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Pedagogy | B

Bad

Badaracco, Claire Hoertz (2002).  The Linked Classroom as Studio: Connectivity and the Etymology of Networks.  Public Relations Review, 28, 2. 

Notes that a developing multimedia network to connect three campuses allowed students in a Media, Religion and Cultural Identity course, national spokespersons, editors, and journalists to discuss the role of mediated religion, its impact on public opinion and on popular culture. Considers how a learning community was created. Argues for integrating spiritual intelligence in the public relations curriculum.

Badua, Frank (2008).  Pedagogy and the PC: Trends in the AIS Curriculum  Journal of Education for Business, 83, 5. 

The author investigated the array of course topics in accounting information systems (AIS), as course syllabi embody. The author (a) used exploratory data analysis to determine the topics that AIS courses most frequently offered and (b) used descriptive statistics and econometric analysis to trace the diversity of course topics through time, complementing previous literature on the topic by providing an alternative research methodology. The results indicate an increase in topical diversity and an emphasis on data modeling and AIS design and development, evident in both the course topics offered and the choice of software in these AIS courses. These findings (a) provide a reference for faculty whom administrators have tasked with designing AIS curricula and (b) serve as a basis for considering the state of accounting education, the relevance of information systems, and the evolving role of the accountant.

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Bah

Bahry, Stephen A, (2005).  Travelling Policy and Local Spaces in the Republic of Tajikistan: A Comparison of the Attitudes of Tajikistan and the World Bank towards Textbook Provision  European Educational Research Journal, 4, 1. 

For newly independent Central Asian republics a debate has arisen about how much of the aims, content and pedagogy of old Soviet-era curricula to retain, how much to revise or replace, and with what. There is a need to replace and revise textbooks, which are wearing out and outdated. Financial crisis has made the financial support of external funding agencies necessary to do so, allowing these agencies great influence on choice of appropriate aims, objectives and pedagogy to be embodied in new textbooks, and thus on educational change in Central Asia. However, attitudes towards strengths and weaknesses of the existing system, and thus the need for change, may differ between Central Asian educational authorities and external donors. Policies recommended by external agencies may be accepted, adapted, resisted or rejected by local educators for various reasons. This study compares attitudes towards textbook provision policy expressed in two normative texts on educational needs in Tajikistan: one produced by Tajikistan authorities and one by the World Bank. While both express the importance of textbook development for educational reform, clear differences in priorities for textbook development and attitudes towards existing aims, content and pedagogies are identified. These differences suggest the need for increased dialogue between local authorities and external donors. Further, such dialogue should be extended to other key stakeholders in the reform process.

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Bai

Bailey, Donald B., Jr. (2002).  Are Critical Periods Critical for Early Childhood Education? The Role of Timing in Early Childhood Pedagogy.  Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 17, 3. 

Reviews research on "critical periods" as an argument justifying initiatives to expand early childhood programs, and asserts that a critical periods argument is neither warranted nor necessary, since other justifiable arguments for early childhood initiatives exist. Points out the importance in a match between a child's experiences, developmental status, and readiness to learn a particular skill or concept.

Bailey, Lora B. (2003).  Standards-Based Mathematics Training To Improve Teacher's Content Knowledge and Enhance Parental Support for Student Learning. 

The purpose of this research is to provide elementary mathematics teachers strategies that will enhance their knowledge of standards-based mathematics content and pedagogy and to increase parents' and homework help-line employees' knowledge of standards-based mathematics concepts. Teacher participation in standards-based mathematics activities is intended to promote greater access to developmentally effective mathematics instruction for underachieving students. Parent and homework help-line training is intended to provide support to students as they attempt to complete standards-based homework assignments. The project work is intended to impact students' mathematics standardized test scores, mathematics classroom grades, teachers' mathematical content knowledge, and parental support.   | [FULL TEXT]

Bailey, Thomas R.; Matsuzuka, Yukari; Jacobs, James; Morest, Vanessa Smith; Hughes, Katherine L. (2003).  Institutionalization and Sustainability of the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education Program. 

This document reports on a study conducted by the National Science Foundation (NSF) that examines the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program. ATE aims to promote systemic reform of the nation's science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. The study analyzed the influence of the ATE program on the nature of STEM programs in community colleges, the partnerships they formed, and the characteristics of the colleges in which they are located. Six ATE projects and four national centers were examined between October 2000 and January 2002. Information was gathered through site visits and ATE project and center websites. The study aimed to answer questions regarding how the ATE centers influence STEM pedagogy, how inquiry-based teaching infuses underlying academic knowledge into the training of technicians, what role ATE programs play in developing and improving articulation between community colleges and four-year institutions, and a number of other questions. A central goal of the study was to analyze the ATE projects and centers with respect to the institutionalization and sustainability of ATE-initiated or funded activities once funding ceases. The study found that output strategies have been more prevalent in the programs than process-oriented approaches, in spite of the fact that process-oriented strategies are more sustainable. The NSF would like to see the innovations and reforms that it funds institutionalized and sustained once ATE funding ends. | [FULL TEXT]

Bain, Robert B. (2006).  Rounding Up Unusual Suspects: Facing the Authority Hidden in the History Classroom  Teachers College Record, 108, 10. 

Educational reform literature is filled with criticism of the omniscient tone that teachers and textbooks assume in history classrooms. Such widely acknowledged criticism often accompanies calls for more ambitious pedagogy. The focus on teachers and texts essentially ignores the ritualized and traditional deference that students afford to the authority of texts and teachers. Disturbing these rituals is essential for reform pedagogy to take root. However, we lack examples of successful classroom alternatives, namely descriptions of challenging history instruction that treats textbooks and teachers from within the discipline. This article provides such an example by considering activities that encourage students to question the omniscient tones of history text and teacher. Using my high school history classroom as a case study, I consider two questions: What might encourage students to raise disciplined suspicions of the typical sources of scholastic authority? Further, what might we learn about history instruction by trying to situate textbooks and teachers within the realm of historical inquiry--that is, making them the objects of students' historical study? The article suggests ways to narrow the gap between reform rhetoric and pedagogical predicament when confronting the classroom authority of text and teacher.

Baines, Ed; Blatchford, Peter; Kutnick, Peter (2003).  Changes in Grouping Practices over Primary and Secondary School  International Journal of Educational Research, 39, 1-2. 

The research detailed in this paper provides a systematic description and analysis of classroom grouping practices in primary and secondary schools in England. Practices are compared to main findings in developmental and educational literature with regard to effective contexts for learning and recent ideas about pedagogy. The research is based on an analysis of 4924 pupil groupings from 672 Reception, Year 2 and Year 5 classes in 331 primary schools and 248 Year 7 and Year 10 classes in 47 secondary schools. The data came from "classroom mapping questionnaires" that were completed by teachers at a particular point in the school day. Completed questionnaires provided information about the nature and use of pupil groupings within their classrooms and focused on the number and size of groupings, type of working interaction between pupils, the presence of adults, grouping composition and the type of task that groupings were engaged with. Results showed that there were changes in grouping practices with pupil age. As pupils increased in age they were increasingly likely to experience whole class ability based sets (tracking) for core curriculum subjects and more formal row/pair seating arrangements. Grouping size for learning decreased as pupils got older. Primary school age children were most likely to work on individual work either alone or with the support of an adult. Extra adult support in classes reduced as pupils got older. Secondary school age pupils were more likely to engage in peer interaction than primary age children. Grouping by ability was common at all age levels. As children got older, classroom tasks were more likely to involve the application of existing knowledge and less likely involve practising skills. At the secondary school level, there were indications that teachers co-ordinated grouping size, working interaction type and learning task. These findings indicate that beyond early primary age the main adjustments to pupil grouping with pupil age are in response to the reduced amount of additional adult support. Changing grouping practices are aimed at maintaining control and on-task attention and maximising individual and teacher directed learning but also, in secondary classrooms only, offering pupils opportunities for peer interaction.

Baird, Derek E.; Fisher, Mercedes (2006).  Neomillennial User Experience Design Strategies: Utilizing Social Networking Media to Support "Always On" Learning Styles  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 34, 1. 

Raised in the "always on" world of interactive media, the Internet, and digital messaging technologies, today's student has different expectations and learning styles than previous generations. This net-centric generation values their ability to use the Web to create a self-paced, customized, on-demand learning path that includes multiple forms of interactive, social, and self-publishing media tools. First, we investigate the formation of a burgeoning digital pedagogy that roots itself in current adult and social learning theories, while integrating social networking, user experience design strategies, and other emerging technologies into the curriculum to support student learning. Next, we explore how current and emerging social networking media (such as Weblogs, iPod, RSS/XML, podcasting/audioblogs, wiki, "Flickr," and other self-publishing media) can support neomillennial learning styles, facilitate the formation of learning communities, foster student engagement and reflection, and enhance the overall user experience for students in synchronous and asynchronous learning environments. The data included in this article are intended as directional means to help instructors and course designers identify social networking resources and other emerging technologies that will enhance the delivery of instruction while meeting the needs of today's neomillennial learning styles.

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Bak

Baker, R. Scott; Milner, Joseph O. (2006).  Complexities of Collaboration: Intensity of Mentors' Responses to Paired and Single Student Teachers  Action in Teacher Education, 28, 3. 

This study examined an innovative approach to student teaching, where pairs of secondary teacher candidates worked together under the guidance of a single mentor teacher. Like studies of partnered student teachers at the elementary level, our study found that paired secondary student teacher candidates developed a more intense and effective relationship with their mentor than did student teachers who worked alone under the guidance of a mentor teacher. By restructuring the relationship between students and their mentor, partnering created a new and more powerful dynamic, one that centered more on pedagogy than on personality. As mentor teachers found that guiding paired student teachers was more complex and demanding, they endorsed this innovation. Our results lend support to an emerging literature that suggests that paired placements form a more effective way of preparing teachers.

Baker, Will (2008).  A Critical Examination of ELT in Thailand: The Role of Cultural Awareness  RELC Journal: A Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 39, 1. 

With the increasingly significant role that English language teaching (ELT) is playing in Asian contexts, it is important to gain a better understanding of the use of English as a medium of intercultural communication in Asia. In doing so, ELT practices may be better able to adapt themselves to the intercultural communicative needs of local contexts. This paper argues that an essential element in fostering successful intercultural communication is developing cultural awareness as part of ELT pedagogy. To illustrate this, a case study of Thailand is presented examining English use, English teaching policy and practice, and local cultural attitudes towards ELT. This then leads to suggestions on how locally relevant intercultural communicative practices can form part of ELT classroom pedagogy in Thailand with the aim of developing learners' cultural awareness. It is argued that similar analyses may be applied to other Asian contexts, which may share features with the Thai context. This can lead to the development of teaching practices, which through engaging learners in intercultural reflection will result in English language users who are better able to manage intercultural communication through English.

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Bal

Balatti, Jo; Black, Stephen; Falk, Ian (2007).  Teaching for Social Capital Outcomes: The Case of Adult Literacy and Numeracy Courses  Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 47, 2. 

There is strong evidence that participation in education and training can produce social capital outcomes. There is also strong evidence that such outcomes are useful outcomes; they can enhance the development of other outcomes often called human capital and they can contribute to the social-economic wellbeing of the learners and the communities in which they live. Yet, little research has been done on the pedagogy and other conditions that produce social capital outcomes in education and training. This paper reports on a research project that investigated what teachers do to produce social capital outcomes in adult literacy and numeracy courses.  | [FULL TEXT]

Balfour, Robert (2005).  Transforming a Language Curriculum: Shifting Pedagogy for Meaningful Learning  Perspectives in Education, 23, 1. 

Bernstein's work on educational transmission provides a discourse for understanding classroom practice which can integrate elements as diverse as content and interaction, to enable a critical evaluation of how pedagogic transformation occurs. This article describes an intervention in an English classroom in rural KwaZulu-Natal in which the shift occurs from a conventional pedagogy and conventional English curriculum to a transformed curriculum and practice. At the heart of this project is empowerment, both for the teacher and learner. The pedagogic transformation described here suggests new directions both for classroom observation methodologies, and for English language development.

Ball, Arnetha F. (2000).  Empowering Pedagogies That Enhance the Learning of Multicultural Students.  Teachers College Record, 102, 6. 

Discusses the tenets of critical pedagogy, describing research on the presence of those tenets within discourse patterns and pedagogical practices in urban, community-based classrooms. Discourses and pedagogies of three female, African American teachers are highlighted, examining how teachers challenge students to consider alternate life possibilities, become critical thinkers, and consider transformation of their own and others' life situations.

Ball, Deborah Loewenberg (2000).  Bridging Practices: Intertwining Content and Pedagogy in Teaching and Learning To Teach.  Journal of Teacher Education, 51, 3. 

Proposes three problems that must be solved in order to best prepare teachers who both know content and can make use of it to help all students learn, including: identifying the content knowledge that matters for teaching; understanding how such knowledge needs to be held; and determining what it takes to learn to use such knowledge in practice.

Ballantine, Jeanne H., Ed.; Spade, Joan Z., Ed. (2007).  Schools and Society: A Sociological Approach to Education, Third Edition  [SAGE Publications (CA)] 

This third edition, now published by Pine Forge Press, features original readings and article excerpts by leaders in the area of Sociology of Education. With a wide array of theoretical perspectives, a broad range of respected sources, and inclusion of both classic and contemporary studies, this comprehensive, integrated text addresses key issues in the field with a balanced presentation. Edited by Jeanne H. Ballantine and Joan Z. Spade, both of whom actively teach Sociology of Education courses, this text continues to offer theory, methods, and classical and current issues organized around the theme of the open systems approach to make both the pedagogy and presentation of material coherent for students. Thus, the book is not just a collection of articles, but a presentation of a holistic view of educational systems. The book is divided into 10 parts. Part I, What Is Sociology of Education? Theory and Methods, contains the following chapters: (1) Getting Started: Understanding Education Through Sociological Theory (Jeanne H. Ballantine and Joan Z. Spade); (2) Contemporary Perspectives in the Sociology of Education (Alan R. Sadovnik); (3) Moral Education (Emile Durkheim); (4) Conflict Theory of Educational Stratification (Randall Collins); (5) Schooling in Capitalist Societies (Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis); (6) Bridges to the Future: Contributions of Qualitative Research to the Sociology of Education (Carolyn Riehl); and (7) How to Avoid Statistical Traps (Gerald W. Bracey). Part II, School Organization and Roles, contains the following chapters: (8) How Schools Work (Rebecca Barr and Robert Dreeben; (9) The School Class as a Social System (Talcott Parsons); (10) Small Class Size and Its Effects (Bruce J. Biddle and David C. Berlinger); (11) Forms of Capital and the Construction of Leadership: Instructional Leadership in Urban Elementary Schools (James P. Spillane, Tim Hallett, and John B. Diamond); (12) The Status of Teaching as a Profession (Richard M. Ingersoll and David Perda); and (13) School Reform and Teacher Burnout (Anthony Gary Dworkin). Part III, Students and the Informal System, contains the following chapters: (14) Learning the Student Role: Kindergarten as Academic Boot Camp (Harry L. Gracey); (15) Real School: A Universal Drama Among Disparate Experience (Mary Haywood Metz); (16) Straddling Boundaries: Identity, Culture, and School (Prudence L. Carter); (17) Low-Level Violence: A Neglected Aspect of School Culture (David R. Dupper and Nancy Meyer-Adams); and (18) The Dropout Problem: Losing Ground (Paul E. Barton). Part IV, Social Construction of Knowledge, contains the following chapters: (19) The New Sociology of Knowledge (Ann Swidler and Jorge Arditi); (20) Romeo and Juliet Were Just Good Friends (Joan DelFattore); (21) America in World War II: An Analysis of History Textbooks from England, Japan, Sweden, and the United States (Stuart Foster and Jason Nicholls); and (22) Facts or Critical Thinking Skills? What the NAEP Results Say (Harold Wenglinsky). Part V, Schooling in Social Context: Educational Environments, contains the following chapters: (23) The Structure of Educational Organizations (John W. Meyer and Brian Rowan); (24) Marital Transitions, Parenting, and Schooling: Exploring the Link Between Family-Structure History and Adolescents' Academic Status (Shannon E. Cavanagh, Kathryn S. Schiller, and Catherine Riegle-Crumb); (25) Adolescents' Extracurricular Participation in Context: The Mediating Effects of Schools, Communities, and Identity (Andrew Guest and Barbara Schneider); (26) No Child Left Behind: The Federal Government Gets Serious About Accountability (Kathryn M. Borman and Bridget A. Cotner); and (27) Disparities Within: Unequal Spending and Achievement in an Urban School District (Dennis J. Condron and Vincent J. Roscigno). Part VI, Social Stratification and Schools, contains the following chapters: (28) Schools: The Great Equalizer and the Key to the American Dream (Heather Beth Johnson); (29) Tracking in Mathematics and Science: Courses and Course Selection Procedures (Joan Z. Spade, Lynn Columba, and Beth E. Vanfossen); (30) How Race and Education are Related (Caroline Hodges Persell); (31) Moments of Social Inclusion and Exclusion: Race, Class, and Cultural Capital in Family-School Relationships (Annette Lareau and Erin McNamara Horvat); (32) "Tuck in that shirt!" Race, Class, Gender, and Discipline in an Urban School (Edward W. Morris); and (33) Gender and Education (Roslyn Arlin Mickelson). Part VII, Efforts Toward Equality and Equity in Education, contains the following chapters: (34) The Segregation and Resegregation of American Public Education: The Courts' Role (Erwin Chemerinsky); (35) Learning Through Experience: What Graduates Gained by Attending Desegregated High Schools (Jennifer Jellison Holme, Amy Stuart Wells, and Anita Tijerina Revilla); (36) Charter Schools and the Public Good (Linda A. Renzulli and Vincent J. Roscigno); (37) The Achievement Gap: A Broader Picture (Richard Rothstein); and (38) Early Childhood Education and Care in Advanced Industrialized Countries: Current Policy and Program Trends (Sheila B. Kamerman). Part VIII, Higher Education, contains the following chapters: (39) The Stratification of the Academy (Zelda F. Gamson); (40) The Battle Over Merit (Jerome Karabel); (41) The Community College: The Impact, Origin, and Future of a Contradictory Institution (Kevin J. Dougherty); (42) Blacks in College: Past and Present (Sarah Susannah Willie); (43) Changes in the Status and Functions of Women's Colleges Over Time (Leslie Miller-Bernal); and (44) Reshaping the University in an Era of Globalization (Alan Ruby). Part IX, Education in an International Context, contains the following chapters: (45) The Global Environment of National School Systems (David P. Baker and Gerald K. LeTendre); (46) The Content of the Curriculum: An Institutional Perspective (Elizabeth H. McEneaney and John W. Meyer); (47) Education and Social Stratification Processes in Comparative Perspective (Alan C. Kerckhoff); (48) The Case for Universal Basic Education for the World's Poorest Boys and Girls (Gene B. Sperling); and (49) What Does Globalization Mean for Educational Change? A Comparative Approach (Martin Carnoy and Diana Rhoten). Part X, Educational Reform and Change, contains the following chapters: (50) Tinkering Toward Utopia: A Century of Public School Reform (David Tyack and Larry Cuban); (51) Wider Contexts and Future Issues: National Standards and School Reform in Japan and the United States (Thomas P. Rohlen); (52) Radical Possibilities: Putting Education at the Center (Jean Anyon); and (53) Deschooling Society (Ivan Illich). Includes appendix: Web Resources for Continued Exploration of the Topics in This Book.

Ballantine, Joan; Larres, Patricia McCourt (2007).  Cooperative Learning: A Pedagogy to Improve Students' Generic Skills?  Education & Training, 49, 2. 

Purpose: The objective of this study is two-fold. First, it provides guidance to educators and trainers on establishing a cooperative learning environment. Second, it examines final-year undergraduate accounting students' opinions on the effectiveness of a cooperative learning environment in delivering generic skills for their future professional accountancy careers. In particular, the study examines relative perceptions of effectiveness between students of differing academic abilities. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire was administered to elicit students' views on whether they believed cooperative learning had enhanced their generic skills development. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests of differences. Findings: Students found the cooperative learning approach beneficial in developing their generic skills. Further, no significant differences were found between the perceptions of the less and more able students. Research limitations/implications: The study addresses perceptions of the benefits derived from cooperative learning rather than measuring benefits using an objective measure of achievement. Therefore, an interesting extension of this work would be to chart changes in personal development as a consequence of implementing cooperative learning over a number of years. Practical implications: The findings provide some level of assurance for educators in accounting and other vocational disciplines that students of different academic abilities believe they have enhanced their generic skills as a result of engaging in cooperative learning. Originality/value: This paper provides guidance to educators on establishing a cooperative learning environment and provides empirical evidence on its contribution to the enhancement of generic skills.

Ballengee-Morris, Christine (2000).  Hillbilly: An Image of a Culture. 

The hillbilly stereotype has created image distortions of Appalachian people and culture in mainstream America, in academia, and among mountain people themselves. This paper examines Appalachian student reactions to the stereotype and ways in which students can explore the concept and image of hillbilly and develop their cultural identity. Appalachian people are a hybridization of various ethnic groups, including Native Americans, Africans, and Scotch-Irish. The culture is carried forward by oral tradition but is not static. Appalachian art forms and styles have followed local cultural transformations and vary widely. Stereotyping the culture began after the Civil War when outside developers entered the region, was a social control tactic, and was expanded and perpetuated by the mass media in the 1950s-60s. Psychological internalization of the pejorative image has hindered the ability of mountain people, particularly the young, to accept their identity, resulting in self-hatred, cultural denial, and lack of self-determination. The stereotype has also been internalized by education systems, which use it as an excuse for educational problems. As has happened in many Native American nations, reviving cultural traditions can facilitate healing. Students can confront the Appalachian stereotype by exploring the topic historically, aesthetically, and critically in their own place. Critical examination of the histories of Appalachian mountain culture, resistance, and artistic responses facilitates students' cultural identity, pride, and sense of place. Student projects for grades K-12 are listed. | [FULL TEXT]

Ballenger, Bruce (2008).  Reconsiderations: Donald Murray and the Pedagogy of Surprise  College English, 70, 3. 

Toward the end of his life, Donald Murray felt that his approach to writing instruction was no longer appreciated by journals in his field. Nevertheless, his emphasis on encouraging students to surprise themselves through informal writing still has considerable value.

Balram, Shivanand; Dragicevic, Suzana (2008).  Collaborative Spaces for GIS-Based Multimedia Cartography in Blended Environments  Computers & Education, 50, 1. 

The interaction spaces between instructors and learners in the traditional face-to-face classroom environment are being changed by the diffusion and adoption of many forms of computer-based pedagogy. An integrated understanding of these evolving interaction spaces together with how they interconnect and leverage learning are needed to develop meaningful strategies for effective teaching and learning. The "18i" collaborative interaction spaces model was designed based on constructivist principles, and describes 18 mixed instructor-learner spaces contextualized at a finer operational scale that makes explicit a wider range of interactions. The model was implemented during the life cycle of an undergraduate GIS-based multimedia cartography course. One output was the generation of a repository of rule-based trajectory plans for rapid planning and problem solving. The model provides an integrated workflow to manage course contents, products, interactions, individuality, and learning styles in blended environments.

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Ban

Bana, Jack, Ed.; Chapman, Anne, Ed. (2000).  Mathematics Education beyond 2000: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (23rd, Fremantle, Western Australia, Australia, July 5-9, 2000). Volume 1 [and] Volume 2. 

This document contains Volumes 1 and 2 of the proceedings of the 23rd annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia Incorporated (MERGA) held at Fremantle, Western Australia, July 5-9, 2000. Papers in Volume 1 include: (1) "Bridging Practices: Intertwining Content and Pedagogy in Teaching and Learning To Teach" (Deborah Loewenberg Ball); (2) "Looking Backwards, Looking Forwards, and Looking for Direction" (Andy Begg); (3) "Bridging the Gap: A Challenge for the Dual Community" (John A. Malone); (4) "Collaborative Problem Solving in Senior Secondary Mathematics Classrooms" (Merrilyn Goos); (5) "Changing the Professional Knowledge of Teachers" (Janette Bobis and Peter Gould); (6) "Teachers, Students and Research: One Possibility for Teaching Early Numeracy" (Philip Clarkson); (7) "Mapping Children's Stages of Arithmetical Solution Methods" (Peter Gould and Robert Wright); (8) "Reviewing Literature Relevant to a Systemic Early Numeracy Initiative: Bases of CMIT" (Robert Wright and Peter Gould); (9) "Emergence of Mathematical (In)Competence and Identity" (Pat Forster and Peter Taylor); (10) "Is There More to Numeracy Than Meets the Eye? Stories of Socialization and Subjectification in School Mathematics" (Mary Klein); (11) "Mental Effort and Errors in Bracket Expansion Tasks" (Paul Ayres); (12) "Developing Task Specific Criteria: A Preliminary Report" (Dawn Bartlett); (13) "Construction of a Numeration Model: A Theoretical Analysis" (Annette Baturo); (14) "Modes of Representation in Students' Explanations" (Brenda Bicknell); and (15)"What Is Taught versus What Is Learnt: The Case of Linear Measurement" (Philippa Bragg and Lynne Outhred). Papers in Volume 2 include: (1) "Classroom and Teacher Effects in Mathematics Achievement: Results from TIMSS" (Stephen Lamb and Sue Fullarton); (2) "3-Dimensional Geometry: Assessment of Students' Responses" (Chrisitine Lawrie and John Pegg); (3) "Mathematics and Gender: Beliefs They Are a-Changin'" (Gilah Leder and Helen Forgasz); (4) "Informal Assessment Questions Used by Secondary School Mathematics Teachers" (Sanka Liyanage, Kathryn Irwin, and Mike Thomas); (5) "Grade 1 Children in Problem-Posing Contexts: Problem Solving Prior to Completing the Task" (Tom Lowrie); (6) "Knowledge and Strategies Students Employ To Solve Open-Ended Problem-Solving Activities" (Tom Lowrie, Rod Francis, and Geoff Rogers); (7) "Mental Computation, Number Sense and General Mathematics Ability: Are They Linked?" (Alistair McIntosh and Shelley Dole); (8) "Designing Constructivist Computer Games for Teaching about Decimal Numbers" (Janine McIntosh, Kaye Stacey, Calvin Tromp, and Darren Lightfoot); (9) "Scaffolding: A Suitable Teaching Characteristic in One-to-One Teaching in Maths Recovery" (Bronwyn McMahon); (10) "Low Achieving Mathematics Students' Attitudinal and Achievement Changes as a Result of Using an Integrated Learning System" (Campbell McRobbie, Annette Baturo, and Tom Cooper); (11) "Teaching for Abstraction: Reconstructing Constructivism" (Michael Mitchelmore and Paul White); (12) "Graphical Representations of Statistical Associations by Upper Primary Students" (Jonathan Moritz); (13) "Reasoning and Expressing Probability in Students' Judgements of Coin Tossing" (Jonathan Moritz and Jane Watson); (14) "The Practicum as Context: Two Snapshots" (Judith Mousley and Georgina Herbert); and (15) "A Comparative Analysis of the 1996-1999 Calculus TEE Papers" (Ute Mueller and Patricia Forster).

Banda, Felix (2003).  A Survey of Literacy Practices in Black and Coloured Communities in South Africa: Towards a Pedagogy of Multiliteracies  Language

The initial motivation for the study was the view of multilingualism as a resource, in which all languages and literacies at the disposal of a learner are used for his/her benefit. In turn, interest was motivated by the notion of literacy practices as social practices linked to broader cultural and socioeconomic conditions (Street, 2001). Interest was also motivated by recent studies which stress the value of understanding the literacy practices that groups and communities are already engaged in before embarking on literacy programmes and pedagogical interventions (Prinsloo & Breier, 1996; Street, 2001). Drawing on a questionnaire designed to profile literacy practices in black and coloured communities and schools in South Africa, the study concludes that literacy practices are linked to demographic, geographical, attitudinal, linguistic, cultural and socioeconomic factors, all of which intersect in multiple ways with the legacy of apartheid. As a way of bridging the gulf between community literacies and schooled literacies, the study suggests a multiliteracy approach in which local literacies become vehicles for accessing educational discourses.

Bangs, Paul (2002).  Authoring, Pedagogy, and the Web: Expectations versus Reality.  International Journal of English Studies, 2, 1. 

Discusses two easy-to-use authoring systems--"Potatoes" and "MALTED"--for designing Web-based language instruction. Provides a check list of advice for would-be authors of language learning programs.

Bangura, Abdul Karim (2003).  Discussing America's Wars in the Classroom: Pedagogical and Andragogical Approaches. 

The most fundamental ideas ingrained in U.S. culture are the notions of freedom and democracy. The United States Constitution guarantees certain inalienable rights and protections. However, a person only needs to read "The Chronicle of Higher Education" since the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center (New York) and the Pentagon (Washington, D.C.), the subsequent passage of the USA Patriot Act, and the U.S. wars in Afghanistan and Iraq to realize that discussing the current U.S. wars in the classroom can be impact a professor's career. If the professor is untenured or not on tenure track, student evaluations can influence an instructor's reappointment. Yet, those who teach international relations/studies courses cannot shy away from discussing controversial current events that are part of the curriculum. This paper offers an approach that allows a professor to employ both pedagogical and andragogical techniques to ease the difficulties of discussing current U.S. wars in the classroom. It notes that the basic difference between pedagogy and andragogy is one of treating learners as passive and dependent individuals or as relatively autonomous and self-directed individuals.  | [FULL TEXT]

Banks, Frank; Leach, Jenny; Moon, Bob (2005).  Extract from "New Understandings of Teachers' Pedagogic Knowledge"  Curriculum Journal, 16, 3. 

The relationship between knowledge and pedagogy is an important one and needs further exploration. Does a degree in archaeology provide a basis for teaching contemporary history? Is the high-flying physicist able to teach adequately the biology of a general science course? Can a primary teacher successfully work across the whole of the primary curriculum even though his or her subject expertise may lie in one or two areas? Does the phrase "the best way to learn is to teach" really underpin the teaching role? In this article the authors explore these issues and describe some of the debates and research taking place in order to suggest a reconceptualization of the field and to set out some preliminary research with preservice students. The aim is to stimulate debate around an important area, not least in providing a stronger theoretical framework against which policy and regulatory proposals can be described, analysed and critiqued.

Banks, James A.; Banks, Cherry A. McGee (2006).  Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives. 6th Edition  [Jossey-Bass, An Imprint of Wiley] 

Today's classrooms are more diverse than ever before. In order to reach these students, educators must be aware of the issues facing their various cultural, racial, ethnic, and language groups. Focusing on the pertinent issues in multicultural education, this new edition raises these critical issues and facilitates meaningful discussion. It has been completely updated with the latest developments in the field to provide the educator with all the tools necessary to become effective practitioners. This book is divided into the following five parts and 17 chapters. Part I, Issues and Concepts, contains the first set of chapters: (1) Multicultural Education: Characteristics and Goals (James A. Banks); (2) Culture in Society and in Educational Practices (Frederick Erickson); and (3) Race, Class, Gender, and Disability in the Classroom (Carl A. Grant and Christine E. Sleeter). Part II, Social Class and Religion, contains the next two chapters: (4) Social Class and Educational Equality (Caroline Hodges Persell); and (5) Christian Nation or Pluralistic Culture: Religion in American Life (Charles H. Lippy). Part III, Gender, contains: (6) Gender Bias: From Colonial America to Today's Classrooms (David Sadker and Karen Zittleman); (7) Classrooms for Diversity: Rethinking Curriculum and Pedagogy (Mary Kay Thompson Tetreault); and (8) Transforming the Curriculum: Teaching about Women of Color (Johnnella E. Butler and Deirdre Raynor). Part IV, Race, Ethnicity and Language, contains the next set of chapters: (9) Culturally Responsive Teaching: Theory and Practice (Gloria Ladson-Billings); (10) Approaches to Multicultural Curriculum Reform (James A. Banks); (11) The Colorblind Perspective in School: Causes and Consequences (Janet Ward Schofield); and (12) Language Diversity and Schooling (Tom T. Stritikus and Manka M. Varghese). Part V, Exceptionality, then presents: (13) Educational Equality for Students with Disabilities (William L. Heward, Sara Ernsbarger Bicard, and Rodney A. Cavanaugh); (14) School Inclusion and Multicultural Issues in Special Education (Luanna H. Meyer, Jill Bevan-Brown, Beth Harry, and Mara Sapon-Shevin); and (15) Recruiting and Retaining Gifted Students from Diverse Ethnic, Cultural, and Language Groups (Donna Y. Ford). Part VI, School Reform, contains the final two chapters: (16) School Reform and Student Learning: A Multicultural Perspective (Sonia Nieto); and (17) Families and Teachers Working Together for School Improvement (Cherry A. McGee Banks). Also included are: (1) Appendix Multicultural Resources; (2) Glossary; (3) (list of) Contributors; and (4) index. [For "Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives. 5th Edition, Update," see ED493655.]

Banks, Stephen P.; Banks, Anna (2000).  Reading "The Critical Life": Autoethnography as Pedagogy.  Communication Education, 49, 3. 

Responds to an article in this same issue of this journal. Discusses autoethnography and the roots of this narrative genre; suggests three ways the article connects with the teaching of communication; and notes its legitimacy as scholarly writing and a vision of its pedagogical relevance.

Bannister, Linda (2001).  Rhetorical Listening in the Diverse Classroom: Understanding the Sound of Not Understanding. 

Despite the fact that the culture seems to prize a "good listener," which is a compliment used in everything from a grade school report card to a description of an ideal marriage partner, listening actually is a less privileged interpretive trope than speaking, writing, or seeing. This paper, citing essays by Krista Ratcliffe and Nikki Giovanni, demonstrates that listening is also informed by ethnicity and that a cultural bias against listening exists at the level of race and class. The paper explains that one educator hoped to help facilitate cross-cultural interaction in her classroom, so she set out to devise a simple listening heuristic that teachers and their students could use and that she could test. The paper offers some thoughts on listening and its components and summarizes some strategies used in education for the deaf. It finds that Ratcliffe's philosophy of rhetorical listening, which privileges listening and upgrades its importance in the logos, implies a listening pedagogy that demands individual and collaborative responsibility. According to the paper, preliminary findings in the educator's 2-semester study which follows student listeners' progress over a sequence of paired courses indicate that students do respond to a pedagogy emphasizing a critical listening apprenticeship based on shared negotiation--the pedagogy includes creating an undisturbed collaborative space, a sanctuary where "noise" is minimized, an opportunity for listeners/speakers to tell their respective stories to culturally and sexually contextualize their position in a discussion, and to learn to depend upon an evolving critical dialogue for interpreting what they see and hear. | [FULL TEXT]

Bannister, Linda; Hurd, James (2003).  Racially Reversed Roles and Their Impact on Drama and Audience in the Multiethnic Writing Classroom. 

This paper explores a writing-classroom pedagogy that uses dramatic literature and racially reversed roles as a springboard for discussion of diversity issues. According to the paper, the belief is that providing students with a drama that features ethnically reversed casts, performed sequentially, would allow them to recognize how powerfully skin color affects the representation of ethnic difference, race, and class. The paper's author/educators co-wrote a 3-act drama, "Room 1222," which explores issues of black-white relationships, the tensions involved in the intersection of work and family, and human behavior in the face of serious illness. The paper explains that the play was performed twice with two casts for the same audience (an ethnically diverse group of 175 students, faculty, and visitors at Loyola Marymount University)--the races of the lead characters were reversed: white became black, black became white, and there were also two directors, one black and one white. It describes the play and discusses reaction to it. Contains a 7-item bibliography. Attached is an outline of the play's two versions. | [FULL TEXT]

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Baptiste, Ian (2000).  Beyond Reason and Personal Integrity: Toward a Pedagogy of Coercive Restraint.  Canadian Journal for the Study of Adult Education, 14, 1. 

Asserts that coercive restraint is justified when grave social injuries are sustained. Argues that adult education theories that advocate enlightenment of perpetrators are inadequate. Urges a pedagogy of coercive restraint to alleviate social injustice.

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Barak, Julie (2003).  Rewriting Racism: Whiteness Studies in the Composition Classroom. 

When teachers work to create empathy that transfers or translates the experience of the other into an experience an individual has had, they promote a kind of egotism that dismisses the other or that reduces the other to the category of the self. The key problem with empathy of this sort is that the focus is not on the other, but on the self. The task that "whiteness studies" undertakes is to shift this focus from ME to US. Whiteness studies is about reopening the dialogue with the other under new terms. With this in mind, an educator has designed a composition class that focuses on race relationships and on keeping the focus on US, not on the other, but on the interconnections. The course's purpose is to teach students how to write about literature and how to do researched writing. The educator tries to get students to move away from a reader-response critical approach to literature in which the reader gains a position of privilege by completing the story toward a post-colonial critical response, in which the student examines the political positions of the author, the characters, and themselves as readers. This paper talks more about the dangers of empathy and about how whiteness studies move readers and writers beyond that to a new political sense of their responsibility in the classroom and the community. The paper describes the main assignments for the course (the second semester of a 2-semester freshman composition sequence) in which the pedagogy of whiteness studies is applied to facilitate the development of an empathy of responsibility in the students. Lists 6 works cited. | [FULL TEXT]

Baratelli, Adriana; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Pringle, Rose; Adams, Thomasenia; Shure, Lauren (2007).  Positioning toward Mathematics and Science Learning: An Examination of Factors Affecting Low-Income, African American Girls  [Online Submission] 

(Purpose) The purpose of this study was to investigate the positionality of low income, African American school girls toward mathematics and science learning as they transition from elementary to middle school. The researchers sought to examine how culture, class and gender affected the girls' positioning in terms of mathematics and science, as well as the effects of the way in which teachers, parents, school counselors and administrators position the girls. (Methodology) In order to gather data, a focus group interview was conducted with five sixth grade girls and semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with two teachers, a school counselor, a principal and a parent. (Results) Using domain analysis, two major themes were identified, including positioning and pedagogy. (Conclusion and Recommendations) Implications for this study include increased emphasis on students' funds of knowledge in school curriculum and a need for further research on the role of positionality on construction of knowledge in the classroom. (Additional data.) | [FULL TEXT]

Barbanell, Patricia; Falco, John; Newman, Diana (2003).  New Vision, New Realities: Methodology and Mission in Developing Interactive Videoconferencing Programming. 

As museums throughout the world enter the interactive arena of digital communications, a need has emerged to access strategies of program development that seamlessly interface with existing missions and resources. This paper describes how Project VIEW, a US Department of Education Technology Innovation Challenge Grant, collaborates with major museums--the Guggenheim (NY) Museum, the Whitney Museum,the Philadelphia Museum of Art, and others--to create templates for developing point-to-point interactive video conferences with asynchronous web-based resources that enhance student learning. Underlying the work of VIEW is the premise that, to achieve the promise of interactive technologies, it is necessary to change educational pedagogy. To accomplish this, Project VIEW employs multi-phase integration techniques that bring together the needs and missions of diverse yet intersecting educational delivery systems at museums and schools. While the development of a model for sustainable program development and content integration a core component of Project VIEW, the primary goal is to deliver instruction that produces evidence of higher student learning and academic performance. Interim evaluation by an external reviewer indicates evidence of enhanced student learning among students who participate in Project VIEW programs. Importantly, evidence confirms that outcomes for students are the result of VIEW training and development processes in which both schools and museums are transforming the way that they deliver education and through integrated, interactive videoconferencing and web-based learning. | [FULL TEXT]

Barbour, Ann; Boyer, Wanda; Hardin, Belinda; Wortham, Sue (2004).  From Principle to Practice: Using the Global Guidelines to Assess Quality Education and Care  Childhood Education, 80, 6. 

Antarctica gathered in Ruschlikon, Switzerland, at the International Symposium on Early Childhood Education and Care for the 21st Century. The symposium's mission was to craft guidelines for programs that serve children under the age of formal schooling in countries throughout the world. After extensive discussions about what constitutes universal characteristics of good early education and care, working groups drafted statements that subsequently were combined, refined, and carefully edited. These efforts resulted in the joint publication of Global Guidelines for Early Childhood Education and Care in the 21st Century (hereafter referred to as the Global Guidelines) by ACEI and OMEP (2000). The Global Guidelines concisely describe basic, universal components of quality education and care for young children and, as a result, can be used worldwide. Following an overall statement of philosophy and goals, the Global Guidelines address six areas in providing comprehensive services for young children: Environment and Physical Space; Curriculum Content and Pedagogy; Early Childhood Educators and Caregivers; Partnership With Families and Communities; Young Children With Special Needs; and Accountability, Supervision, and Management.

Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen (2000).  Tense and Aspect in Second Language Acquisition: Form, Meaning, and Use.  [Language Learning: A Journal of Research in Language Studies] 

This book is about the acquisition of temporal expression in a second language. Temporal expression has come into its own as an arena of research in adult second language acquisition. The investigation of temporal expression includes all linguistic means of reference to time. The study of tense-apart morphology has been the focus of many descriptive and pedagogical accounts of language. Although the pedagogy of tense and aspect has received a great deal of attention, the acquisition of tense aspect systems has received relatively little attention in comparison. Interest in this neglected aspect has been growing, and gradually the investigation of the relationship between instruction and acquisition of tense-aspect, increasing the prospects of an acquisitionally informed pedagogy. The book has seven chapters: "The Acquisition of Time Talk in Second Language Acquisition"; "Meaning-Oriented Studies of Temporality"; "The Emergence of Verbal Morphology"; "The Aspect Hypothesis"; "The Role of Discourse"; "The Influence of Instruction"; and "Past, Present, and Future." Numerous tables, figures, and charts appear throughout the text. Extensive references and an index are included.

Barlex, David; Rutland, Marion (2008).  DEPTH2: Design & Technology Trainee Teacher's Use of a Subject Construct Model to Enable Reflective Critique of School Experience  International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 18, 3. 

This paper will describe an inquiry into the case of a design & technology one-year Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) trainee's interpretation of their school-based experience in England using the DEPTH approach of subject knowledge, pedagogic knowledge and school knowledge. The following research questions drove the study: (a) What reasons do PGCE trainee teachers give for believing that design & technology should be included in the secondary school curriculum for all pupils? (b) What designing and making assignments did these PGCE trainee teachers teach in the school-based experience? (c) How did the trainee teachers perceive these assignments in terms of the subject knowledge required, pedagogy employed and the influence of the school on the nature of the assignment and how it was taught? Data were collected using a free response questionnaire administered to one cohort of 29 secondary design & technology PGCE trainee teachers at the end of the course at a Higher Education Institute (HEI). Analysis of the data involved descriptive statistics. Analysis of the data has revealed that the trainees did not adhere to any obvious orthodoxy for justifying the place of design & technology in the school curriculum and that the current performance culture in schools has a prescriptive effect on their ability to contribute to the design & technology curriculum. Recommendations are made concerning school-HEI partnership activities and further research activities to enhance the scope of future studies.

Barnacle, Robyn (2004).  A Critical Ethic in a Knowledge Economy: Research Degree Candidates in the Workplace  Studies in Continuing Education, 26, 3. 

This paper provides a philosophical viewpoint to questions regarding the role and purpose of the research degree. Drawing on non-binary accounts of knowledge within the philosophical tradition, it argues against the instrumentalist conception of applied knowledge evident within higher education policy. The paper identifies a critical ethic at work within the views of research candidates who do a research degree to complement an established professional career. A parallel is identified between the critical ethic that is evident within professional's conceptions of the role and value of a research degree and the notion of philosophy as a way of life that was prevalent in antiquity. The implications for research pedagogy of treating criticality as a way of life are then explored through Ronald Barnett's alternative model for higher education as a facilitator of 'critical being'.

Barnes, Trevor J. (2006).  Situating Economic Geographical Teaching  Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 30, 3. 

This article makes an argument for an economic geographical pedagogy that is post-disciplinary, emphasizing non-hierarchical, student-based knowledge, disciplinary interconnectedness, epistemological plurality, and material embodiedness and embeddedness. Key to this conception of economic geographical pedagogy are recent writings of Timothy Mitchell and especially Donna Haraway. The paper discusses several projects and exercises employed by the author in an economic geography course to exemplify, and to persuade students of the merits of, a post-disciplinary approach to the subject.

Barnett, Ronald (2004).  Learning for an Unknown Future  Higher Education Research and Development, 23, 3. 

What is it to learn for an unknown future? It might be said that the future has always been unknown but our opening question surely takes on a new pedagogical challenge if not urgency in the contemporary age. Indeed, it could be said that our opening question has never been generally acknowledged to be a significant motivating curricular and pedagogical question in higher education. Be all this as it may, the question (What is it to learn for an unknown future?) surely deserves more attention than it has so far received. After all, if the future is unknown, what kind of learning is appropriate for it? The preposition 'for' carries weight here. The preposition implies an education in which in our presenting case in point a sense of an unknown future is probably evidently present; or, at least, serves as a major organizing principle in the design of the curriculum and in the enacting of the pedagogy. If future-as-unknown was missing either from the curriculum or from the pedagogy in some way not far from the surface, we could hardly say that we were in the presence of a learning 'for' an unknown future. Generic skills may seem to offer the basis of just such a learning for an unknown future. Generic skills, by definition, are those that surely hold across manifold situations, even unknown ones. I want to suggest, however, that the idea of skills, even generic skills, is a cul-de-sac. In contrast, the way forward lies in construing and enacting a pedagogy for human being. In other words, learning for an unknown future has to be a learning understood neither in terms of knowledge or skills but of human qualities and dispositions. Learning for an unknown future calls, in short, for an ontological turn.

Barnett, Ronald; Phipps, Alison (2005).  Academic Travel: Modes and Directions  Review of Education

The Great Khan's atlas contains also the maps of the promised lands visited in thought but not yet discovered or founded: New Atlantis, Utopia, the City of the Sun, Oceana, Tamoe, New Harmony, New Lanark, Icaria. Kublai asked Marco: "You, who go about exploring and who see signs, can you tell me towards which of these futures the favouring winds are driving us?"--Italo Calvino, I. "Invisible Cities". London: Picador 1974.

Barnett, Timothy (2006).  Politicizing the Personal: Frederick Douglass, Richard Wright, and Some Thoughts on the Limits of Critical Literacy  College English, 68, 4. 

The idea that "the personal is political" is both a commonplace in composition studies and something many have not yet fully theorized. The literature on personal writing tends to explore the relationship of the personal to academic discourse and the ethics and problems of intruding into students' lives. Because of this emphasis on the individual, some critics, such as James Berlin and Joel Haefner, suggest a dichotomy between personal writing and social critique, but such a position is undermined by some basic tenets of critical pedagogy, a strong influence on composition studies. Critical pedagogues do address the links between the personal and social critique but fail to fully explore a critical pedagogy tied to personal experience. This article examines the literacy narratives of Frederick Douglass's "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave" and Richard Wright's "Black Boy". According to the author, on the surface, Douglass's and Wright's narratives provide a simple celebration of literacy, however, a more complicated pattern emerges from the experiences of these men. Both men become obsessed with generative themes that help them create radical personal and social change--with reading and writing being central to their experiences.

Barr, Katherine J. (2001).  What I Learned on My Summer Vacation.  English Journal, 90, 6. 

Consider need for new pedagogy to address reading needs of high school students. Discusses different kinds of instruction used in a summer remedial program including instruction in: reading strategies; phonics and study skills; reciprocal teaching; grade level content; writing strategies; and rubrics. Concludes that students also need to experience reading and writing as it relates to them as individuals.

Barrett, Angeline M. (2007).  Beyond the Polarization of Pedagogy: Models of Classroom Practice in Tanzanian Primary Schools  Comparative Education, 43, 2. 

Debate on teaching in low-income countries has tended to assume an over-simplified conceptualization of pedagogy as either teacher-centred or learner-centred. If theory is to address itself to the complex challenge of improving the quality of teaching within under-resourced education systems then it will have to move beyond this polarized view of pedagogy. This paper applies Basil Bernstein's performance and competence modes to the findings of fieldwork in Tanzania. It thereby arrives at a more nuanced understanding of primary school teachers' classroom practice, which allows for teachers working with a mixed palette of techniques and ideas. Bernstein's pedagogic modes were constructed from his studies of education in Britain. Their application to the Tanzanian setting, however, highlights the limitations of analytical frameworks developed in western contexts. It is argued that appreciation and critique of pedagogy in low-income countries could be deepened through linking with comparative literature that compares across English and non-English-speaking countries.

Barrett, Jeffrey; Jones, Graham; Mooney, Edward; Thornton, Carol; Cady, JoAnn; Guinee, Patricia; Olson, Jo (2002).  Working with Novice Teachers: Challenges for Professional Development.  Mathematics Teacher Education and Development, 4

Examines the classroom practice and beliefs of two novice elementary teachers during their first year of teaching and the first year of their involvement in a district-wide professional development project. Analyzes the challenges faced by the novice teachers and the professional developer who worked with them. Discusses the effects of teachers' beliefs on pedagogy and practice.

Barrett, Mary Jeanne (2007).  Homework and Fieldwork: Investigations into the Rhetoric-Reality Gap in Environmental Education Research and Pedagogy  Environmental Education Research, 13, 2. 

For years, environmental educators have been arguing that the culture of schooling (mostly focused on cultural reproduction) is antithetical to environmental education. Within this context, it is often suggested that environmental education occurs when there is a particularly passionate and motivated teacher who, despite frequent barriers, maintains environmental education as a priority. Yet the author's doctoral research suggests that even strong beliefs, significant skills, and an ideal program structure do not lead to the implementation of effective environmental education. Drawing on narrative inquiry, arts-based research and poststructural analysis, this study examines ways in which the privileging of the intellect in research and pedagogy may be making effective environmental education almost impossible.

Barrington, Ernie (2004).  Teaching to Student Diversity in Higher Education: How Multiple Intelligence Theory Can Help  Teaching in Higher Education, 9, 4. 

Although Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligence was conceived in the 1980s and has been put into practice by some primary and secondary schools, it has received scant attention in higher education, apart from debates on whether or not the theory can be applied to students in tertiary education. In this paper, I want to ask why this is so, and I will argue that since universities are undergoing rapid change, both in clientele and demands by society, Multiple Intelligence could be a vehicle by which some of these demands are met. I will also report on a survey of academics who attended workshops on Multiple Intelligence, and whether they viewed the ideas as useful pedagogical tools for higher education. After my introduction I will briefly outline the theory of Multiple Intelligence and explain why it can be considered an inclusive pedagogy. I then discuss the changes that are occurring in higher education, especially with regard to diversity of the student body and suggest that universities have been slow to accommodate this diversity in their teaching/learning strategies. I argue that Multiple Intelligence Theory could go a long way to bridging the gap.

Bartholomew, Hannah; Osborne, Jonathan; Ratcliffe, Mary (2004).  Teaching Students "Ideas-about-Science": Five Dimensions of Effective Practice  Science Education, 88, 5. 

In this paper, we report work undertaken with a group of 11 UK teachers over a period of a year to teach aspects of the nature of science, its process, and its practices. The teachers, who taught science in a mix of elementary, junior high, and high schools, were asked to teach a set of "ideas-about-science" for which consensual support had been established using a Delphi study in the first phase of the project. Data were collected through field notes, videos of the teachers' lessons, teachers' reflective diaries, and instruments that measured their understanding of the nature of science and their views on the role and value of discussion in the classroom. In this paper, drawing on a sample of the data we explore the factors that afforded or inhibited the teachers' pedagogic performance in this domain. Using these data, we argue that there are five critical dimensions that distinguish and determine a teacher's ability to teach effectively "about" science. Whilst these dimensions are neither mutually independent nor equally important, they serve as a valuable analytical tool for evaluating and explaining the success, or otherwise, that individual teachers of science have when confronted with teaching aspects "about" science. In addition, we argue that they are an important means of identifying salient aspects of pedagogy for initial and in-service training of science teachers for curricula that incorporate elements of "ideas-about-science."

Bartlett, Alison (2005).  "She Seems Nice": Teaching Evaluations and Gender Trouble  Feminist Teacher: A Journal of the Practices

The aim of this paper is to work out what the author needs to do to pass with more success, and how students evaluations of her teaching may or may not indicate this. In doing so, she draws on the literature of feminist pedagogy and on anecdote, or gossip, as a counter-discourse or a mode of talk that destabilizes the official versions of evaluating teaching bodies.

Bartlett, Alison, Ed.; Mercer, Gina, Ed. (2001).  Postgraduate Research Supervision: Transforming (R)Elations. Eruptions: New Feminism across the Disciplines, Volume 11. 

This anthology explores the relationships between postgraduate research candidates and their supervisors. Through stories from candidates and supervisors, the collection proposes alternatives to the prevailing models of postgraduate research supervision. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction" (Alison Bartlett and Gina Mercer); (2) "Dirty Work: 'A Code for Supervision' Read against the Grain" (Barbara Grant); (3) "(Re)Framing Research Degree Supervision as Pedagogy" (Bob Smith); (4) "Novice at Forty: Transformation or Re-invention?" (Jo Balatti and Hilary Whitehouse); (5) "Mostly Metaphors: Theorizing from a Practice of Supervision" (Alison Bartlett and Gina Mercer); (6) "A Posttraditional Supervisor-Supervisee Relationship" (Rosemary Kelly and Lorraine Ling); (7) "Re-imagining the Gendered Self in Postgraduate Experience" (Sheralyn Campbell); (8) "Imagining a Ph.D. Writer's Body Grappling over Pedagogy" (Tai Peseta); (9) "'Eat Your Peas': The Creative Ph.D. Thesis and the Exegesis" (Gaylene Perry and Kevin Brophy); (10) "Learning Assistance: Enhancing the Ph.D. Experience" (Mandy Symons); (11) "Library Representation on Supervisory Panels: A Model of Collaboration" (Peter Macauley and Sue McKnight); (12) "Not Just a Thesis: Ph.D. Study as a First Step toward an Academic Career" (Belinda Collins, Johanna Rendle-Short, Timothy Jowan Curnow, and Anthony J. Liddicoat); (13) "Matching Methodologies" (Annette Gough and Elizabeth Anders); (14) "Life Beyond a Ph.D." (Raj Nagappan, Nick Craswell, and Mark Grundy); (15) "Resisting Reasonableness" (Jane Gallop); (16) "Power, Voice, and Connection" (Janet Conti, Daphne Hewson, and Judith Isben); (17) "The Researcher, the Psychoanalyst, and Supervision in the Room at the Back"(Kelley Johnson and Deborah McIntyre); (18) "The Dark Side of a Ph.D.: Learning the Lessons That Supervisors Don't Teach" (Melissa Parsons); (19) "Conversations from the Kitchen" (Zina O'Leary); (20) "Two Voices" (Pheroza Daruwalla and Mirielle Mazzocato); (21) "The Benefits of a Formal Mentoring Relationship: 'Not My New Best Friend'" (Larissa Behrendt); (22) "'Only Connect': Transcultural Supervision as the 'Rainbow Bridge'" (Kate Cadman and Hai Than Ha); (23) "'The Remembrance of Things Past': Memory and Migration as Tropes in the Construction of Postgraduate Subjectivities" (Eleanor Venables, Sharifa Ahjum, and Jenny De Reuck); (24)"The Academic Quandary: An Aboriginal Experience" (John Budby); (25) "Looking through the Fog: Making Sense of Overseas Student Supervision in Australian Universities" (Basant Maheswari and Janne Malfroy); and (26) "Nourishing Conversations in the Co-construction of Knowledge" (Macquarie Human Geography Group: Bob Fagan, Richie Howitt, Moya Adams, Geetha Abayasekara, Richard Cook, Mike Edwards, Kylie Eggleton, Alison Harwood, Sue Jackson, Scot Sharpe, and Sandie Suchet). Most chapters contain references.

Bartlett, Alison; Mercer, Gina (2000).  Reconceptualising Discourses of Power in Postgraduate Pedagogies.  Teaching in Higher Education, 5, 2. 

Discusses theories of postgraduate pedagogy by analyzing the narratives and metaphors used to represent relationships between supervisors and degree candidates. Finds that hierarchical models and often combative dynamics based on unequal power relations prevail. Proposes an alternative familial model based on experiential and feminist methodology.

Bartlett, J. L. (2002).  "From the Eyes of a Student": Performing Subjectivity in the Composition Classroom. 

Being "unfailingly conscious" of one's subject position (and performing it in a formal writing assignment) are the tenets of "initiation pedagogy," the intertextual analysis behind D. Bartholomae and A. Petrosky's "Facts, Artifacts, and Counterfacts," and their subsequent composition textbook "Ways of Reading," which the author of this paper was teaching for the first time when Nick and Billy dropped by--Nick was a student in the class and Billy was a character invented by Nick for one of his papers. Nick was asked to write a critical analysis of Paulo Freire's and Mary Louise Pratt's contact zone pedagogies, and he turned it into a narrative of Billy's first day of high school. This paper deals with Nick's rewrite of his paper and his machinations in the restructuring/rewriting of that paper. It explains that, when the author read Nick's second draft, with its attempt to objectify subjective experience in ways that her other students were in the process of mastering, she decided to literalize these performances, of genre, of self, and see if she could bring all of her students into a literal conversation with their texts, a move that would publicly reveal their own "reads"; she assigned dramatic dialogues, an interaction with the authors under consideration, hoping that the absurdity of the assignment would demystify some of the "cache" that the works possessed. According to the paper, teaching students a feel for the game requires first that capital is configured as a vision of choices, a combined recognition of the options in view as well as the reasons for them, the hunch about which one to choose, and the instinct behind it. | [FULL TEXT]

Bartlett, Lesley (2005).  Dialogue, Knowledge, and Teacher-Student Relations: Freirean Pedagogy in Theory and Practice  Comparative Education Review, 49, 3. 

Paulo Freire's revolutionary theory of pedagogy has influenced progressive educational practice and inspired educational activism around the world. Many contemporary nonformal educational efforts are deeply influenced by Freire's work. In Latin America approaches that draw on Freire's pedagogy are broadly known as popular education, while in the United States they are more frequently described as critical pedagogy. Those who draw on Freire's pedagogical theory plan and implement educational initiatives that aim--though with varying degrees of success--to create progressive social change and more egalitarian social relations. In this article, the author draws on ethnographic fieldwork among popular adult education nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Brazil to show how popular educators interpreted and acted based on Freirean pedagogical theory in ways that appeared to reduce its potential for social change. Particular attention is given to three complicated issues that continue to trouble popular or critical educators everywhere: understanding the meaning of dialogue, transforming traditional teacher-student relations, and incorporating local knowledge into the classroom. In what follows, the author first outlines some of the basic tenets of Freire's philosophy then discusses the setting of this study, the history of popular education in that region, and the methods by which the data for this study is collected. In the core of the article, ethnographic data is used to show how Brazilian adult educators understood and employed Freirean pedagogical theory. What these findings teach us about critical literacy and critical pedagogy is then discussed. In the final section, the implications of these findings are discussed for two contemporary international educational efforts: (a) pedagogical efforts, especially among Latin American and Latino/a educators, to develop a pedagogy of caring and "love" and (b) recent attempts by critics of orthodox education, research, and development to ensure that indigenous knowledge is recognized, respected, protected, and employed.

Bartlett, Thomas (2002).  The Unkindest Cut.  Chronicle of Higher Education, 48, 28. 

Describes how the budgetary decision to eliminate a venerable teaching center at the University of Nebraska at Lincoln raises questions about public colleges' commitment to pedagogy.

Bartolome, Lilia I. (2004).  Critical Pedagogy and Teacher Education: Radicalizing Prospective Teachers  Teacher Education Quarterly, 31, 1. 

The task of successfully preparing teachers in the United State to effectively work with an ever-increasing culturally and linguistically diverse student body represents a pressing challenge for teacher educators. Unfortunately, much of this practice of equipping prospective teachers for working with learners from different backgrounds revolves around exposing these future educators to what are perceived as the best practical strategies to ensure the academic and linguistic development of their students. In this article, the author discusses the importance of infusing teacher education curricula with critical pedagogical principles in order to prepare educators to aggressively name and interrogate potentially harmful ideologies and practices in the schools and classrooms where they work. She maintains that teachers need to develop political and ideological clarity in order to increase the chances of academic success for all students. She also argues that it is imperative that these educators instill in their students in K-12 public schools the same kind of critical consciousness that enables them to read and act upon the world around them. The author first explains why it is necessary for teacher educators to recognize, better understand, and challenge the ideological dimensions of prospective teachers' beliefs and attitudes toward subordinated students. Next, she shares research results from her work at Riverview High School that illustrate the powerful potential of teachers' who critically understand the ideological and material obstacles faced by youth in schools, and their proactive responses as defenders of their students. Finally, she identifies key critical pedagogical principles that, interwoven into teacher education coursework and field experiences, have the potential to help develop in prospective teachers, much like the teachers in her research study, the ability to assume counter-hegemonic stances so as to create a "more equal playing field" for all students.

Barton, Angela Calabrese (2001).  Capitalism, Critical Pedagogy, and Urban Science Education: An Interview with Peter McLaren.  Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38, 8. 

Discusses key issues of education in general and leads into a critique of the relationships among capitalism, science, and education. Describes the implications that critical pedagogy might have for productively confronting these relationships in urban settings.

Barton, Angela Calabrese, Ed.; Osborne, Margery D., Ed. (2001).  Teaching Science in Diverse Settings: Marginalized Discourses and Classroom Practice. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. 

The essays in this book draw from current debates concerning schooling and the need for liberatory education; the social construction of science and identity; and systems of race, class, and gender oppression and domination. These works aim to pose such questions as: (1) How can we shape practice and curriculum to address the needs of diverse learners? (2) In what ways do the marginalized discourses in theory and practice push us to fundamentally reformulate our conceptions of teachers/teaching, students/learning, and subject matter knowledge (science and what it means to know and do science) and the multiple relationships between and among these domains? (3) In what ways do the marginalized discourses in theory and practice push us to fundamentally reformulate our conceptions of"science for all"? and (4) What it really means in the day-to-day practice of teachers to enact more liberating pedagogies? This collection serves to educate readers about the importance, history, and possibilities for marginalized discourses in science education and also to engage readers in multiple cases where contributors have systematically applied and examined what happens when these theoretical frames are brought to bear in classroom practice (K-12 science and science teacher education). Chapters include: (1) "Marginalized Discourses and Pedagogies: Constructively Confronting Science for All in Classroom Practice" (Angela Calabrese Barton and Margery D. Osborne); (2) "The Magical and the Real in Science and in Teaching: Joy and the Paradox of Control" (Margery D. Osborne and David J. Brady); (3) "A Room of One's Own: Concrete and Conceptual Spaces" (Heidi Bulmahn Barker); (4) "Teaching in the Interface: Reflections on Urban Science Teaching" (Kathleen St. Louis, Tanahia Burkett, and Angela Calabrese Barton); (5) "A Paralogical Affirmation of Emotion's Discourse in Science Teaching" (Michalinos Zembylas); (6) "Visions of 'Science for All' in the Elementary Classroom" (Elaine Howes); (7) "Re/Writing Science from the Margins" (Gaell M. Hildebrand); (8) "Rethinking Science and Assessment" (Dana Fusco); (9) "Guinea Pig Pedagogy: Critiquing and Re-embodying Science/Education from Other Standpoints" (Matthew Weinstein); (10) "Promoting Inclusive Science Education through Professional Development: Challenges Faced in Transforming Content and Pedagogy" (Julie A. Bianchini and Lynette M. Cavazos); (11) "Feminism, Sacred Stories, and Multiple Voices" (Sharon Parsons); and (12) "Sociocultural Constructivism, Courage, and the Researcher's Gaze: Redefining Our Roles as Cultural Warriors for Social Change" (Alberto J. Rodriguez).

Barton, David (2001).  Directions for Literacy Research: Analysing Language and Social Practices in a Textually Mediated World.  Language and Education, 15, 2-3. 

Provides an overview of the field of literacy studies, describing the range of work that has been covered and identifying current unresolved issues as ways of suggesting future directions and showing ways that literacy can be seen as an integral part of language.

Barton, David, Ed.; Hamilton, Mary, Ed.; Ivanic, Roz, Ed. (2000).  Situated Literacies: Reading and Writing in Context. Literacies Series. 

This book contains 13 papers on situated literacies and reading and writing in context. The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Denny Taylor); "Introduction: Exploring Situated Literacies"; "Literacy Practices" (David Barton, Mary Hamilton); "Expanding the New Literacy Studies: Using Photographs To Explore Literacy as Social Practice" (Mary Hamilton); "The New Literacy Studies and Time: An Exploration" (Karin Tusting); "There Is No Escape from Third-Space Theory: Borderland Discourse and the 'In-Between' Literacies of Prisons" (Anita Wilson); "Becoming Just Another Alphanumeric Code: Farmers' Encounters with the Literacy and Discourse Practices of Agricultural Bureaucracy at the Livestock Auction" (Kathryn Jones); "Texts in Practices: Interpreting the Physical Characteristics of Children's Project Work" (Fiona Ormerod, Roz Ivanic); "Family Literacy: A Pedagogy for the Future?" (Kathy Pitt); "Emergent Literacy Practices in an Electronic Community" (Renata de Pourbaix); "Respect and the Pursuit of 'Symmetry' in Researching Literacy and Student Writing" (Simon Pardoe); "Researching Literacy Practices: Learning from Activities with Teachers and Students" (David Barton); "The New Literacy Studies: From 'Socially Situated' to the Work of the Social" (James Paul Gee); "The New Literacy Studies: Context, Intertextuality, and Discourse" (Janet Maybin); and "New Literacy Studies at the Interchange" (Karin Tusting, Roz Ivanic, Anita Wilson). Thirty-one figures/tables are included. Most papers contain substantial bibliographies.

Barton, Keith C.; Marks, Melissa J. (2000).  "I Need To Shut Up and Let Them Talk More": Beginning Teachers Reflect on Children's Understanding of Social Studies. 

This study, part of a graduate level social studies methods course at a large midwestern university, investigated beginning teachers' ideas about teaching and learning social studies before and after their participation in a set of open-ended interviews with children in the elementary grades. The interviews were designed to give new teachers direct experience investigating children's explanations of key social studies concepts and to track changes in the teachers' ideas through a set of focus group discussions. Initial discussions indicated that teachers were aware social studies occupied a position of low status (and low incidence) in the elementary curriculum, and that students often had difficulty learning the content of the subject. Teachers attempted to explain this by suggesting that students were developmentally incapable of learning social studies, students had insufficient prior knowledge, or the subject was irrelevant. They had few suggestions for how to overcome these limitations. Focus group discussions after completing interviews with students suggested a shift away from emphasis on shortcomings in student or curriculum, and toward a recognition of the teachers' role in developing students' understanding, particularly through assessing and building on students' background knowledge, focusing on conceptual understanding rather than recall of factual information, and establishing the relevance of the subject. Findings suggest that experiences that directly challenge beginning teachers' assumptions about children's thinking may be an effective way of developing their understanding of teaching and learning in social studies. Contains 26 references. Appendices contain protocols for student interviews and focus group interviews.  | [FULL TEXT]

Barton, Robert; Gupton, Janet (2000).  "Gogging": A Model for Theatre Pedagogy.  Theatre Topics, 10, 2. 

Proposes a model for training college students in theater arts based on a pedagogy program employed at the University of Oregon. Notes that this pedagogy process differs from student teaching in that it meets the particular needs of each participant. Outlines the components of the program, which include office hours, a journal, secretarial tasks, grading, discussion, critiquing, counseling, coaching, teaching, and a final summary.

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Basit, Tehmina N.; McNamara, Olwen (2004).  Equal Opportunities or Affirmative Action? The Induction of Minority Ethnic Teachers  Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 30, 2. 

Currently in the UK there is much pressure to increase the recruitment and retention of ethnic minority teachers, not only to respond to the continuing shortage, but to develop a teaching force that reflects the diversity in the UK population and provides role models for ethnic minority students. There is, however, little research on how ethnic minority teachers cope with the demands of the profession, especially in their first year. The introduction by the Department for Education and Employment (DfEE) of an induction period for Newly Qualified Teachers (NQTs) in 1999 was an attempt to create a programme of individual support and monitoring to provide NQTs with a bridge from Initial Teacher Training (ITT) to becoming established in their chosen profession. We believe it is now timely and important to examine how ethnic minority beginning teachers experience these new arrangements. In this paper we, therefore, explore the induction experiences of British teachers of Asian and African Caribbean origin in three Local Education Authorities (LEAs) in the North West of England. We conclude that the NQTs are being provided with equal opportunities by their employers and that affirmative action may have been undertaken by a few of these employers during the recruitment and selection process, although some anecdotal evidence is also presented of discrimination. Further, the paper suggests that the majority of the NQTs find their schools and LEAs supportive and the induction process valuable, although it highlights the need for additional support in some individual cases.

Bass, Lisa (2005).  Affirming Diversity: From Assimilationist to Pluralistic Pedagogy  Teacher Education and Practice, 18, 2. 

Changing demographics in the United States have won the attention of educators and policymakers because of the impact that these changes will have on America's classrooms. The day of heterogeneous populations in schools is becoming a phenomenon of the past as immigrants and their offspring occupy an increasing number of seats in American schools. Banks (2000) notes that demographers predict that by 2020 46% of the nation's student population will comprise students of color. Education policymakers face the dual obligation of effectively serving the needs of their increasingly diverse student body in addition to preparing mainstream American students for the future. All students need to be aware of and capable of functioning in a global society, as well as how to appreciate the cultural uniqueness of all individuals. Colleges of education as well as local school districts are charged with the monumental duty of developing effective strategies that will prepare teachers for the diversity in the populations that have begun to fill their classrooms. This article provides an overview of the history of immigration to America and discusses the tragedy of the resulting loss of language and culture. The need for society to embrace diversity is then discussed, followed by suggestions for how colleges of education and local school districts can begin the move toward the appreciation of diversity and multiculturalism with a pluralistic approach to teacher education.

Bastock, Michelle (2001).  Something from Nothing: Listening and Quiet Places in Pedagogical Relationships.  English Quarterly, 33, 1-2. 

Explores the relationship among listening and pedagogy and the multi-layered aspect of pedagogy. Proposes that pedagogical relationships depend on stopping to listen. Concludes that educators should welcome children by allowing for conversations which respect others' truths.

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Bateman, Barbara (2005).  The Play's the Thing  Learning Disability Quarterly, 28, 2. 

The modern special education theater in the United States has hosted many plays, none with a larger or more diverse cast than the learning disabilities (LD) play. During the prologue, the children with LD were waiting in the wings, not yet identified as LD but there, nonetheless. With the advent of compulsory education in this country, awareness of and concern for these children grew. This article reflects the personal and professional journey and perceptions of the author as a young student, professor emerita at the University of Oregon, and a consultant in special education law. Her vantage point from which to observe and participate in LD in the 1960s was that of close association with Kirk, her doctoral advisor, and Engelmann, the creator of direct instruction, the highly effective pedagogy. Then, in the early '70s law school called, where she hoped to find tools to persuade schools to adopt proven, available teaching methods and materials. Now, 30 years later, it appears that hope may be realized through the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB; 2001) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1997, 2004) (IDEA), as both compel attention to the research base for the services.

Bates, Richard (2004).  Regulation and Autonomy in Teacher Education: Government, Community or Democracy?  Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 30, 2. 

Current attempts in industrialised countries to regulate teacher education in increasingly prescriptive ways raise profound social, ethical and pedagogical issues. This paper looks at the challenge such prescriptions pose and suggests that such regulation serves the democratic state less well than a more autonomous form of education. The implications of this alternative for teacher education are explored.

Bates, Richard (2005).  On the Future of Teacher Education: Challenges, Context and Content  Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 31, 4. 

It is commonplace in current educational discourse for appeals to be made to the need to "educate for change", to "learn how to learn", to "prepare for the knowledge society". These are, in fact, entirely vacuous concepts. One might as well suggest that schools should "get pupils ready for temperature". Being empty of real meaning such appeals cannot provide the basis for planning or articulating a worthwhile education. Context and content are essential (and in these cases, missing) elements of any useful analysis. This discussion paper, therefore, presents an analysis of context under four headings before turning to issues of what kind of teachers, teacher education and education services are required for 2020.

Bates, Richard (2006).  Public Education, Social Justice and Teacher Education  Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 34, 3. 

This presidential address by Richard Bates, President of the Australian Teacher Education Association, discusses teacher-education reform in Australia, particularly in the context of public education. Bates contends that in 2006 there are two sets of interests that are particularly dangerous to education: (1) those who see education simply as a mechanism for producing the human capital required to respond to the increasingly global economy; and (2) those who see education simply as a means of preserving a tradition, or of imposing a particular notion of community. He suggests that there are two fundamental principles of public education: (1) public education must be committed to enhancing the ability of students to develop the skills that are required to actively participate in, understand and adapt to the continuous transformation of production, distribution and consumption that characterises emerging global markets; and (2) public education must be committed to extending the principles of equity and inclusion in the cultural sphere in ways that encourage the abilities required to actively participate, understand and adapt to the continuous transformation of cultures an the negotiation of cultural differences around issues of common humanity. Bates concludes this address by defining four concepts of teacher education reform: (1) The agenda for reform must be situated within a broad understanding of the transformation of the public sphere and the need to protect the autonomy of education from both markets and cultures; (2) Autonomy can only be achieved within a commitment to social justice and to issues of redistribution, recognition and representation; (3) The processes of transformation are both global and local and the reform of teacher education must take into account both global and local sources of the self as they are brought into the educational process; and (4) Conceptions of curriculum, pedagogy and assessment need reformulation in the face of these transformations around issues of what educators need to remember and what they need to forget; how learning is focused on the sources of the self; and how appreciation of each other incorporates diversity and assessment across boundaries.

Bathmaker, Ann-Marie; Avis, James (2005).  Becoming a Lecturer in Further Education in England: The Construction of Professional Identity and the Role of Communities of Practice  Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 31, 1. 

Further education colleges in England offer a wide range of post-school education and training provision. Recently they have undergone major transformations that have resulted in considerable changes to the work of those teaching in them. In this paper we examine how cultures of learning and teaching in colleges are affected and how the nature of professional identity has changed. The paper considers the formation of professional identity amongst a group of trainee lecturers completing a one-year full-time teacher-training course at a university in the English Midlands. Lave and Wenger's work on apprenticeship to communities of practice is used to examine the effect of trainees' teaching placement on the development of professional identity. Rather than identifying effective processes of increasing participation in existing communities of practice, a strong sense of marginalisation and alienation amongst trainees was observed. The paper argues that this is detrimental both to trainees and experienced lecturers if they are to actively engage in building new forms of professionalism for the future.

Battig, Michael E. (2002).  Utilizing the PDA as a Vehicle for User Interface Design Pedagogy. 

As computing and embedded systems become ubiquitous in our world, the importance of user interface design knowledge increases in our curriculum. Students of undergraduate information systems or computer science programs should possess some competence in this computing sub-discipline. However, many programs do not have the curricular space to host a separate course in usability or user interface design. To address this concern, results and observations of incorporating user interface design pedagogy in the context of a software engineering project course are presented. The project centers around a data collection application to be hosted on a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant). The application has significant constraints concerning usability and human factors that provide a rich context for teaching and demonstrating user interface design concepts. An appendix highlights the evolution of the actual interface developed by one of the development teams. The user interface design changes were the result of feedback that students received from four sources: course materials on usability, direct instructor feedback, fellow classmate feedback, and outside-the-course student feedback.   | [FULL TEXT]

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Bauman, Amy (2007).  Delicate Moments: Kids Talk about Socially Complicated Issues. Occasional Paper Series 19  [Bank Street College of Education] 

The author offers an analysis of the failures and insights she experienced working with adolescents at a progressive school while discussing how the students understood and experienced race and identity -- their own and that of others. While she encountered students who were willing to take her into their worlds, her efforts fell flat when her questions turned out to be about their experiences of race and class. In response to such questions, Bauman received, on the whole, confusion, a few stories that distanced the teller from the events, and queries about whether this was "what she wanted." At that point, Bauman decided to start over again. This time she attempted to enter into the world that the children wanted her to experience. She invited them to spend the next three months creating multi-media self-portraits, and along with this work, to talk with her and with each other about their lives. It was only after building trusting relationships over a long period of time that the students began to feel their way toward telling themselves, Bauman, and one another, the things that they already knew about race and privilege, about their doubts and discomforts, and about the things for which they hoped. Bauman went into her project expecting to affirm what she already believed about progressive and critical pedagogy, the nature of privileged identities, and her own work as a teacher and a researcher. What she found was a need to reeducate herself, finding that to ask children to talk about race, gender, class, and sexuality, is to ask that they unpack the most intimate of their stories in an environment in which they are unable to control either who their audience is or the uses that will be made of their words. Bauman also found that the students in some ways understood more than many adults around them seem to recognize: that omissions, exclusions, slurs, and misrepresentations do not exist only outside the walls of their progressive school but may also be part of the integral structure of a culture that equates community with niceness and comfort and that encourages the students to believe that silence about certain issues indicates a lack of bias. The paper is introduced by Gail Boldt; Bauman then discusses: (1) Political Life in a Progressive School; (2) Early Conversations: A Failed Attempt at Social Reflections; (3) Living in a Bubble; (4) The Last Conversations: Reminders of Expertise and (5) Compassionate Pedagogy: The Teacher Continues to Grow as a Person and as a Professional. References and authors' information are included. | [FULL TEXT]

Bauman, Zygmunt (2005).  Education in Liquid Modernity  Review of Education

The author initially describes several seminal and interconnected departures from the old social order which are currently happening and which are creating a new and indeed unprecedented setting for the educational process, thereby raising a series of never-before-encountered challenges for the educators. He then details how society is being transformed by the passage from the "solid" to "liquid" phase of modernity, in which all social forms melt faster than new ones can be cast, and shows the implications of these societal changes for tertiary and "deutero" learning and education. He concludes that there is a marked shift of emphasis from "teaching" to "learning." Transferring to individual students the responsibility for the composition of the teaching/learning trajectory reflects the growing unwillingness of learners to make long-term commitments that constrain the range of future options and limit the field of maneuver. Among the conspicuous effects of de-institutionalizing pressures are the "privatization" and "individualization" of the teaching-learning settings and situations, as well as a gradual yet relentless replacement of the orthodox teacher-student relationship with the supplier-client, or shopping-mall-shopper pattern. This is the social setting in which today's educators find themselves bound to operate.

Baumer, Sonja; Ferholt, Beth; Lecusay, Robert (2005).  Promoting Narrative Competence through Adult-Child Joint Pretense: Lessons from the Scandinavian Educational Practice of Playworld  Cognitive Development, 20, 4. 

This paper examines the effects of the playworld educational practice on the development of narrative competence in 5- to 7-year-old children. The playworld educational practice is derived from play pedagogy and the theory of narrative learning, both developed and implemented in Scandinavia. The playworld practice consists of joint adult-child pretense based in a work of children's literature, discussion, free play, and visual art production. When compared to children under a control intervention (conventional school practices without pretend play), children who participated in the playworld practice show significant improvements in narrative length, coherence, and comprehension, although not in linguistic complexity. These findings provide further evidence concerning the role of pretense in the narrative development of young children.

Baumfield, Vivienne (2006).  Tools for Pedagogical Inquiry: The Impact of Teaching Thinking Skills on Teachers  Oxford Review of Education, 32, 2. 

This paper explores the idea of thinking skills approaches as tools for pedagogical inquiry and in so doing seeks to develop the link between the promotion of inquiry-based learning, which is a central tenet of thinking skills, and inquiry-based teaching as an approach to professional development and school improvement. The first part of the paper examines the impact of teaching thinking skills on teachers by drawing upon a systematic review of research evidence. The second part of the paper sets the characteristics identified in the context of research into teachers' development and considers the contribution of a pedagogy based on thinking skills approaches to continuing professional development.

Baumgardner, Robert J.; Brown, Kimberley (2003).  World Englishes: Ethics and Pedagogy.  World Englishes, 22, 3. 

Points to the power struggles in the teaching of Englishes and the training of language professionals in expanding, outer, and inner circle contexts of English use. Argues that these conflicts are ethical in nature and that a framework for addressing them must be incorporated into the theory and practice of language teaching and teacher training.

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Bax, Stephen (2003).  The End of CLT: A Context Approach to Language Teaching.  ELT Journal, 57, 3. 

Argues that the dominance of communicative language teaching (CLT) has led to the neglect of one crucial aspect of language pedagogy, namely the context in which that pedagogy takes place. Suggests that it is time to replace CLT as the central paradigm in language teaching with a context approach. Concludes by outlining features of the context approach and discussing its implications.

Bax, Stephen (2003).  Bringing Context and Methodology Together.  ELT Journal, 57, 3. 

Responds to comments made by Jeremy Harmer about an earlier article written by the author that argued the dominance of communicative language teaching (CLT) has led to the neglect of one crucial aspect of language pedagogy, namely the context in which that pedagogy takes place.

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Baylor, Amy (2001).  The Effects of MIMICing Instructional Theory with MIMIC (Multiple Intelligent Mentors Instructing Collaboratively), an Agent-Based Learning Environment. 

In this exploratory study, 135 pre-service teachers developed an instructional plan for a case study within the MIMIC (Multiple Intelligent Mentors Instructing Collaboratively) computer-based environment. Three-dimensional, animated pedagogical computer agents, representing constructivist and instructivist approaches to instructional planning, served as instructional mentors within the environment and were available to provide suggestions. The research design was comprised of two two-factor MANOVAs with the instructivist agent (present, absent) and constructivist agent (present, absent) serving as the two factors, with two groups of dependent measures: awareness and attitude. Additionally, the value of the agents and overall differences between high and low performers were investigated. Regarding awareness, main effects for the presence of the constructivist agent indicated that when the constructivist agent was present, participants tended to report a change in their perspective of instructional planning, reflected less on their thinking, and developed instructional plans rated as more constructivist in underlying pedagogy. Regarding attitude, a main effect for the presence of the instructivist agent indicated that when the instructivist agent was present, participants reported a more negative disposition regarding instructional planning. Results are discussed in terms of the impact on teaching instructional planning to pre-service teachers.   | [FULL TEXT]

Baynham, Mike; Prinsloo, Mastin (2001).  New Directions in Literacy Research.  Language and Education, 15, 2-3. 

Introduces this special issue of the journal. Most of the articles included are based on those presented at a 1999 symposium on new directions in literacy research at the International Association for Applied Linguistics conference.

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Bazerman, Charles; Farmer, Frank; Halasek, Kay; Williams, Joseph (2005).  Responses to Bakhtins Dialogic Origins and Dialogic Pedagogy of Grammar: Stylistics as Part of Russian Language Instruction in Secondary Schools  Written Communication, 22, 3. 

The three authors writing on Bakhtins essay, "Dialogic Origin and Dialogic Pedagogy of Grammar" -- Farmer, Halasek, and Williams -- respond to one another, and Bazerman provides a summative comment in the paragraphs that follow. The responses explore further some of Bakhtins thoughts concerning rhetoric and its relation to stylistics and his use of the concept of hero as a grammatical category. The discussion of Bakhtin leads to more general questions of the relation between spontaneous utterance and situationality and the implications for the possibility of a systematic grammar of style. Nonetheless, the commentators agree on Bakhtins explicit pedagogy and the interanimation of everyday speech with literary examples. The editors final comment notes a tension that informs all these responses, that is, between explicit teaching, on one hand, and avoiding formulaic writing, on the other. Bakhtins changing view of the relation of dialectics and dialogue is discussed as well.

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Beachum, Floyd D.; Dentith, Audrey M.; McCray, Carlos R.; Boyle, Tina M. (2008).  Havens of Hope or the Killing Fields: The Paradox of Leadership, Pedagogy, and Relationships in an Urban Middle School  Urban Education, 43, 2. 

This study focused on the actions and relationships among educators, which promoted an environment of failure or success for African American students. The researchers examined the perspectives of teachers and administrators as related to pedagogy and practice in a Midwestern urban middle school. Specifically, the study employed ethnographic strategies to develop a comprehensive case study. Emergent areas included challenges related to leadership, pedagogy, and relationships within an urban school in an era of heightened accountability.

Beamon, Glenda Ward (2001).  Teaching with Adolescent Learning in Mind. 

This book offers teachers, through discussion and example, a flexible conceptual framework upon which to base daily decisions about content and pedagogy when teaching adolescents. The Adolescent-Centered Teaching (ACT) models in each chapter are designed as illustrations of this framework. Each ACT further features specific concepts developed within each chapter. Chapter 1, "Understanding the Adolescent as Learner," profiles the adolescent as learner and thinker, describing adolescent intellectual, social, and emotional development and discussing adolescent motivation. Chapter 2, "We're Losing Their Attention," portrays today's adolescents as a generation that has outgrown the practices and boundaries of traditional classrooms. Chapter 3, "Structuring an Environment for Learning," proposes a learning environment that responds to the affective, cognitive, and social needs of adolescents. Chapter 4, "Teaching with Learning in Mind," examines current cognitive, social-cognitive, and social-emotional research with emphasis on knowledge construction, mastery of content, thinking development, interpersonal relationships, and social interaction. Chapter 5, "Teaching for Understanding," more explicitly develops teachers' strategic role in structuring environments for adolescent thinking and learning. Chapter 6, "Content as a Way of Thinking," explores instructional practices that are conducive to learning transfer. Internet resources are appended.

Beard, Roger (2001).  Diversity and Synergy? The International Context of the English Literacy Strategy. 

This paper builds upon the "Review of Research and Other Related Evidence" that was commissioned for the government of the United Kingdom's National Literacy Strategy and also upon a subsequent review of international research evidence on children's writing. The paper suggests how "synergy" (combined effect) may be created by linking previously diverse research areas to established thinking in literacy education, to inform policy and practice. It states that synergy reflects the gains from considering what Declan Kibberd referred to at the beginning of the conference as "not either...or..." but "both...and...." Four research areas are discussed in the paper: school effectiveness research; reading process research; overseas reading pedagogy research; and writing research. The paper suggests that the National Literacy Strategy may be seen as an example of international research and scholarship influencing policy and practice in a distinctly productive way (see also Beard and Willcocks, 2001). Contains 45 references. | [FULL TEXT]

Beastall, Liz (2006).  Enchanting a Disenchanted Child: Revolutionising the Means of Education Using Information and Communication Technology and e-Learning  British Journal of Sociology of Education, 27, 1. 

The Department for Education and Skills currently shows a high regard for the potential of technology transforming the British education system. Government White papers demonstrate e-learning based unification strategies that reinforce the message that introducing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) will raise standards in schools. This paper examines the effect of these developments on teachers and pupils, and questions the government's motivation for change. The introduction of ICT has not been complemented by increased levels of effective professional development for teaching staff in the pedagogy of ICT across the curriculum and may have merely served to reinforce the generational digital divide. In attempting to enchant the pupils, the government may have alienated the teachers. This paper suggests that the Department for Education and Skills should place more emphasis on developing strategies and providing funding for solutions to gaps in the professional development of teachers in their pedagogical understanding of ICT across the curriculum.

Beauboeuf-Lafontant, Tamara (2002).  A Womanist Experience of Caring: Understanding the Pedagogy of Exemplary Black Women Teachers.  Urban Review, 34, 1. 

Describes caring as exhibited in the pedagogy of exemplary black women teachers, illuminating central aspects of their pedagogy as facets of womanism, an epistemological perspective based on black women's collective experiences. Provides evidence that womanism is part of a long-standing tradition among African American women teachers and involves embrace of the maternal, political clarity, and an ethic of risk.

Beauboeuf-Lafontant, Tamara (2005).  Womanist Lessons for Reinventing Teaching  Journal of Teacher Education, 56, 5. 

Although teaching is regarded as "women's work," few calls for change in the multicultural and social justice literature focus attention on the teaching self as a socially constructed gendered identity. Given Black women's prominence in this literature as successful educators of students underserved in contemporary schools, the author suggests connections between their pedagogy and an empowered female self that transgresses many historical and contemporary mainstream feminine beliefs and ways of being. Drawing on the work of womanist scholars explicating Black women's epistemological standpoint, the author analyzes data from a life history interview study with six Black teachers committed to social justice. Findings suggest three womanist stances shaping the teachers' acknowledgment of social ills, resistance to complicity within educational systems, and belief in the possibility of social change. The author concludes the article by raising gender-related questions to guide the reinvention and unlearning called for by the educational social justice literature.

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Becker, David M. (2001).  Some Concerns about the Future of Legal Education.  Journal of Legal Education, 51, 4. 

Explores some potential problems with the increased use of technology in legal education, including an emphasis on pedagogy as information delivery rather than experiential learning and skill development, and the loss of vital face-to-face interactions.

Beckmann, Andrea; Cooper, Charlie (2005).  Conditions of Domination: Reflections on Harms Generated by the British State Education System  British Journal of Sociology of Education, 26, 4. 

Education in Britain increasingly appears to serve a very narrow notion of pedagogy, partly reflecting the "conditions of domination" generated by the rise of the new managerialism in the delivery of public services. In the name of economy, efficiency and effectiveness, social progress is increasingly seen to lie in achieving continual increases in "productivity", realised through giving management the absolute freedom to arrange its resources in whatever way it feels appropriate. At the heart of this critical reflection on these contemporary developments lies a concern for the role of education in democratic development, as well as the various harms that are the direct result of a profoundly reductionist and dehumanising "education" system. The article concludes by outlining some alternative possibilities for more humane and democratic pedagogical processes.

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Bednarz, Sarah Witham; Acheson, Gillian; Bednarz, Robert S. (2006).  Maps and Map Learning in Social Studies  Social Education, 70 n7 p398-404, 432 Nov-Dec 2006. 

The importance of maps and other graphic representations has become more important to geography and geographers. This is due to the development and widespread diffusion of geographic (spatial) technologies. As computers and silicon chips have become more capable and less expensive, geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning satellite (GPS) receivers, and remotely sensed images of Earth from airplanes and satellites have become accessible to geography students and faculty at all levels. These developments both allow and require modern citizens to understand spatial information presented on electronic and printed maps and images. For this reason, helping students become competent users and creators of these technologies should be an important element of all of the social studies--maps are not just for geography anymore. In this article, the authors discuss how map learning and spatial thinking should be taught well in the social studies, and describe a recent survey completed by members of the Texas Alliance for Geographic Education, which provides information about teachers' attitudes towards maps, how they use maps, and how they teach map skills. In order to have a revitalized pedagogy of maps and map learning and to help students become more critically "carto-literate," the authors provide three strategies for teachers in teaching map skills and engaging students to map learning.

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Beeth, Michael E.; Adadan, Emine; Firat, Gul; Kutay, Huban (2003).  The Changing Face of Biology 101 with Regard to the Nation's Science Standards. 

This study examines how the Biology 101 curriculum at The Ohio State University, a non-major's course, was changing with regard to recommendations expressed in the National Science Education Standards (NSES) and Benchmarks for Science Literacy. The Bio 101 course was observed to compare the content topics identified in the syllabus with topics recommended in the NSES and Benchmarks to determine the extent to which the course was similar to and different from content recommended for grades 9-12. An interview was conducted with the professor to further understand why these changes were being made within the program he directed. This paper concludes that there was significant improvement in the Bio 101 curriculum compared to the past one on teaching pedagogy, assessment style, and how standards are influencing teaching in this course. The appendix includes a Biology 101 syllabus for Autumn 2001. | [FULL TEXT]

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Bekerman, Zvi, Ed.; Burbules, Nicholas C., Ed.; Silberman-Keller, Diana, Ed. (2006).  Learning in Places: The Informal Education Reader. Counterpoints, Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education Volume 249  [Peter Lang New York] 

"Learning in Places" is a concerted effort undertaken by an outstanding group of international researchers to create a resource book that can introduce academic, professional and lay readers to the field of informal learning/education and its potential to transform present educational thinking. The book presents a wealth of ideas from a wide variety of disciplinary fields and methodological approaches covering multiple learning landscapes--in museums, workplaces, classrooms, places of recreation--in a variety of political, social and cultural contexts around the world. This book presents the most recent theoretical advances in the field; analyzing the social, cultural, political, historical and economical contexts within which informal learning develops and must be critiqued. It also looks into the epistemology that nourishes its development and into the practices that characterize its implementation; and finally reflects on the variety of educational contexts in which it is practiced. Following an introduction (Zvi Bekerman, Nicholas C. Burbules, and Diana Silberman-Keller), this book contains 14 chapters: (1) Beyond the Curriculum: Fostering Associational Life in Schools (Mark K. Smith); (2) Dialogic Inquiry in Classroom and Museum: Actions, Tools, and Talk (Doris Ash and Gordon Wells); (3) A New Angle on Families: Connecting the Mathematics of Life with School Mathematics (Shelley Goldman); (4) Identity and Agency in Nonschool and School Worlds (Glynda A. Hull and James G. Greeno); (5) School's Invasion of "After-School'': Colonization, Rationalization, or Expansion of Access? (Honorine Nocon and Michael Cole); (6) Parent-Child Conversations about Science and Literacy: Links between Formal and Informal Learning (Maureen A. Callanan and Gregory Braswell); (7) Cultural Teaching and Learning: Processes, Effects, and Development of Apprenticeship Skills (Ashley E. Maynard and Patricia M. Greenfield); (8) "This Is Our School of Citizenship'': Informal Learning in Local Democracy (Daniel Schugurensky); (9) Culture Matters: Informal Science Centers and Cultural Contexts (Sally Duensing); (10) Informal Learning: Conceptual Distinctions and Preliminary Findings (D. W. Livingstone); (11) "Dancing with Words'': Narratives on Informal Education (Zvi Bekerman); (12) Images of Time and Place in the Narrative of Nonformal Pedagogy (Diana Silberman-Keller); (13) Self-Educating Communities: Collaboration and Learning through the Internet (Nicholas C. Burbules); and (14) Situating Genius (Ray McDermott). An index is also included.

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Belcher, Diane D. (2006).  English for Specific Purposes: Teaching to Perceived Needs and Imagined Futures in Worlds of Work, Study, and Everyday Life  TESOL Quarterly: A Journal for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages and of Standard English as a Second Dialect, 40, 1. 

This overview of the current state of English for specific purposes (ESP) begins by surveying ongoing debates on key topics: needs assessment and its goals, specificity in instructional methods, and the role of subject knowledge in instructor expertise. Two strands of current theory and research are next surveyed, namely, genre theory and corpus-enhanced genre studies, and critical pedagogy and ethnographies, followed by examples of research and theory-informed pedagogical strategies for literacy and spoken discourse. Topics in need of further inquiry are suggested.

Belfiore, Phillip J.; Auld, Ruth; Lee, David L. (2005).  The Disconnect of Poor-Urban Education: Equal Access and a Pedagogy of Risk Taking  Psychology in the Schools, 42, 8. 

In an age of educational accountability and school competition, the gap between current poor-urban school performance and standards of excellence remains glaringly obvious. As poor-urban schools scramble to "close the gap," many abandon sound pedagogy, becoming entrenched in a curriculum where basic-skills worksheets are the primary method of educational delivery resulting in a disconnect between pedagogically sound educational practices and those very students that need it most. Two literacy pilot programs are discussed as applied examples showing that good teaching and accountability result in increases in early reading skills as measured by the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised (R.W. Woodcock, 1998). Results are discussed in light of raised teacher expectations, assessment-driven small class grouping, and active student learning. In a supportive, challenging environment, the basis for a pedagogy of risk taking emerges.

Bell, Anne C.; Russell, Constance L. (2000).  Beyond Human, beyond Worlds: Anthropocentrism, Critical Pedagogy, and the Poststructuralist Turn.  Canadian Journal of Education, 25, 3. 

Discusses some anthropocentric blind spots within the field of critical pedagogy in general and within poststructuralist approaches to critical pedagogy in particular. Explores areas in which streams of thought and practice move in directions compatible with critical environmental education.

Bell, Beverley (2005).  Pedagogies Developed in the Learning in Science Projects and Related Theses  International Journal of Science Education, 27, 2. 

Research into effective pedagogy was a major strand of the science education research programme at the University of Waikato for the 20 years of the 1980s and 1990s, being done in all five Learning in Science Projects and related theses. The research was closely connected to constructivist and sociocultural views of learning, current national curriculum learning goals, and current classroom practice in New Zealand schools. In the main, the researchers were qualified and experienced teachers of science. This research parallelled that done internationally, but as contextualized research it has informed New Zealand curriculum policy, initial teacher education and teacher development.

Bell, Derek (2001).  2020 Vision: Transforming Teaching and Learning in Science.  Education in Science

Reports on an Association for Science Education (ASE) council meeting focusing on matters of learning, pedagogy, curriculum, professional development, and the role of ASE.

Bell, Jacqueline; Donnelly, Jim (2006).  A Vocationalized School Science Curriculum?  International Journal of Science Education, 28, 12. 

This article is concerned with the meaning and legitimacy of the view that the secondary science curriculum can be given a vocational emphasis, and with a current attempt to create such a curriculum. Although this perspective on the science curriculum has a long history, in recent decades it has received little attention. This article examines recent research into the vocational and work-related aspects of secondary school science, and the historical and policy background. Its empirical focus is a late secondary course with the title "Applied Science", which was introduced into schools in England and Wales in 2002. It draws on the preliminary findings of a research study focusing on the origins and implementation of this course. Overall, the article provides an overview of the major issues and research agenda associated with the notion of a vocational or applied school science curriculum, focusing ultimately on the key issues of educational purpose, pedagogy, and status.

Belton, Teresa; Priyadharshini, Esther (2007).  Boredom and Schooling: A Cross-Disciplinary Exploration  Cambridge Journal of Education, 37, 4. 

This paper undertakes a wide-ranging exploration of the concept of boredom from contrasting perspectives across different disciplines with a view to informing the pedagogy of schooling. It notes the rise of the concept in recent times, and juxtaposes diverse views on the perceived forms, causes, effects and responses to boredom, along the way referring to implications for schooling. Based on this examination, the paper puts forward the idea that boredom needs to be recognized as a legitimate human emotion that can be central to learning and creativity. At the same time, it also points out that there is room to reimagine a pedagogy that can engage in a more informed manner with the complexity of the experience and concludes with an exploration of some concepts--autonomy and control, struggle and flow--which can help in this endeavour.

Belzer, Alisa (2004).  Blundering toward Critical Pedagogy: True Tales from the Adult Literacy Classroom  New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 2004, 102. 

Critical practice in adult literacy education offers many interesting and important challenges, including creating a situation in which learners and instructors can communicate across their differences.

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Bencze, Larry; Hewitt, Jim; Pedretti, Erminia (2001).  Multi-media Case Methods in Pre-service Science Education: Enabling an Apprenticeship for Praxis.  Research in Science Education, 31, 2. 

Explores how case methods may be used to foster habits of praxis--that is, critical, reflective practices that enable beginning teachers to adapt to the many diverse contexts they will encounter in the field. Results suggest that student teachers: (1) understood an associated analytical framework; (2) effectively analyzed curriculum and pedagogy; and (3) exercised prudence in their assessment of the case. These findings tentatively indicate emerging habits of praxis.

Bender, Tisha (2003).  Discussion-Based Online Teaching To Enhance Student Learning: Theory, Practice, and Assessment. 

This book creates a vision of online pedagogy based on the author's experience and desire to create a virtual environment that involves students and fosters their deep learning. There are 9 chapters in three parts. Part 1, "Theoretical Implications: Building a Body of Online Pedagogy," includes (1) "The Distance Factor"; (2) "The Optimal Role of the Online Teacher"; and (3) "Rethinking Learning Theory within the Online Class." Part 2, "Practical Applications," includes (4) "Course Design"; (5) "Starting to Teach the Online Class"; (6) "Aspects of Online Communication"; and (7) "Innovative Online Teaching Techniques." Part 3, "Assessment," includes (8) "Opinions about Online Teaching and Learning" and (9) "Building a Model of Assessment of Online Education." A glossary of relevant terms is included.

Benjamin, Diane (2005).  Women in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology: An Experimental Approach in an Undergraduate Course  Feminist Teacher: A Journal of the Practices

The author's primary purpose of this article is to share her working process--that is, the organization of a three-credit undergraduate course entitled Women in Science and Engineering, as well as the design and development of its curriculum, pedagogy, and methodology--and to reflect upon the results. To give life to this structure, a variety of examples of classroom learning activities, projects, and resource materials are shared. In addition, "snapshots" of moments from past classes are included. Appendix A contains a list of reference resources categorized according to the unit that the source most directly fits. Appendix B gives suggestions for sample focus questions for this course.

Benseman, John; Lander, Josie; Sutton, Alison (2005).  Pedagogy in Practice: An Observational Study of Literacy, Numeracy and Language Teachers  [Online Submission] 

With increasing interest in improving the quality of adult literacy, numeracy and language provision, there has been growing interest in gaining an overview of what teachers actually do with their learners. This study looked at how 15 teachers taught over an average of 167 minutes in a cross-section of New Zealand classrooms. The report details related research studies, the project methodology, findings and discussion of the results. The researchers found that generic skills made up a significant part of what the teachers did; skills such as questioning and managing learner interactions were carried out in a limited manner. In terms of literacy teaching there was a wide range of teaching skills, from intensive, highly focused teaching through to situations where many of the learners were not engaged or challenged. The report includes a set of recommendations arising from the study and references. The observation categories coding sheet is appended.  [This report was prepared for: Ministry of Education, Tertiary Learning Outcomes Policy Group by Auckland UniServices Limited, a wholly-owned company of the University of Auckland.] | [FULL TEXT]

Bensman, David (2000).  Central Park East and Its Graduates: "Learning by Heart." The Series on School Reform. 

This book describes New York City's Central Park East (CPE) Elementary School, which provides inner city children with the highest quality educators and pedagogy and is considered one of the most academically enriching U.S. schools. The book gives voice to young adults who emerged from poverty as a result of powerful experiences within CPE. Chapter 1, "Searching for Meaning in the Survey Data," outlines graduates' achievement. Chapter 2, "Individual Pathways to Learning," examines academic pathways to success constructed by students and teachers. Chapter 3, "Pathways to Emotional and Social Growth," describes how students used caring relationships fostered by CPE to create pathways to emotional and social growth. Chapter 4, "Racial Dimensions of a Learning Community," discusses how CPE bridged racial and cultural divides. Chapter 5, "'We Bought the Dream': The Parent-School Partnership at Central Park East," discusses why parents sent their children to CPE and describes parent support. Chapter 6, "'And Then They Will Become Gifted': CPE Graduates Look to the Future," describes triumphs, setbacks, hopes, and dreams. Chapter 7, "Creating a Learning Community," considers CPE's significance within contemporary school improvement. Appendixes contain New York City Elementary public school students as a comparison group and a report on one CPE student.

Benson, Barbara E. (2003).  Life's Little Lessons: Teachers' Stories of Life Experiences on Practice.  Journal of Classroom Interaction, 38, 1. 

Interviewed elementary school teachers of culturally diverse students to explore the relationship between life experience and pedagogy. Teachers' pivotal life experiences focused on teacher and student relationships. Teachers had fashioned their teaching styles and practices after their own backgrounds and had discovered the duality of personal and professional experiences.(SM)

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Berber, Brian; Brovey, Andrew (2001).  Integrating Technology and Inquiry Pedagogy: Needs-Based Professional Development. 

Valdosta State University (VSU), fulfills the academic needs of the South Georgia area. Student performance on the state mandated science assessment was well below achievement levels compared to other subject areas. VSU must reach out to science teachers in the area to improve teaching skills if their students are to become productive, contributing members of local communities. It was with these needs in mind that the inquiry learning and technology utilization project for middle grades and high school teachers was developed. The educational significance of this study was to advance the existing body of knowledge and improve science classroom instruction by assisting middle and high school teachers to become knowledgeable and proficient with inquiry-based teaching consistent with both state and national educational reform efforts, and to obtain necessary experience and skills to incorporate instructional technologies into the inquiry-based teaching format. Due to the one-year length of the project, teachers were supported through concerns identified with three distinct stages of change implementation: preparation, acceptance, and commitment, allowing discipline-wide adoption and considerable change in practice to be achieved. Participants of the research project included 50 public school teachers from four countries in South Georgia, certified to teach either middle grades or high school science. A Florida group included 20 teachers certified to teach grades 4-12. Student pre- and posttest data indicated adequate to high levels of science achievement. More importantly, teachers noted, via reflective writings, an increase in student enthusiasm. Teacher response was overwhelmingly positive. Worthwhile educational change requires new knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. The inquiry-technology integration project seemed to effectively supply these key requirements to science educators in South Georgia. | [FULL TEXT]

Berg, Gary A. (2002).  Why Distance Learning? Higher Education Administrative Practices. ACE/Praeger Series on Higher Education. 

This book reports on a study that examined the reasons colleges are making commitments to distance learning, reasons that range from the philosophical to the purely commercial. The chapters are: (1) "Review of Surveys on Technology and Distance Learning in Higher Education"; (2) "Review of Literature on Administration of Distance Learning in Higher Education"; (3) "Review of Distance Learning Pedagogical Literature"; (4) "Review of Literature on Market Approaches to Administration in Higher Education"; (5) "Research Methodology"; (6) "Institutional Motivation for Using Distance Learning"; (7) "Administrative Practices"; (8) "Commercialization Indicators"; (9) "Administrative Motive Effect on Pedagogy"; and (10) "Conclusion." Eight appendixes contain instruments used in the study and a list of participating institutions.

Berger, Bruce K. (2002).  Applying Active Learning at the Graduate Level: Merger Issues at Newco.  Public Relations Review, 28, 2. 

Suggests that active learning can benefit students in public relations and integrated communication courses at the graduate level. Describes how three active learning approaches--research and field work, student accountabilities for learning, and student reflection and reflexive exercises--were used in a graduate class project to help a Fortune 50 consumer products company identify and address real-time merger communication issues.

Berghoff, Beth; Egawa, Kathryn A.; Harste, Jerome C.; Hoonan, Barry T. (2000).  Beyond Reading and Writing: Inquiry, Curriculum, and Multiple Ways of Knowing. Whole Language Umbrella Series. 

This book is based on the belief that learners who are making meaning draw simultaneously on different dimensions of knowing--different forms of expression, different kinds of ideas, and different cultural frameworks. When honored and recognized in the classroom these differences create a richer way to explore the path to knowledge, according to the book. By stressing that literacy develops across sign systems that can include art, music, and movement, in addition to language, the book encourages "artful" teaching and learning. It argues, in fact, that those most challenged by traditional curriculum will find with this approach the encouragement to shine. The book begins by explaining why inquiry and multiple ways of knowing should be central to literacy and learning, and shows how to build such a curriculum. It next offers theory-into-practice techniques, insight into how such a curriculum actually worked on a day-to-day basis, suggestions on how educators can better support and understand their students, and, finally, insights the authors gained by undertaking this inquiry. The curriculum approach in the book offers educators the tools necessary to help learners develop wide-ranging sensibilities that enable them to think and communicate in complex ways, to make sense of multiple perspectives, to continually revise their personal identities and theories of the world, and to positively shape their lives and communities. Two appendixes suggest creative ideas to use in the classroom and a third presents a 60-item bibliography of sources for further study. | [FULL TEXT]

Berila, Beth (2006).  The Links between Environmental Justice and Feminist Pedagogy: An Introduction  Feminist Teacher: A Journal of the Practices

Given the emphasis on education and consciousness-raising that pervades many environmental justice movements, it seems inevitable to draw parallels between feminist pedagogy and environmental justice. Both environmental justice issues and feminist pedagogy address intersections of race, class, gender, sexuality, ability, and nation; both combine theory and practice; both involve radically rethinking deeply held assumptions; and both reveal the ideologies and power dynamics that inform language, policies, and practices. This article introduces the incorporation of environmental justice issues into the college classroom.

Berila, Beth (2006).  Environmental Justice and Feminist Pedagogy: A Conclusion  Feminist Teacher: A Journal of the Practices

As the pieces by Di Chiro, Plevin, and Sze in this issue have illustrated, feminist pedagogy offers a productive framework through which to explore environmental justice issues. Environmental justice issues, in turn, offer invaluable sites for feminist praxis. The mutually enriching relationship between the two fields results from their similar values and practices. As the three preceding pieces reveal, feminist pedagogy often focuses on either decentering authority or on placing marginalized groups at the center of authority, processes that also occur in many environmental justice groups. According to this author, environmental justice issues, when taught through a feminist pedagogical framework, provide invaluable possibilities for active learning, activist praxis, and a reconceptualization of positionality, the environment, and the communities around us.

Berliner, David C. (2004).  Describing the Behavior and Documenting the Accomplishments of Expert Teachers  Bulletin of Science Technology and Society, 24, 3. 

Propositions about the nature of expertise, in general, and expertise in pedagogy, in particular, are discussed. The time needed to develop expertise in teaching and the highly contextual nature of teachers' knowledge are also discussed. Four theories of teacher development are presented, with an elaboration on the heuristic value of the theory of Dreyfus and Dreyfus (1986). Examples from the pedagogical literature are used to illustrate this theory. The recent research establishing causal relationships between those identified as experts in teaching and their students' academic achievement is also presented. This research allows those who study expertise in teaching to have a more objective measure for identifying and studying expert pedagogues.

Bernhard, Judith K.; Diaz, Carlos F.; Allgood, Ilene (2005).  Research-Based Teacher Education for Multicultural Contexts  Intercultural Education, 16, 3. 

Graduate programs in education face the challenge of preparing teachers and specialists in education to work with English Language Learners (ELLs). Programs must be culturally responsive, while at the same time respecting state and federal standards for scientifically based practice according to best evidence. The focus of the present study is a graduate program in education that sought to prepare graduate students to address the needs of ELL students. Among the articulated goals of the program grant were that teachers enrolled would be able to: (1) use effective English for Speakers of Other Languages and bilingual educational strategies and methods; (2) use findings from testing, assessment and research functionally; and (3) promote multilingualism, and, in a broader sense, respect and equitable treatment of the heritages of home languages. The extent to which graduates of the master's program who were working as teachers and administrators at the time of the study were able to make culturally competent connections with ELL students and to establish a repertoire of scientific evidence, based on research findings that they could then use to support their teaching theory and practice, is discussed. Findings reflecting the responses of 57 graduates of the program were as follows: (a) the training provided by the master's program was rated as more useful than the in-service provided by the state because its emphasis on research allowed graduates to judge the merits of proposed educational reforms and to clarify their own pedagogy; (b) the ability to cite research reports enabled graduates to be heard by colleagues and to depoliticize discussions regarding curricular reforms; (c) in developing their "communities of practice", graduates made connections with others who had been trained in the use of scientific research in education. The study illustrates how a graduate education program focused on transformation and the encouragement of home language use can prepare teachers to work effectively in a political context of "evidence-based practice".

Bernhardt, Elizabeth (2003).  Challenges to Reading Research from a Multilingual World.  Reading Research Quarterly, 38, 1. 

Considers if first and second language reading processes are really "the same." Discusses ways in which research designs accommodate second-language issues. Considers if a unique pedagogy for second-language readers is needed. Examines the need for future research. Represents a continued yet renewed commitment to understanding and helping users of second-language literacy.

Berry, Theodorea Regina (2005).  Black on Black Education: Personally Engaged Pedagogy for/by African American Pre-Service Teachers  Urban Review: Issues and Ideas in Public Education, 37, 1. 

Public schools have increasing numbers of its teachers fitting into one demographic, white and female, while the numbers of African American teachers decrease (Ladson-Billings, "Crossing over to Canaan: The Journey of New Teachers in Diverse Classrooms". San Francisco: Josey-Bass" [2001]). Furthermore, African American collegiates who decide to enter teaching may face a chilly climate as a result of their cultural and educational experiences as they encounter devaluation in the classroom (Delpit, "Other People's Children: Cultural Conflict in the Classroom". New York: The New Press" [1995]). As a result, African American pre-service teachers may question the validity of the formal curriculum presented in college as it conflicts with their perceptions of school, thereby, leaving teacher-educators largely responsible for the quality of life and subsequent devotion to profession of these students. Critical autoethnography, using fieldnotes/research journaling, and student memoirs all through a theoretical backdrop of critical race feminism provide a glimpse into the teaching and learning experiences and dilemmas of one African American female teacher educator utilizing what I call personally engaged pedagogy as a means of enhancing the quality of the learning experiences of her African American pre-service teachers.

Berson, Michael J. (2000).  Rethinking Research and Pedagogy in the Social Studies: The Creation of Caring Connections through Technology and Advocacy.  Theory and Research in Social Education, 28, 1. 

Determines there is a continuing need to move research and information from those who generate it to the user and service provider in a form that has direct and immediate application. Explores the three challenges involved in developing a vision of pedagogy.

Berta-Avila, Margarita Ines (2004).  Critical Xicana/Xicano Educators: Is it Enough to be a Person of Color?  High School Journal, 87, 4. 

Grounded in a Xicana/Xicano framework and critical pedagogy, this study utilizes the methods of participatory research and critical ethnography to understand how Xicanas/Xicanos perceive their role in the classroom when teaching Raza students. This three-month study focuses on three critical Xicana/Xicano educators who are in the teaching profession to work specifically with Raza students. Using their Xicana/Xicano identity as the central point to understand why and how they teach, the research explores what it means to be a critical Xicana/Xicano educator when teaching is viewed as a political act for social transformation and the emancipation of Raza students. Specifically, through dialogues, observations, and journal entries, the participants and I explore how their teaching for social trans/formation transcends into the classroom. This article will focus on the themes of positionality and agency that emerged from the data collected. These themes will be contextualized in relation to student/teacher relationships and curriculum.

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Besley, Tina; Peters, Michael A. (2005).  The Theatre of Fast Knowledge: Performative Epistemologies in Higher Education  Review of Education

Fast knowledge can be considered part of fast capitalism, especially an emergent new generic form of capitalism based increasingly on forms of symbolic capital associated with the rise of global finance and associated with new information and communication technologies. In this essay, the authors first theorise fast knowledge in relation to fast capitalism through the work of the American sociologist, George Ritzer (2000), whose analysis of the fast-food industry in "The McDonaldization of Society" has a ready application to education. In the second section, they specifically draw out the aspect of "the "theatre" of fast knowledge" by focusing on the management of "performance" and the relation of performance management to "fast knowledge."

Bess, James L. (2000).  Teaching Alone, Teaching Together: Transforming the Structure of Teams for Teaching. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series. 

This is a book about the organization of teaching, the connections among the tasks of teaching and among the teachers themselves and about faculty motivation and commitment. Emphasis is placed on the following seven domains: (1) pedagogy; (2) research; (3) lecturing; (4) leading discussions; (5) mentoring; (6) curricular-cocurricular integration; and (7) assessment. The chapters are: chapter 1 "Tasks, Talents, and Temperaments in Teaching: The Challenge of Compatibility" (James L. Bess); chapter 2 "The Pedagogue: Creating Designs for Teaching" (Janet Gail Donald); chapter 3 "The Researcher: Generating Knowledge for Team Teaching" (John Braxton, Marietta Del Favero); chapter 4 "The Lecturer: Working with Large Groups" (Alenoush Saroyan); chapter 5 "The Discussion Leader: Fostering Student Learning in Groups" (Richard Tiberius, Jane Tipping); chapter 6 "The Mentor: Facilitating Out-of-Class Cognitive and Affective Growth" (Michael Galbraith, Patricia Maslin-Ostrowski); chapter 7 "The Integrator: Linking Curricular and Cocurricular Experiences (Thomas Grace); chapter 8 "The Assessor: Appraising Student and Team Performance" (Bruce Speck); chapter 9 "Integrating Autonomous Professionals through Team Teaching" (James L. Bess); and chapter 10 "The Future of Teacher: Creating a New Academic Identity" (James L. Bess).

Best, Steven; Kellner, Douglas (2003).  Contemporary Youth and the Postmodern Adventure  Review of Education

Contemporary youth are major players in the postmodern adventure because it is they who will enter the future and further shape the world to come. For youth today, change is the name of the game and they are forced to adapt to a rapidly mutating and crisis-ridden world characterized by novel information, computer and genetic technologies; a complex and fragile global economy and a frightening era of war and terrorism. According to dominant discourses in the media, politics and academic research, the everyday life of growing segments of youth is increasingly unstable, violent, and dangerous. These alarming assaults on youth are combined with massive federal cutbacks of programs that might give youth a chance to succeed in an increasingly difficult world. Hence, today's youth are at risk in a growing number of ways. Yet they also have access to exciting realms of cyberspace and the possibilities of technologies, identities, and entrepreneurial adventures unimagined by previous generations. Contemporary youth includes the best educated generation in history, the most technologically sophisticated, and the most diverse and multicultural, making generalizations about youth in the present day precarious. In this study, the authors develop some concepts to outline a critical theory of youth that articulates positive, negative and ambiguous aspects of their current situation, delineating some of the defining features of the condition of contemporary youth to indicate the ways in which they are encountering the challenges facing them, and to suggest how these may be engaged.

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Beyers, Chris (2008).  The Hermeneutics of Student Evaluations  College Teaching, 56, 2. 

Student evaluations of teacher performance are generally taken as an important measure of teaching effectiveness. However, they often misrepresent classroom realities. The ratings on the forms frequently reflect students' emotional experiences in their courses rather than pedagogy or the amount of learning. Finally, since education is necessarily progressive, a competent teacher's evaluations should include complaints about difficulty and workload. Administrators need to bear this in mind in their assessment of student ratings so that they do not encourage instructors to teach in fear of their evaluations.

Beykont, Zeynep F., Ed. (2000).  Lifting Every Voice: Pedagogy and Politics of Bilingualism. 

Essays in this collection deal with the complex pedagogical and political issues of language-minority education in U.S. public schools. The book focuses on language-minority students in bilingual programs, those who receive some instruction in their native languages. The essays are: (1) "Language Loss and Language Gain in the Brazilian Community: The Role of Schools and Families" (Heloisa Souza); (2) "Decolonizing English Only: The Democratic Power of Bilingualism" (Donaldo Macedo); (3) "Bilingualism Equals Access: The Case of Chinese High School Students" (Katy Mei-Kuen Kwong); (4) "Reaping the Benefits of Bilingualism: The Case of Somali Refugee Students" (Mohamed Hassan Farah); (5) "Raising Children's Cultural Voices: Strategies for Developing Literacy in Two Languages" (Berta Rosa Berriz); (6) "Bilingual in Two Senses" (Cynthia Ballenger); (7) "Families and Communities Learning Together: Becoming Literate, Confronting Prejudice" (Jim Cummins and Dennis Sayers); (8) "Teachers' Judgments Do Count: Assessing Bilingual Students" (Evangeline Harris Stefanakis); (9) "Democratizing Bilingualism: The Role of Critical Teacher Education" (Lilia I. Bartolome); (10) "Bringing Bilingual Education out of the Basement, and Other Imperatives for Teacher Education" (Sonia Nieto); (11) "Good Schools for Bilingual Students: Essential Conditions" (Maria Estela Brisk); and (12) "Voices from the Basement: Breaking through the Pedagogy of Indifference" (Ambrizeth Helena Lima). (Each chapter contains references.)

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Bichelmeyer, Barbara A. (2000).  Interactivism: Change, Sensory-Emotional Intelligence, and Intentionality in Being and Learning. 

This paper documents the theoretical framework of interactivism; articulates the pedagogical theory which frames its assumptions regarding effective educational practice; positions the pedagogy of interactivism against traditional pedagogical practice; and argues for the educational importance of the interactivist view. Interactivism is the term used to describe a philosophical view which assumes that: reality is multiple, changing, and based on physical and natural forces of action and research; truth becomes known when senses and emotions interact with cognition as people react to and act upon their changing realities; and intentionality is good in that it allows people to gain some measure of power over the changing and unpredictable realities of their lives. Interactivist pedagogical theory assumes that the purpose of education is to create sentient learners who are able to recognize and intentionally adapt to changes and variations they experience in their everyday lives. The paper concludes that the interactivist philosophical and pedagogical view may be a starting point for moving beyond the common school model in order to find an answer to the question of how to educate each and every student. | [FULL TEXT]

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Bierema, Laura L. (2002).  The Sociocultural Contexts of Learning in the Workplace.  New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education

Outlines demographic dimensions of the work force: aging, gender, race, sexual orientation, immigration, language, religion. Suggests a workplace pedagogy that is sensitive to sociocultural context and includes the concept of workplace learning as a lifelong process, socioculturally sensitive policies, equal opportunity development, and diversity programs that focus on equality rather than difference.

Biesta, Gert (2006).  Beyond Learning: Democratic Education for a Human Future  [Paradigm Publishers] 

Many educational practices are based upon philosophical ideas about what it means to be human, including particular subjectivities and identities such as the rational person, the autonomous individual, or the democratic citizen. This book asks what might happen to the ways in which we educate if we treat the question as to what it means to be human as a radically open question; a question that can only be answered by engaging in education rather than as a question that needs to be answered theoretically before we can educate. The book provides a different way to understand and approach education, one which focuses on the ways in which human beings come into the world as unique individuals through responsible responses to what and who is other and different. This book raises important questions about pedagogy, community and educational responsibility, and helps educators of children and adults alike to understand what truly democratic education entails. The following chapters are included: (1) Against Learning; (2) Coming into Presence; (3) The Community of Those Who Have Nothing in Common; (4) How Difficult Should Education Be?; (5) The Architecture of Education; and (6) Education and the Democratic Person. This book also contains an Epilogue: A Pedagogy of Interruption.

Biesta, Gert J. J.; Miedema, Siebren (2002).  Instruction or Pedagogy? The Need for a Transformative Conception of Education.  Teaching and Teacher Education, 18, 2. 

Suggests that schools have a pedagogical responsibility beyond instruction, but that this responsibility should not be understood as the teaching of norms and values. The paper presents a tranformative conception of education, arguing that the pedagogical responsibility, conceived as concern for the whole student, is the proper and all-encompassing task of education. School responsibility in the Netherlands is described.

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Billett, Stephen (2001).  Increasing Small Business Participation in VET: A "Hard Ask."  Education + Training, 43, 8-9. 

A broadening of the definition and pedagogy of vocational education and training (VET) is needed if small businesses are to participate. This goal will require changes in the orientation of VET and enhanced support and facilitation instead of market-based provision.

Billett, Stephen (2002).  Toward a Workplace Pedagogy: Guidance, Participation, and Engagement.  Adult Education Quarterly, 53, 1. 

Constructs a workplace pedagogy of practices on three planes: participation in workplace activities, learning guided by more-experienced workers, and guided learning for transfer. Discusses how workplace pedagogy must account for ways in which workplaces provide access to guided learning and how individuals choose to participate.

Billett, Stephen (2008).  Learning throughout Working Life: A Relational Interdependence between Personal and Social Agency  British Journal of Educational Studies, 56, 1. 

Individuals actively and continually construct the knowledge required for their working lives. Two outcomes arise from this constructive process: (i) individual change (i.e. learning) and (ii) the remaking of culturally-derived practices comprising work. These arise through a relational interdependence between the contributions and agency of the personal and the social. The relationship is interdependent because neither the social nor personal contributions alone are sufficient. The social experience is important for articulating and providing access to work performance requirements. However, personal factors such as individuals' capacities, subjectivities and agency shape how workers interpret and engage with what they experience and, consequently, how they learn and remake practice throughout their working life. This case is elaborated through a discussion about learning with considerations of intersubjectivity, personal epistemologies, pedagogy and curriculum as experience.

Billings, Esther; Shroyer, Janet; Wells, Pamela (2000).  A Tutoring Field Experience as a Vehicle for Applying Authentic Knowledge and Pedagogy: Dilemmas and Successes. 

Tutoring is not a new idea nor a new practice in the world of teacher education. However, our understanding of how to better use tutoring as a vehicle for applying authentic knowledge and pedagogy is expanding rapidly. The purpose of this article is twofold. First, it provides an overview and rationale of a tutoring-field experience in which we engage our students. Second, it shares the various dilemmas and successes that our college students experience as they engage in this tutoring experience.   | [FULL TEXT]

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Bingham, Charles (2001).  What Friedrich Nietzsche Cannot Stand about Education: Toward a Pedagogy of Self-Reformulation.  Educational Theory, 51, 3. 

Examines Nietzsche's rejection of mass education, arguing that it was based on his desire for education to be more self- reformulative than he thought possible, and concluding that education in schools is beneficial because it can foster radical forms of selfhood. This process can begin by listening to Nietzsche's philosophy while ignoring his claims about the detriments of mass education.

Binkiewicz, Donna M. (2006).  Tunes of the Times: Historical Songs as Pedagogy for Recent US History  History Teacher, 39, 4. 

Songs are powerful pedagogical tools that enliven a classroom and enhance student learning in an enjoyable manner. Historical songs are valuable primary sources that provide listeners with direct commentary, attitudes, and emotions expressed by real people in particular historical periods. When utilizing primary documentation, music should be included. This article suggests some of the ways songs may be used effectively to enhance the teaching and learning of history. It also offers suggestions on where to locate audio resources and how to use new technologies to offer students the tunes of the times most relevant to history classes.

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Bird, Len (2001).  Virtual Learning in the Workplace: The Power of "Communities of Practice." 

This paper explores how a virtual learning environment (WebCT) can be used to facilitate learning within a community of practice on a Postgraduate Diploma in Management by work-based learning at Coventry University (England). The paper is part of a wider investigation into the use and efficacy of online support in work-based learning environments being carried out at Coventry University. The aim of this wider research is to develop a pedagogy for effectively integrating online support into the design of work-based learning programs. In this current paper the theory of situated learning that underpins the approach is explored, and evidence from in-depth interviews, focus groups, and electronic discussions are considered in order to explore the 1success of the situated learning in a virtual combination of university, workplace, and the wider professional and academic community. The paper concludes with remarks about the power and effectiveness of the approach. 

Bird, Len (2007).  The 3 "C" Design Model for Networked Collaborative E-Learning: A Tool for Novice Designers  Innovations in Education & Teaching International, 44, 2. 

This paper outlines a model for online course design aimed at the mainstream majority of university academics rather than at the early adopters of technology. It has been developed from work at Coventry Business School where tutors have been called upon to design online modules for the first time. Like many good tools, the model's key strength is its simplicity, but this simplicity springs from an extensive application of current theoretical thinking on the pedagogy of networked collaborative e-learning. The model forces consideration of some of the key features of online design, and steers the designer away from creating the impoverished online learning experience that can result from an undue emphasis on course content alone. The paper builds on the work of Fowler and Mayes (2000) by examining the underpinning theory surrounding three basic ingredients of an online learning experience and the crucial role played by dialogue and discussion within a social constructivist paradigm of learning.

Birden, Susan (2002).  Collective Transformations, Collective Theories: What Adult Educators Can Learn From the Boston Women's Health Book Collective. 

The experiences of the 12-woman Boston Women's Health Book Collective was examined in a case study that focused on the collective's activities from its formation in 1969 through its publication of the book "Our Bodies, Ourselves" in 1973 and its opening of a women's clinic in downtown Boston that is still in operation today. The case study draws parallels between the principles of critical pedagogy that are evident in the women's design of and participation in education and Paulo Freire's principles of critical pedagogy and his efforts in the Brazilian literacy campaign and culture circles during the 1960s. The case study documents how learning content and the learning process were completely interwoven with one another in both the Brazilian culture circles and the Boston collective's education. In both cases, learners adopted an increasingly critical view toward their cultures while creating a radically democratic climate for learning that was simultaneously communicative, humble, and loving. By illustrating how conscientization, which is defined as moving out of adaptation into integration, enabled the culture circle and collective members to develop confidence in their abilities to think, learn, and enter into dialogue with one another and with society at large, the case study provided evidence of popular education's transformative potential. | [FULL TEXT]

Birden, Susan (2004).  Theorizing a Coalition-Engendered Education: The Case of the Boston Women's Health Book Collective's Body Education  Adult Education Quarterly: A Journal of Research and Theory, 54, 4. 

Concurring with Cunningham's assessment of the need for a counter-hegemonic vision of critical pedagogy in adult education thought and practice, this article theorizes a coalition-engendered education as a specific type of emancipatory pedagogy common in North America. Examining the Boston Women's Health Book Collective's body education as an exemplar of coalition-engendered education, this article compares and contrasts coalition-engendered education with the more familiar Freirean critical pedagogy, drawing important implications for both the theory and practice of adult education.

Biriukova, N. A. (2005).  The Formation of an Ecological Consciousness  Russian Education & Society, 47, 12. 

In this article, the author discusses how realization of the ideas of humanistic pedagogy and psychology serves as the foundation for the development of value attitudes toward nature and the surrounding world, for the formation of a new type of ecological consciousness. It is obvious that the interaction between human civilization and the earth's biosphere has reached a dead end. Problems of the humanization of education and the search for an effective mechanism to regulate ecologically vital activity have been linked to the formation of an ecological consciousness, a consciousness that is based on value attitudes oriented toward the preservation, restoration, and rational use of the natural world. In today's society, there is an entrenched contradiction between the need to shape an ecological consciousness in the younger generation, one that is capable of undertaking an ecocentric approach in interactions with other members of the socium and objects of the natural world, and the absence of a sufficiently effective approach to the organization of this kind of education and upbringing. The author suggests that technologies that have worked out and tested in practice can be utilized to optimalize the process of ecological education and upbringing, to shape an ecocentric consciousness. The author also discusses the normative legal basis of the system of continuous ecological education and describes the characteristics of preschool ecological education, general ecological education, professional ecological education, and supplementary ecological education.

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Bishop, Russell (2003).  Changing Power Relations in Education: Kaupapa Maori Messages for "Mainstream" Education in Aotearoa/New Zealand.  Comparative Education, 39, 2. 

Maori pedagogical and research principles provide a foundation for an alternative model of Maori schooling that emphasizes empowerment, student-teacher co-construction of knowledge, and the critical importance of cultural recognition. Principles include self-determination, uniqueness of each child, reciprocal learning, home-school relationship, extended family, and collectivist philosophy. Narrative pedagogy, integrated curriculum, and problem-focused methodologies can be used to implement these principles. 

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Bizzell, Patricia (2006).  Rationality as Rhetorical Strategy at the Barcelona Disputation, 1263: A Cautionary Tale  College Composition and Communication, 58, 1. 

Often, composition teachers present public debate as if it occurs on a rhetorically level playing field, with victory going to the person who argues most logically. Real-world contestants are seldom so equal in power. We can enrich our pedagogy by studying such encounters; example: the 1263 disputation at Barcelona between Rabbi Nachmanides and Friar Paul Christian.

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Black, Paul; Goebel, Zane (2002).  Multiliteracies in the Teaching of Indonesian.  Babel, 37, 1. 

Discusses the neglected area in the teaching of Indonesian, namely the social significance of Indonesian varieties vis-a-vis regional languages. Suggests using a multimedia teaching tool as a possible solution, and discusses how this relates to the multiliteracies approach to pedagogy.

Blackburn, Mollie V. (2006).  Risky, Generous, Gender Work  Research in the Teaching of English, 40, 3. 

In this article, the author offers guidelines to teachers on shaping pedagogy and classrooms in ways that include and value the experiences and learning of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) students. In order for teachers to create a context in which gender trouble can happen without violent consequences, they need to recognize their own prejudices and reflect on the ways that these prejudices might impact their teaching of LGBTQ and gender-nonconforming students.

Blackmon, Angelicque Tucker (2005).  The Influence of Science Education Professional Development on African American Science Teacher's Conceptual Change and Practice  [Online Submission] 

Conceptual change as a professional development model has moved elementary science teaching beyond lecture and the memorization of facts to science instruction congruent with the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996). However, research on the effectiveness of conceptual change teaching reveals some of its limitations. Specifically, little is known about the influence of conceptual change teaching on African American teachers' science pedagogy with African American students. This study employs case study methodology to explore the influence of science education professional development based on the conceptual change model of teaching on teachers with varying levels of science education experiences, science content knowledge, teaching experience, and leadership experience. The study addresses the following questions: (1) How do African American teachers describe the influence of a science education professional development program on their teaching of science to African American students? (2) How do African American teachers describe their beliefs about conceptual change teaching after participating in professional development programs? (3) Is there a relationship between self-reported conceptual change teaching practices and actual classroom practices? (4) Is there a relationship between reported changes in conceptual change teaching practices and the content of the professional development institutes? Ethnographic data were obtained from classroom observations and semi-structured interviews with seven African American educators teaching elementary science in an urban school district. These data were collected following these lead science teachers' four year of professional development in a science education professional development program. Findings from the study indicate that African American teachers who participated in the science education professional development program incorporated several tenets of conceptual change in their science instruction. These included the use of questions (recall), hands-on activities, and collaborative groups. This study also revealed that African American teachers used their knowledge of African American students' cultural experiences to teach science. The African American teachers used culturally specific analogies, praise, and motivation in ways that extended beyond their professional development training. The teachers incorporated numerous affective pedagogical strategies, which are often not observed in the more cognitive domain of science teaching. The findings of this study have implications in educational curricula, teacher professional development, and on science classroom practices.  | [FULL TEXT]

Blair, Heather A.; Paskemin, Donna; Laderoute, Barbara (2003).  Preparing Indigenous Language Advocates, Teachers, and Researchers in Western Canada. 

This paper discusses the context of indigenous language education in western Canada, the hope of language revitalization, and the role of the Canadian Indigenous Languages and Literacy Development Institute (CILLDI) in reclaiming and stabilizing these languages. CILLDI was established in 1999 by a collective of language advocates and educators who saw the need for continued professional development for First Nations people as they struggled to stabilize their languages and provide effective language communities throughout Alberta and Saskatchewan. CILLDI believes that the knowledge inherent in indigenous languages and cultures and the voice of indigenous people is critical for the maintenance of linguistic and cultural diversity in Western Canada. In 2001, it offered four undergraduate courses and one graduate seminar. The paper outlines CILLDI goals; describes its development, administration, and funding; offers examples of curriculum and pedagogy; and discusses how they are contributing to the development of these languages as resources. Finally, it addresses ongoing issues and concerns. | [FULL TEXT]

Blaise, Mindy; Elsden-Clifton, Jennifer (2007).  Intervening or Ignoring: Learning about Teaching in New Times  Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 35, 4. 

In response to the rise of collaborative learning within education, two teacher educators redesigned their courses to explore the complexities of pedagogy within a New Learning framework. Multi-age grouping provided opportunities for pre-service teachers to work with others from different year levels on an interdisciplinary assessment task. As a result of this approach to teaching and learning, pre-service teachers were challenged and resistance arose. These acts of student resistance provided opportunities for examining the dynamics and complexity of collaborative learning and the implications this has for teachers in new times. In particular, it explores the tension around intervening and ignoring students' resistances created by engaging in new learning pedagogy.  [The following are appended: (1) Requirements for the Final Written Report; (2) Summary of Assessment/Learning Modules; and (3) Online Posting.]

Blanchett, Wanda J. (2006).  Disproportionate Representation of African American Students in Special Education: Acknowledging the Role of White Privilege and Racism  Educational Researcher, 35, 6. 

This article places the problem of disproportionate representation of African American students in special education in the context of the White privilege and racism that exist in American society as a whole. The author discusses how educational resource allocation, inappropriate curriculum and pedagogy, and inadequate teacher preparation have contributed to the problem of disproportionate representation. More important, she argues that remedies designed to address the disproportionality challenge must place the aforementioned structural forces at the center of education research, policy, and practice.

Blank, Rolf K. (2002).  Using Surveys of Enacted Curriculum To Advance Evaluation of Instruction in Relation to Standards.  Peabody Journal of Education, 77, 4. 

Presents instruments for measuring pedagogy and subject matter content, noting they are essential within experimental design and large-scale national accountability and suggesting that surveys of enacted curriculum can be used to: validly and reliably measure pedagogy and content; make comparisons across classes, schools, districts, and states; and measure the effects of standards based reforms on instruction and curriculum and the effects of professional development on teachers' instruction.

Blankenburg, Juele; Kariotis, Georgia (2000).  College Online Peer Tutor Training. 

This paper describes the development of a college online tutor training course at Oakton Community College (Illinois) that attempted to solve the difficulties of training without a loss of effective practice. The online designers had two special considerations in course construction: maintaining the pedagogical soundness of the course modules and learning the software product. Essential to the development of an online course is a very firm understanding of pedagogy by the designers. The course designers addressed the issue of pedagogical soundness by developing a lesson plan template on the department's Intranet share drive. Lesson modules were then created from the presentations in text files, which included: (1) welcome to tutoring; (2) learning theory; (3) learning style; (4) basic study skills and learning strategies; (5) critical thinking; (6) communication and active listening skills; (7) special populations--culture and learning; (8) special student populations--students with disabilities; (9) a case study; and (10) a practicum. Text material, quizzes, discussion forums and Web-site links diversified the course lessons. The lead teacher was also available for discussion and questions during the 10-week one-hour class sessions or through e-mail. Administrators believe that, with the implementation of this course, online course delivery has been standardized at the college. | [FULL TEXT]

Blanton, Maria L.; Berenson, Sarah B.; Norwood, Karen S. (2001).  Exploring a Pedagogy for the Supervision of Prospective Mathematics Teachers.  Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 4, 3. 

Explores pedagogy for supervision through a case study of one prospective middle school mathematics teacher during her student teaching semester. Characterizes the emerging pedagogy of teaching episodes by use of open-ended questions, shift away from the supervisor's evaluations of the teaching, sustained focus throughout supervision, and an effort to maintain sensitivity to the student teacher's zone of proximal development. 

Blatchford, Peter; Kutnick, Peter; Baines, Ed; Galton, Maurice (2003).  Toward a Social Pedagogy of Classroom Group Work  International Journal of Educational Research, 39, 1-2. 

In any classroom, pupils will be drawn together for many purposes and we can refer to such within classroom contexts as "groupings". The teacher often creates these, and the way that they are set up, and how they are used for particular learning purposes. If the relationships between grouping size, interaction type and learning tasks in groups are planned strategically then learning experiences will be more effective. However, research suggests that the relationships between these elements are often unplanned and the "social pedagogic" potential of classroom learning is therefore unrealised. In this paper we explore the notion of social pedagogy in relation to group work. It is argued that research and theory relevant to group work in classrooms is limited, and that a new approach, sensitive to group work under everyday classroom conditions is required. This paper identifies key features of a social pedagogy of classroom group work, which can inform effective group work in classrooms. It also describes the background to a current large scale UK project which has been set up to design with teachers a programme of high quality group work in classrooms at both primary and secondary phases.

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Bleicher, Robert E.; Lindgren, Joan (2005).  Success in Science Learning and Preservice Science Teaching Self-Efficacy  Journal of Science Teacher Education, 16, 3. 

This study examined relationships between conceptual understanding, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancy beliefs as preservice teachers learned science in a constructivist-oriented methods class. Participants included 49 preservice elementary teachers. Analysis revealed that participants increased in self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and conceptual understanding. Engaging preservice teachers in hands-on, minds-on activities and discussion were important contributors. Participants reported that they would be inclined to teach from a constructivist perspective in the future. One implication from this study is that increasing the quantity of science content courses that preservice elementary teachers are required to take may not be sufficient to overcome their reluctance to teach science if some of their learning does not take place in a constructivist environment. In our teaching, we have tried to integrate pedagogy with learning science content.

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Blizzard, Deborah; Foster, Susan (2007).  Feminist Pedagogy and Universal Design in a Deaf and Hearing World: Linking Cultures through Artifacts and Understanding  Feminist Teacher: A Journal of the Practices

Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) is a unique technological institute comprised of eight colleges, including the National Technical Institute for the Deaf. At the institute, deaf students and deaf culture intermingle (not always seamlessly) with students from other nations, states, and cities. Like most other universities, its students are multicultural and multilingual. Yet unlike other universities, deaf culture and its language (American Sign Language or ASL) figure prominently in most teaching venues. Deaf and hearing cultures are different. Teaching to both (and the multiple cultures and subcultures within them) is tricky at best. Deaf students are experts at "turn taking." ASL requires it. If everyone signed at the same time the visual cacophony would render the conversation meaningless. Many hearing students are easily excitable, and reflecting the competitive, individualist American culture, are impatient, wanting to put their points first and at times speaking over one another, an activity that they sometimes call "debate." In this article, the authors demonstrate how feminist pedagogy and Universal Design link deaf and hearing cultures in the classroom and empower students to find their voices (those spoken and signed) to build better understanding between individuals and create an arena in which respect for difference fosters an environment in which learning takes place. They also outline their approach to feminist pedagogy and Universal Design in the liberal arts classroom at RIT.

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Bloch, Marianne N., Ed.; Kennedy, Devorah, Ed.; Lightfoot, Theodora, Ed.; Weyenberg, Dar, Ed. (2006).  The Child in the World/The World in the Child. Education and the Configuration of a Universal, Modern, and Globalized Childhood  [Palgrave Macmillan] 

In this collection, the contributors look at the current spread of universalizing discourses concerning young children across the globe, examining the way these discourses, which purport to describe everyone in a scientific and neutral way, actually create mechanisms through which children are divided and excluded. The contributors to this book employ post-structuralist, postcolonial, and feminist theoretical frameworks. Following a preface (Elizabeth Swadener, Gaile Cannella, and Marianne Bloch, and a foreword (Thomas S. Popkewitz), the book is divided into four parts. Part I, "The Child in the World/ The World in the Child," contains: (1) Education and the Configuration of a Universal, Modern, and Globalized Childhood: An Introduction (Marianne Bloch, Devorah Kennedy, Theodora Lightfoot, and Dar Weyenberg.) Part II, "Governing the Universal, Modern Child and Family," continues with: (2) Educational Theories and Pedagogies as Technologies of Power/Knowledge: Educating the Young Child as a Citizen of an Imagined Nation and World (Marianne Bloch); (3) Configuring the Jewish Child: Intersections of Pedagogy and Cultural Identity (Devorah Kennedy); and (4) The Construction of the Asian American Children as "Model" Students (Susan Matoba Adler). Part III, "Governing the Modern and Normal Child through Pedagogical Discourses," presents: (5) Constructing the Young Child as a "Productive Citizen" through Language Acquisition Theory (Theodora Lightfoot); (6) The Quest for Health in Different Timespaces (Dar Weyenberg); (7) Visual Images and the Construction of Childhood Cultural Stories (Nancy Pauly); (8) The System of Reasoning the Child in Contemporary Japan (Jie Qi); and (9) The Specter of Irregularity Haunts the Child: A Historical Study of the "Problem-Child" in Brazilian Educational Discourses (Ana Laura Godinho Lima). Part IV, "Governing the Modern and Post-Modern Citizen and Nation through Universal Reforms in Education," contains the final chapters: (10) No Child Left Behind? The Specters of Almsgiving and Atonement: A Short Genealogy of the Saving Grace of US Education (Karen S. Pena); (11) Illusions of Social Democracy: Early Childhood Educational Voucher Policies in Taiwan (I Fang Lee); and (12) The Foundation Stage Child in a Shifting Sea: A History of the Present of the United Kingdom's Education Act 2002 (Ruth L. Peach).

Block, Alan A. (2000).  Resisting Occupation, Resisting Reading.  Language Arts, 78, 2. 

Outlines how reading became occupied by scientists and positivists who made of reading something mundane, inconsequential, and quantifiable. Discusses the effect that this occupation has had on the pedagogy, politics, and policy of reading in schools and society. Examines the resistance to reading that is provoked by these occupying forces.

Block, Cathy Collins (2008).  Michael Pressley's Educational Legacy and Directions He Identified for Future Research in Reading Instruction  Educational Psychologist, 43, 2. 

The purpose of this article is to document the legacy and continuing influence of Michael Pressley's work in the field of reading research and instruction. Descriptions are provided to demonstrate how he translated his data from the cognitive sciences into highly effective pedagogy. A second component of this article discusses how Michael Pressley, throughout his career, continuously collected converging evidence through multiple research methodologies to examine single, complex educational issues. The article concludes by presenting research agendas that Mike was pursuing near the end of his career and how these initiatives provide new directions for reading research, policy, and classroom practices today. His contemporary research focused on how to improve multiple comprehension strategy instruction so it could become an even greater, central component in K-12 curricula; how to expand the application of basic research in cognitive strategy instruction to classroom practices; and, how to assess reading comprehension more effectively.

Bloom, Davida (2006).  Moving beyond Naturalism: Using a Discussion of "Miss Julie" to Educate Students about Date Rape--and More  Feminist Teacher: A Journal of the Practices

In this article, the author talks about using the play entitled, "Miss Julie" to educate her students about date rape. According to her, the play presents a unique opportunity to bring up the topic of date rape. Several theories, including the social learning theory and the evolutionary theory, have been put forth to explain the existence of rape. The feminist theory of rape, however, is the one most applicable in the case of "Miss Julie." This theory posits that rape is "motivated largely out of desire for power and a hatred of women rather than by any sexual passion." Here, she points out the importance of bringing pressing social issues, into the course content, as one of the many tenets of feminist pedagogy. She discusses the play not only in the context of date rape, but also in terms of feminist pedagogy. Among other things, she teaches her students ways to both interpret and analyze the text.

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Bober, Marcie J. (2002).  Technology Integration: The Difficulties Inherent in Measuring Pedagogical Change.  TechTrends, 46, 1. 

Discussion of the federal government's role in educational reform and instructional innovation focuses on how to measure the impact of technology integration. Topics include technology planning and implementation processes; terminology, including technology, pedagogy, competence, skill, and ability; and thinking strategically versus thinking tactically.

Bobulescu, Roxana (2008).  Popularising the "New International Political Economy": The ATTAC Movement  Policy Futures in Education, 6, 2. 

Born in France in 1997, the ATTAC (Association for the Taxation of Financial Transactions to Aid Citizens) movement is popularising IPE (international political economy), the interdisciplinary field of study born in the United Kingdom in the 1970s. The affinity between the ideas and main concerns of ATTAC and IPE can be clearly stated. ATTAC is a popular education movement, promoting a critical reading of globalisation. It uses critical pedagogy and is largely supported by "resisting intellectuals", who are the newborn "organic intellectuals" once envisioned by Antonio Gramsci.

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Bodwell, Mary Buchinger (2004).  ''Now What Does that Mean, 'First Draft'?'': Responding to Text in an Adult Literacy Class  Linguistics and Education: An International Research Journal, 15, 1-2. 

This paper examines a discussion among a teacher and four Latin-American women in a family literacy class who engage for the first time in the practice of peer-editing a learner's text. In the analysis, it becomes evident that they have different ideas of and responses to the text. Whereas the teacher's focus is on revising the textual elements, the learners use the text to explore and negotiate their maternal practices. The conclusions are two-fold: pedagogy can benefit from a broadened definition of literate activity; and secondly, classroom practices, such as peer-editing, are social constructs and need to be explicitly scaffolded.

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Boe, Erling E.; Shin, Sujie; Cook, Lynne H. (2007).  Does Teacher Preparation Matter for Beginning Teachers in Either Special or General Education?  Journal of Special Education, 41, 3. 

The current U.S. Department of Education (USDOE) emphasis on the preparation of teachers in content knowledge, and de-emphasis on pedagogy and teaching practicums, constitutes a major issue concerning how best to prepare a sufficient supply of highly qualified teachers. By contrast, federal policy represented by the 2001 No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) emphasizes both full certification and content knowledge. Our research was based on data from the Schools and Staffing Survey for beginning teachers in both special and general education (separately). Results showed that extensive preparation in pedagogy and practice teaching was more effective than was only some or no preparation in producing beginning teachers who (a) were fully certified, (b) secured in-field teaching assignments, and (c) reported being well prepared to teach subject matter and well prepared with respect to pedagogical skills. Thus, contrary to the USDOE perspective emphasizing preparation in content knowledge, extensive preparation in pedagogy and practice teaching contributed to the attainment of the two key NCLB indicators of a highly qualified teacher: full certification and in-field teaching.

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Boggs, Merry (2002).  Assessment and Instruction of Phonics for Young Children: A Model for Collaborative Teaching and Learning. 

This chapter is part of a book that recounts the year's work at the Early Childhood Development Center (ECDC) at Texas A & M University-Corpus Christi. Rather than an "elitist" laboratory school for the children of university faculty, the dual-language ECDC is a collaboration between the Corpus Christi Independent School District and the university, with an enrollment representative of Corpus Christi's population. The chapter describes and evaluates an ECDC pedagogy renewal project on phonics instruction, involving interactions between graduate students, university faculty, and children entering first and second grades. The project entailed three components: (1) a subject area focus, which provided an in-depth examination of phonics; (2) a professional growth component, which promoted the habit of teacher reflection on literacy teaching and learning, and awareness of the many perspectives directly and indirectly affecting public school teaching and learning; and (3) an organizational component, which developed positive learning environments without the normal constraints of public school rules and regulations, and created collaborative learning experiences for students of all levels. Program evaluation showed positive results for adult learners, although effects on children's phonics learning were inconclusive. | [FULL TEXT]

Boghossian, Peter (2002).  Socratic Pedagogy, Race, and Power.  Education Policy Analysis Archives, 10, 3. 

Addresses and extends R. Garlikov's discussion (1998) of A. Rud's (1997) criticism of the Socratic dialogue to cover general notions of power and shows how these may affect Socratic discourse. In Socratic pedagogy the adverse effects of power are reduced, and the focus shifts from people to propositions.

Boghossian, Peter (2006).  Socratic Pedagogy, Critical Thinking, and Inmate Education  Journal of Correctional Education, 57, 1. 

This article explains and analyzes the practical application of the Socratic method in the context of inmate education, and identifies core critical thinking elements that emerge from four transcribed Socratic discussions with prison inmates. The paper starts with a detailed examination of the stages of the Socratic method as practiced by the historical Socrates, and then provides a definition and an explanation of critical thinking. The reader is then guided through an in-depth analysis of transcriptions of Socratic conversations with inmates, and is shown both how these conversations fit into a Socratic template, and which of the core critical thinking elements is most prominent in each discussion.

Bogotch, Ira (2000).  Reconceptualizing the Principalship (as a Profession): dot.com. 

This essay argues in favor of extending the social construction of the role of the principal to include dot.com values and experiences, while being alert to identifying those values and experiences that are potentially educative. The premise is that the practical lived experiences of educators, particularly school administrators, are too narrow for professionalization as practiced outside schools. Therefore, what is recommended is a broader perspective of educational leadership as a field that encompasses new roles for principals, superintendents, professors, and policymakers, along with a concurrent shift in change and implementation strategies derived from policymaking to an innovative redevelopment strategy derived from pedagogy.  | [FULL TEXT]

Bogotch, Ira E. (2000).  Reclaiming Pedagogy in National Standards for Educational Leaders. 

This paper presents a "recorded history" of national leadership standards, a critique of that history, along with a conceptual framework for how the national standards movement is viewed. The analysis offers a deconstruction of the recorded history, emphasizing the specific events surrounding the spread of educational leadership standards. A distinction between "history" and "recorded history" is made: educational leadership has a history where events come alive with emotion, debate, politics, and intrigue; by contrast, the recorded history of standards notes that over the past 2 decades a series of national education reports has been published by commissions appointed by professional associations and philanthropic foundations, each trying to improve the quality of educational leadership. A critical reading of the recorded history, however, indicates these reports are not a true history filled with debates and political intrigue, but a political narrative that tries to convince and persuade policymakers, researchers, and practitioners that the different constituencies had set aside their philosophical differences in educational leadership approaches and training in order to reach a consensus on national standards. What is missing, however, are the first-person eyewitness accounts, after-the-fact interviews, and backroom and hallway meetings. | [FULL TEXT]

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Bok

Bok, Derek C. (2006).  The Seizing Initiative for Quality Education  [Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges] 

The trustees of colleges and universities are charged not only with keeping their institution solvent, choosing its leaders, and defending it from intrusive outside forces, but are also supposed to convey to the faculty and administration the legitimate needs and concerns of important constituencies, such as students, alumni, and the public at large. Unfortunately, the latter responsibility has been somewhat neglected in favor of the former--in particular, most boards have done very little to represent the learning needs of society or to ensure that faculties achieve the highest attainable quality of education. While there are some legitimate fears about the potential results of greater trustee involvement in an institution's educational functions, a lack of board oversight can create an environment in which flawed pedagogy thrives. To avoid this situation, boards should take steps to ensure that they are well informed regarding how teaching performance is measured at their institutions and how this information is used once it is collected. This type of involvement on the board's part encourages administrators to seek change, rather than succumb to inertia.

Bokhorst-Heng, Wendy D. (2008).  School-Home Partnerships to Nurture Adolescent Literacy  Middle School Journal, 39, 5. 

Parental involvement comes in various forms and will differ as a child moves through primary and secondary school. Epstein's (2002) classic six-types model captures the potential scope of parental involvement: (1) basic obligations of parents as care-providers; (2) schools communicating with parents about school programs; (3) parent volunteering at school; (4) parent involvement in home learning; (5) parent as decision maker; and (6) collaborating with the community. Notably, her model also suggests a two-way partnership--schools supporting parents and parents supporting schools--toward the common goal of improved student learning. This article focuses on school-home partnerships in Singapore. The Singapore story presented here focuses on the processes of school-home partnerships in one secondary school (housing 12- to 15-year-olds), premised on Epstein's fifth type of parental involvement in decision making. Epstein's argument is that successful school-home collaborations are ones in which educators, families, and community-members work together to develop shared understandings on key issues relevant to students' learning and develop shared goals. Such collaborations are not activities but rather a "process" that guides the development of goals and plans, making education a shared responsibility. For example, Kessler-Sklar and Baker (2000) and Lopez (2002) discussed the role of parents in data collection processes, demonstrating how their involvement sensitizes parents to the issues and empowers them to use such data to catalyze change. Along the same vein, over six months, a team of researchers from the Centre for Research in Pedagogy and Practice (CRPP) worked together at Dewey Secondary School (name changed) with the school's leaders, and Secondary 1 (about age 12, or year 7) teachers, parents, and students on issues pertaining to adolescent literacy and school-home relationships. It entailed a process of consensus building around key concepts of literacy, of data collection and analysis, and of exploring the possibilities and constraints of school-home partnerships. The culmination was a "joint" parent-teacher workshop on enhancing adolescent literacy in the context of school-home partnerships, the first of its kind in this school. The discussion here maps this journey, framed by the various stages within this process. Within each is a conversation about what was learned by the particular methodologies used at each stage. In the conclusion, attention was given to the implications of this story for school-home relationships and adolescent literacy practices in Singapore and beyond.

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Bomer, Randy; Bomer, Katherine (2001).  For a Better World: Reading and Writing for Social Action. 

This book presents a new vision of curriculum--one that invites students to read with important social ideas in mind and write with the purpose of making the world a better place. Developed over years of classroom experience with diverse children, the book will help more experienced teachers take the next step in their professional growth, while providing newer teachers with a picture of how the largest purposes in democratic education connect to the details of teaching. A reader-friendly guide for bringing critical literacy into readings and writing workshops, the book demonstrates how to: support students' writing for public purposes and connect their personal writing to important social issues; facilitate more meaningful talk in the classroom; develop students' language and concepts for discussing significant social and political ideas in response to literature; help students inquire into the daily politics of classroom life; integrate social studies, writing, and literature in experiential, inquiry-based ways; and assure that all students have access to a rich and meaningful education for social justice. The book, with examples from real children and grounded in theories of democracy and culture, aims to guide teachers back to their original motives for going into education and helps them construct deeper purposes for carrying on their daily work.

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Bonidis, Kyriakos Th.; Zarifis, George K. (2006).  Part II: Is There a Role for Education in the Way towards Stability and Democratisation in the Balkans? A Critical Review of BA.SO.P.ED's Aims and Publications (1997-2004)  European Journal of Education, 41, 2. 

November 1997 witnessed the formation of the Balkan Society for Pedagogy and Education (BA.SO.P.ED) in Thessaloniki, with the support of individual academics and pedagogues from many Balkan Universities and research institutes, but also with the participation of representatives of Educational Societies from Albania, Bulgaria, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (F.Y.R.O.M), Greece, Serbia & Montenegro (at that time known as New Yugoslavia), Romania, Turkey and Cyprus. Among the various goals that were adopted in this first step towards a more stable collaboration in the field of education--in a geographical area with a difficult social and political history, but also with a bad record of understanding among its nations that many times in their histories was marked by territorial disputes, that resulted in wars and long lasting political and social tragedies--the members of the Society included in their aim "... to promote by any means possible, constant exchange and updating of ideas at all levels (educational, social, political, etc.) in order to materialise those conditions that will facilitate the study and the research of their histories within a contemporary framework, but also will support a common initiative for collaborative action among those authorities that determine their educational and social policies ..." In this article we look at how BA.SO.P.ED creates the conditions that could enable collaboration among pedagogues and educational researchers from the Balkans, by reviewing its activities and priorities as these appear in its publications during the period 1997-2004.

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Boran, Sibel, Ed.; Comber, Barbara, Ed. (2001).  Critiquing Whole Language and Classroom Inquiry. WLU Series. 

This book, part of the Whole Language Umbrella Series, offers a critical reexamination of "inquiry" and "whole language" as tools for rethinking literacy, schooling, and humanistic citizenship in the complexities of today's multicultural world. The essays in the book explore the political implications of literacy theories and practices by asking what kinds of inquiries promote or hinder the acquisition of literacies as tools for envisioning, critically exploring, and reconstructing knowledge and societies that are socially just. After an introduction ("The Inquirers and Their Questions" by the editors), essays in the book are: (1) "What Education as Inquiry Is and Isn't" (Jerome C. Harste); (2) "Curriculum as Inquiry" (Kathy G. Short and Carolyn L. Burke); (3) "The Journey from Pedagogy to Politics: Taking Whole Language Seriously" (Susan M. Church); (4) "What's It Going To Be?" (Patrick Shannon); (5) "Critical Inquiry or Safe Literacies: Who's Allowed To Ask Which Questions?" (Barbara Comber); (6) "Writing for Critical Democracy: Student Voice and Teacher Practice in the Writing Workshop" (Timothy J. Lensmire); (7) "Classrooms in the Community: From Curriculum to Pedagogy" (Timothy Shannon and Patrick Shannon); (8) "'I Knew That Already': How Children's Books Limit Inquiry" (Jennifer O'Brien); (9) "Examining Poverty and Literacy in Our Schools: Janice's Story" (Connie L. White); (10) "Classroom Inquiry into the Incidental Unfolding of Social Justice Issues: Seeking Out Possibilities in the Lives of Learners" (Vivian Vasquez); (11) "Our Kinds of Questions You Wouldn't Find in a Book" (Robyn Jenkin); (12) "Young Researchers in Action" (David Wray, Maureen Lewis, with Carolyn Cox); (13) "Different Cultural Views of Whole Language" (Lee Gunderson); and (14) "Inviting Reflective Global Inquiries: Politicizing Multicultural Literature, Mediated Student Voices, and English Literacies" (Sibel Boran). | [FULL TEXT]

Borba, Mary F. (2008).  Literacy Lessons on Location  Phi Delta Kappan, 89, 6. 

With the current pressures on teachers to increase academic achievement for all students, high-quality teacher training is more important than ever. Elementary teachers are faced with high expectations for their students to achieve literacy proficiency, and these expectations became law with the No Child Left Behind Act. With or without this legislation, the author, a university professor who teaches future teachers in a university program, is committed to preparing teacher candidates to respond expertly to the challenge of helping children become proficient readers and writers to ensure their success in society. In this article, the author reflects on how best to provide learning opportunities for her students as they prepare to become elementary teachers. She uses real public school classrooms to teach prospective teachers that no commercial reading program can accomplish what a skilled teacher can. The education students learn literacy lessons at an elementary school where pedagogy and practicum are integrated within each class period.

Bordelon, Suzanne (2006).  A Reassessment of George Pierce Baker's "The Principles of Argumentation": Minimizing the Use of Formal Logic in Favor of Practical Approaches  College Composition and Communication, 57, 4. 

In this article, the author demonstrated how recent histories relied primarily on previous accounts and one textbook to characterize George Pierce Baker's work. This narrow assessment of "The Principles of Argumentation" limits one's understanding of his contribution to argumentation theory and pedagogy. Similarly, one has seen the need for care when quoting and using different editions of his text. In addition, the author has argued that an analysis of any textbook is not enough to understand its potential use in the classroom.

Bore, Anne (2006).  Bottom-Up for Creativity in Science? A Collaborative Model for Curriculum and Professional Development  Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 32, 4. 

Science education in the United Kingdom faces a dual challenge in the near future: that of addressing increasing disaffection from the subject by pupils as they enter adolescence coupled with the downturn in learning as they leave primary school behind. Both bridging work and teacher creativity have been identified as key ingredients in ensuring pupil engagement in learning, yet innovation requires both time and a broader vision than may be offered by a normative and centralized pedagogy. This paper proposes a four-stage model for curriculum development to encourage creativity, based on the experiences of teachers as they designed bridging work for pupils in science. A grounded theory approach is utilized to generate four concept categories emerging from participants' comments during the study. These are described as "uncertainty", "visioning", "realization" and "readiness", and this research demonstrates that "bottom-up" is a very effective method of professional development promoting combinatorial thinking and creative science teaching.

Boreham, Nick; Morgan, Colin (2004).  A Sociocultural Analysis of Organisational Learning  Oxford Review of Education, 30, 3. 

The concept of organisational learning has been widely debated and frequently contested by educationalists, but the specific processes and actions which constitute this form of learning have received relatively little research attention. This paper reports a three-year empirical investigation into organisational learning in a large industrial complex, with the aim of clarifying the practices of organisational learning and interpreting them within sociocultural learning theory. A sociocultural model is proposed which identifies dialogue as the fundamental process by which organisations learn, and relational practices as the social structure which embeds the dialogue and makes it sustainable in a potentially conflictual environment. Three relational practices are analysed in detail: opening space for the creation of shared meaning, reconstituting power relationships and providing cultural tools to mediate learning. A pedagogy of organisational learning is defined in terms of participation in these practices, either as the carrier of a practice or as the facilitator of participation by others. The theoretical requirement that adult learning must be autonomous is reconciled with the concept of collective learning in pursuit of organisational goals by rejecting the notion of an individually-contained self in favour of a relational concept of the self, in which autonomy is achieved by building relationships with others.

Borisenkov, V. P. (2007).  The Development of Fundamental Pedagogical Research in the Russian Academy of Education  Russian Education & Society, 49, 1. 

Improving the quality of life of the people of Russia--a paramount national priority--requires optimizing scientific activity and substantially increasing its technological success rate and social effectiveness, and reforming the administrative structure, in short, the fundamentalization of present-day science. The connection between fundamental science and people's quality of life, emphasized in the draft of the Long-Range Plan of Fundamental Research in Priority Areas of the Development of Science and Technology for the Period to 2025, is greatly changing the conception of the character and importance of pedagogy. Present-day science, which creates fundamental knowledge and the foundation of up-to-date technologies, exerts a direct influence on the content, level, and quality of education. Science is inseparable from universal human culture, and its role is to deal with complex economic, social, and ecological problems. Accordingly, fundamental pedagogical science is very closely linked to finding effective and timely solutions to problems of education and the development of the individual through the means of culture, providing new generations with pedagogical support in the processes of socialization, cultural identity, and the shaping of spiritual and moral steadfastness under globalization. This article discusses the substantial changes in planning, organization, motivation, and evaluation required in the development of fundamental pedagogical research in the Russian Academy of Education.

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Bosse, Michael J.; Nandakumar, N. R. (2004).  Computer Algebra Systems, Pedagogy, and Epistemology  Mathematics and Computer Education, 38, 3. 

The advent of powerful Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) continues to dramatically affect curricula, pedagogy, and epistemology in secondary and college algebra classrooms. However, epistemological and pedagogical research regarding the role and effectiveness of CAS in the learning of algebra lags behind. This paper investigates concerns regarding typing expressions into Texas Instruments TI-92 and TI-89 CAS and offers suggestions for future CAS to be more pedagogically and epistemologically sound.

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Boud, David; Lee, Alison (2005).  "Peer Learning" as Pedagogic Discourse for Research Education  Studies in Higher Education, 30, 5. 

Research education has been dominated in recent years by policy-driven preoccupations with doctoral completions, funding and contributions to the economy. This has led universities to focus on enhanced institutional support for research degrees, with an emphasis on supervision, in particular the training of supervisors, and provision of a richer environment for students. This article uses examples from interviews with research students to show how the provision of a rich environment is not in itself sufficient. A new discourse is needed so that students are able to take up opportunities that are available. The article questions the current emphasis and argues that a new focus on pedagogy is explicitly needed. It challenges the dominant focus on supervision and "provisionism" and suggests that a more appropriate pedagogic discourse should draw on the familiar notion of "peer" from the world of research. It argues that peer learning, appropriately theorized and situated within a notion of communities of research practice, might be a productive frame through which to view research education.

Bouffard, Laura Annie; Sarkar, Mela (2008).  Training 8-Year-Old French Immersion Students in Metalinguistic Analysis: An Innovation in Form-Focused Pedagogy  Language Awareness, 17, 1. 

Most research on language awareness in a second language (L2) has been carried out with adult learners. This research presents data showing that pedagogical techniques can be devised enabling children as young as 8 to develop metalinguistic awareness of their emerging L2 system. Building on existing work by Canadian researchers, this classroom-based study investigated tasks designed to encourage young learners to develop language awareness through repair and analysis of their errors. Forty-three 8- to 9-year-old children in a Montreal French immersion class were prompted by the teacher-researcher to correct their non-target-like utterances. Corrective feedback was provided on lexical, phonological and grammatical errors, and on uses of L1. While watching their videotaped oral presentations, participants were guided to notice and repair errors through group discussion. Results indicated that through group interaction, young children were able to notice and repair errors, to identify language features involved, to negotiate form and to do grammatical analysis of the errors.

Boufoy-Bastick, Beatrice (2000).  Storying Cultural Specificities of ESL Teaching in Fiji: A Grounded Composite Narrative. 

This paper utilizes a grounded narrative to report characteristics of teaching that are most culturally Fijian. Grounded narrative is a data reduction methodology of qualitative reporting evidenced by the data. It is used to portray vividly and authentically the Fijian educational setting by highlighting the salient cultural characteristics that typify Fijian teaching. The paper depicts a fictitious culturally-extreme Fijian rural school, an ideal type. This description effectively highlights the sociocultural determinants of Fijian school ethos by reporting extreme aspects of English teaching and daily school management. The first part of the narrative described the school's main physical and management features. The second part focused on the teaching and learning of English in the Fijian rural context. The teachers' methodological strategies for teaching English are outlined. It is concluded that systematic teaching of students to the Fijian national English examination is inimical to broader pedagogical objectives, because it ignores the fact that English is not the language of daily life. This finding has relevance for the training of teachers and managers for rural Fijian secondary schools. It underscores that teacher training, without reference to the determining socio-cultural characteristics of Fiji is unlikely to significantly broaden the pedagogy of rural English teachers and hence the English language proficiency of their students. Contains 40 references. | [FULL TEXT]

Boufoy-Bastick, Beatrice (2001).  Constructivist Pedagogy for Authentically Activating Oral Skills in the Foreign Language Classroom. 

This paper explains how oral competence in foreign languages is developed by applying constructivist pedagogic methodology to the four language skills of speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Foreign language constructivist methodology departs from the information processing model and behaviorist teaching that guide the transmission of foreign language teaching. In contrast, the learner-centered pedagogic approach inherent to foreign language constructivism is geared to enhancing self-directed learning and to promoting foreign language communicative competence through authentic language use in the classroom. This methodology endorses current positive foreign language pedagogic values, such as authenticity and collaboration and the encouragement of active engagement in learning. This is primarily achieved through the use of thematically-focused communicative activities, which create energizing living experiences in the foreign language. This paper shows how to use these affect-structuring techniques of emotional anchors, motivators, and cognitive direction to design these constructivist foreign language experiences and gives practical examples of their application in a multicultural, multi-ability and multi-age French class.  | [FULL TEXT]

Boughton, Doug (2004).  The Problem of Seduction: Assessing Visual Culture  Studies in Art Education: A Journal of Issues and Research in Art Education, 45, 3. 

In this paper, the author describes popular visual culture as seductive, engaging the interest of children and adults because it is both complex and highly sophisticated in aesthetic terms. The author states his agreement with the proponents of a visual culture approach designed to broaden the content of art teaching beyond fine arts to include all forms of visual culture production. He asserts that it is time to rethink the content and pedagogy of art education by taking into account student interests in the popular, as well as the fine arts, and by paying more attention to the content of artistic expression.

Bourdon, Carrie M., Ed.; Carducci, Rozana, Ed. (2002).  What Works in the Community Colleges: A Synthesis of the Literature on Best Practices. 

This paper offers a synthesis of 27 community college issues derived from recent books, journals, and ERIC documents. It presents single-page statements that each include a research finding, comments, and references. The findings are divided into nine topics: administration and governance, faculty, student achievement and persistence, curriculum and instruction, enrollment management, school/business relationships and partnerships, student service and intervention programs, vocational education, and community college life. The findings can be used by community college administrators, faculty, and staff to inform policy, pedagogy, and practice, and may also be useful to graduate students as an introduction to the literature on community colleges. Some of the highlights of the findings include: (1) faculty mentoring programs benefit both the individual and the college; (2) peer mentoring will become particularly important as large numbers of community college faculty move toward retirement in the next 10 years; (3) early alert programs have a positive effect on students' course completion and re-enrollment rates; (4) faculty members, counselors, or advisors should contact students at mid-point in the semester in order to address problems or barriers to academic success; (5) Limited English Proficient (LEP) students are more successful when instructional programs incorporate academic and cultural components.  | [FULL TEXT]

Bousted, Mary (2000).  Rhetoric and Practice in English Teaching.  English in Education, 34, 1. 

Examines contemporary conditions of English in 3 British secondary schools. Considers (1) what English teachers say about their aims; (2) how these aims are translated into classroom practices; and (3) what external agencies want the subject of English to produce. Concludes teachers "delivered" the cultural products of Standard English and the literary canon and still retained elements of process-based pedagogy.

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Bowers, C. A. (2002).  Toward an Eco-justice Pedagogy.  Environmental Education Research, 8, 1. 

Addresses three issues: (1) the nature and importance of an eco-justice pedagogy; (2) how an eco-justice pedagogy differs from the recommendations of critical pedagogy theorists; and (3) the reforms that need to be undertaken in teacher education in order for teachers to balance critical inquiry with helping students recognize and participate in the non-commodified aspects of community life.

Bowers, Janet S.; Nickerson, Susan (2001).  Identifying Cyclic Patterns of Interaction To Study Individual and Collective Learning.  Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 3, 1. 

Analyzes one mathematics teacher educator's novel approach to challenging students' traditional views of mathematical pedagogy and what it means to know and understand mathematics. Documents the emergence of a collective conceptual orientation and uses this construct to explore the reflexivity between its emergence and individual students' development of conceptual orientations. 

Bowers, Rebecca S. (2000).  A Pedagogy of Success: Meeting the Challenges of Urban Middle Schools.  Clearing House, 73, 4. 

Discusses challenges particular to urban middle schools. Describes collaborative services programs, and culturally relevant teaching as two effective ways to meet some of those challenges. Offers the example of an effective urban teacher, and discusses moving from a pedagogy of poverty to a pedagogy of success.

Bowers, Rick (2005).  Freire (with Bakhtin) and the Dialogic Classroom Seminar  Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 51, 4. 

This article on pedagogy in the classroom seminar combines the basic principles of dialogue and liberation as expressed especially by 20th-century thinkers Bakhtin and Freire. It argues for a pedagogy of educational growth and facilitation of ideas. Through learner-centered knowledge, dialogic interaction, open exploration, mutual respect, and problem-based learning--as opposed to a pedagogy of conflict, including scenarios of confrontation, monologic assertions of instruction, and expert communiques--the classroom seminar undergoes authentic liberation and discovery. At all points the classroom must be free from coercion and open to alternative perspectives in order to weigh evidence and arguments as objectively as possible, to break patterns of vertical authority, and to involve all participants in their own education. Not usually compared, these Bakhtinian and Freirean procedures provide sustainable, compassionate, and empowering possibilities for the university classroom seminar in North America and elsewhere.

Bowles, Steve (2001).  Crossing the Borders as a Critical and Experiential Pedagogy.  Pathways: The Ontario Journal of Outdoor Education, 13, 1. 

Deplores the trend toward competitive, market-oriented forms of outdoor adventure education that speak of "outcomes,""risk management," and "performance indicators." Discusses children's need for time to play outdoors and develop ecological awareness and sense of place through sensory experiences. Calls for outdoor education to provide an alternative education in the Nordic tradition of "friluftsliv."

Bowman, Barbara T., Ed.; Donovan, M. Suzanne, Ed.; Burns, M. Susan, Ed. (2001).  Eager To Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. [Full Report and Executive Summary.] 

To enable educators, parents, and policymakers to make sound decisions about programs for young children, the Committee on Early Childhood Pedagogy was established in 1997 by the National Research Council to study a broad range of research on early learning and development and to explore the implications for the education and care of children ages 2 to 5, focusing on programs provided outside the home. This book examines the accumulated theory, research, and evaluation literature relevant to early care and education, and presents the Committee's recommendations. Following an executive summary and an introductory chapter, Chapter 2 presents research and theory on early development; examines research on the interdependence of cognitive, emotional, and social development; and explores literature on the importance of infants' and children's early relationships with adults. Chapter 3 examines functional and status characteristics that express themselves as variations in development. Chapter 4 addresses the issue of quality in out-of-home early childhood education, while chapter 5 explores curriculum and pedagogy, integrating research on early learning capabilities with research on general principles and approaches to early care and education. Chapter 6 deals with assessment, focusing on assessment to support learning. Chapter 7 looks at the preparation of early childhood teachers and caregivers, emphasizing the need for professionalization. Chapter 8 analyzes the need for program and practice standards to promote quality in early childhood education. Chapter 9 presents conclusions and recommendations related to professional development, educational materials, public policy, and research needs. Contains references for each chapter. Standards for scientific methods are appended. | [FULL TEXT]

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Boyd, William E.; Healey, Ruth L.; Hardwick, Susan W.; Haigh, Martin; Klein, Phil; Doran, Bruce; Trafford, Julie; Bradbeer, John (2008).  "None of Us Sets out to Hurt People": The Ethical Geographer and Geography Curricula in Higher Education  Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 32, 1. 

This paper examines ethics in learning and teaching geography in higher education. It proposes a pathway towards curriculum and pedagogy that better incorporates ethics in university geography education. By focusing on the central but problematic relationships between (i) teaching and learning on the one hand and research on the other, and (ii) ethics and geography curricula, the authors' reflections illustrate how ethics may be better recognized within those curricula. They discuss issues affecting teaching and learning about ethics in geography, and through identification of a range of examples identify ways to enhance the integration of ethical issues into university geography curricula.

Boylan, Colin, Ed.; Hemmings, Brian, Ed. (2004).  Working Together, Staying Vital. Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Western Australian District High Schools Administrators' Association and the National Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (20th, Fremantle, Western Australia, June 2004)  [Online Submission, Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Western Australian District High Schools Administrators' Association and the National Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (20th, Freemantle, Western Australia, Jun 2004)] 

The 20th National Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) and Western Australia District High School Administrators' Association (WADHSAA) joint conference proceedings, based on the theme "Working Together, Staying Vital," was held in Fremantle, Perth, Western Australia, in June 2004. The proceedings contain 13 keynote addresses and conference papers. Keynote addresses in the proceedings include: (1) Indigenous Education: A Collective Task for All Australians (Stephen Kemmis, Marianne Atkinson, and Roslin Brennan Kemmis A.M.); (2) From Conference Resolution to Project Implementation: ABCDE--A Strategy for the Revitalisation of a Rural Community (Murray Lake, David Platt, and Grant Draper); and (3) Creating Magnificent Schools and Productive Futures--Ways Forward for Rural Education (John Edwards and Bill Martin). Refereed papers include: (4) The State of Rural Education in Pre-Service Teacher Education Courses (Colin R. Boylan); and (5) Infusing Pedagogy into Place Based Education (John Bryden and Colin Boylan). Non-refereed papers include: (6) My Kid Doesn't Dob (Tony Beswick); (7) Space and Equity in Rural Education [Abstract] (Bill Green); (8) A Classroom without Walls--"Live" e-Learning with Centra 7[TM] (Enver Malkic); (9) Internet Safety for Rural Communities (Jane Marquard); (10) Follow the Dream--A Secondary Aspirations Strategy for Aboriginal Students (Doug Melville); (11) What Is Rural? A Discussion with an American Rural Educator (T. R. Munsch); (12) Student Council Virtues Project (Sarah Pendlebury and Kane Benson); (13) Linking the Technologies (Kate Haddow and Salli Thomas); (14) Nurturing Innovation in Rural Education (Mark Weir); (15) Mentoring--All the BUZZ (Matt Wren); and (16) Youth Re-Engagement through Community Partnerships (Australian Rural Education Award Winner 2004: Whyalla Economic Development Board, Inc.). Individual papers contain references, tables, and figures. [Abstract modified to meet ERIC guidelines.] | [FULL TEXT]

Boyle, Helen N. (2001).  The Growth of Qur'anic Schooling and the Marginalization of Islamic Pedagogy: The Case of Morocco. 

For centuries, Morocco has had a dynamic network of Qur'anic schools, serving children from elementary age through adulthood. Qur'anic schools are religious schools that facilitate memorization of the Qur'an through teaching children to pronounce and recite the Qur'an according to an accepted recitational style. Despite 44 years of French colonization, Islamic education persists, although it has in many ways been crowded out by the introduction of more secular public education that grew out of colonialism. This paper examines the interplay between these two traditions in Morocco, looking at ways in which they have come to coexist, ways in which they have influenced each other, and different social and educational roles they have assumed. In so doing, the paper discusses the paradox of the growth and popularity of Qur'anic preschools, even as the traditional pedagogy of these schools is subsumed by modern pedagogical strategies common to public schools.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Boz, Nihat; Boz, Yezdan (2006).  Do Prospective Teachers Get Enough Experience in School Placements?  Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 32, 4. 

The aim of this study is to discuss the experiences of prospective teachers during their school placements. For this aim, 41 prospective teachers taking School Experience II and Teaching Practice courses wrote and submitted a one- to two-page reflection of their field-based experiences at the end of the semester. Prospective teachers' written responses indicated that most of them experienced problems in their school placements. Student teachers in their second teaching placement said that they observed similar issues, repeated similar activities as they did in their first school placement. Student teachers enrolled in the last teaching practicum said that they did not feel like the teacher of the class and did not get enough chance to practice.

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Braer, Gerd (2006).  The U.S. Writing Center Model for High Schools Goes to Germany: And What Is Coming Back?  Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies

The 2000 and 2003 international studies of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) among all Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries presented disappointing results for Germany's fifteen-year-old students' reading skills. These studies pointed out two necessities for future reform: to extend the school day (instruction generally ends at 1:00 p.m.) and to broaden the variety of learning opportunities offered outside of the traditional classroom. Both recommendations are being forced on schools by means of different measures in light of an institutional model called "Ganztagsschule" (GTS), or "full day school," which extends classes, as in other countries, until 3:00 or even 4:00 p.m. What has been practiced in the United States as writing across the curriculum since the 1970s is key to current school reform in Germany and other European countries. In December 2004, a Writing Resources Center (WRC) in Freiburg shared by an elementary school, middle school, and school for students with special needs (the Albert Schweitzer Schools of Freiburg) began with a six-week project run by the elementary school. Students in third and fourth grade read and analyzed the local daily newspaper together and ran several small group writing projects, which fostered reading comprehension. In these projects a broad variety of texts, pictures, and objects represented the students' efforts to create meaning out of what they had read. Just as the development of full-day schools requires support that extends beyond measures that are internal to the particular school, developing a writing and reading center for primary and/or secondary schools should not be tackled alone. There are now WRCs in several German states, such as Baden-Wurttemberg, Hessen, North Rhein-Westphalia and Saarland. The author of this article has been assisting these schools up until now through coaching in school development issues and specific continuing education workshops of individual colleagues in the area of writing and reading pedagogy.

Branch, Andre J. (2005).  Practicing Multicultural Education in "United States History for Teachers": The Case of Dr. Johnson  Theory and Research in Social Education, 33, 3. 

College and university professors in large part do not make connections between their disciplines and the culture of their students. Research has found culturally relevant curricula and pedagogy to be effective in helping to increase the academic achievement of students (Au, 1981; Bell & Clark, 1998; Cazden & John, 1971; John, 1972; Ladson-Billings, 1995; Norment, 1997). I conducted research using a modified case study method to investigate the practice of Multicultural Education by university professors. The Five Dimensions of Multicultural Education, as conceived by James Banks (2004a), and Culturally Relevant Pedagogy, as discussed by Ladson-Billings (1995), informed the conceptual framework for this study. I conducted the study using qualitative methodological tools of interviews, observations, and artifact collection. The present paper reports the findings of the United States History for Teachers case. This case is one of six in a larger study of a number of college courses in the undergraduate curriculum that prepares students for public school teaching. I present findings that suggest how some aspects of multicultural education are practiced in a course that prepares history teachers. After providing a critique of the studied practices, I offer suggestions for improving the practice of multicultural education in History for Teachers courses. I also offer a new reflective approach to the practice of multicultural education for teacher educators.

Brand, Brenda R.; Glasson, George E. (2004).  Crossing Cultural Borders into Science Teaching: Early Life Experiences, Racial and Ethnic Identities, and Beliefs about Diversity  Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 41, 2. 

The purpose of this ethnographic study was to explore the development of belief systems as related to racial and ethnic identities of preservice teachers as they crossed cultural borders into science teaching. Data were collected throughout a yearlong teacher preparation program to learn how early life experiences and racial and ethnic identities of preservice teachers influenced both their beliefs about diversity in science classrooms and science teaching pedagogy. Case studies of three preservice teachers from diverse racial and ethnic background are presented: Asian American, African American, and Rural Appalachian. Using Bank's ethnicity typology, findings suggest that racial and ethnic identity, developed in early life experiences of preservice teachers, provided clarity on the rigidity of their beliefs about diversity and how they view science teaching. By learning about the border crossing experiences of preservice teachers in relation to their beliefs about diversity as related to racial and ethnic identities, the researchers hoped to provide insight on preparing preservice teachers for the challenges of working in diverse classrooms.

Brandt, Carol B. (2004).  A Thirst for Justice in the Arid Southwest: The Role of Epistemology and Place in Higher Education  Educational Studies Journal of the American Educational Studies Assoc, 36, 1. 

How is the university connected to the pressing social and environmental problems that confront citizens in its region? What sorts of communities will students build in this changing cultural and environmental landscape as a result of their experiences in education? In this article I explore how an ethnobotany seminar uses critical pedagogy of place to engage students in the social, economic, and ecological relationships beyond the university campus. I describe how ethnobotany, the study of plants used by human cultures, is one way for students to explore the epistemology of Western science and traditional ecological knowledge. In this course, I encouraged students to ask, What counts as science? Whose knowledge is valued? What knowledge can sustain our communities? In our ethnobotany seminar, the topic of access and quality of water in the Southwest became a focal point for understanding the relation between place, epistemology, and ecojustice.

Brantmeier, Edward J. (2003).  Peace Pedagogy: Exposing and Integrating Peace Education in Teacher Education. 

This paper discusses peace education, which is "the transmission of knowledge about the requirements of, the obstacles to and possibilities for achieving and maintaining peace, training in skills for interpreting the knowledge, and development of reflective and participatory capacities for applying the knowledge to overcoming problems and achieving possibilities." The paper asserts that peace education needs exposure and further integration into teacher education discourse and practice. It begins defining peace education, explaining how the purposes and goals of peace education already align with peace theory, and suggesting how a move from implicit to explicit peace education may strengthen the overall momentum of peace pedagogy in building a culture of peace. The paper also surveys the scholarly literature pertaining to the integration of peace education into teacher education (noting that it has been excluded from mainstream teacher education rhetoric), and it reviews how peace education has been and can be further integrated into teacher education rhetoric and practice. It concludes by discussing approaches to peace education, a semantic field for peace education, and building a culture of peace through teacher education. | [FULL TEXT]

Braslavsky, Cecilia (2005).  The History of Education and the Contemporary Challenge of Quality Education for All  Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education, 35, 4. 

In working within the complex, dynamic, contradictory set of national and international networks and bodies responsible for managing education, the author observed certain issues in the twists and turns of these networks. She mentions three of them. The first is the short-term or specific view of the present challenge of quality education for all. The second is the disdain for history as a tool for creating leverage for the future. The third is the scant awareness of and reflection on the processes for constructing mechanisms (not institutional structures) for the international management of education, and their increasing division into differentiated and increasingly less interdependent networks in a world that prides itself on being ever more interdependent. Immersed in these networks and bodies and with the possibility of entering into a dialogue with recognized academics, students and teachers occupying different positions, the author shares certain heterodox, alternative viewpoints regarding such networks. These viewpoints attempt to argue in favour of the need to set out on a new path, which she calls "the pedagogy of history for contemporary educational policies." It means that progress cannot be achieved in international education if the contemporary challenge of quality education is not set within the inevitable current of history and if this is not done with specific professional tools they call "genealogical professional historical awareness." Based on a differentiation between four types of historical awareness, the author analyzes the probable outcomes of discussions between national and international actors. This analysis attempts to justify the position in favour of the development of a genealogical professional historical awareness, whose characteristics the author attempts to explain at the end of this essay.

Brauer, Gerd, Ed. (2000).  Writing across Languages. Advances in Foreign and Second Language Pedagogy Series. Volume 1. 

This book contains articles from Europe and North America that focus on writing instruction in Danish, French, Italian, German, and English as foreign or second languages at all levels of instruction. The aim of this volume is mainly to encourage an understanding of an expanded function of writing in the field of language education, in theoretical terms, and within the framework of classroom practice. The book's structure (history and theories, people, spaces, modes of learning) suggests a conceptual understanding of language education that underlines the interactive character of teaching and learning. Writing is understood here not only as a tool for recording knowledge but also as a means of developing it. Viewed this way, writing reaches beyond the realm of the foreign language, connecting the learners native language expertise with the other languages to be studied. Language is considered a social phenomenon, and the focus is to reveal the potential uses of writing for learning across the curriculum. Topics discussed include: process versus product writing; the usefulness of writing in second language learning and instruction; the amount of vocabulary and grammar required to begin the writing process; learning change through writing; the effects of writing on the student-teacher relationship; and the uses of the Internet in writing and language education. Extensive references and author and subject indexes are included.

Brauer, Gerd, Ed. (2001).  Pedagogy of Language Learning in Higher Education: An Introduction. Advances in Foreign Language Pedagogy, Volume 2. 

This second volume in the series "Advances in Foreign and Second Language Pedagogy" is an introduction to the pedagogy of language learning in higher education focusing on learner motivation, classroom environments, relationships for learning, and the future of language education. The book reveals numerous links to language education on the secondary level. Fifteen authors for the United States, Australia, and Germany contribute articles on issues such as the political agenda of institutions of higher education, artistic and aesthetic practice, language across the curriculum, service learning, adult education, intercultural awareness through electronic media, extra-curricular consultation, and language learning outreach. These pedagogical issues are related to teaching Portuguese, Spanish, Russian, Japanese, French, German, and English as a second or foreign language. The book is divided into four parts (Learner Motivation, Classroom Environments, Relationships for Learning, and Preparing the Future of Language Education) and 15 chapters. Author and subject indices are included. (References appear at the end of each chapter)

Brauer, Gerd, Ed. (2002).  Body and Language: Intercultural Learning through Drama. Advances in Foreign and Second Language Pedagogy. 

This third volume in a series provides an introduction to the use of drama in the foreign and second language classroom, highlighting the bridging character of drama-based teaching for intercultural learning. Twelve chapters include: (1) "Understanding Drama-Based Education" (Betty Jane Wagner); (2) "Intercultural Recognitions through Performative Inquiry" (Lynn Fels and Lynne McGivern); (3) "Transcultural Performance in Classroom Learning" (Ann Axtmann); (4) "Process Drama in Second- and Foreign-Language Classrooms" (Jun Liu); (5) "Teaching Foreign Language Literature: Tapping the Students' Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence" (Manfred Lukas Schewe); (6) "Coping with Obstacles in Drama-Based ESL Teaching: A Nonverbal Approach" (Cameron R. Culham); (7) "Video Recording and Playback Equipment" (Timothy Collins); (8) "Designing Artful Reflective Strategies: The Guided Case Study" (Philip Taylor); (9) "Undergoing a Process and Achieving a Product: A Contradiction in Educational Drama?" (Douglas J. Moody); (10) "The Educational Potential of Drama for ESL" (Sarah J. Dodson); (11) "The Arts and the Foreign-/Second-Language Curriculum: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Actively Engage Students in Their Own Learning" (Janet Hegman Shier); and (12) "Performing Brecht: From Theory to Practice" (Franziska B. Lys, Denise Meuser, John Paluch, and Ingrid Zeller). An afterword offers "Magic on Stage: 'Urfaust' and Other Great Plays for Educational Pleasure" (Karla Schultz and Penelope Heinigk). (Papers contain references.)

Braund, Martin; Reiss, Michael (2006).  Validity and Worth in the Science Curriculum: Learning School Science Outside the Laboratory  Curriculum Journal, 17, 3. 

It is widely acknowledged that there are problems with school science in many developed countries of the world. Such problems manifest themselves in a progressive decline in pupil enthusiasm for school science across the secondary age range and by the fact that fewer students are choosing to study the physical sciences at higher levels and as careers. Responses to these developments have included proposals to reform the curriculum, pedagogy and the nature of pupil discussion in science lessons. We support such changes but argue from a consideration of the aims of science education that secondary school science is too rooted in the science laboratory; substantially greater use needs to be made of out-of-school sites for the teaching of science. Such usage should result in a school science education that is more valid and more motivating and is better at fulfilling defensible aims of school science education. Our contention is that laboratory-based school science teaching needs to be complemented by out-of-school science learning that draws on the actual world (e.g. through field trips), the presented world (e.g. in science centres, botanic gardens, zoos and science museums) and via the virtual worlds that are increasingly available through information and communications technologies

Braund, Martin; Reiss, Michael (2006).  Towards a More Authentic Science Curriculum: The Contribution of Out-of-School Learning  International Journal of Science Education, 28, 12. 

In many developed countries of the world, pupil attitudes to school science decline progressively across the age range of secondary schooling while fewer students are choosing to study science at higher levels and as a career. Responses to these developments have included proposals to reform the curriculum, pedagogy, and the nature of pupil discussion in science lessons. We support such changes but argue that far greater use needs to be made of out-of-school sites in the teaching of science. Such usage will result in a school science education that is more valid and more motivating. We present an "evolutionary model" of science teaching that looks at where learning and teaching take place, and draws together thinking about the history of science and developments in the nature of learning over the past 100 years or so. Our contention is that laboratory-based school science teaching needs to be complemented by out-of-school science learning that draws on the actual world (e.g., through fieldtrips), the presented world (e.g., in science centres, botanic gardens, zoos and science museums), and the virtual worlds that are increasingly available through information technologies.

Brawdy, Paul (2001).  Exploring Human Kindness through the Pedagogy of Aikido. 

This paper considers the origins of kindness in relation to the martial art known as Aikido. It also attempts to discover the underlying constitutional elements of Aikido's pedagogy of self learning, learning about others, and instructional practices that promote interpersonal relatedness. A teacher and four students of the Aikido Dojo were interviewed. Analysis revealed major structural constituents were associated with the pedagogy of Aikido. All of the Aikido practitioners described experiences where knowledge of self was mediated by an awareness of how invested they were in a given moment. Aikido offers one possible model for instruction that focuses on promotion of peace through the content it teaches. It demonstrates the value of a discipline in the process of self-discovery; it provides a cultural model for learning that is shaped by an interest in peaceful relations; and it provides a pedagogical model that is shaped by themes of blending, integration, wholeness, and unity.   | [FULL TEXT]

Brawdy, Paul J. (2004).  Exploring Bi-Cultural Awareness through Outdoor Education in Preservice Physical Education Teacher Preparation  [Online Submission, Paper presented at the 12th World Congress of Comparative Education Societies (Havana, Cuba, Oct, 2004)] 

This paper focuses on the use of outdoor-based experiential learning in an undergraduate physical education teacher preparation program to develop a culturally-sensitive pedagogy for work with children from different cultures. Applying the six-stage process for becoming a bi-cultural teacher (Klug & Whitfield, 2003), teacher preparation students participated in a model action research assignment that focused on the lived experience of the Seneca Indian in Western New York. The stages of this process included: (1) Learning stereotypes and prejudices of native peoples; (2) Confronting one's personal prejudice; (3) Redefining one's perceptions of Native American cultures; (4) Opening one's self to new experiences; (5) Adjustment and re-shaping of one's cultural identity; and (6) Transformation in one's practice as a teacher. Complimenting student interviews, school visits, field trips, and invited distinguished speakers, all students participated in a three-day backpacking trek through a region holding much historic significance for contemporary Seneca-US relations. Flooded in 1966 as a part of the Pittsburgh Flood Control Project, the upper Allegheny River valley was once home to more than 160 Seneca families and, is still, the spiritual birthplace of the Longhouse Religion founded by Seneca prophet Handsome Lake. An abrogation of the 1792 Pickering Treaty, the flooding of these lands represents a great injustice to many Seneca today. Through the use of a backpacking trek into this region, students visit a number of remote sites and observe and reflect upon artifacts of an earlier existence along the Allegheny River prior to the relocation of valley's inhabitants. Student action research papers, generated from individual data collection processes, personal journals and reflective insights are used to establish generative themes evolving throughout the action research process. | [FULL TEXT]

Bray, Paige M. (2004).  Young Women Majoring in Mathematics and Elementary Education: A Perspective on Enacting Liberatory Pedagogy  Equity and Excellence in Education, 37, 1. 

In this research I examined the enactment of liberatory pedagogy, a teaching practice that promotes equity for all learners, from the uniquely informative perspective of young women majoring in mathematics and elementary education. It is grounded theory that seeks to understand the role of personal identity and social location in learning and teaching. I collected data over a two-year period, following two young women from the final semester of their teacher education program to their first teaching positions. Three distinct influences inform the conceptual framework of this study: (a) the underrepresentation of women in mathematics; (b) the devaluing of elementary teachers' content and pedagogical knowledge; and (c) the marginalization of the education major and pedagogical knowledge. I ask research questions regarding the type of preservice education these women experience and how it informs their enactment of liberatory pedagogy. Themes among the findings include coping with being a stranger in both lands, the desire to know oneself as a learner, and enacting liberatory pedagogy as beginning inservice teachers.

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Breault, Rick A. (2003).  Dewey, Freire, and a Pedagogy for the Oppressor.  Multicultural Education, 10, 3. 

Asserts that cultural diversity and democracy will always be in conflict with each other, examining oppression in a democratic society; an oppressor's view of the world; a pervasive dualism in perspectives; the inadequacy of current efforts to overcome the conflict between the oppressors and the oppressed; traits of oppressors that must be changed; a three-pronged approach to consciousness raising; common themes within this approach; and underlying assumptions.

Breeze, William (2007).  Constructing a Male Feminist Pedagogy: Authority, Practice, and Authenticity in the Composition Classroom  Feminist Teacher: A Journal of the Practices

The following essay is a discussion of the author's work of becoming a male feminist teacher in the face of conservative views of feminism as well as skepticism from female (and male) students. He examines how authority (of knowledge) and authenticity (of experience) inform and impact the feminist practice of a male writing teacher. He concentrates on a course he regularly teaches, English 306, Women and Writing, a junior level course that is one of several offered to fulfill students' composition requirement.

Breier, Mignonne (2006).  "In My Case... ": The Recruitment and Recognition of Prior Informal Experience in Adult Pedagogy  British Journal of Sociology of Education, 27, 2. 

Educators of adults are often urged to use the prior personal experience of their students as a pedagogic resource. Students have expectations that their narratives will be heard and valued. Whether this can--or should--be achieved in a particular discipline, in a course with a relatively fixed curriculum and formal assessment, is the issue addressed here. The paper explores programmes in Labour Law at two South African universities, using a systemic network approach to data analysis. The conclusion is that students experience can provide a useful starting point for induction into the more abstract reaches of a field of professional education (in this instance, legal principles and concepts as well as case law). However, this will require conditions that are very difficult to achieve in the current university context.

Brennan, Ros; McFadden, Mark; Law, Elizabeth (2001).  All That Glitters Is Not Gold: Online Delivery of Education and Training. Review of Research. 

This consolidation study concentrates on major questions about effectiveness of online delivery of education and training in Australia through the literature that describes effects of these new forms of delivery on the learner/user and provider/practitioner. Chapter 1 focuses on sources of data used in the literature review, defines online delivery, and reports on existing evaluations. Chapter 2 looks at forms of online delivery of education and training. Chapter 3 concentrates on literature relating to the pedagogy of online learning, learning styles of online learners, and user skills. The teaching/learning issues include the emergence of a web pedagogy, student learning styles, and levels of user skills. Chapter 4 focuses on studies about improved student outcomes online. It reports on quantitative and qualitative measures of improvement and lists preconditions that will contribute to effective online learning. Chapter 5 discusses different measures of the effectiveness of online delivery. It looks at the concept of effectiveness from the perspective of the education or training organization, teacher/trainer, industry policy maker, and individual learner. Chapter 6 examines implications of online delivery for instructional design, curriculum design, and teachers and learners in a constructivist online environment. Chapters 7-8 offer findings and directions for further research.

Brennan, Roslin (2003).  One Size Doesn't Fit All: Pedagogy in the Online Environment. Volume 1 [and] Volume 2. 

The assumptions and practices underpinning the pedagogy of online delivery of vocational education and training (VET) in Australia were examined. Data were collected through a literature review, workshops at three participating technical and further education institutes, and a survey that elicited response from 200 teachers and 110 students. Selected findings were as follows: (1) pedagogical practice in Australia's online learning environment rarely conforms to the 15 principles of pedagogical effectiveness identified by stakeholders in online delivery of VET; (2) teachers are holding firmly to sound principles of pedagogy, and students are reiterating the importance of those principles; and (3) interactivity is unequivocally regarded as the most effective teacher-student relationship to develop in online learning environments. The study established that online pedagogy in VET needs to be able to create teaching and learning environments where students have the opportunity to do the following things: reduce their reliance on text; explore and value their intellectual, social, and cultural backgrounds; develop their knowledge beyond the transmission and assessment of content; reflect on their own learning; be part of an inclusive learning environment; communicate extensively with their peers and teachers; become self-regulated and engaged with their own learning; and develop a group identity that connects them with their learning and with the broader social environment. (Volume 1 contains 48 references. Volume 2 contains interview results, survey results, analysis of the online course filter, results of applying the productive pedagogies framework, and the survey questionnaire.)

Brenner, David (2006).  Performative Pedagogy: Resignifying Teaching in the Corporatized University  Review of Education

This essay reexamines pedagogical practice and its normative assessment in the American university system by employing an approach derived from Michel Foucault's knowledge/power nexus. While a systematically applied curriculum such as Gerald Graff's "teaching the conflicts" has the potential to democratize higher education, it may be ineffective if the social inequalities of the professor-student relationship, as presently practiced, are not addressed first. As advocates of critical pedagogy maintain, contra Graff's well-known proposal, disciplinary bio-power may continue to impede the performability of cultural critique as long as classrooms instantiate the struggle for hegemony. In foregrounding "resignification" in institutions of learning, the author reassesses how the assertion of a "care of the self," as outlined in Foucault's later work, can alter the conditions under which faculty and students learn together. Foucault's "arts of existence" enact a democratic-ethical imperative that counters "subjectification" in its capacity to sediment structures of domination. Subjectification, however, can also enable resignifications, once theories of performativity--derived here from Stuart Hall and Judith Butler--are deployed to clarify the suturing of agency with system and to reformulate the constraining normativities of an increasingly corporatized academy.

Bresler, Liora, Ed.; Ellis, Nancy C., Ed. (2000).  Arts and Learning Research, 1999-2000. The Journal of the Arts and Learning Special Interest Group of the American Educational Research Association (Montreal, Quebec, Canada, April 1999).  [Arts and Learning Research Journal] 

This volume contains papers which encompass visual arts, drama, music, literature, and poetry education, creating a space for scholars from diverse intellectual traditions. Following editorial notes and a message from the Arts and Learning Special Interest Group Chair, David Betts, are the papers of part 1, The Interconnectedness of Issues across Scholarly Boundaries and Disciplines: "A Comparative Exploration of Art and Science" (M. D. Osborne; D. J. Brady); "Action Poetry as an Empowering Art: A Manifesto for Didaction in Arts Education" (F. V. Tochon); and "What Should the Music Education Profession Expect of Philosophy?" (W. D. Bowman). Papers under part 2, The Body as Central in Understanding and Making Sense, are: "The Semiotics of Art and Body in Visual Culture: Introduction" (D. L. Smith-Shank); "The Semiotics of Children's Bodies as Found in Popular Media" (P. Duncum); "Facing Oneself: An Embodied Pedagogy" (R. L. Irwin); "Conversation about Necks -- and Minds and Bodies" (C. S. Jeffers); "Birthing Ground" (L. A. Kantner); "Mirror, Mirror on the Wall: Searching for the Semiotic Self" (D. L. Smith-Shank); "Student Bodies as Bodies of Knowledge: Moving Beyond Cartesian Pedagogy" (S. Urso Spina); "Carolee Schneeman as Image and Maker" (M. Wyrick); and "Absence of Body as Context Problem in E-mail Communication" (R. M. Diket). Papers under part 3, Teaching the Arts at the University Level, are: "Blocks and Bridges: Learning Artistic Creativity" (P. James); "Exploring New Possibilities and the Limits of Theatre Education: A Role-Play Project with Adolescent Actors to Improve Physicians' Communication Skills" (S. Schonmann; D. Hardoff); and "Expanding the Thinking Potential of Preservice Art Teachers" (E. Kowalchuk). Papers under part 4, Teaching the Arts in Elementary and Secondary Classrooms, are: "Arts Every Day: Classroom Teachers' Orientations toward Arts Education" (B. McKean); "Contexts of Music Classroom Management" (J. Russell); and "National Board Certification in Art and Its Potential Impact on Graduate Programming in Art Education" (L. A. Kantner; M. J. Bergee; K. A. Unrath). | [FULL TEXT]

Breuch, Lee-Ann Kastman (2002).  Thinking Critically about Technological Literacy: Developing a Framework To Guide Computer Pedagogy in Technical Communication.  Technical Communication Quarterly, 11, 3. 

Considers how issues related to technological literacy can provide a useful frame for thinking critically about computer-based instruction in technical communication. Identifies issues of technological literacy related to performance, contextual factors, and linguistic activities in order for students to identify and analyze a range of perspectives associated with technology and communication.

Breuch, Lee-Ann M. Kastman (2002).  Post-Process "Pedagogy": A Philosophical Exercise.  JAC: A Journal of Composition Theory, 22, 1. 

Notes post-process theories of composition instruction suggest that process is no longer an adequate explanation of the writing act. Explains how post-process theory can contribute to composition pedagogy. Argues that post-process theory encourages educators to reexamine the definition of writing as an activity rather than a body of knowledge, methods of teaching as indeterminate activities rather than exercises of mastery, and communicative interactions with students as dialogic rather than monologic.

Breunig, Mary (2005).  Turning Experiential Education and Critical Pedagogy Theory into Praxis  Journal of Experiential Education, 28, 2. 

The educational theories of experiential education and critical pedagogy intersect in a number of ways. One of the intended aims of both of these pedagogies is that the purpose of education should be to develop a more socially just world (Itin, 1999; Kincheloe, 2004). One of the key issues still facing experiential education theory and critical pedagogy is its implementation within the post-secondary classroom. There is a lack of congruence between the pedagogical theories that are espoused and the actual classroom practices that are employed. The purpose of this article is to explore some of the ways for experiential educators and critical pedagogues to begin engaging in a more purposeful classroom praxis that acts on the theoretical underpinnings of these pedagogies as one means to work toward their shared vision of a more socially just world.

Brew, Christine R. (2001).  Tracking Ways of Coming to Know with the Shifting Role of Teachers and Peers: An Adult Mathematics Classroom. 

Epistemological perspectives are the ways students interpret or make meaning of their educational experience. Research has stressed the need to develop strategies to counter traditional mathematics pedagogy and epistemology because they have alienated many girls and women. An integrated framework of two cognitive developmental models describe these ways that women have of viewing reality: (1) Silence produces a sense of feeling dumb; (2) Absolute Knowledge replicates the knowledge of authorities; (3) Subjective Knowers have a need for personal understanding; (4) Transitional Knowers accept multiple perspectives; (5) Independent Knowers value diverse methods; (6) Procedural Knowers use systematic analysis; and (7) Contextual and Constructed Knowers have an authentic voice. Each one of these relates to a particular role of the teacher and peers. Interviews with adult full-time women's-only technical and further education mathematics students were conducted after three weeks and at the end of the class and show how different experiences of peers and the teacher in the same class are viewed through an epistemological lens. One student came into the class with a Silent perspective, but by the end of class was a Subjective Knower. The second student was an Absolute Knower but left the class having shifted towards being a Transitional Knower. | [FULL TEXT]

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Bridges, Claudia M.; Wilhelm, Wendy Bryce (2008).  Going beyond Green: The "Why and How" of Integrating Sustainability into the Marketing Curriculum  Journal of Marketing Education, 30, 1. 

Teaching sustainable marketing practices requires that curricula advocate a "triple bottom line" approach to personal and marketing decision making, emphasizing requirements for a sustainable lifestyle, company, economy, and society. These requirements include environmental/ecological stewardship (maintenance and renewal of "natural capital"), social stewardship (equitable distribution of resources, human, and community well-being), and economic stewardship (valuing financial continuity over profit). In this article, the authors suggest how marketing educators might incorporate these sustainability principles into marketing pedagogy. Toward that end, the authors (a) offer a formal definition of the term sustainability, (b) examine the current role of sustainability in marketing strategy at the firm level, (c) present a brief history of academic literature relevant to this topic and review current initiatives at academic institutions, (d) offer resources for integrating sustainability into marketing curricula, and (e) propose and describe the implementation of an MBA-level marketing elective dedicated to the topic of sustainability.

Briggs, Robert (2002).  Shameless! Reconceiving the Problem of Plagiarism.  Australian Universities Review, 46, 1. 

Argues that a moralistic approach to plagiarism is not likely to make the problem disappear. New thinking about plagiarism and pedagogy must take its complexity into account, since plagiarism is not always the result of a willful desire to deceive, but may reflect a misunderstanding of the nature of work in the discipline.

Brindley, Roger (2000).  Learning To Walk the Walk: Teacher Educators' Use of Constructivist Epistemology in Their Own Practice.  Professional Educator, 22, 2. 

Investigated the teaching behaviors of 11 teacher educators working with early childhood education student teachers. Participants provided course syllabi and written descriptions of activities and assignments, then completed interviews. Most instructors philosophically aligned with constructivist epistemology, though few discussed constructivist theory explicitly in class or with colleagues. Constructivist tenets were instead reflected in classroom pedagogy and interactions with students.

Briscoe, Carol; Prayaga, Chandra S. (2004).  Teaching Future K-8 Teachers the Language of Newton: A Case Study of Collaboration and Change in University Physics Teaching  Science Education, 88, 6. 

This interpretive case study describes a collaborative project involving a physics professor and a science educator. We report what was learned about factors that influenced the professor's development of teaching strategies, alternative to lecture, that were intended to promote prospective teachers' meaningful learning and their use of canonical ways of communicating physics concepts. We describe how the professor's beliefs influenced the pedagogy that he used to communicate the language of physics and the nature of what was communicated. We also report how our collaboration fostered change as we developed a shared language that allowed us to discuss how students learn and to explicate the referent beliefs that supported the professor's practices. We found that focused reflection on referent beliefs led to a change in the manner in which the professor communicated with the prospective teachers. Traditional lecture pedagogy focused the professor's concern on how he was teaching evolved toward a pedagogy that focused on how students were learning. Classroom interactions were increased with a primary goal of orchestrating a discourse of physics initiated in the language already accessible to the prospective teachers. This change in the manner that classroom interactions occurred provided opportunities for the prospective teachers' language to evolve toward eventually communicating their ideas in canonical physics language.

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Broadbear, James T.; Jin, Guang; Bierma, Thomas J. (2005).  Critical Thinking Dispositions Among Undergraduate Students During Their Introductory Health Education Course  Health Educator, 37, 1. 

The present study was undertaken to measure critical thinking dispositions in students as they enter the health education program at Illinois State University (ISU). Health education undergraduate students at ISU were found to have shortcomings in critical thinking dispositions during a study from 2000-2003. Dispositions (e.g. truthseeking, open-mindedness, inquisitiveness) were measured by the California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory (CCTDI). Health education majors (n=96) were compared to students in other health science disciplines (n=187) and to health education minors (n=48). CCTDI scores did not differ between health education majors and other health sciences students but scores for majors were significantly higher than for health education minors. Specifically, health education majors scored significantly higher for inquisitiveness, cognitive maturity and total critical thinking disposition. The findings have significant implications for health education academic programs and the profession. Health education professionals commonly confront complex, ill-structured problems and their ability to effectively respond to these problems is largely dependent upon strong critical thinking dispositions. Focusing on the development of critical thinking dispositions in professional preparation programs, and further research on pedagogy effective in developing the dispositions, is needed. | [FULL TEXT]

Broadfoot, Patricia; Little, Angela W. (2003).  Review Symposium on "Culture and Pedagogy: International Comparisons in Primary Education," by Robin Alexander.  Comparative Education, 39, 1. 

Two reviews of an ambitious comparative study of elementary classroom practices and realities in the United States (Michigan), England, France, Russia, and India. There is no single definition of best practice in education, for both means and ends are culturally specific. Recent English educational policy emphasizing a generic definition and assessment of quality is critiqued in light of the book's findings, and cultural barriers to change are discussed.

Brooker, Liz (2003).  Learning How To Learn: Parental Ethnotheories and Young Children's Preparation for School.  International Journal of Early Years Education, 11, 2. 

An ethnographic study explored cultural belief systems of four-year-olds' families and school staff from Anglo and Bangladeshi families in England. Case study of one child/family illustrates how parental beliefs about childhood, the home, uses and purposes of literacy, and children's learning influence children's school experience. How data were used to develop a theoretical explanation to interpret children's adaptation to school and to reflect implications for pedagogy is also illustrated.

Brooks, Val (2006).  A "Quiet Revolution"? The Impact of Training Schools on Initial Teacher Training Partnerships  Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 32, 4. 

This paper discusses the impact on initial teacher training of a new policy initiative in England: the introduction of Training Schools. First, the Training School project is set in context by exploring the evolution of a partnership approach to initial teacher training in England. Ways in which Training Schools represent a break with established practice are considered together with their implications for the dominant mode of partnership led by higher education institutions (HEIs). The capacity of Training Schools to achieve their own policy objectives is examined, especially their efficacy as a strategy for managing innovation and the dissemination of innovation. The paper ends by focusing on a particular Training School project which has adopted an unusual approach to its work and enquires whether this alternative approach could offer a more profitable way forward. During the course of the paper, five different models of partnership are considered: collaborative, complementary, HEI-led, school-led and partnership within a partnership.

Brotherton, Dave (2002).  King Tone's Journey: From the Barrio to the SHU.  Review of Education

Examines the life of King Tone, president of the Almighty Latin King and Queen Nation gang from 1996-99, analyzing his moral and political careers and noting contexts behind his choices and values and the "working out of a culture and social system that is often obscured in a typified account." The paper emphasizes the "dialectics of violence," describing the interplay between Tone's social ecological environment, thinking, his actions.

Broughton, Trev Lynn; Potts, Laura (2001).  Dissonant Voices: The Teacher's "Personal" in Women's Studies.  Gender and Education, 13, 4. 

Presents a dialogue that polarizes two opinions concerning various positions adopted by teachers of women's studies in relation to their students, in particular, ways that the teacher's personhood is implicit in the praxis of feminist teaching. Questions the notion that the personal is always good within feminist pedagogy, positing the liberating potential of the impersonal for teaching and feminism.

Brower, Robert E.; Balch, Bradley V. (2005).  Transformational Leadership & Decision Making in Schools  [Corwin Press] 

It is essential for every school leader to possess the savvy to effect positive change, raise achievement levels, and foster a positive school climate. Now it seems that the struggle for school leaders to make productive decisions has become clouded with ever-growing uncertainty and skepticism. "Transformational Leadership & Decision Making in Schools" emphasizes the need for a resilient decision-making pedagogy--one that helps school leaders find and re-center their approaches to making effective decisions for their schools and districts. This important resource provides methods and strategies to tackle tough decisions, providing concise step-by-step considerations to transform decision making. The essential information presented includes: (1) A personal decision-making self-assessment; (2) Reflective thinking sections for individual reflection and group dialogue; (3) Discussion of the role of vision and mission; (4) Ideas on motivation and the capacity for change; (5) A look at barriers to decision making; and (6) Information on developing relationships with respect and rapport. Following a preface, this book presents 13 chapters: (1) Introduction; (2) Decision-Making Pedagogy: A Leadership Essential; (3) Overcoming Internal Obstacles to Decision Making; (4) Overcoming External Barriers to Decision Making; (5) Aligning Decision Making to the Leader's Mission; (6) Understanding How Human Nature Affects Decision Making; (7) Defining Relationships with Respect and Rapport; (8) Entrust: The Value of Empowerment and Delegation; (9) Creating Motivating Capacities for the Common Good; (10) The Influence of Capitalism on Decision Making; (11) Refining and Rethinking Change in Education; (12) Facing the Challenges of Leadership; and (13) Leadership for the Common Good: The Essential Imperative. This book concludes with: (1) Resource: Decision Making Self-Assessment; (2) a bibliography; and (3) an index.

Brown, Elinor L. (2004).  Overcoming the Challenges of Stand-Alone Multicultural Courses: The Possibilities of Technology Integration  Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 12, 4. 

The enclosed manuscript discusses the challenges (student resistance, institutional time constraints, course isolation) of a successful conventional stand-alone multicultural course and describes how these challenges were overcome with the incorporation of technology into the instruction and assessment process. The article describes how technology: extended student/student and student/instructor interaction, sustained post-class peer support, augmented student/expert dialogue, and linked content and foundations curricula with multicultural pedagogy. The infusion of technology also created a paperless system for future research, a productive tool to monitor student preclass preparation and comprehension, a vehicle for individual and small group debriefings, and an efficient method to evaluate, modify, and manage instruction.

Brown, Kathleen M. (2004).  Leadership for Social Justice and Equity: Weaving a Transformative Framework and Pedagogy  Educational Administration Quarterly, 40, 1. 

Although many agree that theory, research, and practice should be intertwined to support the type of schooling (and society) that values rather than marginalizes, few scholars offer ground-breaking, pragmatic approaches to developing truly transformative leaders. From a critical theorist perspective, this article offers a practical, process-oriented model that is responsive to the challenges of preparing educational leaders committed to social justice and equity. By weaving a tripartite theoretical framework together in support of an alternative, transformative pedagogy, students learn "to perceive social, political, and economic contradictions, and to take action against the oppressive elements of reality". The three theoretical perspectives of Adult Learning Theory, Transformative Learning Theory, and Critical Social Theory are interwoven with the three pedagogical strategies of critical reflection, rational discourse, and policy praxis to increase awareness, acknowledgment, and action within preparation programs.

Brown, Kathleen M. (2004).  Weaving Theory into Practice: Preparing Transformative Leaders for Social Justice  Scholar-Practitioner Quarterly, 2, 2. 

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of an alternative, transformative pedagogy that may assist us in responding to the urgent call for changes in the way educational leaders are prepared and developed. Within the contextual loom of preparation programs, the two theoretical perspectives of Transformative Learning Theory and Critical Social Theory are interwoven with the three pedagogical strategies of critical reflection, rational discourse, and policy praxis to increase students' awareness, acknowledgement, and action regarding issues of social justice and equity.

Brown, Stephen Gilbert (2000).  Words in the Wilderness: Critical Literacy in the Borderlands. SUNY Series, Interruptions: Border Testimony(ies) and Critical Discourse/s. 

This book relates a White teacher's experiences in an Athabascan village in Alaska in an attempt to theorize pedagogy in a real-world situation. The book presents itself as a hybrid of autobiography, Native American resistance struggle, postcolonial discourse, radical composition theory, case study, and ethnography. The teacher's narrative explains how he came to be a bush teacher; describes complex classroom dynamics, where some students resisted the dominant culture, some were alienated from Native culture, and others were marginalized from both; discusses his growing acquaintance with his students and their competence in the outdoors; describes how students were engaged by a Foxfire-style, outdoor, culture-based project; and examines his own journey of self-discovery and realization of the teacher's role as cultural imperialist. Several pedagogies are critiqued: traditional cognitivist pedagogy, basic writing practice, "contact zone" pedagogy, conflict-oriented pedagogy, and Foxfire teaching practices. The aim throughout is to illustrate the possibilities for a pedagogy in the "bicultural borderlands" that more truly serves the interests and needs of the marginalized borderland learner: a pedagogy whose goal is not acculturation but agency, that is not predicated on the transmission of knowledge but on the transference of authority, that does not foreground assimilation into the dominant culture but spiritual redemption through reconnection to an indigenous subculture. The narrative also investigates the manner in which ethnicity, deracination, and acculturation affect the acquisition of literacy, and the ways in which literacy has been used as a cultural weapon.

Brown, Tammie; Katz, Laura; Hargrave, Sharon; Hill, Roberta (2003).  Promoting Quality Teachers through a Supportive Mentoring Environment for Pre-Service and First-Year Teachers. 

This paper describes types of university supports available for mentoring in one school district. The district created a unique mentoring program to aid first- through third-year teachers in developing pedagogy, professional skills, and characteristics that would enable them to succeed in teaching. The program was developed for preservice teachers seeking preK-4 licensure. Its focus involved the Teacher Work Sample Methodology. One of the project objectives was to design a collaborative effort between a teacher educator, arts and science faculty, and school practitioner to support teacher candidates in their design and implementation of a teacher work sample. Science professors served as science mentors. The subject of science for the mentoring program was chosen because many early childhood graduates lack acumen to teach science to their students in a high quality manner. Student teachers and mentors completed an evaluation form that examined the number and types of contacts between the two groups and contributions the science mentors made to the units. Overall, most student teachers found the support of mentors to be very helpful in increasing their knowledge of the preK-4 science curriculum. The dyads were most effective when the content of the science unit matched the mentor's area of expertise and ability level of classroom students. | [FULL TEXT]

Brownell, Berneice B. (2004).  Time for a Leadership Audit?  School Administrator, 61, 6. 

The culminating meeting to adopt multi-age grouping in the school district began on a positive note. After months of research, focus groups and communication with the stakeholders, were perched on the verge of making significant instructional and curricular changes to address academic and budgetary needs in the middle-income community where the author was the superintendent. But it wasn't long before she watched in horror as the conversation became heated and hostile, finally erupting into accusations and arguments among the teachers, community members and school board members. What she thought was a carefully crafted plan was now in shambles. A leadership audit allows you to assess your competency in three overlapping skill sets: administration content typically found in coursework in graduate programs or professional development designed for administrators; pedagogy of effective educational methodology/and or comprehensive understanding of research-based instruction typically found in literature reviews, current research or district personnel expertise; and, most significantly, inter- and intrapersonal skills typically associated with emotional intelligence.

Brownell, Mary T.; Adams, Alyson; Sindelar, Paul; Waldron, Nancy; Vanhover, Stephanie (2006).  Learning from Collaboration: The Role of Teacher Qualities  Exceptional Children, 72, 2. 

In special education, professional collaboration is viewed as a powerful tool for helping teachers serve students with disabilities. An underlying assumption is that general educators will improve practice if they have opportunities to participate in collaborative professional development aimed at improving instruction for students with disabilities. Although sustainability studies suggest that teachers benefit from such collaboration, evidence also demonstrates that they profit differently. This study examined how teachers who readily adapt and adopt strategies acquired in collaboration differed from those who do not. Findings revealed differences in knowledge of curriculum, pedagogy, student management, and student-centered instruction, as well as differences in ability to reflect on and adapt instruction. Implications for improving professional collaboration in schools are provided.

Brownlee, Joanne (2004).  Teacher Education Students' Epistemological Beliefs: Developing a Relational Model of Teaching  Research in Education, 72

A teaching programme based on relational pedagogy (Baxter Magolda, 1993a) was implemented to foster the development of epistemological beliefs in twenty-nine pre-service teacher education students at a large metropolitan university in Australia. Epistemological beliefs are those personally held beliefs about the nature and structure of knowing. The students were interviewed in relation to their epistemological beliefs at the beginning and conclusion of the teaching programme. The results of the qualitative data analysis indicated that students described more sophisticated relational epistemological beliefs over time. This finding is important given that teachers with relativistic epistemological beliefs are more likely to conceive of teaching as transformative (constructivist) than as transmissive. The perceived success of the teaching programme has implications for the development of a relational teaching model in teacher education courses.

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Bruce, Heather E.; Brown, Shirley; McCracken, Nancy Mellin; Bell-Nolan, Mary (2008).  Feminist Pedagogy Is for Everybody: Troubling Gender in Reading and Writing  English Journal, 97, 3. 

Four teachers share their lessons for drawing students into a critical examination of race, class, gender, and sexual identity. They strive to heighten students' awareness of ways literature "and gendered patterns in the world foreground or silence groups of people or issues," and they offer students and teachers tools for change.

Brueggemann, Brenda Jo (2001).  An Enabling Pedagogy: Meditations on Writing and Disability.  JAC: A Journal of Composition Theory, 21, 4. 

Proposes that disability theory can complement existing work in gender, sexuality, race, class, and genre. Argues that disability enables insight. Discusses representations of disability in literature and films. Outlines the author's experience of teaching a number of composition classes focusing on disabilities.

Brumfit, Christopher (2002).  Global English and Language Teaching in the Twenty-First Century. Occasional Paper. 

This paper examines how attitudes toward teaching English may need to change in the 21st century, noting shifts in the environment within which language teachers and learners operate that relate partly to the English language itself and partly to the political and social contexts within which it is used. The paper considers various positions relevant to different aspects of pedagogy, asserting that there are substantial differences between the role of English now and its role even a few years ago. It suggests that many earlier assumptions are no longer appropriate. The paper outlines the kinds of models that may help promote understanding of the new situation, and it suggests that there is value in seeing English teaching as a worldwide phenomenon in which the philosophies appropriate to particular countries and education systems need to show a systematic relationship to the philosophical principles underlying English teaching in other systems and other parts of the world. | [FULL TEXT]

Bruna, Katherine Richardson (2007).  Finding New Words: How I Use Critical Literacy in My Multicultural Teacher Education Classroom  Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 33, 1. 

For 10 years the author has been researching and teaching in multicultural teacher education classrooms and she has come to the conclusion that educators need to help white students find new words to talk about their whiteness. In her experience, white students too often sit in multicultural teacher education classrooms feeling as if the whole purpose of the class is to make them feel guilty. To make matters worse, when white students voice these feelings, multicultural teacher educators interpret and respond to their comments as white resistance and then double up in efforts to make them aware of their racial privilege. This creates more of the perception of multicultural teacher education as a guilt trip and around and around they go. To get off this merry-go-round, the author has begun practicing a new approach to multicultural teacher education. In this article, she illustrates the four steps, or levels of thinking, of her critical literacy approach, namely, description, analysis, vision, and strategy. She uses them to generate reflection in her students that: (1) cycles through the goals of deconstruction and reconstruction; and (2) promotes ongoing critical thinking as the main goal of her multicultural education class. She briefly explains how she uses these four steps to get her students actively to engage with two of multicultural education's key ideas, "race" and "whiteness", and, in this way, destabilize their perception of themselves as "guilty" white people.

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Bucci, Terri Teal (2002).  Paradigm Parallel Pedagogy: The Significance of Parallel Paradigms.  Journal of Educational Thought/Revue de la Pensee Educative, 36, 1. 

Discusses paradigm pedagogy as incorporating the ontological, epistemological, and methodological structures of research paradigms into teaching and the classroom. States that this multifaceted approach relates the characteristics of the research paradigms of positivism, interpretivism, and critical theory to teacher pedagogy, initiating innovative discussions about teaching and teacher education.

Buchanan, Michael T. (2005).  Pedagogical Drift: The Evolution of New Approaches and Paradigms in Religious Education  Religious Education, 100, 1. 

This article brings together some of the literature on worldwide trends in religious education that have influenced the delivery of curriculum in this field in Australian Catholic schools. The approaches to religious education since the time of European settlement in Australia are surveyed in light of international trends and the pedagogical techniques underpinning each paradigm. Pedagogical techniques are reconceptualized in terms of the interplay between pedagogy and the development of approaches to religious education. As pedagogical techniques are applied, tried, tested, and modified, new approaches to religious education become distinguished yet remain interrelated. This article conceptualizes the process as "pedagogical drift".

Buchter, Karin (2002).  Betriebliche Weiterbildung - Historische Kontinuitat und Durchsetzung in Theorie und Praxis (Within-Company Further Education - Historical Continuities and Success in Theory and Practice).  Zeitschrift fur Padagogik, 48, 3. 

Explores the theoretical foundations of the effort to integrate education into industrial companies during the twentieth century. Analyzes the historical building blocks of vocational education through both theory and practice. Discusses the company-internal further education pedagogy of the 1980s.

Buchy, Marlene (2004).  The Challenges of 'Teaching by Being': The Case of Participatory Resource Management  Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 28, 1. 

In 1997 a new unit, Participatory Resource Management, was developed and offered in the School of Resource, Environment and Society, at the Australian National University. The challenges of the unit were multiple, ranging from introducing social science material into a science curriculum, to attempting to change practitioners' attitudes towards natural resource management. This paper is an account of this experience showing how feminist pedagogy has provided a useful framework to foster attitudinal change and encourage a paradigm shift. The paper presents the unit aims and objectives. It gives insights into the specific processes implemented and reflects on the challenges posed by the unit and the personal challenges to 'teaching by being'.

Buck, Gayle; Ehlers, Nancy (2002).  Four Criteria for Engaging Girls in the Middle Level Classroom.  Middle School Journal, 34, 1. 

Drew on results from focus groups conducted in six states to develop criteria for evaluating activities and teaching strategies used in middle level science education activities to engage adolescent girls. Criteria relate to the authenticity of the project for students' lives, having a choice in science lessons, using pedagogy to enhance understanding of science concepts, and motivating students through interesting activities.

Buck, George H. (2000).  The Y1K Situation: Gerbert's Instructional Devices, Their Influence, and Possible Parallels to the Present. 

This paper describes the instructional devices and innovations developed and used by Gerbert D'Aurillac (ca. 947-1003), who was elected Pope Sylvester II in 999, and their subsequent impact on education in medieval Europe. The effect of prevailing thought on Gerbert's innovations is also described. The first section examines the historical context and provides biographical information on Gerbert. Gerbert's pedagogy is described in the second section, including the planar abacus, celestial spheres, the celestial teaching machine, and the monochord. The influence of Gerbert is addressed in the third section, including the failure of his instructional devices and innovations to gain widespread use after his death. Rediscovery of his work by a subsequent pope, Alexander III, is discussed in the fourth section. Possible parallels in the 20th century are considered in the final section, including the use of mechanical teaching machines and programmed instruction in the 1950s and 1960s, as well as recent initiatives for the use of computers, the Internet, and other electronic devices. | [FULL TEXT]

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Bugeja, Michael (2008).  How to Fight the High Cost of Curricular Glut  Chronicle of Higher Education, 54, 21. 

Curriculum management is at the source of issues consuming academics, including high tuition, low adjunct pay, shared governance, graduate education, academic calendars, and budgetary models. The issue has the most impact at Ph.D.-granting public universities, but any institution can benefit from analyzing the source of poorly managed pedagogy, for which both faculty and administration share in the blame and figure in the solution. In this article, the author discusses potential pitfalls of and solutions of curricular glut, and some hypotheses concerning the issue.

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_____. (2000).  Building a Profession: Strengthening Teacher Preparation and Induction. Report of the K-16 Teacher Education Task Force. 

The American Federation of Teachers believes that the best way to bring an adequate supply of well-trained teachers into the classroom is not by avoiding collegiate teacher education but rather by strengthening it (by bringing higher quality, greater resources, and more coherence to how teacher education screens and prepares teacher candidates). In 1998, the AFT created a task force of K-12 and higher education leaders to examine issues related to improving teacher education. It found that while some teacher education programs had taken significant steps to reshape curricula and raise standards, many were still beset by serious problems (e.g., difficulty recruiting the most able students and underinvestment by the university in teacher education). Recommendations include: require core liberal arts courses, institute higher entry criteria, institute a national entry test, require an academic major, develop core curricula in pedagogy, strengthen the clinical experience, institute a rigorous exit/licensure test, take a 5-year view, strengthen induction, and require high standards for alternative programs. | [FULL TEXT]

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Bukowiecki, Elaine M. (2007).  Teaching Children How to Read  Kappa Delta Pi Record, 43, 2. 

This article describes pertinent information regarding national and state standards and tests; instructional techniques for teaching word recognition, fluency, vocabulary knowledge, and comprehension skills; the selection of appropriate texts and materials; reader response; the diverse student learner; and a variety of authentic assessments that teachers should be aware of to be successful reading educators. In this article, the author emphasizes the importance of balancing pedagogy, theory and practical classroom experiences in teaching children how to read and that the process involves patience and a love for children.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Bulatova, O. S. (2006).  On the Role of the Artistic Element in Pedagogical Activity  Russian Education & Society, 48, 6. 

Pedagogy includes not only knowledge of the different sciences, but also elements of the artistic and imaginative perception of the world. In this article, the author discusses the importance of creating an atmosphere and construct situations that foster a rate of compassion, so that students can internalize feelings in their own spiritual space in order to organize the process of artistic pedagogy. The author also discusses the ways that have been singled out to connect the imaginative and the logical, the emotional and the rational elements in the process of general education. Among other things, the author discusses the important role that art plays in pedagogical activity.

Bulkley, Katrina; Fairman, Janet; Martinez, M. Cecilia (2002).  Teaching the Test to the Teachers: District Capacity and Policy Pedagogy. 

In order to understand the impact of New Jersey's standards and assessment policies, this study examined how leaders in six school districts responded to the state's standards and the fourth grade Elementary School Proficiency Assessment, specifically in the area of mathematics. Building on earlier work exploring district responses to testing, this study investigated the relationship between district pedagogy around testing and the will and capacity in particular districts, including physical capital (resources), human capital, and social capital. Data from interviews with 19 district administrators indicated that districts had varying capacity for reform. Districts' responses to standards and testing were heavily influenced by their capacity to support more general reform efforts. In the one district where responses were most consistent with the expectations of state reform advocates, a combination of factors were involved. For example, the human capacity and will were very high, along with growing pressure from parents about test scores, and that all together meant they pursued change that was more systemic and deeper. However, the primary catalyst was teachers' and administrators' own beliefs and understandings of the reform ideas, which was lacking in other districts. | [FULL TEXT]

Bull, Kay S.; Overton, Robert; Montgomery, Diane (2000).  Strategies from Instructional Effectiveness Applicable to Training Regular Teachers for Inclusion. 

As rural schools prepare for the inclusion of students with disabilities in general classrooms, teachers must be equipped to modify curriculum and adapt classroom environments. This paper reports the results of an analysis of a series of instructional seminars for their applicability to curriculum and classroom environment adaptation. The series was developed by Oklahoma State University (OSU) to provide instructional skills to university teachers who do not have professional training in pedagogy. The series is being put online to expand access to a larger number of faculty, including rural teachers. About half of the program's 30 two-hour modules are currently online. The analysis identified effective instructional strategies that can be adapted by teachers to meet the needs of diverse learners. The strategies and underlying principles cover 17 areas: instruction (teacher attitudes, behavior, and classroom communication); student production (creating products that are authentic and have authentic audiences); psychologically secure environments; motivation; success; student expectations; scaffolding (learning assistance, cues, and support provided by teacher or peers); respect; adaptation to student abilities; prerequisite skills (ensuring that each student has the skills needed to learn new content); group activities; student choice of activities; optimal level of learning; learning communities; problem solving; questioning techniques; and appropriate assessments. The Web site address of the OSU instructional seminars is included. | [FULL TEXT]

Bulliwana, Hagar; Frawley, Jack; Garnarradj, Brandon (2002).  Learning through Country: Teachers Changing Things Around.  English in Australia

Discusses a holistic curriculum plan involving bininj (Australian Aboriginal) and balanda (non aboriginal) preservice teachers at Gunbalanya thinking, talking and writing about a philosophy on "both ways" education. Notes the curriculum addresses three essential issues: what "both ways" education is; what educators need to learn about "both ways" pedagogy; and how a "both ways" pedagogy can influence the school curriculum.

Bullough, Robert V., Jr.; Draper, Roni Jo (2004).  Mentoring and the Emotions  Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 30, 3. 

Drawing on data from nine secondary school mentor teachers, the authors explore the emotional aspects of mentoring. Embracing a view of 'cool' professionalism, the mentors hid from their interns the intensity and complexity of their work as mentors. The authors argue that to maximize the value of mentoring neophyte teachers should be given a glimpse into its difficulty as part of engaging in rich conversations about teaching and learning.

Bulot, James J.; Johnson, Christopher J. (2006).  Rewards and Costs of Faculty Involvement in Intergenerational Service-Learning  Educational Gerontology, 32, 8. 

Service-learning (S-L) has been regarded as a relatively well-established and effective teaching pedagogy. Students who participate in S-L are more likely to learn more efficiently, more effectively, and remember more of what they have learned than their counterparts. Current studies have been done on the experiences of students in service-learning and implementing S-L components. Other research has focused on the barriers to conducting effective S-L. However, no qualitative studies have examined a faculty component of S-L. Also, there have been few studies or discussions delineating faculty perceptions or experiences in S-L. An e-mail survey supplemented with personal interviews was utilized in an effort to understand experiences of participating in S-L. Of specific interest were faculty perceptions of the costs and rewards in employing S-L in gerontology-related curriculums.

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Burden, Joe W., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Hodge, Samuel R. (2005).  Perceptions of African American Faculty in Kinesiology-Based Programs at Predominantly White American Institutions of Higher Education  Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 76, 2. 

The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of African American faculty on their organizational socialization in kinesiology-based (i.e., sport pedagogy, exercise physiology, motor behavior, sport management/history) programs at predominantly White American (1) institutions of higher education (PW-IHE). Participants were 9 African American tenure-track faculty members from various kinesiology-based programs at PW-IHE. Data were gathered via interviewing and analyzed within the framework of critical race theory (Ladson-Billings, 2000). Findings are presented using storytelling and thematic narratives. Interviews with the participants revealed four major recurring themes with regard to: (a) resources, opportunities, and power structures; (b) programmatic neglects and faculty mentoring needs; (c) social isolation, disengagement, and intellectual inferiority issues; and (d) double standards, marginalization, and scholarship biases. This study suggests that faculty and administrators at PW-IHE should develop sensitivity toward organizational socialization issues relevant to faculty of color.

Burge, Kimberly Bisbee; Marshall, Sue; Beck, Rob (2002).  Interactive Learning Exhibits: Designs for Building Teacher and Student Capacity. 

The planning, design, production and presentation of interactive learning exhibits (ILEs) by students in elementary and secondary teaching credential programs provided authentic learning experiences in the integration of computers in teaching and learning settings. This paper includes a rationale and brief overview of the theoretical underpinnings of this approach to technology training, a description of the program, some initial findings, and reflections on successes and challenges. To date this ongoing research and development effort has revealed that engagement in the instructional design and enactment of an ILE can be a rich context for preservice teachers' increased learning about planning, pedagogy, content standards, and assessment in the context of a multimedia learning environment. This work has implications for the preparation of teachers to use computers in classrooms. | [FULL TEXT]

Burgess, Lesley; Addison, Nicholas (2007).  Conditions for Learning: Partnerships for Engaging Secondary Pupils with Contemporary Art  International Journal of Art & Design Education, 26, 2. 

This article examines the findings of the London Cluster research, "Critical Minds", in which the Institute of Education, University of London (IoE) worked in collaboration with Whitechapel Chapel Art Gallery (the lead London gallery), Bow Arts, Chisenhale Gallery and Space-The Triangle, and four east London comprehensive schools. By collaborating with art departments and by focusing on learning within the gallery context, the research team questioned whether the perceived constraints of traditional art and design pedagogy can be overcome by changing the conditions in which learning takes place. The following analysis focuses on these conditions as outlined in the research report's recommendations.

Burghardt, Deborah A.; Colbeck, Carol L. (2001).  Women's Studies Faculty: Claiming Feminist Scholarship in a State University System. 

Today, although over 700 Women's Studies (WS) programs in the United States diversify the curriculum and cross disciplinary boundaries, WS units at many research universities have failed to become centers for the production of interdisciplinary feminist knowledge. This study posed the following question: How do institutional, collegial, and individual values influence WS faculty decisions about whether and how to pursue feminist interdisciplinary teaching, research, and service when they are located in a disciplinary department and associated voluntarily with a WS program? The faculty sample included 20 women in 9 disciplines at 4 comprehensive universities in a state system with established WS programs who had either taught WS cross-listed courses or intended to in the future. Data consisted of long, semi-structured interviews and analysis of each faculty member's latest curriculum vitae. A key theme emerged: the variation in degree of commitment to social activism. Participants emerged as either interdisciplinary scholars (IDS) or disciplinary scholars (DS). Each group had distinctive approaches to their scholarly lives and approached their feminist work with differing intensities. Both groups were able to commission feminist knowledge through the courses they taught, the research they chose, and the dissemination outlets they selected. Both IDS and DS reported a low level of intellectual community in their disciplinary departments. Many IDS, however, found both intellectual community and friendship networks within the WS program or with feminist colleagues outside their departments. Many DS qualified their relationship to WS--that qualification was coupled with less involvement with WS in general. The four university sites in this study were assigned program, rather than departmental status, which placed these feminist projects at the margins of their institutions. Contains 38 references. Appended are the original conceptual framework, IDS and DS conceptual frameworks, and 2 tables. | [FULL TEXT]

Burghardt, M. David; Hacker, Michael (2004).  Informed Design: A Contemporary Approach to Design Pedagogy as the Core Process in Technology  Technology Teacher, 64, 1. 

In classroom settings, most problems are usually well defined, so students have little experience with open-ended problems. Technological design problems, however, are seldom well defined. The design process begins with broad ideas and concepts and continues in the direction of ever-increasing detail, resulting in an acceptable solution. So using design in the classroom can be challenging, as students are not familiar, or initially not comfortable, with the open-ended nature of design. This can also pose problems for teachers, who must relinquish directive control. However, it also provides opportunity to use constructivist pedagogical practice to engage students in their own learning. The informed design process discussed in this article, and the underlying pedagogical support methodology, provide a way to optimize the use of design as a pedagogical strategy.

Burgoyne, Suzanne; Placier, Peggy; Thomas, Mallory; Welch, Sharon; Ruffin, Clyde; Flores, Lisa Y.; Celebi, Elif; Azizan-Gardner, Noor; Miller, Marilyn (2007).  Interactive Theater and Self-Efficacy  New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2007, 111. 

Forum theater is an interactive theater method in which audience members become active performers, taking advantage of the opportunity to explore multicultural dimensions of teaching in a "safe space" and receiving feedback from colleagues. Forum theater methods derive from Theater of the Oppressed, an interactive approach founded by the Brazilian Augusto Boal, drawing on Paolo Freire's "pedagogy of the oppressed." The interactive theater approach includes a number of alternative methods; discussion with characters may lead to a general discussion of teaching strategies to address the situation; audience feedback followed by the actors' replay of the sketch, with the instructor-character using strategies suggested by the audience; or the forum theater method, in which an audience member comes onstage either to replace the instructor or as an additional character. Although practitioners all over the world apply forum theater, little empirical research has examined the use of these techniques for enhancing teacher effectiveness. Most existing literature on Theater of the Oppressed consists primarily of case studies, ideological analyses, and interviews with Boal. In this article, the authors use qualitative methods to assess the forum theater performance's impact. Participants found the active learning approach memorable, increasing "audience awareness of key issues."

Burke, Penny Jane (2002).  Accessing Education: Effectively Widening Participation. 

This book about widening educational participation draws on an ethnographic study of 23 students returning to learning through access courses provided at their local further education college in suburban England. Chapter 1 explains how certain poststructural concepts (discourse, hegemony, deconstruction, and subjectivity) are used as analytical tools to make sense of access students' experiences and autobiographies. Chapter 2 puts the ethnography into context geographically, historically, and politically and by describing access courses at the center of the inquiry. Chapter 3 describes the process of developing collaborative, interactive, and reflexive methodological approaches to research access education. Chapter 4 explores themes of collaboration, interaction, and empowerment in relation to pedagogy. It considers effects of hegemonic discourses on teaching practices. Chapter 5 explores access students' narratives of intimidation, reveals how hegemonic discourses reposition them as inferior, and how participants resist this by creating radical spaces in their access classrooms. Chapter 6 examines participants' desire for self-discovery. It explores how they construct their subjectivity in relation to the multiple contexts in which they are positioned and position themselves. Chapter 7 considers ways in which radical discourses are resisted within access education. Chapter 8 shows collaborative approaches to understanding and developing new strategies for widening educational access are of central importance. Appendixes include a 184-item bibliography and index.

Burkett, Ruth S., Ed.; Macy, Michelle, Ed.; White, James A., Ed.; Feyten, Carine M., Ed. (2001).  Preservice Teacher Education. [SITE 2001 Section]. 

This document contains the papers on preservice teacher education from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference. Topics covered include: preparing tomorrow's teachers; insights for pre-service teachers about computer use; geographic information systems in teacher education; digital cameras in education; integrating technology in research courses for preservice teachers; a computer-assisted coeducational and transdisciplinary experience; technology integration in reading and science; preservice teachers' experiences in a technology-rich urban K-12 school setting; unique collaborations in preservice teacher programs; the evolution of a curriculum in technology and pedagogy; multiple delivery systems; a Holocaust World Wide Web site; creating collegial networks; cooperative teaching and learning in information technology (IT) and modern foreign languages; analyzing bilingual education preservice teachers' learning outcomes in a computer literacy course; the next generation of professional development; the role of IT in the classroom and its implications for preservice teacher education; a planning model for integrating technology and educational methodologies in the preservice teacher education program; curriculum models for computing and IT; economics, information literacy, and teacher education; constructivist use of technology; understanding the leadership role in promoting reading outside the classroom; technological capacities of distance education teachers; standards-based reflection; anchored instruction using WebQuests in post-baccalaureate teacher education courses; virtual learning, Web videos, and elementary mathematics teacher education; teacher education changes, transitions, and substitutions; graphic representations for learning; observations of the computer use of preservice teachers; using Dreamweaver 3 for generating preservice Web-based teaching portfolios; perceptions of preservice teachers' technology competency skills in Arizona; learning with Internet resources; culture clash in the college classroom; using multimedia and technology to teach mathematics and science; preparing teachers to succeed in online professional development courses; empowering teacher through cognitive literacy skills development; teacher preparation and online learning; addressing teacher concerns toward technology; technological tools and mathematical guided discovery; the R.O.A.D. (Read, Own, Apply, Discuss) system for enhancing teacher professional growth; building a professional cyberspace community; Internet use in teacher education; student teacher educational technology use; a collaborative teacher preparation technology project; educational technology at the University of Florida; assessing faculty attitudes toward information technology; a collaborative approach to integrating technology and information literacy in preservice teacher education; PT3 (Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers to use Technology) first year accomplishments; reducing distances between colleges via Web CT; technology and problem-based learning; effectiveness of an exemption exam for an introductory educational technology course; and a computer endorsement program. Most papers contain references. | [FULL TEXT]

Burkhart, Ross E.; Limaye, Mohan R. (2002).  Attitudinal Change and Critical Pedagogy: An Exercise in a Political Science and Global Business Course.  Journal of Teaching in International Business, 14, 1. 

Adminstered an exercise to document the reactions of international studies students to different worldviews. Found that students were more accepting of the provocative propositions in the post-instruction exercise at the end of the course than in the beginning-course exercise.

Burn, Katharine (2006).  Promoting Critical Conversations: The Distinctive Contribution of Higher Education as a Partner in the Professional Preparation of New Teachers  Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 32, 3. 

Higher education institutions have long argued that they have a distinctive and critical role to play as partners in initial teacher education. This research offers an evaluation of this claim by exploring the contribution of higher education alongside the school-based input it is intended to complement. Using a case study approach within a well-established "collaborative" partnership, focused on advice about choosing appropriate lesson activities, data were collected from 18 university-based sessions, and from the weekly mentor meetings of four experienced mentors. Despite important differences between individual schools, a high level of consistency was found between the partners in terms of their substantive recommendations. Where the university tutors' input was clearly distinctive from that of school-based mentors was in the explicit nature of the procedural advice given to trainees, the sources on which each drew in making their recommendations, and in the extent to which ideas were subjected to critical scrutiny.

Burnett, Joanne; Fonder-Solano, Leah (2001).  Crossing the Boundaries between Literature and Pedagogy: Perspectives on a Foreign Language Reading Course. 

This article presents a methodological comparison of beliefs and practices with regard to teaching a third-year introduction to reading and literature course. It reviews the different educational backgrounds of the teachers--one in foreign language acquisition and the other in literary study--and describes their different approaches to teaching the same kind of course. The teachers discovered that even though they had worked and socialized together for over years before initiating the study, they both held several erroneous assumptions about the other's teaching. In confronting both their similarities and differences, the teachers demonstrate how engaging in dialogue leads to discovery, appreciation, and collegiality. Ultimately, their dialogue provides concrete evidence of the positive results of opening up one's classroom to a colleague with a different background and approach. An appendix presents a description of an Introduction to Hispanic Literature course and a Reading in French course. | [FULL TEXT]

Burnham, Rika; Kai-Kee, Elliott (2005).  The Art of Teaching in the Museum  Journal of Aesthetic Education, 39, 1. 

Over the past decade, most American museum educators have adopted as their objective helping museum visitors "learn how to look." They have embraced various kinds of participatory and interactive learning programs, encouraging engagement with works of art in the museum gallery through a process of inquiry shared by visitors and their guides. The coauthors of this essay propose that the real ultimate objective of museum teaching should be conceived as offering the visitor a certain kind of experience. Citing John Dewey's key concept of "an experience," they describe how the experience of viewing a work of art unfolds slowly in time, through observation, conversation, and the proposal of possible meanings, to arrive at synthesis and a sense of understanding. The authors, who have taught for over fifteen years in their respective institutions, advocate for the centrality of gallery teaching to the mission of the museum, and posit an ideal pedagogy for museum education practice in the twenty-first century.

Burns, Clarence E.; Whiddon, Thomas R.; Richter, Scott T. (2006).  A Profile of Western (USA) Higher Education Physical Education Degree Programs  Physical Educator, 63, 4. 

The purpose of this study was to provide an updated profile of western United States higher education physical education degree programs. This inquiry reports on present-day departmental nomenclature, school or college affiliation, academic concentrations, and whether such programs administer physical education activity service programs. The findings suggest that physical education degree granting programs are likely to be affiliated with Colleges or Schools of Education, located in Departments of Physical Education (combined with one or two other idioms), offer academic concentrations in pedagogy, athletic training, health promotion/ education, and exercise science, and the administration of physical activity service programs is the singular domain of physical education academic units. Discussion focuses on the profile of Western undergraduate physical education programs as a reflection of professional ancestry and mission.

Burns, Janet Z.; Schaefer, Karen; Hayden, Jessie M. (2005).  New Trade and Industrial Teachers' Perceptions of Formal Learning versus Informal Learning and Teaching Proficiency  Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 42, 3. 

Trade and industrial (T&I) teachers enter the classroom as content level experts who may have acquired their content expertise through a combination of formal industry training and informal on-the-job experiences. When they make the career transition from industry to teaching, they must acquire professional teaching competencies. Like the content competencies, these teaching competencies may also involve both formal and informal learning experiences, particularly because the majority of T&I teachers are employed by schools and begin teaching while simultaneously attending alternative teacher preparation programs. For new T&I teachers, formal teacher training in the area of pedagogy before entering the school workplace is the exception rather than the norm. The purpose of this study is two-fold. First, this study aims to add to the body of research in informal learning by focusing on the school workplace rather than the corporate workplace. Secondly, this study builds on an exploratory study which discovered that informal workplace learning takes place with novice T&I teachers. The current study was designed to learn more about which teaching competencies new T&I teachers learn formally versus which they learn informally, and the relationship of the learning method to the teachers' perceived proficiency in core teaching competencies.  | [FULL TEXT]

Burrus, C. Sidney (2007).  Connexions: An Open Educational Resource for the 21st Century  Educational Technology Magazine: The Magazine for Managers of Change in Education, 47, 6. 

The technology for information organization, communication, storage, and use today is the book. It has evolved over 3000 years (in its modern form over 500 years) to the mature object we currently enjoy. The book is now the primary technology used in education. But with the development of the computer and the Web, a new electronic information technology is challenging the book and laboratory, and it promises to allow significantly improved learning. The author and colleagues have developed and are using an Open Educational Resource called Connexions where the content is organized in small modules, open to use and reuse in creative ways consistent with modern pedagogy and open to new systems yet to be discovered or invented. This article presents the Connexions Project at Rice University as an example of that new technology and outlines the experience.

Burton, Diana (2007).  Psycho-Pedagogy and Personalised Learning  Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 33, 1. 

Over the past decade international discussions of pedagogy have increasingly clustered around a few ubiquitous and popular ideas drawn ostensibly from psychological research. The internet has been a powerful force in disseminating and globalising pedagogically relevant research into such matters as metacognition, multiple forms of intelligence, learning styles, learning preferences, thinking skills, brain functioning, emotional intelligence and neuro-linguistic programming. This article explores the extent to which moulding pedagogy from a superficial reading of psychological ideas is educationally viable and suggests that pedagogical research is becoming increasingly self-referential. The widespread acceptance of such ideas and their apparent validation within government documentation are examined. England will provide the case study for this examination since its government actively sponsors particular pedagogical approaches, packaging them currently under the now familiar label "personalised learning", a term elaborated by government think-tank adviser Charles Leadbeater.

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Bush, William S. (2005).  Improving Research on Mathematics Learning and Teaching in Rural Contexts  Journal of Research in Rural Education, 20, 8. 

An adequate research base for mathematics learning and teaching in rural areas does not exist. According to Silver (2001), mathematics education research has virtually ignored rural context, even though approximately one third of the nation's population lives in rural areas. Mathematics education and rural education researchers seem to have little understanding of each other's work. In response to this disconnect, I describe ethnomathematics in mathematics education and place-based pedagogy in rural education and, in turn, discuss how research in place-based pedagogy can benefit from research methodologies in ethnomathematics. Specifically, I offer (a) an overview and analysis of current issues regarding mathematics in rural contexts; (b) a broader view of the role of mathematics in rural contexts and in place-based pedagogy; and (c) recommendations for much needed collaboration in research and practice in mathematics education in rural contexts.

Bushnell, Mary (2003).  Teachers in the Schoolhouse Panopticon: Complicity and Resistance.  Education and Urban Society, 35, 3. 

Illustrates how educational reforms subordinate teachers and reduce their opportunities for professionalism, interviewing beginning and experienced female elementary school teachers. Results address the social construction of the teacher (curricular standards and pedagogy); evidence of resistance; and teacher complicity and constraint. Suggests that teachers are complicit in their own subordination and are left with limited opportunities for resistance.

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Butchart, Ronald E.; Rolleri, Amy F. (2004).  Secondary Education and Emancipation: Secondary Schools for Freed Slaves in the American South, 1862-1875  Paedagogica Historica: International Journal of the History of Education, 40, 1-2. 

Slavery in the United States denied education to the enslaved. Yet within fifteen years of the beginning of the American Civil War and the freeing of four million American slaves, the freed people and their supporters elaborated a full system of universal education in the South, including over 120 secondary and higher institutions. Historians have overlooked black secondary education as a distinctive part of early black schooling. This article documents the competing ends of black secondary education during Reconstruction, the forms of secondary education that emerged during that period, and the curriculum and pedagogy of the schools. An appendix lists the schools of secondary and higher grade known to have been in operation by 1876.

Butler, Malcolm B.; Lee, Seungyoun; Tippins, Deborah J. (2006).  Case-Based Methodology as an Instructional Strategy for Understanding Diversity: Preservice Teachers' Perceptions  Multicultural Education, 13, 3. 

Case-based pedagogy focuses on teachers' problem solving, decision making, reflective practices and their own personalized theory about teaching and learning. Research has shown that case-based pedagogy enables teachers to improve their actions in teaching and learning from multiple perspectives, reflective thinking, active participation and motivation for learning, and intellectual strategies. Through case-based pedagogy, preservice teachers can learn the essence of educational dilemmas, seek the most appropriate solution in a given and informed context, assess the results of problem solving, and reflect on meaning. In this sense, cases mediate teachers' higher order thinking by applying and modifying the theories and practice in education. In this article, the author investigates preservice teachers' perceptions of case-based pedagogy as an instructional strategy for understanding diversity. | [FULL TEXT]

Butterwick, Shauna; Selman, Jan (2003).  Deep Listening in a Feminist Popular Theatre Project: Upsetting the Position of the Audience in Participatory Education.  Adult Education Quarterly, 54, 1. 

Using popular theatre techniques of naming, analyzing, and acting on problems and working creatively with conflict, a group of women created opportunities for high-risk story telling and deep listening. The role of the audience was transformed from spectator to responsible and responsive participant.

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