning to serving their communities and country.

Welch, Graham F.; Howard, David M.; Himonides, Evangelos; Brereton, Jude (2005).  Real-Time Feedback in the Singing Studio: An Innovatory Action-Research Project Using New Voice Technology  Music Education Research, 7, 2. 

The article reports on a one-year AHRB-funded Innovations project that was designed to evaluate the usefulness, or otherwise, of the application of real-time visual feedback technology in the singing studio. The basis for the research was a multi-disciplinary approach that drew on voice science and acoustics, the psychology of singing and voice education. Participants were based in two different singing studios, one in the north of England and the other in the south. They catered for two different adult singer client groups ranging from skilled amateur to advanced professional. An action-research methodology was adopted in which the two participant singing teachers and their adult students were seen as co-researchers in the research activity. The resultant research data consisted of research diaries, observations and interviews, supplemented by multimedia recordings (audio and video) of actual singing behaviours over time. Data analyses indicate that new technology can impact positively on teacher behaviours and student experiences by providing more meaningful feedback through an enriched pedagogy. This offers the possibility of expanding the professional knowledge and skill base of both groups.

Weldon, Alice; Trautmann, Gretchen (2003).  Spanish and Service-Learning: Pedagogy and Praxis.  Hispania, 86, 3. 

Discusses the use of service learning as a way of enhancing student learning, especially in oral comprehension, conversation, and cultural understanding. Highlights a study of University of North Carolina-Asheville students who worked in the local health department, reporting the degree to which service learning helped them meet the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages standards.

Weller, Martin (2004).  Learning Objects and the E-Learning Cost Dilemma  Open Learning, 19, 3. 

The creation of quality e-learning material creates a cost dilemma for many institutions, since it has both high variable and high fixed costs. This cost dilemma means that economies of scale are difficult to achieve, which may result in a consequent reduction in the quality of the learning material. Based on the experience of creating a masters level course at the UK Open University, the article suggests that the adoption of learning objects represents one possible resolution to this dilemma. They achieve this through the reduction of the fixed costs by four means: reuse, rapid production, ease of updating and cost-effective pedagogy.

Wellington, Jerry; Sikes, Pat (2006).  "A Doctorate in a Tight Compartment": Why Do Students Choose a Professional Doctorate and What Impact Does It Have on Their Personal and Professional Lives?  Studies in Higher Education, 31, 6. 

Relatively few studies have explored the motivations of students in pursuing a professional doctorate. The study reported in this article is based on data from 29 students pursuing professional doctorates. The findings indicate a diverse range of motivations for taking this route: a "need" for theory, deeper insight into practice for some but frustration with practice for others, the influence of "critical incidents" in the past, the attraction of a challenge, and a variety of extrinsic factors. The authors present and discuss these data, drawing on previous work and attempting to move the debate further. They contend that the variety and diversity of doctoral students following the "professional" route has important implications for the curriculum, the pedagogy and the assessment of professional doctorates for the future.

Welner, Kevin (2002).  Examining the Present and the Future of Legal Protections for Controversial Teaching in Public Schools. 

Classroom speech of public-school teachers is a messy subject with regard to the tension between various societal demands and basic rights of students, teachers, and others at school sites. The demands are not always consistent, and rights are subject to different interpretations depending on which court decision forms the underlying basis for a trial's outcome. This paper analyzes the apparent confusion surrounding this issue of controversial pedagogy. The balancing of rights is discussed with respect to court cases in which the integrity of curriculum and concerns of public interest weaken or eliminate teachers' First Amendment protections. School choice affects teacher speech in a variety of ways because policy-making is decentralized, and greater importance is placed on students' and parents' decisions about what sort of educational experiences produce best results. An analytical framework of more comprehensive scope is needed in addressing these cases involving the notion of a limited public forum. At this time, the Supreme Court has not applied public-forum analysis to a teacher classroom-speech case. It may do so, however, if presented with the appropriate case. Because relevant policies vary from school to school, each instance of classroom speech must be judged on its own merits.

Welsh, M. Ann; Murray, Dale L. (2003).  The Ecocollaborative: Teaching Sustainability through Critical Pedagogy.  Journal of Management Education, 27, 2. 

An interdisciplinary course engages teams of business, industrial design, and environmental studies students in designing a product using principles of sustainable development. The course incorporates critical pedagogy, a collaborative approach to the management of innovation, and a real-world context.

Welsh, Susan (2001).  Resistance Theory and Illegitimate Reproduction.  College Composition and Communication, 52, 4. 

Discusses how in the literature of critical pedagogy, resistance theory analyzes, ranks, and judges the emancipatory value of writing behaviors, privileging nonreproductive and transformative consciousness over cultural reproduction. Notes that the ranking of consciousness and the central metaphor of "reproduction" too often are naively applied, suppressing the political, social, and pedagogical value of writing that develops from within contradictory consciousness.

Welton, Michael (2002).  Listening, Conflict and Citizenship: Towards a Pedagogy of Civil Society.  International Journal of Lifelong Education, 21, 3. 

Political listening is an essential practice of democratic citizenship in world of inequality and cultural conflict. Critical adult educators should foster an infrastructure for respectful communication toward the goal of building a civil and tolerable society.

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Wenzlaff, Terri L.; Wieseman, Katherine C. (2004).  Teachers Need Teachers to Grow  Teacher Education Quarterly, 31, 2. 

The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of teacher learning in a cohort-based, master's degree program in curriculum and pedagogy that was intentionally designed to be responsive to teachers' personal needs and preferences. The program aimed to: (1) provide teachers with the confidence to connect what they do in their classrooms to research-informed practices; (2) immerse teachers in a collaborative culture that allowed them to learn from one another as colleagues; (3) consider teacher input in course content and structure design; and (4) address university guidelines and NCATE standards. A secondary purpose was to evaluate teachers' perceptions of how the program design responded to their needs, preferences, and learning processes. This program design took into account what is known about factors that influence teacher learning, including teacher beliefs as filters, the importance of interactions in a discourse community, and the significance of a collaborative culture as a force for change. The findings of this study suggest that a cohort-based graduate program that is personalized and responsive to teachers' needs promotes meaningful learning and a sense of empowerment. A collaborative culture comprised of teachers from different levels of schooling and content areas, as well as different district contexts, can help teachers to broaden their perspectives about teaching and learning and educational systems. In order to connect theory to practice the teachers in this study best "learned by doing," meaning they learned best by having authentic experiences and practical course assignments, reflecting on their "doing," and having input on graduate course design and content.

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Wesseling, Elisabeth (2004).  Visual Narrativity in the Picture Book: Heinrich Hoffmann's Der Struwwelpeter  Children's Literature in Education, 35, 4. 

This article intervenes in the debate about the pedagogical import of Heinrich Hoffmann's Der Struwwelpeter. Should this book be regarded as a typical example of black pedagogy or as a form of subversive children's literature? I argue in favour of the latter point of view, on the basis of a close reading of the interaction between words and pictures in this classic children's book. Meanwhile, this article aims to further our theoretical insights into the narrative potential of images. Every picture tells a story, but how, exactly? I attempt to give an answer to this question through a detailed case study of Der Struwwelpeter.

Wessman, Christopher (2000).  Pedagogy and the Unconscious: Tourette's Syndrome in the Classroom.  ADE Bulletin

Discusses the author's experience teaching a Writing through Literature course to a class that included a student with Tourette's Syndrome. Describes how the disorder appeared to be a sort of window on the unconscious, putting it on public display; and seeming to release, through this intense experience with the "voices of the self," greater expressiveness within the entire classroom.

Westbury, Ian, Ed.; Hopmann, Stefan, Ed.; Riquarts, Kurt, Ed. (2000).  Teaching as a Reflective Practice: The German Didaktik Tradition. Studies in Curriculum Theory Series. 

This collection of papers presents essays by German scholars and practitioners writing from within the German Didaktik tradition and interpretive essays by U.S. scholars. After an introduction, "Starting a Dialogue: A Beginning Conversation between Didaktik and the Curriculum Traditions" (Stefan Hopmann and Kurt Riquarts), there are 18 chapters in 4 parts. Part 1, "Didaktik as a Reflective Practice," includes: (1) "Teaching as a Reflective Practice: What Might Didaktik Teach Curriculum?" (Ian Westbury); and (2) "German Didaktik: Models of Re-Presentation, of Intercourse, and of Experience" (Rudolf Kunzli). Part 2, "Bildung: Didaktik's Central Idea," includes: (3) "Theory of Bildung" (Wilhelm von Humboldt); (4) "On Wilhelm von Humboldt's Theory of Bildung" (Christopher Luth); and (5) "The Significance of Classical Theories of Bildung for a Contemporary Concept of Allgemeinbildung" (Wolfgang Klafki). Part 3, "Sources from the Didaktik Tradition," includes: (6) "Didaktik as a Theory of Education" (Erich Weniger); (7) "The Art of Lesson Preparation" (Heinrich Roth); (8) "Didaktik Analysis as the Core of Preparation of Instruction" (Wolfgang Klafki); (9) "Teaching to Understand: On the Concept of the Exemplary in Teaching" (Martin Wagenschein); and (10) "Content: Still in Question" (Peter Menck). Part 4, "Didaktik as Praxis," includes: (11) "Klafki's Model of Didaktik Analysis and Lesson Planning in Teacher Education" (Stefan Hopmann); (12) "Levels of Classroom Preparation" (Gotthilf Gerhard Hiller); (13) "Oral and Written Communication for Promoting Mathematical Understanding: Teaching Examples from Grade 3" (Christiane Senn-Fennell); (14) "Reflecting as a Didaktik Construction: Speaking about Mathematics in the Mathematics Classroom" (Michael Neubrand); (15) "Aspects of Simplification in Mathematics Teaching" (Arnold Kirsch); (16) "The Law of Free Fall as an 'Exemplary Theme' for the Mathematicizability of Certain Natural Processes" (Martin Wagenschein); (17) "Open Experimenting: A Framework for Structuring Science Teaching and Learning" (Peter Reinhold); and (18) "Klafki's Didaktik Analysis as a Conceptual Framework for Research on Teaching" (Sigrun Gudmundsdottir, Anne Reinertsen, and Nils P. Nordtomme).

Westcott, Emma (2005).  Equality of Opportunity and Inclusion  Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 31, 4. 

There is strong evidence of the correlation between educational under-achievement and social exclusion. Those who do not participate in or benefit from education are more likely to experience early parenthood, homelessness, poor health, involvement with the youth and adult justice systems, poverty and unemployment. In this paper, the author contends that, while education alone may not be able to address inequalities that stem from complex and interrelated causes, it should avoid reinforcing inequalities. The author briefly discusses several initiatives, i.e., the "Children Bill", extended schools, and school workforce remodeling, that may lead to reconfigurations of expertise across teaching and other staff in and beyond schools, and by doing so, address the weaknesses around prevention and reintegration that can lead to intergenerational exclusion. Questions for further discussion are also posed.

Westfield, Nancy Lynne (2006).  Researching a Womanist Pedagogy to Heal  Religious Education, 101, 2. 

In this article, the author shares her experience with her female African-American student who happened to be a Black female patriarch. She discusses what Patriarchy and Black female Patriarchy means. She states that, Patriarchy, as defined by Candace Jenkins, is the rule of the father, including the rule of older men over younger men and of fathers over daughters, as well as husbands over wives. While, Black female Patriarchy is what happens as African-American women take ownership of male domination, and participate actively in maintaining and supporting the power and privilege of men to rule over, exploit, and debase women. Moreover, after defining and describing the terms, she has then implicated that her student, needed to see how a Black man could partner with her and not oversee, control, or eclipse her. As a womanist pedagogue, she suggests a practice for combating this menace, to design and create a model partnership and collaborations with healthy, progressive African-American men who are self-avowed recovering patriarchs.

Westheimer, Joel; Kahne, Joseph (2002).  What Kind of Citizen? The Politics of Educating for Democracy. 

The notion of democracy occupies a privileged place in our society. Educators and policymakers are increasingly pursuing a variety of programs to promote democracy through civic education, service learning, and other pedagogies. The nature of their underlying beliefs, however, differs. This article underscores the political implications of education for democracy and suggests that the narrow and often ideologically conservative conception of citizenship embedded in many current efforts at teaching for democracy reflects not arbitrary choices but rather political choices with political consequences. Three conceptions of the "good" citizen are treated in this article: personally responsible, participatory, and justice oriented. They emerged from an analysis of both democratic theory and a 2-year study of educational programs aiming to promote democracy. Drawing on quantitative and qualitative data from two of the programs studied, it is argued that these conceptions embody significantly different beliefs regarding the capacities and commitments citizens need for democracy to flourish, and they carry significantly different implications for pedagogy, curriculum, evaluation, and educational policy. The authors conclude that politics and the interests of varied groups are often deeply embedded in the ways efforts to educate for democracy are conceptualized, implemented, and studied. | [FULL TEXT]

Westheimer, Joel; Kahne, Joseph (2002).  Educating the "Good" Citizen: The Politics of School-Based Civic Education Programs. 

Educators and policymakers are increasingly pursuing a broad variety of programs that aim to promote democracy through civic education, service learning, and other pedagogies. Their underlying beliefs, however, differ. For some, a commitment to democracy is associated with liberal notions of freedom, while for others democracy is primarily about equality of opportunity. For some, civil society is the key, while others place their hope for social change in healthy free markets. For some, good citizens in a democracy volunteer, while for others they take active parts in political processes by voting. This paper calls attention to the spectrum of ideas about what good citizenship is and what good citizens do. The paper underscores the political implications of education for democracy and suggests that the narrow and often ideologically conservative conception of citizenship embedded in many current efforts at teaching for democracy reflects not arbitrary choices, but rather political choices with political consequences. It details three conceptions of the good citizen: (1) personally responsible, (2) participatory, and (3) justice oriented. States that these emerged from analysis of both democratic theory and a two year study of 10 educational programs aiming to promote democracy. Drawing on quantitative and qualitative data from the two programs studied, the paper argues that these three conceptions embody significantly different beliefs regarding what citizens need for democracy to flourish. They carry significantly different implications for pedagogy, curriculum, evaluation, and educational policy. Politics and interests of varied groups are often deeply embedded in the ways people conceptualize, implement, and study efforts to educate for democracy. Includes seven notes and four tables. Contains 64 references. | [FULL TEXT]

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Wetherill, Karen; Calhoun, Diane; Thomas, Carol Chase (2000).  Considering the Moral Dimensions of Schooling: Implications for Teacher Educators. 

This paper advocates an examination of practices for inservice teacher preparation and career-long professional development, proposing the consideration of Goodlad's moral dimensions as a framework and suggesting an alternative approach to professional development that holds important implications for teacher education and teacher educators. Goodlad's moral dimensions include stewardship, equal access to knowledge for all students, pedagogy to ensure student academic and emotional growth, and enculturation into a democratic society. There are different levels of emphasis on the dimensions depending on the educator's stage of career development. This discussion highlights five ways that staff and career development can be delivered: individually guided projects; observation and assessment; committee work; attendance at workshops and conferences; and action research. It discusses application of the framework to prospective teachers as well as inservice teachers and teacher educators. It concludes that to meet the challenge of improving the quality of teaching and student performance, it is necessary to reconsider the ways teachers and teacher educators are trained and given professional development throughout their careers. It is important to reexamine current practices, formulate new insights related to professional development, and redesign roles and responsibilities of educators related to their professional growth. | [FULL TEXT]

Wetzel, David R. (2001).  A Model for Pedagogical and Curricula Transformation with Technology. 

The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influenced five middle school science teachers as they implemented and integrated instructional technology in their curricula, along with determining the effects that implementation and integration of instructional technology had on their pedagogy and curricula. The study involved empirical research with both qualitative and quantitative data. Data analysis included a cross-case analysis of multiple case studies. Data were gathered August 1999 through December 1999. This time period was selected because it provided the opportunity to test the ST[cubed]AIRS (Staff development, Time, Trainers, Transition, Access, Involvement, Recognition, Support) Model in a school setting from the beginning process of implementation and integration of a new technology. Findings are presented in the framework of the following research questions: (1) What were the teachers' concerns regarding the implementation and integration of technology? (2) What changes in teaching strategies and techniques did the teachers make when implementing and integrating technology? and (3) What were the strengths and weaknesses of the ST[cubed]AIRS Model? | [FULL TEXT]

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Whang, Patricia A.; Waters, Gisele A. (2001).  Transformational Spaces in Teacher Education: MAP(ing) a Pedagogy Linked to a Practice of Freedom.  Journal of Teacher Education, 52, 3. 

Discusses the need for preservice teachers to learn to critique and participate in the transformation of educational policies and practices, tracing the theoretical avenues that converge in Media Action Projects (MAPs) and looking at the transformative spaces afforded by MAPs for teaching future educators who can ethically respond to the needs of students, schools, and communities.

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Whipp, Joan L.; Ferguson, Donald J.; Wells, Linda M.; Iacopino, Anthony M. (2000).  Rethinking Knowledge and Pedagogy in Dental Education.  Journal of Dental Education, 64, 12. 

Suggests that practical and emancipatory knowledge (Habermas, 1971) have been underemphasized in dental curriculum, and that until they are fostered, visions of competency and the joining of theory and practice will be difficult to achieve. Highlights strategies to foster such knowledge within competency-based curricula: problem-based learning and case methods, heuristic strategies, reflective practica, journals, reflective storytelling, and performance-based assessment.

White, Aaronette M.; Wright-Soika, Marcia; Russell, Monica S. (2007).  Epistolary Connections: Letters as Pedagogical Tools in the Introductory Women's Studies Course  Feminist Teacher: A Journal of the Practices

Teaching students to think critically while integrating their personal experiences with feminist scholarship has become a very important objective in the Introduction to Women's Studies course. Women's studies introductory courses are designed to introduce students to feminist inquiry, using gender as the center of analysis while examining its relationships with race, ethnicity, class, physical ability, religion, sexuality, and other social phenomena. This article describes course assignments, student reactions to those assignments, and the relevance of letter reading, writing, and sharing to the goals of feminist pedagogy. Most recently, letters have been used by university instructors to teach students how to apply a variety of theoretical perspectives and concepts to their lives and the lives of significant others. Although, in most cases, the letters are rarely sent to the people written, instructors often build on the creative and semi-autobiographical appeal of letters that promotes intellectual and personal growth, as psychologists have discovered in the counseling environment. Most instructors note that letters promote writing and critical thinking skills in ways that students find less intimidating and more interesting than traditional writing assignments. Using letters as the pedagogical basis of the introductory course in women's studies involves risks, generates both reassuring and challenging experiences, and thereby accomplishes the principal goals of a feminist approach to teaching.

White, Cameron, Ed. (2000).  Issues in Social Studies: Voices from the Classroom. 

This collection of essays, from Houston area educators, investigates and analyzes the state of social education, offering a critical and transformative perspective. Following a preface, chapters in the collection are: (1) "Addressing the Issues within Social Studies" (C. White); (2) "The Status of Social Studies Education" (C. White); (3) "The Promise or Scourge for Social Studies in the New Millennium? Technology, Standardized Tests, and Content Standards" (C. White; T. Walker); (4) "Issues in Transforming Social Studies Education" (S. Balderas; C. White); (5) "Transforming the Social Studies Curriculum" (D. Brun; S. Bouldin; C. White); (6) "Instruction in the Social Studies" (C. Charron; C. White); (7) "Assessment in Social Studies" (K. LeRoy; D. Dudley; C. White); (8)"Technology Issues for Transforming Social Studies" (D. Brennan; T. Jensen; C. Harrison; C. White); (9) "Technorealism: Addressing the Issues in Social Studies" (T. Walker; C. White); (10) "Citizenship Education" (T. VanWinkle); (11) "Controversial Issues in the Social Studies" (S. Lawrence; T. Terence; C. White); (12) "An Issues-Centered Social Studies" (C. White; T. Walker); (13) "Social Justice and Critical Pedagogy for Social Studies" (K. Gewinner; C. Krohn; C. White); (14) "Quilting the Curriculum: Integrating through Social Studies" (J. Campbell; C. Mumpire; C. White); (15) "Towards a Multicultural Social Studies" (D. Owens; D. Newman; C. White); (16) "Primary Social Studies" (P. Keller; C. White); (17) "Integrating Current Events" (B. Weinberg; S. Neumann; C. White); (18)"Cooperative Learning and Social Studies" (Z. A. Blanton; C. White); (19) "Critical Thinking and Inquiry for Social Studies" (J. Katra; C. White); (20) "Professional Development" (J. Penner); (21) "Providing Voice: Teacher Empowerment and Democratic Classrooms" (C. White; T. Walker); and (22) "Social Studies Teacher Education and the Modern/Postmodern Debate" (T. Walker; C. White). Contains an afterword, a selected bibliography, and a list of Web sites.

White, Chris (2005).  The Role of the Teacher  Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 31, 4. 

This brief article discusses scenarios that may be encountered in the future if advances in technology enable customised learning programmes to meet the needs of individuals, if established curriculum structures decline, if education is released from the constraints of place and time, if the labour market demands a more diverse set of competences, and if there is increased community involvement in education.

White, Julie (2006).  Arias of Learning: Creativity and Performativity in Australian Teacher Education  Cambridge Journal of Education, 36, 3. 

This article reports on a five-year Australian study where pre-service primary and secondary teachers were encouraged to enhance their creativity through the development of ethnographic operatic performances. The creativity focus of this project was the important aspect of risk-taking and daring. The methodological basis for the study is ethnographic and narrative methods of enquiry were employed. Rather than learning "about" curriculum and pedagogy, participants were encouraged to learn "through" action and involvement. A new conceptualization of performance pedagogy is provided as well as a discussion of two different interpretations of performativity. A research narrative about the development of the ethnographic operatic performances is told and the implications for creativity in education are discussed.

White-Clark, Renee (2005).  Training Teachers to Succeed in a Multicultural Classroom  Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 70, 8. 

The number of minority students in the schools is rapidly increasing. Simultaneously, the number of minority teachers is decreasing. Achievement gaps by minority students exists across the nation. Due to the lack of culturally responsive pedagogy and practice in their preparation programs, teachers have resorted to less effective measures in attempts to meet the needs of their diverse students. In short, many culturally diverse students are not receiving an optimal educational experience because teachers have not acquired the skills, knowledge, or pedagogy to teach them. Add to that the cultural differences between teachers and students that can have a major impact on student achievement. Research indicates that how teachers relate to students in terms of attitudes and perceptions is one of the critical factors in how students learn. Teacher misconceptions can lead to minority students being misunderstood, miseducated, and possibly mistreated. Professional development for teachers, designed to raise their cultural awareness and better prepare them to differentiate instruction for diverse students, is crucial to student performance and a key element in closing the achievement gap. This article discusses the Reflection-Instruction Collaboration-Supportive (RICS) professional development model--an example of the comprehensive approach which is needed in order to provide school teachers with a conceptual framework for professional development in the area of diversity. Providing specialized professional development for diversity is a promising approach to closing the achievement gaps of diverse students. Principals should perceive the need for change and provide the necessary guidance and support. By providing a positive role model for their teachers, they can establish a climate that embraces diversity and encourages teachers to be more receptive to new ideas and instructional approaches to meet the needs of their culturally diverse students.

White-Clark, Renee; DiCarlo, Maria; Gilchriest, Nancy, Sister (2008).  "Guide on the Side": An Instructional Approach to Meet Mathematics Standards  High School Journal, 91, 4. 

The ultimate goal of high school mathematics teachers is to create a meaningful learning environment that is conducive to teaching students the necessary concepts for academic achievement. Unfortunately, evidence suggests that many secondary educators still teach in a rote lecture style that focuses on the teacher providing information to passive, uninvolved students. Current mathematics reform movements endorse inquiry-based, "guide on the side' instruction grounded in constructivist pedagogy. The authors' research examines the effects of constructivist teaching and learning in pre-service secondary mathematics courses. The applicability of constructivism to teach secondary mathematical concepts, using practical instructional ideas, will conclude the article.

Whitehead, David (2007).  Literacy Assessment Practices: Moving from Standardised to Ecologically Valid Assessments in Secondary Schools  Language and Education, 21, 5. 

SSLI test protocol data revealed the dominance of "central" literacy measures and "local" subject-specific measures aligned to institutional requirements, curriculum and national examination content. These measures initiate secondary students into a pervasive culture of assessment that generally fails to support further learning; a culture antagonistic towards the use of assessment that reflect how expert teachers address subject-specific literacies. In a culture of content-focussed, high stakes assessment, the use of ecologically valid formative assessment that reveal what students can do with what they know, and that empower teachers to test like they teach, is marginalised. Consistent with Neisser's claim that some experimental measures may not reflect reality, the pedagogy and assessment protocols of many secondary schools fail to reflect the use of literacy and thinking tools, and so fail to reflect best evidence about teaching. Changes in school culture, teachers' pedagogical knowledge and the use of ecologically valid assessments are associated with shifts from transmission to co-construction approaches. Consistent with the work of David Corson the use of ecologically valid assessment that reflect the use of literacy and thinking tools is an inclusive, future-focussed literacy event, but the use of "central" curriculum and institutional-linked measures is exclusive.

Whitehead, Joan; Fitzgerald, Bernie (2006).  Professional Learning through a Generative Approach to Mentoring: Lessons from a Training School Partnership and Their Wider Implications  Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 32, 1. 

This article explores the development of a generative, research-based approach to mentoring initial teacher training students in a Training School/university partnership. Drawing on data from mentors, trainees and pupils it describes two phases of development, both of which use video recordings of participants' classroom practice to stimulate reflective dialogue. The authors point to the additional pedagogical insights made available through accessing pupil voice and the potential contribution such learning conversations can make to transforming the professional knowledge of both mentors and trainees. They highlight the dispositions and conditions which support the co-construction of this inclusive approach and how it has contributed to the development of the school as a learning community. The authors suggest its wider relevance and how it can contribute to the creation by the profession of a new epistemological base for professional learning.

Whithaus, Carl (2002).  Electronic Portfolios and Critical Pedagogy (NCTE 2002). 

Paulo Freire, bell hooks, and Ira Shor have been criticized as theorists not concerned with the institutional realities of American education (e.g., grades and standardized exams). This paper argues that these teacher-researchers speak to the issues encountered in developing electronic portfolios in high schools and colleges. The imposition of high-stakes assessments from outside of the classroom (often legislated by state governments and enforced by state departments of education) creates environments where concerned teachers must teach toward the tests. Yet in classrooms where computer-mediated writing occupies a good deal of the students' time, more and more teachers and researchers are finding that student creativity and risk-taking do not directly correspond to standardized assessment. The most recent advances in electronic portfolio assessment, however, demonstrate that communication-based writing evaluation can be developed not only in individual classrooms, but also across university writing programs or throughout state education systems. This paper briefly sketches the practices developing in electronic portfolio systems and shows how these methods of assessment address concerns about validity and how they change the tenor of the conversation when discussing reliability. Drawing on Brian Huot's ideas in "Toward a New Theory of Writing Assessment," the paper suggests that electronic portfolio assessment can both reinvigorate critical pedagogy and can benefit by addressing the challenges raised by Freire, hooks and Shor. Contains 20 references.  | [FULL TEXT]

Whitmore, Kathryn F.; Crowell, Caryl G. (2005).  Bilingual Education Students Reflect on Their Language Education: Reinventing a Classroom 10 Years Later  Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 49, 4. 

Ten years ago, an ethnographic study in a bilingual whole-language third-grade classroom identified conditions that defined the classroom as a learning community: a high level of intellectual expectation, symmetric power and trust relationships, authenticity, and additive bilingualism and biliteracy. The students' insights strengthened the authors' determination to advocate for authentic, holistic, and transformative language and literacy instruction. This article reports findings from follow-up interviews with those third graders, now young adults, who reflect on their experiences. A particular finding is the indication that nonschool contexts for language and literacy (e-mail, television, communication with friends and family in Mexico, and restaurant work) had more influence on these students' Spanish maintenance than did school contexts. This study compels us to renew the fight for bilingual education for all students beyond the point when English-language learners are deemed to have acquired sufficient English competence to participate in school. The voices of the four students and their parents that are reported here affirm for the authors the benefits of whole language theory and pedagogy, the critical value of bilingual education for all students (not just English-language learners), and the essential nature of fostering community in classrooms.

Whitney, Anne; Blau, Sheridan; Bright, Alison; Cabe, Rosemary; Dewar, Tim; Levin, Jason; Macias, Roseanne; Rogers, Paul (2008).  Beyond Strategies: Teacher Practice, Writing Process, and the Influence of Inquiry  English Education, 40, 3. 

With respect to the writing process in particular, a now well-established body of research demonstrates that process-oriented writing instruction benefits student achievement in writing. Process-oriented terms and concepts have entered the material environment of America's schools, in textbooks and curricula even where the theoretical bases underlying those materials might appear to conflict with it, such as materials in which priority is placed on rhetorical modes, form, or grammatical correctness. Even in settings where no one would explicitly claim to embrace a "process pedagogy," classrooms exhibit some of its markers: students and teachers use words like "drafts," "prewriting," and "revision" in commonplace speech. Yet, though it is now difficult to imagine any language arts teacher at any grade level not knowing about "the writing process," many of the teaching practices employed in classrooms in the name of "the writing process" suggest that teachers may have different understandings about what the writing process entails as a model of writing and learning to write, conceptually or epistemologically. What "prewriting" means in classrooms, for example, may differ. Most teachers know about different strategies for pre-writing, but differences appear in how teachers and school programs construct their own understanding of what pre-writing means. This article presents and discusses case studies of two teachers, drawn from a larger study, who represent different ways of envisioning and enacting a process-influenced pedagogy, one who worked with the South Coast Writing Project in an inquiry-oriented inservice program and one who did not. These two teachers work in similar school settings with similar kinds of students and similar (in some instances identical) district-provided writing curricula, yet their differing approaches to the "same" classroom strategies suggest how National Writing Project (NWP)-influenced professional development might continue to influence even basic practice in the teaching of writing.

Whittaker, Andrea; McDonald, Morva; Markowitz, Nancy (2005).  Learning Together What We Do Not Know: The Pedagogy of Multicultural Foundations  Teacher Education Quarterly, 32, 3. 

Teacher education programs employ various strategies aimed at providing teachers with the knowledge, habits of mind, and practices necessary to work with increasingly racially and ethnically diverse students. Often, these efforts have centered on the addition of a multicultural foundations course. Research on multicultural foundations courses focuses on the content and the impact of such courses on teachers' beliefs and attitudes but provides few insights into the pedagogy of multicultural foundations. This article examines the pedagogy of one multicultural foundations course, focusing on the instructor's self-assessment of her teaching and the resulting innovative changes in course curriculum. The authors first reflect on the content of the course and possible adaptations to assignments. Second, they consider how the instructor's stance toward assessment and innovative instructional change has raised more questions about her pedagogy than answers. The authors conclude with broader implications for teacher education programs and the study of pedagogy within such programs.

Whittington, Dave; McLean, Alan (2001).  Vocational Learning outside Institutions: Online Pedagogy and Deschooling.  Studies in Continuing Education, 23, 2. 

Using Illich's "Deschooling Society" as a framework, argues that online learning's flexibility and capacity to support dialogue will profoundly change vocational learning and challenge established institutions' dominance in vocational education and training. Calls for an inclusive approach involving informal learning and access for those unable to pay.

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Whyton, Tony (2006).  Birth of the School: Discursive Methodologies in Jazz Education  Music Education Research, 8, 1. 

Over recent years, jazz as an academic discipline has grown in volume and stature--indeed, jazz studies now plays a significant role in a number of higher education music programmes within the university and conservatoire sector. The proliferation of jazz education programmes has, inevitably, brought about the publication of specific pedagogical methodologies; from the development of jazz examinations to the widespread dissemination of Jamey Aebersold jazz "playalongs," and the work of the International Association of Jazz Educators (IAJE)--jazz pedagogy is big business. However, whilst providing musicians with opportunities to cultivate and benchmark their skills, the majority of pedagogical publications do not encourage critical engagement with the educators' methodologies or, indeed, offer dialogues on the nature of jazz education itself. This article begins by examining the politics of music education, the implications of canon forming and icon development in pedagogical practice, and critical attempts to open up the field of study to broader cultural analysis. In this context, I discuss the unique problems faced by jazz education and suggest that these issues are inherently linked to the nature of the music itself. I focus on three areas of significance, which feed off opposing positions in jazz: the "value" of jazz education, geographical divides, and the perceived difference between jazz practice and social theory. My examination of the difficult social and cultural space occupied by education highlights the potential for educational methodologies to disrupt dominant ideologies, and to uncover related cultural myths.

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Wieder, Alan (2002).  Wedding Pedagogy and Politics: Oral Histories of Black Women Teachers and the Struggle against Apartheid.  Race Ethnicity and Education, 5, 2. 

Presents the stories of three black, female, activist teachers who combined teaching and politics to help fight South Africa's apartheid regime. They promoted alternative curricula and worked against apartheid oppression. Each believed in the struggle and, although they believed in nonracialism, they identified as black, a political construction imposed by apartheid but also a rallying point to fight oppression.

Wieder, Alan (2003).  White Teachers/White Schools: Oral Histories from the Struggle against Apartheid.  Multicultural Education, 10, 4. 

Presents the oral histories of two white teachers who taught in white South African schools during apartheid. Both combined pedagogy and politics in their lives as teachers and joined other teachers in the struggle against apartheid. Describes the oral history project, apartheid and education, and oral history methodology. Both teachers spent their careers nurturing a critical democratic spirit in white, privileged students.

Wiersma, Ashley (2008).  A Study of the Teaching Methods of High School History Teachers  Social Studies, 99, 3. 

The purpose of this study was to investigate and characterize current practice in secondary history education and its relationship to best practices. In this phenomenological study, the author examines the pedagogy of three high school history teachers and the extent to which their current methods exhibited recent thinking on best practices in student learning. Data were obtained through questionnaires, observations, and interviews. Research posits that constructivism is the most effective approach to educating history students. However, most history teachers still use traditional, objective methods in their classrooms. Nevertheless, the three teachers in this study show that there are some history teachers who are pursuing changes in their pedagogy and aligning them with best practices to become more effective in the classroom.

Wieseman, Katherine C.; Cadwell, Doni; Pike, Lisa (2002).  It's Time for Adventure Buddies.  Science and Children, 39, 6. 

Introduces an inquiry-based cooperative learning project in which education students paired up with young children. Provides an experience of inquiry-based pedagogy to education students and a meaningful learning experience to children.

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Wildemeersch, Danny, Ed.; Finger, Matthias, Ed.; Jansen, Theo, Ed. (2000).  Adult Education and Social Responsibility: Reconciling the Irreconcilable? 2nd Revised Edition. Studies in Pedagogy, Andragogy and Gerontagogy, Vol. 36. 

In this book, 16 authors from Europe, Africa, and the United States reflect on the transformations that are currently taking place in the field of adult and continuing education. The 12 chapters are "Reconciling the Irreconcilable? Adult and Continuing Education Between Personal Development, Corporate Concerns, and Public Responsibility" (Matthias Finger, Theo Jansen, Danny Wildemeersch); "Modern Field and Post-Modern Moorland: Adult Education Bound for Glory or Bound and Gagged" (Richard Edwards, Robin Usher); "The Education of Adults as a Social Movement: A Question for Late Modern Society" (Peter Jarvis); "Flexibilization or Career Identity?" (Frans Meijers, Gerard Wijers); "Different Views on Literacy" (Max van der Kamp, Laurenz Veendrick); "Learning for Sustainable Development: Examining Life World Transformation Among Farmers" (Joke Vandenabeele, Danny Wildemeersch); "In Defense of Education as Problematization: Some Preliminary Remarks on a Strategy of Disarmament" (Jan Masschelein); "Adult Education and Training in the Framework of Reconstruction and Development in South Africa" (Astrid von Kotze); "The Transformation of Community Education" (Ruud van der Veen); "Civil Society as Theory and Project: Adult Education and the Renewal of Global Citizenship" (Michael Welton); "Empowerment and Social Responsibility in the Learning Society" (Cees A. Klaassen); and "Reframing Reflectivity in View of Adult Education for Social Responsibility" (Theo Jansen, Matthias Finger, Danny Wildemeersch).

Wile, James M. (2000).  A Literacy Lesson in Democracy Education.  Social Studies, 91, 4. 

Describes the Reading and Writing for Critical Thinking (RWCT) Project. Provides an illustration of the RWCT framework of evocation, realization of meaning, and reflection, focusing on how literacy activities can develop fundamental ideas about democracy. Considers the implication of "democratic pedagogy" and includes a lesson plan on democratic literacy.

Wilferth, Joe (2003).  Private Literacies in Academic Settings: The Electronic Portfolio as Prototype. 

It is important to teach students the ways in which rhetorical and literary texts are produced, distributed, and consumed. It is equally important, however, for teachers of writing, primarily members of English departments, to acknowledge the production and consumption processes of texts external to the genres of the academy and to recognize that the essay is a printed form that, admittedly for students, has little use outside the academy. For one author/educator, recognizing text outside of academic genres has led to the production of an electronic portfolio. This paper focuses on the electronic portfolio, suggesting that it offers a gateway between popular culture and composition pedagogy. In the paper, the author/educator opines that compiling an electronic portfolio has allowed his students to reach beyond the expository or argumentative essay as they engage new rhetorical strategies and new conceptions of authorship, readership, and "appropriate" uses of technology within (and without) the space of a classroom. According to the paper, of greatest value in the completion of an electronic portfolio is the act of personal reflection on the electronic writing process which allows both teachers and students to consider new and exciting communication paradigms. The paper addresses two primary areas: logic behind classroom recognition of electronic literacy and popular culture, and pedagogical implications as they relate to assessment and student performance. Cites 19 works. | [FULL TEXT]

Wilkinson, Gary (2007).  Civic Professionalism: Teacher Education and Professional Ideals and Values in a Commercialised Education World  Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 33, 3. 

The last three decades have seen an intensification of commercialization throughout the public sector in general and state schools in particular. Policies designed to introduce business ideologies, structures and practices have operated in tandem with a push to include the corporate world in the running, governance and provision of educational services. Together these policy instruments are eroding the influence and power of education professionals and precipitating a transformative shift in the nature of public education. A specific threat which these policies may encourage is the use of corporate propaganda techniques targeted at schools which may harm children, undermine the proper purposes of education, subvert the moral and social fabric of school life and damage the foundations of civil society. This paper argues that educators must recognize the dangers of commercialized schools and organize to protect civic education, speak up for its values and preserve the distinctiveness of educational practice operating within non-commercialized public spaces. Such a strategy also offers the opportunity to redefine the central role of educators as servants of the twin professional ideals of children's civic welfare and democratic citizenship.

Wilkinson, Gary (2007).  Pedagogy of the Possessed: The Privatization of Civic Education and Values under New Labour  Educational Review, 59, 3. 

As part of its agenda to promote choice, diversity and parent power in education, New Labour is aiming to develop a system of independent non-fee paying state schools. It is envisaged that control of the governing arrangements in such schools will shift from the local authority and be delegated to a range of external partners and sponsors drawn largely from business and religious organisations. The involvement of external partners in education in the US suggests that it may be both ineffective and detrimental to the development of rounded citizens. This article reviews some of the themes from research there and argues that, in an increasingly fragmented world, privatised control of civic education in state-funded schools in England threatens the integrity of public education and the civic objectives of state schooling.

Willett, Rebekah (2007).  Technology, Pedagogy and Digital Production: A Case Study of Children Learning New Media Skills  Learning

This article focuses on data collected from a project called "Shared Spaces: Informal Learning and Digital Cultures". The project aimed to build links between young peoples' leisure and learning experiences, by engaging with the content and styles of learning connected with digital cultures in homes and community centres. The article focuses on issues around technology and pedagogy by analysing data collected from computer games making course for young people aged 9-13. The data from the games class is analysed in relation to three models of learning: constructionism, constructivism and situated learning. The article focuses on how these different models explain varying components of the learning environment, and specifically how models work in relation to digital media. The article raises questions about types of software used with this age range and also discusses implications in terms of pedagogy for the use of different software packages.

Williams, Anne; Tanner, Doug; Jessop, Tansy (2007).  The Creation of Virtual Communities in a Primary Initial Teacher Training Programme  Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 33, 1. 

This paper discusses some of the conditions that have facilitated the use of a customised virtual learning environment as part of a blended learning approach on a part-time postgraduate initial teacher training programme for prospective primary school teachers. It is based on data gathered as part of a study of the impact of e-learning on students following a part-time flexible postgraduate route to Qualified Teacher Status. It concludes that the success of these particular virtual communities can be attributed to the balance, on the programme, between face-to-face and e-learning together with the nature and structuring of the e-learning tasks; the focus on professional learning with the immediacy of its application in the work-place; its focus on independent and student-led interaction; and the motivation and personal circumstances of the students involved.

Williams, Bonnie; Bearer, Kathy (2001).  NBPTS-Parallel Certification and Its Impact on the Public Schools: A Qualitative Approach. 

This study examined whether National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) certification would impact school districts' educational processes, identifying areas in which NBPTS certification impacted such factors as: classroom teaching practices; professional development; employment procedures and opportunities; teachers' career paths; NBPTS-certified teacher involvement in districts; learning strategies; course of study alignment; community and parental involvement; and student performance. Surveys of administrators in rural, suburban, and urban Ohio districts indicated that NBPTS certification impacted public school districts' educational processes. Respondents believed that NBPTS-certified teachers focused on best practice, renewed commitment to teaching, put research into practice, and emphasized teaching pedagogy. Only 1 of 13 districts considered NBPTS certification in teacher recruitment practices. Most NBPTS-certified teachers remained in traditional roles as classroom instructors, though administrators realized they had a stronger professional voice in other roles within the district. Most administrators saw positive impacts on student learning and felt teachers were integrating NBPTS standards into practice. Nearly all districts reported an active leadership role for these teachers. No districts indicated changes in the salary schedule for the next school year related to this certification. They viewed the certification as a credential to enhance employability. | [FULL TEXT]

Williams, Bronwyn T. (2003).  Speak for Yourself? Power and Hybridity in the Cross-Cultural Classroom.  College Composition and Communication, 54, 4. 

Uses the lens of postcolonial theory to reflect on the author's uses of a varied series of writing pedagogies in cross-cultural classrooms at an international college. Suggests that a pedagogy constructed against the backdrop of postcolonial theory might provide both students and their teacher in such a cross-cultural setting with a more complex and useful way of understanding issues of power, discourse, identity, and the role of writing.

Williams, Bronwyn T. (2004).  "A Puzzle to the Rest of Us": Who Is a "Reader" Anyway?  Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 47, 8. 

Beyond decoding words and sentences, everyone thinks of a reader as a person who makes particular kinds of intertextual connections, who asks particular kinds of questions of a text, who reads at a particular intellectual distance from the text, who talks about more than the text's meaning and analyzes its nature. The difference in how teachers construct the identity of a reader and how students do can create conflicts in the classroom. Many teachers, from middle school through university, stop talking about the nature of reading--of the different ways people read and the different identities they perform as they engage in various reading activities. As a result, the words "reading" and "reader" go unexplored in any explicit, constructive way in the classroom. Thus, the author believes that it is important that teachers talk more with their students about what kind of qualities they expect from the people they identify as readers. For one thing, teachers need to explore with students the multiple and varied nature of reading. They need to remind them that they are constantly being readers as they go about their lives, and they need to talk with them about all the ways they engage in reading and for what purposes. To explore the conflicts of how students and teachers identify readers is not a radical idea or a miracle pedagogy. In fact it may seem fairly obvious to want to point out to students that there are multiple ways not only to read but also to be readers. Yet what may seem obvious is often the basis for significant misunderstandings. If teachers can make clearer to students, as well as to themselves, what they mean when they ask them to assume the identities of readers, they have taken the first step in demystifying what can for many students be a frustrating, intimidating, and unacknowledged obstacle in the classroom.

Williams, Cheri (2004).  Emergent Literacy of Deaf Children  Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 9, 4. 

This article reviews the literature on emergent literacy in young deaf children, focusing on the nature and course of both emergent reading and emergent writing. Beginning with definitions and background information concerning emergent literacy as a field of study, it examines instructional approaches that support emergent literacy learning. The review of the literature is organized into four major sections that reflect the body of work to date. The article concludes with an eye toward the future of emergent literacy in pedagogy, theory, and research.

Williams, Joseph (2005).  Bakhtin on Teaching Style  Written Communication, 22, 3. 

Bakhtin claims that students must learn to write lively prose, but they will not until teachers have a grammar of style that links syntax to stylistic qualities such as "lively" and "creative." It is, however, unlikely that such a grammar could be written, because particular rhetorical effects too often depend on context, perceived intention, and so on. Moreover, such a grammar will not be written until language describing a writer or a writers style can be translated into language describing a readers response. Even so, some stylistic effects can be linked to some syntactic structures, and parataxis is one of them. Bakhtins method of teaching -- showing how the same content expressed in different ways can have contrasting rhetorical effects -- is sound. Although he focuses on pedagogy, his own language suggests a larger aim: the replacement of bureaucratic language with the language of the people, perhaps even the liberalization of Soviet society.

Williams, Julia M. (2001).  Transformations in Technical Communication Pedagogy: Engineering, Writing, and the ABET Engineering Criteria 2000.  Technical Communication Quarterly, 10, 2. 

Notes that the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) has shifted its focus to the documentation of student learning outcomes. Considers how this shift has prompted changes in the work of technical communication departments and programs that serve engineering, from the development of new courses to increased collaboration between technical and non-technical faculty.

Williams, Mary; Watson, Alison (2004).  Post-Lesson Debriefing: Delayed or Immediate? An Investigation of Student Teacher Talk  Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 30, 2. 

This paper seeks to evaluate a specific implementation of a reflective approach to teacher education in a pre-service course in teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) in a UK university. This implementation is the use of delayed debriefing (supervisory conference) after lesson observation, providing the student teacher with support for reflection in the form of a time delay and completion of a structured journal. Six delayed debriefing events are compared with six immediate debriefing events from another institution providing a course leading to the same award. Three analyses of student teacher talk in the debriefing events are presented: topic initiation, modal verb use, and types of 'reasoning' talk. The analyses offer some evidence of a higher level of reflective analysis by the student teacher in delayed debriefings.

Williams, Monica (2001).  Constructing Gender: Female Identity Realised in Popular Culture. 

The workshop described in this paper combines critical literacy and functional grammar and is intended for educators who may not be familiar with either pedagogy. The paper discusses a unit of work that was designed for a year 9 English class. It focused on how females have been constructed in pop songs since 1950 and how that construction has changed over the last half a century. The most significant result from the research was the discovery that year 9 students are capable of sophisticated text analysis. Also the research clearly demonstrated that critical literacy and functional grammar complement each other as approaches to literacy education. | [FULL TEXT]

Williams, Peter (2005).  Lessons From the Future: ICT Scenarios and the Education of Teachers  Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 31, 4. 

This paper reviews significant events of the last 25 years in schools and teacher education in England and looks ahead to the next 25 years. Various scenarios for the future are examined and the potential is considered for new forms of teachers' initial education and continuing professional development using information and communications technology. It is concluded that the current centrally-controlled national system is increasingly inappropriate to present needs and will fracture under the combination of pressures of a commodified education market, learners' consumerist expectations of personalised provision, and networks of informal learning enabled by widespread access to portable communications technology. Four lessons from this future prediction are drawn, with recommendations for radical changes in government policy and orientation.

Williams, Sean D. (2001).  Part 1: Thinking Out of the Pro-Verbal Box.  Computers and Composition, 18, 1. 

Notes that basing composition almost exclusively on verbal instruction counters the very nature of literacy education, because the current verbal-based education system produces illiterates in this highly visual and multimodal modern society. Demonstrates composition's verbal bias; argues that this bias is both politically and rhetorically suspect; and calls for a composition pedagogy that integrates verbal instruction with visual instruction.

Williams, Sean D. (2001).  Part 2: Toward an Integrated Composition Pedagogy in Hypertext.  Computers and Composition, 18, 2. 

Argues that composition instruction should be based upon a design model mirroring composition's process-based pedagogy, by asking students to plan, transform, evaluate and revise media-rich, hypertextual documents. Comments on an assignment that demonstrates how an integrated composition might be constructed using the design model. Concludes that this pedagogy encourages students to recognize that multiple perspectives always attend any issue discussed.

Williams, Sean D. (2002).  Why Are Partnerships Necessary for Computer Classroom Administration?  Technical Communication Quarterly, 11, 3. 

Considers how little scholarship concerns the roles that directors of computer classrooms play in maintaining computer classroom (CC) facilities. Argues that CC directors walk a tightrope between the role of teacher and manager. Suggests that focus needs to be placed on building partnerships to maintain facilities, because CC directors cannot do by themselves everything that this complex role requires of them.

Williams, Sean; Pury, Cindy (2002).  Student Attitudes toward and Participation in Electronic Discussion.  International Journal of Educational Technology, 3, 1. 

Reports the findings of a study conducted on Clemson University's electronic collaboration tool "Collaborative Learning Environment" in order to determine student opinions, and specifically why they didn't collaborate with each other in a discussion but instead repeated the teacher-as-questioner and student-as-answerer paradigm. Outlines an experimental online collaboration pedagogy.

Williamson, L. Keith (2001).  The Pedagogy of Pedagogy: Teaching GTAs To Teach. 

A long-standing aspect of collegiate culture at many advanced-degree-granting universities is the use of Graduate Teaching Assistants (GTAs) to teach an introductory course. This practice presents a serious pedagogical challenge--namely, how to train inexperienced GTAs to teach the course. Too often new GTAs are merely supplied with the textbook and told to "go teach." A more productive response to the challenge is to teach an intensive graduate workshop required of all GTAs on the pedagogy of the introductory course. This paper describes the philosophy and methodology of one such workshop with a successful track record of nearly 30 years to train GTAs to teach the basic (public speaking) course.   | [FULL TEXT]

Williamson, Ronald D.; Hudson, Martha B. (2000).  Democracy Is Hard Work: The Struggle To Define One Leadership Preparation Program. 

This paper describes how one North Carolina state university redefined its educational leadership program after facing state demands to alter leadership preparation. Concurrent with other national initiatives to reform preparation of school leaders, this initiative was designed to rethink the purpose and function of leadership preparation. After reorganizing the school of education, launching a revised masters of school administration (MSA) program, and combining three programs (the Ed.D., MSA in educational leadership, and Ph.D. in cultural foundations) under one department, the department began a review of the programs. A departmental statement of beliefs was developed to examine program elements; this manifesto helped articulate core beliefs and build understanding and connections between the leadership and faculty. Issues of course content and pedagogy, writing and research, hiring practices, and admissions practices were examined. The paper offers the redesign of an Ed.D. internship as one example of how the manifesto was implemented. The internship is built around a series of activities that involve--shadowing, participation in practice, advocacy, and critical reflection. All of these are designed to provide students with an opportunity to experience leadership and reflect upon its consequences. | [FULL TEXT]

Willis, Peter (2007).  Transformative Pedagogy for Social Capital  Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 47, 3. 

This paper explores ways in which pedagogy for an elaborated form of transformative learning can be a useful catalyst for the development of social capital in community and workplace groups and networks. I begin with an example and then explore ideas of learning challenges embedded in building and maintaining social capital. I consider the usefulness of a four-dimensional approach to transformative learning as a suitable pedagogy for its development and maintenance. The paper concludes with brief profiles of four educators whose work, in different ways, could be said to have promoted forms of social capital, directly or indirectly: Desmond Tutu, Anne Sullivan, Jesus and Socrates. Each of these educators, without excluding other approaches, tended to emphasise one of the four transformative pedagogies. | [FULL TEXT]

Wilson, Elizabeth; Bedford, Dorothy (2008).  "New Partnerships for Learning": Teachers and Teaching Assistants Working Together in Schools--The Way Forward  Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 34, 2. 

This paper describes a three-year research partnership between Roehampton University in London and VT Four S Ltd, providers of school support services in Surrey, a county in the south east of England. The project, named "New Partnerships for Learning" (NPfL), was centred on the delivery of a professional development programme to equip teachers with the skills needed to work in partnership with teaching assistants. The research aimed to explore the opinions of teachers as to the personal skills, attributes and training required to enhance a changing professional relationship. It posed the question: "What are the issues to address in enabling teachers to work in effective partnership with teaching assistants?" The findings include the different experiences of teachers working with teaching assistants across the primary and secondary phases. It reports on variable training opportunities; variations in needs, aspirations, roles and responsibilities of teaching assistants; unevenness of resourcing and remuneration; and tensions between leadership and partnership practice.

Wilson, Greg (2001).  Technical Communication and Late Capitalism: Considering a Postmodern Technical Communication Pedagogy.  Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 15, 1. 

Proposes a postmodern reconceptualization of technical communication pedagogy to make student and professional agency a major concern, especially because technical communicators must compete in a global economy that rewards flexibility and penalizes inflexibility. Uses postmodern mapping metaphors and Robert Reich's methodology for training "symbolic-analytic" workers to suggest ways in which a postmodern approach to technical communication could be taught.

Wiltz, Nancy W. (2000).  Group Seminars: Dialogues To Enhance Professional Development and Reflection. 

Group seminars, or small discussion groups, support cooperative reflection between teachers, expose interns to new perspectives, help them develop professional relationships, and allow time for them to expand and deepen their reflective analysis of everyday occurrences. A group of 15 student teachers in an early childhood program at one university attended bi-weekly group seminars during the student teaching semester. The interns themselves suggested topics for discussion at most of the sessions. The group shared their impressions of teaching, discussed elements of instruction, analyzed classroom management approaches, assessed progress toward knowledge-based competencies and standards, and developed and shared their professional portfolios. Four primary topics emerged from these discussions: discipline and classroom management, pedagogy, conflicts between pedagogy and practice, and employment. On the semester's final evaluation form, few students ranked the seminars as the most valuable requirement during student teaching, but most students valued the guest speakers who were experts in the field and appreciated the chance to vent, communicate, and share with other student teachers. They also valued the support and flexibility of the supervisor. | [FULL TEXT]

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Winch, Christopher (2004).  Developing Critical Rationality as a Pedagogical Aim  Journal of Philosophy of Education, 38, 3. 

The development of a conception of critical pedagogy is itself an aspect of the development of critical rationality within late modern societies, closely connected with the role of education in developing critical rationality. The role of critique pervades all aspects of life: for people as citizens, workers and self-determining private individuals. Late modern societies depend on a critically minded population for their viability, for the democratic management of a competing balance of interests and for a capacity for rapid renewal. These requirements put a demand on the education system for the development of critical rationality. However, its development contains within itself the seeds, not just of renewal, but of transformation or even anarchy. This is discussed in relation to three major aspects of education - liberal, civic and vocational - and it is argued that there is a tension within each that arises from the requirement of critique for their successful functioning as educational practices in liberal societies and from the implausibility of developing forms of critique that are inherently self-limiting. Societies that espouse the development of critical rationality as a key educational aim exist in a state of tension and of uncertainty as to the extent to which it can be developed. Attempts to limit critique to consideration only of what is worthwhile are bound to be futile. On the other hand, education must be concerned with preparation for the worthwhile. Critique thus performs the important function of ensuring that our conception of the worthwhile does not remain fixed, but is itself an agent of social change. This paper explores this issue and argues that the problem of reconciling preparation for social participation with preparation for critical engagement exists in all three spheres. The problems may not be resolvable ones but should encourage continual awareness of the scope and limits of educational critique in liberal societies.

Wineland, Richard K. (2005).  Incarnation, Image, and Story: Toward a Postmodern Orthodoxy for Christian Educators  Journal of Research on Christian Education, 14, 1. 

As Christian educators we must take seriously the gospel command to "go, and teach them all that I have commanded you." But how are we to proclaim the ancient faith in a relativistic, image-driven, post-modern age that long ago abandoned modernism's holy crusade to either prove or disprove the orthodox faith through reason? Using the example of the biblical languages, the author argues that a truly Christian worldview and pedagogy must begin not with reason, but with incarnation; this is the wellspring of the faith. We must teach our students both to believe, and to simply be. How to do this? We must first of all live our faith, not simply confess that it is true.

Winograd, David (2000).  The Effects of Trained Moderation in Online Asynchronous Distance Learning. 

Online computer conferences used to assist distance learning courses often fail because the moderator-usually the instructor responsible for the conference-is not properly trained in techniques that build a community of learners. It has often been assumed that the skills required to create a vibrant classroom discussion translate easily to an online forum. This has rarely been the case. This study utilized the qualitative methods of grounded theory and narrative research to explore how a moderator, after undergoing training, would affect students in one of three segregated computer conferences supporting an online course. The training was based on both the academic literature on educational computer conference moderation and situational examples taken from the experiences of online moderators. The students' experiences with the trained moderator were compared with those students in the other two computer conferences without a trained moderator. The data analyzed were comprised of the messages collected from the three computer conferences, selected interviews, extensive journals written by the researcher, and an online survey. The study also considered the problems and pressures stemming from unclear policies for constructing an online course in an environment of overlapping departmental mandates. These mandates resulted in more emphasis being given to putting courses online than the choice of the most appropriate pedagogy. The results indicated that a trained moderator had a positive effect on computer conferences as community of support and warmth was built, while another group, without such a moderators, constructed a community based on group dissent. No community of any sort was found in the third group.   | [FULL TEXT]

Winston, Joe (2005).  Between the Aesthetic and the Ethical: Analysing the Tension at the Heart of Theatre in Education  Journal of Moral Education, 34, 3. 

Theatre in Education is a recognized form for exploring ethical issues in schools. Although the relationship between functional, didactic objectives and theatre artistry is recognized as complex and difficult, there has been little analytical work to elucidate its nature. This article takes the form of a case study intended to illuminate this tension by analysing a play that toured recently in secondary schools in Birmingham, UK. It concentrates on two aspects of this particular performance: its transgressive elements ? the way in which it played with the boundaries of institutionalised values ? and the features of its narrative that tended, in Eco's term, towards an aesthetic of openness. Rather than attempting to offer a clear-cut theory, this article examines how these essentially theatrical elements of the performance meshed with the play's ethical agenda. I conclude that, despite the risks of transgressive play, it was the playful and open aspects of the enacted narrative that energized the students' moral engagement and subsequent reflection, and suggest that this has implications for moral pedagogy beyond the field of theatre.

Winter, Christine; Firth, Roger (2007).  Knowledge about Education for Sustainable Development: Four Case Studies of Student Teachers in English Secondary Schools  Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 33, 3. 

Considerable activity has occurred in the recent past regarding policy-making around Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in the school curriculum. Teaching about sustainable development involves complex and contested ethical and political issues. This case study research investigates how four student teachers taking part in a one-year teacher education programme in a university in England (Post Graduate Certificate in Education or PGCE) translate their knowledge, experiences and beliefs about ESD into classroom practice in the context of the Geography National Curriculum and ESD policies in secondary schools. The researchers critically analyse curriculum materials used by three student teachers to explore the potential for ethical and political engagement with ESD knowledge. The research reveals some of the ethical and political dilemmas faced by student teachers who, as committed environmentalists, struggle to resolve the tensions between the constraints of policy, school culture, school teaching materials and their own values and enthusiasms.

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Wiseman, Dennis G.; Hunt, Gilbert H.; Zhukov, Vassiliy I.; Mardahaev, Lev V. (2007).  Teaching at the University Level: Cross-Cultural Perspectives from the United States and Russia  [Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, Ltd] 

Interest in what constitutes effective teaching in Pre-K-12 and higher education is nearly universal. This important text explores this interest at the college and university level from a unique, international perspective. "Teaching at the University Level: Cross-Cultural Perspectives from the United States and Russia" brings to one publication the ideas of United States and Russian educators who work as faculty and administrators in American and Russian universities. In their introductory remarks, the President of the American university and the Rector of the Russian university appropriately address the need for the text, calling for greater attention to be given to the study of pedagogy at the university level. They observe that, while professors in colleges and universities are acknowledged as being expert in the subject matter that they teach, they have not, traditionally, had in-depth preparation for the communication of that subject matter to others. Specifically, chapters include important discussions on the purpose of education at the university level; establishing positive classroom environments conducive to student learning; techniques of teaching and motivating students; student-centered and teacher-centered teaching techniques; strategies for active, participatory teaching; the importance of understanding and responding to the cultural backgrounds of students; and methods of assessing students' learning. Each of these discussions addresses a key area important to effective teaching at the university level. This text will benefit beginning as well as experienced professors as they endeavor to make their instruction more purposeful, dynamic and engaging. It also will be beneficial to anyone interested in exploring issues and trends in the field of higher education. Following a foreword by Ronald R. Ingle and preface by V. I. Zhukov, this book contains nine chapters: (1) Socio-Pedagogical Bases for Social Field Specialists' Preparation at Universities (V. I. Zhukov); (2) The Pedagogical Environment of the University (L. V. Mardahaev); (3) Quality Teaching in Higher Education (D. G. Wiseman and G. H. Hunt); (4) Understanding Motivation and Motivating Environments (D. G. Wiseman and G. H. Hunt); (5) Pedagogical Techniques of Motivation and Management in the Classroom (D. G. Wiseman and G. H. Hunt); (6) Student-Centered and Teacher-Centered Teaching Techniques (V. I. Beliaev and L. V. Mardahaev); (7) Techniques of Active Teaching in Colleges and Universities (V. I. Beliaev and L. A. Stepanova); (8) The Specificity of the Educational Process at the University in the Multinational Group (R. Z. Hairullin); and (9) The Teacher as an Evaluator of Student Performance (D. G. Wiseman and G. H. Hunt). A glossary and index are also included.

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Witcher, Lisa A.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Witcher, Ann E.; Minor, Lynn C.; James, Terry L. (2002).  Relationship between Teacher Efficacy and Beliefs about Education among Preservice Teachers. 

Evidence suggests that teacher beliefs drive instructional pedagogy. Yet, although antecedents of educational beliefs have been identified (e.g., family influences), these factors tend to be immutable, thereby having only minimal implications for intervention. Teacher efficacy appears to offer a viable avenue for research on the antecedents of educational beliefs. This study examined the relationship between candidates' teacher efficacy and their educational beliefs. Participants were 70 candidates enrolled in introductory-level classes for education majors at a southeastern university. Candidates were administered the Witcher-Travers Survey of Educational Beliefs on the first day of class, which is a 40-item, 5-point Likert-type scale. Low scores indicate proclivity toward transmissivism, and high scores suggest a tendency toward progressivism. Participants were also administered the Teacher Efficacy Scale. Findings revealed no relationship between educational beliefs and personal teacher efficacy. Conversely, transmissive viewpoint was statistically significantly (moderately) associated with lower general teacher efficacy. Implications are discussed.   | [FULL TEXT]

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Wojahn, Patricia; Dyke, Julie; Riley, Linda Ann; Hensel, Edward; Brown, Stuart C. (2001).  Blurring Boundaries between Technical Communication and Engineering: Challenges of a Multidisciplinary, Client-based Pedagogy.  Technical Communication Quarterly, 10, 2. 

Discusses a study of the authors' initial semester matching technical communication students with teams of engineers in a capstone, client-based experience. Notes incredible growth in students' abilities to discuss design, teamwork, and client projects within the pre- and post-surveys. Concludes that there is the potential in moving toward a more inclusive pedagogy.

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Wolfe, Joanna (2002).  Marginal Pedagogy: How Annotated Texts Affect a Writing-from-Sources Task  Written Communication, 19, 2. 

Historically, annotations have provided a means for discussing texts and teaching students about reading practices. This study argues that giving students annotated readings can influence their perceptions of the social context of a writing-from-sources task. Over 120 students read variously annotated letters to the editor, wrote response essays, and answered recall and attitude questionnaires. Evaluative annotations influenced students' perceptions of the text: Passages annotated with positive evaluations were rated as more persuasive than identical passages without annotations; passages annotated with negative evaluations were perceived as less persuasive. Students' global attitudes to the issue were unaffected. Evaluative annotations seemed to decrease student writers' reliance on summary and encourage advanced engagement with source materials. However, some annotations appeared to have negative impacts on essays, causing students to include irrelevant information. A hypothesis that the perceived position of the annotator shapes students' conceptions of the rhetorical task is advanced and lent limited support.

Wolsk, David (2003).  Experiential Knowledge.  New Directions for Teaching and Learning

Explores the crucial importance of experience to making meaning. Asserts that much of pedagogy functions backwards by starting with textbooks and theory and then moving to "real world" experience.

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Wonacott, Michael E. (2002).  Teacher Induction Programs for Beginning CTE Teachers. In Brief: Fast Facts for Policy and Practice. 

Teaching is a very difficult field to master, and the challenges faced by beginning career and technical education (CTE) teachers are especially great. Teacher induction, which usually takes 5-6 years, is the total of all the teacher's experiences from the moment the first teaching contract is signed until the teacher is comfortably established as a competent, effective, professional teacher. Well-designed teacher induction programs can improve teacher competence, performance, and effectiveness by providing the following items: (1) ongoing personal support, assessment, and feedback; (2) continuing education that builds on preservice education; and (3) positive socialization into the profession. Research has identified the following categories of "induction detractors" (problems, concerns, experiences, and challenges) faced by beginning teachers: internal; pedagogy; curriculum; program; student; peer; system; and community. Research has also identified 26 topics in the 8 categories that should be emphasized in CTE teacher induction programs. Although traditionally and alternatively certified beginning CTE teachers have many induction needs in common, research has revealed nine areas in which alternatively certified CTE teachers need extra assistance during their first year. Studies have also identified actions that policymakers can take to optimize beginning CTE teachers' experience and 11 components that can be combined into a comprehensive teacher induction program. | [FULL TEXT]

Wonacott, Michael E. (2002).  Blending Face-to-Face and Distance Learning Methods in Adult and Career-Technical Education. Practice Application Brief No. 23. 

Both face-to-face and distance learning methods are currently being used in adult education and career and technical education. In theory, the advantages of face-to-face and distance learning methods complement each other. In practice, however, both face-to-face and information and communications technology (ICT)-based distance programs often rely on transmissionist, teacher-centered provision of information rather than on interactive, student-centered construction of knowledge. Nevertheless, these two themes clearly emerge as the most frequently cited strengths of blended approaches: the personal contact allowed by face-to-face classroom learning and the flexibility allowed by distance learning. The following themes emerge from the discussions of effective blends of face-to-face and distance learning methods: (1) good practice in planning, monitoring, and managing distance learning has much in common with good practice of programs delivered through any mode; (2) the pedagogy of learning must be suited to the requirements of the content and needs of the learner and can be combined with face-to-face learning in various proportions; (3) distance learner engagement and interaction is critical and can be addressed by appropriate design and use of ICT; (4) like face-to-face students, distance students need appropriate preparation for participation and follow-up support; and (5) ICT must be used judiciously. | [FULL TEXT]

Wong, Emily M. L.; Li, S. C. (2008).  Framing ICT Implementation in a Context of Educational Change: A Multilevel Analysis  School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 19, 1. 

Despite frequent attempts to address educational changes and the roles of information and communication technology (ICT) in effecting changes in student learning, few have conceptually examined ICT implementation within a wider context of managing change in schools. Methodologically, it has been argued that ignoring the multilevel nature of the data collected might incur significant discrepancies in the results. These research gaps direct us to develop multilevel models to explore how the relevant contextual factors contribute to effective ICT implementation, in particular the school-level factors. Results indicated that from teacher perspectives, ICT was able to act as a lever to bring about changes in student learning in the context of establishing collegiality in schools. Sociocultural setting rather than structural characteristics of the school accounted for the variation of school mean for perceived changes in student learning. Specifically, perceived changes in pedagogy modulated perceived changes in student learning among schools.

Wong, Jean (2000).  "Applying" Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics: Evaluating English as a Second Language Textbook Dialogue. 

This article examines English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) textbook telephone dialogues against the backdrop about what is reported about real telephone interaction based in research in conversation analysis (CA). An analysis of eight ESL textbooks reveals that the fit between what conversation analysts say about the nature of natural telephone conversation and that found in textbooks is unsatisfactory. Sequences such as summon-answer, identification, greeting, and how are you, often found in naturally occurring telephone exchanges, are absent, incomplete, or problematic in the textbook dialogues examined. The article argues that as the focus in language pedagogy increasingly turns toward the development of teaching materials that are informed by studies in discourse analysis, it may be important for materials writers and language teachers to pay attention to interconnections among language (or talk), sequence structure, and social action. The opening of a telephone conversation is an interactionally demanding task, not one done effortlessly or automatically as in textbook dialogues. The juxtaposition of natural telephone conversation with textbook conversation displays the tension between linguistic competence and linguistic performance, between understanding language as process and language as product.   | [FULL TEXT]

Wong, Jocelyn L. N.; Tsui, Amy B. M. (2007).  How Do Teachers View the Effects of School-Based In-Service Learning Activities? A Case Study in China  Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 33, 4. 

Recent educational changes in China such as the decentralization policy and the marketization of education have introduced concepts such as performativity, competition and effectiveness to the education sector and they have become part of the educational lexicon. Such policy shifts force more local participation in teacher education programmes and schools are now identified as the prime site for offering relevant professional learning activities to teachers. However, interestingly, research on professional development of teachers in China has not devoted significant attention to the voices of teachers. This paper examines how teachers from seven schools in Guangdong Province view the effectiveness of these school-based learning activities within the new context of educational change.

Wong, Pia Lindquist; Glass, Ronald David (2005).  Assessing a Professional Development School Approach to Preparing Teachers for Urban Schools Serving Low-Income, Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Communities  Teacher Education Quarterly, 32, 3. 

Some colleges of education and urban school districts have established collaborative Professional Development Schools (PDSs) to prepare teachers across the learning-to-teach continuum (pre-service to in-service to instructional leaders) to address the particular needs of low-income, culturally and linguistically diverse (LI/CLD) students. Outcomes, either in regard to K-12 pupils or to pre-service and in-service teachers, have been infrequently examined despite the proliferation of these reforms. Urban PDS experiments encounter many challenges that obstruct efforts to create learning environments that embody the "engaged pedagogy" necessary for LI/CLD students to succeed. This article examines the findings from preliminary assessments developed for a large-scale PDS experiment undertaken by a California state university and its partner urban schools. Despite the limitations, these have provided important information that has sustained the innovative work unfolding in the PDSs. In addition to reviewing the approaches to assessment undertaken by this PDS project, this article considers the links between assessment and program development and innovation.

Wong, Wan-chi (2001).  Visual Medium in the Service and Disservice of Education  Journal of Aesthetic Education, 35, 2. 

There are different ways of exploring and examining the visual medium in the service and disservice of education. A discursive form rather than a visual medium is chosen in this attempt. Utilizing the conceptualizations of Suzanne Langer, Christine Nystrom observed that American symbolic environments have undergone a massive shift from discursive (rational, analytical, logical, and reflective) to nondiscursive (gestalt, appositional, emotional, and presentational). Currently, such a shift is widely regarded as a global phenomenon in modern social systems. Traditionally, classroom teaching was characterized by the control of visual stimuli and constant variation of speech. Being threatened by the accusation that classroom life is increasingly unattractive and irrelevant to the younger generation, many educators seek remedies in strengthening the visual medium in the learning process. In her polemic article written more than two decades ago, Nystrom addressed the virtue of traditional practice and the danger of modem trends in relation to education: through the control of visual stimuli, focused attention on the discursive mode can be attained as a principle. In this article, the author considers three rounds of discourse as particularly worthwhile: (1) Rudolf Arnheim's idea of visual thinking and its resonance; (2) Walter Benjamin's unfinished Arcades Project and his idea of materialist pedagogy; (3) and Henri Bergson's concept of intellectual effort and its implication for the development of the human mind.

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Woo, Jeong-Ho, Ed.; Lew, Hee-Chan, Ed.; Park, Kyo-Sik Park, Ed.; Seo, Dong-Yeop, Ed. (2007).  Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (31st, Seoul, Korea, July 8-13, 2007). Volume 3 

This third volume of the 31st annual proceedings of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education conference presents research reports for author surnames beginning Han- through Miy-. Reports include: (1) Elementary Education Students' Memories of Mathematics in Family Context (Markku S. Hannula, Raimo Kaasila, Erkki Pehkonen, and Anu Laine); (2) Mistake-Handling Activities in the Mathematics Classroom: Effects of an In-Service Teacher Training on Students' Performance in Geometry (Aiso Heinze and Kristina Reiss); (3) Gender Similarities instead of Gender Differences: Students' Competences in Reasoning and Proof (Aiso Heinze, Stefan Ufer, and Kristina Reiss); (4) Studying Lesson Structure from the Perspective of Students' Meaning Construction: The Case of Two Japanese Mathematics Classrooms (Keiko Hino); (5) A Framework for Creating or Analyzing Japanese Lessons from the Viewpoint of Mathematical Activities: A Fraction Lesson (Kenji Hiraoka and Kaori Yoshida-Miyauchi); (6) Revisiting Discourse as an Instructional Resource: Practices that Create Spaces for Learning and Student Contributions (Lynn Liao Hodge, Qing Zhao, Jana Visnovska, and Paul Cobb); (7) An Illustration of Students' Engagement with Mathematical Software Using Remote Observation (Anesa Hosein, James Aczel, Doug Clow, and John T. E. Richardson); (8) Geometric Calculations are More than Just the Application of Procedural Knowledge (Hui-Yu Hsu); (9) Constructing Pedagogical Representations to Teach Linear Relations in Chinese and U.S. Classrooms (Rongjin Huang and Jinfa Cai); (10) Teachers as Researchers: Putting Mathematics at the Core (Danielle Huillet); (11) Can You Convince Me: Learning to Use Mathematical Argumentation (Roberta Hunter); (12) On the Mathematical Knowledge under Construction in the Classroom: A Comparative Study (M. Kaldrimidou, H. Sakonidis, and M. Tzekaki); (13) Students' Beliefs and Attitudes about Studying and Learning Mathematics (Eleftherios Kapetanas and Theodosios Zachariades); (14) "How Can We Describe the Relation between the Factored Form and the Expanded Form of These Trinomials? We Don't even Know If Our Paper-and-Pencil Factorizations are Right": The Case for Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) with Weaker Algebra Students (Carolyn Kieran and Caroline Damboise); (15) What Is a Beautiful Problem? An Undergraduate Students' Perspective (Boris Koichu, Efim Katz, and Abraham Berman); (16) Can Lessons Be Replicated? (Angelika Kullberg); (17) Problem Posing as a Means for Developing Mathematical Knowledge of Prospective Teachers (Ilana Lavy and Atara Shriki); (18) Activity-Based Class: Dilemma and Compromise (KyungHwa Lee); (19) Induction, Analogy, and Imagery in Geometric Reasoning (KyungHwa Lee; MinJung Kim; GwiSoo Na, DaeHee Han, and SangHun Song); (20) The Analysis of Activity That Gifted Students Construct Definition of Regular Polyhedra (KyungHwa Lee, EunSung Ko, and SangHun Song); (21) Multiple Solution Tasks as a Magnifying Glass for Observation of Mathematical Creativity (Roza Leikin and Miri Lev); (22) Interactive Whiteboards as Mediating Tools for Teaching Mathematics: Rhetoric or Reality? (Steve Lerman and Robyn Zevenbergen); (23) From Construction to Proof: Explanations in Dynamic Geometry Environment (Allen Leung and Chi Ming Or); (24) Prospective Middle School Teachers' Knowledge in Mathematics and Pedagogy for Teaching--The Case of Fraction Division (Yeping Li and Dennie Smith); (25) Improving Students' Algebraic Thinking: The Case of Talia (Kien Lim); (26) The Effect of a Mentoring Development Program on Mentors' Conceptualizing Mathematics Teaching and Mentoring (Pi-Jen Lin); (27) Uses of Examples in Geometric Conjecturing (Miao-Ling Lin and Chao-Jung Wu); (28) Algebrification of Arithmetic: Developing Algebraic Structure Sense in the Context of Arithmetic (Drora Livneh and Liora Linchevski); (29) The Potential of Patterning Activities to Generalization (Hsiu-Lan Ma); (30) Infinite Magnitude vs. Infinite Representation: The Story of [Pi] (Ami Mamolo); (31) The Ability of Sixth Grade Students in Korea and Israel to Cope with Number Sense Tasks (Zvia Markovits and JeongSuk Pang); (32) Creating Your Own Symbols: Beginning Algebraic Thinking with Indigenous Students (Chris Matthews, Tom J. Cooper, and Annette R. Baturo); (33) Exploring Students' Mathematics-Related Self Image as Learners (Silvana Martins Melo and Marcia Maria Fusaro Pinto); (34) Difficulties on Understanding the Indefinite Integral (N. Metaxas); (35) Detecting the Emergence and Development of Mathematical Discourse: A Novel Approach (Christina Misailidou); and (36) The Nature and Role of Proof When Installing Theorems: The Perspective of Geometry Teachers (Takeshi Miyakawa and Patricio Herbst). (Individual papers contain references.) [For other volumes in the series, see ED499417, ED499418, and ED499419.] | [FULL TEXT]

Wood, Elizabeth (2007).  Reconceptualising Child-Centred Education: Contemporary Directions in Policy, Theory and Practice in Early Childhood  FORUM: for promoting 3-19 comprehensive education, 49, 1. 

The purpose of this article is to examine contemporary transformations in early childhood education, in light of developments in policy, theory and practice, and to chart significant changes and continuities over the last 40 years. The Plowden Report had a significant impact on early childhood education, because it reified developmental theories, and child-centred approaches to learning through discovery, exploration and play, and to planning the curriculum around children's needs and interests. However, these constructs proved to be problematic in theory and in practice, and provoked unprecedented policy interventions in curriculum and pedagogy. It is argued here that the concept of child-centred education has re-emerged within contemporary social policy initiatives that focus provision and multi-professional services on children and their families. Furthermore, theoretical advances have challenged the dominance of developmental theories, and integrate social, cultural and individual perspectives. Children are seen as competent social actors within a complex network of social and cultural influences. This places children and significant adults at the heart of contemporary educational processes.

Wood, Elizabeth; Attfield, Jane (2005).  Play, Learning and the Early Childhood Curriculum. Second Edition  [Paul Chapman Publishing] 

Much has happened since the first edition of this book in the arenas of policy development, research and practice. Early childhood education is at the heart of policy-making agendas in England and many other developed and developing countries. Concerns with the quality of provision have sparked a massive international research endeavour, which is seeking to identify effective provision and practice in different cultures, and in different early childhood settings. There is also a thriving international play scholarship which ranges broadly across many different themes that are central to high-quality provision and effective teaching and learning. Contemporary research studies in the field of play are exciting in their foci, innovative in their methods and contentious in the eclecticism of their theoretical frameworks. The field remains open to debate, discussion and argument regarding the role and value of play in learning and development. Nevertheless, there have been many practical outcomes that are of direct relevance to practitioners as they strive towards improving the quality of play. This second edition reflects these trends, and draws substantially on academic and practitioner research. Guided by feedback from readers of the first edition, the authors have aimed to integrate theory and practice throughout the book. The first four chapters focus mainly on theoretical frameworks, which explain different aspects of learning, the benefits of different forms of play, and a rationale for a play-based curriculum and pedagogy. The second half of the book develops the theme of creating unity between playing, learning and teaching. The authors have highlighted ongoing issues, questions and dilemmas that practitioners encounter, and have provided many practical examples to show how these have been addressed. Following a preface, the following chapters appear: (1) "The Problems with Play"; (2) "Ideologies, Ideals and Theories"; (3) "Understanding Children's Learning: Multi-theoretical Perspectives"; (4) "Contemporary Socio-cultural Theories"; (5) "Developing Play in the Curriculum"; (6) "Developing a Pedagogy of Play"; (7) "Assessing Children's Learning in Play"; and (8) "Improving the Quality of Play". A bibliography, author index, and subject index are also included.

Wood, Jonathan Luke (2007).  Intercultural Sensitivity: Revelations in Examining Afrocentric Pedagogy  [Online Submission, Paper presented at the Annual Hawaii International Conference on Education (5th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 6-9, 2007)] 

Research illustrates that African American students are not successful in a Eurocentric model of education. Thus, an Afrocentric model has been created; however, there remains a lack of usage of this pedagogy in schools and educational institutions. This study analyzes the levels of Intercultural Sensitivity of individuals in a graduate student class in Multicultural Education to Afrocentric Pedagogy in order to understand the likelihood of usage post-graduation. The perceptions of graduate students in an eight-week course on Afrocentric Pedagogy were examined through the lens of Bennett's (1993) Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity. Quantitative and Qualitative data was collected in order to track students' perceptions through their progression in the course through pre and post survey, and web journal postings. A significant number of participants illustrated a lack of Intercultural Sensitivity to Afrocentric pedagogy. Themes of Intercultural Sensitivity were evident based upon the racial and sexual background of students.  | [FULL TEXT]

Wood, Karen; Frid, Sandra (2005).  Early Childhood Numeracy in a Multiage Setting  Mathematics Education Research Journal, 16, 3. 

This research is a case study examining numeracy teaching and learning practices in an early childhood multiage setting with Pre-Primary to Year 2 children. Data were collected via running records, researcher reflection notes, and video and audio recordings. Video and audio transcripts were analysed using a mathematical discourse and social interactions coding system designed by MacMillan (1998), while the running records and reflection notes contributed to descriptions of the children's interactions with each other and with the teachers. Teachers used an "assisted performance" approach to instruction that supported problem solving and inquiry processes in mathematics activities, and this, combined with a child-centred pedagogy and specific values about community learning, created a learning environment designed to stimulate and foster learning. The mathematics discourse analysis showed a use of explanatory language in mathematics discourse, and this language supported scaffolding among children for new mathematics concepts. These and other interactions related to peer sharing, tutoring and regulation also emerged as key aspects of students' learning practices. However, the findings indicated that multiage grouping alone did not support learning. Rather, effective learning was dependent upon the teacher's capacities to develop productive discussion among children, as well as implement developmentally appropriate curricula that addressed the needs of the different children.  | [FULL TEXT]

Wood, Susan Nelson; Nahmias, Cheryl Kopec (2005).  Perceptions of Classroom Realities: Case Pedagogy in an English Education Methods Course  Action in Teacher Education, 26, 4. 

Preparing novice teachers to manage the broad array of educational decisions and day-to-day problems inherent in classroom teaching is an ongoing challenge. This article describes a model of student-initiated, case-based pedagogy, in the form of Basket Cases, implemented in an English education methods class and interprets the results. Exploring features of this classroom intervention uncovers issues of particular concern to beginning teachers, provides feedback to the program, and supports the use of case pedagogy in teacher education.

Wood, Terry, Ed.; Nelson, Barbara Scott, Ed.; Warfield, Janet, Ed. (2001).  Beyond Classical Pedagogy: Teaching Elementary School Mathematics. Studies in Mathematical Thinking and Learning Series. 

This book describes and analyzes the teaching that has evolved in mathematics classrooms of teachers who have been forerunners in the effort to implement the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Standards in Elementary Mathematics. Research and insights from psychology, mathematics, and sociology are presented. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction" (Barbara Scott Nelson, Janet Warfield, and Terry Wood); (2) "Teaching, with Respect to Mathematics and Students" (Deborah Loewenberg Ball); (3) "An Alternative Conception of Teaching for Understanding: Case Studies of Two First-Grade Mathematics Classes" (Thomas P. Carpenter, Ellen Ansell, and Linda Levi); (4) "Teaching as Learning within a Community of Practice: Characterizing Generative Growth" (Megan Loef Franke and Elham Kazemi); (5) "Developing a Professional Vision of Classroom Events" (Miriam Gamoran Sherin); (6) "Commentary 1: Questions and Issues" (Barbara Jaworski); (7) "Learning to See the Invisible: What Skills and Knowledge Are Needed To Engage with Students' Mathematical Ideas?" (Deborah Schifter); (8) "Where Mathematics Content Knowledge Matters: Learning about and Building on Children's Mathematical Thinking" (Janet Warfield); (9) "Two Intertwined Bodies of Work: Conducting Research on Mathematics Teacher Development and Elaborating Theory of Mathematics Teaching/Learning" (Martin A. Simon); (10) "Commentary 2: Issues and Questions" (Barbara Jaworski); (11) "Extending the Conception of Mathematics Teaching" (Terry Wood and Tammy Turner-Vorbeck); (12) "Making Sense of Mathematics Teaching in Real Contexts" (Betsy McNeal); (13) "Commentary 3: Questions and Issues" (Barbara Jaworski); (14) "Constructing Facilitative Teaching" (Barbara Scott Nelson); (15) "Constructivist Mathematics Instruction and Current Trends in Research on Teaching" (Virginia Richardson); and (16) "Final Remarks" (Terry Wood, Barbara Scott Nelson, and Janet Warfield).

Woodhouse, Jan (2001).  Over the River & through the 'Hood: Re-Viewing "Place" as Focus of Pedagogy. An Introduction.  Thresholds in Education, 27, 3-4. 

Discusses the nature and aims of place-based pedagogies, which root the learning experience in the location of the learner. Briefly describes examples of placed-based education at the elementary and postsecondary levels. Outlines some questions related to educating students for ecological and cultural sustainability. Contains 18 references.

Woodhouse, Janice L.; Knapp, Clifford E. (2000).  Place-Based Curriculum and Instruction: Outdoor and Environmental Education Approaches. ERIC Digest. 

Place-based education is a relatively new term, but progressive educators have promoted the concept for over 100 years. Place-based education usually includes conventional outdoor education and experiential methodologies as advocated by John Dewey to help students connect with their particular corner of the world. Proponents of place-based education often envision a role for it in achieving local ecological and cultural sustainability. This digest reviews place-based curriculum and instruction, especially as it relates to outdoor and environmental education, and provides examples of K-12 resources and programs. A brief review identifies the purposes of outdoor education, environmental education, and place-based education and the relationships among them, and points out overlapping concepts in the literature: community-oriented schooling, ecological education, bioregional education, ecoliteracy, ecological identity, and pedagogy of place. The essential characteristics of place-based education are that it emerges from the particular attributes of a place, is inherently multidisciplinary and experiential, reflects a philosophy broader than "learn to earn," and connects place with self and community. In contrast to work-oriented goals of schooling, place-based education prepares people to live and work to sustain the places they inhabit and to participate actively in democracy. Thirteen relevant periodicals and books are briefly described. | [FULL TEXT]

Woodin, Tom (2007).  "Chuck out the Teacher": Radical Pedagogy in the Community  International Journal of Lifelong Education, 26, 1. 

Theories of radical or critical pedagogy have emphasized the importance of relating educational work to broader social movements although this has not been developed in detail. The recent history of community publishing and worker writing workshops in Britain helps to illuminate how these ideas have been adapted in a number of informal settings. Using archive materials, interviews with activists and my personal experience I explore some dilemmas and tensions within the idea of radical pedagogy. In particular, attempts to reconfigure relations between writers/students and organizers/tutors, as well as the role of personal experience, are examined in relation to both organizational and wider societal relations. These interventions faced many challenges but were not completely undermined.

Woodin, Tom (2008).  "A Beginner Reader Is Not a Beginner Thinker": Student Publishing in Britain since the 1970s  Paedagogica Historica: International Journal of the History of Education, 44, 1-2. 

Since the early 1970s adult literacy projects and classes have developed and published student writing in the UK. Early practitioners responded to the dearth of suitable learning materials and aimed to nurture hidden voices "from below" through a democratic educational process. Based on reading student written publications as well as archive and interview material the author assesses student writing and its associated pedagogy. Although student writing is shown to be closely connected to personal identity and experience, it was also channelled through specific educational and social contexts. The ways in which these books were read also reveal tensions apparent in student publishing. Some of the limitations and obstacles that it faced are discussed alongside the ways in which it has endured in an inhospitable contemporary environment.

Woods, Philip A.; Woods, Glenys J. (2006).  In Harmony with the Child: The Steiner Teacher as Co-Leader in a Pedagogical Community  FORUM: for promoting 3-19 comprehensive education, 48, 3. 

This article provides a glimpse into what it means to be a Steiner teacher, drawing on research we have undertaken into Steiner schools in England. The distinctiveness of the philosophical context of Steiner teaching is highlighted, as well as aspects of curriculum, pedagogy and the collegial leadership of Steiner schools. Whilst not without its challenges, Steiner education offers an instructive and thought-provoking alternative to contemporary trends.

Woodson, Stephani Etheridge (2000).  Toward a Critical Pedagogy in Theatre: Children's Rights To, In, and Through Drama.  Stage of the Art, 11, 3. 

Defines a critical pedagogy as a moral vision of human justice and decency. Argues that a critical pedagogy of the theatre could help create an analytical discourse of entertainment to allow children a different type of cultural literacy.

Woolsey, M. Lynn; Harrison, Tina J.; Gardner, Ralph, III (2004).  A Preliminary Examination of Instructional Arrangements, Teaching Behaviors, Levels of Academic Responding of Deaf Middle School Students in Three Different Educational Settings  Education and Treatment of Children, 27, 3. 

Using an ecobehavioral assessment tool, Mainstream Code for Instructional Structure and Student Academic Response (MS-CISSAR), this preliminary descriptive study examined the instructional arrangements, teaching behaviors, and levels of academic responding of nine deaf middle school students in three school settings that represented the continuum of placements (public school, residential school for the deaf, and residential treatment center). Each student was observed for the equivalent of two full school days. Instructional arrangements in the residential treatment setting were significantly different than the arrangements used in both the public school and the residential school for the deaf. Students in all settings were rarely exposed to small group or one-to-one instruction such as peer tutoring. Instructional behaviors were similar across teachers in the three settings. Teachers spent most of their time teaching. Although levels of academic responding were similar to levels found among hearing students with and without disabilities, students in two settings never read aloud. Levels of academic talk ranged from 4-7%. High levels of task management behaviors were reported in the public school. The most common competing behavior was looking around, even in the residential treatment center serving students with emotional/behavioral disorders. This article suggests future research on instructional strategies designed to provide empirically tested pedagogy to deaf educators.

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Worley, David W.; Worley, Debra A. (2001).  Reconfiguring the Basic Course: Focusing on First-Year Learners. 

The basic communication course remains an important introduction to the discipline in that it introduces students to the discipline, acts as a service course to the institution, and provides a basis for developing speaking across the curriculum initiatives. The target population also remains primarily first- and second-semester freshmen. This paper argues that the principle of audience analysis should be used to focus the pedagogy and content of the basic course. The paper suggests an approach to structure and content that associates the basic course with the numerous first-year initiatives across campuses nationwide, which continue to emerge in growing numbers. The advantages of this reconfiguration to students, departments, and institutions are provided in the paper. According to the paper, ultimately the goal of reconfiguration is to develop a greater understanding of, and adaptation to, the changing needs of the students, without losing sight of the critical content of the basic course in human communication. | [FULL TEXT]

Wortham, Stanton; Contreras, Margaret (2002).  Struggling toward Culturally Relevant Pedagogy in the Latino Diaspora.  Journal of Latinos and Education, 1, 2. 

In a rural New England school with a small and frequently changing Latino population, a bilingual Latino paraprofessional created a homelike, supportive environment in the ESL resource room. The room was culturally relevant in its organization of multiple simultaneous activities, mirroring the spatiotemporal fluidity of Latino homes. Conflict between Latino collectivist values and school emphasis on individual achievement is discussed.

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Wraga, William G. (2006).  Progressive Pioneer: Alexander James Inglis (1879-1924) and American Secondary Education  Teachers College Record, 108, 6. 

Alexander James Inglis's transformation from an academic traditionalist devoted to Latin pedagogy to an influential progressive-experimentalist and advocate of the comprehensive high school during the early twentieth century has received insufficient attention from educational and curriculum historians. A reconstruction of Inglis's career leads to an exploration of the explanatory power of four accepted historical interpretations when applied to his work. Recognizing the limitations of these interpretations for explaining anomalous aspects of Inglis's career, the possibility of educational biography for revealing nuances obscured by high-level generalizations is broached.

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Wright, Handel Kashope; Maton, Karl (2004).  Cultural Studies and Education: From Birmingham Origin to Glocal Presence  Review of Education

This article examines the contemporary relationship between cultural studies and the field of education--the characteristics of cultural studies in/and education and the "glocal" presence of cultural studies in/and education. The article traces the development of cultural studies from its origins as an anti-disciplinary project of the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies at Birmingham University, England in the early 1960s to its present conception of "glocal presence." The notion of the "glocal" signals a focus on the dialectical and dialogical relationship between the global and the local as opposed to the dominant conceptualization of globalization as a virtually unidirectional process whereby global developments impact local sites. The article surveys a number of essays that are discussed in terms of how they are illustrative of, and contributory to, three selected characteristics of cultural studies and/in education, namely the institutionalization of cultural studies in the national academy; the institutionalization of cultural studies in education; and literacy, reading and cultural pedagogy as aspects of the discourse and praxis of cultural studies and/in education.

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Wyatt, Ray (2001).  Web-Based Teaching: The Beginning of the End for Universities? 

This paper describes a World Wide Web-based, generic, inter-disciplinary subject called computer-aided policymaking. It has been offered at Melbourne University (Australia) from the beginning of 2001. It has generated some salutary lessons in marketing and pedagogy, but overall it is concluded that Web-based teaching has a rosy future. Nevertheless, difficulties in getting this particular inter-disciplinary subject widely accepted have laid bare some of the disciplinary-based myopia and information-based elitism that characterizes traditional universities. Specific problems discussed include universities' lack of resources, the competitive nature of universities, disciplinary chauvinism, and the custody of information. It is therefore concluded that adaptation to the Web's greater flexibility and democratization of education is an urgent priority for universities if they wish to retain their present position of leadership. 

Wyatt-Smith, Claire; Murphy, Judy (2002).  An Australian Proposal for Doing Critical Literary Assessment: The Case of Writing.  English in Education, 36, 3. 

Presents current thinking and practices in Queensland, Australia, about how to do critical assessment in the English classroom. Proposes and discusses a framework that brings together interest in text analysis and social practices. Applies the framework showing how it can be used to generate writing tasks and assessment criteria that are consistent with critical pedagogy.

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Wyse, Dominic (2003).  The National Literacy Strategy: A Critical Review of Empirical Evidence  British Educational Research Journal, 29, 6. 

This article examines three areas that are of central importance to the pedagogy of the National Literacy Strategy Framework for Teaching (FFT) at primary level: inspection evidence; school effectiveness (SE) research; and child development evidence. Analysis of national inspection reports on the teaching of English illustrates that these cannot be used as a reliable source of evidence. A focus on the claims made in support of an objective-based framework in SE research shows that there is very little evidence to support the particular use of objectives in the FFT. A synthesis of child development research in relation to language and literacy finds that the FFT does not adequately reflect the evidence. It is concluded that there is an urgent need for a formal review of the FFT.

Wyse, Dominic (2006).  Pupils' Word Choices and the Teaching of Grammar  Cambridge Journal of Education, 36, 1. 

The idea that formal grammar teaching leads to improvements in school pupils' writing has been a popular one. However, the robust and extensive evidence base shows that this is not the case. Despite this, policy initiatives have continued to suggest that grammar teaching does improve pupils' writing: the "Grammar for Writing" resource is the most recent example in England. Educational analysis on the subject of grammar has moved from a focus on whether grammar teaching improves pupils' writing to reflection on the rational for teaching knowledge about language, and subsequently a focus on a wide range of language topics. The study reported in this paper analysed the way that eight children made word choices during the writing process. Theory is presented to support the idea that contextualized learning of grammar is significant. Five significant influences on word choices are reported. Strong links between text-level influences on word-choices and the use of unconventional language at sentence and word level were found. It is concluded that writing pedagogy should be re-evaluated in order to consider the balance between individualized support and support for groups during the writing process.

Wyse, Dominic; Styles, Morag (2007).  Synthetic Phonics and the Teaching of Reading: The Debate Surrounding England's Rose Report  Literacy, 41, 1. 

The Rose Report, commissioned by the Secretary of State for Education for England, recommended in March 2006 that early reading instruction must include synthetic phonics. This paper evaluates the extent to which research evidence supports this recommendation. In particular, a review of international research into the teaching of early reading shows that the Rose Report's main recommendation on synthetic phonics contradicts the powerful body of evidence accumulated over the last 30 years. In this paper it is argued that action already taken by the UK government to change the National Curriculum in line with the Rose Report's recommendations represents a change in pedagogy not justified by research.

Wyss, Vanessa L.; Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M. (2007).  High School Class-Size and College Performance in Science  High School Journal, 90, 3. 

This paper focuses on the influence of high school science class size on students' achievement in introductory college science courses and on the variation of teacher practice across class size. Surveys collected information about high school science class experiences from 2754 biology, 3521 chemistry, and 1903 physics students across 36 public and 19 private institutions from 31 different states. The first analysis includes a cross-tabulation of 6 different class sizes and the frequencies of teacher practices reported by students. The second analysis includes a multiple linear regression of class size and student achievement. Results show no differences for pedagogy and student achievement until class sizes fall to 10 or fewer students. These findings suggest that incremental reductions in class size are likely not to have a significant impact on later student achievement.

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