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Pedagogy | C

Cad

Cadierno, Teresa, Ed. (1999).  L2 Listening Comprehension. Odense Working Papers in Language and Communication. 

Essays on second-language (L2) listening comprehension include: "On Second Language Comprehension and Acquisition: Interactional and Psycholinguistic Perspectives" (Teresa Cadierno), a general theoretical overview of these processes; "Listening to Lectures" (Anne Jensen), a discussion of some characteristics of lectures and description of a study of linguistic modifications in L2 French lectures addressed to both native speakers of French and first- and second-year university students of French; "A Conversation Analytic View on Listening Comprehension: Implications for the Classroom" (Catherine E. Brouwer), which examines the ways conversation analysis, a methodology for studying talk-interaction, can contribute both to understanding of the interactional aspects of listening in collaborative situations and to listening pedagogy; and "Developing Listening Tasks for Language Learning" (Michael Rost), presenting a pedagogical framework for listening instruction that includes both a set of principles for listening task design and strategy training and outlines five types of listening tasks focusing on specific listening strategies. | [FULL TEXT]

Cadiero-Kaplan, Karen (1999).  Integrating Technology: Issues for Traditional and Constructivist Pedagogies.  Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 15, 2. 

Discusses issues related to the integration of technology into today's classrooms, focusing on issues for traditional and constructivist pedagogies: changing classroom environments; computers as part of the classroom and curriculum; dynamic student products involving technology; expanding teaching and learning environments; constructivist pedagogy; teaching frameworks (traditional and constructivist); creating constructivist technology classrooms; and continual professional growth.

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Cah

Cahalan, James M., Ed.; Downing, David B., Ed. (1991).  Practicing Theory in Introductory College Literature Courses. 

Connecting the separate worlds of literary theorists and literature teachers in higher education, this collection of essays by 20 college teachers shares their ideas about using theorists' concepts to turn undergraduates from passive receivers of information into active thinkers about meaning in literature. Following an introduction by James M. Cahalan and David B. Downing, essays in the collection are: "Reading from Inside and Outside of One's Community" (David Bleich); "Combining Personal and Textual Experience: A Reader-Response Approach to Teaching American Literature" (Patricia Prandini Buckler); "From Clinic to Classroom while Uncovering the Evil Dead in 'Dracula': A Psychoanalytic Pedagogy" (Mark S. Paris); "'Text,''Reader,''Author,' and 'History' in the Introduction to Literature Course" (John Schilb); "In Search of Our Sisters' Rhetoric: Teaching through Reception Theory" (Louise Z. Smith); "The Historical Necessity for--and Difficulties with--New Historical Analysis in Introductory Literature Courses" (Brook Thomas); "The Reader and the Text: Ideologies in Dialogue" (John Clifford); "Confrontational Pedagogy and the Introductory Literature Course" (Ronald Strickland); "The Walls We Don't See: Toward Collectivist Pedagogies as Political Struggle" (C. Mark Hurlbert); "Feminist Theory, Literary Canons, and the Construction of Textual Meanings" (Barbara Frey Waxman); "Coyote Midwife in the Classroom: Introducing Literature with Feminist Dialogics" (Patrick D. Murphy); "A Multicultural Introduction to Literature" (Phillipa Kafka); "'Who Was That Masked Man?': Literary Criticism and the Teaching of African American Literature in Introductory Courses" (Pancho Savery); "Less Is More: Coverage, Critical Diversity, and the Limits of Pluralism" (Douglas Lanier); "From Discourse in Life to Discourse in Poetry: Teaching Poems as Bakhtinian Speech Genres" (Don Bialostosky); "Teaching Deconstruction: Theory and Practice in the Undergraduate Literature Classroom" (Lois Tyson); "Reading Deconstructively in the Two-Year College Introductory Literature Classroom" (Thomas Fink); "Practicing Textual Theory and Teaching Formula Fiction" (M. H. Dunlop); "Theory as Equipment for (Postmodern) Living" (Thomas McLaughlin); "Students as Theorists: Collaborative Hypertextbooks" (James J. Sosnoski); and "Selected Further Resources for Theory and Pedagogy: A Bibliographic Essay" (James M. Cahalan and David B. Downing). A 31-page comprehensive listing of references is attached. | [FULL TEXT]

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Cal

Calder, Clarence R. (1990).  Restructuring Teacher Education: One Group's Perspective. 

This paper focuses on the issues of restructuring teacher education for general educators, special educators, and leadership personnel. The paper calls for preparing teachers in liberal arts, professional areas, and clinical experience. The pre-professional component should provide sound subject matter background. Professional education should then emphasize the study of teaching as an academic field, knowledge of pedagogy, classroom teaching skills, and values and ethical responsibilities. The clinical program should integrate the pre-professional components into rigorous experiences where formal knowledge is used as a guide to practical action. This segment should take place in a Professional Development Center. Competencies required of leadership personnel to function in preservice teacher education programs are outlined.

Calderon, Margarita (1997).  Staff Development in Multilingual Multicultural Schools. ERIC/CUE Digest 124. 

This digest presents recommendations for a staff development program for a multilingual multicultural teaching staff that has been tested and shown to be effective. Effective instruction in bilingual and multicultural schools requires that teachers combine a sophisticated knowledge of subject matter with a wide repertoire of teaching strategies and state-of-the-art knowledge about learning theory, cognition, pedagogy, curriculum, technology, assessment, and programs that work. Researchers at the Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk have gained insight into ways of bringing instruction, cultural relevance, and equitable power relations into a staff development program. The Teachers' Learning Communities (TLC) program that the Center has developed is based on the belief that all teachers can participate successfully in educational reform. At TLC sessions teachers meet for general group activities that review teaching techniques and educational theory and they participate in ethnographic activities that consider the following: (1) overall student learning; (2) bilingual instruction; (3) instruction in language minority schools; (4) individual teacher practices; (5) team teaching; and (6) relationships among teachers. Having the TLC structure in place at the school site gives teachers opportunities for meaningful peer coaching and for collaborative reflection that empowers teachers and promotes student achievement. | [FULL TEXT]

Calderonello, Alice (1991).  Professionalism of Rhetoric/Composition: Consequences and Commitment. 

The professionalization of composition studies in relation to other disciplines has created a drive for standardization (in response to the need to be distinctive from other fields), which has as a negative consequence the devaluing of practitioner knowledge. Further, the process of projecting value on the discipline involves the "scientification" of the field, promoting the distinction between theoretical and practical knowledge. Thus composition specialists may be distancing themselves from pedagogy. Three specific trends are notable as professionalization continues. Firstly, more upper-level courses and graduate programs in composition studies will be established to provide work for the increasing number of Ph.D. specialists. This process will remove the persons with the most training in rhetoric/composition from undergraduate writing classes. Secondly, the increasing pressure to do research and to vie with one another for professional survival and/or advancement will force greater numbers of composition specialists to demand reduced teaching loads, which will in turn create pressure to increase class size in undergraduate courses, and/or to hire additional underpaid part-time instructors. Thirdly, the increasing fragmentation of composition studies and the resulting hierarchy of subspecialties will ensure that the needs of some student populations will continue to be addressed, while the needs of others will be ignored. One tentative step that the composition professionals might take towards making the profession responsive to more of its members and to more of the students is to examine the enterprise a bit more carefully.

Calinger, Ronald, Ed. (1996).  Vita Mathematica: Historical Research and Integration with Teaching. Mathematical Association of America Notes Series, No. 40. 

This book brings together papers by scholars from around the globe on the historiography and history of mathematics and their integration with mathematical pedagogy. Of the three articles in Part 1, "Historiography and Sources", one identifies research trends in the history of mathematics, the second discusses the centrality of problems, and the third uses drama to recreate moments of mathematical discovery. Part 2, "Historical Studies: From Antiquity to the Scientific Revolution" and "From the Scientific Revolution to the Present", offers a range of scholarship in the history of mathematics, including mathematics education, from antiquity to the present. Part 3, listed under two titles: "Integration of History with Mathematics Teaching: Fundamentals and Selected Cases" and"Origins and Teaching of Calculus," includes papers on the topics of reasons to include the history of mathematics in mathematics education, Ethnomathematics, networks for sharing historical mathematics information, and a mathematics history course.

Calliabetsou, Penelope (1990).  Formation continue et auto-formation des enseignants de langue: bilan et perspectives (In-Service Teacher Education and Independent Study of Language Teachers: Status and Perspectives). 

Most inservice teacher education erroneously equates pedagogy and methodology with classroom instructional "recipes" and strategies. It should, instead, help teachers adapt to specific teaching needs and gaps in training. Continuing education that allows teachers to choose their own areas of study and to pursue them individually encourages teachers to solve their own instructional problems. This kind of independent study may take a variety of forms: guided or directed, as in a pre-established program; "a la carte," i.e., programs specifically designed to meet individual needs; and open programs offered outside the traditional educational system (e.g., in academic libraries, at regional teaching centers, via telecommunications, etc.). An experimental European network for electronic information exchange contains information about educational opportunities for language teachers. In addition, educational television by satellite offers possibilities for both open independent study and international dialogue. All three types of independent study support pluralism, which in turn reinforces teacher autonomy and motivation.

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Cam

Camp, William G.; Heath-Camp, Betty (1990).  The Teacher Proximity Continuum: A Conceptual Framework for the Analysis of Teacher-Related Phenomena. 

In conjunction with a national study on the induction process for beginning vocational teachers, researchers developed a general conceptual framework for the classification and analysis of teacher-related phenomena. The framework, called the Teacher Proximity Continuum, has proved useful in analysis of negative influences, positive influences, significant events, and assistance provided to teachers. Based on functional distance from the teacher, the continuum has been used to classify over 5,000 events and influences up to this point and appears to hold great promise for utility in continuing analysis. Two samples of beginning vocational teachers participated in the study, 12 first-year teachers and 13 third-year teachers. Data for the analysis were collected from the teachers for a year using nominal group technique, interviews, and daily logs. A total of 281 NGT problem statements and 1,777 daily log negative influences were identified. The grouping system that emerged was based on the functional proximity to the teacher. Categories or domains of interest were then developed. The Teacher Proximity Continuum consists of eight domains at five levels of functional distance from the teacher. The five distance levels are personal characteristics, professional skills, interpersonal relationships, educational system, and extra system (outside educational system boundaries). The domains are internal, pedagogy, curriculum, program, peer, student, system, and community. The model was valid for the purpose for which it was used, reliable, and inclusive of the events analyzed. (Five references and a figure describing the Teacher Proximity Continuum are included.) | [FULL TEXT]

Campbell, Brian (1998).  Realism versus Constructivism: Which Is a More Appropriate Theory for Addressing the Nature of Science in Science Education?  Electronic Journal of Science Education, 3, 1. 

There are many versions of constructivism. One common argument against a constructivist approach is that it contains elements of instrumentalist, operationalist, and idealist epistemologies that distort the true nature of science including the goals of science and how scientists actually operate. A pedagogy based more on a realist epistemology would better serve the nature of science element of a science curriculum.

Campbell, Pat (1993).  Pedagogical Implications of Postmodernism in Adult Literacy. 

The literature on postmodernism and education agrees on postmodernism's central features. It emphasizes heterogeneity, difference, plurality, and the fragmentary. It is unified in its critique of the Enlightenment's positions--totality, unity, representational and objective concepts of knowledge and truth. The pedagogy of Paulo Freire intersects with feminist postmodern pedagogy since both are grounded in a vision of justice and empowerment and based on political identification with subordinate and oppressed groups. Despite this commonality, feminists who are influenced by postmodern thought are skeptical of Freire's critical pedagogy. They have developed a discourse that questions dialogue, empowerment, and student voice and assert that, although dialogue and empowerment are fundamental elements of critical pedagogies, they are difficult to obtain when groups have a heterogeneous composition. Postmodernism has turned attention to the construction of dominant discourses and the necessity of challenging them. Educators need to assist learners in contesting the image of the illiterate adult. Connected to this is the issue of representation and creating spaces for learners to enter the conversations from which they are so often excluded because they are "other." The tendency, even among critical educators, to deny diversity among learners must be overcome so that educators begin to look at what literacy means to women. | [FULL TEXT]

Camperell, Kay, Ed.; And Others (1995).  Linking Literacy: Past, Present, and Future.  [Yearbook of the American Reading Forum] 

The papers in this book focus on the strategies, practices, theory, or research related to emergent literacy, elementary and secondary reading, literature, philosophy, affective issues, school improvement, teacher training, and assessment that are related in important ways to issues in past, present and future reading education. Papers in the book are: "Why Do We Have to Read This Anyway?" (Thomas H. Estes); "Toward a Feminist Pedagogy of Difference" (Donna E. Alvermann); "We're All in This Together: Difference, Pedagogy, and Critical Literacy" (Patrick Shannon); "Critics and Workers--Lessons on Fame and Pain" (Rick Erickson); "Some Funny Things Happened on My Way to the Forum" (Wayne Otto); "Call to Forum: A Dream about Gatto's 'Dumbing Us Down'" (Thomas Cloer, Jr.); "Effects of Anchored Instruction on Preservice Teachers' Knowledge Acquisition and Problem Solving" (Victoria J. Risko); "Explorers of the Universe: An Action Research Scientific Literacy Project" (Marino C. Alvarez); "Who Taught You How To Do That? Insights into Literacy Learning in a Student-Centered Nongraded Classroom" (Mona W. Matthews); "Results of Collaboration between College and Schools with a Parent Involvement Reading Program" (Shara B. Curry); "The Effects of Read-Along Tapes on the Reading Comprehension of Middle School Students" (Thomas Cloer, Jr. and Gail R. Denton); "Authentic Assessment and Literacy Instruction: Exactly Where Are We?" (Karen Ford and others); "Creating an Informal Reading-Thinking Inventory" (Anthony V. Manzo and others); "Cultural Values as Depicted in Hispanic Contemporary Fiction Books Written for Children" (Nelly Hecker and Bob W. Jerrolds); "Not Newbery but National Issues for Developing Higher Level Literacy" (Louise M. Tomlinson); "Linking Literature-Based Reading of Today with Literature-Based Instruction in the Past" (Janet A. Miller); and "A Participant-Observer's Notes Regarding a Problems Court Session at the American Reading Forum, 1994" (Wayne Otto and others). | [FULL TEXT]

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Can

_____. (1994).  Canadian Journal for the Study of Adult Education = la Revue canadienne pour l'etude de l'education des adultes. 1987-1994. 

These 17 issues include feature articles and perspectives on the study of adult education, as well as book reviews/recensions of works related to adult education. Some articles are written in English, and some are written in French. Among the feature articles included are the following: "The Fifties: Pivotal Decade in Canadian Adult Education" (Selman); "'A Most Insistent Demand': The Pas Experiment in Community Education, 1938-1940" (Welton); "Feminist Discourse and the Research Enterprise: Implications for Adult Education Research" (Warren); "The Effectiveness of Education Interventions in the Development of Nontraditional Occupational Role Identification" (Brook); "Learning to Name Our Learning Processes" (Griffin); "Learning and Philosophy of Mind" (Selman); "1972--Year of Affirmation for Adult Education" (Selman); "Adult Education and Public Funding Policies: The 'Whiskey-Money' in Britain and Its Implications for Adult Education in Canada" (Keane); "Survey of Adult Education Research in Canada" (Garrison; Baskett); "International Studies in Graduate Programs in Adult Education in Canada" (Draper); "Factor Structure of Variables Associated with Dropout: A Confirmatory Study" (Garrison); "Women as Learners: Issues for Visual and Virtual Classrooms" (Burge); "Study of the Student Retention Effort in the New Brunswick Community College System" (Phillips); "Critical Adult Education: A Response to Contemporary Social Crisis" (Little); "Can Critical Theory Save Adult Education from Post-Modernism?" (Finger); "Preparation for Partnership: Reform of Professional Education" (Stewart); "Women's Learning: Implications for Adult Education Research and Practice" (Smith); "Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives on Marine Incidents and Their Prevention through Education" (Boshier); "Personal Change through Participation in Social Action: A Case Study of Ten Social Activists" (Scott); "Educative or Miseducative Work: A Critique of the Current Debate on Work and Education" (Hart); "Political Economy of Adult Education in Comparative Perspective: A Critique of Mainstream Adult Education Models in Canada, Mexico, and Tanzania" (Torres; Schugurensky); "Organizing with Immigrant Women: A Critique of Community Development in Adult Education" (Lee); "Teaching Activists for Social Change: Coming to Grips with Questions of Subjectivity and Domination" (Razack);"Adult Learner/Teacher Relationship and Sexual Harassment: De-meaning Traditions" (Stalker); "Tele-Distance Education in Women's Studies: Issues for Feminist Pedagogy" (Smith; Norlen); and "Educating Union Canada" (Spencer). | [FULL TEXT]

Canniff, Julie G. (1998).  On Living Well in Our Place: Earlier Rural Reform Movements. 

The Country Life Movement in the United States (1900-1920) emerged in response to the migration of rural people to the cities and the rising obsession with scientific knowledge. Modernizing rural areas and their institutions was seen as necessary to sustain rural communities at the economic and social levels of urban centers. Liberty Hyde Bailey, Horace Plunkett, and Theodore Roosevelt contributed ideas to the Country Life Movement. Three main themes of the movement were community sustainability, redirected community institutions, and participatory democracy. To this end, farmers were organized into cooperatives. Reforming rural education was central to the movement. The Cooperative Extension Service was born, and consolidated schools that served rural needs were advocated to connect farm families to their local villages. The Antigonish Movement in Canada (1920-1950) sought to build up the spiritual and material wealth of society by meeting the needs and concerns of local communities. The tool for this was extension education; experts were removed from universities and placed side by side with leaders in small, poor communities. The Annenberg Rural Challenge intends to become a millennial educational reform movement by recommitting to these earlier movements' principles of economic sustainability; pedagogy that uses the community as laboratory and text; involvement of parents, congregations, community leaders, and local businesses in the day-to-day activities of the school; and development of leadership through direct action on behalf of the community. | [FULL TEXT]

Cantor, Jim (1997).  The Development of Beginning Teachers as Social Justice Educators in the Context of a School-University Partnership. 

This case study explored the socialization of four beginning teachers as they engaged in the pre-induction and induction years of professional training. The analysis provided information about what contributes to the development of beginning teachers as they participate in school communities engaged in inquiry, and as they grapple with issues of social injustice. The four case studies were examined in terms of social justice education, attitudes towards the teaching profession, why the participants wanted to become teachers, their development as social justice educators, support, collaborative school-university activities, inquiry as a means for school reform and teacher education, constructivist pedagogy, and collaboration. Preliminary findings suggested that the guiding teachers and student teaching experience are seen by novice teachers as major influences. Also, findings indicated that issues of survival are much more important to these beginning teachers than social justice education. | [FULL TEXT]

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Cap

Capossela, Toni-Lee (1992).  Writing and Critical Thinking: Points of Convergence, Points of Divergence. 

Critical thinking and writing, a marriage originally made in heaven, is only now beginning to recover from a long and sterile period of estrangement. John Dewey described critical thinking as a complex, transactional, context-based web of activity involving the whole person, an activity which writing both demonstrates and promotes. The estrangement between writing and critical thinking began in the 1940s, when educators tried to quantify and assess critical thinking. Today there is a renaissance of Dewey's holistic approach to critical thinking, with theorists like John McPeck, Chet Meyers, and Anthony Petrosky envisioning it as the basic epistemic of every course. Further, these and other theorists are realizing that writing both demonstrates and fosters critical thinking. The link between writing and critical thinking is fundamental to several influential and rival composition theories: the cognitive approach, the social constructionist approach, and the epistemic approach. Writing becomes a form of learning in and of itself through the epistemic approach, as exemplified by the writing assignments for the difficult, often thorny reading selections found in the anthology "Ways of Reading." Finally, composition teachers are borrowing from the specific vocabulary and methodologies of critical thinking, and often are attributing the success of their pedagogy to its foundations in critical thinking concepts, thus emphasizing a solid reconciliation and a future of joint creativity. (Eighteen references are attached.)

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Car

Carey-Webb, Allen, Ed.; Benz, Stephen, Ed. (1996).  Teaching and Testimony: Rigoberta Menchu and the North American Classroom. 

The articles collected in this book use the testimonial narrative of Rigoberta Menchu, a Mayan-Quiche of Guatemala and winner of the 1992 Nobel Peace Prize, to engage students in vital and relevant cross-cultural learning in a variety of disciplines, locations, and levels. The book tells teachers' stories of using Menchu's testimonial in their classrooms, and invites reflection on the transformative possibility of integrating previously marginalized voices. The 28 articles in the collection include: "From Peasant to National Symbol" (Arturo Arias); "Why Dinesh D'Souza Has It in for Rigoberta Menchu" (Gene H. Bell-Villada); "Official Violence and Folk Violence: Approaching 'I, Rigoberta Menchu' from the Perspectives of Folklife and Peace Studies" (William Westerman); "Literature from the Land Between: A High School Unit on Central American Literature" (Judith E. Petersen); "The Testimony of Rigoberta Menchu in the Foreign Language Curriculum" (Sharon Ahern Fechter); "Having to Read a Book about Oppression: Encountering Rigoberta Menchu's Testimony in Boulder, Colorado" (Robin Jones); "Passion and Politics: Teaching Rigoberta Menchu's Text as a Feminist (Stacey Schlau); "Testimony in an Adolescent Day Treatment Center: Rigoberta Menchu and At-Risk Youth" (Angela Wilcox Moroukian); "Not Just Plain English: Teaching Critical Reading with "I, Rigoberta Menchu'" (Clyde Moneyhun); "A Window of Opportunity: An Ethics of Reading Third-World Autobiography" (Janet Varner Gunn); "Supplementing the Standard Curriculum: Twain's 'Connecticut Yankee' and Menchu's 'Indian Woman of Guatemala'" (Geraldine T. Rodriguez); "Bridging the Gap: Modes of Testimony and Teaching Central American Politics" (Daniel Goldrich); and "Rigoberta Menchu's Secret: Culture and Education" (John Willinsky). Appendixes contain teaching materials for "I, Rigoberta Menchu"; film/video resources; and Guatemalan resources/activism.

Carlson, David, Ed.; And Others (1997).  Resources for Teaching Linear Algebra. MAA Notes Volume 42. 

This book takes the position that the teaching of elementary linear algebra can be made more effective by emphasizing applications, exposition, and pedagogy. It includes the recommendations of the Linear Algebra Curriculum Study Group with their core syllabus for the first course, and the thoughts of mathematics faculty who have taught linear algebra using these recommendations. Part I, The Role of Linear Algebra, highlights the fact that algebra appears in many places in mathematics and outside of mathematics and in these many places, appears under many guises. Part II, Linear Algebra as Seen from Client Disciplines, presents views of linear algebra from four disciplines outside mathematics: (1) computer graphics; (2) computer science; (3) economics; and (4) engineering. Part III, The Teaching of Linear Algebra, contains articles on "how to" suggestions, general presentations on teaching issues by mathematicians involved in linear algebra, and the views of mathematics educators on linear algebra teaching issues and teaching reform efforts in linear algebra. Part IV, Linear Algebra Exposition, contains four papers that are classified as purely exposition of linear algebraic ideas. Part V, Applications of Linear Algebra, offers instructors six articles on applications which could be of use in the classroom.

Carpenter, Vicki; McMurchy-Pilkington, Colleen; Sutherland, Sue (1999).  What Is Successful Pedagogy in Auckland's Low Decile Primary Schools? Preliminary Findings. 

In New Zealand, schools are given decile rankings based on census reports of parental socioeconomic status. An ongoing project seeks to identify beliefs and attitudes that make a teacher's work successful in low-decile primary schools in the greater Auckland area. This paper focuses on three teachers whose professional practice was considered exceptional by colleagues and outside academics. All three were of European descent and worked in low-decile elementary schools where most students were of Maori or Pacific Island descent. Interviews were conducted with the teachers, their principal, teaching colleagues, Board of Trustees members, and community members with children enrolled in the school. The interviews revealed key common attributes. All three teachers articulated a clear and strong philosophical approach to teaching that included commitment to the empowerment of learners. Underlying this commitment were beliefs about children: (1) children can be self-managing learners if they have structures and routines, high teacher expectations, and positive role models; (2) children are community members, they should be taught social skills, and their cultural backgrounds should be valued and included in school; and (3) children can succeed if someone believes in them and they have a safe, noncompetitive environment. All three teachers were lifelong learners who shared a personal and public passion for learning. The teachers shared strong loving relationships with children and created caring environments in their classrooms and the school. | [FULL TEXT]

Carr, Alison A.; Jonassen, David H.; Marra, Rose M.; Litzinger, Mary Ellen (1998).  Good Ideas To Foment Educational Revolution: The Role of Systemic Change in Advancing Situated Learning, Constructivism, and Feminist Pedagogy.  Educational Technology, 38, 1. 

Examines the merits of situated learning, constructivism, and feminist pedagogy as educational reforms. In each case, the theoretical construct is described, justified (in terms of why it improves learning experiences), and defended based on research in the field. The constraints on systemic change and the problem of seeing its implementation to reach its full potential are also discussed.

Carrell, Michael R.; Carlson, Rosemary (1998).  Using Distance Learning To Meet a Rural Mission. 

This paper presents background on distance learning programs at Morehead State University (Kentucky), focusing on the development of the MBA (Master of Business Administration) program. Distance learning faculty training that included use of the technology, pedagogy alternatives, and the basic "Do's and Don'ts" of distance learning is summarized. These basic "Do's and Don'ts" for two-way audio/video and Internet distance learning, developed by several distance learning faculty, are listed. Findings of distance learning surveys that evaluated MBA students' perceptions of compressed video and Internet courses compared to traditional classrooms are discussed. Based on the results of the assessment surveys, it is concluded that students are satisfied with both the technology and the quality of learning. Two figures present survey results. | [FULL TEXT]

Carrier, Henry N.; Williams, Donald A. (1995).  A Grassroots Approach to Formulating a Multicultural, Interdisciplinary Core Curriculum. 

This paper reports on the study at Brevard Community College in Florida to discover how faculty and students can learn from each other. By examining the diverse elements of the college population and making the findings widely available, the disparate liberal arts courses and the diversity of participating faculty and students can become mutually enriching. The goal is to get students to discover America by using a problem-posing pedagogy that is based on a dialogue between students and faculty, and on collaboration in which the crucial issues of the time are set forth and exposed. Students are encouraged to question possibilities and make choices in order to participate in a community of scholars. The student survey with results, and the memo to faculty soliciting contributions, and sample faculty contributions are included. Contains a 55-item bibliography.  | [FULL TEXT]

Carroll, Michael Thomas, Ed. (1996).  No Small World: Visions and Revisions of World Literature. 

This collection of essays deals with world literature. The essays are focused on four primary goals: to map the conceptual and cultural problems inherent in common educational approaches to the subject which sometimes see world literature as a metanarrative of Western culture; to suggest new genres and perspectives; to consider specific curricular and pedagogical issues; and to introduce "new" texts for consideration. The 15 essays and their authors are: (1) "Richard Moulton and the Idea of World Literature" (Sarah Lawall); (2) "The Translator and the Voice of the Other: A Case in Point" (Marilyn Gaddis Rose); (3) "Anthologizing World Literature" (Jose J. de Vinck); (4) "Beyond the Looking Glass of Empire: The Colonization of Portuguese Literature" (Paulo de Medeiros); (5) "'Yes, I Can': Empowerment and Voice in Women's Prison Narratives" (Sharon Hileman); (6) "Sacriture: The Sacred as a Literary Genre" (Mackie J. V. Blanton); (7) "Nonnative English Literature and the World Literature Syllabus" (Ismail S. Talib); (8) "Contemporary Latin American Theater: Theatricality as a Key to Classroom Performance" (Howard M. Fraser); (9) "Mass, Multi, and High: Aeneas, Rambo, and the Pedagogy of 'World Lit'" (Michael Thomas Carroll); (10) "The Intellectual and Pedagogical Value of Traditional African Literature in the Western Classroom" (Erskine Peters); (11) "Haroun's Mystic Journey: Salman Rushdie's 'Haroun and the Sea of Stories'" (Aron Aji and Katrina Runge); (12) "Anthologies, Canonicity, and the Objectivist Imagination: The Case of George Oppen" (Dennis Young); (13)"The Recuperation of Canon Fodder: Walter Scott's 'The Talisman'" (Caroline McCracken-Flesher); (14) "A Different Kind of Hero: 'The Tale of Genji' and the American Reader" (Charles B. Dodson); and "'Singing in the Seams': Bharati Mukherjee's Immigrants" (Ranee Kaur Banerjee). Chapters contain references. | [FULL TEXT]

Carspecken, Phil Francis (1990).  Intersubjective Structure and Systems of Practice in School-Community Relations. 

Relations between schools and the adults within their surrounding communities are often problematic in inner city, low socioeconomic status neighborhoods. This paper analyzes features of the intersubjective structure of a group of working-class residents who took over and illegally ran their secondary school in Liverpool (England) for the 1982/83 school year. The school, Croxteth Comprehensive School, was occupied as part of a community movement to protest its closure. The paper analyzes the common sense assumptions held by the community about knowledge, pedagogy, classroom authority, school certificates, and other features of schooling. It finds evidence of a structure through which residents' views mutually implicate each other, though this is not apparent to the residents themselves. This intersubjective structure consists of two forms of implication: paradigm and homology. These forms of implication are related to two different forms in which systems of routine behavior are integrated. Social integration (the coordination of routines through face-to-face interactions) is associated with paradigmatic intersubjective structures, while system integration (the relationships between routines separated in time and space) is associated with homologous intersubjective structures. The study's results expand understanding of school-community relations, and of human rationality in relationship to routine social practices. | [FULL TEXT]

Carter, D. S. G. (1994).  Information Processing, Outcomes-Based Education, and the Management of Teaching and Learning. 

Outcomes-based education (OBE) is growing in stature in Australia and other Westernized nations. In Australia, education systems have adopted OBE within the framework of National Profiles curriculum statements in eight learning areas, including arts, health and physical education, science, English, languages other than English, mathematics, studies of science and environment, and technology. Schools must assess students' progress against more comprehensive outcomes and engage in evaluation and assessment of teaching in a publicly verifiable manner. The scope of these changes has overwhelmed many educators who do not have access to the most advanced information processing technology. Instructional Management Systems (IMS) utilizing computers are designed to manage many aspects of schooling: curriculum development, instruction, evaluation, and assessment. However, computer technology and its benefits to information flow have been slow to enter the classroom and instruction. A new curriculum model must be adopted that keeps up with and effectively manages emerging and rapidly changing information. Well constructed IMSs allow unobtrusive and automatic acquisition of data in areas of curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment. The IMSeries software provides the information management tools to meet educators' needs. | [FULL TEXT]

Cartwright, Patricia (1996).  Critical Literacy, Language and Journal Writing: Writing Pedagogy in a Bridging Program.  Australian Journal of Adult and Community Education, 36, 2. 

Journal entries of disadvantaged students in a preadmission prep course illustrate the potential of such "personal" writing to perform a powerful cultural critique and bridge the gap between academic and personal discourses. A conflict appeared between literate practices students already used and those they were expected to adopt in academia.

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Case, Karen I.; Oliver, Peter V. (1997).  Literacy and Urban Legitimacy: The Case of Political Discourse in an Urban School District. 

As a starting point in exploring issues of how texts and discourses are affiliated with differing kinds and levels of cultural capital and social power in institutional contexts, this paper considers the experiences of the Hartford (Connecticut) school district to provide definitions of literacy, discourse, and textuality, and their application to urban education, and to address methodology for urban reporting. The political implications of textual research for urban systems are also explored. This exploration of the institutionalizing of urban literacy focuses on discourse as it relates to social and political processes and outcomes, drawing on macrotextual analysis and viewing texts as symbolic actions or means to frame and define a situation. The frame suggested by J. Lemke (1995) of presentational, orientational, and organizational meaning can be applied to the institutionalizing of urban literacy and will be applied to writings from "The Hartford Courant" over a 3-year period. The use of this approach is illustrated through the examination of an article about the school district. When the presentational, orientational, and organizational stance of this type of urban reporting is examined, an intertextuality develops that is deeply political in nature. Public and professional debates in urban systems use systems of intertextuality or sets of preferred discourses. Urban reporting represents this intertextuality and functions as a legitimizing agency that naturalizes or disguises contributions to urban inequities. As textuality becomes a political battleground, the struggle becomes related to critical literacy, reemphasizing the need for educators to think politically about education. | [FULL TEXT]

Casella, Ronnie (1999).  Pedagogy as View Sequence: Popular Culture, Education, and Travel.  Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 30, 2n. 

Examines the economic and cultural construction of Latin America as an educational site for visitors, using analysis of brochures from 26 organizations advertising educational tours, fieldwork in an educational tour organization, and interviews with educational travelers. Educational travel to Latin America is construed as something quite different from what it usually becomes.

Casement, William (1996).  The Great Canon Controversy: The Battle of the Books in Higher Education. 

The debate over teaching the "canon," a collection of great books authored by Homer, Plato, Shakespeare, Kant, Darwin, and others that has traditionally represented the Western intellectual tradition, as a core of the college curriculum, is examined. Discussion begins with a description of how the canon has been taught from ancient Greece to the present, noting key arguments for this form of pedagogy that persist today, specific books taught at different times over the centuries, and past controversies over the canon. It then proceeds to an examination of anticanonism and the epistemological and political dimensions of the theory underlying it. Concrete examples of anticanonism currently in operation at colleges and universities are presented. It is argued that while much of what anticanonists say is hyperbolic or mistaken, their demand for fair treatment of works by marginalized authors and great non-Western works should be given consideration. This would mean re-examining works worthy of canonization that may have been obscured by prejudice, but requiring that these works be selected based on merit. Appended are a list of "great ideas," and reading lists from three schools with either canonical or anticanonical curriculums.

Castaneda, Lillian Vega (1992).  Improving Programs of Schools Serving Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Student Populations. 

The Metropolitan Educational Trends and Research Outcomes Center conducts Improving Programs of Schools Serving Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Student Populations, a survey to identify programs that have successfully addressed the needs of ethnically, linguistically, and culturally diverse students. This report presents a cross-sites analysis of critical program elements at eight sites (six in California, one in Massachusetts, and one in Arizona) to demonstrate effective ways of helping students develop English proficiency, including instructional practices, curriculum development, and program implementation. The sites studied were chosen because their documentation and support data allowed analysis of critical elements. Across the sites, teachers shared a positive vision of children and believed that all children can learn. In the area of language acquisition, teachers emphasized natural language learning prior to form. A general theoretical orientation indicated that children learn best by doing, experiencing, and practicing. Across the sites, holistic rather than discrete skills instruction was practiced. An in-depth analysis of a staff development program at one of the sites is included as an example of the pedagogy, practices, and theories present across the sites. Contains 22 references. | [FULL TEXT]

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Catalano, Anthony; Tillie, Della (1991).  Power and Involvement in Preservice Teacher Education. 

The research project described here explored the complexity of the relationships in a group supervision model of teacher education, focusing on the empowerment of teachers as confirmed by their involvement, collegiality, and reflection. The theoretical frameworks informing the project were: the concept of connectedness as described in feminist pedagogy; power relations as defined in critical and feminist theory; and relational theories from the fields of counseling and education. The research project was qualitative in design and used the following as data sources: weekly dialogue journals; audiotaped transcripts of weekly seminars; regular classroom observations; supervisors' journals; notes and videotapes of meetings; personal educational history interviews; questionnaires; and participants' responses on institutional evaluation instruments. The potentially problematic relationship of power and involvement was approached from a feminist perspective of connectedness using L. Penman's (1980) schema on power and involvement relationships as a framework for analysis and discussion. Case studies of four student teachers and the supervisory methods used with each supported and extended earlier research. Findings showed an increased level of participation among the students, a higher level of discourse in their interactions, increased degrees of intragroup consultation, and a greater understanding of themselves as teachers. | [FULL TEXT]

Catt, Robert; Eke, Jacqueline (1995).  Classroom Talk in Higher Education: Enabling Learning Through a Reflective Analysis of Practice.  Innovations in Education and Training International, 32, 4. 

Describes research at the Brunel University (England) School of Education that includes the investigation of pedagogy and student learning using empirical analysis of classroom talk; uses the context of a four-year teacher education degree course for analysis. Discusses pedagogical principles of constructivism and comments on student responses to learning activities and teaching style.

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Caughie, Pamela L. (1992).  "Not Entirely Strange,...Not Entirely Friendly": "Passing" and Pedagogy.  College English, 54, 7. 

Explores the authority of experience, the role it plays, and the limits it sets in teaching for diversity. Questions whether teachers can teach what they have never experienced. Discusses Nella Larsen's novel "Passing," with emphasis on the confusion of racial and sexual relations, as a difficult situation similar to the classroom.

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Cazabon, Benoit; Lafortune, Sylvie; Boissonneault, Julie (1998).  La pedagogie du francais langue maternelle et l'heterogeneite linguistique (The Pedagogy of French Native Langauge Instruction and Linguistic Heterogeneity). 

The report, entirely in French, presents a study of the instructional approaches used for French native language instruction at the elementary and secondary school levels in five regions of Ontario (northwest, northeast, mid-north, central, and east). It examined the nature and degree of linguistic heterogeneity and the distinctive traits of the linguistic groups in each of these regions and the cultural differences that influence the choice of instructional approaches and teaching methods. It then focused on the relationship between the administrative structures in place and the capacity to use strategies supporting the use of French. Finally, it examines the conceptual elements that can help establish a policy of language maintenance that encourages the blossoming of student skills in a linguistically heterogeneous environment and sustains a consistent educational vision in Ontario.  | [FULL TEXT]

Cazden, Courtney B. (1991).  Metalinguistic Awareness Revisited: Its Contribution to the Child's Appropriation of Form. 

Metalinguistic awareness is discussed in terms of the new national curriculum in English language education in Great Britain. A chronology is presented of events surrounding national curriculum legislation that prompted controversy in Britain concerning the teaching of the English language. One result of this legislation has been the creation of the Language in the National Curriculum (LINC) project, which provides materials and activities for the teacher training necessary for curriculum implementation. A piece of writing by a young child called "When I Was Naughty" is examined as a case study of ways of talking about features of a written text, and selected observations by teachers and language researchers who were asked to respond to the child's writing are described. The importance of distinguishing between two levels of awareness and two kinds of pedagogy: between focusing students' attention on aspects of language on the one hand, and teaching explicitly about language forms and functions on the other, is discussed. Two studies of young children are described to illustrate this difference. | [FULL TEXT]

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_____. (1995).  Celebrating Excellence: Learning and Teaching in Adult Higher Education. National Conference on Alternative and External Degree Programs for Adults (15th, Columbus, Ohio, October 5-7, 1995). 

These 23 presentations are organized in five categories: diversity, assessment, distance education, learning, and teaching. Five papers on diversity include the following: "From Rosie the Riveter to Comparable Worth: The Infusion of Gender and Women's Issues into an Interdisciplinary Curriculum for Working Adults" (Linda L. Hulbert, Theodore A. Kotila); "A Bosnian Muslim, a Thai and a South Vietnamese Buddhist Meet the Christian College" (Pauline M. Coffman); "Civic Action and Public Education: The Australian Experience" (Alastair Crombie, Roger Morris); "Studying and Teaching Cultural Diversity in a Police Department, a Chemical Plant, and an Adult Degree Program" (Elliott Lauderdale et al.); and "Exploring Faculty Perceptions of the Importance of Multicultural Adult Education: Who Cares?" (Ian Baptiste et al.). Five presentations deal with assessment: "Innovations in the Assessment of Experiential Learning" (Richard Ashbrook et al); "Transformative Learning and Prior Learning Assessment" (LeAnn K. McGinley); "Outcomes Study for SUNY [State University of New York]/Empire State College's Independent Business Education Program" (Carolyn C. Shadle); "Choices and Consequences in the Assessment of Adult Learning Outcomes" (Richard Ashbrook et al.); and "Prior Experiential Learning Assessment: Loosening the Grip of the Course-Equivalency Model" (Thomas G. Travis). The five presentations on distance education are as follows: "Distance Learning and the Reconceptualization of Education for Adults" (Donald J. MacIntyre); "Interactive Television: An Adventure in Graduate Education" (Norman L. Sommers); "Individualized Mentoring and Distance Learning: An Experiment that Works" (Anne Cobb, Thomas Rocco); "Integrating Student Services into Distance Learning" (Ann Hall, Peggy Falkenstein); and "Organization and Pedagogy in the Online Seminar" (Roger C. Cranse). Three papers focus on learning: "Connecting Learning and Activism: An Experiment in Adult Higher Education" (Gloria Still, Elene Kent); "Leadership with the Self, through the World, into the Future: Excellence in Education for Adult Learners" (Caroline L. Bassett); and "Making Excellence Possible: Contextualized Learning and Praxis" (Mary E. Boyce, John W. Willets). The five presentations on teaching are as follows: "A Competency Model for Instructors in Adult Higher Education: A Work in Progress" (Stephen M. Brown, John Foran); "The Teaching Portfolio: An Individual Creation" (Beverly K. Firestone); "Using Storytelling to Identify Practice-Based Competencies of Advising" (M. B. Fiddler); "Teaching in the Learner-Centered Environment: A Job Description" (Carla R. Payne, John R. Goss, III); and "Mentoring Adults: Universal Education for the Twenty-First Century?" (Xenia Coulter, Irene Rivera de Royston). | [FULL TEXT]

Celce-Muria, Marianne (1991).  Grammar Pedagogy in Second and Foreign Language Teaching.  TESOL Quarterly, 25, 3. 

To provide some perspective on current issues and challenges concerning the role of grammar in language teaching, methodological trends of the past 25 years are reviewed. A proposal for a decision-making strategy is provided for resolving the controversy regarding how much grammar one should teach to language learners.

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Cenoz, Jasone, Ed.; Genesee, Fred, Ed. (1998).  Beyond Bilingualism: Multilingualism and Multilingual Education. Multilingual Matters Series. 

This collection of essays on multilingual education includes the following: "A Global Perspective on Multilingualism and Multilingual Education" (G. Richard Tucker); "Psycholinguistic Perspectives on Multilingualism and Multilingual Education" (Jasone Cenoz, Fred Genesee); "Curriculum Decision-Making in Content-Based Language Teaching" (Myriam Met); "Immersion Pedagogy and Implications for Language Teaching" (Roy Lister); "Cultural Identities in Multilingual Classrooms" (Michael Byram); "Teacher Education for Multilingual Contexts: Models and Issues" (David Nunan, Agnes Lam); "Luxembourg and the European Schools" (Charlotte Hoffmann); "Multilingual Education in the Basque Country" (Jasone Cenoz); Teaching in Two or More Languages in the Philippine Context" (Andrew Gonzalez);"Policy, Possibility and Paradox: Indigenous Multilingualism and Education in Peru and Bolivia" (Nancy H. Hornberger, Luis Enrique Lopez); "A Case Study of Multilingual Education in Canada" (Fred Genesee); and "Eritrea: Developing a Programme of Multilingual Education" (Nadine Dutcher).

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Chambers, Ellie (1997).  Access At-a-Distance: Purposes and Pedagogy.  Staff and Educational Development International, 1, 1. 

Examines recent attempts by the Open University to widen access to higher education in the United Kingdom through provision of distance-taught access materials which may be studied prior to enrollment in the undergraduate program. The materials development approach taken is a discourse model which arises out of a view of learning as a sociocultural process of making meaning.

Chambers, Paul (1997).  California Proposition 187: Pickets and Pedagogy. 

The passage of California's Proposition 187 has mandated political and cultural debate in composition curriculum thus exploding the de-politicized composition classroom myth. As this anti-immigration initiative of 1994 applied to education, it most directly affected K-12, but it also represented a huge financial impact to higher education. It made undocumented immigrants ineligible for public social services, public health care, and public education at every level. Little of the heated pre-election rhetoric came from the academic community. Although the teachers' union donated $350,000 to combat 187, education's stance was not unified. The State Board of Education, for example, refused to endorse opposition. Proposition 187 passed with a 59% "yes" vote. Scores of academic senates, student groups, and professional organizations reacted with angry statements. The question is not whether 187 is right or wrong, but why there was an absence of pre-election debate. Where was the access to political discourse? Should not informed debate be a natural function of an educated society? This dialectic learning should be mirrored in a composition classroom. People should be taught that in a democracy they can have access to critical political inquiry through communication. | [FULL TEXT]

Chambers, Tony; And Others (1995).  African American Faculty and White American Students: Cross-Cultural Pedagogy in Counselor Preparation Programs.  Counseling Psychologist, 23, 1. 

Faculty and students, who come from culturally and/or racially different background, experience the development of culturally competent counseling skills and knowledge in different ways. This article reviews factors that influence learning and teaching in counselor preparation programs when the teacher is African American and the students are white Americans.

Chaney, Bradford (1994).  Teachers' Academic Backgrounds and Student Outcomes in Science and Mathematics: NSF/NELS:88 Teacher Transcript Analysis. 

This study focused on teachers' academic preparation for teaching science and mathematics, as measured by the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) which collected data for a nationally representative sample of 26,435 8th-grade students clustered within 1,052 schools. The relationship between teachers' academic preparation, their subsequent teaching methods, and student outcomes as measured by student scores on proficiency exams was examined. On average, student proficiency scores were best if their teachers had grade point averages above 3.0 in science or mathematics. Further, students in mathematics performed best if their teachers had taken advanced mathematics courses, while courses in mathematics pedagogy only provided an extra benefit if teachers had also taken advanced mathematics courses. Students in science showed small differences based on the number of science courses their teachers had taken, but no difference based on courses in science education. | [FULL TEXT]

Chapman, Ernest (1997).  Nurse Education: A Feminist Approach.  Nurse Education Today, 17, 3. 

Explores four questions: Should nursing education models reflect a feminist orientation? What are the characteristics of a feminist model? How would it succeed? and What would be its limitations?

Chappel, Deborah K. (1992).  The Stories We Tell: Acknowledging Emotion in the Classroom.  ADE Bulletin

Narrates two classroom experiences to demonstrate how the emotions that seem most out of place in the classroom can provide the basis for a radical pedagogy.

Chappell, Virginia A. (1994).  But Isn't This the Land of the Free? Resistance and Discovery in Student Responses to Manzanar. 

"Farewll to Manzanar" (Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston and James Houston), autobiographical account of the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II, might be used in a writing class to help students think deliberately about race and ethnicity. Writing about the book and researching the history surrounding it could serve to complicate student views of the world; it allows them to write about the government and the role the individual citizen plays in preventing the government from committing atrocities. In short, the autobiography is a means of confronting naivete. An instructor at Marquette University, however, found that her own naivete was confronted along with that of the students. If she was prepared for her students to find the internment disconcerting, she was not prepared for their "resistance": some denied that the internment was racially motivated; some suggested it was necessary; some condemned the Japanese Americans for their passive compliance with the government order and their continued belief in that government. Through a pedagogy that capitalizes on such resistance, however, students can be moved toward what Fletcher Blanchard has termed "interracial competence," a stance that would respect race and appreciate difference. In their writings, students register an increasing awareness of the complexity of racial and political issues. Having read the autobiography's first chapter, one student writes that she is ashamed of her country, while another student wonders how she could have allowed herself to wonder if those in the camps did not have it better than others. | [FULL TEXT]

Chappell, Virginia A. (1995).  Theorizing in Practice: Tutor Training "Live, from the VAX Lab."  Computers and Composition, 12, 2. 

Suggests that weekly participation in an e-mail discussion group by students in a tutor-training class led to productive dialogue concerning intersections between composition theory/research and writing center pedagogy. Argues for the value of asynchronous conferencing as a writing-to-learn methodology particularly relevant to the collaborative processes at the heart of writing centers.

Charney, Davida; And Others (1995).  "I'm Just No Good at Writing": Epistemological Style and Attitudes toward Writing.  Written Communication, 12, 3. 

Assesses writing attitudes and epistemologies of 117 first-year and 329 upper-level undergraduates. Uses attitude scales and epistemological scales. Finds that students with higher "evaluatism" scores tended to enjoy writing more, and that differences in attitudes and epistemologies emerged between men and women and among upper-level students in four disciplinary groups. Discusses implications for writing pedagogy.

Chatham, James R. (1994).  Dissertations on Ibero-Romance Languages and Linguistics Accepted at Iberian Universities Since 1980. 

This bibliography is the first part of an update of the "Western European Dissertations on the Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian Languages and Literatures: A Retrospective Index (1984)," which lists 6,050 dissertations from the early 19th century through 1980. Twenty universities on the Iberian Peninsula granted approximately half of the total for Western Europe. The scope of the 528 dissertations listed in this supplement is limited, with a few exceptions, to doctoral dissertations on the Romance languages and dialects of Portugal, Spain, and Ibero-America. Also included are studies of bilingualism, translations, and pedagogy involving Catalan, Galician, Portuguese and Spanish. Dissertations on aspects of second language teaching or learning are listed, and studies and editions of historical documents, "fueros," chronicles, and histories of the Middle Ages are included. Entries are also given for studies of library collections, archives, and the press. This update was made through study of records at universities in Madrid and Lisbon and consultation of other published sources. The bibliography includes an author list and an index. | [FULL TEXT]

Chavez, Rudolfo Chavez (1996).  Multicultural Education in the Everyday: A Renaissance for the Recommitted. 

This primer on multicultural education pedagogy reports on the knowledge base for multicultural education, and challenges and critiques teacher educators. An introduction describes the demographic and intellectual context for multicultural education, outlines the composition of the primer, and argues that the primer is primarily an exercise in "imaging" to develop an intellectual, emotional, and ethical force for teacher educators. Part 1, "Markers in the Multicultural Teacher Education Terrain," provides theoretical background by outlining issues that are integral to the multicultural terrain and crucial concepts fundamental to teacher development in a diverse and pluralistic society. It argues that teacher educators must assist students to take ethical stands that will mirror emancipatory social practices rooted in the historical experiences of both the victims and victimizers. Part 2, "A Vision for a Multicultural Education," explores four themes: pedagogical practices, multicultural education and self, synchrony of multicultural discourse in curriculum and instruction, and the passion to liberate and challenge existing paradigms. Part 3, "A Story in the Politics of a Multicultural Education Pedagogy and Deception of Political Correctness," shares student evaluations of the multicultural education course (1991-1994) and makes a case for the urgency of the reasons for multicultural education. | [FULL TEXT]

Chavez, Rudolfo Chavez, Ed.; O'Donnell, James, Ed.; Sleeter, Christine E., Ed. (1998).  Speaking the Unpleasant. The Politics of (non)Engagement in the Multicultural Education Terrain. SUNY Series, The Social Context of Education. 

This book addresses the clashing, controversial ideological and ontological postures that emanate when multicultural education issues are the sum and substance for engagement by learners in various educational settings. After a preface (C.E. Sleeter) and foreword "Tongue-Tying Multiculturalism" (D. Macedo), the book offers the following 17 essays: (1) "Engaging the Multicultural Education Terrain: A Holographic Montage for Engagers" (R.C. Chavez); (2) "From Claiming Hegemony to Sharing Space: Creating Community in Multicultural Courses" (S. Nieto); (3) "Mediating Curriculum: Problems of Nonengagement and Practices of Engagement" (B. Cross); (4) "Engaging Students' Re-Cognition of Racial Identity" (J. O'Donnell); (5) "Toward a Just Society: Recalibrating Multicultural Teachers" (L.T. Diaz-Rico); (6) "Fostering Engagement: Barriers in Teacher Education" (G.S. Cannella); (7) "Confessions of a Methods Fetishist: Or, the Cultural Politics of Reflective Nonengagement" (M. Dressman); (8) "Upstream in the Mainstream: Pedagogy Against the Current" (R.E. Bahruth and S.F. Steiner); (9) "Engaging Special Education Practitioners with Language and Culture: Pitfalls and Challenges" (J. De Leon, C. Medina, and R. Ortiz); (10) "Exploring the Use of History in Multicultural/Multilingual Teacher Education" (K. Tellez and S. O'Malley); (11) "The Struggle for Cultural Self: From Numb to Dumb" (S.M. Rumann); (12) "Challenging Privilege: White Male Middle-Class Opposition in the Multicultural Education Terrain" (R. Smith); (13) "Moving Off Center: Engaging White Education Students in Multicultural Field Experiences" (C.R. O'Grady); (14) "Identity and Engagement in Multicultural Education" (B.J. Cahill and E.M. Adams); (15) "Lowering the Shields: Reducing Defensiveness in Multicultural Education" (D.J. Goodman); (16) "(E)strange(d) Relations: Psychological Concepts in Multicultural Education" (N. Lesko); and (17) "Teaching Within/Against the Backlash: A Group Dialogue About Power and Pedagogy in the 1990's" (G.L. Anderson, M. Bentley, B. Gallegos, K. Herr, and E. Saavedra). (All papers contain references.)

Chazan, Daniel; Ball, Deborah (1995).  Beyond Exhortations Not To Tell: The Teacher's Role in Discussion-Intensive Mathematics Classes. NCRTL Craft Paper 95-2. 

This paper investigates the teacher's role in discussion-intensive pedagogy, arguing that one of the teacher's roles is to support an atmosphere of intellectual ferment. It offers possible language and stance for examining, describing, and analyzing these aspects of classroom discourse; language that is capable of finer distinctions, and a stance that is less aimed at evaluation. Teachers must manage productively the inevitable disagreements among students and between students and accepted mathematics. They must focus discussions, clarify students' views, and engage students in the examination of others' ideas. Making substantive mathematical comments or "telling" is one way that teachers can move students away from entrenched disagreements or provide useful disequilibrium and disagreement in the classroom. Two actual classroom episodes are presented to ground the discussion in a close view of the challenges posed for the teacher's role, followed by an analysis of the situations and the pedagogical issues posed. | [FULL TEXT]

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Cheatham, Harold E.; Phelps, Christine E. (1995).  Promoting the Development of Graduate Students of Color.  New Directions for Student Services

Argues that multicultural coursework, pedagogy, and support services, which honor diverse needs and voices, can enhance the environment for graduate students of color. Examines problems faced by students of color; ways to bolster recruitment, retention, and support programs; faculty-student interaction; classroom interaction; professional development opportunities; and curriculum.

Chen, Chung-Chih; Taylor, Peter Charles; Aldridge, Jill M. (1998).  Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches in a Cross-National Study of Teacher Beliefs about Science. 

This paper reports on the latest outcomes of an ongoing cross national research project that examines the relationship between teachers' beliefs about the nature of science and the classroom learning environment from a reform-oriented constructivist perspective in junior high school science classrooms in Australia and Taiwan. The focus is on an innovative Australian science teacher who developed a pedagogy relatively free from the traditional science curriculum imperatives. The significance of this case study lies in what it can tell about how teachers who have relatively postmodern beliefs about the nature of science might go about creating classroom environments in which students' own life interests are a central focus of their learning activities. Such learning environments are of interest to those who are concerned with constructivist pedagogical reform that builds on students' extant perspectives, interests, and goals towards learning and themselves. Contains 19 references. | [FULL TEXT]

Chen, Li-Tsu (1999).  Cultural Practices in Making of Installation Art: A New Perspective to Preparing Future Art Teachers. 

In Taiwan, traditional pedagogy and technique-oriented teaching methods have become too outdated to enable students to fight with a society full of complicated and confusing socio-cultural phenomena. An art education curriculum change is needed, and innovative art programs should be developed with careful consideration of the socio-cultural environment. After exploring the cultural and educational implications in installation art, this paper proposes a model of a creative art program by integrating installation art with craft-making classes for art teachers. The paper contends that the craft-making class could be integrated with learning installation art as a more updated, innovative form of promoting visual communication, personal expression, and socio-cultural commentary. An art program was designed to serve 240 preservice teachers who took an arts and crafts courses, the fourfold goal of which stressed: (1) introducing students to multiple aspects of installation art; (2) sharpening students' thinking about themselves; (3) developing their sensitivity and flexibility toward creative art teaching; and (4) bridging students' social lives with art experience. It implemented through strategies of creative art teaching such as looking-and-talking-about art, questioning-and-answering, team work, group discussion, and Six-W reflective thinking. Contains a diagram with an overview of the flexible structure of the program and 7 references. | [FULL TEXT]

Chen, Pai-lin; Chung, Deborah S.; Crane, Amanda; Hlavach, Laura; Pierce, Jacqueline; Viall, Elizabeth K. (1999).  Pedagogy under Construction: Learning To Teach Collaboratively. 

Doctoral-level students in a mass communication pedagogy class conducted a quasi-experimental study based entirely on constructivism. The students (n=6) became equal partners with the professor by practicing collaborative learning, ownership, and authenticity. Constructivists see knowledge as actively constructed by learners, not passively acquired from instructors. The students built their own knowledge through selecting the content, teaching the course, choosing projects and assignments, reflecting on the class, assessing the students, and working collaboratively. While some students may not be ready to accept responsibility for their education because of maturity or indoctrination in traditional learning methods, the group believes that the benefits of constructivism outweighs its disadvantages. Results suggest that constructivism should be incorporated into all levels of mass communication higher education. It can be practiced in large classes or lower-level courses as students actively seek knowledge through choosing course content, working in real-world situations, participating in group projects or reports, and giving input on assessment. This breaks students from their dependence on instructors and readies them for lifelong learning where knowledge is constructed among people, not in solitary. Contains 30 references and 2 figures. An appendix contains course objectives, assignments, and a course calendar.  | [FULL TEXT]

Cherland, Meredith Rogers (1992).  Gendered Readings: Cultural Restraints upon Response to Literature.  New Advocate, 5, 3. 

Analyzes the conversation of sixth grade children in literature response groups. Finds and describes two distinctive gendered styles of talk about literature, the predominate female mode of response being the "discourse of feeling," and the predominate male mode of response being the "discourse of action." Discusses pedagogy that discourages gendered readings.

Cheung, K. C. (1990).  To Grow and Glow: Towards a Model of Teacher Education and Professional Development. 

This study was conducted in order to examine the process of teacher development in a close interplay between educational principles and classrooms in a Singapore practicum curriculum. The process of teacher development is regarded as a continuous, self-renewing, lifelong process. Since no comprehensive constructivist model of teacher development has been advanced in the literature to guide in the design of teacher education programs, this paper seeks to spell out the rationale and relationship of the four basic components of a teacher development program with respect to: (1) subject matter; (2) teaching methods; (3) educational principles; and (4) classroom practice. Humanistic constructivism provides the underlying philosophy and pedagogy of the proposed teacher development model. Through a better articulation of teacher roles, internalization of educational principles, and reflection of classroom practices, teachers' professional development grows. Based on this model of teacher development in a practicum curriculum, some research evidence of professional growth is presented using student teachers' self-appraisal of their own and their cooperating teachers' classroom practice.  | [FULL TEXT]

Cheung, K. C.; Taylor, Robert (1991).  Towards a Humanistic Constructivist Model of Science Learning: Changing Perspectives and Research Implications.  Journal of Curriculum Studies, 23, 1. 

Reviews theoretical developments in science education and integrates them into a humanistic constructivist model of science learning. Applies this model to the new English national science curriculum. Explains the changing focus in science curriculum and pedagogy. Discusses theories of science learning in relation to the Education Reform Act (England/Wales).

Cheung, K. C.; Toh, K. A. (1990).  In the Eyes of the Beholder: Beginning Teachers' Conception of the Nature of Science and Science Teaching. 

This paper seeks to explore how beginning elementary school teachers (N=161) in Singapore conceive the scope and nature of science and to understand the relationship between those views and their present approach to, as well as their past experience of, science teaching and learning. Results of an inquiry into the teachers' views indicate that these views are generally piecemeal and may not form coherent conceptual systems. These views are also at variance with those philosophical and historical views that are proposed by Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos, and Feyerabend. Some epistemological obstacles towards a constructivist pedagogy are discussed. Based on one model of teacher education and professional development, some suggestions on how teachers can consciously monitor and develop their pedagogy are provided. The findings provide a knowledge base for a more systematic intervention study in the local context in the future.  | [FULL TEXT]

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_____. (1993).  Children: Our Future. Proceedings of a Cross-Cultural Conference of Professionals (Petrozavodsk, Karelia, Russia, August 7-13, 1993). 

This document is the proceedings of a cross-cultural education conference held in Russia. The conference had four major themes: learning and development, family involvement in education, community and social context of education, and pedagogy. Educational levels discussed ranged from early childhood to university. The body of the document is abstracts of the conference sessions. This is divided into 10 sections: (1) social service and family support; (2) preschool and school pedagogy; (3) pedagogy in higher education; (4) legal issues of children and families; (5) aesthetic education; (6) children's physical and mental health; (7) ecological education; (8) the linguistic program for a Northern European international university; (9) university training for history teachers; and (10) computer science in education. Some specific topics discussed included: county social help systems in Minnesota; early childhood family education; democracy in the elementary school; developmentally appropriate strategies; rural education in North Dakota; foundations for development with children's art; authoritative parenting and teaching; and strategies for conceptual restructuring of early childhood, elementary, and secondary school students. The document also includes an appeal to President Yeltsin, conference recommendations, and appendices containing the conference schedule and brochure. | [FULL TEXT]

Chiaromonte, Tom (1990).  Early Childhood Education in China: Political Implications. 

This paper reviews the history of early childhood education in China between 1949 and 1990. After the Communist revolution in 1949, China's educational policy was modeled after the Soviet Union's. Preschool pedagogy emphasized conditioning children's behavior and providing a comfortable environment for children. The number of nurseries and kindergartens grew steadily in the late 1950s. After the Cultural Revolution in 1966, the emphasis in early childhood education changed from providing a comfortable environment to carrying out proletarian politics, and many preschools were closed. The administration of preschools was taken from trained professionals and given to ideologically correct committees. School activities, such as songs and stories, centered around revolutionary ideology. The purpose of preschools was to provide protective care and develop children who would continue the revolution. After the arrest of the Gang of Four in 1976, many preschools were reopened. China then turned to the United States and Japan for its early childhood education models. Practices common before the Cultural Revolution were restored. Needs currently faced by preschools are those of increasing children's science learning and correcting personality traits of single children which the government considers undesirable. A reference list of 15 items is provided. | [FULL TEXT]

Childers, Pamela B.; Hobson, Eric H.; Mullin, Joan A. (1998).  ARTiculating: Teaching Writing in a Visual World. 

Intended as a guide for teachers, this book discusses ways to exploit the intersections between the visual and the verbal to teach writing. Chapter 1, "Seeing Writing in a Visual World" (Eric H. Hobson), establishes the book's major premises. Chapter 2, "Postcards: Inside/Out" (Joseph F. Trimmer), describes engaging students in a whole course of reading, writing, researching, and speaking based on postcards and student-centered pedagogy. Chapter 3, "What's Art Have To Do with It?" (Pamela B. Childers), offers suggestions for engaging students in observing and writing, and focuses on using art to motivate those more visual than verbal. Chapter 4, "Alternative Pedagogy: Visualizing Theories of Composition" (Joan A. Mullin), describes how the author used another language, the language of architecture, to talk about writing. Chapter 5, "Teaching Writing in a Visual Culture across Disciplines" (Childers), describes how a visual-verbal approach can inform instruction across the secondary and post-secondary curriculum. Chapter 6, "The Civil War and Its Monuments: Visualizing the Past" (Richard H. Putney), describes how observing, creating visuals, and responding to them in writing can teach content in a history course. Chapter 7, "Beyond Visualizing a Community of Learners" (Mullin), describes a visual activity that identifies the visual characteristics of a subject and creates a collaborative working atmosphere among students. Chapter 8, "Drawing Students into Writing: A Faculty-Development Workshop" (Hobson), describes a faculty development workshop exploring the use of the visual in instruction. Each chapter is followed by a response by one of the book's authors. Contains a 50-item bibliography.

Childs, John Brown (1991).  Notes on the Gulf War, Racism, and African-American Social Thought: Ramifications for Teaching.  Journal of Urban and Cultural Studies, 2, 1. 

Development and enhancement of multicultural and antiracist educational objectives in classes and educational materials that analyze the connection between racism and militarism are crucial for the development of opposition to U.S. interventionism and war making. African-American community resistance to expressed government explanations of Gulf War policy provides an example.

Chineworth, Mary Alice, Ed. (1996).  'Rise 'n' Shine: Catholic Education and the African-American Community. 

African-Americans have been present in Catholic schools since their beginnings in the United States. The six essays in this book examine Catholic education from the perspective of the African-American Catholic. The essays underscore the continued challenge for continuing Catholic schools in the African-American community. They include: (1) an overview of African-American Catholic culture and history, by Dr. Giles A. Conwill; (2) suggestions for transforming the curriculum for inclusion, by Sr. Eva Regina Martin, SSF; (3) a philosophy of black religious pedagogy, by Dr. Joseph A. Brown, SJ; (4) an examination of evangelization and spirituality in the African-American Catholic experience, by Therese Wilson Favors and Beverly A. Carroll; (5) African-American leadership in Catholic education, by Dr. Loretta M. Butler; and (6) descriptions of model schools, by Beverly A. Carroll. References accompany each article. Samples of gospel reflections and accompanying African proverbs are offered in the fourth essay. | [FULL TEXT]

Chiong, Jane Ayers (1998).  Racial Categorization of Multiracial Children in Schools. Critical Studies in Education and Culture Series. 

The racial categorization of children has become increasingly important as a measure to ascertain diverse needs among students as well as the appropriate manner by which teachers and other school personnel might respond to such needs through increased awareness and understanding. Multiracial children, the offspring of multiple racial unions, have needs that are not being met because, among other things, they are categorized on the basis of one race only on school forms. To analyze the ways in which the needs of multiracial children are not being met, school and federal documents were reviewed, and interviews were conducted with 30 urban and suburban teachers, administrators, and other school personnel. Theories of radical pedagogy were used to analyze the role that these cultural forms and significant personnel might play in fostering or obstructing a positive racial identity in interracial children. Findings show that the multiracial child is still nearly invisible because he or she falls through the cracks of the country's attempt to keep races "pure," even though there is no such thing as racial purity. A new multiracial category will help multiracial students overcome current negative perceptions, shape new perceptions, and change the nature of the multiracial experience. Three appendixes contain examples of school forms and federal documents and a checklist of school services for multiracial students.

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Chmielecka, Ewa; Osterczuk, Anna M. (1995).  Emerging Business Schools in Poland.  Higher Education Management, 7, 3. 

Trends in postsecondary business education in Poland are examined, drawing on results of recent surveys. Topics addressed include the design and evaluation of programs at different levels, influences of Western programs and pedagogy, demand for business education, and implications for further development of the system.

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Chong, John K. S.; Vitton, John J. (1992).  Strategy Implementation Pedagogy: A Survey of AACSB-Accredited Business Schools.  Journal of Education for Business, 68, 2. 

U.S. business schools are increasingly criticized for producing graduates incapable of meeting the needs of action-oriented employers. A survey of 149 business schools accredited by the American Association of Collegiate Schools of Business revealed teaching methods commonly used, heavily covered strategy implementation topics, and reasons for omission of certain topics.

Choudhuri, Devika Dibya (1999).  Navigating the Role of Counselor Educator: The Counselor as Teacher. 

This paper explores the complexities in transitioning from the role of a counselor to that of a counselor educator, integrating a review of the literature on counselor pedagogy with personal experience. The role of the counselor, the teacher, and the parallels and disjunctions between those roles as well as possible ways to bridge them are among the topics examined. The paper discusses the apparent dearth of discussion and debate in the literature concerning the process of counselor education and supervision and the demands of the counselor educator role. In an effort to explore these concerns, the paper first traces the counselor role and its implications, focusing primarily on attributes of counselors. The role of the teacher is similarly explored for comparison with that of the counselor. Supervision is suggested as a potential conceptual bridge between counseling and teaching since it is as close to either role and shares much in common with both. Supervisors do engage in raising awareness, helping supervisees to examine aspects of themselves that may be stimulated by the process, as well as general self-exploration about professional development, ethical issues, or even personal issues. The paper concludes with a discussion on the process of becoming a counselor educator, subsequent learning experiences, and a beneficial model for the educating of counselors. | [FULL TEXT]

Chow, Esther Ngan-ling (1999).  Exploring Critical Feminist Pedagogy: The Dialogic, Experiential, and Participatory (DEP) Approach in Teaching and Learning. 

This essay uses the interplay of biography and the historical development of society to discuss how one female teacher has experienced learning and teaching throughout her life. It also presents the results of the teacher's exploration of the dialogic, experiential, and participatory (DEP) approach to teaching and learning that she has explored. The essay first examines how the colonized education that the teacher received as a child in Hong Kong and a patriarchal society shaped the ways that she was taught and her later teaching. Following this is an analysis of how the teacher's experience of feminist enlightenment and critical pedagogy contested the hegemonic culture and patriarchal rules of her past and opposed conventional teaching approaches. The DEP approach seemed to be a promising critical feminist pedagogy that offered an alternative to the domesticate mode of teaching, but the teacher has actually found it to be better in theory than in practice. Six issues of DEP implementation are outlined.

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Chrisman, Roger (1996).  Spelling Instruction in ESL: English Orthography and Resources for Spelling Instruction in English as a Second Language. 

A discussion of spelling instruction for learners of English as a second language (ESL) looks at writing systems, the literature of ESL instruction, and the literature of English language arts in general. It begins with a typology of writing systems, examining how they represent both grammatical and phonological features. The nature of English orthography is then explored, focusing on its evolution, the influence of morphology on it, and its regular and irregular features. Literature on the pedagogy of spelling is then reviewed, drawing from that of the language arts in general and of ESL instruction in particular. A number of recommendations for classroom spelling instruction are presented, including those concerning the role of reading, exploration of hidden structure in the English writing system, and degree of emphasis on spelling in language instruction. | [FULL TEXT]

Christensen, Norman F. (1991).  Avoidance Pedagogy in Freshman English.  Teaching English in the Two-Year College, 18, 2. 

Assails the problem of emphasizing "don'ts" in freshman English composition courses. Suggests remedies for negativism in teaching and calls for "delight" as a professional goal for freshman writing. Offers suggestions on selecting textbooks, maximizing student interaction in class, and bringing teacher writing into the classroom.

Christie, Alice Atkinson (1997).  Using E-Mail within a Classroom Based on Feminist Pedagogy.  Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 30, 2. 

This study of the effects of gender on computer use and telecommunications, analyzed e-mail, daily logs, newsletters, text and graphic documents, and transcripts of interviews with 30 elementary school children. Study found girls and boys used technology to confirm and defy gender stereotypes and that gender biases in classroom interactions were difficult to eliminate.

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Clark, Christine, Ed.; O'Donnell, James, Ed. (1999).  Becoming and Unbecoming White: Owning and Disowning a Racial Identity. Critical Studies in Education and Culture Series. 

Chapters in this book tell the stories of white multicultural educators who have experienced processes of transformation in their racial identities as White Americans from a racist to an antiracist consciousness. The chapters are: (1) "Rearticulating a Racial Identity: Creating Oppositional Spaces To Fight for Equality and Social Justice" (Christine Clark and James O'Donnell); (2) "Unthinking Whiteness, Rethinking Democracy: Critical Citizenship in Gringolandia" (Peter McLaren); (3) "Lighting Candles in the Dark: One Black Woman's Response to White Antiracist Narratives" (Beverly Daniel Tatum); (4) "Subverting Racism from Within: Linking White Identity to Activism" (Becky Thompson); (5) "Transforming Received Categories: Discovering Cross-Border Identities and Other Subversive Activities" (David Wellman); (6) "The Secret: White Lies Are Never Little" (Christine Clark); (7) "Becoming White: How I Got Over" (Arnold Cooper); (8) "Seeing Things as They Are" (Carolyn O'Grady); (9) "The Recollections of a Recovering Racist" (James O'Donnell); (10) "What Could a White Girl from South Boston Possibly Know about Racism? Reflections of a Social Justice Educator" (Mary M. Gannon); (11) "If You're Not Standing in This Line, You're Standing in the Wrong Line" (G. Pritchy Smith); (12) "Building Blocks: My Journey toward White Racial Awareness" (Patti DeRosa); (13) "'Justice, Justice Shalt Thou Do!'" (Elizabeth Aaronsohn); (14) "White Man Dancing: A Story of Personal Transformation" (Gary R. Howard); and (15) "Rewriting the Discourse of Racial Identity: Toward a Pedagogy and Politics of Whiteness" (Henry A. Giroux).

Clark, Cynthia E.; Brill, Dale A. (1997).  Modeling Public School Partnerships: Merging Corporate and Community Issues. 

This paper describes a model that merges corporate community relations strategy and public relations pedagogy to accelerate the rate at which Internet-based technologies are integrated into the public schools system. The model provides Internet-based training for a select group of Key Contacts drawn from two urban middle schools. Training is delivered by graduate students in Boston University's (Massachusetts) public relations program who have completed courses in the school's interactive media sequence. The Key Contacts are trained as change agents for their host schools and are provided with two mobile instruction units connected to the Internet using ISDN lines. The Key Contacts then conduct workshops, supported by continuous contact with the public relations graduate students, in their own schools and among their own teacher network. The model, known as the Boston University Public School Partnership (PSP), introduces a mutually beneficial relationship between a corporate sponsor (the NYNEX Foundation), public relations education, and public schools. This relationship serves to accelerate the rate of adoption of Internet-based instruction by middle school teachers while enhancing graduate students' real-world corporate community relations experiences. This paper is a starting-point for the PSP model which can be replicated in other universities.

Clark, Jane E., Ed. (1990).  Abstracts of Research Papers 1990. Presented at the Annual Convention Consortium Meetings of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (New Orleans, Louisiana, March 28-31, 1990). 

The abstracts in this volume cover the following topics: (1) administration, (2) biomechanics, (3) body composition, (4) curriculum, (5) dance, (6) health, (7) history, (8) leisure, (9) measurement, (10) motor development, (11) motor learning and control, (12) pedagogy, (13) philosophy, (14) physical fitness, (15) physiology, (16) psychology, (17) sociology, and (18) special populations. The name and address of the presenter is included with each abstract. | [FULL TEXT]

Clark, John M. (1994).  Applications of Gopher Information Systems for Composition Classes and Programs. 

Despite accompanying drawbacks, the Internet information system known as Gopher presents a rich variety of potential benefits to writing pedagogies and to educational administrators. Writing teachers need to overcome tendencies to think of exploration of the Internet information resources as something to be uncritically adopted and as something to be added to existing pedagogies without corresponding modifications in thinking and practice. Elements of a writing class likely to be affected by gopher exploration include: (1) greater student interactivity with the information they read; (2) greater student inventiveness; (3) meta-discourse and meta-learning; (4) greater "virtuality" of the classroom; (5) students' awareness of themselves as both audience and as rhetor; (6) evaluation of students' writing; (7) student observation and participation in the continuous revision of gopher sites; (8) the role of the teacher; and (9) students thinking of pre-existing texts as information sources rather than as discourses to be emulated. General ideas for gopher-based writing pedagogy include asking students to learn about a place or topic using gopher; having students describe a gopher site; and having students construct guides to gopher sites. Using a sequence of three lesson plans, students can be introduced to a gopher-based writing pedagogy. Bowling Green State University's General Studies Writing program, like an increasing number of academic departments and programs, is using a gopher server as an aid to its operations. Fear of the unknown appears to be the largest single constraint for both students and instructors in acquiring skills and knowledge via gopher explorations. Gopher-based assignments are best evaluated as a part of a process rather than as an end in themselves, and the evaluation of such assignments should be flexible enough to allow for indeterminable outcomes.

Clark, Linda; And Others (1992).  Project 30 and the Pedagogy Seminars: A Report to the Administration and Faculty. 

Millersville University (PA) began its involvement in Project 30 in the summer of 1988. Through a variety of activities, the project team was committed to the improvement of preservice teacher education through the integration of liberal arts and professional education courses. This report describes the accomplishments of Project 30 and discusses future directions for improving teacher education and enhancing the climate for teaching excellence on campus. The report provides a compilation of several documents which together describe a variety of activities, successes and missteps of the last several years. The main body of the report describes the Pedagogy Seminar program, a 1-credit, optional seminar that supplements selected arts and sciences courses and is team taught by arts and sciences and teacher education faculty. Each seminar focuses on its accompanying arts and science course and its instructor as a "case study" in pedagogical content knowledge. With the faculty team, students analyze the teaching of a particular course and practice transforming course content for teaching. For developing a model to enhance the teaching profession and strengthening humanities foundations for teachers, the university was the recipient of the Christa McAuliffe Showcase for Excellence award and recognition from the National Endowment for the Humanities. | [FULL TEXT]

Clark, Richard W. (1995).  National Network for Educational Renewal: Partner Schools. 

This guide describes the general expectations and major purposes of partner schools in the National Network for Educational Renewal (NNER). Partner schools work in partnership with higher education for the training of teachers and the renewal of education. The partner schools all share a commitment to the 19 postulates enumerated by John I. Goodlad in "Teachers for Our Nation's Schools." Through partner schools, schools and universities seek to accomplish four purposes: (1) educate children and youth; (2) prepare educators; (3) provide professional development; and (4) conduct inquiry. For each of these four purposes the document lists expectations. Under "educating children and youth" the expectations are for a learning community, equity, and excellence. Under "preparing educators," the expectations are for collaboration, pedagogy, curriculum and attitudes, and academic knowledge. Under "providing professional development" the expectations are for collaboration and student driven needs; linkages between theory, research, and practice; special needs; and inter-professional connections. Under the "inquiry" purpose the expectations are for critical and social inquiry, reflective practice, and inquiry as scholarship. Finally, for all purposes, the document states that partner schools should be supported by sufficient staff, time, and money. For all the expectations specific examples are offered.

Clark, Roger (1998).  Doors and Mirrors in Art Education: Constructing the Postmodernist Classroom.  Art Education, 51, 6. 

Believes that art educators must strive for a classroom that stresses equal opportunity and mirrors cultural diversity through the adoption of postmodernist principles. Outlines four steps involved in constructing a postmodernist art classroom: (1) deconstructing modernist curricula; (2) reconstructing conceptions of the artist; (3) adapting postmodernist curricula; and (4) adopting postmodernist pedagogy.

Clark, Terry A. (1991).  Evaluation: The Key to Reflective Management of School Reform for At-Risk Students.  Urban Education, 26, 1. 

Discusses the difficulties of program evaluation. Notes that very few projects in at-risk education have been formally evaluated.

Clark, W. Bruce (1992).  Distance Education: En Route from Management to Pedagogy. 

This paper addresses the role of distance education as a means for increasing curricular offerings of small and rural secondary schools. Treating distance education as a "technology" risks repeating the same cycle of false hopes and expectations that has historically accompanied the introduction of technology into education. Instead, efforts should focus on identifying effective educational practices specifically for distance education programs. During 1987-89, two projects were implemented by the Alberta Department of Education (Canada) to examine different approaches to distance education in secondary schools. The Distance Learning in Small Schools (DLSS) Project allowed students in a consortium of 28 small high schools to take courses not available in their schools. Each school was equipped with a fax machine and teleconferencing equipment. Assignments were faxed to teachers and results were faxed back. If students could not get help locally with a problem, they were free to phone or fax teachers. The Distance Learning Project North (DLPN) used a multi-class approach and computers to teach high school mathematic courses. Program evaluation identified distance education management issues related to teachers, support staff, facilities, equipment, finances, and program administration. Educational practices relevant to distance education that need further study include independent study, distributed classrooms, student support, and student motivation. | [FULL TEXT]

Clarke, B. L.; Chambers, P. A. (1999).  The Promotion of Reflective Practice in European Teacher Education: Conceptions, Purposes and Actions.  Pedagogy

Surveys of European teacher education institutions examined the conceptualization and use of reflective practice in preservice and inservice teacher education. The varied responses showed similarities in teaching methods, lack of generic and explicit curriculum for reflective practice, and tendency toward a more formal approach in inservice versus preservice education. A strong basis for promoting reflective practice throughout Europe was evident.

Clarke, Doug (1997).  A Compulsory Mathematics Unit for Elementary Preservice Teachers: Content, Pedagogy and Assessment. 

Many Australian university students who are preparing to teach elementary mathematics lack confidence in their own knowledge, understanding and use of mathematics. Such a lack of confidence appears soundly-based. In this paper, a compulsory mathematics course for elementary teachers in training is described, the aims of which are to build the confidence and competence of such students. An argument is presented for the course being built around cooperative problem solving, and experiences of teaching the course in such a way for the past three years are given. Information is given on course content, pedagogy and assessment.

Clarke, Mark A. (1990).  Some Cautionary Observations on Liberation Education.  Language Arts, 67, 4. 

Focuses on the limitations of the concepts of empowerment, liberation education, and critical pedagogy. Implies that teachers play an important and largely underdeveloped role as change agents in the empowerment of learners, and provides a framework for understanding what has to happen for individuals to become empowered.

Clarken, Rodney H. (1998).  Education for a New World. 

This paper examines education in a way that offers guidance and solutions available in the Baha'i literature on vital worldwide programs which affect everyone. The paper identifies some principals and ideas the Baha'i literature contains concerning the role of education, educational administration, child development, pedagogy, and curriculum. The paper also addresses problems related to education in diverse settings and suggests areas of research that might be important for testing the value of these principals and ideals. These principals and ideals are an introduction to the guidance given in the Baha'i literature that discusses the role and importance of education, the importance of family and teachers, the nature of education and humans, the purpose of life and civilization, and the virtues and attributes befitting of humanity. | [FULL TEXT]

Clarken, Rodney H. (1998).  Baha'i Principles of Education: Categorization of and Commentary on Extracts from Baha'i Education. 

This paper categorizes and discusses extracts from Baha'i Education. All extracts come from the writings and talks of Baha'u'llah, Abdu'l-Baha, and Shoghi Effendi. Section 1 discusses the nature and purpose of education, including financing education; discipline, perseverance, and order; purposes and principles of schools; establishment and supervision of schools; obligations of spiritual assemblies; education to advance world welfare; promotion of education; education for girls; education of orphans; parents' roles; compulsory education; and Baha'i education as the foundation of the law of God and the basis for happiness. Section 2 discusses human nature and the prevention of criminal or harmful acts, discipline, and encouragement rather than censure. Section 3 discusses pedagogy and highlights role models, the teacher's status, the teacher's value, the teacher's character and behavior, and prayer for knowledge. Section 4 discusses curriculum, including teaching about God and religion; fear combined with love and justice for controlling behavior; recognition of the manifestation of God; arts, crafts, and science education; criterion of usefulness of academic pursuits; reading and writing skills; auxiliary language education; melodiously reciting words of God; character education; knowledge leading to God; material, human, and spiritual education; developing volition; kindness to animals; universal curriculum for all; love in the curriculum; brief summary of a school curriculum; and balancing mental and spiritual education. Section 5 examines metaphors about education, including teacher as physician, God as educator, children as pearls, parents as teachers, teachers as gardeners, and metaphors about students. | [FULL TEXT]

Clarken, Rodney H.; Hirst, Lois A. (1992).  Multicultural and Global Perspectives in Teacher Education. 

Northern Michigan University (NMU) has examined its teacher education program to determine how it has addressed or might address the multicultural and global criteria established by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) for accreditation of professional education units of teacher education programs. These criteria exist in four categories: teacher education curriculum, field experiences, recruitment and retention of diverse students, and recruitment and retention of diverse faculty. Because teaching multicultural and global persepctives outside of content or pedagogy can isolate and limit their influence, NMU makes efforts to integrate multicultural and global perspectives into existing courses. Field placements among ethnically diverse school populations require choosing sites at some distance from the campus. These placements must be reinforced with appropriate teaching strategies modeled by master teachers and university faculty as well as more direct methods, such as seminars, of fostering cultural sensitivity among teacher education students. Because the Upper Penninsula of Michigan has limited racial diversity, with Native Americans being the most numerically significant non-Caucasian ethnic group, a wide variety of strategies is needed to recruit and retain diverse students and faculty. | [FULL TEXT]

Claxton, Charles S.; Palmer, Parker J. (1991).  Teaching, Learning, and Community: An Interview with Parker J. Palmer.  Journal of Developmental Education, 15 n2 p22-25, 33 Win 1991. 

Parker J. Palmer responds to questions concerning models of reality, ways of knowing, pedagogy, the components of "good teaching," morality and spirituality in education, developmental education, cultural and racial pluralism, and truth.

Claxton, David B.; Lacy, Alan C. (1991).  Pedagogy: The Missing Link in Aerobic Dance.  Journal of Physical Education

For aerobic dance classes to succeed, the instructors must be properly trained teachers. Effective teachers must know more than just subject matter. They need sound pedagogical skills and knowledge in the content areas relating to aerobic dance. The article lists recommendations to help aerobic dance teachers be more effective.

Clayton, Maria A. (1998).  Computer-Assisted, Portfolio-Based Composition: The Next Step for Freshman Composition at MTSU. 

The marriage of computer-assisted and portfolio-based approaches to freshman composition, while already in place at other institutions of higher education, is a new approach at Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU). Intended as a part of the English Department's ongoing effort to improve the quality of instruction, computer-assisted, portfolio-based composition offers the advantages inherent in the technology approach to the process-centered, multiple-draft pedagogy of the portfolio system. This paper describes the rationale behind the merging of computer-assisted and portfolio-based composition, how the system works, benefits of the approach, student and instructor feedback, computer-based editing, problematic issues, and the accompanying World Wide Web page that supports and expands the course.   | [FULL TEXT]

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Clear, A. G. (1999).  International Collaborative Learning--The Facilitation Process. 

International collaborative learning is becoming more viable through a variety of Internet enabled software products. Group Support Systems appear to offer promise. But it is not well understood how to facilitate the teaching and learning process in electronic environments. If education is to involve an interactive process of collaborative inquiry and dialogue between remote groups of learners, then designing meaningful learning experiences presents challenges in logistics, technology support, software design, and pedagogy. To better model the facilitation process in such environments, a theoretical framework based on an extension of Adaptive Structuration Theory is suggested. This framework is then related to experiences with custom application software development using Lotus Notes Domino(TM), internal trials and a limited scale collaborative learning exercise between students at Auckland Institute of Technology and Uppsala University. The paper concludes by providing some recommendations for the redesign of the application, suggesting revisions to the collaborative process based on the framework presented, and discussing further extensions to the trials.   | [FULL TEXT]

Clegg, Sue (1999).  Professional Education, Reflective Practice, and Feminism.  International Journal of Inclusive Education, 3, 2. 

Offers a critical perspective on American feminist Donald Schon and on reflective practice as a pedagogy. Reflexivity's scope in the U.K. has been constrained by its context--professions with large female workforces (nursing, teaching, and social work), where autonomy is limited and orthodoxy predominates. More research is needed. Contains 49 references.

Cleland, JoAnn V.; Wetzel, Keith A.; Zambo, Ron; Buss, Ray R.; Rillero, Peter (1999).  Science Integrated with Mathematics Using Language Arts and Technology: A Model for Collaborative Professional Development.  Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 18, 2. 

Examines the effects of professional development in multimedia-based technology for 26 inservice and 14 preservice teachers on science and mathematics instruction. Focuses on three components critical to the success of this professional-development model: (1) linkage of pedagogy to technology; (2) collaborative teacher planning of instructional units; and (3) support during implementation to promote systemic change. Contains 31 references.

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Cliff, Candice; Miller, Suzanne (1997).  Multicultural Dialogue in Literature-History Classes: The Dance of Creative and Critical Thinking. Report Series 7.9. 

An ethnographic study examined 2 case study students, "Nick" and "John," as they engaged in an integrated literature-United Sates history class cotaught by an English and a social studies teacher in a high school in New York state. The emergent critical perspectives and pluralistic understandings of Nick and John were examined as they were invited into a problem-posing pedagogy and thereby into the dance of creative and critical thinking. Nick engaged in the "stretching" and moving invited in the class to expand his intellectual horizons and learn from multiple perspectives. John, on the other hand, frequently referred to his fundamentalist religious stance and held fixed opinions, resisting much of the multicultural literature and some of the classroom dialogue. Nick opened himself up to the dialogic dance and grew by leaps and bounds toward productive citizenship, the communal dance of the human race. John, on the other hand, entered on the fringes and seems to have left the same way. It seems that he never had any desire or ability to know the joy of dancing with other partners, to be part of the community of learners, to experience the possibilities of expanded humanness. | [FULL TEXT]

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Clover, Darlene E. (1995).  Theoretical Foundations and Practice of Critical Environmental Adult Education in Canada.  Convergence, 28, 4. 

Critical environmental adult education brings together the philosophies of adult, popular, feminist, and indigenous education to examine the causes of environmental crisis, conduct sociopolitical analysis, foster connections with nature, link the global and the local, stimulate reflection, and motivate action.

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Cocetti, Robert A. (1991).  Understanding the Oral Mind: Implications for Speech Education. 

The primary goal of the basic course in speech should be to investigate oral communication rather than public speaking. Fundamental to understanding oral communication is some understanding of the oral mind, that operates when orality is the primary means of expression. Since narrative invites action rather than leisurely analysis, the oral mind responds best to narrative structure. Educators can learn much about modern (electronic) communication by isolating the oral mind, that part of the intellect which was responsible for cultural developments before the literate era. Examining research with illiterate peasants suggests that the oral mind functions very well throughout life, and probably is the primary means of learning until its experiential mode is replaced with a metaphorical one through education. The oral mind, however, in spite of this mode shift, is alive and well, and is surviving in spite of literacy. Furthermore, the fact that narrative not only entertains, but instructs and persuades, demonstrates that stories function at multiple levels, and that the public speaker is a poet who doesn't know it. Finally, because all humans and their communication can be regarded as deserving of respect, oral communication must address the whole person. Basic speech pedagogy should incorporate narrative structure as a major means of organizing a speech. Another reason to incorporate stories into an oral communication class is that stories involve memorable language. An investigation of stories reveals much about the functioning of the oral mind and about what is engaging and memorable in public speaking. (Fifteen references are attached.)

Cochran, Effie Papatzikou (1994).  Giving Voice to Women in the Basic Writing and Language Minority Classroom.  Journal of Basic Writing, 13, 1. 

Considers how sex discrimination and sexist language have affected educational environments, particularly basic writing and English-as-a-Second-Language instruction. Provides four practical suggestions for college teachers of bilingual and/or bidialectical students to alleviate such attitudes and behaviors.

Cochran-Smith, Marilyn (1995).  Color Blindness and Basket Making Are Not the Answers: Confronting the Dilemmas of Race, Culture, and Language Diversity in Teacher Education.  American Educational Research Journal, 32, 3. 

Better strategies for teaching multicultural education and lessons about non-Anglo cultures are not what is needed in teacher education. Instead, generative ways are needed for teachers to explore their own assumptions and to construct pedagogy that takes into account the values and practices of cultures different from their own.

Cochran-Smith, Marilyn (1995).  Uncertain Allies: Understanding the Boundaries of Race and Teaching.  Harvard Educational Review, 65, 4. 

Suggests that teacher educators need to examine how they and their students approach the discourse of race and how they might be conveying contradictory messages about teaching students of different backgrounds. Cautions teacher educators to undertake a critical interrogation of preservice pedagogy.

Cock, Sybil (1998).  University Pedagogy--How Social Scientists Make Mathematical Meanings: "Before I Went into the Exam My Friend Said Do the Brackets First..." 

This paper presents some findings of a small study of a group of social science degree students and the ways in which they dealt with the need to demonstrate, during an examination, some basic mathematical and statistical skills. The theoretical context of the study is in the branch of mathematics education known as "situated cognition". It is concluded that conventional examinations are an inadequate motivator for mature students, for those with low confidence, and for students learning very basic mathematics. | [FULL TEXT]

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Coe, Carol (1997).  Turning Over Classroom Decision Making: A Teacher's Experience over Time.  Active Learner: A Foxfire Journal for Teachers, 2 n2 p7-9, 38 Aug 1997. 

A high school teacher describes how her classroom methods changed from traditional teacher-centered pedagogy to the active and democratic involvement of students in developing their own learning communities. Sidebars describe class projects: an oral history project that blossomed into a "Forties Festival" with 1940s alumni and the "M-Possible Dream" (a worldwide online learning community).

Coelho, Elizabeth (1994).  Learning Together in the Multicultural Classroom. Pippin Teacher's Library. 

Intended for teachers who work with culturally mixed student populations in Canada, this book is about methods of classroom and curriculum organization that promote effective cognitive and affective development in a linguistically and racially diverse setting. The book focuses on developing practical approaches to and techniques for small group work that can be implemented in the classroom. Pointing out that schools will now need to educate students to perform in a technological, information-oriented workplace, the book argues that traditional pedagogy no longer functions in such an environment and that teaching methods that democratize the classroom are in order. The book describes how several strands of learning (cooperative learning, classroom "talk" as a tool for learning, and--for nonnative speakers--interaction in the target language in a non-threatening forum) can be integrated into and implemented in the classroom. Although the activities described in the book are appropriate for use with students 12 and older, many can be adapted for use with younger learners.

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Cogan, John J., Ed.; Dericott, Ray, Ed. (1998).  Citizenship for the 21st Century: An International Perspective on Education. 

This book discusses findings of the Citizenship Education Policy Study (1993-97), a project to develop a new, multidimensional model of citizenship education that transcends traditional nationalist conceptualizations. Five "generic" attributes of citizenship are a sense of identity, enjoyment of certain rights, fulfillment of corresponding obligations, interest and involvement in public affairs, and acceptance of basic societal values. A multidimensional focus should permeate all aspects of education: curriculum and pedagogy, governance and organization, and school-community relations. The book examines case studies in several participating nations (chapter 2), reviews the Delphi Cultural Futures research method employed (chapter 3), summarizes survey findings (chapter 4), discusses the emerging multidimensional citizenship model (chapter 5), examines possible applications of findings and recommendations (chapter 6), and discusses challenges facing 21st-century educators and policy makers. (Includes are a preface, an appendix listing research team members, author and subject indices, and chapter references.)

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Cohen, David K., Ed.; And Others (1993).  Teaching for Understanding: Challenges for Policy and Practice. 

Teaching for understanding is a concept that portrays teachers as guides, coaches, and facilitators of student learning. This book, which provides concrete illustrations of what teaching for understanding entails, is divided into chapters as follows: (1) "Introduction: New Visions of Teaching" (Milbrey W. McLaughlin, Joan E. Talbert); (2) "Collaboration as a Context for Joining Teacher Learning with Learning about Teaching" (Deborah L. Ball, Sylvia S. Rundquist); (3) "Learning To Hear Voices: Inventing a New Pedagogy of Teacher Education" (Ruth M. Heaton, Magdalene Lampert); (4) "Deeply Rooted Change: A Tale of Learning To Teach Adventurously" (Suzanne M. Wilson with Carol Miller and Carol Yerkes); (5) "Creating Classroom Practice within the Context of a Restructured Professional Development School" (Sarah J. McCarthey, Penelope L. Peterson); (6) "Understanding Teaching in Context" (Joan E. Talbert, Milbrey W. McLaughlin); (7) "Pedagogy and Policy" (David K. Cohen, Carol A. Barnes); and (8) "Conclusion: A New Pedagogy for Policy?" (David K. Cohen, Carol A. Barnes). A theme running throughout the volume is that moving practice, research, and policy in directions that can enable and support the vision of teaching for understanding requires breaking out of routine ways of: thinking about practice; administering schools and classrooms; and formulating educational research and policy.

Cohen, Don, Ed. (1995).  Crossroads in Mathematics: Standards for Introductory College Mathematics before Calculus. 

Intended to improve mathematics education at two-year colleges and other institutions offering lower division courses as well as to encourage more students to study mathematics, this publication presents the American Mathematical Association of Two-Year Colleges' (AMATYC's) standards for revitalizing the pre-calculus mathematics curriculum and stimulating changes in instructional methods. Following introductory sections, chapter 1 describes the goals and basic principles underlying the document, while chapter 2 presents standards for introductory college mathematics including seven standards related to intellectual development, seven related to curriculum content, and five related to pedagogy. This chapter also provides charts of guidelines for achieving the standards. Chapter 3 addresses issues of content and pedagogy related to the interpretation of the standards in the areas of mathematics foundation-building courses, technical programs, mathematics-intensive programs, liberal arts programs, and programs for prospective teachers. Chapter 4 reviews implications of the standards for faculty development and other departmental considerations; advising and placement; laboratory and learning center facilities; the use of technology; assessment of student outcomes; program evaluation; and articulation with high schools, other colleges and universities, and employers. Finally, chapter 5 covers implementation, including institutional recommendations, the role of professional organizations, proposed regional workshops, and the development of materials, while chapter 6 provides concluding remarks.  (Sample math problems based on the standards are appended.) | [FULL TEXT]

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_____. (1992).  Colleges Celebrations 92: Actes du Congres = College Celebrations 92: Proceedings of the Combined Conference of the Association des colleges communacutaires du Canada and the Association quebecoise de pedagogie collegiale (Montreal, Quebec, May 24-27, 1992). 

The papers presented at this meeting of the annual conference of the Quebec Association of Collegiate Pedagogy and the Association of Canadian Community Colleges covered the following topics: (1) Students and Teachers, including papers focusing on faculty and student characteristics and concerns; (2) Development of Human Resources, including papers on faculty, staff, and leadership development; (3) Classroom Interventions, including papers on a variety of issues related to teaching and learning; (4) Assistance in Learning, including papers on programs for high-risk students and student personnel services; (5) Cultural Values, including papers on issues related to serving particular clientele (such as women, displaced workers, and immigrants), and on the quality of campus life; (6) Education and the Needs of Society, including papers covering issues related to the general development of students, and papers on students' professional development; and (7) Structures, Systems, and New Approaches, including papers on planning, evaluation, organizational development, and human resources management. In addition to the full text or a summary of each conference paper (either in English or French), the proceedings offer a brief foreword, a review of topics, the chair's message, an alphabetical list of presenters, and a list of keynotes and sessions.

Coldron, John; Smith, Robin (1999).  The Construction of Reflective Practice in Key Policy Documents in England.  Pedagogy

Analyzes the construction of reflection in teaching within key documents for presenting or implementing current educational policy in England and Wales. The documents note the potentially fruitful approach to harnessing reflection and reflective practice in the pursuit of given goals. This is in tension with bureaucratic and political imperatives to control, and those imperatives win out in the implementation documents.

Cole, Ardra L., Ed.; Elijah, Rosebud, Ed.; Knowles, J. Gary, Ed. (1998).  The Heart of the Matter: Teacher Educators and Teacher Education Reform. 

This collection of papers examines the role of teacher educators in teacher education reform. Part 1, "The Reform Context," includes the first chapter: (1) "Setting and Defining the Context" (J. Gary Knowles and Ardra L. Cole). Part 2, "Self-Study as Teacher Education Reform," includes chapters 2-6: (2) "Reforming Teacher Education through Self-Study" (Ardra L. Cole and J. Gary Knowles); (3) "Finding My Way: Teaching Methods Courses from a Sociocultural Perspective" (Anastasia P. Samaras); (4) "Letters of Intent: Collaborative Self-Study as Reform in Teacher Education" (Dawn Abt-Perkins, Helen Dale, and Patricia Hauschildt); (5) "Beyond 'Burritos' and 'Lumpia': Ethnic Identity as a Difference in Preservice Teacher Education" (Sara S. Garcia and Edmundo F. Litton); and (6) "Owning What I Learned: The Perspective of a Beginning Teacher Educator" (Rosebud Elijah). Part 3, "Teacher Educators and the Reform of Teacher Education," includes chapters 7-18: (7) "Teaching by the Rules, Changing the Rules in Teacher Education" (Ava L. McCall); (8) "Driven to Abstraction" (Margaret R. Olson); (9) "Negotiating Balance between Reforming Teacher Education and Forming Self as Teacher Educator" (Karen Guilfoyle, Mary Lynn Hamilton, Stefinee Pinnegar, and Margaret Placier); (10) "Conflicting and Competing Agendas: A School-University Partnership for Teacher Education" (Clare Kosnik); (11) "Professional Lives; Institutional Contexts: Coherence and Contradictions" (Rosebud Elijah); (12) "Making the Path by Walking It" (Francisco A. Rios, Janet E. McDaniel, and Laura P. Stowell); (13)"Reforming Teacher Education: Making Sense of Our Past to Inform Our Future" (Peter Chin and Tom Russell); (14) "Intention or Happenstance: The New Professor as a Change Agent" (Beverley Bailey); (15) "The Beginning Professor and Goodlad's Simultaneous Renewal: Vignettes from Wyoming's School-University Partnership" (Audrey M. Kleinsasser, Mary Alice Bruce, William G. Berube, Linda Hutchison, and Judith Z. Ellsworth); (16) "The Importance of Being Marginal: A Chapter with a Post-Script" (Jill Kedersha McClay); (17) "Professional Lives in Context: Becoming Teacher Educators" (Susan Finley); and (18) "Reform and 'Being True to Oneself': Pedagogy, Professional Practice, and the Promotional Process" (Ardra L. Cole and J. Gary Knowles). Part 4, "Deans of Education and Teacher Education Reform," includes chapters 19-21: (19) "Beginning Professors and College Reform" (Richard Wisniewski); (20) "Where Should We Educate Teachers? Thoughts Generated from the Concerns of Beginning Teacher Educators" (Gary R. Galluzzo); (21) "Leading by Example: Reflections on Seven Years as Dean" (R. Terrance Boak); (22) "An Occupation Like All Others" (Roger Soder); (23) "New Dean to New Faculty: Accepting the Challenge" (Carol A. Bartell); and (24) "Authority of Heart and Teacher Education Reform" (Rena Upitis).

Cole, Ardra L.; Knowles, J. Gary (1996).  Reform and "Being True to Oneself": Pedagogy, Professional Practice, and the Promotional Process.  Teacher Education Quarterly, 23, 3. 

Drawing on one educator's experiences as a beginning professor, the article discusses the prospects of teacher education reform and beginning teachers as change agents, commenting on values conflicts within schools of education and between them and broader university communities, politics of epistemology, and reward structures in schools of education.

Coles, William (1995).  Response to "The Shaming Game: Composition Pedagogy and Emotion."  Writing on the Edge, 7, 1. 

Offers a response to Kristi Yager's critical interpretation of the author's book about his teaching of freshman composition. Argues that his classroom practices, as he would represent them, do not constitute "shaming," which he regards as necessarily negative.

Collier, Connie S.; O'Sullivan, Mary (1997).  Case Method in Physical Education Higher Education: A Pedagogy of Change?  Quest, 49, 2. 

Examines the use of the case method to reform physical education teacher education. Reviews research on the use of cases in other professional preparation programs, and on multicultural education and case method, and technology-based cases. Offers suggestions on possibilities and pitfalls in using case method.

Collins, Michael (1991).  Adult Education as Vocation: A Critical Role for the Adult Educator. 

Fixation on technique, erosion of autonomous and community interests, and efforts to increase professionalization of adult education (which tends to emphasize the differences between adult educators and adult learners rather than their common interests) have created a crisis in adult education. Contemporary practice and research on self-directed learning have focused on teaching techniques. This has caused modern adult education to evade serious engagement with critical, ethical, and political issues. Adult educators must develop a sense of vocation or calling and must subordinate technique and technology to ethical and practical considerations through human-scale, less impersonal programming and development. This does not necessarily mean decreased emphasis on competent performance. The issues of needs assessment, program design, and program evaluation, professionalization, and educator training and competence should be approached from the perspective adult learners' needs rather than from the standpoint of bureaucratic or corporate needs. Adult educators should be guided by the principles of transformative pedagogy, which emphasizes social theories of action rather than psychological learning theories. Transformative education, which is based on engendering democratic social relations between adult educators and learners, may be extended to formal educational institutions, the workplace, and the community.

Collins, Michael (1998).  Critical Crosscurrents in Education. 

This book describes the important theoretical ideas of critical pedagogy and explains how to put strategies consistent with them into practice. Chapter 1 explores Ivan Illich's Deschooling Society (1970) and his work highlighting ways in which institutions and conventional approaches to education are failing ordinary men and women. In contrast, chapter 2 proposes that educators have too little authority rather than too much and their influence is being eroded by a process that deskills their work. Chapter 3 examines the prison experience to learn what it can tell about schooling, learning processes, and mechanisms of social control "on the outside." Chapter 4 considers how those committed to a critical pedagogy can be realistically involved in enlarging the sites within institutions where genuine, noncoercive dialogue and reasonable opposition to oppressive bureaucratic controls can emerge. Chapter 5 addresses work in a generic sense and in its particular forms in modern society. Chapter 6 reflects on lifelong learning and education. Chapter 7 is about education for participatory democracy, as exemplified in popular education, Freire's pedagogy, and participatory research; it explains how to make these approaches more relevant in contemporary institutional settings. Chapter 8 attempts to put the critical discourse of chapter 7 within an international context.

Collinson, Vivienne (1996).  Reaching Students: Teachers' Ways of Knowing. 

This book suggests that professional knowledge (knowledge of subject matter, curriculum, and pedagogy) is not sufficient for becoming an exemplary teacher. It must be combined with interpersonal knowledge (relationships with students and with the educational and local communities), and intrapersonal knowledge (teachers ethics, dispositions, and reflection). Six of the seven chapters develop the topics from vignettes of exemplary teachers in action. The structure of the chapters gradually reveals the ecology of exemplary teachers' classrooms. The book includes a discussion of how interpersonal knowledge becomes the focus for creating an environment that encourages social learning, respect, and trust, and it provides a brief look at how reflection, ethics, and dispositions shape the lives of exemplary teachers and influence the decisions they make in the classroom. There is a conceptual model for becoming an exemplary teacher as well as suggestions for structuring cultures for social learning and the intellectual environment of the classroom. A chapter on working with parents includes discussions of parents and professionals as co-teachers, involving parents, and parent-teacher conferences.

Colmayer, Ciro (1991).  La linguistica, la glottodidattica e l'elaboratore elettronico: Note sull'introduzione dell'informatica nell'insegnamento delle lingue (Linguistics, Language Pedagogy, and Computers: Notes on the Introduction of Computer Science in the Teaching of Languages).  Rassegna Italiana di Linguistica Applicata, 23, 2. 

Attempts to show that the use of computers in the classroom should not be limited to the teaching of math but that the language classroom is an even more appropriate place for the introduction and use of computers.

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Comber, Barbara (1993).  The Construction of Literate Cultures in Disadvantaged Schools: Teachers' Work, Children's Work. 

Recent debates focus on literacy curriculum as if it is separate from teachers' other work, almost at times as if teachers and their contexts are irrelevant to what is the most appropriate literacy pedagogy. Perhaps learning to read and write is not hard work, but teaching is, no matter which theoretical orientation about literacy is adhered to. The multiplicities of other functions that teachers enact leave them positioned in contradictory ways against their imagined ideal literacy classroom. These contradictions sent one researcher into disadvantaged schools to talk with and observe teachers at work. This paper is a first exploration of these investigations in one school. The paper considers, through the stories and classroom discourse of teachers and their students, the question: What kinds of literate cultures do teachers construct in a disadvantaged school? It offers texts from everyday school and classroom life to reconsider what teachers do as they develop a literate culture. It describes the kinds of literate work that children do and discusses the dominant discourses that surround the construction of literate cultures at school. The paper provides examples of the ways in which these teachers make spaces for other kinds of literate cultures and the ways in which classrooms are sites for multiple and at times contradictory literacies which compete for time and priority. | [FULL TEXT]

Commeyras, Michelle; And Others (1997).  Literacy Professionals' Ways of Knowing: A National Survey. Reading Research Report No. 86. 

A study assessed how literacy professionals acquire knowledge as well as what knowledge they possess and value. A questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of K-12 teachers, reading specialists, administrators, library-media specialists, and teacher educators in the United States. Results were based on 1,519 responses and are discussed in terms of knowing through professional development (reading professional literature, teacher education, and teacher research) and knowing about three current pedagogical topics (book clubs, portfolio assessment, and motivation). Results indicated that literacy professionals: (1) read practitioner journal articles, books, and professional newspapers more often than research journals or electronic sources; (2) believe that collaborative experiences between mentor teachers, student teachers, and teacher educators were important, but many of them have had little experience with such collaborations; (3) were familiar with teacher research, were interested in becoming teacher researchers, and found their practices influenced by teacher research; (4) agree that book clubs were a valuable form of pedagogy, but most have not had such experiences themselves and fewer still have had experiences with book clubs in which multicultural literature was read; (5) had knowledge, experience, and interest in portfolio assessment, but did not agree that portfolios should replace other forms of assessment; and (6) found intrinsic indicators of motivation to be more meaningful than extrinsic indicators.   | [FULL TEXT]

Common, Dianne L. (1991).  In Search of Expertise in Teaching.  Canadian Journal of Education, 16, 2. 

Essential qualities of expert teachers are explored, examining the practices of three historical teaching masters: Zeno of Elea, Lao Tzu of Ch'U, and Jesus of Nazareth. The three qualities identified are profound moral and cultural worth; engagement of the imagination; and the story as the primary form of pedagogy.

Common, Dianne L. (1994).  Conversation as a Pedagogy of Reform for Public Education.  Journal of General Education, 43, 4. 

Argues that current school reform efforts are driven by workforce preparation concerns, limiting schools' ability to prepare students for participation in democratic citizenship. Links democracy and the construction of knowledge, proposing a "pedagogy of conversation" to move students beyond personal experience as a basis of knowledge through critical thinking and communication with peers and teachers. (41 references)

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_____. (1998).  Contextual Teaching and Learning: Preparing Teachers to Enhance Student Success in the Workplace and Beyond. Information Series No. 376. 

The papers in this volume outline a vision for teacher education based on the concept of contextual teaching, defined as teaching that enables learning in a variety of in- and out-of-school contexts to solve simulated or real-world problems. They are based on the realization that the construction of knowledge is situated within, and greatly influenced by, physical, social, cultural, and subject matter context. Paper titles and authors are as follows: "Contextual Teaching and Learning: An Overview of the Project" (Susan Jones Sears, Susan B. Hersh); "Introduction to the Commissioned Papers" (Kenneth R. Howey); "The Role of Context in Teacher Learning and Teacher Education" (Hilda Borko, Ralph T. Putnam); "Problem-Based Learning: Learning and Teaching in the Context of Problems" (Jean W. Pierce, Beau Fly Jones); "Community Service Learning: Collaborating with the Community as a Context for Authentic Learning" (Rahima C. Wade); "Preparing Preservice Teacher Education Students to Use Work-based Strategies to Improve Instruction" (Richard L. Lynch, Dorothy Harnish); "Culturally Relevant Pedagogy in Contextual Teaching and Learning" (Lauren Jones Young); "The Role of Self-Regulated Learning in Contextual Teaching: Principles and Practices for Teacher Preparation" (Scott G. Paris, Peter Winograd); "Authentic Assessment of Teaching in Context" (Linda Darling-Hammond, Jon Snyder); and "Afterword" (Kenneth R. Howey). An annotated bibliography contains 40 references. | [FULL TEXT]

Cone, Joan Kernan; And Others (1996).  Dealing with Diversity. Ensuring Success for Every Student. 

Four essays consider aspects of ensuring that every child can succeed in school. The first, "Appearing Acts: Creating Readers in a High School English Class" (Joan Kernan Cone), explores the self-perceptions of students and uses them to inspire their enthusiasm for reading. The cultural sensitivity of the teacher is instrumental in making students become a community of readers. "Lessons from Students on Creating a Chance To Dream" (Sonia Nieto), uses interviews to develop 12 case studies of students from a variety of ethnic, racial, linguistic, and social-class backgrounds in junior or senior high school. The characteristics of their experiences and backgrounds that help them succeed in school are described. "Life after Death: Critical Pedagogy in an Urban Classroom" (J. Alleyne Johnson) describes the evolution of a classroom into one in which the reality of students' lives are acknowledged and addressed as central to the work of the classroom. The final essay, "Reading the World of School Literacy: Contextualizing the Experience of a Young African American Male" (Arlette Ingram Willis), examines the literacy schooling experiences of the author's son as he tries to assert himself as a learner and an African American, and argues for a reconceptualization of literacy that builds on children's backgrounds and knowledge. References follow each chapter.

Connatser, Bradford R. (1997).  The Evolution of the Speech Instinct in Silent Reading: Implications for Technical Communication.  Journal of Technical Writing and Communication, 27, 3. 

Proposes, as a follow-up to a previous article about applying a phonological reading model to technical communication, that educators and practitioners of technical communication would benefit from a thorough understanding of the speech instinct. Explores the speech instinct, how humans developed it, and how it has been and still is fostered by reading behavior and pedagogy.

Connell, R. W. (1991).  The Workforce of Reform: Teachers in the Disadvantaged Schools Program.  Australian Journal of Education, 35, 3. 

A study compared characteristics of two groups of teachers in Victoria (Australia) schools: those teaching in the Disadvantaged Schools Program (n=576) and those in nonprogram schools (n=596). Results indicated the importance of workplace relationships in both groups and pointed to some differences in curriculum, pedagogy, and student participation.

Connors, Robert J. (1997).  Composition-Rhetoric: Backgrounds, Theory, and Pedagogy. 

This book recounts the story of the people who have studied and taught composition in American colleges since the early 19th century. It shows where many of today's teachers' practices and assumptions about writing come from, and it translates what theories and techniques of teaching have, over time, indicated about attitudes toward students, language, and life. Chapters in the book are: (1) Gender Influences: Composition-Rhetoric as an Irenic Rhetoric; (2) Shaping Tools: Textbooks and the Development of Composition-Rhetoric; (3) Composition-Rhetoric, Grammar, and Mechanical Correctness; (4) Licensure, Disciplinary Identity, and Workload in Composition-Rhetoric; (5) Discourse Taxonomies in Composition-Rhetoric; (6) Style Theory and Static Abstractions; and (7) Invention and Assignments in Composition-Rhetoric.

Conquergood, Dwight (1993).  Storied Worlds and the Work of Teaching.  Communication Education, 42, 4. 

Discusses insights from the 13 "docustories" about teaching published in the same issue of the journal. Groups the stories into three themes: (1) toward a performative pedagogy; (2) dialogical dimensions of pedagogical encounters; and (3) the work of teaching.

Contino, Peter; Oyler, Celia (1995).  Reaching Beyond Ourselves.  Teaching Education, 7, 1. 

Presents stories from a student and a teacher regarding efforts to have university-level pedagogy encourage students to identify and pursue personally relevant educational topics. Information comes from a teacher education course organized around individual focus projects designed to promote action research. Highlights of the student's journal are included.

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Cook, Vivian (1995).  Multi-competence and the Learning of Many Languages.  Language

Discusses the tendency in second-language (L2) pedagogy to make fallacious comparisons between multicompetent L2 learners and monoglot speakers of the target language. The article describes the principal elements of multicompetence and presents a number of their implications for the construction of syllabi and examinations and the development of teaching methods. (14 references)

Coombs, W. Timothy; Rybacki, Karyn (1999).  Public Relations Education: Where is Pedagogy?  Public Relations Review, 25, 1. 

Uses data from a national survey and from the 1998 National Communication Association Summer Conference, both described elsewhere in this issue, to examine the strengths and weaknesses of public-relations pedagogy; to compare educator and practitioner perceptions of pedagogy; and to offer a set of concerns and recommendations.

Coomer, Charlotte (1999).  Mastering the Context To Deliver the Content.  High School Magazine, 6, 6. 

Delivering a school-to-work curriculum requires appropriate professional development in workplace content and pedagogy. Educators can initiate ancillary learning strategies by forming study groups; reading trade and technical publications; participating in structured field trips, seminars, and teacher externships; and designing student assessments mirroring workplace tests.

Cooney, Thomas J.; Brown, Stephen I.; Dossey, John A.; Schrage, Georg; Wittmann, Erich Ch. (1996).  Mathematics, Pedagogy, and Secondary Teacher Education. 

This book is intended for both preservice and inservice teachers who wish to experience some of the fundamental ideas expressed in the documents published by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) that are commonly referred to as the Standards. The text encourages the reader to seek connections between pedagogy and content in a number of ways. Pedagogical ideas are part of the substance of each piece. Often these ideas are exemplified in various classroom vignettes or in a variety of interview settings. Readers are also encouraged to imagine the implications of their own experiences as learners for teaching. Consequently, both the content and the format of the text differ significantly from most texts that address the teaching of mathematics at the secondary level. Chapters include: (1) "Thinking about Being a Mathematics Teacher" (Thomas J. Cooney); (2) "Developing a Topic across the Curriculum" (Thomas J. Cooney); (3) "Designing Teaching: The Pythagorean Theorem" (Erich Ch. Wittman); (4) "Analyzing Subject Matter: Fundamental Ideas of Combinatorics" (Georg Schrage); (5) "Modeling with Functions" (John Dossey); and (6) "Posing Mathematically: A Novelette" (Stephen I. Brown).

Cooney, Thomas J.; Friel, Susan N., Eds. (1992).  Implementing the Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics.  Arithmetic Teacher, 39, 6. 

The direction provided by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics'"Professional Teaching Standards," in the section on evaluating-teaching standards, is considered with respect to the issues of context, the definition of good teaching, and the link between mathematics and pedagogy.

Cooper, Charles R., Ed.; Odell, Lee, Ed. (1999).  Evaluating Writing: The Role of Teachers' Knowledge about Text, Learning, and Culture. 

Intended to guide writing teachers through the complexities of evaluation, the essays in this collection represent a variety of approaches to evaluation. The essays display, however, some common beliefs about what is fundamentally important to writing teachers' work--specifically, the need: to distinguish between "grading" and "evaluation"; to develop the ability to describe students' writing; to connect teaching and evaluation; and to continually reexamine assumptions and practices that guide evaluation. Following an introduction by the editors, the 17 essays and their authors are, as follows: (1) "Assessing Thinking: Glimpsing a Mind at Work" (Lee Odell); (2) "What We Know about Genres, and How It Can Help Us Assign and Evaluate Writing" (Charles R. Cooper); (3) "Audience Considerations for Evaluating Writing" (Phyllis Mentzell Ryder, Elizabeth Vander Lei, and Duane H. Roen); (4) "Coaching Writing Development: Syntax Revisited, Options Explored" (William Strong); (5) "Cohesion and Coherence" (Martha Kolln); (6) "Assessing Portfolios" (Sandra Murphy); (7) "How to Read a Science Portfolio" (Denise Stavis Levine); (8) "Using Writing to Assess Mathematics Pedagogy and Students' Understanding" (Richard S. Millman); (9) "Evaluating Student Writing about History" (Kathleen Medina); (10) "Evaluating Students' Response Strategies in Writing about Literature" (Richard W. Beach); (11) "Evaluating the Writing of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students: The Case of the African American Vernacular English Speaker" (Arnetha F. Ball); (12) "Latino ESL Students and the Development of Writing Abilities" (Guadalupe Valdes and Patricia Anloff Sanders); (13) "Texts in Contexts: Understanding Chinese Students' English Compositions" (Guanjun Cai); (14) "Reflective Reading: Developing Thoughtful Ways To Respond to Students' Writing" (Chris M. Anson); (15) "Creating a Climate for Portfolios" (Sandra Murphy and Mary Ann Smith); (16) "Integrating Reading and Writing in Large-Scale Assessment" (Fran Claggett); and (17) "Let Them Experiment: Accommodating Diverse Discourse Practices in Large-Scale Writing Assessment" (Roxanne Mountford). | [FULL TEXT]

Cooper, David D. (1998).  Reading, Writing, and Reflection.  New Directions for Teaching and Learning

Describes both principles and use of the critical incident journal, in which the student in a college-level academic service learning program details experiences that change his perspective. The format requires students to describe their roles in the incidents, analyze their own and others' responses to it, and reflect on its impact on self and others.

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Cope, Bill, Ed.; Kalantzis, Mary, Ed. (1993).  The Powers of Literacy: A Genre Approach to Teaching Writing. 

Documenting an educational experiment that began in Sydney, Australia, this book presents essays by theorists and practitioners in the genre literacy movement that describe this approach to literacy instruction in a clear, practical, and accessible way. The book notes that the genre approach to literacy teaching emphasizes content, structure, and sequence in literacy learning, moving beyond traditional literacy pedagogies (which stress formal correctness) and beyond the process pedagogies (which stress "natural" learning through "doing" writing). After an introduction ("How a Genre Approach to Literacy Can Transform the Way Writing Is Taught" by Bill Cope and Mary Kalantzis), chapters in the book are (1) "Genre as Social Process" (Gunther Kress); (2) "Histories of Pedagogy, Cultures of Schooling" (Mary Kalantzis and Bill Cope); (3) "The Power of Literacy and the Literacy of Power" (Bill Cope and Mary Kalantzis); (4) "Gender and Genre: Feminist Subversion of Genre Fiction and Its Implications for Critical Literacy" (Anne Cranny-Francis); (5) "A Contextual Theory of Language" (J. R. Martin); (6) "Grammar: Making Meaning in Writing" (J. R. Martin and Joan Rothery); (7) "Curriculum Genres: Planning for Effective Teaching" (Frances Christie); (8) "Genre in Practice" (Mike Callaghan and others); and (9) "Assessment: A Foundation for Effective Learning in the School Context" (Mary Macken and Diana Slade). A Bibliographic essay ("Developing the Theory and Practice of Genre-based Literacy by Bill Cope and others), a glossary of terms, and a 16-page bibliography are attached.

Copple, Carol E. (1993).  Starting RIGHT: Reforming Education in the Early Grades (Prekindergarten through Grade 3). Carnegie Meeting Papers. 

Noting that students' failure to master the basic skills by third grade places them at high academic and social risk, this report provides a synthesis of the findings from a meeting that drew 30 of the nation's leading experts on early childhood education and school reform to discuss the plight of primary education. The meeting was designed to examine the necessary program and policy strategies most likely to bring about broad-scale improvement in the results of instruction in prekindergarten through third grade, particularly for children at risk. Participants included national leaders in educational research, policy, and practice relevant to the early grades; outstanding district and state superintendents; representatives of key education organizations and task forces; and representatives of several foundations. The report is divided into four areas around which the meeting's discussion centered: (1) instruction, learning, and the school context; (2) standards and assessment; (3) teacher preparation and professional development; and (4) the current context of education. Appended are two additional papers, "Conclusion: A New Pedagogy for Policy?" by David K. Cohen and Carol A. Barnes, which describes the challenges of preparing educators to teach students more rigorous, high-level curriculum content; and "Elementary Students at Risk: A Status Report," by Nettie Legters and Robert E. Slavin, which provides a status report on recent educational research documenting the numbers of elementary students at risk of school failure. | [FULL TEXT]

Coppola, Nancy W. (1999).  Setting the Discourse Community: Tasks and Assessment for the New Technical Communication Service Course.  Technical Communication Quarterly, 8, 3. 

Examines the merit of portfolio evaluation to the establishment of an assessment-centered discourse community and to the creation of a task-oriented pedagogy in the new technical communication service course. Delineates reasons why assessment is important to technical writing. Describes a measurement process for technical writing and the underpinning theories and tasks in the service course. Concludes with guidelines for instructors.

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(1998).  Core-Plus Mathematics Project.  Illinois Mathematics Teacher, 49, 1. 

Provides information about the "Core-Plus Mathematics Project" textbook. Describes its content, pedagogy, assessment techniques, and features an example lesson plan.

Corcoran, Peter Blaze, Ed.; Elder, James L., Ed.; Tchen, Richard, Ed. (1998).  Academic Planning in College and University Environmental Programs: Proceedings of the 1998 Sanibel Symposium (Florida Gulf Coast University, March 6-7, 1998). 

This document contains the proceedings of the a Sanibel Symposium. Papers include: (1) "Sense of Place on Sanibel Island" (Kristi Seamon Anders); (2) "Transformation or Irrelevance: The Challenges of Academic Planning for Environmental Education in the 21st Century" (David Orr); (3) "A Vision in the Making" (Jack Crocker); (4) "The Pedagogy of Place: What Do Our Campuses Teach?" (Rocky Rohwedder); (5) "Academic Planning as a Catalyst in Realizing the Role of Children and Youth in Sustainable Development" (Louise Chawla); (6) "Universities and Youth in Community-Based Sustainable Development" (Charles Hopkins); (7) "Allegheny College and Meadville, Pennsylvania Collaborate to Improve Education, the Environment, and the Economy" (Eric Pallant); (8) "Environmental Education in an Information Age; Confusion, Information, or Understanding?" (Milton McClaren); (9) "Sunrise on Sanibel Island" (Phyllis Hannon); (10) "Standards-Based Education and Its Impact on Environmental Education: Separation or Equalization?" (George Davis); (11) "Information Technology and Environmental Education: Separation or Equalization?" (Mary Paden); (12) "Environmental Education in Teacher Education" (Collette Hopkins); (13) "Environmental Studies in Liberal Arts Colleges" (James L. Elder); (14) "Environmental Sciences in Universities" (Edward J. Kormondy); and (15) "Whither? A Learned Society for Faculty in College and University Environmental Programs" (James L. Elder).

Cormack, Phil (1999).  What Influences Teachers' Decisions about Talk in Middle Years Classrooms?[R] 

Talk remains by far the most used medium of instruction and classroom action. Classroom talk is typically dominated by triadic dialogue or an I-R-E (Initiate-Response-Evaluation) pattern of talk noted in the literature as consistent across grades and subjects. Studies seem to indicate that teachers utilize traditional forms of talk, even though they know about, and have been trained in the use of, alternative forms. This paper offers some analysis of a group of teachers in South Australian schools who participated in a research project in which they studied classroom talk--the paper's researcher developed a meta-analysis of the kind of curriculum and pedagogy the teachers were practicing. The paper explains that the researcher's analysis was critiqued by the teachers who approved its general direction. The paper discusses in turn, in two sections, the different factors teachers considered and the discourses that appeared to be constituting teachers' decision making. It finds that this analysis also revealed the complexity involved in changing classroom practices in relation to talk. | [FULL TEXT]

Cornett, Jeffrey W. (1991).  Earnedpowerment Not Empowerment of Teachers: The Role of Teachers' Systematic Reflection in Restructuring Schools.  Social Science Record, 28, 1. 

Asserts that teachers are already significant decision makers regarding curriculum and instruction. Argues that teachers and students cannot be empowered by others. Suggests four conditions to enhance teacher growth and informed engagement: systematic study of self; subject matter, pedagogy, and learners; society; and utilization of contingency theory.

Corredor, Eva L. (1993).  Towards Teaching French Civilization in Context: A Technology-Aided Approach.  [Mid-Atlantic Journal of Foreign Language Pedagogy] 

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how technology, enhanced by the experience and supportive presence of the teacher, can be used toward teaching French civilization within its context. Information is being provided on the philosophical inspiration, and the format, textbooks, basic hardware, software, special programs, services, and materials recommended for French civilization courses. The focus of this paper is on organizational strategies, topical files, timing for maximum input, pre- and post-viewing or listening treatment of materials. A few examples give details on the use of technology in the teaching of specific topics. The conclusion contains a list of benefits, limitations, and recommendations with regard to such technology-aided cultural teaching/learning projects. | [FULL TEXT]

Corrie, L. (1995).  Vertical Integration: Teachers' Knowledge and Teachers' Voice.  Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 20, 3. 

Traces the theoretical basis for vertical integration in early school years. Contrasts transmission-based pedagogy with a higher level of teacher control, and acquirer-based pedagogy with a higher level of student control. Suggests that early childhood pedagogy will be maintained when teachers are able to articulate their pedagogical knowledge and act as advocates for their profession.

Cortes, Carlos E. (1995).  Knowledge Construction and Popular Culture: The Media as Multicultural Educator. 

As a major element of societal multicultural education, the mass media disseminate information, images, and ideas concerning race, ethnicity, culture, and foreignness. The multicultural media curriculum functions whether or not media makers actually see themselves as educators and whether or not viewers are aware of the role of media as sources of knowledge and information. The media curriculum on race and ethnicity has been examined by scholars from four analytical dimensions: (1) content analysis; (2) control analysis; (3) impact analysis; and (4) pedagogical analysis. Content analysis reveals that the media are involved in the transmission of information, correct or incorrect, balanced or biased. Research has also demonstrated that media impact varies among readers, viewers, and listeners, with the race and ethnicity of recipients often playing a significant role in this media-audience learning relationship. The critical role of the mass media has important implications for school multicultural education. Schools need to develop ways to explore and assess the impact of the media to strengthen multicultural educational pedagogy and curricula.

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Coulter, Sara (1997).  Introductory Bibliography for Curriculum Transformation. Women in the Curriculum Series. 

This bibliography provides a list of references for developing curriculum on women. References are grouped in seven sections which address: (1) introduction to women as a subject of study (4 references); (2) scholarship on women (7 references); (3) rethinking the disciplines (23 references); (4) pedagogy (20 references); (5) advice and experience of colleagues (42 references); (6) professional associations as publication sources (42 references from 12 associations); and (7) journals and periodicals (8 specific journals and 48 more general journals). | [FULL TEXT]

Coulter, Sara; Hedges, Elaine; Goldenberg, Myrna (1990).  Integrating the Scholarship on Women into the Curriculum of Selected Community Colleges in the Baltimore-Washington Area. Final Report. 

Beginning in 1988, faculty at Towson State University (Maryland) conducted a two-year project intended to integrate the new scholarship on women into selected courses in five community colleges in the Baltimore-Washington area. The project was designed to foster curriculum integration work in community colleges, and created a model described in the project's publication, Community College Guide to Curriculum Change. The heart of the project was five workshops, where faculty analyzed the new scholarship on women and explored its applicability to their courses. Each participant researched and revised a particular course, then tested and evaluated the revised course in the classroom during the project's final semester. Faculty also participated in a two day summer institute that focused on pedagogy, and a state-wide conference at which they disseminated the project's results. The project's organization and structure were intended to provide a model for other group projects by community colleges. A three-tiered structure was created that provided several levels of leadership opportunities and a system of broadly shared responsibility. The project resulted in 44 significantly revised courses that encourage awareness of gender, race, and class issues. The aforementioned publication is being distributed both locally and nationally in efforts to extend and institutionalize the work of the project. | [FULL TEXT]

Courchene, Robert (1997).  A Mind-Body Problem? A Reply to Lisa Taylor's Article "Canadian Culture," Cultural Difference and ESL Pedagogy.  TESL Canada Journal, 15, 1. 

Comments on the distinction that Lisa Taylor, in a previous article, makes between "cultural diversity" and "cultural difference." The article notes that when new Canadians arrive in Canada, their point of reference is their own culture. The journey for new Canadians toward cultural integration into Canadian society is a progression beginning with learning about Canadian history, beliefs, traditions, and so forth. (two references)

Courts, Patrick L.; McInerney, Kathleen H. (1993).  Assessment in Higher Education. Politics, Pedagogy, and Portfolios. 

As part of the American school reform movement, administrators are searching for ways of measuring students' skills and progress within the system. This book focuses on the qualitative assessment possible through the use of student portfolios, particularly at the college level. It begins with a critical examination of multiple-choice, standardized testing, then moves to a discussion of the human beings who populate the world of higher education and the psychosocial constructs that surround them. Chapter 2 discusses the belief that respect for diversity of all kinds is essential to the creation of a healthy society, growing out of the concern that national assessment movements may accidentally forget the human beings who are being assessed. Chapters 3 and 4 explore the nature and use of student portfolios in assessment, the steps that might be taken to make the implementation of portfolios practical and the role that portfolio assessment might play in improving programs, instruction, and the quality of students' learning. Finally, the book offers a broad variety of approaches to teaching and learning across the curriculum. Appendices provide the GCP (General College Program) Assessment Project outcomes and a sample portfolio handout for English majors (Fall 1993).

Cousins, Emily, Ed.; Mednick, Amy, Ed. (1999).  Service at the Heart of Learning: Teachers' Writings. 

Expeditionary Learning Outward Bound (ELOB) is a framework for comprehensive school improvement that uses the philosophy and pedagogy of Outward Bound to make learning more hands-on, project-based, and adventurous. One of the 10 ELOB design principles is service and compassion. This book by teachers in ELOB schools contains accounts of students' service-based projects, many of them focused on the surrounding community and on how service deepened intellectual growth and provided a powerful motivation to learn. Following an introduction by Meg Campbell, teacher narratives include: "Seasons of Life: Biography as Service" (Deb Fordice); "'What Can We Do about It?' Busing Ends in Denver" (Sally Carey); "Tuskegee Airmen Touch Down in Dubuque" (John Adelmann); "'We Have No Heroes'" (Paola Ruocco); "Quilting Community" (Carol Duehr, Christina Nugent); "The Heroes among Us: Building a Culture of Service and Compassion" (Patricia B. Fisher, Sheila Sanders, Carol Teague); "Thoreau and Trigonometry: Designing a City Park" (Katherine Stevens); "Bay Ridge, Brooklyn: Painting a Community Portrait" (Bayan Ebeid, Laura Kelly); "The Aquarium Architects" (Karen MacDonald, Christine Griffin); "Listening to Robins" (Jeanne Anderson, Karen Wohlwend); "'What's in the Water You Drink?'" (Cheryl Sims); "Putting down Roots: Erosion Control on the South Platte River" (Wendy Ward); and "Stewards of the Elements" (Chris Quigley, Bryan Street, Chris Weaver). Interspersed among the narratives are short "snapshots" that explain or illustrate ELOB principles (Michelle Brantley, Patricia O'Brien, Peggy Chessmore). Appendices profile the authors, list 11 service learning resources, and explain the 10 principles of ELOB.

Couto, Richard A. (1994).  Teaching Democracy through Experiential Education: Bringing the Community into the Classroom. 

Experiential education, service learning in particular, offers one pedagogy for teaching democracy. This paper presents a rationale for teaching democracy through service learning and provides general and specific guidelines for accomplishing the goal. Models of service learning are described that teachers can incorporate into classroom assignments and other parts of the curriculum. Action research, one form of service learning, integrates community service and the democratic curriculum particularly well. Action research provides political scientists with inter-disciplinary research methods allied with critical theory. Service learning offers political scientists pedagogies to disseminate to other departments and schools. These methods for civic education express the goals of the traditional liberal arts and promote interdisciplinary study of power and equality. Two service learning programs at the University of Richmond are described, LINCS (Learning in Community Settings) and COMPS (Community Problem Solving Seminar). | [FULL TEXT]

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Cova, Bernard; And Others (1993).  Back to Pedagogy: The EAP's 20 Years of European Experience.  Management Education and Development, 24

The EAP, European School of Management, has evolved a curriculum based on inductive pedagogy. Its five major dimensions are case study method, "memoire," in-company placements, lectures, and language learning.

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Cowley, Trudy (1996).  Expert Teachers in Transition: An Exercise in Vitiation or Renascence? A Case Study of One. 

Many of the schools in regional and inland areas of Australia find it difficult to attract and maintain quality and experienced staff, as do some of the more difficult to teach in schools in urban areas. To help overcome these problems Tasmania has instituted a transfer policy for state school teachers, as had other Australian state systems. However, little research has been conducted into the impact of transfer between schools on teachers' work lives, both professional and personal. This paper looks at the impact of transfer on teaching and the problems raised for an expert teacher in changing from one school context to another in the middle of a school year. After a review of relevant literature, a model of "the expert teacher" is developed and used to confirm that this teacher fitted the prototype of expert teacher. Then, the impact of the transfer on this teacher's quality of teaching, knowledge of content and pedagogy, skills and abilities, and personal attributes is described. The paper concludes that the transfer had a mostly vitiating effect on his teaching during the remaining two terms of the school year, noting that his expertise returned gradually as he began the next school year. Contains 11 references. | [FULL TEXT]

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Cox, Maria Ines Pagliarini; de Assis-Peterson, Ana Antonia (1999).  Critical Pedagogy in ELT: Images of Brazilian Teachers of English.  TESOL Quarterly, 33, 3. 

Reports results of a study of Brazilian English teachers' perceptions of critical pedagogy. Pointing to the irony of the return of critical pedagogy to Brazil as an academic discourse disconnected to practice, English teachers are shown to be generally unaware of critical pedagogy.

Cox, Milton D., Ed.; Richlin, Laurie, Ed. (1991).  Journal on Excellence in College Teaching. 1991. 

This annual journal presents articles by college faculty about teaching in higher education based on their pedagogical research and their classroom experiences. Articles in the issue for 1991 have the following titles and authors: "The Scholarship of Pedagogy: A Message From the Editors" (Laurie Richlin and Milton D. Cox); "The Social Cognition Approach to Stereotypes and Its Application to Teaching" (Margaret W. Matlin); "The Assignment-Driven Course: A Task-Specific Approach to Teaching" (John F. McClymer and Paul R. Ziegler); "Teaching and Learning--After Class" (George D. Kuh); "Love in the Classroom" (Peter G. Beidler and Rosemarie Tong); "Use of Educational Games for Difficult Subject Material" (Helaine M. Alessio); "Common Instructional Problems in the Multicultural Classroom" (Carol A. Jenkins and Deborah L. Bainer); "'Whole Souled' TEaching and the State of American Education (John K. Roth); "Sign What You Say: An Interactive Approach to Language Learning" (Kathleen M. Hutchinson); "Promoting Minority Student Involvement at the University: Collegial Coaching Support" (V. Patricia Beyer and Joseph B. Cuseo); "Dramas of Persuasion: Utilizing Performance in the Classroom" (Sally Harrison-Pepper); "The Challenge of Diversity: Alienation in the Academy and Its Implications for Faculty" (Daryl G. Smith); "Fulfilling the Promise of the 'Seven Principles' Through Cooperative Learning: An Action Agenda for the University Classroom" (Barbara J. Millis); and "The Honor in Teaching" (Peter G. Beidler). References follow papers. | [FULL TEXT]

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Crafton, Linda K. (1996).  Standards in Practice, Grades K-2. 

Viewing the English language arts standards developed by the National Council of Teachers of English and the International Reading Association as a point of departure rather than a final destination, this book presents a number of ways to increase student ownership of learning. The book details a pedagogy that recognizes, respects, and builds from individual language strengths and experiences, and in each chapter presents a rich classroom portrait of the standards at work in student-centered, real-world experiences and activities. In the book, students direct the inquiry process in chapters on interest groups and the Iditarod dogsled race; in other chapters, their teachers learn to respond to growing cultural diversity in the classroom, shift from basal readers to literature-based learning, and rethink the purposes of assessment in a chapter on "real kid report cards." Throughout the book, students and teachers learn together as they develop language and literacy skills for the coming century. (Each chapter contains references.) | [FULL TEXT]

Crawford, Patricia A. (1997).  Looking for Love (and Literature and Pedagogy) in All the Wrong Places: Hopeful Teachers and the Illusion of Change in Basal Readers.  Teaching and Learning Literature with Children and Young Adults, 7, 1. 

States that the beliefs and practices associated with holistic, child-centered teaching and literature-based reading instruction are being challenged at every turn. Finds that publishers have developed basals that purport to be all things to all people. Gives the history of basal reader development. Suggests that basal systems are being used as vehicles of technical control.

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Crenshaw, A. Carrie (1990).  Dodging the Oppositional Dynamic: A Feminist Perspective on Debate Practice. 

Forensics educators should explore the implications of feminism for debate pedagogy and practice. First, the inclusion of feminist perspectives is directly related to the pedagogical goals of solving the problem of women's participation in debate and of accomplishing the task of enabling debate coaches and student debaters to become competent, ethical and compassionate arguers. The common perception of women's "trained incapacity" for argument in general is currently reflected in and wrongly perpetuated by intercollegiate debate practice. Moreover, forensics educators should attempt to remedy this problem by taking the concrete feminist steps of refusing to elevate the goal of competition above all others, by ignoring motives of combat, desire, and self-expression and encouraging the replacement of them with motives of inter-service, instruction, and self-examination and improvement. Finally, speech instruction grounded in feminist theory can foster avoidance of being too critical toward people's foolishness and encourages the belief that argument is best used in service to others by promoting participation in alternate forms of debate. (Twenty-four references are attached.)

Crews, Robin J., Ed.; Weigert, Kathleen Maas, Ed.; Crews, Robin J., Ed. (1999).  Teaching for Justice: Concepts and Models for Service-Learning in Peace Studies. AAHE's Series on Service-Learning in the Disciplines. 

This volume is part of a series of 18 monographs on service learning and the academic disciplines. This volume offers a collection of essays on the integration of service learning in the field of peace studies. After a Preface by Elise Boulding and an Introduction by Kathleen Maas Weigert and Robin J. Crews, titles in Part 1, "Conceptual Essays" include: "Moral Dimensions of Peace Studies: A Case for Service-Learning" (Kathleen Maas Weigert); "Peace Studies, Pedagogy, and Social Change" (Robin J. Crews); and "Service-Learning as Education: Learning from the Experience of Experience" (Michael Schratz and Rob Walker). Chapters in Part 2, "Service-Learning in Peace Studies Programs," include: "Study, Act, Reflect, and Analyze: Service-Learning and the Program on Justice and Peace at Georgetown University" (Sam Marullo, Mark Lance, and Henry Schwarz); "Justice and Peace Studies at the University of St. Thomas" (David Whitten Smith and Michael Haasl); "Student Contributions to Public Life: Peace and Justice Studies at the University of San Francisco" (Anne R. Roschelle, Jennifer Turpin, and Robert Elias); "Peace Building through Foreign Study in Northern Ireland: The Earlham College Example" (Anthony Bing); "The International and National Voluntary Service Training Program (INVST) at the University of Colorado at Boulder" (James R. Scarritt and Seana Lowe); "The Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution's Modest Experiment in Service-Learning" (Frank Blechman); and "Peaceful Intent: Integrating Service-Learning within a Master's in International Service at Roehampton Institute London" (Christopher Walsh and Andrew Garner). Titles in Part 3, "Service-Learning Courses in Peace Studies," include: "Learning about Peace through Service: Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Colorado at Boulder" (Robin J. Crews); "Learning about Peace: Five Ways Service-Learning Can Strengthen the Curriculum" (Martha C. Merrill); "Hunger for Justice: Service-Learning in Feminist/Liberation Theology" (Michele James-Deramo); "Service-Learning in Methods of Peacemaking at Earlham College" (Howard Richards and Mary Schwendener-Holt); "Teaching Attitudes of Cultural Understanding through Service-Learning" (Mary B. Kimsey); and "A Mini-Internship in an Introductory Peace Studies Course: Contributions to Service Learning" (John MacDougall). An annotated bibliography of Internet and World Wide Web resources and national and international organizations is appended. (All papers include references.) | [FULL TEXT]

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Crichlow, Warren; And Others (1990).  Multicultural Ways of Knowing: Implications for Practice.  Journal of Education, 172, 2. 

Discusses and demonstrates how an emancipatory approach to school subjects can incorporate the collective presence of diverse cultures and groups, with examples from the study of poetry and history. This approach enables students to expand their knowledge through critical interpretation of traditional monovocal texts.

Critchfield, Anne L. (1994).  A Primer for Teachers of German: Five Lessons for the New Millenium.  Unterrichtspraxis, 27, 1. 

This paper addresses some of the far-reaching issues of German and foreign-language pedagogy in the United States in the form of an elementary primer in five lessons.

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Crocco, Margaret Smith (1998).  Crafting a Culturally Responsive Pedagogy in an Age of Educational Standards.  Theory and Research in Social Education, 26, 1. 

Warns of the limitations of educational reform via standards and standardization as seen in New York, NY. Focuses on "culturally responsive pedagogy," which is needed to build a system sensitive to the backgrounds and contexts of students and schooling.

Crookes, Graham (1997).  SLA and Language Pedagogy: A Socioeducational Perspective.  Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 1. 

Discusses the connection between second language acquisition (SLA) research and second and foreign language (S/FL) teaching from the viewpoint that such a relationship is desirable and that it is advantageous to see it as one mediated by various factors. Argues that the relationship is presently often weaker than it should be, particularly owing to the conditions under which S/FL teaching takes place. (153 references)

Crookes, Graham, Ed.; Gass, Susan M., Ed. (1993).  Tasks and Language Learning: Integrating Theory and Practice. Multilingual Matters 93. 

Essays on second language teaching focuses on how the kinds of tasks performed by the learner relate to language output. "Choosing and Using Communication Tasks for Second Language Instruction" (Teresa Pica, Ruth Kanagy, Joseph Falodun) contains a taxonomy of communication task types, based on the concepts of goal and activity, particularly with reference to classroom pedagogy and learning theory. "Interlocutor and Task Familiarity: Effects on Interactional Structure" (India Plough, Susan M. Gass) looks at the extent to which task participants' familiarity with each other and with task type affect the linguistic outcome. "Tasks and Interlanguage Performance: An SLA Research Perspective" (Patricia A. Duff) presents naturalistic research on an immigrant's second language acquisition, focusing on lexical variety and syntax (nominal reference and negotiation). In "Variation in Foreigner Talk Input: The Effects of Task and Proficiency" (Ian M. Shortreed), the study is concerned with the effects of task complexity and learner proficiency on linguistic reduction and on communication and repair strategies. "Grammar and Task-Based Methodology" (Lester Loschky, Robert Bley-Vroman) argues that despite the communicative orientation of tasks in materials and curricula, there is a role for tasks in structurally-oriented second language teaching.

Crookes, Graham, Ed.; Gass, Susan M., Ed. (1993).  Tasks in Pedagogical Context: Integrating Theory and Practice. Multilingual Matters 94. 

These six essays discuss the use of tasks as pedagogical tools in second language instruction, particularly in the contexts of curriculum and syllabus design. The essays are: (1) "Units of Analysis in Syllabus Design: The Case for Task" (Michael H. Long and Graham Crookes); (2) "Task-Based Syllabus Design: Selecting, Grading and Sequencing Tasks" (David Nunan); (3) "The Name of the Task and the Task of Naming: Methodological Aspects of Task-Based Pedagogy" (B. Kumaravadivelu); (4) "Towards an Educational Framework for Teacher-Led Tasks" (David Berwick); (5) "Critical Episodes: Reference Points for Analyzing a Task in Action" (Virginia Samuda and Patricia L. Rounds); and (6) "Evaluating Language Learning Tasks in the Classroom" (Dermont F. Murphy). Each chapter contains a reference list.

Crookes, Graham; Lehner, Al (1998).  Aspects of Process in an ESL Critical Pedagogy Teacher.  TESOL Quarterly, 32, 2. 

Recounts the experiences of the authors in implementing the principles of critical pedagogy in a graduate teacher-preparation course. The purpose is to raise the profile of critical pedagogy in English-as-a-Second-Language/English-as-a-foreign-language instruction and to provide suggestions related to classroom processes.

Cross, John B.; And Others (1995).  Effects of Whole Language Immersion (WLI) on At-Risk Secondary Students. 

A study determined the effects of Whole Language Immersion, a pedagogy rooted in Whole Language and English as a Second Language on two sections of eleventh-grade students in Sumter County, Alabama, defined as at-risk by the Alabama Exit Examination. For 10 weeks, the control group was taught grammar while the experimental group underwent language immersion by daily reading, writing, and speaking. Four quantitative measures were used in pre/post forms to evaluate growth in students' lingual abilities: the Alabama High School Basic Skills Exit Exam, a writing sample, a cloze test, and an attitude inventory. Three dimensions were evaluated in the writing samples: syntactic fluency (T-Units); coherence (NAEP scale), and analytic (Diederich scale). Rich qualitative data in the form of daily classroom observations were also recorded. Analysis of the data indicated significant growth in language ability in both control and experimental groups with no significant differences between mean gain of groups. Informal observations indicated increases of frequency in reading and writing in the experimental group. Although no student had previously completed reading a novel, by the end of the experiment, all students had finished from one to five books. Observed discipline problems diminished as students learned to work cooperatively. Students began to revise for diction, syntax, and audience, and internalized rules of Standard English grammar without direct instruction. Contains 11 references.  | [FULL TEXT]

Cross, Tracy L. (1999).  Top Ten List (Plus or Minus Two) for the 20th Century.  Gifted Child Today Magazine, 22, 6. 

This article describes critical events that have shaped gifted education, including: psychometrically-based pedagogy, the space race, the civil rights movement, passage of special education legislation, changing concepts of intelligence, brain based research, curriculum differentiation, the inclusion model of instruction, and funding of gifted research. Future educational trends are discussed.

Crowe, Chris (1992).  Error Patterns in Research Papers by Pacific Rim Students. 

By looking for patterns of errors in the research papers of Asian students, educators can uncover pedagogical strategies to help students avoid repeating such errors. While a good deal of research has identified a number of sentence-level problems which are typical of Asian students writing in English, little attempt has been made to consider the specific problems which a long research paper presents. Of these problems, Asian students have the most difficulty integrating sources from research and developing transition, unity, and cohesion. These problems stem not necessarily from different thought patterns or primary language interference, but from the challenge of dealing with two different rhetorical systems. Asian students also tend to over-rely on formulas and patterns by mimicking models or sample papers. Another problem, blatant plagiarism, may be related to an Oriental emphasis on memorization and an inability or unwillingness to paraphrase. Asian students also often have difficulty with research as a process. Generally, these errors seem due to different educational and rhetorical backgrounds, so that the most effective pedagogy will not dismiss their previous training, but integrate it and build on it. (Fifteen references are attached.) | [FULL TEXT]

Crowther, Jim, Ed.; Martin, Ian, Ed.; Shaw, Mae, Ed. (1999).  Popular Education and Social Movements in Scotland Today. 

The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Colin Kirkwood); "Introductory Essay: Popular Education and Social Movements in Scotland Today" (Ian Martin); "Popular Education and the Struggle for Democracy" (Jim Crowther); "Social Movements and the Politics of Educational Change" (Lindsay Paterson); "Learning from Popular Education in Latin America" (Liam Kane); "Women, Adult Education and Really Useful Knowledge" (Jean Barr); "The Significance of the Scottish Generalist Tradition" (Murdo Macdonald); "With 'Real Feeling and Just Sense': Rehistoricising Popular Education" (Tom Steele); "A Critical History of the Workers' Educational Association in Scotland, 1905-1993" (Robert Duncan); "Muslims in Scotland: Challenging Islamophobia" (Elinor Kelly, Bashir Maan); "'A Band of Little Comrades': Socialist Sunday Schools in Scotland" (David Fisher); "Defiant Sisters: Exploited Workers" (Sue Mansfield); "The Disability Movement and the Struggle for Inclusion" (Margaret Petrie, Mae Shaw); "'History, Justice, and the Law': The Struggle of the Assynt Crofters" (Isobel MacPhail); "Not on the Curriculum: The Story of Scottish Working Class Material Culture" (Elspeth King); "Representing Women: The Tactics of Gender in Scotland" (Alice Brown); "Liberation Theology in Scottish Community Empowerment" (Alastair McIntosh); "Workers as Citizens: Trade Union Education in the New Scotland" (Mick McGrath); "Building a Pedagogy of Hope: The Experience of the Adult Learning Project" (Vernon Galloway); "Cultivating Knowledge: Education, the Environment and Conflict" (Eurig Scandrett);"Making Connections: Learning through Struggle" (Helen Martin, Cathy McCormack); "Neighbourhood as Classroom: Reflections of an Activist" (John Dickie); "Past Matters: Memories and Histories" (Lorraine Dick); "Making Racism Visible: An Agenda for an Anti-Racist Scotland " (Rowena Arshad); "Instrumental Objectives and Liberal Values: Squaring the Circle" (Margaret Beveridge); and "Equal Opportunities: Back to Basics" (Jane Meagher).

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Cruickshank, Donald R. (1996).  Preparing America's Teachers. 

This book provides an overview of the modal curriculum in teacher education, summarizing 29 teacher education reform proposals and examining six instructional approaches to teacher education. Chapter 1 describes the modal teacher preparation curriculum (general studies, content studies, professional education, integrative studies, and guidelines for improving the curriculum). Chapter 2 summarizes the 29 reform proposals, which include a Harvard President's curriculum, Teacher Corps, teacher effectiveness research, school-based teacher education, promoting cultural pluralism, teaching as artistry, the teacher as actor, performance/competency-based teacher education, reflective teaching and simulation, schools of pedagogy, the Paideia proposal, readying the beginning teacher, the Carnegie Foundation's proposal, the Holmes Group, the 21st Century report, Teach for America, the Network for Educational Renewal, and the Teacher Testing Movement. Chapter 3 describes the six promising approaches to teacher education, which are: case studies, microteaching, minicourses, protocol materials, reflective teaching, and simulations. Chapter 4 summarizes issues related to the reform of teacher education. (Chapters contain references.)

Cruikshank, Kathleen (1998).  In Dewey's Shadow: Julia Bulkley and the University of Chicago Department of Pedagogy, 1885-1900.  History of Education Quarterly, 38, 4. 

Highlights Juila Bulkley's experience at the University of Chicago and her role in the development of the Department of Pedagogy for teacher education. Illustrates the extent to which the dynamics of institutional aspiration at the University of Chicago in its early years permeated faculty relations and converged with issues of gender.

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_____. (1998).  Culturally Responsive Teachers Inform the Reform Agenda: Recommendations for Policy and Practice. 

This monograph presents information from the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (AACTE)-MetLife Institute on Culturally Responsive Practice. The Institute brought together 34 practicing P-12 teachers from 21 states and U.S. territories to read, reflect on, and share their ideas about what it means to teach in diverse classrooms and to think about the policy implications of their conversations. The teachers (MetLife fellows) worked with national scholars to develop a set of recommendations for policymakers to consider in the areas of: (1) practice and pedagogy, (2) curriculum reform, (3) social context, (4) content standards and student assessment, and (5) professional development. The monograph lists the 1997-1998 MetLife Fellows and includes a brief biography on each individual. It also briefly describes the six resource kits the Fellows received during the course of the Institute and describes in detail one piece in order to offer an example of the materials provided and the issues addressed in the exchanges. Finally, the monograph offers detailed biographies on the Institute's seven exchange facilitators. | [FULL TEXT]

Cullen, Cecelia (1991).  Membership and Engagement at Middle College High School.  Urban Education, 26, 1. 

Describes Middle College High School, located on the campus of LaGuardia Community College in New York City. This residential program offers at-risk students counseling, an egalitarian atmosphere, community service internships, access to the college's facilities and courses, and a cooperative student-centered curriculum.

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Cumming, Alister, Ed. (1994).  Alternatives in TESOL Research: Descriptive, Interpretive, and Ideological Orientations.  TESOL Quarterly, 28, 4. 

Seven noted researchers each describe a different orientation to research exemplified in their own studies and currently predominant in the teaching of English to speakers of other languages. The statements consider aspects of language behavior, frameworks for interpreting curricula or culture such as classroom interaction or ethnography, or ideological orientations such as critical pedagogy or action research.

Cumming, Joy (1996).  Adult Numeracy Policy and Research in Australia: The Present Context and Future Directions. 

Although adult numeracy or basic mathematics classes have existed throughout Australia since at least the 1970s, they did not receive prominence in provision or policy until the endorsement of the Australian Language and Literacy Policy in 1991. The following are still lacking, however: expectation that adult numeracy teachers will have formal specific qualifications; systematic exploration of the nature of numeracy and development or nationally agreed-upon definitions; clear policy statements about the significance of numeracy in Australian society and strategies to address perceived needs for training and development; data on the extent of the need for national-level provision in adult literacy; and funding for designated research projects in adult numeracy. Further research is also needed on the following topics: nature of adult numeracy; role of language in numeracy and mathematics; role of mathematics in language; needs of specific groups in numeracy education; adult numeracy practices and needs; critical numeracy; adult learning and numeracy; effective instruction, assessment, and reporting in adult numeracy; and policy initiatives and provision effects in adult numeracy provision. Research initiatives in policy, provision, and pedagogy should be initiated immediately. | [FULL TEXT]

Cummings, Anne L. (1998).  A Feminist Approach to Teaching Women's Issues in Counsellor Education.  Canadian Journal of Counselling, 32, 1. 

Methods used in a graduate course on women's issues in counseling are described, and implications for counselor education are discussed. Emphasis is placed on including experiential learning activities so as to help students understand women's experiences within Western culture. Counseling concepts and interventions for dealing with women's issues are considered.

Cummins, Jim (1992).  Bilingual Education and English Immersion: The Ramirez Report in Theoretical Perspective.  Bilingual Research Journal: The Journal of the National Association for Bilingual Education, 16, 1-2. 

Based on a literacy interdependence theory, uses findings from the Ramirez et al. study on programs for Spanish-speaking, limited-English-proficient students to refute theories opposing bilingual education. Expresses concern that all three program types in the Ramirez study reflect transmission models of pedagogy in which students have little opportunity for producing meaningful language.

Cummins, Jim (1997).  Cultural and Linguistic Diversity in Education: A Mainstream Issue?  Educational Review, 49, 2. 

A framework for analyzing the educational attainment of culturally and linguistically diverse students highlights ways in which power relations influence the negotiation of identity. Teacher-student interactions either reinforce coercive relations or promote collaborative ones. Ignoring the intersections of power and pedagogy reinforces coercive power relations.

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Cunningham, Phyllis M. (1993).  Let's Get Real: A Critical Look at the Practice of Adult Education.  Journal of Adult Education, 22, 1. 

Uncritically accepted assumptions of adult education are it has humanistic goals; it narrows the gap in educational attainment; it is learner centered and empowering; (and it advances equality. The reality of practice must be confronted through critical pedagogy and participatory research.

Cunningham, Phyllis, Ed.; And Others (1996).  Constitutive Interplay midst Discourse of East and West: Modernity & Postmodernity Renderings in Adult & Continuing Education. Proceedings of the International Adult & Continuing Education Conference (Seoul, Korea, May 27-28, 1996). 

This document contains 17 papers, organized in three sections, presented at a conference on Eastern and Western adult and continuing education. The following papers are included in Section I, "Ideas and Tasks of Adult Education: Views of East and West": "Imagineries of 'East and West': Slippery Curricular Signifiers in Education" (Ted T. Aoki); "'Learning Perspective' in the Asian Viewpoint" (Kim Shinil); and "Learning to Learn: Western Perspectives" (Gene Roth). The second section, "Constructing Ideas and Tasks of Adult Education: Modernity and Postmodernity Perspectives," contains the following five papers: "Traditional Modernity, Postmodernity, and Communicative Modernity: Related Issues in Constructing Roles and Learning Tasks of Adult Education" (Ramon Flecha);"Conceptualizing Our Work as Adult Educators in a Socially Responsible Way" (Phyllis Cunningham); "Modernity and Postmodernity Related Issues in Developing Ideas and Tasks of Adult Education in Korean Context" (Kyung Hi Kim); "The Post-Modern Condition: Reformulating Adult Education Pedagogy" (Mark Tennant); and "West in East and Vice Versa, or Globalization in Adult Education" (Ki Su Kim). The final section, "Adult Education Programs and Practice: The Case Studies Approach," includes these nine papers: "Center of Research for Education of Adults (CREA): Some Crucial Issues" (Ramon Flecha); "Ideological Space Makers: The Needs in Graduate Programs in Adult Education" (Phyllis Cunningham); "Senior Citizen Education in Korea: Current Status and Demands" (Ki-hyung Hong); "An Afrocentric Feminist Perspective on the Role of Adult Education for Diverse Communities" (Vanessa Sheared); "Adult Retraining in Canada: Some Issues" (Ki Su Kim); "Adult Education for a Multiethnic Community: Japan's Challenge" (Koichi Sasagawa); "Consideration of Selected Influences on Work Place Learning" (Gary Confessore et al.); "A Proposed Historiography of Adult Education" (Glenn Smith); and "Postmodernity and Continuing Education: Becoming Critical Learners" (Barry Down). Contains 19 references. | [FULL TEXT]

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Curry, Judson B. (1993).  A Return to "Converting the Natives," or Antifoundationalist Faith in the Composition Class.  Rhetoric Review, 12, 1. 

Draws an extended analogy between what composition instructors do in the classroom and the process of religious witnessing and conversion. Describes a process of conversion in the context of an antifoundationalist writing class pedagogy.

Curry, Mary Jane (1999).  Critical Thinking: Origins, Applications, and Limitations for Postsecondary Students of English as a Second Language. 

Acting as a sliding signifier, the term "critical thinking" has been bandied about for years now by educators who often ascribe widely varying meanings to it. Researchers and writers mainly stress the "thinking" half of the phrase, often leaving unexamined what it means to be "critical." Those in the fields of critical pedagogy and critical literacy focus on the "critical" part of the phrase. "Critical" has become a trendy buzzword, and has been inappropriately appended to English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) texts, particularly writing textbooks, again with widely varying meanings and motivations. This paper explores the similarities, overlaps, and differences in the multiple meanings of critical thinking, looking at the origins of the field, its uses in the educational enterprise, its limitations, including cultural and feminist critiques, and issues that arise in including critical thinking in curricula for postsecondary ESL students. A definition of critical thinking is proposed for ESL students that attempts to account for these discrepancies, limitations, and constitutive tensions. It is concluded that the critical part of critical thinking should be emphasized when critical means being able to distinguish among alternatives, to make judgments about issues and problems under consideration, and to consider the implications of arguments of direct concern to students' future and current lives. .  | [FULL TEXT]

Curtis, A. Cheryl (1998).  Creating Culturally Responsive Curriculum: Making Race Matter.  Clearing House, 71, 3. 

Describes how one professor challenges students to critically consider issues of race, class, gender, and sexual orientation in their educational relationships, and how she deals with their resistance to considering that racism and sexism are institutionalized. Discusses responsive and responsible curriculum development, critical and feminist pedagogy, privilege and feminist scholarship, and the place of personal narratives.

Curtis, A. Cheryl; Rasool, Joan A. (1997).  Motivating Future Educators through Empowerment: A Special Case.  Educational Forum, 61, 4. 

Describes a teacher training program that incorporates critical and feminist pedagogies, which can empower teachers as catalysts of change. Presents three methods: critical reading of texts, contextualized lesson planning, and explicit discussions of power.

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Cusack, Sandra (1999).  Critical Educational Gerontology and the Imperative To Empower.  Education and Ageing, 14, 1. 

Older adults can be empowered through the development of critical thinking and leadership abilities. Such development enables them to make continuing contributions to society and promotes better mental and physical health.

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Cutforth, Nicholas J. (1999).  Reconciling the Moral and Technical Dimensions of Teaching: Moving beyond Notions of Good and Bad Pedagogy.  Journal for a Just and Caring Education, 5, 4. 

Investigates the educational and moral significance of an African-American gym teacher's practice at a Chicago elementary school. Although her teaching is far removed from professional ideals, her strict discipline style and her caring, friendly nature are valued by students, parents, and colleagues. Student development is her primary concern. Contains 18 references.

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Cyphert, Dale (1996).  Taking the Helm in Critical Pedagogy: The Basic Speech Curriculum as an Operationalization of the Paradigm. 

From Henry Giroux's perspective in his book "Border Crossings," all education ought to address some of the most difficult issues of contemporary rhetorical theory. Thus, the basic course in rhetoric is in a unique position to take the helm in critical pedagogy. The cutting edge of rhetorical theory responds to, contests, and incorporates emerging philosophies of postmodernism, critical studies, radical theory, feminism, and comparative epistemology. As philosophers, theorists, and researchers, educators recognize that rhetorical competence involves a complex interaction of culture, knowledge, power, and voice. Meanwhile, the basic communication course has traditionally relied on a pedagogical model that incorporates the assumptions, values, and methods of Western culture and philosophy. A critical pedagogist might design a basic course which would: (1) address rhetorical theory, rather than teach persuasive skill; (2) teach students to make rhetorical choices, not to use a set of rhetorical tools; (3) teach canonicity, not the canon; (4) teach civic responsibility rather than individual communication proficiency; (5) teach rhetorics, not rhetoric; and (6) teach popular culture, not speech making.   | [FULL TEXT]

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