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Pedagogy | S

Sac

Sachs, Judyth; Logan, Lloyd (1993).  Case Study: Technology and Teacher Education--A Study of the Remote Area Teacher Education Programme.  Educational and Training Technology International, 30, 4. 

Describes the Remote Area Teacher Education Programme (RATEP) implemented in Aboriginal and Torres Strait communities in Far North Queensland (Australia) to demonstrate the potential of interactive multimedia in the delivery of on-site teacher education programs in remote areas. Interactive learning systems, information technology, and pedagogy in RATEP are discussed.

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Sad

Sadovnik, Alan R. (1991).  Basil Bernstein's Theory of Pedagogic Practice: A Structuralist Approach.  Sociology of Education, 64, 1. 

Presents Basil Bernstein's most recent model of pedagogic practice, connecting it to his theory of curriculum and pedagogy and to his overall structuralist sociological project. Points out unresolved questions in Bernstein's work. Demonstrates an area of applicative value in relation to the evolution of education in the United States.

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Saf

Saferstein, Barry; Souviney, Randall (1998).  Secondary Science Teachers, the Internet, and Curriculum Development: A Community of Explorers.  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 26, 2. 

In the Community of Explorers Project (CoE) high school teachers and students engaged in scientific problem solving using advanced network technology and innovative pedagogy. Analysis of e-mail indicated the important effects of organizational and occupational cultures on the application of technology in classrooms and on the development of a professional community oriented toward designing innovative curriculum.

Safty, Adel (1990).  Second Language Acquisition in French Immersion in Canada: Characteristics and Implications.  Language Culture and Curriculum, 3, 3. 

Describes the Canadian program of French immersion in terms of current issues in the theory of second-language (L2) learning, including the role of consciousness, optimal timing of L2 learning, communicative competency classification, and the role of the first language. Implications for L2 pedagogy and requirements for a new language pedagogy are also discussed. 53 references.

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Sai

Saint-Laurent, Lise; And Others (1994).  La formation des enseignant(e)s en adaption scolaire (The Preparation of Noncategorical Special Education Teachers).  Canadian Journal of Special Education, 9, 3-4. 

This paper presents a model for the preparation of Quebec teachers of special needs children across disability categories. The proposed model emphasizes collaborative consultation among regular and special educators, collaboration with parents, individualized intervention plans, and teaching of learning strategies. The paper recommends that a solid background in general pedagogy precede this special education preparation.

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Saj

Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.; And Others (1993).  National Foreign Language Planning: Practices and Prospects. 

A selection of essays on foreign language planning at the national level contains articles on the language planning process, language choice, teacher education, testing and assessment, and transnational planning. Essays include the following: "Foreign Language Teaching Policy: Some Planning Issues" (Theo J. M. van Els); "Foreign Language Planning in the United States" (Richard D. Lambert); "Communication, Foreign Languages, and Foreign Language Policy" (Kari Sajavaara); "Language Policy and Language Teaching in Finland" (Sauli Takala); "Problems in the Implementation of Foreign Language Policy in Finland" (Marja-Liisa Karppinen); "Languages and Policy in Estonia" (Urve Laanemets); Human Rights and Foreign Languages" (Robert Phillipson); "Language Choice and Its Impact: The Sociocultural Factor in Language Education Strategies" (Elisabetta Zuanelli Sonino); "Less Commonly Taught Languages in the United States: Needs, Capacities, and Strategies for Development" (Richard D. Brecht, A. Ronald Walton); "Teacher Education and National Foreign Language Policies" (Gerald Westhoff); "Foreign Language Policy, Pedagogy, and Practice: An American Perspective" (Diane W. Birckbichler); "Transparency, Coherence, and Washback in Language Assessment" (Brian North); "Testing and Examinations in a National Foreign Language Policy" (Bernard Spolsky); and "The Integration of European and National Foreign Language Policies: The European Community's LINGUA Program" (Antony Shaw).

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Sak

Saks, A. L.; Larson, Richard L. (1994).  Annotated Bibliography of Research in the Teaching of English.  Research in the Teaching of English, 28, 2. 

Provides a 107-item annotated bibliography of research published from July to December of 1993 in various areas of English pedagogy and instruction. Covers research in the areas of curriculum, language, literature, researcher education, teacher education, and writing.

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Sal

Salerno, Frederic V.; And Others (1994).  The Challenge of Technology to Higher Education.  [Studies in Public Higher Education] 

In this report three administrators explore the challenges of integrating technology into the mainstream of academic life especially at the State University of New York (SUNY). Frederic V. Salerno, in "Pedagogy is the Traveller on the Educational Superhighway," asks how technology can be integrated into academic life and sees the answer in an educational superhighway. In "SUNY's New Challenge and Choice: Instructional Technology--Old Byway or Superhighway?" Joseph C. Burke raises four issues: career skills, different types of students, public distrust, and new competitors. Technology is seen as the way to transform teaching methods and how students learn. The third paper, by James W. Hall, "The Revolution in Electronic Technology and the Modern University: The Convergence of Means," notes that technology and the increasing demand for postsecondary education are causing fundamental changes in how universities function as institutions of higher learning. Although distance education is one response to these changes, convergence, a concept that visualizes the university as a place of wide access, of multiplicity and replicability of resources, of limitless exchange and interconnection, is seen as the preferred road. To test these theories in the SUNY system, three objectives are defined: installation of a statewide information network, reconceptualizing how technology is being used, and converging instructional modes. But irrespective of any changes, the university must continue to maintain its central values. | [FULL TEXT]

Salomon, Gavriel (1998).  Technology's Promises and Dangers in a Psychological and Educational Context.  Theory into Practice, 37, 1. 

Explores two pedagogical aspects of the reciprocal relationship between the human psyche and current technology, describing how that interaction expands and constrains pedagogy and ultimately teacher education. The paper discusses novel understandings of learning (constructivism and social aspects of learning), novel technological affordances, psychology and technology together (proximal and distal effects), and implications for teacher education.

Salomone, Ann Masters (1998).  Communicative Grammar Teaching: A Problem for and a Message from International Teaching Assistants.  Foreign Language Annals, 31, 4. 

Qualitative data obtained from teaching-assistant surveys, interviews, journal entries, and videotape critiques were analyzed to discover specific concerns of international teaching assistants (ITAs) about grammar and how these concerns influence their problems of language, cross-cultural communication, and pedagogy. Thematic summary of data and pedagogical implications for TA and ITA training are presented and serve as call to ITA trainers for clearer instructions about grammar teaching.

Saltmarsh, John (1996).  Education for Critical Citizenship: John Dewey's Contribution to the Pedagogy of Community Service Learning.  Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 3

Identifies five specific areas in which John Dewey's writings contribute to service-learning: linking education to experience; democratic community; social service; reflective inquiry; and education for social transformation. Argues that these contributions form the basis of a cultural and political critique and reconceptualized pedagogy aimed at development of democratic values and critical citizenship.

Salvo, Michael J.; Lane, Daniel (1995).  Training Basic Writing Teachers through Collaboration: Exploring Pedagogies through Performance. 

A collaborative teaching model that replaces the hierarchical graduate teaching assistant (TA)/tutor structure can be used to train basic writing TAs with a pedagogy that stresses reflection and dialogue. Usually, new graduate students tutor for a semester in Basic Writing classrooms and then later move on to teach their own classes; in this case, however, the tutor or apprentice became a teacher alongside the more experienced TA. The two instructors who developed this model consistently critiqued each other's classroom performances. They understood how and why they were involved in this close professional relationship and so heavily invested in the class. When looking over their pedagogical and structural experiment, one site of negotiation was clearly a winner for both of them. The tutor was clearly interested in computer-mediated communication; the TA was not. However, when the TA agreed to allow the tutor to hold class every Wednesday in the computer room, a number of things were accomplished. The tutor was able to establish an area of expertise; the teaching assistant was able to observe another teaching approach at work. Like many teachers discovering the computer classroom, the TA had only to look at the amount of copy produced in a single period to be convinced of its value. Finally, the two instructors negotiated a system for evaluating portfolios of student writing together. | [FULL TEXT]

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Sam

Samaras, Anastasia P.; Howard, Barbara J.; Wende, Carolee (1999).  Fresh Footprints: Assessment of an Environmental Science Collaborative Learning Project for Undergraduate, Non-science Majors. 

This study examines undergraduate non-science majors' perceptions of a cooperative-collaborative science pedagogy employed in a course on global change that was one course in a pilot project of a newly-designed environmental science program. Non-traditional evaluation tools such as portfolios, focus groups, group assessments, and self-assessments were employed in the course. This paper describes how research led to practical pedagogical applications in developing and assessing students' environmental science knowledge, applying science content to non-science majors' career goals, and promoting problem-solving skills in collaborative contexts. | [FULL TEXT]

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San

_____. (1997).  San Antonio School Choice Research Project. Final Report. 

The findings of an investigation of both a private and a public school-choice program in San Antonio, Texas, between 1992 and 1996 are evaluated in this report. The private program, sponsored by the Children's Educational Opportunity (CEO) Foundation, provides scholarships to low-income parents to enroll their children in private schools, while the public program, offered by the San Antonio Independent School District, selects students from across the district to study foreign language and culture ("the multicultural program"). The study focuses on five groups of "choosing" families, as well as one group of randomly selected "nonchoosing" families. The choosing families include those whose children: (1) enrolled in the public multilingual program; (2) applied but could not enroll in the multilingual program due to limited enrollment space; (3) already attended private schools and received CEO scholarships; (4) received CEO scholarships and transferred from public to private schools; and (5) already attended private schools, applied and were placed on the waiting list for CEO scholarships. The researchers supplemented survey information from these groups with surveys of teachers, interviews with school administrators, field observations at the nine schools, and reviews of archival records. The report explores the differences between choosing and nonchoosing families; the differences between private school choosers and public school choosers; the satisfaction of parents over time with their choices; factors involved in student attrition from choice programs; the educational impacts of school choice on student achievement; the characteristics of schools as perceived by teachers; and the institutional practice and pedagogy as perceived by students. Some of the findings include the following: relative to nonchoosing families, choosing families are more educated, wealthier, and have fewer children; parents who used the CEO scholarships to move their children from public to private schools were dissatisfied with their prior public schools and are very satisfied with their child's private schools; nonchoosing families are very satisfied with their public schools; and private school teachers have less experience than public school teachers and are less likely to hold master's degrees or to be certified. More extensive information is available in research reports, journal articles, and book chapters listed in the bibliography at the end. | [FULL TEXT]

Sandell, Renee (1991).  The Liberating Relevance of Feminist Pedagogy.  Studies in Art Education, 32, 3. 

Explores feminist pedagogy's liberating relevance to the theory and practice of contemporary art education, on the premise that feminism can ameliorate the marginal statuses of women, art, and education. Discusses feminism's impact on education, feminist pedagogy as an alternative instructional model with its emphasis in collaboration, cooperation, and interaction.

Sandler, Bernice Resnick; And Others (1996).  The Chilly Classroom Climate: A Guide To Improve the Education of Women. 

This report assesses how the classroom climate is affected by classroom structure, power dynamics within the classroom, different pedagogical styles, the curriculum, and the relationships between male and female students. Data come from quantitative and qualitative studies in classrooms at all levels and in related settings, along with surveys, interviews, and numerous other data-gathering approaches. The report is presented in five parts. Part 1, "How the Classroom Experience is Different for Women and Men," describes and analyzes how teacher and student behavior create a different experience for men and women students. Part 2, "Pedagogy and the Classroom," examines the impact of pedagogy on students, including collaborative learning and feminist pedagogy. Part 3, "Including Women in the Curriculum," explores the importance of the curriculum and ways to further integrate women into it. Part 4, "Gender and the Faculty Evaluation Process: Reward or Punishment?" explores the impact of teacher style and other factors on the evaluation of faculty members by students and colleagues. Part 5, "Where Do We Go From Here: Recommendations for Making the Classroom More Equitable for Everyone," contains recommendations for institutions, faculty members, and students for improving the learning climate. The volume concludes with two appendices: "Evaluating Your Course for Inclusion of Scholarship on Women," and "Questions for Faculty Members: Examining Your Class for Inadvertent Bias." Contains endnotes, resources, and an evaluation form. | [FULL TEXT]

Sanford, Jayminn Sulir; Mahar, Robert James (1996).  Retrospective of a PDS Based Urban Teacher Education Program: Its Conception, Development, and Implementation for Co-existence with a Traditional Model in a Rural Setting.  Contemporary Education, 67, 4. 

One of five articles in the second section, "Deepening Relationships through PDS Brings Change in Practice," this article describes the Five-Year Teacher Preparation Program at Temple University (Pennsylvania). This program integrates pedagogy and instruction with coursework in arts and sciences. It involves dialog between the College of Education, College of Arts and Sciences, and Philadelphia School District.

Sanguinetti, Jill (1994).  The Sound of Babel and the Language of Friendship: An Exploration of Critical and Feminist Pedagogies and Their Application in Teaching ESL and Literacy to Women.  Australian Journal of Adult and Community Education, 34, 1. 

Feminist reflection on teaching English as a Second Language to Australian migrant women concludes that empowerment assumes teacher-student solidarity; critical pedagogy arises from praxis; and women-centered culture can help mediate cultural, class, and political differences.

Sanzenbacher, Richard (1991).  The Conflict between Technology and the Environment: A Lesson in Critical Consciousness.  College Teaching, 39, 3. 

A unit in a college course on technology and human values involves the students' questioning of traditional Western values as they relate to technological rationalism, calling dominant ideology into question. The approach is based on Paulo Freire's problem-posing pedagogy, and incorporates analysis of selected paintings from the Futurist movement.

Sanzenbacher, Richard (1997).  New Awareness of the Power of Dialogue: A Hopeful Pedagogy.  College Teaching, 45, 3. 

Describes three class activities devised to teach Thoreau's "Walden" at the college level, focusing on the dialogic quality of all language. The approach is based on the idea that every utterance functions in some way as a response to others, and that readers supply meaning in discourse.

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Sap

Saper, Craig (1992).  Fluxacademy: From Intermedia to Interactive Education.  Visible Language, 26, 1-2. 

Advocates a Fluxus-based experimental pedagogy which is suited for scholarship confronted with film and electronic media. Notes that the theory explored in Fluxacademy focuses specifically on the use of intermedia for interactive education.

Saphier, Jonathon D. (1995).  Bonfires and Magic Bullets. Making Teaching a True Profession: The Step without Which Other Reforms Will Neither Take nor Endure. Revised. 

This paper proposes a way to professionalize teaching based on internal change and six knowledge bases of professional teaching. Key features of this approach are: (1) it proposes professionalization from within through active involvement from schools and districts; (2) it includes the knowledge base in generic pedagogy (composed of communication of expectations, class climate, personal relationship building, clarity, principles of learning, models of teaching, curriculum planning and lesson design, attention, and momentum) as a vital ingredient; (3) it proposes a new way of thinking about the nature of professional knowledge as built around areas of performance, repertoire, and matching (the ability to draw from a repertoire the best response to match a given situation); (4) it outlines a campaign for changing public attitudes that is necessary for generating the national support required to fund professionalization; (5) it takes a systems approach to professionalization; and (6) it proposes a functional model for integrating the elements of this system and for beginning right away. The proposal covers the following topics: why professionalization is important, obstacles, changes in teacher education, effecting change, and creating a national professional organization. Appendixes contain information on six knowledge bases of professional teaching, teacher beliefs, and teacher competencies in the six knowledge bases. | [FULL TEXT]

Sapon-Shevin, Mara (1991).  As We Teach, We Change Our Students and Ourselves.  Teaching Education, 4, 1. 

Examines how teachers' pedagogical practices shape them as educators and alter their belief systems about students. A teacher describes her own pedagogy, noting how she made her practices consonant with her beliefs and discussing the changes in her attitudes when she changed her course from pass-fail to letter grading.

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Sar

Sarland, Charles (1995).  Action Research: Some British Funded Projects: A Review. 

The "Teachers as Researchers in the Context of Award Bearing Courses and Research Degrees" is a United Kingdom project that explores the claims made for action research and the criticisms levelled against it. This paper offers a set of "readings" of six action research projects. After Part 1, which serves as an introduction, the paper is in two main sections. Part 2 summarizes six projects: (1) Becoming Our Own Experts, 1974-1979; (2) Learning about Learning/Write to Learn, 1980-1990; (3) Teacher Pupil Interaction and the Quality of Learning (TIQL), 1991-1993; (4) Supporting Teachers Research into Classroom Teaching (STRICT), 1986-1990; (5) Pupil Autonomy in Learning with Microcomputers (PALM) Project, 1988-1990; and (6) Evaluating a School-based, Award-bearing Curriculum Development Scheme (ESACS) Project, 1991-the present. Part 3 analyzes the projects in the context of several themes, including practical control, the theory practice divide, and authenticity; the action research cycle; collaboration; funding; and publication and dissemination. Action research enables teachers to bring about changes in pedagogy and curriculum, improves the quality of students' learning experiences and professional collaboration, encourages insider research methodologies, contributes to both personal and institutional development, helps teachers to implement innovation in ways consistent with values, and enables teachers to be more accountable for their practice. Criticisms of action research include the difficulty of developing valid insider research methodology; the dominant influence of academic discourses or, by contrast, the tendency of reports to rely too heavily on description; ignoring the wider contexts; an absence of reference to known research findings; inadequate training; and unacknowledged hidden costs. | [FULL TEXT]

Saroyan, Alenoush; Snell, Linda S. (1997).  Variations in Lecturing Styles.  Higher Education, 33, 1. 

Three types of higher education lecturing styles are described and their differences are discussed in the context of current conceptions of teaching and pedagogical principles. The three lectures are subsequently characterized as content-driven, context-driven, and pedagogy-driven. Evaluation data suggest that the more pedagogically oriented the lecture, the higher it is rated by students.

Sarrasin, Robert (1998).  L'enseignement du francais et en francais en milieu amerindien au Quebec: Une problematique ethnopedagogique (The Teaching of French and in French in an Amerindian Milieu in Quebec: A Problematic Ethnopedagogy).  Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 1, 1-2. 

Examines the situation of Quebec's First Nations setting. Discusses problems raised by certain verbal tasks required for Atikamekw students in an Atikamekw-French bilingual program. Suggests that both first and second language pedagogy must take into account the ethnolinguistic characteristics of the students' social background and that an ethnological perspective may be pertinent to numerous pedagogical contexts.

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Sav

Savicevic, Dusan M. (1999).  Adult Education: From Practice to Theory Building. Studies in Pedagogy, Andragogy, and Gerontagogy 37. 

This book summarizes the practical experiences and theoretical insights gained by the author during the past 30 years. The following are among the topics discussed: (1) literacy as a factor of social and individual development and basic human right (Yugoslavia's experience with correlation of primary and work-oriented professional education of young people; cooperation among nonaligned and other developing countries in the field of literacy; international cooperation in the struggle against functional illiteracy among young people); (2) relationship between work and adult education (role of knowledge in modern economic development, middle management and the revolution in adult education, significance of lifelong learning of engineers and technicians, recurrent education, adult education and social change, adult education and long-term unemployment); (3) universities and adult education (development trends and diversification of higher education, continuing professional education at Yugoslav universities); (4) training and research in the field of adult education; (5) lifelong education as a humanistic philosophy (self-directed learning for lifelong education, evaluation in adult education); and (6) roots of andragogy and its evolution in Europe and the United States. The last section contains 232 references and 30 sources in which the works were published.

Savitz, Fred (1999).  Howard Gardner, Meet Benjamin Bloom: Strategies for the Future Enliven Methods from the Past. 

Classic theories in pedagogy such as those of John Dewey and Jean Piaget establish the foundation upon which preservice students in a social studies methods course build new knowledge about the teaching/learning paradigm. The constructivist philosophy emanating from these theories provides the rationale for a technique designed to enable students to acquire knowledge and master skills in instructional preparation and delivery. The technique represents an adaptation of contemporary theory in multiple intelligences designed to model the application of constructivism to students' development of a comprehensive understanding of B. Bloom's Taxonomy. In this methods class, students sing the blues as they learn how to formulate objectives.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Sca

Scanlon, Jennifer (1993).  Keeping Our Activist Selves Alive in the Classroom: Feminist Pedagogy and Political Activism.  Feminist Teacher, 7, 2. 

Asserts that feminist instructors try to foster personal and social change. Maintains that feminist teachers must encourage activism in their classrooms to keep feminist culture alive. Describes two outside student activities, discusses group projects, and provides suggestions on student evaluation.

Scanlon, Jennifer (1994).  Feminist Pedagogy Meets Male Sports: A Workshop on Gender Sensitivity for the Men's Rugby Club.  NWSA Journal, 6, 3. 

Discusses a workshop that used feminist pedagogy to challenge students' deeply ingrained sexism, promote their appreciation of differences, and encourage them to change their behavior voluntarily. Participants involved a group of male students undergoing punishment in the campus judicial system. Workshop results are discussed.

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Sce

Scering, Grace E. Sikes (1997).  Themes of a Critical/Feminist Pedagogy: Teacher Education for Democracy.  Journal of Teacher Education, 48, 1. 

Critical/feminist pedagogy provides a framework for teacher education in a democratic society because it facilitates the development of pedagogical relations that support the acquisition of the skills of democratic participation. The paper discusses these themes and suggests a framework for implementing teacher education supportive of the democratic purpose of schooling.

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Sch

_____. (1991).  School Restructuring: What the Reformers Are Saying. 

A discussion with 10 nationally recognized education reformers is summarized in this report. A goal of the discussion was to find common ways to fundamentally alter the American educational structure. Participants' statements are organized around six central themes, which form a paradigm for effective school restructuring. Sections address each of the six issues, which include expectations of students, ways in which schools function, curriculum and pedagogy, assessment, external support, and educator training. | [FULL TEXT]

Schapiro, Robert M. (1995).  Liberatory Pedagogy and the Development Paradox.  Convergence, 28, 2. 

Development can be either incremental or discontinuous, the latter leading to liberatory action. There is a fundamental dilemma involved. On the one hand, educators are trying to change people, forming unavoidable power relations. At the same time, they cannot fully predict the consequences of their efforts.

Schenbeck, Lyn (1996).  A Theoretical Model for the Four-Stage Music-Industry Internship Program.  Journal of Experiential Education, 19, 2. 

Describes student development through experiential learning in a four-stage internship within a college music-industry curriculum, and uses the Steinaker-Bell experiential taxonomy to show how embedding a multistage internship throughout the curriculum, rather than at the end, greatly enhances learning. Suggests ways in which the multistage undergraduate internship can benefit other curricula.

Scheurman, Geoffrey; Newman, Fred M. (1998).  Authentic Intellectual Work in Social Studies: Putting Performance before Pedagogy.  Social Education, 62, 1. 

Describes criteria for authentic intellectual achievement in social studies, as well as the assessment and instruction tasks necessary to achieve these criteria. Emphasizes the importance of the construction of knowledge, disciplined inquiry, and the development of qualities of reasoning that have value outside school.

Schifter, Deborah (1994).  Voicing the New Pedagogy: Teachers Write about Learning and Teaching Mathematics. Center for the Development of Teaching Paper Series. 

Detailed descriptions of classroom process are needed in order to ground discussion of the principles animating the mathematics education reform movement. In response to this need, teachers who were already engaged in transforming their mathematics instruction were invited to write reflective narratives about their evolving instructional practice. This paper describes the structure of that project, the Mathematics Process Writing Project, and presents excerpts from some representative narratives. It also considers how writing these narratives contributed to the continuing development of their authors and discusses how reading them affected students in teacher education courses. Finally, it urges that such narratives be seen as a medium through which teachers can become centrally involved in the national conversation about mathematics education reform. | [FULL TEXT]

Schifter, Deborah, Ed. (1996).  What's Happening in Math Class? Vol. 2: Reconstructing Professional Identities. 

This book and its companion volume include narratives by teachers who are working with constructivist methods and principles to transform their practice along the lines mandated by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards. In this volume, nine teachers describe their struggle to understand constructivism and its application to learning mathematics, and transform their mathematics instruction. These teacher narratives are complemented by four essays written by teacher educators which explore some of the challenges posted by the new mathematics pedagogy for the multiple identities teachers are being asked to enact as mathematical thinkers, managers of classroom processes, monitors of student learning, and as members of the wider mathematics education community.

Schmid, Thomas J. (1992).  Classroom-Based Ethnography: A Research Pedagogy.  Teaching Sociology, 20, 1. 

Discusses difficulties of classroom-based research and obstacles to conducting classroom-based ethnographic research. Identifies temporal obstacles, personnel, safety, and traditional classroom orientation. Suggests experiential approaches for fieldwork instructors such as individual projects, a choice of group projects, or a single designated class project. Describes a cooperative project on homelessness.

Schmidt, Mary Ellen (1995).  Teaching and Learning: Calculators in 5th & 6th Grade. 

This study was conducted to develop insights into how teachers integrate calculators into their course of study. The researcher met with a fifth grade and a sixth grade teacher to plan and implement a 10-day project or mini-unit focused on promoting calculator use. It was agreed that the project would include activity-based lessons to introduce the calculator, a learning center with activities or cooperative group activities, and a science project that integrated mathematics. As resources, the teachers were given commercially prepared calculator materials and were encouraged to make their teaching plans by adapting suitable materials and creating new materials as needed. Meetings were scheduled on a regular basis; ad hoc meetings and phone calls were encouraged to help teachers resolve any daily concerns. An array of methods were used to collect data including participant observation, interviewing, and document collection. Results suggest areas that need to be addressed such as providing ongoing professional development focused on mathematics content, pedagogy, and assessment. Additionally, teachers need planning time to prepare for teaching.  | [FULL TEXT]

Schmidt, Michael H. (1997).  Using "Household Chemistry Projects" To Develop Research Skills and To Teach Scientific Writing.  Journal of Chemical Education, 74, 4. 

Describes a project that was designed to teach scientific writing but also proved to be useful in teaching general research skills. Involves students designing and conducting their own research projects using common household chemicals and equipment available in their homes. Discusses project structure, pedagogy, and outcomes.

Schmidt, Patricia Ruggiano (1999).  Know Thyself and Understand Others.  Language Arts, 76, 4. 

Discusses research on the need for, and the characteristics of, culturally aware and responsive teachers. Outlines a model for preservice and inservice teachers that focuses upon the development of culturally relevant pedagogy in the context of a multicultural-literacy learning course. Describes how teachers who have taken the multicultural-literacy course have applied the model in their classrooms.

Schmidt-Rinehart, Barbara C. (1997).  Authentic Materials and Mexican Immersion: A Professional Development Program Combining Pedagogy, Language, and Culture.  Foreign Language Annals, 30, 2. 

Describes a two-week Mexican immersion program for teachers including language instruction, homestays to enhance language and cultural development and a course focusing on the systematic exploration of how to integrate authentic materials into daily instruction. Results suggest that the program was successful in preparing teachers to meet the needs of the communicative classroom.  (nine references)

Schmitt, Hanno (1996).  On the Importance of Halle in the Eighteenth Century for the History of Education.  Paedagogica Historica, 32, 1. 

Investigates the very beginnings of pedagogy as it separated from theology at the University of Halle in the 18th century. Discusses the role of the charitable organization, the Francke Foundation, in the establishment of this new discipline. Considers the entrenched opposition pedagogy faced from the University establishment.

Schmitz, Betty; And Others (1995).  Women's Studies and Curriculum Transformation. 

Womens' studies has created theories about gender and the intersections of gender, race, ethnicity, and sexuality that offer important analytical frameworks for developing multicultural curricula. This chapter reviews the progress of women's studies as a catalyst for the transformation of U.S. higher education curricula. The discussion of feminist scholarship and pedagogy centers on multicultural aspects and analyzes the effects of the development of women's studies on more inclusive frameworks of higher education. The catalyst for the formation of women's studies programs was the student unrest of the 1960s and the subsequent changes to higher education. Subfields of women's studies have emerged, concentrating on different ethnic groups and on lesbian studies. The 1970s produced serious interest in developing theory about the dynamics of feminist classrooms and the beginnings of a feminist pedagogy. These movements are beginning to transform curricula through changes in course requirements and in course content. Women's studies needs expanded institutional support, particularly at the community college, graduate, and professional levels.

Schmitz, Stephen; Pono, M. Odette (1995).  We Are the Neocolonialists of Micronesia. 

Examining the fragmentation and Americanization that pervades education in Micronesia, this paper explores the causes of the fragmentation, which represent a local attempt to modernize education, and the local belief in the superiority of American culture. The consequences of a fragmented world view have been confusion between educational aims and means, and goals and methods. The confusion about the concepts of education, culture, modernization, colonialism, autonomy and reform that exists in Micronesia is exacerbated by eight problems, including the following: (1) educators' confusion of modernization with Americanization when it comes to curricular and methodological reform; (2) reform has taken on an "us vs them" mentality that is intellectually debilitating and counterproductive; and (3) a lack of self-confidence among many of Micronesia's school systems has been combined with failure among administrators to trust the professionalism of teaching faculty. An important first step to resolving this confusion is establishing a philosophy of education that is truly Micronesian. Four suggestions are recommended for developing a distinctly Micronesian pedagogy: (1) give teachers decision-making authority; (2) develop local materials; (3) establish a robust research agenda; and (4) reflect, decide, and help teachers become education's leaders. | [FULL TEXT]

Schneider, Alison (1999).  When Revising a Curriculum, Strategy May Trump Pedagogy.  Chronicle of Higher Education, 45, 24. 

Two major universities illustrate very different experiences with curriculum reform. At Duke University (North Carolina), a new core curriculum was adopted smoothly. At Rice University (Texas), a new undergraduate curriculum that took long to develop was defeated easily by disgruntled faculty. Some feel public relations and institutional politics were at the heart of the different experiences.

Schneider, Carol Geary; Shoenberg, Robert (1998).  Contemporary Understandings of Liberal Education: The Academy in Transition. 

This paper, the first in a series of discussion papers for faculty members and administrators, contends that outdated structures, practices, and reward systems frustrate higher education's ability to reap the benefits of new directions in student learning. It finds that broad agreement is emerging on what students ought to learn from their baccalaureate studies, with a trend toward modes of learning that are collaborative, experiential, service, and integrative. Part 1 identifies and discusses major themes in campus-based educational change. It sees an emerging conceptualization of liberal learning with such learning goals as acquisition of intellectual skills, understanding of multiple modes of inquiry, and development of societal, civic, and global knowledge. The concomitant developing pedagogy and curriculum includes collaborative inquiry, experiential learning, service learning, research or inquiry-based learning, and integrative learning. Part 2 identifies well-entrenched practices and structures that work against learning quality, including disciplinarity as a sufficient framework for advanced learning, the distinction between general education and the major, the system of courses and credits, credit transfer practices, the undefined baccalaureate degree, and the faculty-reward question. The final section proposes ways of rethinking and reframing the educational architecture of the undergraduate experience. These focus on connecting educational goals and institutional practices, and developing a new curricular architecture.

Schneider, Celeste; Ammon, Paul (1992).  A Microgenetic Analysis of Restructuring in a Teacher's Understandings about Learning and Teaching. 

Findings of a study that explored the ways in which teachers' understandings about pedagogy evolve are presented in this paper. Previous teacher development research suggests that teachers' understandings evolve in a lawful, linear way. Although the expression of the different levels is clear, the evolution process is not. Methodology involved a "microgenetic" analysis of the weekly journal entries made by a student teacher enrolled in the Developmental Teacher Education Program at the University of California at Berkeley. Findings suggest that pedagogical thinking develops through conflicts that arise when previous ways of thinking about issues related to learning and teaching are inadequate in new classroom situations. A conclusion is that teacher educators can use journals to implement innovative curricula and engage students in developmentally appropriate activities and discussions. | [FULL TEXT]

Schoelles, Michael; Hamburger, Henry (1996).  Cognitive Tools for Language Pedagogy.  Computer Assisted Language Learning, 9, 2-3. 

Discusses the integration of Fluent 2, a two-medium immersive conversational language learning environment, into the pedagogical environment. The article presents a strategy to provide teachers and other designers of language lessons with tools that will enable them to produce lessons they consider appropriate. (seven references)

Schoenfeld, Alan H. (1995).  A Brief Biography of Calculus Reform.  UME Trends: News and Reports on Undergraduate Mathematics Education, 6, 6. 

Reflects on the history of the calculus reform movement and the development of course implementation projects, including use of technology in instruction. Highlights several themes permeating reform courses: reform calculus is more hands-on, students are expected to understand complex mathematical concepts in more connected ways, and new approaches to content and understanding must be supported by a reformed pedagogy.

Scholz, Janet M. (1995).  Professional Development for Mid-level Mathematics. 

The purpose of this investigation was to identify the changes in (n=8) inservice teachers' conceptions or knowledge structures of mathematics and subject specific pedagogy as the teachers participated in a two-year pilot professional development program and began teaching middle school mathematics. Data collection consisted of a questionnaire, interviews, and a unit work sample. Teachers in the study had not previously taught secondary mathematics. Results showed that teachers' own experiences in learning mathematics indicated these inservice teachers had been taught mathematics in the early grades by worksheets, drill and practice, memorization, and flash cards. Although participants reported feeling more confident and able to present mathematics to students using a variety of approaches, several statements and videotapes of their teaching presented conflicting views. The conceptions/knowledge structures of the teachers regarding mathematics teaching did not change significantly. | [FULL TEXT]

Schriver, Karen A. (1992).  Teaching Writers to Anticipate Readers' Needs: A Classroom-Evaluated Pedagogy.  Written Communication, 9, 2. 

Evaluates the reader-protocol method of teaching writers to anticipate readers' comprehension needs. Involves asking writers to predict readers' problems with a text and providing them with reader responses. Finds that writers taught with the reader-protocol method improved more than writers in control classes, and increased in their ability to diagnose and characterize problems.

Schrum, Lynne (1998).  On-Line Education: A Study of Emerging Pedagogy.  New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education

Online courses raise instructional concerns about goals, philosophy, changes in teaching and teacher roles, and evaluation. Creating interactivity is a crucial issue. Organizational issues include face-to-face components, group interaction, and prerequisites. Institutions must be concerned about faculty incentives, access and equity, ongoing evaluation, and technical support.

Schugurensky, Daniel (1998).  The Legacy of Paulo Freire: A Critical Review of His Contributions.  Convergence, 31, 1-2. 

Summarizes Freire's contributions to the concepts of critical reflection, conscientization, emancipatory education, and problem posing. Identifies criticisms in the areas of nondirective education, popular culture, dualistic thinking, and applicability of his ideas.

Schulke, Ruthann; And Others (1991).  A Case Study of a New Chemistry Teacher: Some Reasons Underlying a Classroom Teacher's Actions. 

This report documents a study that examines the first 4 years of a beginning chemistry teacher's career. The report explores the difficulties that are faced by the new teacher as she attempted to transform her formal knowledge of chemistry and pedagogy into the practical application of a high school chemistry teacher. The report includes the teacher's difficulties in gaining control of the classroom; in organizing, planning and conducting lessons; and, in dealing with the constraints that were placed on her by school officials, peers, and the expectations of students and parents. The report examines curricular expectations in high school chemistry including the dominance of the text and tests, the mixed signals from peers and administrators that beginning teachers must clarify, and the sources of support that are available to assist new teachers in the early stages of their professional development. The study examines growth in a new teacher's knowledge of content, pedagogy and "pedagogical content" during a four year period, as seen through her own eyes, those of her mentor and those of a university researcher. Sections include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "A Colleague's View of the New Teacher"; (3) "A Retrospective Personal Report of the New Teacher"; and (4) "Conclusions and Implications".

Schullery, Nancy M. (1998).  The Optimum Level of Argumentativeness for Employed Women.  Journal of Business Communication, 35, 3. 

Examines the relationship between argumentativeness and women's supervisory level in organizations. Finds no simple relationship between supervisory level and argumentativeness for women, but indicates that moderation in argumentativeness increases with supervisory level. Notes implications for pedagogy: would-be female executives should be trained to argue effectively but also to identify when to argue.

Schultz, Emeric (1997).  A Guided Discovery Approach for Learning Glycolysis.  Biochemical Education, 25, 4. 

Argues that more attention should be given to teaching students how to learn the rudiments of specific metabolic pathways. This approach describes a unique way of learning the glycolytic pathway in stepwise fashion. The pedagogy involves clear rote components that are connected to a set of generalizations that develop and enhance important biochemical concepts.

Schultz, Katherine (1994).  "I Want to Be Good; I Just Don't Get It": A Fourth Grader's Entrance into a Literacy Community.  Written Communication, 11, 3. 

Presents a case study of a fourth-grade student who learned to participate in the literacy community of her classroom by writing letters. Claims that letter writing aided this student in gaining confidence and skill. Discusses implications of this study for forging a new pedagogy of writing.

Schwartz, A. Truman (1999).  Creating a Context for Chemistry.  Science and Education, 8, 6. 

Summarizes the origin, development, content, pedagogy, evaluation, and influence of a textbook for non-science majors entitled "Chemistry in Context: Applying Chemistry to Society." Considers the text's potential implications for other disciplines and for the instruction of science majors.

Schwartz, Elaine G.; Schwartz, S. Daniel (1995).  Culture, Ecology and Education: The Paradox of Modernism in the Transition to a Postmodern World.  Review of Education/Pedagogy/Cultural Studies, 17, 2. 

Earth's current ecological crisis, rooted in modernist culture, threatens extinction in a historically distinct new manner. Western educators have responded by creating environmental education. Many educators' and authors' voices are the living roots of a transformative and prophetic holistic education for a postmodern world and must be heard within education.

Schwartz, Helen J. (1990).  Pricing Literacy: The Ethics of Access. 

Computers are necessary to the future of literacy in the United States, but they are not determinative. Instead the determining factor will be human values and political will, and so it is necessary to build the future on democratic ideology. Four premises underlie plans for a feasible and desirable future: (1) education must serve an increasingly diverse student population; (2) a new pedagogy is needed with authentic tasks that involve the teacher as learner and the student as doer; (3) the "New Majority" needs to increase coherence and intellectual engagement in urban, commuter settings; and (4) the "New Literacy" requires new coalitions and partnerships. At Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis, a project which lends computers to students to take home extends the class beyond the classroom by including faculty, administrators, students, and computing services personnel, as well as experts from other universities, in the resulting discussions. To effect future goals it is practical and reasonable to ask for help from the government, vendors, the students, and the community. (Two notes are included; 23 references are attached.) | [FULL TEXT]

Schwartz, Helen J. (1991).  21st-Century Citizen Scholars: Testing What Is Possible and Desirable. 

A pilot program at Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis (IUPUI), called the Twenty-First Century Citizen Scholars, explores and evaluates the pedagogy of computer conferencing in writing-across-the-curriculum and makes sure of equal access by students. The purpose of the project is to build intellectual coherence, reduce conflict in students' roles as they balance the demands of family, work, and studies, and create a community for urban commuters by using computer telecommunications. The teacher models the etiquette of the bulletin board, establishing it as a supportive place. Conference members are classmates and teacher. The project, after 4 semesters of operation, has served 8 classes, over 80 students, ranging from introductory classes to upper-division and graduate courses. All students have the necessary equipment at home, on loan if necessary. The program's philosophy defines students as bringing assets of experience and commitment to the learning process, rather than deficits that must be compensated for. The program has achieved the following benefits: students explore new ideas and personal experience that might seem digressions in class, but which lead to broader syntheses and intellectual coherence; all students participate; students take on many insturctional functions as they become active, empowered learners; faculty experience increased involvement with students and with each other; students turn intellectual community into action; and students become familiar with advanced technology useful for their futures. (Sixteen references and an appendix containing selections from a TCCS Bulletin Board are attached.) | [FULL TEXT]

Schwartz, Peggy (1993).  Creativity and Dance: Implications for Pedagogy and Policy.  Arts Education Policy Review, 95, 1. 

Examines the theories of Howard Gardner and Rudolf Laban as frameworks for exploring issues of creativity and dance education. Asserts that Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences and Laban's language for movement description provide a language for discussing creativity in dance.

Schwartzman, Roy (1995).  Students as Customers: A Mangled Managerial Metaphor. 

Greater reflexivity concerning the ways of discussing pedagogy could improve the way educators conceptualize their roles. Close attention to metaphors about education sounds a note of caution about the transfer of language from one discursive realm (business) to another (education). The transference of the "total quality management" (TQM) vocabulary, complete with the identification of students as customers, from business to education occurred when widespread problems with American education gained public attention. The pressures of competition among colleges and between the United States and foreign countries resounded in educational circles about 1990. Although the treatment of students as customers has advantages for streamlining some operations, education involves an ongoing process heavily dependent on the student's willingness to participate in learning. Cognitively rich metaphors do not arise from merely substituting one term for another, and the incompatibilities between the business realm and the educational realm render the application of consumer metaphors to education problematic. Meeting every "customer's" standard, moreover, requires negotiation and compromise because not everyone shares the definition of what constitutes a high quality education. Universal satisfaction presumes that standards and expectations of quality will be uniform for all constituencies and that none of these needs will conflict. Literature on TQM in educational settings equivocates when discussing a user-based definition of quality. TQM has already been implemented successfully at several universities, and money has been saved. Students still deserve more from educators, however, than immediate gratification. | [FULL TEXT]

SchWeber, Claudine; Kelley, Kimberly B.; Orr, Gloria J. (1998).  Training, and Retaining, Faculty for Online Courses: Challenges and Strategies. 

This paper addresses the two core challenges facing institutions interested in delivering courses online: the increased need for faculty with interests and skills in this area, who can master the technology, take advantage of the new pedagogy mandated by teaching in a text-based environment, and maintain their subject area competence; and the delivery of academic support services, so that faculty are sufficiently trained to take advantage of these resources in the design and delivery of their World Wide Web-based courses. Strategies and practices used at the University of Maryland University College (UMUC) Graduate School of Management & Technology (GSMT) are described, including a four-phased, two semester training program; ongoing faculty support and supervision; an extensive UMUC faculty development program; and an intense and supportive relationship with the Office of Library Services. The paper is organized in the following six sections: (1) training GSMT faculty; (2) GSMT "time" research (i.e., research on the amount of time needed to teach an online course and what elements are involved); (3) retaining online faculty; (4) educating faculty about online library resources; (5) library workshops; (6) the online library resources course for new students and faculty; and (7) delivery and evaluation of this course. | [FULL TEXT]

Schwehn, Mark R.; Paul, John Steven (1995).  Theater as Liberal Arts Pedagogy.  Liberal Education, 81, 2. 

An unusual degree requirement at Christ College, the honors college of Valparaiso University (Indiana), involves freshman production of an original musical theater production. The role of such a collaborative and imaginative effort in a liberal education is discussed, focusing on the arts as a context for inquiry.

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Scott, Denise C.; Weeks, Patricia A. (1996).  Collaborative Staff Development.  Innovative Higher Education, 21, 2. 

At Queensland University of Technology (Australia), a cross-disciplinary faculty development network involves 13 teaching and learning interest groups representing 25 disciplines across 3 campuses. Groups meet monthly, using peer facilitators, to identify individual and collective areas of interest, reflect critically on teaching processes and experiences, explore available interest area knowledge, adapt and apply theory to pedagogy, and disseminate findings.

Scott, J. Blake (1997).  The Literacy Narrative as Production Pedagogy in the Composition Classroom.  Teaching English in the Two-Year College, 24, 2. 

Offers a supplementary approach to teaching literacy narratives that builds on the work of M. Soliday and others but is centered in student production. Outlines specific strategies for teaching the literacy narrative in the first-year composition classroom. Discusses possible benefits of teaching the student production of literacy narratives. Examines current methods of teaching literacy narratives.

Scott, Jerrie Cobb (1993).  Literacies and Deficits Revisited.  Journal of Basic Writing, 12, 1. 

Identifies two factors that contribute to the recycling of deficit pedagogy in programs targeted for marginalized students: traditional, technocratic definitions of literacy; and "uncritical dysconsciousness" (the acceptance of culturally sanctioned beliefs that, regardless of good intentions, defend the advantages of insiders and the disadvantages of outsiders).

Scott, Kathryn P. (1993).  Researching Pedagogy: A Transformative, Feminist Perspective. 

Evolving from experiences in a graduate seminar that led to new understandings of feminist pedagogy, this theory of feminist pedagogy in action rests on four phenomena that are each necessary but none sufficient. After describing the creation of a learning community as well as a search of educative research, a delineation of the four phenomena is outlined. Feminist pedagogy occurs at the juncture of: (1) a reinventing of power relationships that emancipate teachers, learners, and the subject investigated; (2) a context where community, conversation, and connected knowing flourish; (3) an understanding of knowing as partial and incomplete; and (4) moral leadership by teachers and learners. A 23-item bibliography presents works read by a majority of the seminar participants. | [FULL TEXT]

Scott, Robert L. (1991).  The Necessary Pluralism of Any Future History of Rhetoric.  Pre-Text: A Journal of Rhetorical Theory, 12, 3-4. 

Argues for the pluralistic bent of rhetoric. Notes that, whether rhetoric is taken as theory, practice, or pedagogy, as communication of one to many or as intertextuality, pluralism is the matrix in which rhetoricians twist and turn trying to make sense.

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Sears, Laurie J. (1991).  Authoritative Voices and the Vietnam Experience: Teaching about Vietnam during the Gulf War.  Journal of Urban and Cultural Studies, 2, 1. 

Experiences of a college teacher teaching a course on the Vietnam War during the Persian Gulf Crisis illustrate the impact that teaching history can have on the consciousness of students. Respect for other cultures and other races are essential before students can stop glorifying war.

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Secada, Walter G.; Harris, Donna; Berman, Patricia; Wright, Carol (1996).  The Response to Student Diversity in Restructured Elementary Schools. Final Deliverable to OERI. 

One of the most persistent challenges facing schools is how to respond to diversity as reflected in student race, gender, ethnicity, language, social class, and ability. This paper presents findings of a study that investigated how eight elementary schools undergoing restructuring responded academically to student diversity and how a school's normative beliefs and structural characteristics influenced its responses. Data are from the Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools' school-restructuring study. Methods included observation of six teachers at each school and interviews with teachers, administrators, parents, community members, and representatives of external agencies. The results suggest that even though elementary schools try to balance between differentiation and the provision of common experiences as an academic response to student diversity, the balance often tilts in one or another direction. Moreover, the balance will tilt to create a dominant response that supports providing common experiences to all students when the school adopts pedagogical practices that, to some extent, depart from conventional practice; when school staff share values about pedagogy and about the student as a whole person; when the school's leadership supports those values; and when the school engages in capacity-building efforts to address student diversity among its regular education programs. The findings also suggest that schools that lack any of these conditions or that are focused on what makes students different from one another are likely to tilt in the direction of providing programs that differentiate student experiences. Three tables are included. | [FULL TEXT]

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Seedhouse, Paul (1997).  The Case of the Missing "No": The Relationship Between Pedagogy and Interaction.  Language Learning, 47, 3. 

Reviews the relationship between pedagogy and interaction by analyzing extracts from second-language (L2) classrooms using a conversation analysis methodology. Points out that the relationship between the two is necessarily reflexive and concludes that it would be preferable for pedagogical recommendations to harmonize with the interactional organization of the L2 classroom. (44 references)

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Segal, Gilda (1999).  Collisions in a Science Education Reform Context: Anxieties, Roles and Power. 

This narrative analysis presents one teacher educator's self-study of her first year in teacher education. It occurred when she was the junior partner in redesigning and teaching a science discipline subject to preservice elementary educators. The three-part learning and teaching model they developed included cooperative groups, learners' questions, and a technoscience context. Study data came from preparatory session notes, students' journals, the educator's written questions to students after reading the journals, her journal, audiotaped conversations with students and sessions with the collaborating planner, and students' class notes and projects. Students' expectations of pedagogy and assessment practice collided sharply with the context that was designed. Throughout this paper's discussion of the emergent analytic themes of anxiety, roles, and power, the educator has interwoven reflection on parts of her life history to advance the understanding of her practice. Some of this study's significance lies in its implications for extending the methodology of self-study. By including in self-study of practice analysis of a colleague's philosophy of learning and teaching, one can uncover and better understand one's own philosophy. Another significant aspect of this research lies in its method of analyzing self-study. The teacher educator suggests that selecting context, not the individual, as the unit of analysis in self-study of practice within a Vygotskian theoretical framework leads to a deepened understanding of one's practice and hence of ways to improve pedagogy. | [FULL TEXT]

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Sehr, David T. (1997).  Education for Public Democracy. SUNY Teachers Empowerment and School Reform Series. 

This book identifies two competing traditions of American democracy and citizenship: a dominant, privately-oriented citizenship tradition and an alternative tradition of public democratic citizenship. Based on the second tradition, the book outlines a set of qualities an effective democratic citizen must possess, as well as a number of ideal school practices that promote these qualities in young people. This discussion provides a framework for analyzing two democratic urban alternative high schools. The book is divided into two sections with nine chapters. Part 1, "American Democracy: Privatized or Public?," contains: (1) "Democratic Ideology, Hegemony, and Education"; (2) "Ideological Roots of Privatized and Public Democracy: Contrasting Locke and the Federalists with Rousseau and Jefferson"; (3) "Privatized Democracy: Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Ideology and Practice"; (4) "Public Democracy"; and (5) "Education for Public Democratic Citizenship." Part 2, "Democratic Education? Tales from Two Schools," includes: (1) "Structure and Organization to Two Democratic High Schools"; (2) "Curriculum and Pedagogy in Two Democratic High Schools"; (3) "Promoting Public Democratic Citizenship: Student Responses to School Programs"; and (4) "In Search of Public Democratic Education."

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Seitsinger, Anne M.; Barboza, Helen C.; Hird, Anne (1998).  Single-Sex Mathematics Instruction in an Urban Independent School. 

An urban independent middle school grouped its 63 sixth and seventh graders into single-sex mathematics classes (SSMC) to improve girls' achievement in mathematics (AIM) and attitudes toward mathematics (ATM) with no negative impact on boys. Researchers analyzed AIM, ATM, and interactions/instruction. AIM measures included Metropolitan Achievement Test-7, textbook unit tests, and teacher-constructed tests. T tests, alpha=.05, showed no significant differences in mean scores for males and females. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of ATM as measured on the Modified Fennema-Sherrnan Mathematics Attitude Scales (1993) and through standard open-ended interviews (Isaac & Michael, 1995) indicated positive ATM and SSMC. Observations, field notes, and videotapes provided data for analyzing expectations, interactions, and pedagogy. Using Cazden's (1986) definitions of teacher talk, significant differences were noted--an objectivist approach in boys' classes and a constructivist approach in girls' classes. Within a single-sex class, a range of learning styles calls for a variety of instructional approaches. | [FULL TEXT]

Seixas, Peter (1999).  Beyond "Content" and "Pedagogy": In Search of a Way to Talk about History Education.  Journal of Curriculum Studies, 31, 3. 

Investigates four summer institutes of the California History-Social Science Project (CH-SSP), where university scholars and school teachers describe their own and each others' roles and contributions. Reveals two discourses, one based on notions of content and pedagogy, the other on "doing the discipline," or teaching and learning for understanding.

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Sekayi, Dia; Peterman, Francine; Stakich, Karen; Caputo, Donna (1999).  A Patchwork Quilt of Change: The Case Study of Brentmoor Elementary School. Transforming Learning Communities. 

This book is part of a series of case studies that demonstrate better ways to educate Ohio's students. The case study is part of the Transforming Learning Communities (TLC) Project, designed to support significant school-reform efforts among Ohio's elementary, middle, and high schools. This report describes the implementation of an innovative program at an elementary school in northeastern Ohio. It draws on the metaphor of the patchwork quilt to describe the changes at the school. Researchers observed the daily life of the school, interviewed project participants, gathered historical documents, recorded events, and analyzed stakeholders' stories. The text provides an overview of the principles and practices of change and how the school settled on the Paideia Model of school reform. The book focuses on the beliefs of the Paideia designers and trainers; the implementation of the reform program; and the principles, practices, and processes involved in becoming a Paideia school. It outlines planning among school decision makers and their push for collaboration, shared decision making, increased parental involvement, and professional development. The report also describes the changes wrought by physical space, pedagogy, team teaching, and coaching. The book closes with an assessment of the varying depths of engagement used at the school. The appendix describes the project methodology. | [FULL TEXT]

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_____. (1998).  Selected Readings on School Reform. Vol. 2, No. 4. 

Selected current readings in the area of school reform are presented. Seven selections in "The Front Lines" focus on current developments in educational change in the political arena. A section on "Charter Schools" contains eight readings on the development and implementation of charter schools. A section titled "School Choice" contains six essays on parental school choice. A section on "Standards, Tests, and Accountability" contains eight articles on achievement tests, test results, and test use. "Teacher Talent" contains six selections on teacher education, certification, and teacher personnel policies. The "Curriculum & Pedagogy" section contains five selections on teaching methods and curriculum content. The final "Grab Bag" section contains five articles on various subjects, including Head Start, special education, bilingual education, and state educational budgets. The source of each selection is identified. | [FULL TEXT]

Selander, N. Staffan (1990).  The Case of Freire: Intellectuals and the Transformation of Ideas--Notes on Ideology and Context.  Journal of Curriculum Studies, 22, 6. 

Examines how Paulo Freire's pedagogy changed, and how it affected pedagogical discourses when it was implemented by different education groups in Sweden. Explains how ideas move from one context to another using a grid-group model to analyze the text-translator, text-transformation process. Suggests theoretical systems can be used as ideological tools and to legitimate administrative reforms.

Selfe, Cynthia L.; Selfe, Richard J., Jr. (1994).  The Politics of the Interface: Power and Its Exercise in Electronic Contact Zones.  College Composition and Communication, 45, 4. 

Discusses and problematizes the kinds of "borders" that exist in the English classroom. Considers how English teachers who use computers often establish and maintain borders. Describes political boundaries associated with computer interfaces. Presents tactics for enacting a radical pedagogy of electronic borders.

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Semali, Ladislaus (1998).  Critical Viewing in Media Literacy Practice. 

This paper introduces the concept of critical viewing and illustrates what it means to take a critical stance in classroom teaching practice. The paper's purposes are: first, to discuss the possibilities of criticism in classroom practice as defined by progressive educators; second, to explain the interrelationship between critical literacy and the pedagogy of representation; and, third, to explore critical viewing as a response to "Intermediality." Intermediality implies taking a critical stance toward the multiple perspectives embedded in Intermedial, or simply, multi-layered texts. Defining critical viewing as a critical pedagogy of representation exposes the misconceptions associated with response-centered approaches which have assumed the central position of critical reader/viewing practices. The paper's aim is to show how a teacher can use critical viewing as a language of criticism to sift through multiple layers of texts, to go beyond surface impressions, traditional myths, and routine cliches, and to apply the meaning to each person's own social context. The paper challenges teachers to reevaluate current analytical schemes to gain a more contextual understanding of the mutually constitutive nature of theory and practice. It states that, to implement the vision of criticism illustrated here, students will be able to: (1) acknowledge the "multiple and insidious ways" in which power operates in the larger society to "reproduce the interests of the dominant culture"; and (2) analyze the hierarchical positioning of individuals within the social order on the basis of race, class, gender, and sexuality. Contains 58 references.

Semel, Susan F. (1992).  The Dalton School: The Transformation of a Progressive School. Volume 34 in American University Studies, Series XIV, Education. 

The Dalton School, an independent, progressive school on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, was founded in 1919 by Helen Parkhurst. She established a child-centered school that attempted to incorporate the concept of a democratic community within the boundaries of an educational program. The school's innovative program became known as the Dalton Plan. This book, by a historian and former Dalton teacher, examines the transformation of the school from its inception to the present. It focuses on how each school head shaped and changed the school, in relation to the larger culture. During some periods of its history, the Dalton School was on the cutting edge of educational reform, and, during others, the school favored a traditional back-to-basics approach. The Dalton Plan is used as a yardstick to measure trends in progressive education in the larger world. Although the Dalton School is not the same school that Parkhurst founded, it continues to employ an educational program that recognizes the needs of a multicultural society and reconfirms the spirit of child-centered pedagogy as an important concern of the Dalton community.

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Seng, Seok-Hoon (1994).  Educating Young Children in a Diverse Society. 

This paper examines the impact of ethnicity, gender, and social class on young children and discusses the ways in which children can be educated to appreciate and value diversity. It also summarizes the ideas of E. King's "Educating Young Children in a Diverse Society" (1994), highlighting the strategies advocated in the book that encourage teachers and educators to implement diversity into programs for young children. The paper notes that early childhood educators need to focus on content integration, knowledge construction, prejudice reduction, equitable pedagogy, and empowerment when considering curriculum development and program practices. Educators also need to address their own cultural, gender, and class attitudes, as well as the attitudes of their students, when formulating curriculum content and teaching methods. The paper concludes by noting that using information about culture and learning in sensitive and positive ways will help educators value and promote diversity in all aspects of education. | [FULL TEXT]

Senger, Elizabeth S. (1998).  Beyond Classroom Description: Methods of Understanding Reflection and Beliefs in Mathematics Teaching.  Educational Research Quarterly, 21, 3. 

Examined two methods of studying teachers' mathematics-content/pedagogy beliefs and their instructional decision making in 10 videotaped class sessions for each of teachers. Results with a video reflection and a theory reflection method indicate that both methods are useful in obtaining teacher belief data.

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Sergiovanni, Thomas J. (1998).  Leadership as Pedagogy, Capital Development and School Effectiveness.  International Journal of Leadership in Education, 1, 1. 

Pedagogical leadership is a more effective school-improvement alternative than bureaucratic, visionary, or entrepreneurial leadership. Pedagogical leadership invests in capacity building by developing social and academic capital for students, and intellectual and professional capital for teachers. Community-minded schools stress social covenants and unconstrained narratives. (18 references)

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Shahheidaripour, Gholamabbass (1998).  Second Language Acquisition and Language Pedagogy  [Online Submission] 

Language pedagogy (LP) and second language acquisition are two poles of a continuum; one pole includes teaching and teachers, and the other is concerned with learning and learners. There has been contradicting views on SLA and LP's relationship, from no relevance to complete and positive relevance. In this paper, I am trying to tackle this controversial area of relevancy and put forward some suggestions from a practitioner's point of view. | [FULL TEXT]

Shalem, Yael (1999).  Epistemological Labor: The Way to Significant Pedagogical Authority.  Educational Theory, 49, 1. 

Argues that performative pedagogy depreciates teachers' authority in planning and developing knowledge for learners and that this authority is a constitutive good of teaching practice and thus is constitutive of performance pedagogy. The paper distinguishes between teachers' educative and pedagogical authority, noting the necessity of teachers' pedagogical authority for enabling learners to critically access practices from which curriculum is drawn.

Shamoon, Linda (1995).  Survival Tactics: Rethinking and Redesigning a Writing Program during the New Abolitionism.  [Composition Chronicle] 

At the University of Rhode Island, instructors in English and other disciplines are looking critically at the writing program. At present that program offers a range of basic, intermediate and advanced undergraduate writing classes--courses that are grounded in at least two sets of assumptions that deserve scrutiny. The first set of assumptions views composition as a basic requirement that students should fulfill before going on to other college course work: whatever a student learns in elementary composition is believed to be transferable to new material, new disciplinary thinking, and new assignments. The second set of assumptions centers on the pedagogy of composition (as opposed to rhetoric). According to Robert Schwegler, composition differs from rhetoric in that: (1) it focuses on the individual in the act of creating (while rhetoric focuses on a discursive field and practices that make it up); (2) it aims at the production of discrete texts (while according to rhetoric theory no single text or performance is complete in itself); and (3) it insists that students discover and embody personal meaning in texts (while rhetoric views writing as interpolation, a process of entering into a discursive field). A new writing program at Rhode Island would use the theory of rhetoric to make writing an ongoing process. Using the apprenticeship model, faculty would coach undergraduates over a long period of time, six to eight semesters. Group work with other members of a discipline would also be a part of the program. | [FULL TEXT]

Shane, Ruth (1997).  Examining the Second Grade Mathematics Classroom from a Social-Constructivist Perspective: The Interrelationship of Teaching, Learning, Learning To Teach and Teaching To Learn. 

This study is an attempt to document the connection between the way children construct mathematics in the second grade and the way student teachers construct their knowledge base. The study examines how student teachers integrate their formal and informal knowledge of mathematics and mathematics pedagogy with the reality of the second grade classroom. Preservice teachers (N=4) taught in a classroom where mathematics instruction was conventional and in a classroom where mathematics was taught from a constructivist perspective. The research study includes a qualitative documentation and analysis of the instructional approach, the children's mathematical understandings, and the student teachers' knowledge. The results of this case study address the issue of how student teachers in two different mathematical environments construct their knowledge about key questions related to the nature of mathematics and what it means to teach mathematics in school. | [FULL TEXT]

Shapiro, Ann (1991).  WAC and Engineering, or Why Engineers Can't Write. 

In response to criticisms from an accrediting agency, the director of the Writing across the Curriculum (WAC) program at the State University of New York, Farmingdale, designed a one-day marathon session and a series of biweekly seminars to bridge the gap between WAC truths and the assumptions of the engineering faculty concerning writing processes and writing to learn. At first, the engineers blamed the English department for their students' inability to write acceptable laboratory reports. After a lively debate in one session which began with the realization that students did not know what was expected of them in the lab report, the engineers realized that they could not even agree among themselves about the objectives of a lab report. They realized that the problem was not that the English department had failed, but that they were not able to articulate for their students what a lab report should be. The second semester saw the addition to the program of faculty in physics and chemistry and a revival of the earlier discussions about the failure of the English department by the new participants. Responses to the WAC program are encouraging: participants speak of the impact of the program on pedagogy, critical thinking and cross-curriculum thinking, writing as a learning tool, and interdisciplinary responsibility. While the requirements of the accrediting agency and administrative support were crucial in getting started, what has sustained the program is that the faculty began to see improvement in student learning. | [FULL TEXT]

Shapiro, Joan Poliner; And Others (1992).  Towards a Resolution of a Paradox between Diversity and Accountability for School Administrators: Application of the Principles of Feminist Assessment. 

Recent debates regarding the crisis in American education have led to two essentially contradictory positions: one calling for a movement away from a unified concept of education toward a concept which recognizes and incorporates diversity; and the other calling for increased accountability on all levels of education. The purpose of this paper is to discuss and analyze these two positions from the perspective of educational administration, and then to offer a solution which may be capable of resolving some of the paradoxes inherent in these two reforms. A multicultural curriculum should address issues of race, ethnicity, gender, social class, sexual diversity, and bilingualism. Some feel this vision threatens the school's traditional function of transmitting the dominant culture; in any case it poses the question: can schools be reconceptualized to represent and value diversity while at the same time maintaining that historical role? This problem becomes almost unsolvable in light of the present strident demands for accountability through the use of national tests. Ensuring accountability through standardized tests is a central theme of "America 2000" and other recent reform efforts. Although understandable, efforts to promote accountability through tests raise certain major concerns: (1) that they cannot in fact produce genuine accountability nor ensure real improvement in student learning; and (2) that they will negatively affect already disadvantaged groups such as minorities, the disabled, and the poor and all others who do not fit the white, middle class norms which seem to have informed "America 2000." One solution to the dilemma posed by the two reform trends arises from a national investigation of Women's Studies Programs called "The Courage to Question," which resolves issues of diversity and accountability through a new form of feminist assessment that is: (1) able to question almost everything related to assessment; (2) student centered; (3) participatory; (4) contextual; (5) decentered; (6) connected to activism; (7) compatible with its beliefs; (8) connected to the power of its pedagogy; and (9) connected to its interdisciplinary scholarship and research methodologies. These feminist approaches to diversity and accountability may increase the compatibility of learning, teaching, and assessment and raise important issues of value that expand the options available to the assessment movement as a whole, they also broaden the discussion of assessment as it relates to public school accountability and diversity. | [FULL TEXT]

Shapiro, Joan Poliner; Stefkovich, Jacqueline A. (1994).  Towards the Preparation of Ethical Educational Administrators for Diverse Communities: Exploring "Self," Content and Pedagogy. 

This paper argues that at the heart of administration, there lie moral dilemmas in need of resolution. In the field of educational administration, no graduation requirement exists for completion of an ethics course. This paper describes an ethics course designed for doctoral cohorts in educational administration. It is argued that educational administrators must take the time to work through their personal and professional codes and also spend considerable time comparing and contrasting them. The course exposed graduate students to traditional and nontraditional ethics, giving them the opportunity to place their own codes in perspective. The paper also highlights the pedagogical implications of teaching an ethics course in educational administration and the different approaches used by two different instructors for the same course. The paper provides a brief overview of the course content and describes the two professors' backgrounds and teaching pedagogies. The course was based on self-reflection, peer review, and careful content analysis, and dealt with a combination of liberal democratic ethics, liberation theology, critical theory, and feminist ethics. | [FULL TEXT]

Shapiro, Marilyn (1991).  What Do We Teach and How Do We Teach It? 

Considering that some feminist critics have recently been approaching composition theory from a preconceived feminist perspective, the issue of maintaining an analytical bias while conducting research is once more emerging. By imposing an analytical model on a body of data, scholars run the risk of ignoring conclusions or focusing on those which corroborate their positions. Students in a freshman composition course at Lawrence Technological University were asked to write responses to Ernest Hemingway's story, "Hills Like White Elephants," the same method and story used in an earlier study by the feminist composition scholar Elizabeth Flynn. Unlike Flynn's results, male students did not "dominate" the text any more than females. The readings by males and females, however, did differ to some extent, and students' responses demonstrate a wide range of reading styles. Some frustration and anger was shown as students tried to fill in the "gaps" presented by this story. Hemingway never explicitly tells the reader that the man and woman are discussing their need for an abortion, forcing the reader to work hard to draw this conclusion. Midterm essay responses show that student response, both male and female, draws strongly on the teacher's explication. Researchers should focus on how students read both with and without the teacher's help. After two decades of reader-response analysis, perhaps the introduction of narrative theory into pedagogy is an idea whose time has come. | [FULL TEXT]

Shapiro, Nancy (1992).  Rereading Multicultural Readers: What Definition of Multicultural Are We Buying? 

A flood of new multicultural readers and textbooks are hitting the market for writing and literature courses at the college level. Yet there has been no systematic examination of how these readers are being used, the purposes and audiences for which they are written, or the critical reception they have received. Multicultural readers distinguish themselves in several ways: they encompass broad ethnic and cultural sources, and they often include maps which display geographical coverage. Some texts rely heavily on a western anthropological viewpoint. Gender has become an important consideration, insuring that a significant percentage of writing by women is represented. Also, they are structured according to different voices, rather than a more traditional emphasis on thematic concerns. These textbooks influence the teaching of composition profoundly, since most writing instructors depend heavily on their texts. Multicultural textbooks tend to have underlying theories of pedagogy which feature: (1) a celebration of self-reflection; (2) a pedagogy that is relativistic; (3) an emphasis on "active reading techniques"; and (4) a stress on collaborative learning. An emphasis in the readings is on narrative, which is easily accessible and highly personal. Finally, teachers should consider to what extent their efforts to recognize and teach diversity will ultimately result in empowering their students. Cultural diversity, after all, is not the only, or even a primary goal of a writing class. (A chart giving numerical data from a survey of the contents of eight multicultural readers for freshman composition is attached.) | [FULL TEXT]

Shapson, Stan M.; Smith, Neil (1999).  Transformative Teaching: An Agenda for Faculties of Education.  Education Canada, 39, 1. 

The 1990s literature and the weight of John Goodlad's research show that faculties of education have failed to contribute to educational reform. Teacher-education programs should advance a transformative approach to teaching that is responsive to student diversity and aligned with K-12 education reform. Questions of mission, pedagogy, organizational cohesion, and mutually beneficial partnerships must be reviewed.

Sharpe, Keith (1995).  The Primacy of Pedagogy in the Early Teaching of Modern Languages.  Language Learning Journal

Provides an overview of some issues arising from the experience of introducing the early teaching of modern languages in schools associated with the Kent Primary French Project. These issues transcend the immediate question of primary modern languages and bear directly upon some key themes in the reevaluation of primary organization and methodology. (four references)

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Shea, Mary Ann; Knoedler, Andrew S. (1994).  Becoming a Teacher: From Pedagogy to Praxis.  Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 5, 2. 

The staff in a teaching excellence program at the University of Colorado at Boulder analyzed research on new faculty needs and designed a program to support newly-hired, tenure-track faculty in improving their teaching. The approach used in the program, responses of participating faculty, and areas for future analysis are described.

Sheets, Rosa Hernandez (1995).  From Remedial to Gifted: Effects of Culturally Centered Pedagogy.  Theory into Practice, 34, 3. 

Describes a culturally relevant Spanish program in a high school that helped native speakers avoid failure due to culturally inappropriate teaching. The class maintained Latino students' native language and increased language fluency by developing thinking, oral, and written Spanish skills. Eventually, students previously labeled "at risk" performed at levels expected of gifted students.

Shelby, Annette N.; Reinsch, N. Lamar, Jr. (1996).  The Communication Audit: A Framework for Teaching Management Communication.  Business Communication Quarterly, 59, 2. 

Describes a communication audit project used in a graduate-level management communication course. Reviews literature concerning communication audits, explains why and how an audit project is used in the author's classes, and describes specific audit-related assignments. Concludes that, although a challenging assignment, the audit is worthwhile.

Shepardson, Daniel P.; Adams, Paul E. (1996).  Perspectives on Assessment in Science: Voices from the Field. 

Few studies have investigated the knowledge and beliefs that undergrids science teachers' assessment practice. This study was conducted to investigate the perspectives of science teachers on classroom assessment, considering the constructs that inform teachers of their classroom assessment practice. The study was grounded in a socioconstructivist theory that posits that teachers construct their own understandings and beliefs within the contexts of their own school cultures. The 12 middle-level (grades 4 through 9) teachers studied were all from the Midwest and all participants in a National Science Foundation teacher enhancement project on laboratory instruction and alternative assessment. Interview data were collected through a self-questioning technique. These data suggested that teachers understood the purposes of assessment as means of evaluating student performance and informing pedagogy, although the latter purpose was mentioned by relatively few teachers. If teachers view assessment from these two perspectives, then their motivation for assessment is primarily based on the learner and is seen as aligned with instruction or is pedagogically motivated. Teachers will adopt alternative assessment if it is seen to be compelling in terms of learner needs.

Sherman, Lawrence W. (1990).  Ecological Perspectives on Cooperative Pedagogy: A Gibsonian Interpretation. 

This attempt to explain cooperative goal structures as instances of social affordances begins with a description of Gibson's concept of affordance. "Affordances" are conceptualized as properties of the environment relative to an animal. The concept's parallel theoretic development in Lewin's notion of psychological ecology and the advancement of this notion by Lewin's students are considered. Central to the discussion are the concept of a synomorph, or behavior setting, and the idea that behavior patterns may be either synomorphus with behavior settings or inappropriate. It is suggested that behavior settings may be conceptualized as affordances, which more or less support appropriate and socially competent actions of children, and that Gibson's idea of an affordance might be an excellent way of describing lesson types. It is suggested that each of Kounin and Gump's (1974) six lesson types may afford more or less task appropriate behaviors. Further dimensions of social affordances may be elaborated by descriptions of lessons in terms of Johnson's goal structures and signal system terminology. Also considered are Stodolsky's (1988) ideas on the importance of the complexity and novelty of the information in a signal. A figure categorizes cooperative learning methods according to the variables of incentive and task structures. | [FULL TEXT]

Sherrill, Claudine (1998).  Adapted Physical Activity, Recreation and Sport: Crossdisciplinary and Lifespan. Fifth Edition. 

This textbook is designed for both undergraduate and graduate students who aspire to meet the individual needs of children with disabilities in physical education, recreation, sport, fitness, or rehabilitation settings. The goal is to prepare professionals to meet the personnel standards established by the National Consortium of Physical and Recreation for Individuals with Disabilities. Part 1, "Foundations," focuses first on adapted physical activity, individual differences, and home-school-community teamwork. It then addresses the topics of advocacy; philosophy, planning, and curriculum design; assessing, prescribing, and writing the Individualized Education Program; and teaching, evaluating and consulting. Part 2, "Assessment and Pedagogy for Specific Goals," discusses ten goals of adapted physical activity, including self-concept, inclusion and social competence, sensorimotor integration, motor performance, perceptual-motor learning, fitness, postures and appearance, play and game competence, adapted dance and dance therapy, and adapted aquatics. Part 3, "Individual Differences, with Emphasis on Sport," addresses the needs of infants, toddlers and early childhood, followed by chapters on different disabilities. Sport terminology from the worldwide Paralympic movement is used to designate disabilities and sport classifications are described. Appendices include definitions and relevant resources. (Each chapter includes references.)

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Shields, Mark A., Ed. (1995).  Work and Technology in Higher Education: The Social Construction of Academic Computing. Technology and Education Series. 

This volume contributes to the understanding of higher education's catalytic role in shaping the microcomputer revolution. Academic computing is viewed here as a social and cultural phenomenon. An in-depth collection of mainly ethnographic studies of the academic computing revolution--its consequences, meanings, and significance--is presented. The contributions include several case studies that document the open-ended, socially constructed, interpretively flexible character of computer-mediated academic work. Drawing on the core ideas of cultural anthropology, interpretive sociology, and the social construction of technology, the volume is also a contribution to the growing multi-disciplinary study of technology and society. Titles include: (1) "The Social Construction of Academic Computing" (Mark A. Shields); (2) "Is Using a Computer Like Driving a Car, Reading a Book, or Solving a Problem? The Computer as Machine, Text, and Culture" (Peter Lyman); (3) "Paradoxical Reactions and Powerful Ideas: Educational Computing in a Department of Physics" (Sherry Turkle); (4) "Ideologies of Computerization" (William Graves, III); (5) "Stalking the Art Historian" (William O. Beeman); (6) "Computers and Pedagogy: The Invisible Presence" (Patrick McQuillan); (7) "To Move Away from Meaning: Collaboration, Consensus, and Work in a Hypermedia Project" (James M. Nyce and Gail Bader); (8) "The Social Ecology of Student Life: The Integration of Technological Innovations in a Residence Hall" (Kenneth T. Anderson, Anne Page McClard, and James Larkin); and (9) "The Legitimation of Academic Computing in the 1980s" (Mark A. Shields). The intended audience is educators and social scientists concerned with computing and technology studies, and academic administrators can benefit from this book by gaining an understanding of the sociocultural context of technological change as a basis for more informed decision making.

Shiffman, Betty Garrison (1992).  Reading Our Students/Ourselves: Toward a Feminist Theory of Evaluation.  Teaching English in the Two-Year College, 19, 1. 

Asserts that feminist pedagogy is compatible in many ways with current composition theory. Shows how feminist pedagogy can offer an alternative perspective on the problems of evaluating student text. Includes results of the author's research into the evaluation process.

Shimahara, Nobuo K.; Sakai, Akira (1995).  Learning To Teach in Two Cultures: Japan and the United States. Reference Books in International Education, Vol. 27. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Vol. 870). 

This book reports on the 3-year ethnographic study of seven beginning elementary teachers in Toyko and four beginning elementary teachers in the United States during 1989-1991. The volume offers insights into the professional similarities and cultural differences that affect the teacher induction process in these two very dissimilar nations. The final chapter offers a synopsis of the findings and places them within a global educational context, including a comparative analysis of school systems. Chapters are: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "How American Teachers Learn to Teach"; (3) "Expectations and Classroom Control: The Case of American Teachers"; (4) "Development of Teaching Strategies and Perspectives"; (5) "How Japanese Teachers Learn to Teach"; (6) "Japanese Pedagogy and Teachers' Expectation of Students"; (7) "Occupational Socialization of Beginning Teachers in Japan"; and (8) "Learning to Teach in the United States: Contrasts and Conclusions."

Shimoni, Rena (1990).  A Historical Overview of the Development of Early Childhood Services. 

This paper reviews the development of infant schools, day nurseries, kindergarten, nursery schools, and Head Start, and discusses the implications of these services for present-day policy. The philosophy and pedagogy of infant schools, their origins, and their development in North America, are described. Also discussed are the origins of day nurseries and the influence of social work on day nurseries. The religious background of the kindergarten movement, the growth of kindergarten in the United States, and the transition of kindergarten into the public schools, are discussed. The origins and development of nursery schools are traced, and their theoretical foundations are considered. The historical background of Head Start, the goals of the program, its methods of implementation, and the impact of evaluative research on its development, are considered. The paper concludes that while an emphasis on the common goals of all provisions for preschool children may ease the formulation of social policy, due consideration should be given to the unique contributions of each. An extensive list of references is included. | [FULL TEXT]

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Shlesinger, Miriam (1991).  Lexicalization in Translation: An Empirical Study of Students' Progress. 

A study conducted as part of a year-long Hebrew-English translation workshop in Israel focused on the development of students' ability to deal with cases in which the unmarked equivalent of a source-language string was a single lexical item. Subjects were 8 native English-speaking students, 8 native Hebrew-speaking students, and 12 professional translators, all native English-speakers. At the workshops' beginning, the subjects were presented with a Hebrew text incorporating 10 strings for which the unmarked English equivalent was a single word. Verbosity in translating and selection of single-word equivalents were then discussed, and subjects were asked to translate the passage into English. At year's end, the subjects were asked to translate a Hebrew text in which there were 18 Hebrew strings for which the unmarked English equivalent was a lexicalized form. The professional translators had taken part in the initial discussion but had not been exposed to any of the pedagogy during the year. Analysis of the results indicates that an overall increase in lexicalization occurred for all three subject groups for both low- and high-frequency equivalents, but the change was nonsignificant. Verbosity was lowest among professionals; reduction of verbosity was greatest among the native English-speakers. | [FULL TEXT]

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Shopen, Glenda (1993).  Semantics as a Resource for Teaching Critical Literacy.  Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 16, 1. 

Looks at the meaning of the verb "report," to make an argument for a view of genre as a cultural activity and a view of literacy involving children in the development of personal perspective. This argues against a text-based view of genre and a pedagogy that relies primarily on the modeling of "considered texts." (10 references)

Shor, Ira (1992).  Empowering Education: Critical Teaching for Social Change. 

Empowering education is defined as a critical-democratic pedagogy for self and social change. It is a student-centered program for multicultural democracy in school and society that approaches individual growth as an active, cooperative, and social process. The pedagogy described in this book is student-centered, but not permissive or self-centered. Neither the student nor the teacher can do whatever he or she likes. The learning process is negotiated, with leadership by the teacher, and allows for mutual teacher-student authority. Obstacles to and resources for empowering education are analyzed, suggesting ways for students and teachers to transform traditional approaches into critical and democratic ones. Examples and applications are drawn from elementary school through higher and adult education. Through empowering education, a democratic discourse can be developed to ease student-teacher alienation and promote a critical learning process. A list of 157 references is included.

Shor, Ira (1996).  When Students Have Power: Negotiating Authority in a Critical Pedagogy. 

This personal report of classroom experiences at an urban commuter college relates the experiences of a teacher and a group of working-class students studying the book "Utopia," which is also the metaphor for the hoped-for learning experience. The book, illustrated by excerpts from student-submitted work, shows how pedagogical theory leads to unanticipated student demands for which the teacher is initially unprepared. It explains how, entering the classroom on the first day, students exile themselves in a kind of "Siberian syndrome," filling the last rows of seats first. When the teacher attempts to build a pedagogy based on shared power and democratic authority and to mediate resistance and cross-cultural boundaries, students are wary. The book describes the working out of the processes of negotiating the curriculum, shared authority, collaborative decision making, and cogovernance between instructor and students followed by the formation of a student after-class group, and rising student expectations. The final chapters of the book are a review of what worked and what did not.

Shor, Ira (1997).  Our Apartheid: Writing Instruction and Inequality.  Journal of Basic Writing, 16, 1.

 

Short, Mick (1990).  Discourse Analysis in Stylistics and Literature Instruction.  Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 11

A review of research regarding discourse analysis in stylistics and literature instruction covers studies of text, systematic analysis, meaning, style, literature pedagogy, and applied linguistics. A 10-citation annotated bibliography and a larger unannotated bibliography are included.

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Shrader, Greg; Gomez, Louis (1997).  Inventing Interventions: Three Successful CoVis Cases. 

This paper examines the implementation of the CoVis Project in three schools. CoVis is a national Secondary School Science Education Testbed designed to promote project-based pedagogy supported by facilitative technology through reflective learning. The reflective learning that these three schools engaged in while enacting CoVis is examined in order to determine how that reflection lead to successful implementation. Emphasis is placed on past reform efforts at the schools as well as on the fit between the visions of those schools and the goals of the CoVis Project. Findings from these three case studies are used to suggest design approaches intended to foster such reflection at other schools implementing CoVis. The idea presented here is to design curricular innovations that help educators learn about teaching and learning practices through enactment of the innovation. Findings suggest a learning curriculum where not only students but teachers and administrators learn from curricular materials. Curricula should be designed to support reflection in action. When viewed from a Learning Sciences perspective, the project suggests the design of a new technological architecture for the development of learning curricula. Contains 20 references. | [FULL TEXT]

Shrader, Greg; Lento, Eileen; Gomez, Louis; Pea, Roy (1997).  Inventing Interventions: Cases from CoVis--An Analysis by SES. 

This paper presents the preliminary results of ongoing case study research in the Learning through Collaborative Visualization Project (CoVis) testbed. The goal of CoVis is to promote project-enhanced science pedagogy. The project focuses on three areas: (1) project-enhanced science teaching and learning; (2) developing communities of practice; and (3) providing a facilitative technological infrastructure as a means for transforming science education. The purpose of the case study research is to understand how local schools invent CoVis. The notion of inventing CoVis arises from the recognition that innovations are never adopted whole-cloth; rather, they are adapted by members of local communities to meet their own needs. Teachers, administrators, and technology coordinators at eight CoVis schools were interviewed about their first year of participation in CoVis. Results show dramatic differences among practices invented between high and low socioeconomic schools. Those differences are examined through three lenses. First, local school capacity is examined vis-a-vis constraints and affordances that bear on local inventions. Second, invention is examined with regard to the three phases of the CoVis program model. Finally, the practices of two teachers (one from a high and one from a low socioeconomic school) are contrasted to shed more light on how study-wide factors from the earlier analyses bear on particular teachers' practice. Contains 15 references.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Shujaa, Mwalimu J., Ed. (1994).  Too Much Schooling, Too Little Education: A Paradox of Black Life in White Societies. 

This book attempts to demonstrate some of the ways African-Americans can use their cultural base to educate children. The book fits into the Afrocentric school of thought with its aim to develop subject-centered analysis and solutions for children. The book makes the commitment that education is a cultural imperative for all African-American people who aspire to be truly self-determining. The book is divided into five parts with sixteen chapters, a foreword and an afterword. Mwalimu J. Shujaa wrote the introductions to each part. The foreword is entitled "Cultural Work: Planting New Trees with New Seeds" (Haki R. Madhubuti). The afterword is entitled "The Afrocentric Project in Education" (Molefi Kete Asante). Part 1, "Evaluating Our Assumptions about Education and Schooling: Developing African-centered Orientations to Knowledge," includes: (1) "Education and Schooling: You Can Have One without the Other" (Mwalimu J. Shujaa); (2) "Black Intellectuals and the Crisis in Black Education" (Jacob H. Carruthers); and (3) "African-American Cultural Knowledge and Liberatory Education: Dilemmas, Problems, and Potentials in Postmodern American Society" (Beverly M. Gordon). Part 2, "African-American Education Initiatives: Historical Resistance to Schooling," contains: (4) "Outthinking and Outflanking the Owners of the World: An Historiography of the African-American Struggle for Education" (Ronald E. Butchart); (5) "The Search for Access and Content in the Education of African-Americans" (Joan Davis Ratteray); and (6) "Historic Readers for African-American Children (1868-1944): Uncovering and Reclaiming a Tradition of Opposition" (Violet J. Harris). Part 3, "African-American Experiences in Schools and Perspectives on Schooling," includes: (7) "Reproduction and Resistance: An Analysis of African-American Males' Responses to Schooling" (Vernon C. Polite); (8) "African-American Principals: Bureaucrat/Administrators and Ethno-Humanists" (Kofi Lomotey); (9) "Educating for Competence in Community and Culture: Exploring the Views of Exemplary African-American Teachers" (Michele Foster); and (10) "Literacy, Education, and Identity among African-Americans: The Communal Nature of Learning" (Vivian L. Gadsden). Part 4, "African-Centered Pedagogy: An Absolute Necessity for African-Centered Education," contains: (11) "Being the Soul-Freeing Substance: A Legacy of Hope in AfroHumanity" (Joyce Elaine King; Thomasyne Lightfoote Wilson); (12) "African-Centered Pedagogy: Complexities and Possibilities" (Carol D. Lee); and (13) "Notes on an Afrikan-Centered Pedagogy" (Agyei Akoto). Part 5, "Patterns of Resistance to European-Centered Schooling: Reclaiming Responsibility for Educating Our Own," includes: (14) "The Emergence of Black Supplementary Schools as Forms of Resistance to Racism in the United Kingdom" (Nah (Dorothy) E. Dove); (15) "Afrocentric Transformation and Parental Choice in African-American Independent Schools" (Mwalimu J. Shujaa); and (16) "The Rites of Passage: Extending Education into the African-American Community" (Nsenga Warfield-Coppock).

Shulman, Lee; Sparks, Dennis (1992).  Merging Content Knowledge and Pedagogy: An Interview with Lee Shulman.  Journal of Staff Development, 13, 1. 

Teachers need focused staff development to improve content knowledge and pedagogy for specific subject areas. An interview with Lee Shulman, professor of education, discusses advantages of content-specific development, noting the important role of case studies and the changes necessary for helping teachers become lifelong students of content and pedagogy.

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Siddall, Jeffery L. (1998).  Fifth Graders' Social Construction of Meaning in Response to Literature: Case Study Research. 

A study examined how a teacher, researcher, and students moved beyond literal, lower-level thinking and response activities and engaged in literature study that promoted meaningful discussions and deeper-level responses and understandings. The study combined two research paradigms, action and interpretative research. The classroom teacher and researcher discovered and developed a pedagogy for improving literature instruction which included demonstration, facilitation of group process, and construction of meaning. At the same time, they observed and interpreted the manner in which the students independently engaged in literature study. Results indicated that: (1) literature can be a tool for children to identify their own fears, joys, and hopes through the character's eyes; (2) students went beyond the literal comprehension of literature by constructing interpretations together and making connections to their lives; (3) student choice of books, ways of making meaning, collaborative goal setting, and group decision making were motivating and crucial to successful literature study; (4) transmediation of students' responses included discussion, journals, and drama, and changing of sign systems assisted them to revisit the text in multiple ways and build layers and levels of thinking, understanding, and interpretations of the novel and its themes; (5) students developed a beginning understanding of historical events through the novel and their examination of other nonfiction sources of information; and (6) a struggling reader was capable of successfully engaging in literature study--although experiencing difficulty in reading, he exhibited thoughtful responses during discussions and activities.   | [FULL TEXT]

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Silberstein, Sandra, Ed. (1993).  State of the Art TESOL Essays: Celebrating 25 Years of the Discipline. 

A collection of essays for the 25th anniversary of the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) addresses both theory and practice in the field of English-as-a-Second-Language teaching. Articles include: "Internationalism and Our 'Strenuous Family'"; "TESOL at Twenty-Five: What Are the Issues?"; "Communicative Language Teaching: State of the Art"; "Communicative Tasks and the Language Curriculum"; "Whole Language in TESOL"; "From Kindergarten to High School: Teaching and Learning English as a Second Language in the U.S."; "English for Specific Purposes: International in Scope, Specific in Purpose"; "Second Language Acquisition Research: Staking Out the Territory"; "What Does Language Testing Have To Offer?"; "Current Developments in Second Language Reading Research"; "Out of the Woods: Emerging Traditions in the Teaching of Writing"; "Listening in the Second/Foreign Language: Toward an Integration of Research and Practice"; "Grammar Pedagogy in Second and Foreign Language Teaching"; "The Pronunciation Component in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages"; "Twenty-Five Years of Contrastive Rhetoric: Text Analysis and Writing Pedagogies"; "TESOL and Applied Linguistics in North America"; and "Building an Association: TESOL's First Quarter Century."

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(1998).  SIMMS Integrated Mathematics.  Illinois Mathematics Teacher, 49, 1. 

Provides information about the "SIMMS Integrated Mathematics" textbook. Describes its content, pedagogy, assessment techniques, and features an example lesson plan.

Simmons, John S.; Shafer, Robert E. (1994).  A Survey of Attitudes towards Certain Aspects of the English Curriculum Held by Selected Educational and Non-Educational Groups Designated as Liberal and Conservative. 

Noting that many varied organizations have become increasingly politicized and maintain strong interests in the nation's education agenda, a survey of national professional organizations examined to what extent conservatism and liberalism on political matters translated into a similar mind-set on issues in the English curriculum. To survey 23 primarily non-educational national organizations and 20 professional educational organizations, a 4-phase instrument questionnaire was created. Initial mail response was weak, but eventually a 77% response rate was gained. Data indicated that: (1) to teach or not to teach grammar has become an issue intertwined with basic values; (2) lack of awareness of published research and scholarly literature published on the teaching of English during this century surfaced in both groups; (3) a desire to stick with traditional policies and practices in English pedagogy became evident in the aggregate responses of both groups; (4) conservatives demonstrated support for older, more established practices in the teaching of written composition (especially in a commitment to grammar study) than did the more liberal groups; (5) conservatives steadfastly linked memorization with literary appreciation--their "xenophobic" perspective on American culture was further reflected in their clear preference for Anglo-Saxon literature over any multicultural emphasis; and (6) as they viewed the curriculum as a whole, conservatives expressed support for cultural rather than functional literacy alternatives, supporting English Only referenda and isolated skills testing. (Appendixes contain survey letter and form, language and composition as well as literature and curriculum analysis data, and specific interest groups analysis data. Contains 26 references.) | [FULL TEXT]

Simmons, Sue Carter (1995).  Constructing Writers: Barrett Wendell's Pedagogy at Harvard.  College Composition and Communication, 46, 3. 

Describes the work of Barrett Wendell, a composition teacher at Harvard in the late 19th century, giving particular attention to his idea of writing themes--short writing assignments on topics students choose themselves. Reviews one particular student's struggle with Wendell's writing themes. Examines Wendell's political challenges at Harvard as a writing teacher.

Simola, Hannu (1998).  Constructing a School-Free Pedagogy: Decontextualization of Finnish State Educational Discourse.  Journal of Curriculum Studies, 30, 3. 

Focuses on the pedagogy constructed in Finnish state educational discourse. Reveals four essential changes in the use of language about teaching, learning, and schooling that have occurred since the 1960s. Finds that decontextualization must occur for the other three changes to be possible and credible. Discusses the appearance of school-free pedagogy.

Simola, Hannu; And Others (1996).  Decontextualizing Pedagogy: The Rise of Didactic Closure in Finnish Teacher Education. 

This paper examines the history of Finnish didactics and the professionalization of teacher education. In Finland, didactics is an emerging academic discipline--the science of teaching or educational science for teacher education--and includes both the subject and contextual knowledge of teaching. At the same time, the context of teaching and learning, the school as a socio-historical institution, is of little interest. Education discourse in Finland since the 1860s is analyzed, as well as the recent development of department-level curricula for classroom teacher education at six Finnish universities in the 1980s and 1990s. Teacher professionalism in relation to the interests and professionalism of teacher educators is explored, as well as the theory of "social closure," in which professional status results from a group seeking to achieve monopoly in its field of activity and exclude other competing groups from the market. The results of the analysis suggests that while pursuit of a coherent picture of school teaching and learning requires involvement with other disciplines, the professionalism drift of teacher educators toward recognition of didactics as a distinct field works against this involvement. While pursuing justification of their existence as an academic field, teacher educators are excluding competing disciplines and constructing a social closure and a closed market ruled by their monopoly in the field. | [FULL TEXT]

Simon, Martin A. (1995).  Reconstructing Mathematics Pedagogy from a Constructivist Perspective.  Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 26, 2. 

Begins with an overview of the constructivist perspective and the pedagogical theory development upon which a constructivist teaching experiment with 20 prospective elementary teachers was based. Derives a theoretical framework for mathematics pedagogy with a focus on decisions about content and mathematical tasks. (49 references)

Simon, Roger I. (1992).  Teaching against the Grain: Texts for a Pedagogy of Possibility. Critical Studies in Education and Culture Series. 

An attempt is made to wrestle with the question of critical pedagogy, trying to refine and make more explicit the author's political vision; the idea of pedagogy as a form of cultural politics; and teachers as cultural workers. Eight essays are divided into two sections. The four essays of Part 1 try to draw together a statement about efforts to define an educational practice consistent with a project of possibility. Part 2 provides four essays that display the attempt to work out some of the pedagogical problems associated with specific aspects of the author's teaching, research, and curriculum writing over the last 10 years. One of the essays considers how a text that has been implicated in the reproduction of forms of racial discrimination and dominance ("The Merchant of Venice") might be taught in the classroom, based on an analysis of a Jewish rendition of the work. The concluding chapter examines the ways that education practices are implicated in the production of social memories and historical sensibilities. Contains 21 references.

Simon, Roger I. (1994).  The Pedagogy of Commemoration and Formation of Collective Memories.  Educational Foundations, 8, 1. 

Educators can construct practices that provoke processes of remembrance to alter the way the past is made present in desires, plans, and actions. The paper highlights the collective aspect of living memory to emphasize the organized, nonidiosyncratic quality of such memories. Four historical events are examined.

Simon, Roger I.; And Others (1991).  Learning Work: A Critical Pedagogy of Work Education. Critical Studies in Education and Culture Series. 

Through discussions of teaching practice and actual lesson suggestions, this book clarifies how the viewpoint of critical pedagogy can be used to develop a clear and principled practice of work education. The introduction provides a brief discussion of how critical pedagogy is understood and how it relates to work education. Chapter 1 situates the book's approach to work education within the domain of critical pedagogy. Chapter 2 provides a detailed discussion of specific teaching and learning strategies that can be used to encourage critical inquiry into workplace experience. Chapters 3-13 follow the same format. Each chapter begins with a set of introductory comments that provide a rationale for the content; lesson suggestions and teaching notes follow. These chapters deal with the following topics: working knowledge; skills and work design; teachers working with employers to develop the learning potential of work sites; social relations at work; occupational safety and health; the interrelation of work, desire, and leisure; unions as a way to solve problems by sticking together; self-assessment as a way to change circumstances and to change oneself; pay (compensation for work); getting a job; and images of the future and future work. An index is appended.

Simon, Roger I.; Eppert, Claudia (1997).  Remembering Obligation: Pedagogy and the Witnessing of Testimony of Historical Trauma.  Canadian Journal of Education, 22, 2. 

Possibilities for nurturing and supporting an ethical practice of witnessing in the context of informal and school-based communities of memory are explored, and suggestions are made for developing a principled way to decide what to retell or pass on when teaching about historical events of trauma.

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Sinclair, Amanda (1997).  The MBA through Women's Eyes--Learning and Pedagogy in Management Education.  Management Learning, 28, 3. 

This is an exploratory study of the MBA experience from a female point of view. Interviews with 16 women MBAs yield findings consistent with research that suggests that women prefer to learn and be taught in ways other than traditional MBA approaches. Also addresses the reasons why women teachers are often less valued than their male counterparts.

Sinclair, Norma; Pecheone, Raymond L. (1991).  Empirical Appraisal of Items for Innovative Teacher Tests. 

The impact of test item multidimensionality was examined as it affected fitting items on a teacher licensure test to an item response theory (IRT) model. Test item data from the 1990 study of G. W. Guiton and G. Delandshere are used. The Connecticut Elementary Certification Test (CONNECT) is a licensure examination designed to assess the subject matter knowledge of a beginning elementary teacher in the state. Nine content areas and pedagogy are covered. Items selected for analysis were taken from two test forms of the CONNECT administered prior to the date when it became a requirement for certification. In all, 826 responses were received from 681 candidates (some took both test forms). Classical item statistics indicated that test items were relatively heterogeneous, with the highest frequency of point biserials in the 0.10 to 0.30 range. These statistics confirm the previous (1990) finding of more than one underlying construct. However, successful attempts to fit the data to one-parameter and two-parameter models support the contention that a dominant underlying factor is sufficient to meet the assumption of unidimensionality required for item response analyses. An appendix summarizes the relationship between content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge for teachers. Three tables present study data.

Singer, Armand E., Ed. (1990).  Philological Papers: Special Issue Devoted to the Teacher in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Literature and Film. Volume 36. Papers Presented at the West Virginia University's Annual Colloquium (13th, Morgantown, West Virginia, September 29-October 1, 1988). 

This volume contains papers read at West Virginia University's Colloquium on "The Teacher in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Literature and Film" including the following 12 articles listed with their authors: "A Second Pair of Eyes: The Editor as Teacher" (Hart L. Wegner); "Don Juan Goes to the Movies" (Armand E. Singer); "The Teacher in Jean Paul's 'Schulmeisterlein Wutz' and J. M. R. Lenz's 'Der Hofmeister'" (Beth Fiori); "The Teacher(')s in the Text: Jeremias Gotthelf's 'Schulmeister' (1838) and the Poetics of Pedagogy" (James W. Rankin); "'But I Digress': The Teacher in 'Under Western Eyes' as a Model for Political Engagement" (Deborah Lovely); "Tyranny, Telling, Learning: Teaching the Female Student" (Anne L. Bower); "Professor Immanuel Rath and Fetishes of Power: Sternberg's 'Der blaue Engel'" (Kenith L. Simmons); "'Oh My; I Am the Teacher': Laura Ingalls Wilder and the Prairie School Teacher" (Ann Romines); "Notes on the Dry Eucalyptus: Wallace Stevens's Professional Voices" (James S. Leonard); "The Teacher as Failure--The Text as Teacher: Hermann Broch's 'Die vier Reden des Studienrats Zacharias'" (Calvin N. Jones); "Two Gurus--Vonnegut's Bokonon and Narayan's Raju: Teachers outside the Classroom" (Felicia Campbell); and "Gail Godwin's Paralyzing Plots and the Woman Professor" (Virginia Smith).

Singer, Elly (1996).  Prisoners of the Method: Breaking Open the Child-Centered Pedagogy in Day Care Centres.  International Journal of Early Years Education, 4, 2. 

Examines basic concepts forming the foundation for professional care and education of young children and how these concepts may impede interaction between teachers or caregivers and children. Critiques the concepts of natural development, developmentally appropriate curriculum, and child centeredness. Advocates increased scaffolding, increased value given to peer relationships, and increased recognition that peers want to work and learn together.

Singh, Michael Garbutcheon; Greenlaw, James (1998).  Postcolonial Theory in the Literature Classroom: Contrapuntal Readings.  Theory into Practice, 37, 3. 

Recommends an approach to teaching students about changing relations between Asian and Anglo-Pacific nations that avoids the economic reductionism, sexism, and racism of orientalist pedagogy, suggesting a pedagogy based on Said's contrapuntal approach to reading literature, which encourages students to question how Asians are portrayed in films and books. Offers a contrapuntal reading of three texts.

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Sirc, Geoffrey (1991).  One of the Things at Stake in the Peer-Group Conference: The Feminine. 

The conventional nature of school-sponsored writing, in which writing becomes a formal operant within the closed space of classroom signifying practices, is one in which the feminine mode of expression often announces it cannot play. While the masculine style of peer-response to student writing is largely aggressive, the feminine is conceptually different in its social, feel-good acknowledgement of the writer's effort. While the masculine demands or orders exactly what should be done, the feminine reflects self-consciousness and self-correction. Furthermore, masculine insult and vulgarity contrast with feminine politeness strategies. Strong stylistic and epistemological differences cast doubt on the possibility of "translation" between the genders. It has been observed that when confronted with masculine argumentation, the historical role of women is mimicry. The feminine style of less task-serious play and emotion ruptures the structure of the writing classroom. Only when education goes out of the bounds of the classroom is it possible to speak with the grammar of its shaping ideology, insisting on the legitimacy and variety of ways of being, speaking, and knowing that traditional education proscribes. In the meantime, a dismantling of masculinist pedagogy could begin with the notion of the evaluative criteria guiding peer-response sessions which turn discussing into judging, narrowing the focus of writing to the text as replicable model to be done right, rather than expanding it into the speculative, imaginative realms of discourse, for which there are no checklists. (Seventeen references are attached.) | [FULL TEXT]

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Sitzman, Daniel L.; Kelter, Paul B. (1998).  Pasta, Polymers, and Pedagogy.  Science Scope, 21, 6. 

Discusses the characteristics and benefits of the Nebraska Operation Chemistry (NOC) summer workshops. Provides a brief overview of the workshops and the 11 instructional modules.

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Siu, Man-Keung (1993).  Proof and Pedagogy in Ancient China: Examples from Liu Hui's Commentary on "JIU ZHANG SUAN SHU".  Educational Studies in Mathematics, 24, 4. 

Illustrates the pedagogical implications embodied in Liu Hui's discussion on the ancient Chinese mathematical classic "JIU ZHANG SUAN SHU" (Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art) with respect to aspects of proof and, more generally, the role of proof in mathematics. Provides examples involving area and volume.

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Skehan, Peter (1998).  A Cognitive Approach to Language Learning. Oxford Applied Linguistics. 

An examination of second language learning focuses on how universal cognitive processes in language learning and individual differences account for differences in language learning patterns. An introductory section gives background information suggesting that psycholinguistic factors in language learning should receive more attention for two reasons: increasing evidence that there is a critical period for language learning, and the increasing importance of meaning over form as learners age. Subsequent chapters address these issues: comprehension and production strategies in language learning; the role of memory and lexical learning; psycholinguistic processes in language use and language learning; models of language learning; a rationale for task-based instruction; implementing task-based instruction; processing perspectives on testing; research into language aptitude; issues in aptitude theory (exceptional learners and modularity); learning style; and learners, learning, and pedagogy. Contents are indexed.

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Skidmore, David W. (1999).  The Dialogue of Spoken Word and Written Word. 

This paper presents and analyzes two examples of classroom discourse which belong to the genre of "talk about texts." Both are extracts from discussions between a small group of primary school students and their teacher (in England) on the topic of short texts of narrative fiction which they have just read together during the "Literacy Hour"; the discussions are therefore examples of a form of comprehension activity familiar in many classrooms. Drawing on concepts from the work of the Bakhtin Circle, the paper argues that one of the sequences exemplifies "pedagogical dialogue," in which someone who knows and possesses the truth instructs someone who is in error. It interprets the second sequence as an instance of "internally persuasive discourse," in which students are required to retell the story in their own words and voice their own evaluative orientations, rather than reciting it by heart. It concludes that, because talk about literary texts is a non-algorithmic form of knowledge, a dialogical pedagogy is better suited to inducting students into this form of literacy practice than are approaches which rely on scores in standardized tests. In the face of increasing state prescription of curriculum and pedagogy, the introduction of payment by results, and the dogmatic dismissal by the New Labor government of all of its policies as "elitism," it must be doubted whether a general shift from "pedagogical dialogue" to a dialogical pedagogy can be accomplished without collective action on the part of the teaching force aimed at regaining a measure of professional autonomy and securing greater control over the exercise of their own labor power. | [FULL TEXT]

Skilbeck, Malcolm (1990).  Curriculum Reform: An Overview of Trends. 

This publication provides a systematic and comprehensive overview of major developments within and across the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development countries in strategic approaches to curriculum planning and the principles governing the organization of learning in schools. The report concludes the initial phase of the Centre for Education Research and Innovation Project on Curriculum Reform and School Effectiveness. The study comprised national returns from a structured questionnaire, expert colloquia, and a selected literature review. The first three of eight chapters within this book address context, changes in administrative relationships and control, and general curriculum issues and pedagogic developments in the compulsory years of schooling. In chapter 4, the emphasis moves toward what are virtually universal concerns, namely the structure, content, and organization of the core curriculum. Chapters 5 and 6 focus on developments in curriculum and pedagogy that are characteristic of either the primary or the secondary stage of schooling, including those that are transitional between the two. Chapter 7 examines the process of curriculum development and pedagogic reform and the potential dichotomy between professional freedom and tightly drawn evaluation and assessment procedures. The appendixes provide a framework for the preparation of reports on curriculum reform in OECD countries (including questions), as well as a list of responding reports giving country, title, and author. (52 references)

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Skolnik, Christine (1995).  Postmodern Pedagogy and Sustainability. 

A graduate teaching assistant who lived through the Northridge quake in Los Angeles County reached some realizations about her habits of thinking in the wake of that experience. As students schooled or even trained in poststructuralist critical theory and/or protocols of postmodern cultural critique, this teaching assistant and some of her Generation X colleagues realized that they have come to regard their roles as instructors with an unhealthy dose of irony, if not cynicism. As postmodern subjects, they are provoked to postulate themselves as a collection of disjointed subjectivities, a pastiche of motives and personalities, instruments of either hegemonic or destabilizing forces. But these instructors now find themselves asking from what source can they draw enough positive energy to perform their pedagogical tasks even "as if" there were any meaning or value in their work? The teaching assistant has on occasion been confronted with circumstances, seemingly real, and seemingly external enough to make her pause and think: maybe there is something at stake here, and maybe an individual can have some impact on the thing at stake. The experience of the earthquake showed her that the relative stability of instability is not the sum total of existence. So what if there is no "real" foundation?--there are at least contingent issues of importance. The conclusion is that thinking in terms of "sustainability" can help individuals acquire a better conception of the relationship between earth and human beings. Considered in the context of social theory, sustainability might support a movement toward "ethical collectivity." | [FULL TEXT]

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Slark, Julie; And Others (1993).  Educational Equity and Inclusion: An Equity Atlas. RSC Study Report. 

A study was conducted at Rancho Santiago College (RSC) District campuses to determine the extent to which the college provides a welcoming, receptive, inclusive, friendly, and non-hostile environment for students of special groups, including minority students, older students, women students, and disabled students. Five areas of study related to an equitable campus climate were identified, including College and Community, Student Life and Comfort, Student Performance and Retention, Curriculum and Pedagogy, and Faculty and Staff. Questionnaires were administered to a random sample of RSC students, to all staff and full-time faculty, and to high school seniors and staff in RSC's service area. In addition, interviews were conducted with RSC faculty and staff. Following an introduction, this report presents five detailed sections corresponding to the five areas of study. The first section provides analysis of responses to equity questionnaires completed by RSC faculty and students, and area high school students, teachers, and counselors. Section 2 analyzes responses to staff surveys, student satisfaction surveys, transfer student surveys, and graduate surveys, as well as results of staff interviews. Section 3 examines student persistence and academic performance data, and reviews RSC programs for select student groups. Section 4 analyzes questionnaire results as they relate to RSC curriculum and instruction. Finally, section 5 reviews faculty and staff characteristics, presents results of faculty and staff equity questionnaires, and discusses staff interview results. Appendixes provide tabulated survey results, the survey instruments, and copies of RSC policy statements and other documents relating to issues of diversity and affirmative action. | [FULL TEXT]

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Sleeter, Christine E. (1998).  Yes, Learning Disabilities Is Political; What Isn't?  Learning Disability Quarterly, 21, 4. 

In response to Kavale and Forness (EC 630 380), this article, rooted in the author's experiences as a learning disabilities teacher, discusses assumptions of the original article concerning social critiques and Marxism; diagnosis and classification for research or for pedagogy; validity of constructs and instruments for mental retardation; and science, politics, and world view.

Sleeter, Christine E., Ed. (1991).  Empowerment through Multicultural Education. 

Questions about student diversity are examined by considering the extent to which society serves the interests of all, and by examining the empowerment of members of oppressed groups to direct social change. The contributions of multicultural education to empowering young people are highlighted. After an introduction by Christine E. Sleeter, the following chapters are presented: (1) "Doing School in an Urban Appalachian First Grade" (Kathleen Bennett); (2) "Mapping Terrains of Power: Student Cultural Knowledge versus Classroom Knowledge" (Christine E. Sleeter and Carl A. Grant); (3) "Peer-Proofing Academic Competition among Black Adolescents: 'Acting White' Black American Style" (Signithia Fordham); (4) "Disempowering White Working-Class Females: The Role of the High School" (Lois Weis); (5) "A Curriculum for Empowerment, Action, and Change" (James A. Banks); (6) "Empowerment through Media Literacy: A Multicultural Approach" (Carlos E. Cortes); (7) "Cooperative Learning as Empowering Pedagogy" (Mara Sapon-Shevin and Nancy Schniedewind); (8) "Teaching Children about Social Issues: Kidpower" (Valerie O. Pang); (9) "Classroom Use of African American Language: Educational Tool or Social Weapon?" (Selase W. Williams); (10) "The Empowerment of Language-Minority Students" (Richard Ruiz); (11) "Changing Our Ideas about Ourselves: Group Consciousness Raising with Elementary School Girls as a Means to Empowerment" (Lee A. Bell); (12) "Who Is Empowering Whom? The Social Construction of Empowerment" (Susan R. Takata); (13) "The Rationale for Training Adults as Teachers" (Martin Haberman); and (14) "The Power To Empower: Multicultural Education for Student-Teachers" (Renee Martin). References are grouped by chapter.

Sleeter, Christine E., Ed.; McLaren, Peter L., Ed. (1995).  Multicultural Education, Critical Pedagogy, and the Politics of Difference. SUNY Series, Social Context of Education and SUNY Series, Teacher Empowerment and School Reform. 

The growing diversity of our society requires transformation of ideological perspectives and changes in social, cultural, and institutional relations in order to legitimize diversity as a societal strength. Dominant ideologies and classroom practices have functioned to serve only one segment of American society. Attention must be directed toward determining the social environments and relations that best fulfill all students' needs, and it must also be focused on achieving a broader contextual understanding of the role played by education in a postindustrial, late capitalist society. The contributors to Part 1 of this collection offer the position that all of society will suffer if an understanding of difference is not promoted actively. They then explore the sociopolitical factors that impede social transformations. Essays in Part 2 provide a conceptual framework as a basis for understanding multicultural education, critical pedagogy, and politics difference as forms of political and historical agency. Papers in Part 3 assert that multiculturalism will succeed as a medium of cultural critique to stimulate transformative social change because its primary pedagogical aim is to produce critical self-awareness. References follow each chapter.

Slevin, James F., Ed.; Young, Art, Ed. (1996).  Critical Theory and the Teaching of Literature: Politics, Curriculum, and Pedagogy. 

The 21 essays in this book interrogate one another as they explore the relationships among politics, curriculum, and pedagogy in contemporary classrooms and cultures. Critical theory, the book suggests, is generated in and through classroom practice, rather than imported from without. After an introduction by James F. Slevin and Art Young, essays in the book are: (1) "Daring To Dream: Re-Visioning Culture and Citizenship" (Mary Louise Pratt); (2) "What We Talk about When We Talk about Politics" (John Warnock); (3) "Theory, Confusion, Inclusion" (Keith Hjortshoj); (4) "The Unconscious Troubles of Men" (David Bleich); (5) "Teaching Literature: Indoctrination vs. Dialectics" (Min-Zhan Lu); (6) "Standing in This Neighborhood: Of English Studies" (Daniel Moshenberg); (7)"Redistribution and the Transformation of American Studies" (Eric Cheyfitz); (8) "Organizing the Conflicts in the Curriculum" (Gerald Graff); (9) "Literature, Literacy, and Language" (Jacqueline Jones Royster); (10) "Cultural Institutions: Reading(s) (of) Zora Neale Hurston, Leslie Marmon Silko, and Maxine Hong Kingston" (Anne Ruggles Gere and Morris Young); (11) "A Flock of Cultures--A Trivial Proposal" (Robert Scholes); (12) "Polylogue: Ways of Teaching and Structuring the Conflicts" (Gary Waller); (13) "Attitudes and Expectations: How Theory in the Graduate Student (Teacher) Complicates the English Curriculum" (Wendy Bishop); (14) "Teaching Theorizing/Theorizing Teaching" (James Phelan); (15) "Does Theory Play Well in the Classroom?" (Barbara T. Christian); (16) "Mr. Eliot Meets Miss Lowell and, ah, Mr. Brown" (Paul Lauter); (17) "The War between Reading and Writing--and How To End It" (Peter Elbow); (18) "Reading Lessons and Then Some: Toward Developing Dialogues between Critical Theory and Reading Theory" (Kathleen McCormick); (19) "Teaching in the Contact Zone: The Myth of Safe Houses" (Janice M. Wolff); (20) "How Literature Learns To Write: The Possibilities and Pleasures of Role-Play" (James E. Seitz); and (21) "Making Connections: Theory, Pedagogy, and Contact Hours" (Beverly Sauer). | [FULL TEXT]

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Smagorinsky, Peter (1996).  Standards in Practice, Grades 9-12. 

This book presents five composites of teachers and students in action to portray and elaborate on the English Language Arts standards developed by the National Council of Teachers of English and the International Reading Association. The book demonstrates that teaching and learning are not generic, homogeneous activities that transcend time, space, and culture. Each chapter-long narrative in the book follows a classroom community through a unit of study geared to that community's unique social and cultural context--with its own distinct set of values and with learners who bring these values to class. The book thus reveals the "situatedness" of both teaching and learning. It helps illustrate how every classroom teacher can adapt standards into a learner-centered pedagogy that capitalizes on students' strengths. Contains a glossary. (Each chapter contains resources.) | [FULL TEXT]

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Smeyers, Paul, Ed.; And Others (1993).  Opvoeding, democratie en nationalisme (Education, Democracy, and Nationalism).  [Pedagogisch Tijdschrift] 

The theme of this special issue is education, democracy, and nationalism. It contains papers from the 1993 meeting, "National Pedagogy Day". Only a few of the 50 papers presented at the meeting are included in this issue. The papers in the issue are: "Powerless Against Criticism of an Anti-Democratic Theory" (J. D. Imelman); "Dutch Academic Pedagogy Between Text and Context" (R. van der Kuur); "Identity, Community, Education" (G. Snik); "Borders of Identity" (J. Masschelein); "Education, Democracy, and Nationalism" (L. J. A. Vriens); "Education, Democracy, and Nationalism" (M. D'hoker); "Democracy, Intellectuals and the University" (I. Weijers); "Are There Still Citizens? Comment on Weijers, Democracy, Intellectuals and the University" (M. Hellemans); "The Post-Modern University" (P. Baggen); "Autarchy, Autonomy, and Indoctrination" (J. Bohlmeijer); "Education with Diversity" (G. F. Heyting); "From Learning School to Education School" (J. Lenders); "Educated Pre-Schoolers in an Educated Culture" (W. A. J. Meijer); "A Temporal-Ethnocentral View of Immigration" (S. Miedema); "Moderate Intellect: the Introduction of Intelligence Testing in the Netherlands" (E. Mulder); "Eroticism at the Border Between Childhood and Parental Love" (J. Noordman); "Natural and Environmental Education, Between Living and Surviving" (J. M. Praamsma); "Children in Danger or Dangerous Children?" (M. Reuling-Schappin); "Nationalism in Dutch Youth Periodicals 1780-1840 (M. Rietveld-van Wingerden); "The Tragic Relationship Among Media, Education, and Democracy" (A. Snick); "Citizenship Education in a Democratic Society" (B. Spiecker, J. Steutel); "Child Abuse: Displaced Problem or Problem of Displacement" (C. Steverlynck); "The Family as Androgenous Figure" (H. van Crombrugge); "Nationalism, Democracy and Educational Freedom" (P. van der Ploeg); and "Particularity in Moral Judgement, a Good Idea?" (G. J. Vreeke).

Smeyers, Paul, Ed.; And Others (1994).  Pedagogisch Tijdschrift (Journal of Pedagogy), 1994. 

This 6-issue, complete year of a Belgian-Dutch collaboration offers complete articles on pedagogical subjects, some with an English-language summary; reviews of new Dutch-language books; and titles from related Dutch-language journals. Articles include: "On the Policies of the Journal of Pedagogy" (P. Smeyers); "Pedagogic Commentary" (W. Wijnen); "Harter's Questionnaire on Perceived Competence: A Dutch Language Version" (J. H. A. van Rossum, A. Vermeer); Basic Characteristics of the AVMB (General Preparation for Society and Career) Learning Route" (J. Visser, R. van den Berg, E. Roelofs); "System Theory and Education. On Luhmanns and Schorrs 'Pedagogical Question'" (R. Vanderstraeten); "Effects of Class Composition" (A. de Vries); "Separating and Mixing Students for Learning" (Y. Dar, N. Resh); "Cognitive Class Composition and School Careers in Continuing Instruction" (A. de Vries, H. Guldemond); "Method and Group Effects on Learning Processes in Reading Comprehension" (T. Mooij, P. van den Eeden); "Effects of Class Composition and Instruction Quality in Mathematics" (J. Terwel, P. van den Eeden); "What Did They Say? Comments In Response to Research in Class and Group Composition" (J. L. Peschar); "Mature Citizens: a Cultural-Historical Orientation of the Pedagogy of M. J. Langeveld" (I. Weijers); "Teacher Professionalism Revisited" (D. Beijaard, J. J. Peters); "Attachment Representation in Educators in Relation to Attachment Style, Temperament, and Remembrance of their Own Education" (M. A. de Haas, M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. H. van Ijzendoorn); "'Teaching Girls To Educate Girls': A National Teachers College as Exponent of the Relationship between Professionalism and Gender in Dutch Education" (M. van Essen); "Stadium Theory in Musical Development" (C. Koopman); "Basic Pedagogical Research" (G. Snik, W. van Haaften, A. Tellings); "The Educator after Post Modernism" (P. Smeyers); "Workplace Conditions in Elementary Schools and the Professional Development of Teachers" (M. Clement; K. Staessens; R. Vandenberghe); "The Task-specific Character of Professional Isolation in Elementary School" (I. Bakkenes, K. de Brabander, J. Imants); "Political Control and Professionality" (J. Sayer); Methodology of the Education to Professional Teaching" (S. Janssens); "Reassessment of Professionality and Pedagogical Assignment" (C. Klaasens); and "Without a Ladder, but with Both Feet on the Ground" (G. Kelchtermans). | [FULL TEXT]

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Smith, Anne B. (1996).  The Early Childhood Curriculum from a Sociocultural Perspective.  Early Child Development and Care, 115

Presents theoretical background for building an early childhood curriculum based on the Educare approach. Five principles are explained. They emphasize that learning drives development and that social interaction, interpersonal relationships, mutual understanding, and culture are unique in developmental processes. Concludes that teachers can have a powerful role in development and a conscious pedagogy is essential.

Smith, David E. (1997).  Distance Learning Technology for Enhancing Pedagogy: The Global Connection.  Journal of Teaching in International Business, 8, 3. 

The global connection is a business education project undertaken at three diverse institutions located in Denmark (Copenhagen Business School) and California (National University, Coastline Community College). The project incorporates video teleconferencing technology to provide six guest speakers for teaching purposes within one academic year (1994-95). The three institutions' experiences with the technology are examined.

Smith, Douglas C. (1994).  Elementary Teacher Education in Korea. 

This monograph describes elementary teacher education in South Korea and aspects of Korean society that have contributed to the uniqueness of this educative process. Within the context of comparative education, the essay introduces the cultural, social, and institutional attributes of Korea; discusses specifics of the educative process as a reflection of these attributes; explores both the activities that are carried out in Korea's colleges of education and ensuing relationships between teacher training, cultural development, and respect for education; and examines the concept of melding pedagogy and ethical development for young people. Following an introduction, the book is organized into three sections. Section One, "Orientations" describes South Korea under the headings: a culture of traditions, educational foundations, the law and education, modern compulsory education, higher education and lifelong learning. Section two, "Teachers Colleges in Transition," discusses the highly competitive college or university entrance examination, the teacher education curriculum, teachers college faculty, college facilities, problems facing teacher education, and Korea's future elementary teachers. The final section, "A Critical Analysis of Korean Teacher Education," addresses the need for new teachers; problems in academe; working toward gender balance; status and sociological issues; governance reforms; and the views of Horace G. Underwood, a long-time observer of Korean society. An extensive resource list of books, articles, and other documents is included.

Smith, Emerson (1998).  Breaking Ranks: A High School Restructuring Initiative. 

This paper examines Breaking Ranks, a proposal for school reform and restructuring intended to improve the effectiveness of America's high schools. The review drew upon memo writing, a personal interview with an administrator utilizing the Breaking Ranks blueprint, a review of periodicals and books on Breaking Ranks and on school restructuring, a synthesis of data collected from school-restructuring studies, and a comparison of the literature of high-school restructuring efforts. The report discusses: (1) the adoption of Breaking Ranks in one high school and how this reform effort influenced professional culture; (2) the alignment among program offerings, pedagogy, and curriculum; (3) and leadership. Findings indicate that Breaking Ranks and other reform programs all focus on student achievement and visionary leadership that is collaborative and has the capacity to involve others. Breaking Ranks, like other school-restructuring movements, also exhibits some weaknesses: recommendations are conceptual in design and not operational, so no specific or coherent plan exists; costs and the allocation of resources for implementation are not addressed; tracking is difficult because everything must be sorted, discussed, and embodied in teacher actions before it reaches the student; data supporting change initiatives are not defined; and the basic systemic structure of the school does not change. | [FULL TEXT]

Smith, Jeff (1994).  Against "Illegeracy": Toward a New Pedagogy of Civic Understanding.  College Composition and Communication, 45, 2. 

Defines "illegeracy," the key legacy of today's failed educational system, as the lack among students of the important cognitive and critical skills necessary for civic understanding. Provides examples of illegeracy among recent students. Suggests the pedagogical consequences of considering students as illegerate.

Smith, Linda Tuhiwai (1998).  The Educational and Cultural Implications of Maori Language Revitalization.  Cultural Survival Quarterly, 22, 1. 

Maori language revitalization in New Zealand has had government support since 1982. Programs include schools that teach entirely in Maori and are based on Maori philosophy and pedagogy, as well as immersion programs and bilingual classes. School programs are complemented by community-based adult and preschool programs. Teacher shortages, dialect problems, and intergenerational tensions are discussed.

Smith, Michael Sloane (1990).  A Study of the Socialization of Student Teachers with a Whole Language Perspective. 

To date there has been no research done on teacher education programs that use whole language as a vehicle for instilling reflective forms of pedagogy. This study is an initial effort to develop a research base in this area. The study examined the socialization process of teachers who adopted the teaching perspectives of the whole language approach in a variety of placement sites. Subjects, six white female elementary student teachers, were specifically chosen for their high degree of commitment and a well-informed understanding of the philosophy of whole language. The primary methods used for data gathering were interviews, observations, and examinations of relevant documents. Results indicated: (1) the basic tenets of whole language philosophy are in line with those tenets of reflective pedagogy that many educators are attempting to promote; (2) the subjects' teacher education program was responsible for moving them towards their whole language perspectives but was deficient in many areas; (3) subjects faced many constraining factors during the student teaching experience, including interactive, personal, institutional, and cultural factors; and (4) all the subjects continued to support verbally their original beliefs about whole language, even though they were forced to conform to the existing curriculum. (One-hundred seventy-two references and a list of questions asked during the initial interviews are attached.)

Smith, Peter, Ed. (1997).  Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) Summer Conference Proceedings (30th, North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, June 7-12, 1997). 

Papers from a conference on small college computing issues are: "An On-line Microcomputer Course for Pre-service Teachers" (Mary K. Abkemeier); "The Mathematics and Computer Science Learning Center (MLC)" (Solomon T. Abraham); "Multimedia for the Non-Computer Science Faculty Member" (Stephen T. Anderson, Sr.); "Achieving Continuous Improvement: Theories that Support a System Change" (Donald Armel); "Two Model Dual Degree Programs in Computational Science for Small Universities" (Gary M. Brady, Manuel Keepler, and Laura B. Smith); "Rock Hill Business, Education, and Community Online Network" (Alan Broyles); "Multimedia: Bringing the Sciences to Life--Experiences with Multimedia in the Life Sciences" (Jane F. Cavender and Steve M. Rutter); "Ethical Issues Involving the Internet" (Mary V. Connolly); "Migration to Windows NT" (Daniel T. Doles); "Are Computer Science Students Ready for the Real World" (Noreen Elliot); "Video Networks in an Electronic Classroom Environment and Analysis of Student Preferences in the Development of a Network-Based Video Distribution System" (Anatoliy Gordonov, Michael Kress, and Marianne Carlin); "The Role of Facilities and Faculty Peer-to-Peer Mentoring in Supporting Faculty's Use of Multimedia/Computer Technologies in Support of Classroom Instruction" (Arthur W. Haffner and Michael E. Kress); "IS Staff Migration to New Technology" (David G. Holland); "Design and Implement Custom Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS) for Training in Project Based Classes" (Brian R. Hoyt, Mark Stockman, and Jerry Thalman); "Using Authorware and Shockwave To Create Interactive HTML Pages" (Janet E. Hurn); "Power Pedagogy: Integrating Technology in the Classroom" (Benjoe A. Juliano); "An Administrative Model for Virtual Website Hosting" (Jerry Kandies); "Small College AI" (Harold H. Kollmeier); "The Emerging Trends in Application Integration" (David K. Moldoff); "Program-to-Program Articulation for the World Wide Web" (Charles H. Morton); "A New Hire Training Program for the "Old" and the "New"" (Jon Mueller); "Is Your Curriculum Up-to-Date" (Thomas A. Pollack); "Supporting Student Teachers with Laptop Computers: A Project of the School of Education at Columbus State University" (Dutchie Riggsby); "Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Formal Ethics Component in the Computer Science Curriculum" (Stephen J. Sheel and E. Eugene Collins); "The Web-Database Connection: Tools for Sharing Information on the Campus Intranet" (Nancy E. Thibeault); "MIS On-Line" (Nancy S. Thomson, DonnaRose Echeverria, and Bob Mills); "Integrating a Computerized Testing System and Electronic Lecture Notes in First-Year Mathematics Courses" (Ray Treadway); "Distance Education VIA the Internet (Methodology and Results)" (William Verbrugge); and "Delivering Library Information Across the Network: One Model for Successful Implementations" (William P. Wilson). | [FULL TEXT]

Smith, Richard, Ed.; Wexler, Philip, Ed. (1995).  After Postmodernism: Education, Politics and Identity. Knowledge, Identity and School Life Series: 3. 

The chapters in this book originated in an invited seminar at the Griffith University Gold Coast (Australia) campus on the occasion of a visit by Philip Wexler in December 1993. The seminar explored ways and means of transcending a postmodernist analysis of education. Although the examples are predominantly Australian, the issues are international. The major themes of the book include the theoretical implications of a refusal to abandon universals and the justification for intervening in educational policy; the efficacy of different kinds of interventions and what a theoretically driven action agenda might be; and dealing with the new range of inequalities which are consequences of postmodern transformations at both the institutional and existential levels. Following the prologue by Richard Smith, Part 1, entitled "Theory of Education," is comprised of the following four chapters: (1) "Liberalism, Postmodernism, Critical Theory and Politics" (Robert Young); (2) "Fading Poststructuralisms: Post-Ford, Posthuman, Posteducation?" (John Knight); (3) "Having a Postmodernist Turn or Postmodernist 'Angst': A Disorder Experienced by an Author Who Is Not Yet Dead or Even Close to It" (Jane Kenway); and (4) "After Postmodernism: A New Age Social Theory in Education" (Philip Wexler). Chapters in the second part, "Pedagogy," include: (5) "Getting Our Hands Dirty: Provisional Politics in Postmodern Conditions" (Allan Luke); (6) "Foucault's Poststructuralism and Observational Education Research: A Study of Power Relations" (Jennifer M. Gore); and (7) "Keeping an Untidy House: A Disjointed Paper About Academic Space, Work and Bodies" (Wendy Morgan and Erica McWilliam). The chapters in part 3, "Identity," include: (8) "Stories In and Out of Class: Knowledge, Identity and Schooling" (Lindsay Fitzclarence, Bill Green, and Chris Bigum); (9) "Corporatism, Self and Identity Within Moral Orders: Prestructuralist Reconsiderations of a Poststructuralist Paradox" (Robert Funnell); and (10) "Voicing the 'Other,' Speaking for the 'Self,' Disrupting the Metanarratives of Educational Theorizing with Poststructural Feminisms" (Parlo Singh). Part 4, entitled "Politics," is comprised of the following three chapters: (11) "Educational Intellectuals and Corporate Politics" (James G. Ladwig); (12) "Academic Work Intensification: Beyond Postmodernism" (Richard Smith and Judyth Sachs); and (13) "Epilogue: From the Inside Out" (Philip Wexler). References accompany each chapter. An index is included. | [FULL TEXT]

Smith, Ronald E. (1995).  Community and Self in First-Year Composition. 

The practice of treating students as valuable contributors to the educational process can be traced back at least as far as Socrates. Unfortunately, the predominate pattern of pedagogy in the United States has been one of exclusion. Those instructors who are part of recent movement to help their students enter the academic discourse face the problem that the academic discourse itself and the community it represents are amorphous. At best, higher education is a loose confederation of field-specific disciplines. A second problem for composition instructors is that field-specific disciplines seem to be more concerned with preserving the status quo than with furthering the educational growth of the individual. These problems can best be addressed through strong writing-across-the-curriculum programs, programs that allow instructors in specific disciplines to help their students gain entry into their chosen disciplines. Another way to help them gain entry is collaborative learning. Thom Hawkins, in describing the peer tutor program at the University of California at Berkeley's writing center, has shown how collaborative learning functions as a means of enculturation by helping students adapt to the writing styles demanded of them. If there are some dangers in collaborative learning--that the collective voice will drown out that of the individual--the gains, being so great, justify the approach. The teacher must lead by example and be open to a multiplicity of voices and ideas. | [FULL TEXT]

Smith, Sara W.; Jucker, Andreas H. (1996).  Foregrounding the Role of Common Ground in Language Learning. 

It is argued that the negotiation of common ground is an important but neglected area of pragmatics and language learning. Samples of first and second language learners' conversations are analyzed to demonstrate the critical role of common ground in language learning, i.e., that (1) the interactions necessary for language learning are dependent on the common ground between the participants, (2) learning to convey and exploit the common ground is a critical part of language learning, and (3) learning much of syntax, lexical choice, and prosody driven by the need to convey assumptions about the common ground. Strategies used in the explicit and implicit negotiation of common ground are identified, and suggestions are made for more systematic research on the development of such strategies in first and second language learning. Finally, the implications of these analyses for second language pedagogy are discussed, including the suggestion that strategies for negotiating common ground be taught explicitly. Contains 41 references. | [FULL TEXT]

Smith, Stephen J. (1998).  Risk and Our Pedagogical Relation to Children: On the Playground and Beyond. SUNY Series, Early Childhood Education: Inquiries and Insights. 

This book uses the playground as a reference point for a phenomenological examination of risk in children's lives and the development of a pedagogy of risk. Chapter 1 defines risk and discusses the use of anecdotes as a methodological device. Chapter 2 examines how considering risk as challenge and adventure leads to questions concerning adults' relationship to children and enabling children to take risks in relative safety. Chapter 3 examines adults' actions with children and the relationality of risk, while chapter 4 focuses on helping children to take risks in relative safety through adult encouragement. Chapter 5 considers direct and indirect social challenges to take risks, distinguishes positive and negative challenges, and examines how the visibility of risk allows the construction of a pedagogy. Chapter 6 maintains that a pedagogy of risk rests upon acknowledging one's own ability to take risks and focuses on how working through apprehensiveness leads to reconciling adults' need to lend security to children's explorations with children's need to test the security of their world. Chapter 7 maintains that a child-oriented language of risk gives a fuller sense of the meaning of young children's physical activity than does the language of skill development, and discusses the importance of attending to the riskiness of children's activity over the course of successive playground encounters. Chapter 8 focuses on implications of the practice of risk and their application to other situations. Chapter 9 makes recommendations for implementing a pedagogical relation sensitive to risk.

Smith, Wilma F., Ed.; Fenstermacher, Gary D., Ed. (1999).  Leadership for Educational Renewal: Developing a Cadre of Leaders. Agenda for Education in Democracy. Volume 1. 

This book examines the history, philosophy, pedagogy, and evolution of the Institute for Educational Inquiry's Leadership Program. It constitutes volume 1 of the Agenda for Education in a Democracy series, a series that offers strategies for pursuing the simultaneous renewal of schools and the education of educators. The Leadership Program provides a forum through which participants can explore educational and social issues, build their own leadership capacities, and advance the agenda in their own settings. The text is divided into four parts. Part 1 explores the background and mission of the agenda. Part 2 discusses how to advance the agenda through the core curriculum, describing how to integrate students into a democracy. It focuses on the place of knowledge in the human conversation, access to knowledge, a public pedagogy of nurture, voicing democracy in an imperfect world, and serving as moral stewards of the schools. Part 3 offers case studies on how to develop leadership. Examples from Hawaii, St. Louis, Nebraska, New Jersey, South Carolina, and Utah illustrate the practice of the program. The last section details lessons in leadership development, showing how the program engenders change. Two appendices list the 19 postulates for educational renewal and the partner schools.

Smith-Maddox, Renee (1998).  Defining Culture as a Dimension of Academic Achievement: Implications for Culturally Responsive Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment.  Journal of Negro Education, 67, 3. 

Reviews literature on the various dimensions of culture to assess the implications for student learning and the development of culturally responsive assessments. Uses data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 to examine the cultural context in which students live as a basis for understanding context effects on academic performance.

Smitherman, Geneva Napoleon; Murray, Denise (1998).  "Dat Teacher Be Hollin at Us"--What Is Ebonics?  TESOL Quarterly, 32, 1. 

Two articles examine Ebonics and its relation to the teaching of English as a Second Language. The first suggests that teachers of English, literacy instructors, and educational policy makers need to take language differences into account. The second suggests that the issues around Ebonics are the issues vital to all language educators--language, power, and pedagogy.

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Smoke, Trudy, Ed. (1998).  Adult ESL: Politics, Pedagogy, and Participation in Classroom and Community Programs. 

The collection of essays on the politics of adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction includes: "The Politics of Adult ESL literacy: Becoming Politically Visible" (Pamela Ferguson); "Learning To Be Legal: Unintended Meanings for Adult Schools" (Pia Moriarty); "The Relationship Between Knowing Our Students' Real Needs and Effective Teaching" (Judy Manton); "Using Journals in Second Language Research and Teaching" (Bonny Norton); "Promoting Gender Equity in the Postsecondary ESL Class" (Stephanie Vandrick); "Critical Multiculturalism as a Means of Promoting Social Activism and Awareness" (Trudy Smoke); "Anorexia: A Feminist EAP Curriculum" (Sarah Benesch); "Literature in the ESL Classroom: Reading, Reflection, and Change" (Kate Mangelsdorf); "Fluency First in the ESL Classroom: An Integrated Approach" (Rebecca Williams Mlynarczyk); "Meeting ESL Students' Academic Needs Through Discipline-Based Instructional Programs" (Loretta Frances Kasper); "Democracy and the ESL Classroom" (Timotha Doane); "The Politics of Pronunciation and the Adult Learner" (Angela Parrino); "The Political Implications of Responses to Second Language Writing" (Carol Severino); "Building on Community Strengths: A Model for Training Literacy Instructors" (Elsa Auerbach, Joanne Arnaud, Carol Chandler, Ana Zambrano); "Language and Authority: Shifting the Privilege" (J. Milton Clark, Carol Peterson Haviland); "An Orphan at the Table: The English Language Fellows Program" (Richard Blakely); "The Creation and Development of a Community-Based English Program: The Riverside Language Program, Inc." (Leslie Robbins); "Cooperative Links Energize New Jersey ESL/Bilingual Professionals" (Jessie M. Reppy, Elaine Coburn); "Electronic Communication, New Technology, and the ESL Student" (Keming Lu); and "Making Connections Through the Internet" (Trudy Smoke). (MSE) (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Literacy Education)

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Snead, Lucy Carpenter (1998).  Professional Development for Middle School Mathematics Teachers to Help them Respond to NCTM Standards.  Journal of Teacher Education, 49, 4. 

Evaluated a professional development program for helping middle school teachers respond to changes resulting from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Curriculum Standards. Surveys indicated that teachers who completed the two graduate courses combining content and pedagogy had a large increase in their understanding of and beliefs in their ability to respond appropriately to the changes.

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Snively, Gloria; Corsiglia, John (1998).  Discovering Indigenous Science: Implications for Science Education. 

This paper explores different aspects of multicultural science and pedagogy and describes a rich and well-documented branch of indigenous science known to biologists and ecologists as traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). Indigenous science relates to both the science knowledge of long-resident, usually oral culture peoples, as well as the science knowledge of all peoples who, as participants in culture, are affected by the worldview and relativist interests of their home communities. Given the urgency of the current environmental crisis, as well as growing worldwide recognition of TEK among scientists, government, and international aid agencies, the paper argues for the inclusion of TEK in school-based science education programs. A lengthy discussion of TEK literature that focuses on documenting numerous examples of time proven, productive, and cost effective indigenous science is also included. Contains 115 references. | [FULL TEXT]

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Snyder, Jo-Ann; And Others (1994).  Beyond Assessment: University/School Collaboration in Portfolio Review and the Challenge to Program Improvement.  Action in Teacher Education, 15, 4. 

This article describes development and implementation of a project that required students to prepare portfolios to demonstrate acceptable levels of professional knowledge and teaching skill. Findings are presented from an inquiry into reviewers' (n=100) and students' (n=230) opinions about portfolio-based assessment.

Snyder, Jon; And Others (1996).  Learning Organizations, Leadership, and Teacher Education: A Self Study of a Self Study in Three Takes. 

This study describes the intellectual evolution resulting from persistent and careful consideration of beliefs and knowledge. Participants were prospective elementary school teachers enrolled in the University of California at Santa Barbara in a fifth-year post baccalaureate program. The study, parts of which began in 1990, sought to reconstruct the methods and procedures courses from separate classes of content specific pedagogy to integrated, integrating, and integrative experiences of teaching and learning within and between traditionally defined disciplines. To help analyze the individual and organizational supports and constraints of the change effort, the group used five disciplines: personal mastery, mental models, shared vision, team learning, and systems thinking. The group worked to understand many concepts, including portfolios, pro-active classroom management, how best to teach students not yet proficient in English, and sequenced and threaded integration and theme, while incorporating science and social studies into a teaching repertoire. Participants considered that they had discovered aspects of their work which they otherwise would not have known existed. | [FULL TEXT]

Snyder, Ken (1999).  Build Your Students' Speaking Power: A Teacher's Manual for the Leaders of Tomorrow Speech Program. 

This manual, appropriate for grades 3-12, is designed to help teachers and other educators who lack experience in public speaking to integrate speech into their students' curriculum. The manual offers teachers the opportunity to learn a simple program for teaching speech in the classroom. It teaches basic public speaking skills, highlighting the following topics: how to control nerves; six keys for presenting an interesting, dynamic speech; how to choose a speech topic; rehearsal techniques; listening skills; and speech evaluation. Each chapter in the manual contains exercises which reinforce the pedagogy. The manual allows teachers in elementary through college classrooms to introduce speech to students is a way that is easy, effective, and non-threatening. Blackline masters are attached. | [FULL TEXT]

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Solar, Claudie (1995).  An Inclusion Pedagogy in Mathematics Education.  Educational Studies in Mathematics, 28, 3. 

Discusses characteristics in feminist pedagogy literature and situates them with respect to four dialectical aspects (passivity/active participation, omission/inclusion, silence/speech, and powerlessness/empowerment). These characteristics are combined with nondiscriminatory classroom practices to develop a frame of reference for inclusive pedagogy in mathematics education. (103 references)

Soliday, Mary (1994).  Translating Self and Difference through Literacy Narratives.  College English, 56, 5. 

Focuses on how various literacy narratives portray passages between language worlds. Considers how such passages are relevant to a writing pedagogy. Stresses the relationship between such literacy passages is useful in basic writing contexts. Analyzes two essays written by one student who portrays such a literacy passage.

Soliday, Mary (1997).  Towards a Consciousness of Language: A Language Pedagogy for Multi-Cultural Classrooms.  Journal of Basic Writing, 16, 2. 

Describes a language pedagogy which can help basic writers to understand language's potential to shape, not just to convey information about, social experience. States that students from diverse backgrounds can then more effectively critique the relationships of language's uses in a variety of social contexts.

Solomon, R. Patrick (1997).  Race, Role Modelling, and Representation in Teacher Education and Teaching.  Canadian Journal of Education, 22, 4. 

The hypothesis that ethnocultural minority teachers bring characteristics and experiences to their teaching that create a positive learning environment was studied by tracking 20 Canadian candidates of color from preadmission to teacher education through graduate study. Findings show the transgenerational commitment to role modeling and representation in these new teachers' pedagogy.

Solorzano, Ronald W. (1998).  Pedagogy Versus Politics.  Teacher Education Quarterly, 25, 4. 

Minority students are negatively affected by the surge of new, unqualified teachers. Teacher education must prepare quality candidates who can succeed in diverse classrooms. They must be empowered with knowledge of educational research and pedagogy and a conviction to advocate on behalf of diverse students, thus balancing the scales of educational policymaking and ensuring a quality, equal education for all.

Soltero, Sonia White (1999).  Collaborative Talk in a Bilingual Kindergarten: A Practitioner Researcher's Co-Construction of Knowledge. 

This year-long study explored the linguistic and cognitive transactions of immigrant language-minority kindergarten students in the social context of classroom collaborative talk in their native language. Collaborative talk transactions were selected from 13 videotaped sessions involving 27 Hispanic kindergarten students, mostly recent arrivals from Mexico, in a Chicago public school. Findings were threefold. First, the collaborative talk transactions, framed within a cognitive and linguistic stance, demonstrated how meanings and new understandings were constructed and restructured; showed how the teacher and students made use of their cultural values, assumptions, attitudes, and experiences to construct new meanings and shared understandings; and revealed how learners engaged in oral literacies in collaboration with the teacher and then began to formulate and test hypotheses without the teacher's mediation. Second, the collaborative discourse situated within an empowerment and voice perspective showed how culturally responsive teaching and learning maximized the use of language-minority students' linguistic, cultural, and cognitive resources; revealed that these learners displayed high motivation and interest when the topics were relevant to their lives; and illustrated how learners made connections between the concepts embedded in discourse and their own experiences and understandings. Finally, the discursive practices reflected the importance of native language use in allowing culturally and linguistic diverse students to express their thinking and understandings in their more competent linguistic system and in the language of their cultural and social worlds. Thirteen appendices present the collaborative talk transactions.   | [FULL TEXT]

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Sommers, Elizabeth (1994).  Women Collaborators: Breaking the Rules and Learning How To Win. 

Changing from a teacher-centered to a student-centered approach and trying to use the principles of critical pedagogy are not enough to teach writing--both male and female students need to go beyond prescribed gender roles and social roles. Some women students in peer response groups act as though they have composed a secret etiquette guide: they tend to give everybody a chance to speak; they express their ideas without interrupting one another; they do not give much elaborated response; and they reach premature closure. Even after students had received careful training and the teacher was removed from the center stage, both male and female students began their work in peer response groups by relying on the communication patterns they have been socialized to use. However, some women students are talkative, involved, and supportive. A case study of one such student indicated that she set the stage for the group, controlled the group process and turn-taking, listened to responses and actively responded to them, and included her real emotional reaction as a legitimate part of the group. Ways in which writing teachers can help all students in response groups include: make subtexts explicit; encourage metalinguistic awareness; put timid women in more supportive groups; work to find creative configurations for male students; and discuss with students the differences between speaking and writing. | [FULL TEXT]

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Sosnoski, James J.; Downing, David B. (1993).  A Multivalent Pedagogy for a Multicultural Time: A Diary of a Course.  Pre-Text: A Journal of Rhetorical Theory, 14, 3-4. 

Presents (in an unconventional, diary-like format) the comments of two writing instructors regarding the first author's attempt to revamp a writing course. Reflects on the current state of theoretical worry about teaching writing in a way that puts the authors in conversation with other writing teachers.

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Sotirou, Peter (1993).  Articulating a Hermeneutic Pedagogy: The Philosophy of Interpretation.  Journal of Advanced Composition, 13, 2. 

Articulates the salient features of a hermeneutic pedagogy as utilized in a composition classroom. Foregrounds the hermeneutical conclusions of Hans-Georg Gadamer as they relate to the teaching of writing.

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Soudien, Crain; Colyn, Wendy (1992).  The Safety of Theory: Working with Educators in a Squatter Community.  Journal of Educational Thought/Revue de la Pensee Educative, 26, 3. 

Examines the difficulties encountered in trying to empower teachers in a squatter community outside of Cape Town, South Africa, through the development of a critical pedagogy. Shows the sedimentation of the dominant class's ideology within the consciousness of oppressed communities.

Southard, Sherry (1993).  Total Quality Management (Team Building and Cross Training): From Business to Academe and Back Again to Business. 

Many of the theories about communicating effectively in corporate structures as well as the accompanying pedagogy do not pertain to changes in corporate structure and communication brought about by Total Quality Management (TQM). TQM creates a work environment in which employees need problem-solving skills and interpersonal skills that allow them to work well as part of a team. Team building enables employees to communicate, and "cross training" is a means of educating employees to provide varying levels of flexibility in the work environment. One way for students to understand teams is to consider the team processes of team charter, team functions, and team improvement. Students working together on classroom projects should use a charter to express in writing their core purpose and secondary purposes. Students need to discuss behavior standards that facilitate effective team functioning. Team improvement is a result of training, education, and development. Including "individual development plans" (a set of goals derived from job task requirements) as part of collaborative projects is a way to make sure that students participate in cross training and thus improve themselves and the functioning of the team. Learning about team building and cross training prepares students for the corporate environments they will encounter upon graduation. (Fifteen references, a list of the criteria for the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality award, a team master profile spider diagram, and a figure illustrating team processes are attached.

Southerland, Sherry A.; Gess-Newsome, Julie (1999).  Preservice Teachers' Views of Inclusive Science Teaching as Shaped by Images of Teaching, Learning, and Knowing.  Science Education, 83, 2. 

Interpretive analysis of preservice teachers' writings and discussions during an elementary-science methods course identified the teachers' positivist views of knowledge, learning, and teaching as prominent tools for guiding understanding of and reaction to ideas of teaching science to diverse student populations. Discusses the impact on teachers' views of pedagogy and makes suggestions for teacher education. Contains 52 references.

Southworth, Geoff (1996).  Improving Primary Schools: Shifting the Emphasis and Clarifying the Focus.  School Organisation, 16, 3. 

Argues that elementary school improvement hinges upon bettering teaching quality by concentrating on pedagogy. This pedagogical emphasis is necessary not because teacher performance is weak, but because teaching demands are great and primary teachers' influence is high. Schools must become learning organizations, or workplaces that promote stronger teacher development. Implementation strategies are discussed. (42 references)

Souza Lima, Elvira (1995).  Culture Revisited: Vygotsky's Ideas in Brazil.  Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 26, 4. 

Examines educational reform and Vygotsky's influence on critical pedagogy in Brazil from two perspectives. One is the historical tradition of accepting multiplicity of learning behaviors, and the other is a close analysis of an environment that espoused the idea of literacy as a cultural production shared by everyone.

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Soven, Margot (1992).  Ethics, the Classics, and the Rhetorical Tradition: Integrating the Curriculum. 

A 2-year seminar (jointly funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Pew Charitable Trusts) explored ways faculty at La Salle University in Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) might integrate the emphasis on self-awareness as well as the historical, political, and ethical insight common in humanities courses with courses in other disciplines. The seminars, held among 15 faculty members, focused on central humanistic texts that would influence the redesigning of curriculum-wide courses. The fall seminar, limited to Arts and Sciences faculty, addressed the core curriculum. The spring seminar, titled "Facing Up to Modernity" included faculty from the School of Business and the School of Nursing and focused on the revision of courses for majors. Seminar discussions modeled the value of blending philosophical, historical, and literary perspectives to understand those ethical conflicts that beset the economic, social, and political conditions of modernity. Faculty were encouraged to consider how themes explored in the seminar related to ethical dilemmas in their own fields. Though the scope of the seminars did not permit extensive discussion of pedagogy, part of the workshop sessions dealt with writing assignments and classroom practices useful for helping students explore ethical issues. Distinguishing dialectic from scientific demonstrative discourse enables the exploration of moral and political issues, as James Kinneavy's, James Berlin's, and Carol Schneider's work on rhetoric indicates. Some faculty revised their courses almost immediately, and representative comments from other faculty show how they transformed their approaches. | [FULL TEXT]

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Spack, Ruth (1997).  The (In)visibility of the Person(al) in Academe.  College English, 59, 1. 

Examines testimonies of teachers to determine how and by whom a teacher/scholar's authority is defined in the teaching of texts of different cultures. Looks at how teachers make themselves invisible and discusses some of the ways in which pedagogy and scholarship demand or allow for this (in)visibility through concealment or disclosure of personal lives.

Spadano, Joseph W. (1996).  Developing Problem Solving Behaviors In Secondary Mathematics Education through Homework. 

This qualitative research investigated the effect of a homework model designed to develop students' problem solving behaviors by advancing their ownership of understanding and responsibility. Students were expected to be active learners by isolating and communicating points of homework confusion. The teachers in this study provided feedback through semi-structured personal conversations, group meetings, memos, journals, and reflective writings. Results suggested that the homework model placed a reasonable share of the work to gain ownership of understanding on the student while developing students' problem solving behaviors, provided an opportunity for the students to act responsibly, increased mathematical communication, decreased the amount of class time spent going over questions on the homework, and provided teachers with a detailed assessment of student needs, without radically altering curriculum or pedagogy. Contains 40 references.  | [FULL TEXT]

Spadano, Joseph W.; Zeidler, Dana L. (1996).  What's the Buzz? Tell Me What's Happening! Developing Ownership of Understanding in Mathematics Education. 

Beneath the banalities of buzzwords lies a syntax of philosophical traditions that have pedagogical impact on how we willingly or unwittingly conduct ourselves as educators. This paper presents an analytic review of two contrasting educational philosophies and their corresponding learning outcomes. Questions will be raised concerning the schism that exists between teacher-centered and student-centered approaches, and their implications to concepts central to education such as accountability, ownership of understanding, and responsibility. Finally an argument is presented of how a rational policy of homework may be able to bring about goals consistent with current reform initiatives, without radically altering curriculum or pedagogy. Contains 30 references. | [FULL TEXT]

Spadano, Joseph W.; Zeidler, Dana L.; Chappell, Michaele F. (1997).  Advancing Ownership of Understanding and Responsibility through Homework in Mathematics Education. 

Philosophical traditions have a pedagogical impact on how educators willingly or unwittingly conduct themselves. This paper presents an analytic review of two contrasting educational philosophies and their corresponding learning outcomes. Questions are raised concerning the schism that exists between teacher-centered and learner-centered educational orientations, and their implications to concepts central to education such as ownership of understanding and responsibility. An argument is presented as to how a rationale policy of homework may be able to bring about goals consistent with current reform initiatives without radically altering curriculum or pedagogy.   | [FULL TEXT]

Spanos, Tony (1992).  Combining Pedagogy and Technology to Improve Composition Skills.  Hispania, 75, 1. 

A Macintosh-based project that uses HyperCard to create computer-assisted lessons for composition classes is described. Ways that students have improved their writing skills are discussed, along with ways that the software has changed teaching techniques.

Sparks, Dennis (1997).  A New Vision for Staff Development.  Principal, 77, 1. 

The vision for teacher and student development portrayed in the recent National Commission on Teaching and America's Future report does not match classroom reality. A school's compelling vision and stretch goals demand professional development that is results-driven, standards-based, school-focused, job-embedded, matched to desired instructional practices, focused on content-specific pedagogy, and built on core ideas and beliefs.

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Spencer, Richard L. (1990).  Soviet Education and Innovations toward Creativity: An Introduction.  Youth Theatre Journal, 5, 1. 

Discusses the "socio-play" philosophy of drama education as practiced in the Soviet Union. Outlines the basic structure of the Soviet educational system. Recounts a Soviet educator's practice of socio-play philosophy.

Spencer, Stephen (1997).  Preconceptions and Misconceptions of Teaching Composition to the Incarcerated. 

The prison college classroom exists in an environment cut off from the outside world, where the debate over the prison classroom's very existence is fueled by public perceptions and media-generated ideas. The violent Lucasville riots in Ohio in 1994 are fresh in the minds of the public, and movies like "Shawshank Redemption" and "Natural Born Killers" distort prison life. Certain family patterns emerge, however, among incarcerated individuals: parental violence, sexual exploitation, abandonment, and lack of love; 19% of prisoners have less than an eighth-grade education, 78% did not graduate from high school. Inmates' academic skills may be lower than students in colleges on the outside. While the students have little academic background, they are often eager and responsive. Dialogic education, in which cooperation, unity, and cultural synthesis lead to critical consciousness, finds rich soil in a prison education system. Paulo Freire's liberatory pedagogy may help to understand incarcerated students. In seeking to liberate students, a composition classroom is a place where students come to see the world of oppression and commit themselves to its transformation. Unfortunately, the public will accept vocational/technical training for the incarcerated, but not liberal arts education. In Ohio and other states, since the elimination of Pell funding for prisoners and the tough-on-crime stance of politicians, many voices continue to insist that college programs in prisons be eliminated altogether. | [FULL TEXT]

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Spigelman, Candace (1998).  Taboo Topics and the Rhetoric of Silence: Discussing "Lives on the Boundary" in a Basic Writing Class.  Journal of Basic Writing, 17, 1. 

Considers rhetorical implications of silence as a contestatory strategy in a basic writing class where Mike Rose's "Lives on the Boundary" was the text. Finds students were reluctant to discuss the issues of power raised in the book, perhaps because of complex cultural and educational conflicts operating in some writing classrooms. Recommends reimagining a sensitized approach to critical pedagogy.

Spillane, James P.; Jennings, Nancy E. (1997).  Aligned Instructional Policy and Ambitious Pedagogy: Exploring Instructional Reform From the Classroom Perspective.  Teachers College Record, 98, 3. 

Paper considers the strategy of using aligned policies to encourage more ambitious instruction for all students from the perspective of elementary classroom teachers charged with implementing such instruction. Nine elementary teachers' responses to their local school district's efforts to press more ambitious ideas about literacy instruction are examined.

Spina, Stephanie Urso (1997).  What's In a Name? An Argument Against "Multicultural" Education. 

It is argued that what is proposed currently as multicultural education is little more than a series of superficial nods to subordinate groups that often celebrate deficits and disguise the legacy of colonialism, and that a pedagogy of critical analysis of the inequities inherent in such a system is more appropriate. A critical, holistic approach to education is seen as offering a powerful challenge to selectively reproduced cultural politics and provides a way to deconstruct domination, distinction, and dualism, and reconstruct schools and society. Multiculturalism, it is proposed, has been diminished by being relegated to a "type" of curriculum, even in higher education. It unwittingly renders the culture of the dominant group invisible while isolating "others" and treating them as undifferentiated masses by focusing on similarities rather than engaging in meaningful dialogue about difference, artificially separating ethnicity from the integrated whole of a person. A critical pedagogy must challenge the assumptions on which the dominant curriculum is based. Critical pedagogy encourages interpretation of different perspectives in their historical, cultural, and political contexts. The educator's role then becomes one of enabling students to develop their own sensibilities and to support those positions by reason. Contains 35 references. | [FULL TEXT]

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Spouse, Jenny (1999).  Peer Narratives of Experience: Their Influence on Knowledge Acquisition in Professional Education. 

Educators concerned with the preparation of adults are aware that students engage in lengthy discussions with their peers. Increasingly, this is encouraged in educational settings through formal pedagogy. However, little is known about its value to adult cognition. In a phenomenological study investigating the professional development of degree course nursing students in the United Kingdom, the importance of informal peer narratives of experience was noted. This paper explores the findings related to that aspect of the longitudinal study using theoretical frameworks borrowed from sociocultural writers concerned primarily with children's cognition. The data indicate that storied experience was a significant factor in promoting professional development. This exemplifies Habermas's theories of practical interest. Three categories of narrated experience were identified. This paper presents the three categories for discussion along with relevant theoretical material. It concludes that informal peer-group activities should be fostered to promote professional development and that further research into this phenomenon is necessary to gain a better understanding of its nature.   | [FULL TEXT]

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Sprague, Jo (1993).  Retrieving the Research Agenda for Communication Education: Asking the Pedagogical Questions That Are "Embarrassments to Theory."  Communication Education, 42, 2. 

Argues that pedagogical research must be retrieved from the margins of the communication discipline. Sketches guidelines for a more theoretically sophisticated and engaging form of discipline-specific pedagogy.

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Spyker, Geert; Malone, John (1993).  Curriculum Reform: Difficulties Experienced by Teachers in Implementing a New Statewide Mathematics Curriculum. 

This paper discusses a study that examined the establishment of a new senior high school mathematics curriculum into schools in the State of Western Australia. Two aspects of change are discussed: (1) the extent to which the reconceptualization of the pedagogical approach to teaching mathematics encouraged in the reform was taken up by teachers, and (2) the effect it had upon the student body. Senior high school mathematics teachers (n=400) completed a questionnaire that dealt with changes in pedagogy, adoption of methodological changes, teacher attitudes and opinions, and teacher actions regarding change. Surveys were also given to 11th- and 12-grade students (n=1,550). Results showed students to be conservating in their views of the changes, but they agreed with their importance. Contains 16 references. | [FULL TEXT]

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Squires, Nancy; Inlander, Robin (1990).  A Freireian-Inspired Video Curriculum for At-Risk High-School Students.  English Journal, 79, 2. 

Describes a video/language arts curriculum for at-risk students, based on Paulo Freire's "education for critical consciousness." Discusses students on a Navajo reservation learned basic literacy skills while drawing on their personal experiences. Shows how Freire's pedagogy of listening, dialogue, and action were incorporated into all stages of the curriculum.

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Sridhar, B. S.; Sridhar, Sandhya (1993).  Rating of Instructional Films in Management.  Journal of Education for Business, 68, 5. 

An instrument for evaluating management instructional films was tested by rating 52 films. The instrument identifies suitability for courses in organizational theory, behavior, and development; management principles; policy; and human resources. It also rates content, organization, pedagogy, and technical quality.

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Stacey, David (1996).  Liberatory Teaching and Radical Stylistics: Gap-Filling, Framing and Inferencing in an Advanced Composition Course. 

This paper discusses the dynamics of Paulo Freire's "true perception" and the importance of language awareness, and even style, to that "interdependence" which makes possible the perception and transformation of reality. Freire calls for a critical intervention to transform reality, and because this intervention simultaneously incorporates subjective and objective experience, it is necessarily an awareness of language. Several concepts from British critical linguistics, "gap filling" and "inferencing," are helpful in understanding and employing liberatory critical interventions in advanced and regular composition classes. In Freire's "Pedagogy of the Oppressed" (1968), the critical intervention is the activity that brings forth consciousness: a subject is born when its object is changed. Critical linguistics, as Lester Faigley (1992) argues, has been better than most perspectives at facilitating an appreciation of an ambiguous, double sense of agency, an interdependence of actor and acted upon. The first step in a modern tradition of stylistic analysis is the perception of a "dominant feature" in the text. In the critical linguistics classroom, the instructor aims to induce an awareness of style by giving students the purposefully vague direction to "identify 'THE' outstanding feature" in an excerpt of their own choosing. Then, the instructor asks the students to find a gap in the text and write a detailed "ghost chapter" to fill it. Finally, inferencing goes beyond gap filling: it examines the zone of "background intuition" that Freire mentions--it calls on the set of assumptions and expectations framed in common sense. | [FULL TEXT]

Stack, Sam (1999).  Elsie Ripley Clapp and the Arthurdale Schools. 

This paper recounts the story of Elsie Ripley Clapp (1879-1964), an associate of John Dewey and well known in progressive education circles, who became extensively involved in rural education in Kentucky and West Virginia. The first part of the paper gives an overview of Clapp's early life in the New York City area, her educational background, her teaching experiences, and her acceptance of the position of principal of the George Rogers Clark Ballard Memorial School in Jefferson, Kentucky. Pointing out that Clapp's work at Ballard and later at Arthurdale (West Virginia) were clear attempts to implement progressive pedagogy in more rural settings and in a more public arena, the paper then considers her intellectual growth while at Columbia University and her authorship of articles that provide insight into her ideas about progressive education and the goal of understanding the interaction of the school and the community. The paper describes her work at the Ballard School from 1929 to 1934. It then discusses her work from 1934 to 1936 at the Arthurdale school that was developed as part of President Franklin Roosevelt's National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 which set up the first federal subsistence program. The paper notes that "this wonderful social and educational experiment in community planning lasted only two years." Elsie Ripley Clapp's linking of school and community with self realization and democracy shows that there is a need for serious dialogue on the purpose of education in U.S. society. Includes 85 notes. | [FULL TEXT]

Stahl, Norman A.; And Others (1991).  How College Learning Specialists Can Help College Students. ERIC Digest. 

This digest discusses some of the ways basic skills instructors can help students become real learners. The digest argues that the "learning specialist" (a term preferable to "remedial/developmental" reading specialist) should operate from a philosophical perspective stressing strategic approaches to reading-to-learn as driven by the cognitive sciences and recent research in reading pedagogy rather than from a deficit model drawn form the diagnostic-compensatory movement. The digest discusses: (1) implementing a course simulation model; (2) using undergraduate teaching assistants; (3) using high utility strategies for immediate acceptance; (4) promoting students' planning skills; (5) reconceptualizing vocabulary development; (6) training students to use strategies; and (7) using writing to develop reading comprehension and critical thinking. | [FULL TEXT]

Stanford, Grace C. (1998).  African-American Teachers' Knowledge of Teaching: Understanding the Influence of Their Remembered Teachers.  Urban Review, 30, 3. 

Examines the roles of former or remembered teachers in shaping the beliefs and practices of 11 African-American teachers in urban schools. Both the remembered teachers and those in this study used their pedagogy to enable students to achieve in spite of their disadvantages.

Stanford, Grace Cureton (1997).  Successful Pedagogy in Urban Schools: Perspectives of Four African American Teachers.  Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk (JESPAR), 2, 2. 

Portrays the beliefs and practices of four successful African American teachers in the context of existing research. The persistence of common themes across numerous studies suggests that African American pedagogy is not idiosyncratic. This interpretive study provides a way to recognize and understand such pedagogy.

Stanley, Sarah J. (1990).  Videotaped-Based Teacher Tests: Bells, Whistles or Bona Fide Assessment? 

The rationale for and nature of the videotaped portion of the pedagogy test of the Content Mastery Examinations for Educators (CMEE) available in fall 1990 are evaluated. The videotape subtest described is expansive and time consuming, but appears to be effective and acceptable for its target audience of beginning teachers. Each form of the CMEE pedagogy test begins with approximately 15 videotape-based test items. Following the videotape portion of the test, examinees are administered approximately 120 multiple-choice, paper-and-pencil items. Live-action and scripted-staged approaches to video production are used in developing the tapes. Test items deal with central pedagogical concepts that are represented in the videotaped scenes. Test development staff have experimented with the use of selected-response and constructed-response items and chose the former for the CMEE pedagogy subtest. Kindergarten through grade 12 are represented in the videotape episodes. The subtest requires not only that examinees have a good working knowledge of pedagogical principles, but also be able to observe and identify the application or misapplication of those principles as they occur during classroom instruction. The tests can be tailored to meet specific state requirements.

Stanley, Timothy (1998).  The Struggle for History: Historical Narratives and Anti-racist Pedagogy.  Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 19, 1. 

"Grand" historical narratives of nationalism or colonialism exclude histories of Aboriginal and other non-European peoples, thereby shaping unconscious racist views. Multicultural and antiracist pedagogies must explore such narratives to escape their categorizations. Newspaper reports of a racial incident in an Ottawa school and judicial denial of Native land claims illuminate persistent effects of such narratives. Contains 49 references.

Stark, Sheila (1991).  Toward an Understanding of the Beginning-Teacher Experience: Curricular Insights for Teacher Education.  Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 6, 4. 

Discusses one teacher's phenomenological journey toward understanding of the beginning teacher experience, focusing on possibilities for being and the importance of pedagogic caring demonstrated by two novice teachers, Jane and Kim. Views pedagogy as a way of observing, listening, and relating to children, not as a learnable technique or action. (30 references)

Starkey, David, Ed.; And Others (1995).  Creative Writing as a Teaching Tool.  [Carolina English Teacher] 

Offering the notion of writing pedagogy as a "bazaar with many booths," this collection of articles on teaching creative writing is focused on applicability to all levels of instruction. The 10 articles, after a Foreword by the editor, are, as follows: "Before Writing: Remember What Makes Writing Easy" (Donald M. Murray); "Creative Writing Portfolios in Literature Classes" (William M. Ramsey); "Countee Cullen: How Teaching Rewrites the Writer" (Hans Ostrom); "Bio Bodies" (Jean Siewicki); "Responding to Creative Writing: Students-as-Teachers and the Executive Summary" (Wendy Bishop); "'What's the Use of Stories That Aren't True?' A Composition Teacher Reads Creative Writing" (Kate Ronald); "Writing's in the Bag" (Sheryl Lain); "The Dramatic Climax and 'The Right Way to Write a Play'" (Jon Tuttle); "Invention in the Poetry Writing Class: Adventures in Speech Genres" (Patrick Bizzaro); and "Myths and Little Miracles: Advice to Beginning Creative Writing Students" (Alice G. Brand). | [FULL TEXT]

Stasny, Peter (1999).  Bauhaus Pedagogy in Exile: Ludwig Hirschfeld-Mack and Art Education. 

The educational side of art education seems to be experiencing a revival with respect to the socio-political, environmental, and economic problems and disasters of a multinational and multicultural society today. A concept such as education through art seems to be worth reassessment. In that context, this paper considers Ludwig Hirschfeld-Mack (1893-1985), an art educator who was a member of the Bauhaus and a protagonist of its ideas on changing society via art and design, and who, as a refugee from Nazi Germany in Australia during the 1940s and 50s, contributed to changes in art education. The paper discusses the New Education Fellowship conferences of the late 1930s. Hirschfeld-Mack's conference paper, "Creative Activity and the Study of Materials," was especially important from the perspective of the pedagogical principles developed at the Bauhaus. In the strict sense, the term "Bauhaus" pedagogy stands for a number of theoretical and methodical approaches taught by "master painters" like Klee, Kandinsky, and Moholy-Nagy within the framework of their design theories. This paper discusses Hirschfeld-Mack's application of these principles in Australia and provides background on his own education in Germany. It finds that, although criticized in the context of secondary art education in the 1960s and 70s because of its dogmatic use of elementary forms and general "rules" of design, Bauhaus pedagogy at the end of the 1980s was reassessed regarding its potential addressed through elementary material studies and its holistic approach to design. Contains 31 notes. | [FULL TEXT]

Stasz, Cathleen; Stern, David (1998).  Work-Based Learning for Students in High Schools and Community Colleges.  [Centerpoint] 

Work-based learning (WBL) differs from work experiences gained in regular youth jobs because WBL is intentionally structured to promote learning by linking work with school. Five main purposes of WBL have been identified: enhancing students' motivation and academic achievement; increasing personal and social competence related to work in general; fostering a broad understanding of an occupation or industry; providing career exploration and planning; and imparting knowledge or skills related to employment in particular occupations or more generic work competencies. The key structural dimensions for delivering WBL are as follows: location (on campus or off); supervision (teachers or employers); time (during or after school hours); compensation (pay or school credit); and participation (individually or in groups). A recent study of students' WBL experiences outlined three aspects of the workplace learning environment that should be considered when assessing the quality of teaching and learning at work: types of tasks students perform and the social context in which those tasks are established, accomplished, and processed; influence of the community of practice (how it teaches students what they need to know and how it defines the student's role); and worksite pedagogy (the training philosophy and practices for promoting learning at work). | [FULL TEXT]

Stasz, Cathy; Grubb, W. Norton (1991).  Integrating Academic and Vocational Education: Guidelines for Assessing a Fuzzy Reform. 

The 1990 amendments to the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act of 1984 require the National Assessment of Vocational Education (NAVE) to evaluate integration of academic and vocational education. NAVE's study has three integration goals: (1) to examine the themes and research issues; (2) to identify data and data gaps; and (3) to address evaluation problems. Integration appears to raise enrollments in vocational education. Eight models have been identified, each with several variants. Integrated courses provide problem-solving, teamwork, communication, generic, and basic skills. Integration can change either a vocational or academic program. Research suggests that three elements are involved: vertical or horizontal alignment; pedagogy; and organizational structure. The integration movement has caught the interest of policymakers, educators, and academicians because they must articulate plans for integration in order to receive funds. Researchers will study secondary and postsecondary integration issues by using case studies and surveys to identify themes and supply data. Timing, consequences, and outcomes must be considered before determining the course of action. (One table and 14 references are included.) | [FULL TEXT]

Stasz, Clarice Stoll (1995).  The Early Days of "Simulation & Games": A Personal Reflection.  Simulation & Gaming, 26, 4. 

Describes the origination of the journal, "Simulation & Games" as an outgrowth of the Academic Games Project at Johns Hopkins University in the late 1960s. The Project developed simulation games, pretested them, performed teacher training, and compared the effects with traditional pedagogy. Discusses the planning and implementation of the journal, as well as its interdisciplinary focus.

Staver, John R. (1998).  Constructivism: Sound Theory for Explicating the Practice of Science and Science Teaching.  Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35, 5. 

Supports the assertion that constructivism is a sound theory that explains the practice of science and science pedagogy, and responds to critics of constructivism. Offers a constructivist account of some long-standing epistemological issues. Contains 40 references.

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(1998).  STEM--Six through Eight Mathematics.  Illinois Mathematics Teacher, 49, 1. 

Provides information about the "STEM" (Six Through Eight Mathematics) textbook. Describes its content, pedagogy, assessment techniques, and features an example lesson plan.

_____. (1994).  [Steps to Starting a Summerbridge Program.] 

A Summerbridge program is a comprehensive 2- to 3-year academic program with intensive summer and school-year sessions, year-round counseling, and family advocacy and is followed by continued support through high school. The tuition-free program targets talented students with limited educational opportunities who are taught by a faculty composed entirely of high school students and college undergraduates. The main goal is to prepare younger students to succeed in high school and to provide essential service opportunities and the experience of teaching for high school and college students. Each Summerbridge program reflects the ethnic and economic diversity of the community it serves. With a generally defined pedagogy and substantive support by talented educators, Summerbridge turns over responsibility for teaching, curriculum development, counseling, advising, and administration to its young faculty. Programs are located at independent and public schools and serve children in the middle school years, depending on the site. The history of the Summerbridge program is traced, and steps to building a program are outlined from preplanning through the decision to start. A roster of 28 current Summerbridge programs is attached. | [FULL TEXT]

Stearns, Peter (1991).  Linking Humanities Research and Teaching.  Liberal Education, 77, 3. 

Developments in humanities scholarship are moving in surprisingly congruent directions. Far from competing with proper attention to pedagogy, they provide solid bases for curricular coherence and teaching effectiveness. New integrative themes crossing disciplinary lines in humanities, focusing here on history, can help fulfill several humanities goals in a novel framework.

Steele, Tom; Taylor, Richard (1995).  Learning Independence. A Political Outline of Indian Adult Education. 

This book is a political analysis of the role of adult education as an agency of cultural and ideological significance in India from the turbulent period in the 1940s onward. The introduction examines the roots of education in India, the English studies courses that developed when India was a British colony, and continuation of colonial educational policy after India's independence. Chapter 1 surveys the history of British educational involvement in India's educational system from the missionary clause of 1678 through Independence in 1947. Chapter 2 focuses on Gandhi's educational ideas and his basic education policy. The ideology of Nehru and the Congress Party and its application to education are explained in chapter 3. Chapter 4 surveys the various educational strategies of postcolonial India under the Five Year Plans and considers the policy of social education in relation to "nation building." The nonformal revolution in education in the 1970s and the National Adult Education Policy of the late 1970s and 1980s are outlined in chapter 5, and the subsequent radical populist approaches to adult education are traced in chapter 6. Chapter 7 traces movement toward a transformative pedagogy within the context of Nehru's pragmatism, Gandhi's romanticism, and the tradition of British liberal adult education. Contains 153 references.

Steen, Lynn Arthur (1997).  Equalizing Expectations, Achieving Equity. 

This paper proposes that equity--including gender equity--is an integral part of the agenda of the mathematics standards, and the standards provide an important means of achieving equity. Conventional wisdom on the subject is elaborated upon and professional analysis on equal education in mathematics is provided. Issues in learning and teaching are also pointed out, especially cooperative learning. This paper concludes with the idea that if politicians and education leaders accept the challenge of rigorous standards for all children, if parents expect as much in mathematics from their daughters as from their sons, and if teachers diversify their pedagogy to better match instruction with each student's approach to learning, then perhaps the cycle of lowered expectations can be broken. The prescription for achieving equity is to marshal consistent support for equal expectations. | [FULL TEXT]

Steffe, Leslie P.; D'Ambrosio, Beatriz S. (1995).  Toward a Working Model of Constructivist Teaching: A Reaction to Simon.  Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 26, 2. 

Discusses constructivist teaching, students' mathematical knowledge, activating prior knowledge, hypothetical learning trajectory, and reflection in teaching mathematics, all in reaction to Simon's model of constructivist pedagogy. (24 references)

Steiger, Arlene; Davis, Fran (1992).  Feminist Pedagogy and the Teaching of Science: An Experiential Workshop. 

While women's representation in math and the physical sciences has improved over the past decade, it will be 20 years before women achieve equal representation at the bachelor's level in these fields. In a series of interviews conducted with students in college-level science programs in Montreal (Canada) community colleges, the majority of female students saw science education as a way of keeping their options open and did not appear committed to a life in the sciences. Despite the higher drop rate for women in science programs, there are no significant differences in achievement levels between men and women. In an effort to alter the attitudes which might influence women's persistence in the sciences, a project was undertaken to develop and implement a feminist pedagogical practice more conducive to women's learning. A teacher workshop was conducted to afford participants the opportunity to consider the significance of gender differences in the teaching of science at the college level, and to experience first hand a number of feminist pedagogical strategies. One important behavior encouraged of teachers was the practice of self-disclosure, by which teachers reveal themselves as people to their students and thereby make personal experiences pedagogically relevant. Another strategy emphasized in the workshop was the integration of informal writing in the science classes as a means of providing female students with access to the teacher, a place in the learning discourse, and an opportunity to develop confidence. A third strategy involved the establishment of permanent peer support partnerships of the student's own choice for work and study inside and outside the classroom. Such partnerships can encourage female discourse and disclosure with peers. Preliminary findings from a study of community college physics classrooms taught by teachers who completed the workshops on feminist pedagogical strategies revealed a consistent pattern of reduced anxiety, improved relationships between students and teachers, and increased enjoyment of the subject among both men and women. | [FULL TEXT]

Stein, Nan (1993).  Secrets in Full View: Sexual Harassment in Our K-12 Schools. 

Sexual harassment can range from touching, tickling, pinching, patting, or grabbing; to comments about one's body; to sexual remarks, innuendoes, and jokes that cause discomfort; to obscene gestures, staring, or leering; to assault and rape. This paper addresses student testimonies of harassment, provides a profile of harassment behaviors, and offers solutions to the problem. To lessen sexual harassment in schools, teachers and administrators must transform the broader school culture. Dealing effectively with sexual harassment requires schools to infuse both a spirit of equity and a critique of injustice into their curriculums and pedagogy. Harassment flourishes where children are practiced in the art of doing nothing in the face of unjust treatment by others. If youngsters have not been encouraged to critique the sexism of the curriculum, hidden and overt, then they are less likely to recognize sexism when it confronts them on a daily basis. Students need to be involved in decisions about school policy, environment, and curriculum. Only in conjunction with efforts to reduce other practices that promote and institutionalize inequalities in schools, such as tracking, standardized testing, biased curricula, and classroom practices and pedagogies, will U.S. schools become safe and conducive learning environments for all students. | [FULL TEXT]

Steinberg, Shirley R., Ed.; Kincheloe, Joe L., Ed. (1998).  Kinderculture: The Corporate Construction of Childhood. The Edge: Critical Studies in Educational Theory. 

Changing economic realities, coupled with children's access to information about the adult world, have drastically changed the social construction of childhood. Noting that education takes place in a variety of social sites including but not limited to school, this book examines the influence of commercial concerns on this cultural pedagogy and its deleterious impact on children. The book highlights the tension between commerce and democracy, and examines how media have reshaped childhood identity, advocating a reconceptualization of childhood education to counterbalance this corporate influence. Following an introduction, the book's chapters are as follows: (1) "Home Alone and 'Bad to the Bone': The Advent of Postmodern Childhood" (Joe L. Kincheloe); (2) "Are Disney Movies Good for Your Kids?" (Henry A. Giroux); (3) "From 'Sesame Street' to 'Barney and Friends': Television as Teacher" (Eleanor Blair Hilty); (4) "'Beavis and Butt-Head': No Future for Postmodern Youth" (Douglas Kellner); (5) "Video Games and the Emergence of Interactive Media for Children" (Eugene F. Provenszo, Jr.); (6) "'Mighty Morphin Power Rangers': The Aesthetics of Phallo-Militaristic Justice" (Peter McLaren and Janet Morris); (7) "'Mom, It's Not Real!' Children Constructing Childhood through Reading Horror Fiction" (Linda K. Christian-Smith and Jean I. Erdman); (8) "Reading Children's Magazines: Kinderculture and Popular Culture" (Alan A. Block); (9) "Professional Wrestling and Youth Culture: Teasing, Taunting, and the Containment of Civility" (Aaron David Gresson III); (10) "Dealing from the Bottom of the Deck: The Business of Trading Cards, Past to Present" (Murry R. Nelson and Shirley R. Steinberg); (11) "The Bitch Who Has Everything," examining the culture of the Barbie doll (Shirley R. Steinberg); (12) "Multiculturalism and the American Dream" (Jeanne Brady); (13) "Anything You Want: Women and Children in Popular Culture" (Jan Jipson and Ursi Reynolds); and (14) "McDonald's, Power, and Children: Ronald McDonald (aka Ray Kroc) Does It All for You" (Joe L. Kincheloe). (Each chapter contains references.)

Stenson, Nancy J.; Janus, Louis E.; Mulkern, Ann E. (1998).  Report of the Less Commonly Taught Languages Summit (Minneapolis, Minnesota, September 20-21, 1996). 

The report summarizes the proceedings of a conference on less commonly taught languages (LCTLs). An introductory chapter describes the origins and organization of the conference, and notes the sponsoring organizations, languages represented by participants, institutions represented, and professional associations to which participants belonged. Three subsequent chapters summarize the plenary talks and small group discussions of the three conference sessions. Topics include: promoting and protecting the LCTLs (student concerns, teacher concerns, enrollments, institutional cooperation, marketing LCTLs, curricular issues); pedagogy and materials (teacher training and professional development options, teacher cooperation and communication, analysis of a survey of participants, availability of pedagogical materials); and delivery systems (governance, technology). Appended materials include the conference announcement and application, the text of the survey of participants, and a list of participants. | [FULL TEXT]

Stepanek, Jennifer (1997).  Science and Mathematics Standards in the Classroom: It's Just Good Teaching. 

Mathematics and science standards were created in response to concern throughout the United States about the performance of students in these areas and the demands of an increasingly scientific and technological world. Educators and community leaders recognize that students will need more mathematical and scientific knowledge both in their jobs and in their every day lives. The standards reflect current thinking about how students learn, emphasizing practices that allow students to construct their own knowledge and take an active role in the learning process. The national standards for mathematics and science provide clear goals for students and teachers, outlining what students should know and be able to do. The teaching strategies called for in the standards are closely tied to those of authentic pedagogy which include instructional activities that involve active learning. This publication summarizes the vision and rationale presented in the national standards documents and current literature on the topic. Strategies and resources for implementing a standards-based teaching approach are the main focus of this report. Sections include: "The Purpose of Standards"; "National Mathematics Standards"; "National Science Standards"; "Mathematics Teaching Standards"; "Science Teaching Standards"; "Implementing the Standards" and "Professional Development". Ten resources, 8 support organizations, and 17 on-line resources are listed. Contains 41 references. | [FULL TEXT]

Stephenson, Carolyn M. (1991).  Peace Studies, the Gulf War, and Peace.  Journal of Urban and Cultural Studies, 2, 1. 

Peace studies, as an academic discipline, dates back to the 1950s, when the field was characterized primarily by research. The 1970s brought a focus on undergraduate education. In the 1980s, a third wave brought the field into a prominence that allows it to challenge the Gulf War.

Stephenson, Chris (1990).  Changing Trends in High School Programming.  Computer Science Education, 5, 2. 

A survey of over 700 Ontario secondary schools was conducted in 1987 and again in 1989 to determine the current status of computer programing pedagogy. Presents an overview of the computer education curriculum for grades 10-12 and results related to hardware utilization, choice of programing languages, availability of teacher and student resources, and computing teacher characteristics.

Sterling, Shirley (1992).  Quaslametko and Yetko: Two Grandmother Models for Contemporary Native Education Pedagogy.  Canadian Journal of Native Education, 19, 2. 

Stories handed down about the author's two Salish great grandmothers illustrate two different styles of child-adult interaction and their effects on the learning process. These child-rearing/teaching styles are compared to monitorial and humanistic methods of classroom management. Implications for Native education are discussed.

Stevens, Floraline I. (1997).  Opportunity To Learn Science: Connecting Research Knowledge to Classroom Practices. Publication Series No. 6. 

Four variables have been identified by research as having a powerful influence on teachers' teaching practices and student learning. These are: (1) content coverage; (2) content exposure; (3) content emphasis; and (4) quality of instructional delivery. These four variables are important to the investigation of students' opportunity to learn science in U.S. classrooms. Current instructional practices systematically place certain groups of students at a disadvantage, and the goal of scientific literacy for all students cannot be met. Two models of learning, cooperative learning and constructivism, have been effective in helping poor and minority students to achieve. While there is an abundance of information about improving students' opportunity to learn, there is still a disconnection between research knowledge on improving academic achievement through addressing opportunity to learn and the implementation of knowledge in classrooms. Connecting this knowledge and practice is enhanced by the realization that teacher education makes a difference in producing the environment conducive for learning. In addition, teacher collaboration brings support for teachers to try new approaches. Teachers who are working in communities of professionals sustain change in classrooms. It is also apparent that teaching and learning must include teachers who are learning. Teacher learning begins with preservice teacher education, which must include courses in cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, learning theory and pedagogy, and professional ethics. Teacher inservice education is also important. Educators must use the information provided by educational research. Science standards are important to the process of science education reform, but these standards must encompass expectations for teachers to upgrade their content knowledge and teaching skills through preservice and inservice education. | [FULL TEXT]

Stevens, Ken (1999).  Two Canadian Approaches to Teaching Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics to Senior High School Students in Virtual Classes. 

The successful integration of information technologies in the teaching of biology and other sciences is in part dependent on the transition from closed to open teaching and learning environments. This paper outlines the transition from a closed model of schooling in rural Newfoundland and Labrador to the beginnings of an open model. Seniors in a rural Newfoundland high school participated in a study evaluating the use of Internet resources to enhance biology education. Three biology topics were taught using three different methods of instruction: traditional, in which students were taught face to face by the teacher from the textbook; cooperative, in which students worked together using text and Internet sources selected by the teacher; and Internet, in which students worked individually and used Internet sources. Results indicate that Internet resources have the potential to enhance student learning. This approach is referred to as a "closed" model, because the school is autonomous and has its own students, teachers, and community. The installation of a digital intranet linking nine schools in the Vista school district (Newfoundland) created an "open" model of education in that classes in different schools share teaching, learning, and resources. This open model is grounded in the application of information technology and the construction of virtual classes. Factors to consider in developing a pedagogy appropriate for the open model are discussed. | [FULL TEXT]

Stevenson, Chris (1992).  Teaching Ten to Fourteen Year Olds. 

This book provides anecdotes and teaching materials for middle school teacher preparation and serves as a reference and resource for practicing teachers. The publication explains the philosophy and goals of the middle school education movement and provides many practical methods and strategies for implementing developmentally appropriate education and for helping young adolescents successfully negotiate the transition from childhood to adolescence. The text is divided into three parts: Part 1, The Study of Young Adolescents; Part 2, Curriculum and Pedagogy for the Middle Level; and Part 3, The Teacher in a Middle School Organization. Part 1 focuses on the theoretical context of adolescent education, the shadowing and inquiry techniques, and selected data concerning young adolescents. Part 2 discusses curriculum and pedagogy for the middle level students, focusing on conceptualizing, organizing, presenting, and assessing the effectiveness of schooling that will complement the developmental conditions of young adolescents. Part 3 examines the roles and functions of middle school teachers that define their work in ways that contrast with the subject matter priorities of a traditional junior high school. References are included at the end of each chapter.

Stevenson, John O. (1991).  Tales of Risk, of Deliverance, and the Redemption of Learning.  Urban Education, 26, 1. 

A teacher with 20 years' experience in teaching at-risk students relates encounters with individuals in New York City high schools and community colleges. He recommends a holistic approach in teaching, involving encouragement, collaboration, and orality, with a lesser emphasis on subject mastery.

Stevenson, Robert B. (1997).  Developing Habits of Environmental Thoughtfulness through the In-Depth Study of Select Environmental Issues.  Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, 2

Offers a rationale for an in-depth and authentic study of a few environmental issues. Examines the problems and possibilities of constructing curriculum and pedagogy with such a focus by describing the beliefs and practices of teachers who have emphasized in-depth study as a means to promote student thoughtfulness. Contains 35 references.

Stewart, Penny (1993).  Cross-Curricular Grading: H. P. Grice's Principle in Every Teacher's Repertoire. 

Teachers often act more like artists, in the sense that they tend to jump back and forth between new trends in pedagogy and theory. Meanwhile, the public, concerned that student evaluation as manifested in grading procedures rests on shaky ground, are losing faith in the credibility of their children's teachers. One way for teachers of all subjects to establish credibility in student evaluation is to rest grading practice on the "Cooperative Principle" theory of H. P. Grice. Grice lists four maxims for his principle as it relates to conversation: quantity, quality, relation and manner. Grice's analysis of speech and ordinary conversation can be easily adapted for use in grading student's written assignments. The maxims are internally recognized by members of a culture as essential to successful communication, and writing can be clearly judged and critiqued according to Grice's model. Early in a semester, the teacher should introduce the students to Grice's concepts, so that they begin by knowing how their writing will be evaluated. These principles can also be easily transposed across the curriculum into other academic fields. In short, teachers concerned with writing can easily utilize Grice's model as a means of exploiting what they already know and internally understand about everyday conversation. | [FULL TEXT]

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Stibbs, Andrew (1993).  The Teacherly Practice of Literary Theory.  English in Education, 27, 2. 

Discusses ways in which literary theory supports and encourages innovative ways of looking at texts. Indicates evidence of cross-fertilization between theory and pedagogy. Argues that this should be fostered and encouraged. Provides numerous examples of how theory informs instruction constructively.

Stickel, George W., Ed.; Owen, David B., Ed. (1995).  Proceedings of the Midwest Philosophy of Education Society, 1993-1994. 

These proceedings are composed of papers presented at the 1993 and 1994 Annual Meetings of the Midwest Philosophy of Education Society. The collection is divided into four parts. Part 1 includes: "Failure, Philosophy of Education, and the Music of the Spheres" (David B. Owen); "What Has Philosophy of Education Come To?" (Lawrence J. Dennis). Part 2 covers the 1993 meeting and includes: "Hegel's Influence on the Social and Educational Thought of John Dewey" (Marianne S. Glazek); "How the Concept of Transaction Redefines Subjectivity within Dewey's Theory of Knowledge" (Jeanne Connell); "Why American College of Education Do Not Produce Master Teachers" (Don G. Smith); "Is There a Correlation Between Philosophic World-Views and Social Theories" (Robert N. Barger); "Pragmatics and Identifying Disciplines" (Thomas Kowall); "William James on his 'Talks to Teachers' and on Teachers Themselves" (Harry J. Farnon); "The John Dewey Publications" (Jo Ann Boydston); "Vices and Virtues: A Common Place Between Freud and Aristotle" (Joseph Yacoub); "Biographical Ethics..." (Robert Craig); "Children Dying with Dignity: Another Remembrance of Janusz Korczak" (Ronald Swartz); "Deja vu All Over Again a la Dewey" (James R. Biddle); "Experience as Improvisation" (R. Keith Sawyer); "Peter McLaren and Critical Pedagogy" (Martin McKeown); "Corinne Aldine Seeds: Parallels with John Dewey and Rudolf Steiner" (Nancy Helen Goldsmith Rose); "Moral Character and Moral Conduct..." (Ronald Lee Zigler); and four papers on the theme 'Popular Film as Educational Ideology': "A Framework for Critical Analysis" (Michael J. Oliker); "Cinematic Muse, Where do you Lead?" (Matthew E. Creighton); "'The Blackboard Jungle'" (Gene D. Phillips); "Public Ambivalence Toward Teachers as Reflected in American Film" (Don G. Smith). Part 3 covers the 1994 meeting and includes: "Philosophy of Education in the Post-Analytic Period" (Jerome Popp); "Physiological Basis for the Pragmatic Process of Learning" (George W. Stickel); "African-American Philosophy of Education" (Charlesetta M. Ellis); "Agapism Applied" (Mala Preast); "Using the Visual Arts as a Formal Pedagogic Tool..." (Thomas A. Lifvendahl; Debbie Smith-Shank); "Using Semiotic Reasoning in Empirical Research..." (Gary Shank); "Peace Education: A Modern Educational Reform" (Ian M. Harris); "Roman Catholic Values Statements Affecting American Catholic Education" (Michael T. Risku); "The Educational Theory of Thomas Merton" (Robert P. Craig); "Creativity: Are We Doing Enough?" (David B. Annis); "The Place of Neutrality in the Confident School" (Jon Fennell); "Dewey's Theory of Experience at the Heart of Literature" (Sonja Darlington); "Review of 'The Collected Works of John Dewey'" (Philip L. Smith). | [FULL TEXT]

Stickney-Taylor, Linda L.; Sasse, Edward B. (1990).  An Analysis of Educational Orientation and Perceived Teaching Style.  Continuing Higher Education Review, 54, 2. 

A sample of 1,060 adult community college students and 72 adult instructors completed educational orientation questionnaires. No significant differences between teachers and students were found in terms of orientation to the constructs of andragogy and pedagogy. Age, sex, and program type did not influence student orientation, whereas academic preparation, gender, and teaching experience did influence teacher orientation.

Stieve, Edwin (1993).  Breaking Down Gender Barriers: Theories into Practice. 

Breaking down gender barriers in composition and literature classrooms suggests that teachers rethink the forms of writing they demand of their students (e.g., argumentation and exposition) and that they encourage a wide range of approaches which account for gender-specific modes of writing and interpreting texts. Various writing assignments such as autobiography or business narratives can help students understand "ways of knowing" outside the often patriarchal hierarchy of corporations. Women's ways of knowing have not only helped expand the canon, they have helped to expand thinking about pedagogy, writing assignments, and about the roles of students and instructors themselves inside and outside the writing classroom. (A 35-item select bibliography is attached.)

Stiffarm, Lenore A., Ed. (1998).  As We See...Aboriginal Pedagogy. 

For many years, Aboriginal knowledge was invalidated by Western ways of knowing. This collection of papers discusses ways of teaching, ways of knowing, and ways of being that have sustained Aboriginal people for over 500 years. The papers are: "Spirit Writing: Writing Circles as Healing Pedagogy" (Lenore A. Stiffarm); "Pedagogy from the Ethos: An Interview with Elder Ermine on Language" (Willie Ermine); "Plants and Medicines: An Aboriginal Way of Teaching" (Bente Huntley); "Modelling: An Aboriginal Approach" (Ida Swan); "Aboriginal Pedagogy: The Sacred Circle Concept" (Angelina Weenie); "Traditional Parenting" (Jane Harp); "A Piece of the Pie: The Inclusion of Aboriginal Pedagogy into the Structures of Public Education" (Wally Isbister); "An Analysis of Western, Feminist, and Aboriginal Science Using the Medicine Wheel of the Plains Indians" (Lillian E. Dyck); and "Aboriginal Pedagogy: Storytelling" (MaryAnne Lanigan).

Stilwell, Rosalee (1996).  Developing a Pedagogy of Contraries. 

In 1990, Patricia Bizzell suggested that, in the next rhetorical turn of composition research, scholars might begin to find an alternative to the current anti-foundation "smirk of skepticism" that teacher-researchers can agree upon. Bizzell points to the student's need for "usable truths" from a trustworthy authority. But what constitutes a "usable truth" in the composition classroom? One such concept could be developed from the "epistemology of contradiction" that Peter Elbow has been advocating for the past 25 years. In this epistemology, the aim is to teach and keep what D. H. Lawrence called the "trembling instability of the balance" in writing pedagogy. This kind of collaboration among conflicting views creates what Elbow calls the "large-minded dialectic" that seeks to move from rhetorical warfare to rhetorical cooperation. As Elbow points out, holding on to oppositions or "embracing contraries" is hard work. It is easier to do one thing or the other, to believe or to doubt. Bizzell, in her critique of James Berlin's experimental writing class at Purdue University, shows that an open and large-minded dialectic or an embracing of contraries is more effective with students than indirect scripting and false pretenses. The exploration of contraries, finally, has a place in expressivist pedagogies because contraries must be embraced by the individual; it has not been that long since women and minorities, as individuals, did not have a voice at all. | [FULL TEXT]

Stimpfl, Joseph; And Others (1997).  A Garden in the Motherland: A Study of a Preschool in China.  Early Child Development and Care, 129

Looks at the daily activities of one preschool in southern China. Reviews the attitudes of educators and parents, and the application of social theory to curriculum and pedagogy in the Chinese preschool. Places special emphasis on the words and ideas of the teachers and administrators in reference to the policies created by the government.

Stine, Linda (1990).  Computing across the Curriculum: New Friends for WAC.  Writing Notebook: Creative Word Processing in the Classroom, 7, 4. 

Notes that proponents of writing across the curriculum may find a partner in the proliferation of computers on campuses. Points out that discussions about how to teach effectively with computers provide a new incentive and focal point, reinforcing the principles of sound writing pedagogy.

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Stoecker, Randy; And Others (1993).  Integrating Writing and the Teaching Assistant to Enhance Critical Pedagogy.  Teaching Sociology, 21, 4. 

Proposes a learning model that includes components of critical thinking and social critique in writing assignments. Reports on results of an experimental course designed to use graduate student teaching assistants to improve students' critical thinking and writing skills. Describes the positive results of the course.

Stofflett, Rene T.; Stoddart, Trish. (1994).  The Ability to Understand and Use Conceptual Change Pedagogy as a Function of Prior Content Learning Experience.  Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 31, 1. 

Twenty-seven undergraduate students participated in a study designed to examine the relationship between content and the development of elementary teacher candidates' understanding of conceptual change pedagogy. Results suggest that, if conceptual change methods are to be incorporated into teacher candidates' repertoire, science content courses taken prior to teacher education courses should be taught using conceptual change pedagogy.

Stoll, Marsal P. (1995).  What Is Multicultural Education?  Community College Journal, 65, 3. 

Provides a discussion of the debate surrounding multicultural education. Indicates that multiculturalism is an attempt to develop curricula, instructional materials, and pedagogy allowing individuals to acquire a perspective beyond their unique cultural, ethnic, gender, and racial perspective. Suggests that community colleges have fallen behind universities in including multicultural content in curricula. (47 citations)

Stones, Edgar (1992).  Reform in Teacher Education: The Power and the Pedagogy. 

This paper argues that productive reform in teacher education must comprise the development of a rigorous practical pedagogy. The theoretical element of teacher education courses and practical teaching are incompatible because research looks at the way teaching is rather than the way teaching should be, and because teaching is viewed as comprising nothing more than the "delivery of curriculum." The quintessential reform that is needed in teacher education is one that takes the study of human learning and its relationship to teaching as central. A theory of teaching must be developed that relates to school and classroom and to teaching experiences, that involves "in vivo" pedagogical analysis to reveal classroom problems, and that involves all participants in a form of action research. An effort to integrate theory and practice was developed in a project in which videotape recordings of student teachers and trainee supervisors were analyzed concerning such factors as the presentation of exemplars in concept teaching, the nature of feedback to students, and the nature of evaluation of the teaching. In addition, all participants were expected to conduct action research in the form of an empirical investigation of their own teaching. | [FULL TEXT]

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Strand, Bradford N. (1992).  A Descriptive Profile of Teacher Preparation Practices in Physical Education Teacher Education.  Physical Educator, 49, 2. 

Survey examined practices in colleges and universities to prepare physical education teachers. Over half recommended or required field-based coaching. Equal numbers of peer teaching experiences occurred in skill and pedagogy courses. Pre-student teaching field experiences generally occurred in urban sites. Students teachers received approximately five site visits from university supervisors.

Strasma, Kip; Resnick, Paul (1999).  Future Research in Two-Year College English.  Teaching English in the Two-Year College, 27, 1. 

Offers future researchers many opportunities for research in two-year college English. Considers input about issues, problems, and questions which the research community still needs to engage. Assumes that research clusters around several "fault lines" shared by other groups and institutions not directly tied to education; the fault lines selected are identity, technology, diversity, pedagogy, literacy, and methodology.

Strauss, Michael J. (1994).  A Constructivist Dialogue.  Journal of Humanistic Education and Development, 32, 4. 

Contends that constructivist teaching pedagogy helps children learn to reason about the world. Notes that children are encouraged to become active learners and to discover meaning in their own world, not only in preformed ideas or definitions of others. Discusses these issues and elaborates on them in form of dialogue.

Strech, Lorie L. (1994).  The Implementation of Writing Workshop: A Review of the Literature. 

Writing workshop is an approach that encourages students to become involved in the writing process by using their own topics and writing for their own reasons. A history of writing pedagogy shows that educators have recently moved from a skills based approach of teaching writing to a process based approach: teachers are now interested in showing how a piece of writing improves as the author consults with his or her instructor and peers. A literature review of research on writing workshops suggests several conclusions. First, there is adequate evidence to support the assertion that the teaching of writing process is a valuable practice. While the writing process is the actual process or material to be taught, the writing workshop can be viewed as a way of approaching the task of teaching writing and organizing it. Second, the establishment of the writing workshop can feel risky to teachers since there is no prescribed sequence for teaching skills and strategies. D. Sudol and P. Sudol (1991) raise significant questions regarding the tradeoffs among the level of teacher control, student responsibility, and the outcome value of the workshop. Third, the abundance of qualitative research (and lack of quantitative research) is due to the nature of the topic studied. The cyclical nature of the writing process and the writing workshop approach parallels the dynamic characteristic of qualitative research. Lastly, writing workshop, when implemented in its ideal form, takes a large portion of the instructional day. As a result of the literature review, recommendations are made for teachers, administrators, parents, school districts, state educational agencies, and future researchers. | [FULL TEXT]

Street, B. (1992).  Literacy in Cross-Cultural Perspective: Implications for Policy and Practice. 

This paper reviews some of the issues in the new literacy studies and the questions, from an anthropological perspective, of self, person, and identity that affect literacy practices. It is suggested that in discussing literacy, it is better to start from a cultural viewpoint rather than an educational one. The traditional autonomous model of literacy is critiqued, particularly the "we" of western cultures giving literacy to "them" in the developing world. The complexity of the relationship between literacy and culture is also addressed. The notion of personhood in different cultures is further discussed, and some ethnographic examples are reported. Implications for education and pedagogy are considered. Contains approximately 70 references. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Literacy Education) | [FULL TEXT]

Streibel, Michael J. (1993).  Queries about Computer Education and Situated Critical Pedagogy.  Educational Technology, 33, 3. 

Discussion of the socially situated and constrained nature of educational computing focuses on situated critical pedagogy and computer education. Four areas are highlighted in an examination of teaching/learning situations: (1) praxis, i.e., a relationship between action and reflection; (2) situated critical pedagogy; (3) interpretive processes; and (4) emancipatory evaluation. (three references)

Streibel, Michael J. (1994).  Misattributions about Situated Learning.  Educational Technology, 34, 8. 

This response to criticism of an earlier article on situated critical pedagogy discusses social construction versus narcissism; student empowerment; perceptions of learning and teaching; situated cognition versus relationalism; knowledge and action; and the nature of theory. (eight references)

Strickland, Ronald (1990).  Confrontational Pedagogy and Traditional Literary Studies.  College English, 52, 3. 

Outlines a strategy of confrontational pedagogy that uses the key concepts of resistance and opposition as they function in both psychoanalytic and politicized critical theories. Suggests a way of theorizing the classroom to acknowledge conflict and to open up the classroom for a productive contestation and interrogation of existing paradigms of knowledge.

Strong, Gregory (1996).  Using Literature for Language Teaching in ESOL.  [Thought Currents in English Literature] 

In English for speakers of other languages (ESOL), there is renewed interest in use of literature in the communicative classroom. Literature may be part of a communicative pedagogy in three ways: (1) by providing a context in which to develop students' reading strategies and knowledge of non-fiction and literary texts; (2) by being the basis of an extensive reading program, with attendant acquisition of new vocabulary and grammatical forms; and (3) by offering the opportunity to explore cross-cultural values. One reading strategy found useful for encouraging reading is the exploration of story grammar, which provides common terms of reference and a direction for group discussion. As students learn about story grammar and understand how to apply it to stories they are reading, an extensive reading program should be undertaken, with students selecting their own reading materials from a classroom shelf or from a self-access area in the library. Related classroom activities include discussions, book reports, teacher book presentations, small-group book sharing, and sustained silent reading periods. Book content, including cultural and thematic information, can be used for a variety of language and cultural learning activities (such as cloze procedures), timeline construction, and response to specific passages or events. Contains 22 references. | [FULL TEXT]

Strong, Rosalind; Hogan, Susan (1994).  TESOL Teacher Competencies Document. 

This paper reports on a project undertaken by the Australian Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) organization in New South Wales to develop a set of teacher competencies for TESOL instructors. The paper describes how these competencies were developed, outlines general areas of teacher and TESOL competence, and examines in detail eight competencies: (1) can demonstrate knowledge of language pedagogy; (2) can demonstrate knowledge of theoretical approaches to language and language learning; (3) can demonstrate awareness of relevant political, socio-cultural, economic, and educational context of TESOL practice; (4) can establish curriculum and methodological practices which meet the diverse needs of students; (5) can provide opportunities for students to develop spoken and written English in a positive learning environment; (6) can apply principles and techniques to the assessment of spoken and written English; (7) can evaluate effectiveness of TESOL language teaching program; and (8) can work effectively with key personnel in a range of contexts. Two appendixes provide governmental advisory documents on teacher competency and definitions of competency standards. | [FULL TEXT]

Stroud, Scott R. (1999).  Habermas and Debate Theory: A Putative Link between the Theory of Communicative Action and Traditional Resolutional Typologies. 

Academic debate has often been criticized as being "artificial" and "elitist" due to its highly structured format and the specialized skills it often requires. While countless argumentation scholars have advanced reasons why academic debate is pertinent to a comprehensive education, a different source of justification for resolutional theory can be found in the form of Jurgen Habermas's theory of communicative action (1984). This theory postulates that communicative speech acts are aimed toward reaching understanding and consensus; in the everyday use of language, humans use speech acts to relate to the world of "facts," to the world of norms and values, and to the inner "world" of human experience. This paper provides some preliminary reflections on how Habermas's theory of communicative action can justify the traditional resolutional typology of academic debate. Initially, the paper examines Habermas's theory of communicative action. Then, it proceeds to "traditional" resolutional phrasing and theory and applies Habermas's theory to the "traditional" resolutional typology. Finally, the paper concludes by reflecting upon the heuristic and pedagogical advantages of this foundation for resolutional typologies. It contends that debate and argumentation pedagogy can be enhanced, both internally and perceptually, if this link between Habermas's theory of communicative action and resolutional typologies is further developed. | [FULL TEXT]

Strutchens, Marilyn (1995).  Multicultural Mathematics: A More Inclusive Mathematics. ERIC Digest. 

Until recently there have not been many links to students' culture in the mathematics classroom. This may be one of the major barriers to achievement of many groups historically underrepresented in mathematics, for these students may see mathematics as a subject that has very little meaning or value for their current or future lives. This digest discusses and illustrates Banks' five dimensions of multicultural education that provide a framework for empowering all students through multicultural mathematics education: content integration, knowledge construction, prejudice reduction, equitable pedagogy, and empowering school culture and social structure. | [FULL TEXT]

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Stucky, Nathan (1995).  Performing Oral History: Storytelling and Pedagogy.  Communication Education, 44, 1. 

Describes a class project in collecting and performing oral history interviews. Argues that, by engaging students as field researchers to gather oral texts, and through the use of performance as a mode of historical, cultural, and interpersonal inquiry, students meet their interview subjects in a dialogic encounter designed to enhance their understanding of another person's experience.

Stuessy, Carol L.; Parker, Dawn (1996).  Changes in Teacher Cognition with Problem-Solving Instruction: Instructional Planning of Science Activities. 

The purpose of this exploratory study was to describe the changes in middle school teachers' planning of science activities during a teacher enhancement project that involved problem-solving instruction and classroom implementation of a problem-solving curriculum model. The model reflected the cognitive science perspective and integrated the following features: students' prior knowledge, declarative knowledge, general strategy and domain-specific strategy knowledge, and instructional strategy. Twenty-eight teachers received instruction in human biology topics in five two-day workshops, in strategic pedagogy and curriculum design in two intensive three-week summer workshops, and in classroom implementation of the curriculum model in five workshops during the subsequent school year. Teachers were interviewed at three points: before and after summer workshops and after classroom implementation. Transcripts were analyzed using pre-decided categories and frequency distributions of categories calculated. Analyses indicate that increased involvement resulted in more complex patterns of planning with more emphasis on salient features of the curriculum model. Most dramatic changes occurred in teachers' attention to students' prior knowledge, which rose during the implementation phase of the project. Contains 23 references. | [FULL TEXT]

Stul, Marina (1990).  The Theatrical Culture and the Creative Thinking of Pupils.  Youth Theatre Journal, 5, 1. 

States that the need for developing creative thinking is currently seen as one of the most pressing needs in the Soviet Union. Describes an innovative aesthetic elementary education program in which students, teachers, and parents work together.

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Sudzina, Mary R. (1994).  Mentoring and Collaborating with Cases: Developing the Skills and Resources To Compete in a National Case Competition. 

Case-based pedagogy as a strategy to effectively weave theory, practice, and problem-solving in preservice teacher preparation has resulted in a national team case competition. Teams of preservice teachers from five teacher preparation institutions were invited to the University of Virginia to independently solve a classroom dilemma, present a written analysis, and prepare an oral presentation and defense. This paper describes the experience of an educational psychologist in mentoring and preparing one team of undergraduate preservice teachers (who had gained preliminary experience in solving case study dilemmas through an educational psychology course), selected for the national competition. Coaching techniques encouraged the preservice teachers to cooperate, to compete, to develop individual areas of expertise, and to access computers, reference, and faculty resources in solving case dilemmas. Collaboration strategies, skills, and resources developed are illustrated, and the paper concludes with implications for connecting education and human resources within and beyond teacher preparation programs. | [FULL TEXT]

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Suhor, Charles, Comp. (1994).  Trends and Issues in English Instruction, 1994--Six Summaries. Summaries of Informal Annual Discussions of the Commissions of the National Council of Teachers of English. 

Information on current trends and issues informally discussed and then delineated by the directors of six National Council of Teachers of English commissions, is presented in this 11th annual report. The commissions and their directors are: (1) Commission on Curriculum (Dorothy King); (2) Commission on Language (Vivian I. Davis); (3) Commission on Composition (Marilyn M. Cooper); (4) Commission on Literature (Reginald Martin); (5) Commission on Media (Carole Cox); and (6) Commission on Reading (Patrick Shannon). Some of the subjects discussed in the report include: the positive trends of teachers using information gained from research and teachers becoming more extensively involved in curriculum development; the integration of all language modes; the effort to establish comprehensive standards in English language arts for which a variety of authentic assessments can be developed; the chilling effect on curricular choices caused by increasingly effective lobbying to privatize education; equity issues; the need for redefining assessment in writing; issues of access, pedagogy, and resources involved with the use of computer and media technology in the writing classroom; the trend toward including writing in the study of literature and literature in the study of writing; the derivation of new interpretive strategies from technologies such as hypermedia, CD ROM, and multimedia; censorship; national trends in media literacy; the need for expanded networking among arts organizations; interdisciplinary approach to media education; and the primary trend in reading education towards national content standards. | [FULL TEXT]

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Suleiman, Mahmoud F.; Moore, Rock (1995).  Figures of Speech, Symbolism and the Communicative Process in the Multilingual Classrooms. 

The increasing linguistic and cultural diversity of U.S. public schools requires teachers to be more sensitive to how symbols and figures of speech are used to maintain an effective cross-cultural communication. The purpose of this paper is to address and discuss the role of sociocultural factors that shape the insights and perspectives of diverse students in the process of interacting with others. Diverse students come to the classroom with a limited view of the use of English figures of speech and language symbols; they also employ culturally-bound symbols and figures of speech that cause miscommunication in the target language. Teachers need to foster a classroom environment where these symbolic differences are taken into consideration. They also need to create conditions that promote effective use of symbols and figures of speech. These conditions involve valuing linguistic and cultural diversity, contextualizing learning tasks and activities, and utilizing language functions to maintain meaningful interaction. Moreover, classroom pedagogy should center around empowering the students to communicate creatively in a more culturally sensitive environment. Finally, teachers should encourage students to use figures of speech to communicate their unique meanings to others in the learning environment in order to promote more cross-cultural understanding in diverse classrooms. | [FULL TEXT]

Sulentic, Margaret-Mary Martine (1999).  Inventing Culturally Relevant Pedagogy in Two Fourth/Fifth-Grade Combination Classrooms: Diversity and Diglossia among Black English Speakers. 

When educators lack the knowledge, understanding and acceptance of their students' language and culture, especially when it differs from their own, a huge mismatch can and often does occur between school and home. What happens to African American children who are raised speaking Black English but schooled in standard English? How do teachers help students who differ from the mainstream mediate socio-cultural tensions and navigate demands of two cultures and speech communities? This qualitative study examines the socio-cultural context of language, diglossia, and diversity in two fourth/fifth grade, predominantly African American classrooms in Waterloo, Iowa. A nesting design was selected for this study to situate Black language interactions within each classroom, the school district, the Waterloo communities and language classification in American society at large. The ethnographic techniques of participant observation, audiotaping, and interviewing were used to collect data. Historical data was collected to understand the historical and political contexts of the African-American community in this city as it connects to the Delta of Mississippi as well as to larger society. The code-switching and diglossia of four focal students was given particular focus to understand children's negotiation of the language demands of several communities. Data analysis led to three major categories: inventing classroom culture, language choice decisions, and culturally-relevant pedagogy. This investigation suggests that certain strategies employed by two teachers facilitate the language learning of the African American students they teach: teachers' attitude of acceptance, a direct behavior management style, the use of antiphonal response, code-switching, acceptance of standard English approximations, and recognition of the verbal nature of many African American students. Based on James Banks' theory about multicultural education, a language equity pedagogy model was developed from the study's findings. This model explains how two speech communities, one Black English-speaking and the other standard English-speaking, overlap in the classroom and demand a pedagogy that meets the specific language and culture needs of these students.   | [FULL TEXT]

Sullivan, Michael F. (1995).  Needed Now: A New Model for Pedagogy.  TECHNOS, 4, 3. 

A new model for pedagogy needs to be developed that is based on the use of technology and student independence. There is no meaningful research leading to a new theory of pedagogy; current educational practices do not reflect contemporary needs. It must be determined whether children have any standing in the debate over educational reform.

Sullivan, Patricia A., Ed.; Qualley, Donna J., Ed. (1994).  Pedagogy in the Age of Politics: Writing and Reading (in) the Academy. 

Recognizing that the teaching of writing has always been political, this collection of essays by teachers, scholars, and theorists intends to promote discussion of what it means to study and teach writing and reading at a time when the academy itself is struggling to define the educational needs of an increasingly diverse student population. The essays in the collection explore the ways that students and teachers respond to tensions arising from encounters with ideas, people, texts, and technologies; examine the history of writing in the academy; and critique the content of composition courses. After an introduction by the editors, "Writing in the Age of Politics," the essays are: (1) "Teaching for Openings: Pedagogy as Dialectic" (Maxine Greene); (2) "Advocacy and Resistance in the Writing Class: Working toward Stasis" (Karen Fitts and Alan W. France); (3) "Being Two Places at Once: Feminism and the Development of 'Both/And' Perspectives" (Donna J. Qualley); (4) "Naming Harlem: Teaching the Dynamics of Diversity" (Daniel Reagan); (5) "Adult Learners, Autobiography, and Educational Planning: Reflections on Pedagogy, Andragogy, and Power" (Michael J. Kiskis); (6) "'Whose Machines Are These?' Politics, Power, and the New Technology" (Elizabeth Klem and Charles Moran); (7) "Pedagogy and the Academy: 'The Divine Skill of the Born Teacher's Instincts'" (Mariolina Salvatori); (8) "Representations of Literacy and Region: Narrating 'Another America'" (Peter Mortensen); (9) "The Essay Dies in the Academy, circa 1900" (Jean Donovan Sanborn); (10) "Re-envisioning the Journal: Writing the Self into Community" (Sharyn Lowenstein and others); (11) "Feminism and Power: The Pedagogical Implications of (Acknowledging) Plural Feminist Perspectives" (Linda M. LaDuc); (12) "Rereading the Discourses of Gender in Composition: A Cautionary Tale" (Susan V. Wall); (13) "The Myth of Transcendence and the Problem of the 'Ethics' Essay in College Writing Instruction" (David A. Jolliffe); (14) "The 'Kinds of Language' Curriculum" (David Bleich); (15) "Writing Academic Autobiographies: Finding a Common Language across the Curriculum" (Rhonda C. Grego); and (16) "'So Happy a Skill'" (Robert Scholes). | [FULL TEXT]

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Sumara, Dennis J. (1998).  Fictionalizing Acts: Reading and the Making of Identity.  Theory into Practice, 37, 3. 

Reading is an act of identity making. Because readers must complete the act of meaning making, the context and conditions of reading alter the shape of the storytelling event and the trajectory of meaning. This paper explains reading identity and pedagogy, providing techniques one professor used when teaching two novels (marking, tracing, responding, juxtaposing, chaining, interpreting, weaving, and resymbolizing).

Summerfield, Judith (1993).  Eleven Memos for the Year 2000: A Postmodern Pedagogy.  ADE Bulletin

Offers 11 brief voices, views, positions, moments, and comments on the English teaching profession through the lens of pedagogy and in relation to the emerging postmodern view of literature and criticism.

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Sundre, Donna L. (1990).  The Identification of the Significant Dimensions of Faculty Scholarship. 

The study reported in this paper sought to clarify the nature and form of faculty scholarship by identifying its dimensions and components from the pont of view of faculty at a large public doctoral granting institution. A survey instrument was developed listing 249 attributes of faculty scholarship, and 340 faculty members (66% of the total surveyed) weighed each attribute in relation to its importance within their conception of faculty scholarship. Four significant and orthogonal dimensions of faculty scholarship were identified, accounting for 41.6% of the total variation. The four factors were identified as pedagogy; publication and professional recognition; intellectual characteristics of scholars; and creative and artistic attributes. Factors described not just what faculty scholars do, but the way in which they go about the activities they pursue, their general orientations, and values associated with activities, processes, and products. Several of the variables that loaded highly on the factors encompassed the outcomes and consequences of faculty members' activities and orientations, such as long-lasting positive impact of teachers on students and concern for the development of others. Includes 31 references. | [FULL TEXT]

Sunstein, Bonnie S. (1998).  Moveable Feasts, Liminal Spaces: Writing Centers and the State of In-Betweenness.  Writing Center Journal, 18, 2. 

Considers the "marginality" of the situation of writing centers and their directors. Explores a possible reinvention for writing centers' history and mentality, with the help of concepts from anthropology. Finds that the writing center is not a space, a pedagogy, or an academic department; it crosses all disciplines. Surveys cultural artifacts from 15 years of writing center history.

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Surfus, Bonnie Lenore (1994).  Autobiography and the Ascent of Multiculturalism: A Negotiation. 

Autobiography is now debated as ultimately problematic, a charge that may impede the growth of a growing cultural pedagogy. As a tool in the classroom, it is under siege for many reasons: because it does not teach "real-world" skills; because in asking students to deal with painful memories, it may impede intellectual and emotional growth; and because the personal essay is archaic, given modern notions about the self. However, would it be such a bad thing for students to acknowledge timely, painful issues that demand their attention? Even a newly conceived self that is not necessarily autonomous, but socially constructed, can hurt and suffer. Furthermore, student autobiographical writing can become valuable to teachers seriously concerned with advancing multicultural literacy. Students previously unaware of authors like Toni Morrison and Gabriel Garcia Marquez may become initiated into a world of literacy that is not exclusively Eurocentric. Let them work with writing that has cultural relevance for them, each of them, as they learn to negotiate the distances between cultures. | [FULL TEXT]

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Susser, Bernard (1994).  Process Approaches in ESL/EFL Writing Instruction.  Journal of Second Language Writing, 3, 1. 

Process approaches are defined and their roles in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) writing instruction are discussed. Three different meanings of process are reviewed, the ESL/EFL writing literature is analyzed, and some problems in implementing process writing pedagogy are identified. 

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Sutman, Francis X.; Guzman, Ana (1992).  Teaching and Learning Science with Understanding to Limited English Proficient Students: Excellence through Reform. 

This paper, which considers effective science teaching and learning for limited English proficient (LEP) students in U.S. schools, is based on the assumption that science and English language can be effectively learned together without excessive emphasis on students' native language, although teachers and aides who have knowledge of LEP students' first language can enhance instruction through its judicious use. Science and language instructional goals for LEP minorities; pedagogical practices that either enhance or inhibit the attainment of these goals of enhanced learning; publications that support the proposed pedagogical practices; and science/curriculum and instruction for LEP students, are all discu ssed or provided. Central to the pedagogy described n this monograph is the use of related or thematic lessons in which sciences serves as the driving force though the materials integrate both science and language (English). Each related lesson series is referred to as an IALS or integrated activity (ased) learning sequence; an IALS for the elementary grades, called "How Do Living Things Behave?" is described in full. Ways in which the IALS integrates the best pedagogical practices to greatly enhance science and basic skills learning among LEP students; the nature of science driven instruction for LEP students; and conditions to support reform in science driven instruction for these students are also described. Two appendixes are included. Appendix A provides an example of another IALS, this one designed for the upper grades. Appendix B provides 157 annotated references for science teachers, educators, policymakers, and others for improving science instruction for LEP students. | [FULL TEXT]

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Svetina, Metka, Ed. (1994).  Rethinking Adult Education for Development II. Conference Proceedings (Ljubljana, Slovenia, October 6-9, 1993). 

This book contains papers, reports, and opening and closing speeches presented at a worldwide conference of adult education experts. The document begins with the following: an introduction (Jelenc); a reprinted article, "Time to Collectively Rethink Our Field" (Franklin W. Spikes); and opening speeches by various adult education officials (Jelenc, Gaber, Charters, Belanger, Vio Grossi, Krajinc). The following papers and reports are included: "Rethinking Adult Education for Development" (Jelenc); "The System of Adult Education and Learning--Definition, Concept, Areas, Terminology" (Workgroup Report); "Pedagogy and Andragogy: Relation between the Education of Children and the Education of Adults" (Workgroup Report); "The Status of Adult Education in Different National Policies and Worldwide" (Workgroup Report); "Basic Institutions/Organizations Influencing the Need and the Progress of Adult Education, Their Role, and Their Possibilities" (Workgroup Report); "Final Report" (Jelenc); "Adult Education, the African Crisis, and the Role of African Association for Literacy and Adult Education" (Wangoola); "Adult Education for Export" (Gelpi); "Consumer Education: Empowering for Development" (Charters); "Historical Development of Adult Education: A Focus on Africa" (Draper); "Reconceptualizing Adult Education: The Perspective of Adult Undergraduate Higher Education" (Kasworm); "Adult Education and Working People: A Critical Reappraisal" (Law); "Euro-Delphi: A Comparative Study on the Future of Adult Education in 14 Countries 1993-1995" (Leirman); "Adult Education in Thailand" (Poompaisal); "Women and Adult Education: Rethinking Androcentric Research" (Stalker); and closing speeches by Jelenc and Puhar. Appendixes include the following: reviews of the compendium, reports of several other conferences, letters, and a list of participants with addresses. | [FULL TEXT]

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Swadener, Beth Blue, Ed.; Lubeck, Sally, Ed. (1995).  Children and Families "At Promise." Deconstructing the Discourse of Risk. SUNY Series, The Social Context of Education. 

This collection challenges the metaphor of the "at risk" discourse about minority groups, situating it in the context of the struggle over the power to define language and policy, and the right of all groups to material and psychological well being. Some chapters reframe oppressed groups in terms of "promise" and the potential for excellence. Following "The Social Construction of Children and Families 'at Risk': An Introduction" by Beth Blue Swadener and Sally Lubeck, contributions include: (1) "Children and Families 'at Promise': Deconstructing the Discourse of Risk" (Beth Blue Swadener); (2) "Mothers at Risk" (Sally Lubeck); (3) "The Politics of Who's 'at Risk'" (Michelle Fine); (4) "Voice Unaltered: Marginalized Young Writers Speak" (Elizabeth Quintero and Mary Kay Rummel); (5) "'Motherwit': Childrearing Lessons from African American Mothers of Low Income" (Donelda A. Cook and Michelle Fine); (6) "Exploding the Myths: African American Families at Promise" (Mary Smith Arnold); (7) "Native Americans at Promise: Travel in Borderlands" (Carolyne J. White); (8) "Learning in and out of School: Critical Perspectives on the Theory of Cultural Compatibility" (B. Robert Tabachnick and Marianne N. Bloch); (9) "Creating a Classroom Culture of Promise: Lessons from a First Grade" (Mary E. Hauser and Cynthia Thompson); (10) "Student Success: A Matter of Compatibility and Expectations" (Joyce S. Waldoch); (11) "Advocating for Aric: Strategies for Full Inclusion" (Lisa Leifield and Tina Murray); and (12) "Epilogue. Naming and Blaming: Beyond a Pedagogy of the Poor" (Valerie Polakow). References follow each chapter.

Swadener, Beth Blue; Miller-Marsh, Monica (1993).  Antibias Early Education: Toward a Stronger Teacher Voice in Research. 

This paper examines several issues involved in collaborative research between a kindergarten teacher-researcher and a university professor as they developed an early childhood anti-bias curriculum. Literature on collaborative research in early childhood settings is reviewed, and the concept of anti-bias, culturally inclusive education is defined. The evolving collaboration between the teachers is described, and the benefits for both participants in the on-going collaborative project are discussed. Barriers encountered to both anti-bias pedagogy and teacher research in early childhood settings are also discussed. Finally, several recommendations are made concerning anti-bias approaches in early childhood education, research methodologies, and support structures which attempt to put early childhood educators at the center of the research process. | [FULL TEXT]

Swaffar, Janet (1998).  Major Changes: The Standards Project and the New Foreign Language Curriculum.  ADFL Bulletin, 30, 1. 

Applies teaching approaches from "Standards for Foreign Language Learning" to higher education, discussing recycling of old curricula to meet students' pragmatic needs and current literacy state without compromising the discipline. Department members are urged to collaborate to determine literature's place in their programs, identify core topics from history and culture, and create holistic approaches to subject matter, pedagogy, and assessment.

Swaffield, Bruce C. (1996).  What Happens When Male Professors Enact Feminist Pedagogies? 

What occurs when male and female teachers violate accepted conventions of the writing classroom by assuming untraditional roles? Numerous studies have shown that when people exhibit behavior contrary to the normal gender-based expectations, the results are less than positive. For the college professor who does not act according to the usual rituals of the classroom, the effect can be disconcerting and frustrating; both the student and the teacher may experience difficulties in interaction, communication, and collaboration. When male professors step out of their traditional and stereotypical roles and become more sensitive to student needs, a shift in classroom behavior occurs as students realize that "individuals do not always fit the patterns associated with their gender." Recent research supports three primary conclusions: male professors in this new role actually receive higher marks than female colleagues on being more "concerned" about students both inside and outside the classroom; because of differences in teaching style, male professors were more harshly criticized than female professors for not acting according to "sex-class linked" behavior; and overall teaching effectiveness was discerned as being inferior to similar courses taught by more traditional male professors.   | [FULL TEXT]

Swain, Merrill (1993).  The Output Hypothesis: Just Speaking and Writing Aren't Enough.  Canadian Modern Language Review, 50, 1. 

Some views on and implications of "the output hypothesis," which proposes that the process of producing written or spoken language results in language acquisition/learning, for immersion pedagogy and second-language learning are discussed. The role of collaborative learning is considered.

Swan, Judith A. (1995).  Reflections across the Divide: Written Discourse as a Structural Mirror in Teaching Science to Nonscience Students.  Writing on the Edge, 6, 2. 

Reports on a course at Princeton University that aims to cross the disciplinary divisions between the sciences and the humanities. Reviews the course history, which suggests that the difficulties in learning and teaching science derive not from intrinsic characteristics of science but from scientific rhetoric and pedagogy.

Swan, Karen; Meskill, Carla (1995).  Multimedia and Response-Based Literature Teaching and Learning: A Critical Review of Commercial Applications. Report Series 2.23. 

Response-based approaches to teaching and learning literature provide alternatives to objectifying literature. Where traditional approaches champion close readings of texts and "correct" interpretations, response-based theorists regard readers as active meaning-makers whose personal experiences affect their interpretations of literary works. Response pedagogies encourage the exploration of multiple perspectives and the construction of defensible interpretations and make the quality of students' critical and creative thinking the focus of assessment. They place student-generated questions at the center of learning, encouraging a "problem-finding" as well as problem-solving approach to critical thinking. There is reason to believe that response-based approaches might be facilitated by multimedia applications; the computing medium seems to represent cognitive processes in ways that support their internalization as habits of thought. Therefore, 25 graduate students, most of whom were teachers, evaluated 45 multimedia literature programs to determine their suitableness to response-based pedagogy. They rated the programs on a 10-point scale in several different categories, but reviews were essentially narrative. Results showed that while programs are of high technical quality, the pedagogical approaches taken are not response-based. Programs designed for elementary students equated literature education with reading instruction; programs for high school students adopted a traditional text-centered approach. | [FULL TEXT]

Swan, Karen; Meskill, Carla (1995).  The Use of Multimedia in Response-based Literature Teaching and Learning: A Critical Review of Commercial Applications. 

A response-based pedagogy encourages the exploration of multiple perspectives regarding literary works and student construction of defensible interpretations of the same, with the quality of students' critical and creative thinking being the focus of assessment. The National Center for Research on Literature Teaching and Learning's ongoing "Multimedia and Literature Teaching and Learning" project explores the potential of multimedia to facilitate such response-based pedagogies. The project's first stage, detailed in this report, involved reviewing existing commercial applications from a response-based perspective. Seven evaluative categories were established through a series of focus group sessions and then divided into two groupings: multimedia issues and response-based issues. The first three categories--content clarity, technical quality, and use of technology--adopt the former perspective. Response-based issues include: what counts as knowledge, the role of the text, the role of the students, and the role of the teacher. The multimedia literature applications were evaluated by 25 graduate students of literature education and/or instructional technology. Findings reveal that while such programs are generally of high technical quality and linked to works commonly taught in schools, the pedagogical approaches taken are not response-based. Programs designed for elementary students equated literature education with reading instruction; programs designed for high school students generally adopted a traditional text-centered approach. Results also indicate that the applications currently available are technologically, and not pedagogically driven. | [FULL TEXT]

Swartz, Ellen (1993).  Multicultural Education: Disrupting Patterns of Supremacy in School Curricula, Practices, and Pedagogy.  Journal of Negro Education, 62, 4. 

The intent of this article is to examine the support and legitimization of supremacy in school curricula and to suggest how a multicultural education can disrupt these patterns and create new, liberatory ones. The verbal expressions of an unsystematic sample of educators bring supremacy to light.

Swartz, Omar (1997).  Toward Critical Education in the Communication Classroom.  New Jersey Journal of Communication, 5, 1. 

Aims to help educators envision a critical pedagogy. Argues that the teaching of introductory communication skills can be reconceptualized as the teaching of cultural critique. States that, while skills competency is important, larger questions need to be asked, such as what competent communicators have to say and how they position themselves within the larger community.

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Sweet, Stephen (1998).  Practicing Radical Pedagogy: Balancing Ideals with Institutional Constraints.  Teaching Sociology, 26, 2. 

Describes radical pedagogy and observes that an overview of "Teaching Sociology" suggests that few teachers fully practice it. Argues that while professors are free to teach radical theory, radical pedagogy is hindered by institutional constraints. Concludes that radical teachers may benefit from remaining more within the confines imposed by their institutions.

Sweet, Stephen (1998).  Reassessing Radical Pedagogy.  Teaching Sociology, 26, 2. 

Responds to comments about, and critiques of, his own article on radical pedagogy. Outlines major points of contention raised by other commentators and responds to them, including matters of definition, power relations in the classroom, and tempering radical theory with pragmatism.

Swetz, Frank (1995).  To Know and to Teach: Mathematical Pedagogy from a Historical Context.  Educational Studies in Mathematics, 29, 1. 

Investigated historical works for pedagogical techniques. Found the use of instructional discourse, logical sequencing of mathematical problems and exercises, and employment of visual aids. Concludes that much of present day mathematical pedagogy evolved from distant historical antecedents. (30 references)

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Swick, Kevin J. (1999).  Service-Learning in Early Childhood Teacher Education. Working with Families.  Early Childhood Education Journal, 27, 2. 

Service-learning is a pedagogy that promotes an action research philosophy in early childhood teacher education. Components of meaningful service-learning programs include: (1) clear interrelation with academic goals of the course; (2) student participation in the assessment process; (3) students and faculty becoming part of the community to be served; and (4) regular evaluation of service-learning activities by all stakeholders.

Swilky, Jody (1991).  Cross-Curricular Writing Instruction: Can Writing Instructors Resist Institutional Resistance? 

A case study of the responses of two faculty members to a seminar designed to help them use writing-across-the-curriculum in their classrooms was undertaken. The purpose of the seminar was to examine the positive and negative views of the concept of "resistance" to illuminate reasons for, and forms of, faculty resistance to change. The seminar participants used in the case study were both senior members of the faculty: one was a rhetorician and the other was a language philosopher. The rhetorician demonstrated assumptions on learning and teaching which were at odds with the objectives of the seminar. Yet while he initially resisted ideas about writing-to-learn, he has continued to scrutinize and revise his teaching to incorporate writing-to-learn into his teaching style in the semester after the seminar. The language philosopher, however, based his objections to using writing-to-learn on a perceived unbearable increase in his workload. The language philosopher discussed his teaching with the seminar leader only sporadically in the semester after the seminar and confessed at the end of the semester that he has not incorporated elements of the seminar into his teaching because of a perceived increase in workload. Findings suggest that seminar leaders need to collaborate with instructors as they revise their courses so as to be able to understand the sources and nature of resistance and to assist teachers who are serious about changing their pedagogy.

Swilky, Jody; Mahala, Dan (1998).  Reinventing Institutional Space: Remapping the Geography of Labor in English Studies. 

Discussions of reform in English studies typically focus on ideology. The focus of this paper puts the spotlight on the intended effects of classroom practice on students, on whatever is integral and valuable about the instructors' work as it appears to them. But there is also a geographical context that makes the work mean differently as it circulates beyond classrooms and institutions. English studies functions in multiple spaces: the classroom, professional communities, the home institutions where programs are housed. The utility and growth of English relative to other humanities disciplines is based on its greater effectiveness in providing and assessing "transferable" skills and "basic" cultural knowledge to diverse groups of students. Most majors will work in settings in which their expertise in English has value only non-specifically as a transferable set of knowledges. In some sense, these transferred meanings are present only at a distance, often in spaces where instructors have little influence, namely in the workplaces toward or away from which students are being circulated. One way to address such questions is to theorize them in class, making geographical forces and relationships part of the content of critical pedagogy. The paper questions how many students have changed their choice of career because of new forms of political thinking made available through theory; or, how many have adapted critical theory to fashion new forms of resistance in their professions and workplaces. | [FULL TEXT]

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Syl

Sylvester, Paul Skilton (1994).  Elementary School Curricula and Urban Transformation.  Harvard Educational Review, 64, 3. 

A Philadelphia third-grade class uses a classroom economy simulation to explore real-world situations, which provides opportunities for meaningful application of academic skills, role exploration, separation of academic success from "acting White," questioning of reality, experience of economic success, and the ability to perceive social structures as changeable.

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Sym

Symes, Colin, Ed.; Meadmore, Daphne, Ed. (1999).  The Extra-Ordinary School: Parergonality & Pedagogy. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. 

This text examines various features in the school culture and argues that the "extraordinary" represents an important dimension in the way a school is maintained and managed. It discusses various aspects of culture such as vestibules, speech night, school excursions, and festivities and looks at aspects of school administration from the perspective of school time, school efficiency drives, and testing. The book contains 12 articles: "Parergonality and Pedagogy," Colin Symes and Daphne Meadmore; "First Impressions: The Semiotics of School Vestibules," Colin Symes; "'Securing a Regular Government': The Prefect and the Contemporary School," Erica McWilliam and Nicole Cantle; "All-Male Schooling: Speech Night and the Construction of Masculinities," Richard Courtice; "New Routes for the Field Trip," Gordon Tait and Deborah Huber; "Brand New Spectacles: The Make-Over of the School Musical," Erica McWilliam; "Un/Learning the Habits of Clock Time: Re-Vision Time for Time in Education," Barbara Adam; "Efficiency at Any Cost: The Post-Welfarist Education Policy Context," Sharon Gewirtz; "Keeping up to the Mark: Testing as Surveillance," Daphne Meadmore; "Health, the Body and the Medicalisation of the School," David Kirk; "Embodying the School/Schooling Bodies: Physical Education as Disciplinary Technology," David Kirk; and "Schoolies Week: Rethinking Risk," Susan Hopkins.

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