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Educational Technology | H

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Hahn, Chris (2008).  Doing Qualitative Research Using Your Computer: A Practical Guide  [SAGE Publications (CA)] 

This book is a practical, hands-on guide to using commonly available everyday technology, including Microsoft software, to manage and streamline research projects. It uses straight-forward, everyday language to walk readers through this process, drawing on a wide range of examples to demonstrate how easy it is to use such software. This guide is full of useful hints and tips on how to manage research more efficiently and effectively, including: (1) formatting transcripts for maximum coding efficiency in Microsoft Word; (2) using features of Word to organize the analysis of data and to facilitate efficient qualitative coding; (3) efficiently storing and analyzing qualitative data in Access or Excel to develop categories, themes, and important concepts; (4) creating flexible analytic memos that help lead the researcher to final conclusions and enrich the written report; (5) utilizing inexpensive and easy-to-obtain tools to collect data and manage research projects. This guide is ideal for those students or researchers who don't want to invest in expensive specialized software packages and who are looking for a result that is more tailored to their individual needs. It will be an invaluable companion for anyone embarking on their own research project. Contents include: (1) Introduction, Coding Terminology, and the Big Picture; (2) Getting Started: Planning Your Qualitative Research Project; (3) Organizing and Controlling Your Research; (4) Backup Your Data; (5) Collecting Your Data; (7) Level 1 Coding; (8) Level 2 Coding Using Access; (9) Level 2 Coding Using Excel; (10) Level 3 and Level 4 (Theoretical Concepts) Coding; and (11) Writing the Report: The Final Draft.

Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L. (2007).  Using NCES National Datasets for Evaluation of Postsecondary Issues  Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 32, 3. 

The purpose of this study is to review 10 NCES databases that can be used for researching postsecondary issues and provide lesser-known facts to using the datasets that are important but may not be widely understood. Issues addressed include: (1) access; (2) statistical issues; (3) database nuances; and (4) database training opportunities. A concise review of each database is also provided which includes: (1) a general overview of the survey; (2) formats in which the dataset is available; and (3) research areas (which include key variables that can be used as a basis for research themes along with examples of how the dataset has been used to answer research questions). The databases provide rich sources of information for national as well as international comparative analysis studies.

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Harac, Lani (2004).  A Level Playing Field  Teacher Magazine, 16, 2. 

In this article, the author features the Universal Design for Learning, a computer-assisted methodology that has enabled special-needs kids in the Boston area to stay in regular classrooms. Developed by a nonprofit group called the Center for Applied Special Technology, the UDL approach--in which students use whatever print or technological tools they need--was originally devised for kids with physical and learning disabilities. It has been so successful among those students that the group recently drew up guidelines for the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and is trying to get UDL into mainstream classes. Its researchers claim that with the right materials, technology, and training, teachers can make all lessons flexible enough to benefit every student--including those considered "disabled." Here, the author discusses how the UDL approach is applied in the Boston area, where CAST's wide-ranging theories have already met the day-to-day realities of the classroom.

Harbour, Jolaine (2006).  ISTE News. Spreading the Joy  Learning and Leading with Technology, 33, 5. 

ISTE hosts several awards programs, some of which occur on an annual basis at the National Educational Computing Conference (NECC) and some of which are one-time award presentations. The Jolaine's Joy Scholarship Program is a one-time presentation established in memory of Jolaine Harbour, a dedicated and joyful educator. Harbour was a distinguished pioneer in education technology and a long-time member and friend of ISTE who died in August 2004. | [FULL TEXT]

Hardcastle, Alan (2000).  Increasing Information Technology Program Capacity in the Community and Technical College System: Recommendations and Strategies for Closing the Information Technology Skills Gap in Washington State. Final Report. 

This report offers an economic overview of Washington's information technology (IT) industry, stating that between 1990 and 1997 the state added 36,000 IT jobs and moved the state from 21st to 16th nationally in high-tech employment rankings. Washington also took the lead in high technology salaries, with an average wage of $81,000 in 1997. Furthermore, enrollments in IT increased 91% between 1995 and 1999, making IT the fastest growing area in the two-year college system. In light of these trends, this report presents recommendations and strategies for improving the quality of IT instruction and learning in the Washington State Community and Technical Colleges System (WSCTC). A committee comprised of IT industrial representatives, college presidents, and WSCTC Board members met to discuss ways to help the community college system meet IT industry needs. Four general recommendations came from the committee: (1) increase IT faculty compensation to keep up with private industry salaries and help retain quality instructors; (2) provide more professional development on IT innovations and changes to keep faculty up to date; (3) recruit and hire more IT instructors with industry experience; and (4) upgrade college facilities to improve IT capability and stay current with the IT industry. Tables with specific strategies for each recommendation are included in the report. Feedback from an IT faculty forum are also included. | [FULL TEXT]

Hardin, Erin E. (2007).  Technology in Teaching: Presentation Software in the College Classroom--Don't Forget the Instructor  Teaching of Psychology, 34, 1. 

Past research on the effects of presentation software has relied on small samples and experienced instructors. My research used a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design to evaluate the impact of PowerPoint[R] on student learning, satisfaction, and engagement in an introductory psychology course taught by graduate student instructors. Results showed several main effects of instructor but virtually no effects of PowerPoint, although there was a significant instructor by PowerPoint interaction on perceived learning and interest in psychology. PowerPoint reduced perceived learning for one instructor, but increased interest in psychology for another. The results are a reminder that good teaching depends more on the instructor than the technology.

Hardin, Karen (2004).  Teach Them to Fly: Strategies for Encouraging Active Online Learning  [Online Submission] 

One of the hot topics in education in the past 10 years has been the shift of the role of the educator. Whereas, he has traditionally been the owner and deliverer of the knowledge (Sage on the stage), now his role is shifting to a guide and facilitator (guide by the side). The purpose is to give the students ownership in their own learning process. As technology becomes more sophisticated, automation is replacing students' problem solving skills, critical thinking and sometimes patience. On one of my evaluations in a 1999 online course, a student criticized that, "she's not doing the teaching, I'm doing the learning." Of course in my desire to encourage active learning, I took the response as a compliment, but the student meant it as a criticism. I began pondering the reluctance of students to take control of the learning process. | [FULL TEXT]

Hardman, Joanne (2005).  An Exploratory Case Study of Computer Use in a Primary School Mathematics Classroom: New Technology, New Pedagogy? Research: Information and Communication Technologies  Perspectives in Education, 23, 4. 

Because computers potentially transform pedagogy, much has been made of their ability to impact positively on student performance, particularly in subjects such as mathematics and science. However, there is currently a dearth of research regarding exactly how the computer acts as a transformative tool in disadvantaged schools. Drawing on a detailed case study of a Grade 6 mathematics classroom I address the question of whether the introduction of a new tool--the computer--into the classroom shifts a teacher's pedagogical practice. I do this by elaborating on Vygotsky's learning theory before discussing Activity Theory as a framework for analysing change within and between the activity systems of the classroom and the computer laboratory. By focusing on contradictions as dynamic forces of change, I demonstrate how we can track transformation within an activity system. Tracking these contradictions enables me to illustrate how the use of the computer potentially leads to a shift in the object of the mathematics classroom, which in turn, leads to shifts in other elements of the classroom. This article seeks to provide one illustration of the way in which Activity Theory can be used as a methodological tool to investigate pedagogical change within a classroom.

Hardre, Patricia L.; Crowson, H. Michael; Xie, Kui; Ly, Cong (2007).  Testing Differential Effects of Computer-Based, Web-Based and Paper-Based Administration of Questionnaire Research Instruments  British Journal of Educational Technology, 38, 1. 

Translation of questionnaire instruments to digital administration systems, both self-contained and web-based, is widespread and increasing daily. However, the literature is lean on controlled empirical studies investigating the potential for differential effects of administrative methods. In this study, two university student samples were administered 16 questionnaires across three separate administration conditions: paper-based, computer-based and web-based. Outcomes of interest included data quality and participant affect. Overall, few differences in data quality were observed between administration conditions despite some evidence in favour of paper-based administration (PBA) over the other two. Affective responses of participants favoured the PBA over web- and computer-based administrations. Implications for research use of digital systems for data collection are discussed.

Hardwick-Ivey, Amy R. (2008).  Vocabulary in Action: Strategies for Turning Students into Wordsmiths  English Journal, 97, 4. 

High school teacher Amy R. Hardwick-Ivey loves teaching vocabulary. She describes numerous activities that increase students' understanding of the nuances of language and their confidence in using language well.

Hardy, Michael (2008).  It's TIME for Technology: The Technology in Mathematics Education Project  Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 27, 2. 

This article describes the impact that the Technology in Mathematics Education (TIME) Project had on participating middle level and secondary mathematics teachers' preparedness to teach through technology. Results indicate that the TIME Project positively impacted participants' perceptions of their knowledge of technological resources and methods of using such resources to teach mathematics. Accordingly, the methods employed in the TIME Project appear to be viable avenues for preparing middle level and secondary mathematics teachers to infuse technology into their instructional practice. Further, engaging middle level and secondary mathematics teachers in activities in which they use a variety of resources to explore a variety of topics that might be encountered at the relevant level of mathematics seems to be of particular value.

Hardy, Michael D. (2003).  "It Should Have Been Stressed in All Education Classes": Preparing Pre-Service Teachers To Teach with Technology. 

This paper highlights the results of an investigation of preservice elementary teachers' perceptions of their ability and preparation to teach via technology. Results indicated that participants tended to perceive themselves as capable of teaching via technology. However, they had difficulty identifying specific technological resources for teaching. Further, participants tended to be less positive in their perceptions of both the extent to which their degree program prepared them to teach via technology and the extent to which their instructors modeled the effective use of technology. Accordingly, modifications to teacher education programs may be warranted and some suggested alterations are provided.   | [FULL TEXT]

Hargardon, Steve (2007).  A Little Help from My Friends: Classroom 2.0 Educators Share Their Experiences  School Library Journal, 53, 10. 

Blogs, wikis, podcasting, social networks... it seems the entire world has gone 2.0 crazy. Among the followers are educators, who, in ever increasing numbers, are integrating these online, interactive tools into their classrooms and even libraries. This article presents profiles of a few of educators who have taken the plunge, launching blogs, signing on to social networks, and stepping up to the podcast mic in order to create innovative learning opportunities that encourage collaboration as never before. The profiles are: (1) Nancy Bosch on Blogs; (2) Ginger Lewman on Social Networking; (3) Dr. Tom Stiff, Susan Stiff, Diane Hammond, Dr. Steve MacLean on Blogs; (4) Carolyn Foote on Wikis; (5) Lisa Parisi on Podcasts; (6) Dave Ehrhart on Social Bookmarking; and (7) Barbara Barreda on All. While these innovators range widely in their experience and comfort level with technology, every one's a part of Classroom 2.0 (classroom20.ning.com), a social network for educators exploring new technologies. Online, they have shared advice, technical know-how, and encouragement in a community where newbies should feel most welcome.

Hargis, Jace (2008).  A Second Life for Distance Learning  [Online Submission] 

Many professionals in instructional education have experienced a relatively new potential virtual learning environment, called Second Life (SL). This article will connect the virtual world to the essential next step in our learning and communicating approach, electracy. Initially, humans utilized an oral mode to communicate, followed by literacy which enabled written information. These modes in concert with an electronic medium, has produced an electracy mode of communicating. Attending to the medium as well as the method in which people now process information can assist in maximizing the power of virtual learning environments such as Second Life. | [FULL TEXT]

Hargis, Jace; Stehr, Jim (2001).  Chemistry on Camera: Integrating Technology into the Science Laboratory.  Science Teacher, 68, 4. 

Describes a relevant, innovative laboratory exercise that promotes the construction of ideas that can be used to further science processing. Integrates technology in the form of digital photography, a portable computer, and a projection device. This activity fits well in a high school chemistry class.

Hargrave, Constance P.; Hsu, Ying-Shao (2000).  Survey of Instructional Technology Courses for Preservice Teachers.  Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 8, 4. 

Presents results of a survey of instructional technology courses in preservice teacher education programs. Concludes that more emphasis was placed on integrating instructional technology into the curriculum than on using technology for teacher productivity or personal use, and that the focus was on computer technology rather than educational media or instructional design topics.

Harlen, Wynne; Doubler, Susan (2004).  Can Teachers Learn through Enquiry On-Line? Studying Professional Development in Science Delivered On-Line and On-Campus. Research Report  International Journal of Science Education, 26, 10. 

The paper reports findings from research into the extent to which an on-line course, "Try Science", achieved its objectives compared with a face-to-face course with the same content and objectives. "Try Science" has the dual aims of developing participants' understanding of science content and of teaching science through enquiry. Whilst the research involved collection of information about the learning processes and products of the 15 teachers studying on-line and the 18 studying on-campus, this paper focuses on the experience of the course participants and course leaders. A summary of other findings is provided. On-line postings were summarised using categories relating to the course objectives and compared with data from observing and video-recording the on-campus course sessions. In both courses teachers were regularly using science enquiry skills during their science investigations. On-line participants reflected on their learning and on the process of enquiry to a greater extent than the on-campus participants.

Harler, Curt (2000).  Supporting the Technology-Enabled Classroom.  Journal of Telecommunications in Higher Education, 4, 4. 

Describes classroom technology initiatives at three universities: McGill in Montreal, and Emory and Georgia Tech in Atlanta. The offerings include whiteboard technology, in which notes written on an electronic board are captured and saved in digital form for distribution to students; digital video; Internet connections; and automated control of devices.

Harley, Diane; Maher, Michael; Henke, Jonathan; Lawrence, Shannon (2003).  An Analysis of Technology Enhancements in a Large Lecture Course.  Educause Quarterly, 26, 3. 

Conducted an economic and pedagogical analysis of the use of online lecture and laboratory material in an online science course taught by several instructors and approximately 50 teaching assistants. Data from a variety of sources show increased student use of curricular resources, increased convenience, and a potential for cost savings from this online approach.

Harlin, Rebecca (2005).  Digital Diversions: Keeping the Focus on the Art of Teaching in the Mathematics Classroom  Childhood Education, 81, 5. 

In this article, the author uses personal experiences to illustrate the belief that, while technology is impressive, entertaining, and fun, it is merely one tool in the pedagogical toolbox. The author contends that connecting with students has very little to do with technology, but instead emanates from self-awareness and the ability to resonate with another human being's curiosity in order to teach them effectively.

Harms, Patricia; Nolan, Kathleen; Ross, Ann; Salmon, Nancy; Schaper, MaryEllen; Wescott, Margaret Gould; Weisman, Eleanor (2002).  Maine Dance Curriculum Guide. Second Edition. 

This second edition updates and aligns the original 1996 publication with the Maine Learning Results, which were enacted by the state legislature in 1997. The Learning Results articulate what knowledge and skills all Maine students should have at various benchmarks throughout the preK-12 continuum. Dance is identified in the Learning Results as part of the Visual and Performing Arts section. This guide is intended to help schools formulate curriculum that addresses the content standards of creative expression, cultural heritage, and criticism and aesthetics. Additionally, it points to the integration of dance education with the guiding principles stated in the Learning Results. The guide focuses on "Pedagogy"; "Students with Special Needs"; "Health and Safety Concerns";"Technology"; "Major Premises"; and "Assessment." The "Scope and Sequence" section aligns sequential and developmental principles of dance education with each content standard. Six appendixes include a glossary of terms, establishing a school dance program, complementary movement disciplines, resource list, helpful Web sites, and dance education in Maine Schools. | [FULL TEXT]

Harnish, Dorothy; Reeves, Patricia (2000).  Issues in the Evaluation of Large-Scale Two-Way Interactive Distance Learning Systems.  International Journal of Educational Telecommunications, 6, 3. 

Discussion of the evaluation of large systems of distance learning technology focuses on a statewide evaluation of the Georgia Statewide Academic and Medical System, a two-way interactive audio-video network. Discusses the evaluation process used, design and administration of the study, data analysis and interpretation, and suggestions for improving future evaluations. 

Harper, Frederick D. (2006).  Writing Research Reports and Scholarly Manuscripts for Journal Publication: Pitfalls and Promises  Journal of Negro Education, 75, 3. 

Valuable strategies and guidelines for preparing research reports and scholarly manuscripts for publication in refereed journals are presented with the primary aim of helping prospective authors gain acceptance of their manuscripts for publication. The discussion addresses issues such as developing the research idea or problem from a race-conscious worldview, and acquiring and using computer software in writing and formatting the manuscript.

Harper, Suzanne R.; Driskell, Shannon (2005).  Curve Fit Challenge  Mathematics Teacher, 99, 4. 

Graphic tips for using the Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) are described. The methods to import an image into GSP, define a coordinate system, plot points and curve fit the function using a graphical calculator are demonstrated where the graphic features of GSP allow teachers to expand the use of the technology application beyond the classroom.

Harper, Suzanne R.; Driskell, Shannon (2006).  Technology Tips: Using the Iterate Command to Construct Recursive Geometric Sketches  Mathematics Teacher, 99, 6. 

How to iterate geometric shapes to construct Baravelle spirals and Pythagorean trees is demonstrated in this article. The "Surfing Note" sends readers to a site with applets that will generate fractals such as the Sierpinski gasket or the Koch snowflake.

Harper, Vernon (2003).  The Digital Divide (DD): A Reconceptualization for Educators.  Educational Technology Review, 11, 1. 

Discussion of the digital divide focuses on a social divide rather than a lack of access to information technology for specific groups. Topics include historic trends in technology diffusion; policy implications; motivational barrier to technology use; knowledge and skill barrier; content barrier; and social network barrier.

Harper, Vernon B., Jr. (2005).  The New Student-Teacher Channel  T.H.E. Journal, 33, 3. 

The Web is no longer a novel ingredient in the learning experience, it is intrinsic and constant. In fact, a host of new technologies has sparked an age of inexpensive, effortless, and universal Web access in the classroom, while wireless devices and protocols have steadily moved downstream and down the socioeconomic ladder. With this incredible availability, educators and learners are brought together in common effective, intellectual, and pedagogical planes that have never existed before. Blogging, of course, is one of the Web's more recent developments. Extremely popular with journalists and media watchers, blogging can be thought of as an unfiltered perspective on countless topics. Consisting largely of personal commentary, blogs are available to anyone with Internet access. Once posted online, practically anyone is free to "post" a response to the "blogger." Although blogs are often confused with listservs, threads, and bulletin boards, blogging software offers more control over the path of the Internet dialog, and it is this distinction that has exponentially driven blog popularity. It should come as no surprise that educators have begun to consider blogging for classroom purposes. Some believe that the blogs open an avenue of student self-disclosure that was previously inaccessible, and many argue that self-disclosure is an underutilized tool in the repertoire of most modern educators. This article discusses blogging as an incredible tool to generate self-disclosure between educator and student.

Harrelson, Christa L.; Amiel, Tel; McClendon, V. J.; Orey, Michael; Moore, Julie (2004).  Which Way for Which Teacher? Comparing Two Graduate Courses That Teach Technology Integration to Teachers  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

This brief paper describes a comparison of two different courses, both of which have been approved by the state of Georgia's Professional Standards Commission (PSC). These courses fulfill the PSC requirement that all teachers be competent with technology and know how to integrate technology into teaching and learning by the year 2006. The method of comparison was document analysis. Each of these courses has been approved to by the state as meeting the "Special Technology Requirement," but there are many contrasting elements. A description is given of how each course addresses the common topics taught by the courses and then a rating is assigned for each course on how thoroughly it addresses each topic. After the content analysis of each class was conducted, data from another study reporting the amount of time spent by students in the courses studied was incorporated to add depth to the comparison of the courses. | [FULL TEXT]

Harrigan, Kevin (2000).  The SPECIAL System: Searching Time-Compressed Digital Video Lectures.  Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 33, 1. 

The SPECIAL system is a computer application that allows learners to control the speed of video playback. Learners viewed an educational video and used a modified version of the SPECIAL system to search for particular items during playback. Results showed neither question type nor video type had a significant effect. Concludes that multimedia computer applications should have controls for variable speed playback.

Harriman, Susan (2004).  Learning in 3D: Students' Experiences of Online Projects in NSW Schools  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

Student participation in online learning activities is a growing priority for Australian government schools. 'Online projects' have emerged as a new learning form, building on non-computer problem-based learning approaches. This paper reports on a study of online learning projects implemented in classes from year 2 to year 11. The purported benefits of online learning were explored through in-depth case studies of the selected projects. Results of the study are presented, providing a window onto the learning events as each project unfolded and highlighting the achievements of students. The study's findings have significant implications for education systems and teachers, in the design and implementation of online projects as part of an effective learning provision for students. The potential and limitations of an online project approach are placed in the context of online learning developments occurring in New South Wales and Australia. | [FULL TEXT]

Harrington-Lueker, Donna, Ed. (2001).  New Networks, Old Problems: Technology in Urban Schools. EWA Special Report. 

These papers examine computer technology use in urban schools. "E-Rate Takes Hold, but Slowly" (Donna Harrington-Lueker) charts the progress of four urban school systems using E-rate funds to build powerful communication networks. "A Chicago Front-Runner Bypasses the Internet" (Alexander Russo) describes one school's commitment to educational technology despite operating at 200-percent capacity and serving disadvantaged students. "When Wiring Isn't Enough, a Middle School Hires Another Teacher-Trainer" (Pricilla Pardini) explains how one Milwaukee school developed such an intensive, sophisticated use of computer technology that it had to hire a full-time staff member to train teachers. "Old Problems Stymie East High, but a New Networking Academy Emerges" (Shari M. Sweeney) explains how Cleveland's aging public schools face many problems beyond acquainting students with keyboards, often relying on grants and corporate partners to fill their technology needs. "Detroit Hopes Laptops and Bond Money Will Jump-Start Technology" (Peggy Walsh-Sarnecki); describes the limited access to computers in Detroit's schools, noting how the 1994 approval of a $1.5 billion bond issue for capital improvements such as technology upgrades has not been thoroughly utilized and describing the use of state money to buy 90,000 laptop computers for use by every public school teacher in Michigan. | [FULL TEXT]

Harris, Carol (2002).  Expanding Dimensions of the "Knowledge Society": Technology, Discourse Ethics and Agency in Coastal Communities.  Journal of Educational Administration and Foundations, 16, 2. 

Traces philosophical appraisals of technology, both as devices for human purposes and, as technological rationality, as ways of thinking and acting. Two applications of communication technology in the context of Canadian coastal communities illustrate the distinction between training and education, and the importance of public space in which to locate ethical discourse and social agency.

Harris, Clark R.; Kaff, Marilyn S.; Anderson, Mary Jo; Knackendoffel, Ann (2007).  Designing Flexible Instruction  Principal Leadership, 7, 9. 

Principals and teachers need a framework that will allow school personnel to reach and teach all students within the general education setting. One such framework is universal design for learning (UDL). UDL is achieved by means of flexible curricular materials and activities that provide alternatives for students with disparities in abilities and backgrounds. UDL allows for differentiating and individualizing learning in a standards-based learning environment by selective use of flexible pedagogy (Rose & Meyer, 2002). UDL challenges teachers to incorporate flexibility into instructional planning as a way to accommodate the learning needs of all students in the classroom. Although initially students with disabilities may be helped the most through UDL (Bowe, 2000), eventually all students will benefit. UDL provides the means for educators to develop methods and materials that enhance student opportunities to learn. All educators must understand how students learn and use the technology available to provide support and accommodations as needed to increase student participation and achievement in the general education curriculum.

Harris, George (2002).  Total Operational Costs Report. 

Northern Valley Regional High School (New Jersey) has been involved in implementing a technology strategy for over a decade. This document outlines how the funding that the Board of Education has provided was spent and will be spent over the next 3 years. Included are several industry models that are geared towards business and public facilities. Findings from this analysis show that Northern Valley Regional High School is approximately six times more efficient than the average business in operating technology. When comparing Northern Valley to the public organization models, again, the school district surpasses the averages. The delivery of technology in Northern Valley is approximately three times more efficient than other public facilities. Use of funds in an effective manner, while providing not only technology for the Northern Valley organization, but also including support mechanisms that meet the organization's demands is a critically challenging task. Over the past 6 years, the support structure and mechanics have been constantly revised. The continuing cycle of implement, review, improve, and re-implement has resulted in a technology support product that has vastly improved users' expectations and confidence in the ongoing need for repairing and troubleshooting technology problems. This improved organization has provided the school district with the ability to support roughly three times the number of computers as an equally sized public institution and roughly six times the number of computers of an equally sized business. | [FULL TEXT]

Harris, John M., Jr.; Novalis-Marine, Cheryl; Harris, Robin B. (2003).  Women Physicians Are Early Adopters of On-Line Continuing Medical Education  Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 23, 4. 

Introduction: On-line continuing medical education (CME) provides advantages to physicians and to medical educators. Although practicing physicians increasingly use on-line CME to meet their educational needs, the overall use of on-line CME remains limited. There are few data to describe the physicians who use this new educational medium; yet, they clearly are the innovators and early adopters who will facilitate the growth of this educational technology. It would be useful to instructional designers and CME developers to better understand the characteristics of this influential group. Methods: We studied the actual use of several different on-line CME programs within three different groups of physicians. The on-line programs were developed as part of research studies funded by the National Institutes of Health, with no relationship to commercial interests. They were presented to physicians using mass mailouts (two physician groups) or personal contact and were accompanied by incentives to reduce resistance to the new technology. We compared the characteristics of physicians who chose to use these on-line programs with demographic data from larger populations representing the groups from which these users originated. Results: We found that physicians who used these on-line CME programs were younger than average and, importantly, more likely to be female than expected. This finding was consistent across different types of physician populations and different types of CME programs. Discussion: Based on data reflecting actual use of on-line CME, younger physicians appear to be adopting on-line CME more rapidly than others, and women physicians appear to be adopting on-line CME at a faster rate than their male counterparts. This latter finding conflicts with the impression provided by some survey-based studies that male physicians are more likely than female physicians to use on-line CME. The data suggest that the growth of on-line CME is most likely occurring in diffusion networks dominated by relatively new medical school graduates and, possibly, women physicians. These results provide valuable insight to those who seek to develop and market on-line CME and those who seek to reach women physicians with CME programs.

Harris, Judi (2001).  Design Tools for the Internet-Supported Classroom. 

This book is a resource for staff development professionals to enable them to help K-12 educators create curriculum-based online activities. The first chapter, Teachers as Instructional Designers, describes telecomputing tools and an approach to instructional design that includes a chronology of adoption and formats for professional development. The second chapter, What Research Reveals about Teachers and Innovations, provides background information for online activities. Chapter 3, Eighteen Activity Structures for Telecomputing Projects, provides specifics of instructional design, and chapter 4, Teachers as Facilitators of Teleresearch, talks about the role of teachers in the application of new technology. Chapter 5, Eight Steps to Designing a Telecollaborative Project, outlines the design process. Also included are a glossary and a list of online resources for educational telecomputing projects.

Harris, Larry A. (2002).  Seeds of Innovation: Three Years of the Technology Innovation Challenge Grant Program. 

This publication describes the 62 projects that received 5-year Technology Innovation Challenge Grants beginning in 1995, 1996, and 1997, with reviews of the projects occurring in late 1999 and early 2000. Part 1 of the report describes the Technology Innovation Challenge Grant (TICG) program and its importance. Part 2 contains the project descriptions, organized in four areas that illustrate the following aspects of technology's potential to impact education: (1) enhancing learning, i.e., aiding students, teachers, parents, and community members; (2) strengthening curriculum, i.e., making subject matter meaningful; (3) creating infrastructure, i.e., providing access to technology; and (4) making connections, i.e., spanning distance with technology, creating learning communities, and using World Wide Web resources. Part 3 discusses themes of TICG projects, including student learning, professional development, parents and communities, strengthening curriculum, infrastructure, connectivity, leadership administration, evaluation, sustainability, scaling up, dissemination, partnerships, and context considerations. Part 3 also presents summary observations in three key areas-evaluation, time, and context. The appendixes include a list of TCIG projects by state and a directory of U.S. Department of Education TICG staff. | [FULL TEXT]

Harris, Michael; Cullen, Roxanne (2008).  Renovation as Innovation: Transforming a Campus Symbol and a Campus Culture  Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education, 12, 2. 

In an effort to completely transform both teaching spaces and pedagogical orientation, a multi-stage project that tied professional development efforts for faculty and administrators to a redesign of existing classroom facilities was initiated. The goal was to simultaneously transform learning and spaces for learning in order to change the cultural paradigm that affected both the concept of being a teaching institution and the sustainability of the campus. In this article, the authors describe the most significant lesson learned from these multistage renovation projects--to achieve the goal of a learner-centred curriculum, changing the physical spaces is a necessary condition, but not a sufficient one. As noted at the beginning of this article, the "idea" of the university cannot be changed without considering the "physical" presence; likewise, the "physical" presence cannot be changed without vigilant attention to the "idea" of the university. Changing a culture requires buy-in, engagement, and intellectual investment, which, in this case, was gained through the process of ongoing assessment and professional development. The point of assessment was not solely to assure feedback as they proceeded through the stages of this project; the ongoing assessment empowered the different constituents and individuals, involved them in the process, and most importantly, sparked a campus-wide discussion, not just about space, but about learning and what it means to be a learning-centred campus.

Harris, Phillip L. (2007).  Solving the Money Problem in a Television Production Class  Technology Teacher, 66, 5. 

In this article, the author chronicles his odyssey to search for an elusive prize. He was teaching a television production class that had many students and little equipment. The equipment he had was barely consumer grade. He needed to replace it with higher grade equipment as well as massively increase the quantities of everything he had so more students would have access to gear at the same time. The problem was that he needed funds. The story presented here has a happy ending and is filled with ideas that teachers can adopt to create the same solution to the money problem, while giving their students a real-world education.

Harris, Richard (2005).  Testing Times: Traditional Examination and Asynchronous Learning  Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 29, 1. 

Because assessment reflects course pedagogy, aims, objectives but also broader institutional and cultural expectations, traditional examination still has a role in the new media of asynchronous, distance learning. This paper recounts experiences of incorporating such examination within an Internet-delivered, GIScience programme, outlining some logistical and learning limitations of doing so. A pedagogical dualism for or against traditional examination is argued to be narrow and unnecessarily restrictive; focus is instead given to modifying traditional assessment to meet learning needs. A hybrid of seen and unseen examination is discussed. Feedback from students suggests the approach is welcome but unequal access to learning resources is a problem.

Harris, Richard; Haydn, Terry (2006).  Pupils' Enjoyment of History: What Lessons Can Teachers Learn from Their Pupils?  Curriculum Journal, 17, 4. 

This article explores pupil attitudes towards history as a school subject in England, with a view to developing a better understanding of the factors which influence disaffection or engagement with the subject. The study attempts to identify what pupils like and dislike about how they are taught and what they are taught in history lessons. The study was carried out in 12 secondary schools with pupils aged 11-14. Questionnaires were returned from 1740 pupils and 160 of these were involved in focus group interviews. The findings show that how pupils are taught appears to matter more than what they are taught and identifies teaching approaches that pupils considered to be particularly effective, and teaching approaches that appear to contribute to pupil disaffection and disengagement from the subject. The study also provides insights into the extent to which pupils find history enjoyable compared to other school subjects. Although the study is primarily of interest to history teachers, it may also be of interest to teachers of other subjects who have a concern for the degree of pupil engagement with their subject.

Harris, Rorie N.; Dwyer, William O.; Leeming, Frank C. (2003).  Are Learning Styles Relevant in Web-Based Instruction?  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 29, 1. 

This study investigated the impact of learning style on performance in a Web-based learning environment. Specifically, Introductory Psychology students with different learning styles, as measured by Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory (LSI-IIa), were randomly assigned to one of two Web-based training modules that differed only in terms of their number of multimedia enhancements and user interaction options. Outcome measures included an online final test over the material presented in the modules and an online survey measuring participants' reactions to the modules. The potential impact of learning style was also assessed with respect to the students' final grade in the lecture course. Results indicated that neither student learning style nor online course module version had any impact on mean test score or on reaction to the online module. Furthermore, learning style was not related to the students' overall performance in the lecture course. The implications of these results for considering learning styles in the design of Web-based instruction are discussed.

Harris, Stewart B.; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Webster-Bogaert, Susan; Van, Daphne M.; O'Neill, Colleen (2005).  Teleconferenced Educational Detailing: Diabetes Education for Primary Care Physicians  Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 25, 2. 

Introduction: Formal didactic continuing medical education (CME) is relatively ineffective for changing physician behavior. Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly prevalent disease, and interventions to improve adherence to clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are needed. Methods: A stratified, cluster-randomized, controlled trial design was used to evaluate the effects of a teleconferenced educational detailing (TED) CME on glycemic control (hemoglobin [Hb] A[subscript 1c]) and family physician adherence to national diabetes guidelines. TED employed sequential, small-group, case-based education using CPGs delivered by a diabetes specialist. Medical record audit data from baseline through the end of a 12-month postintervention period were compared for the control and intervention groups. Satisfaction with the intervention was evaluated. Results: Sixty-one physicians provided 660 medical records. The intervention did not affect mean Hb A[subscript 1c] levels but did significantly (p = 0.04) alter the distribution of patients by category of glycemic control, with fewer in the intervention group in inadequate control (15.8% versus 23.9%). More patients took insulin (alone or with oral agents) in the intervention group (21.2% versus 12.0%, p = 0.03), and more took oral agents only in the control group (89.0% versus 82.9%, p = 0.005). More patients in the intervention group had documentation of body mass index (7.8% versus 1.9%, p less than 0.02), eye exam (12.1% versus 5.1%, p = 0.02), and treatment plan (43.5% versus 23.6%, p = 0.01) and used a flow sheet (14.6% versus 7.7%, p less than 0.03). Although there was general satisfaction with the teleconferencing format, specialist educators found the format more challenging than the family physicians. Discussion: CME delivered by teleconference was feasible, well attended, well received by participants, and improved some key diabetes management practices and outcomes.

Harris, Susan (2002).  Innovative Pedagogical Practices Using ICT in Schools in England.  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 18, 4. 

Presents information about the case studies carried out in three primary and three secondary schools in England that were part of the Second Information Technology in Education Study (SITES), focusing on innovative pedagogical practices involving ICT (information and communication technology).

Harry, Vickie (2000).  Technology Advancing a Continuous Community of Learners (TACCOL): Integrating Technology into Teacher Preparation. 

This paper describes Clarion University of Pennsylvania's TACCOL (Technology Advancing a Continuous Community of Learners) program. TACCOL develops and implements an innovative environment for interfacing technology with mathematics and science education while achieving and maintaining systemic change in teacher education and K-12 learning. TACCOL's goal is to provide professional development for higher education faculty, prospective teachers, and cooperating teachers from local school districts to enhance instruction in mathematics and science through the use of computers, graphing calculators, calculator-based rangers, calculator based-laboratories, and multiple probes. A variety of professional development activities have been used to enable participants to acquire minimum competencies. Participants learn through hands-on, interactive activities, with a constructivist approach to teaching and learning. TACCOL will be sustained through continued university and school professional development opportunities, curricular change, and the ongoing integration of technology into mathematics and science content classes. Since university faculty have been trained to use the technology, they are integrating technology use into general education and methods courses for prospective teachers. Prospective teachers are feeling confident about integrating technology into their future classrooms. Practicing teachers who participated in summer workshops are prepared to integrate technology into their classrooms. | [FULL TEXT]

Harry, Vickie; Brown, Lisbeth; McCullogh, John (2001).  Sharing Teacher Education Curricula Electronically. 

Pennsylvania's Clarion University plans to implement an electronic visit for the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education's (NCATE's) 2003 continuing accreditation visit. The College of Education and Human Services is committed to selecting and graduating outstanding candidates who are empowered with the knowledge, skills, and dispositions necessary to assume responsibility for the exercise of professional judgment and continued professional growth to meet the needs of diverse students in a changing society. It is developing a conceptual framework which defines the preparation of effective, dedicated, and competent professionals. Learners are the center of the conceptual framework, emphasizing individual variations, cultural diversity, and societal influences. The framework identifies the process of knowledge construction, authentic learning and assessment, and learning interactions and includes learners outcomes (professionalism, decision making, and life long learning). Part of the 2003 NCATE accreditation process includes creating a Web site for electronic distribution of materials. The university is also revising student teaching guidelines. Student teachers will prepare electronic portfolios as evidence of program outcomes. They will be required to post assignments to their personal Web sites for inclusion in the electronic portfolios. The university is planning to develop electronic exhibits related to technology use in data collection. | [FULL TEXT]

Harrysson, B.; Svensk, A.; Johansson, G. I. (2004).  How People with Developmental Disabilities Navigate the Internet  British Journal of Special Education, 31, 3. 

We live at a time when the Internet is used increasingly for communication, for information, and for the exchange of goods and services. Questions arise about how people with learning disabilities make use of this new technology. In this article, Bjorn Harrysson, with two of his colleagues, A. Svensk and G. I. Johansson, from the Department of Design Sciences at the Lund Institute of Technology in Sweden, explores the opportunities and difficulties experienced by members of this group when navigating the Internet. Harrysson, Svensk and Johansson observed seven people, aged between 15 and 44 and with mild to moderate developmental disabilities, as they navigated between different web pages using the general tools of Microsoft Internet Explorer Web Browser. The authors describe some of the strategies that were used for moving within and between web pages and for opening web pages, carrying out searches and finding preferred web sites. The results of the study are partly optimistic. The people involved made good use of many of the features of the general software. They experienced greater difficulties when it became necessary to use text to navigate and explore the huge potential of the Internet. Harrysson, Svensk and Johansson close their article by making a series of recommendations for developments that would facilitate ease of access and independence in the use of the Internet for people with developmental disabilities.

Harskamp, E.; Suhre, C. (2007).  Schoenfeld's Problem Solving Theory in a Student Controlled Learning Environment  Computers & Education, 49, 3. 

This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a student controlled computer program for high school mathematics based on instruction principles derived from Schoenfeld's theory of problem solving. The computer program allows students to choose problems and to make use of hints during different episodes of solving problems. Crucial episodes are: analyzing the problem, selecting appropriate mathematical knowledge, making a plan, carrying it out, and checking the answer against the question asked. The effectiveness of the computer program was evaluated by means of a pre-test-post-test quasi experimental design study. Four classes worked with the computer program in three periods of two consecutive weeks each, whereas five classes received only traditional mathematics education. These classes served as a control group. The results show evidence of intervention effectiveness. The students who worked with the computer program showed increased problem-solving ability compared to the students in traditional mathematics instruction. The use of hints could explain an essential part of the increase in students' problem solving skills.

Harskamp, Egbert G.; Mayer, Richard E.; Suhre, Cor (2007).  Does the Modality Principle for Multimedia Learning Apply to Science Classrooms?  Learning and Instruction, 17, 5. 

This study demonstrated that the modality principle applies to multimedia learning of regular science lessons in school settings. In the first field experiment, 27 Dutch secondary school students (age 16-17) received a self-paced, web-based multimedia lesson in biology. Students who received lessons containing illustrations and narration performed better on subsequent transfer tests than did students who received lessons containing illustrations and on-screen text. In the second field experiment, 55 Dutch secondary school students (age 16-17) received similar multimedia programs that allowed more self-pacing and required students to record the time to learn. The illustrations-and-narration group outperformed the illustrations-and-text group on subsequent transfer tests for students who required less time to learn but not for students who required more time to learn. The interaction of learning time spent with modality of presentation on post-test scores was studied. Implications for testing of the robustness of cognitive theory of multimedia learning are discussed.

Hart, Holly M.; Allensworth, Elaine; Lauen, Douglas L.; Gladden, Robert M. (2002).  Educational Technology: Availability and Use in Chicago's Public Schools. 

With expectations for technology use and its potential costs continuing to rise, the Consortium on Chicago School Research sought to provide baseline information on educational technology--the use of computers and the Internet for instructional purposes--in Chicago public schools. Three questions were addressed in a year-long study that included both quantitative and qualitative analyses: (1) What are the current levels of technology availability and use? (2) Are availability and use distributed equitably across students, teachers, and schools in the district? and (3) What essential organizational supports are necessary to encourage technology use in schools? These topics were examined by looking at nearly 100,000 responses to the Consortium's biannual survey of teachers and students in 434 of Chicago's schools, in addition to other administrative data. Further insight was gained through site visits to schools with model technology programs.

Hartley, James (2007).  Teaching, Learning and New Technology: A Review for Teachers  British Journal of Educational Technology, 38, 1. 

This paper reviews the effects of new technology on teaching and learning by considering examples of studies carried out with five kinds of teaching in five contexts. The five teaching situations are direct instruction, adjunct instruction, facilitating the skills of learning, facilitating social skills and widening learners' horizons. The five contexts are primary schools, secondary schools, higher education, special education and out of school. The aim of the paper is primarily to inform teachers about current work in these different areas.

Hartley, James; Howe, Michael; McKeachie, Wilbert (2001).  Writing through Time: Longitudinal Studies of the Effects of New Technology on Writing.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 32, 2. 

Assesses whether or not people's writing styles and ways of thinking change when new technologies are introduced. Compares material written over a 30-year period and concludes that writing styles were consistent over time, even though new technologies changed the ways the individual writers worked.

Hartley, James; Sotto, Eric; Pennebaker, James (2003).  Speaking versus Typing: A Case-Study of the Effects of Using Voice-Recognition Software on Academic Correspondence.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 34, 1. 

Discusses effects of new technology on writing by assessing whether an experienced writer's style of writing changes with new technology. Compares typed word-processed letters with dictated word-processed letters after a change to a voice recognition system and indicates more of an influence on the writing process than on the written products.

Hartley, Jess (2001).  Success in the Classroom.  School Planning & Management, 40, 11. 

Presents five steps schools can take during the planning process to ensure good implementation of instructional technology. Planning steps include teaching software, technological infrastructure, and technology updating.

Hartley, Jim; Yates, Paul (2001).  Referees Are Not Always Right! The Case of the 3-D Graph.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 32, 5. 

Discusses the use of tables versus graphs and describes a study that investigated how easily the information presented in each format is understood. Emphasizes the needs of the reader for simplification and clarity and considers implications for editors and referees when making suggestions to authors of journal articles.

Hartley, Kendall; Bendixen, Lisa D. (2001).  Educational Research in the Internet Age: Examining the Role of Individual Characteristics.  Educational Researcher, 30, 9. 

Examines relevant research from the educational technology and educational psychology literature that supports the need for more research into the relationship between learner characteristics (e.g., epistemological beliefs and self-regulatory skills) and performance in new learning environments, examining their implications for the use of computer-based technologies such as the World Wide Web.

Hartley, M. S.; Treagust, D. F.; Ogunniyi, M. B. (2008).  The Application of a CAL Strategy in Science and Mathematics for Disadvantaged Grade 12 Learners in South Africa  International Journal of Educational Development, 28, 5. 

This study addressed one aspect of a national strategic recommendation in South Africa by examining the effectiveness of computer-based outreach programmes in terms of how the programmes were implemented and learners' perceptions of the classes. The role that the computer centres played at two schools was examined and the research endeavoured to provide descriptions of the implemented and perceived programmes. The findings provide insight into the implementation of computer-assisted learning (CAL) in disadvantaged schools and serve as baseline data for research into CAL environments in the South African context. Learners considered the application of CAL as a positive step to improve their learning but also placed a high value on the role of the teacher because of the perceived competencies of their teachers in helping them perform well in the matriculation examination. The findings of the study have important practice and policy implications for the implementation of CAL in disadvantaged schools.

Hartley, Roger; Almuhaidib, Saud M. Y. (2007).  User Oriented Techniques to Support Interaction and Decision Making with Large Educational Databases  Computers and Education, 48, 2. 

Information Technology is developing rapidly and providing policy/decision makers with large amounts of information that require processing and analysis. Decision support systems (DSS) aim to provide tools that not only help such analyses, but enable the decision maker to experiment and simulate the effects of different policies and selection strategies. The specific context of this research, set in Saudi Arabia, is administrative decision making using large educational databases. A decision support system (DEMASS) developed to enable systematic exploration of the educational database, allows users to identify variables of interest and to actively change the attribute values (weightings) of these attributes thus revealing the consequences of these decisions on policies and selection processes. Further refinements allow users to introduce conditional rules which take into account other variables required by, for example, local circumstances. An active Document Manager, used in conjunction with DEMASS, allows decision makers to manipulate the structure of the document in which the decision making interactions have been placed. Two initial validation studies were undertaken with realistic tasks using regional decision/policy makers and their educational databases. These demonstrated the benefits of the support facilities in enabling policy/decision making to be more differentiated, responsive to local requirements, and open to collaborative working.

Hartley, Roger; Ravenscroft, Andrew; Williams, R. J. (2008).  CACTUS: Command and Control Training Using Knowledge-Based Simulations  British Journal of Educational Technology, 39, 2.

 

Hartley, Sarah; Gill, Deborah; Walters, Kate; Bryant, Pauline; Carter, Frances (2001).  Twelve Tips for Potential Distance Learners.  Medical Teacher, 23, 1. 

Outlines issues that all students planning a distance learning course should consider relating to choice of course, time management, funding ,and adjusting to the different nature of distance learning. Advises developing a support network for distance learning students, either in person or electronically, to increase motivation and completion.

Hartman, Hope J.; Glasgow, Neal A. (2002).  Tips for the Science Teacher: Research-Based Strategies To Help Students Learn. 

This book describes instructional strategies for science teachers based on educational, psychological, and social research findings and focuses on how these results can be applied to classroom settings. Chapters include: (1) "Instructional Strategies"; (2) "Developing Students' Scientific Thinking and Learning Skills"; (3) "Emotional Aspects of Science Learning"; (4) "Social Aspects of Science Classroom"; (5) "Using Technology in Science Teaching"; (6) "Informal Science Learning"; and (7) "Assessment in the Science Classroom." Each chapter presents a collection of teaching tips, concisely presented in a user-friendly format which includes: "THE TIP"; "What the Research Says"; "Classroom Applications"; "Precautions and Possible Pitfalls"; and "Bibliographies." An index is also included

Hartman, Joel L.; Dziuban, Charles; Brophy-Ellison, James (2007).  Faculty 2.0  EDUCAUSE Review, 42 n5 p62-64, 66. 

Much has been written recently about the Net Generation--the generation (roughly twelve to twenty-five years old) that makes up the majority of students attending U.S. colleges and universities--but relatively little attention has been given to the college and university faculty who teach them. Faculty roles and the processes of teaching and learning are undergoing rapid change. The three traditional roles of college and university faculty are teaching, research, and service, with the relative emphasis on each varying by institutional type and mission. Among the three roles that are undergoing change, teaching and research are being most significantly altered by technology. Although research and publication are undeniably important components of the professional lives of many faculty members--for some, they form "the" most important component--the authors are focusing here on the less-visible changes brought about by technology in the teaching and learning space and on how these changes are fundamentally reshaping the processes and tools associated with the institutional structures, extending to the roles and responsibilities of campus IT leaders and organizations.

Hartmann, Christopher E.; McFarlane, Doug (2000).  The Assimilation of Technology in a Sixth-Grade Classroom: Teacher Learning from the Use of an Open Toolset. 

This paper discusses a case study of the implementation of the computer software, "Boxer," in a single sixth-grade classroom. The paper reports on the process of teacher learning accompanying the assimilation of a new technology into this classroom. A case study approach was used because the teacher taught a 4-week class using Boxer to study geometric figures in the plane five times during a single school year to different groups of students. This repetition was used to study change in the teacher's instructional practices over time. Based on the evidence from this single case, three conclusions are drawn that can serve as starting points for further research. First, the use of technology can serve as a resource that helps to increase the presence of student thinking during classroom instruction. Second, new technologies such as Boxer can be assimilated into a teacher's familiar and productive class routines and serve as a resource. Third, the use of technologies that serve as open toolsets (A. A. diSessa, 1997) can support change in the classroom by allowing for flexibility in response to long-term or emergent goals. Contains 26 references.  | [FULL TEXT]

Hartnell-Young, Elizabeth (2006).  Teachers' Roles and Professional Learning in Communities of Practice Supported by Technology in Schools  Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 14, 3. 

This article explores four roles of teachers in classrooms using computers, from the perspective of communities of practice (Wenger, 1998). It reports on an indepth study undertaken in 12 schools, and shows that teachers appropriated technology in a range of ways to help them create classroom communities that build knowledge. Some also acted as brokers to cross classroom and school boundaries, engaging in professional learning through curriculum projects with other teachers and their students as new communities of practice formed. However, while such projects were initiated and driven by individuals and groups of teachers, their success required support through school leadership and organization and statewide technology infrastructures and funding.

Hartnell-Young, Elizabeth; Smallwood, Angela; Kingston, Sandra; Harley, Philip (2006).  Joining up the Episodes of Lifelong Learning: A Regional Transition Project  British Journal of Educational Technology, 37, 6. 

In this paper, we explore the rationale, process and outcomes of the Regional Interoperability Project on Progression for Lifelong Learning, a project that established a model of cross-sector collaboration in personal development planning technology in the UK. With specific reference to the widening participation agenda, and grounded in the perspective of lifelong learners, the project tested an approach in which discrete nodes of an individual's learning journey are joined up through technology services. The paper describes the development of conceptual and practical tools to assist transitions between various communities of learning. A set of scenarios was developed, involving study to study and study to employment, while practical tools included development of UK LeaP draft interoperability standard (BS8788)-compliant links between ePortfolio software, and the actual test transfer of data. The results indicate that recognizing the smallest individual elements in the process is important, both in a technical sense and as a means of personalizing learning and assisting transition between sectors. Through developing connections between these elements, the project partners engaged in lifelong learning.

Harvel, Lonnie D. (2006).  Convenience Is Not Enough  Innovative Higher Education, 31, 3. 

A recent survey of studies [Tenopir, Hitchcock, & Pillow (2003). "Use and users of electronic library resources: An overview and analysis of recent research studies." Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources.] concluded "both faculty and students use and like electronic resources and most readily adopt them if the sources are perceived as convenient, relevant, and time saving to their natural workflow" (p. iv). However, the results of access studies show that actual use of online content is relatively low. This is because navigation to the online content in these various collections is not convenient, requires multiple steps in order to reach relevant content, and is not integrated into a student's natural workflow. In our research, we have designed, implemented, deployed, and evaluated a method for making content available to students that targets the content to their current need.

Harvey, Bill; Beards, David (2004).  E-Learning in Scottish Further and Higher Education  Education + Training, 46, 6-7. 

This paper describes the process and outcomes by which an e-learning strategy was developed for the Scottish further and higher education sectors. It summarises the context in which the Scottish Funding Councils have supported developments in Information and Communication Technology and e-learning and identifies the main external drivers which shaped policy development. The paper presents the main conclusions of the e-learning strategy and indicates the actions which the councils are now taking. The paper provides a useful case study of the process of strategy development at the national level and identifies key concepts which we in Scotland believe are essential components for the effective deployment of e-learning in colleges and universities.

Harvey, Carl A., II (2005).  What Should a Teacher Expect a School Library Media Specialist to Be?  Library Media Connection, 23, 5. 

The importance and work of Library Media Specialists is discussed where they help teach students to be information literate. The Library Media Specialist also helps to find answers to questions and help find resources to support instruction in the classroom, working with students to use technology in the library media center, the computer lab, and the classroom.

Harvey, Denis; Depover, Christian; DeLievre, Bruno; Quintin, Jean Jacques (2001).  Different Levels of Internet Integration in University Academic Activities: Examples and Pedagogical Implications. 

In the four examples of pedagogic integration of the Internet in a "multimodal" university situation reported in this paper, an innovative process is illustrated whose central objectives were improvement of the quality and relevance of the training strategies provided to students. This paper contributes to the characterization of the Internet integration continuum, from enhancing a traditional course with a minimal integration of Internet (level 1) to a complete integration in the form of what has been called a virtual campus (level 3). The paper suggests that the more or less intensive use of distance communication in the various modalities of integration does not reflect the quality of the learning. Whatever the level of integration of the Internet to the system, coherence of the proposed activities and pedagogic value of the tools implemented are the most determining factors for success.  | [FULL TEXT]

Harvey, Douglas (2002).  A New Technology-First Framework for the Future Design of Online Learning.  Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 3, 1. 

Discusses online technologies and distance education and suggests that combining distributed learning and a technology-first approach for instructional design could produce a new framework that would begin with the nature of the technology as its central assumption. Describes the present framework of the virtual classroom and considers the nature of online technologies.

Harvey, Douglas M.; Lee, Jung (2001).  The Impact of Inherent Instructional Design in Online Courseware.  Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 2, 1. 

Examines how the use of server-based courseware development solutions affects the instructional design process when creating online distance education. Highlights include pedagogical, visual interface (e.g., visual metaphor and navigation layout), interaction, and instructional design implications of online courseware.

Harvey, Stephen (2004).  Education Project Management in the Information Age: The Case of the Kimberley Thusanang Project  International Journal of Educational Development, 24, 3. 

This article reports on the experiences of the Kimberley Thusanang Project (KTP). It proposes that the project's use of a database system as a management tool represents a significant development in the design of effective education projects in South Africa. The article describes how this system assists project management in overcoming two key challenges: (1) blending accountability pressure with support and (2) optimizing the allocation of project resources.

Harwood, Ian (2005).  When Summative Computer-Aided Assessments Go Wrong: Disaster Recovery after a Major Failure  British Journal of Educational Technology, 36, 4. 

This case study outlines the events of a recent summative computer-aided assessment (CAA) failure involving 280 first-year undergraduate students. Post-test analysis found that the central server had become unexpectedly overloaded, thereby causing the CAA to be abandoned. Practical advice on just what to do in the event of a summative CAA failure is virtually non-existent in the related literature. In response, this paper provides a detailed account of the post-failure analysis and recovery activities from a practitioner's (ie, academic) viewpoint. Supported by empirical evidence, the research shows how the concept of "optional substitution" was developed as a pragmatic, equitable, and broadly acceptable solution to the problem.

Harwood, Paul G.; Asal, Victor (2007).  Educating the First Digital Generation. Educate Us  [Praeger] 

Asal and Harwood explore how today's information technology is changing how teachers educate and are educated. Focusing on the United States, with useful insights from the classroom digital revolution in a few other places (the United Kingdom, Australia, and India), the authors investigate the impact of today's technologies on education--how they impact teachers and teaching, children and learning, and the intersection of teaching and learning. For example, they describe the educational impact of having over 60% of America online. The authors explain how new technologies are changing the learning environment in and out of the classroom with a focus on the effects on K-12 education. Chapters include vignettes about children who are integrating information technologies into their lives at school and at home and those children who for a variety of reasons, most notably, socio-economic, have found themselves excluded as full members of the first digital generation. There are also accounts from K-12 teachers who are incorporating technology into their classroom environments. Using closed-circuit cameras, electronic cheating, and distance learning are all also discussed. Following a Series Foreword and Acknowledgments, the following eight chapters are included: (1) Introduction: Technology in the Classroom, from Chalk and Slate to the Web; (2) The First Digital Generation: In Their Own Words; (3) Teachers: In Their Own Words; (4) Digital Divide: Can America's Children Ever Be "E-qual"?; (5) Big Brother: Privacy in the Wired Classroom; (6) The Electronic Cheat: A Culture of Cut and Paste; (7) Distance Learning: Virtual Teaching; and (8) Conclusion: Looking to the Information Highway Ahead. Two appendixes conclude the book: (1) Investigating the First Digital Generation: Interview Methodology and Interviewee Profiles; and (2) Investigating the Teachers of the First Digital Generation: Interview Methodology and Teacher Profiles. An index is included. [This book is part of the "Educate US" series. "Educate US" consists of an ongoing list of books that present comprehensive discussion of issues exploring the various facets of problems and potential in U.S. education. Salient issues of the day dominate the list, e.g., bilingualism, teachers and teaching, and the place of technology in the lives of school children. Titles are single-authored or multi-authored; chapters expand on the central ideas and controversies surrounding each topic.]

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Hawisher, Gail E.; Selfe, Cynthia L.; Moraski, Brittney; Pearson, Melissa (2004).  Becoming Literate in the Information Age: Cultural Ecologies and the Literacies of Technology  College Composition and Communication, 55, 4. 

In this article, we discuss the literacy narratives of coauthors Melissa Pearson and Brittney Moraski, who came to computers almost a generation apart. Our goal is to demonstrate the importance of situating literacies of technology--and literacies more generally--within specific cultural, material, educational, and familial contexts that influence, and are influenced by, their acquisition and development.

Hawkes, Mark (2006).  Linguistic Discourse Variables as Indicators of Reflective Online Interaction  American Journal of Distance Education, 20, 4. 

The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of traditionally spoken linguistic analysis approaches for understanding the nature and outcomes of online interaction. The study took place with twenty-eight elementary school teachers in ten suburban Chicago schools involved in a technology-supported, problem-based learning curriculum development effort. The asynchronous and face-to-face communications of participants were monitored to test the utility of linguistic discourse variables for understanding interaction. The evidence showed that similar sense-making and interaction strategies are used in both face-to-face and online dialogue but that the strategies were significantly more prevalent in the face-to-face than online dialogue. When critical reflection was studied as an outcome of both forms of dialogue, asynchronous electronic communication was significantly more reflective than face-to-face discourse.

Hawkes, Mark; Cambre, Marge (2000).  The Cost Factor: When Is Interactive Distance Technology Justifiable?  T.H.E. Journal, 28 n1 p26-28, 30. 

Proposes a number of factors by which the cost of technology in education can be properly justified. Based on a study of technology cost effectiveness with participants of a statewide initiative introducing Interactive Distance Learning (IDL). Describes indicators that represent 12 ways educators in Ohio using IDL for student learning feel the cost effectiveness question can be answered.

Hawkes, Mark; Cambre, Marge (2001).  Educational Technology: Identifying the Effects.  Principal Leadership, 1, 9. 

An evaluation of two school "telecommunities" in Ohio and South Dakota demonstrated the importance of studying a range of technology effectiveness indicators: standardized measures, behavior, stakeholder involvement, technology competency, multicultural exchange, equity, new student and teacher roles, learning climate, teacher collaboration, and school-agency cooperation.

Hawkes, Mark; Dennis, Terry (2003).  Supporting and Assessing Online Interactions in Higher Education.  Educational Technology, 43, 4. 

Reviews some of the current approaches for assessing asynchronous interaction. Describes an approach to assessing the contributions of students to an asynchronous forum (WebBoard) based on social constructivist learning theory. Presents a taxonomy of computer mediated discourse organized by the Simmons levels of assessing reflective thinking.

Hawkins, Brian L. (2005).  We've Got to Work Collaboratively! Homepage  EDUCAUSE Review, 40, 1. 

According to the recent ECAR report "IT Funding in Higher Education," nearly two-thirds of all campuses are facing budget cuts of some form or another. The study incorporated the results of surveys of higher education CIOs and CFOs, who were asked about their strategies for raising revenues and reducing costs in order to deal with these budget challenges. The number-one strategy cited (64%) for increasing revenues was seeking grants. This was followed by fundraising, increasing student fees, developing corporate partnerships, expanding the use of charge-back systems, providing services to external entities, and raising revenues from tech transfer of products in the external marketplace.

Hawkins, Brian L. (2006).  Advancing Scholarship and Intellectual Productivity: An Interview with Clifford A. Lynch  EDUCAUSE Review, 41 n3 p44, 46. 

In this second part of a two-part interview with Clifford A. Lynch, Executive Director of the Coalition for Networked Information, Lynch talks to Hawkins about the most provocative and exciting projects that are being developed in the field of networked information worldwide. He also talks on how institutional repositories are being currently deployed in academia. He answers Hawkin's questions about his views on digital rights management software and the role that higher education should play in using this software. He concludes by discussing what he sees as the biggest challenges ahead in terms of the dream of networked information becoming a reality.

Hawkins, Brian L. (2007).  Winds of Change: Charting the Course for IT in the Twenty-First Century  EDUCAUSE Review, 42 n6 p54, 56. 

In the spring of 2005, the author, the retiring president of EDUCAUSE, was asked to be the keynote speaker at the EDUCAUSE Western Regional Conference. The conference theme was "Winds of Change: Charting the Course for Technology in Challenging Times." What that brought to his mind was the era of the great sailing ships of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, a topic that has always held great interest for him. In this article, he offers ten nautical maxims for charting the course of higher education IT in the twenty-first century: (1) View IT from the crow's nest; (2) Seek signs of being on the right course; (3) have a strong captain at the helm; (4) Remember that the crew wasn't shanghaied; (5) Beware...there be dragons!; (6) Hold steady in rough seas; (7) Depend on the rest of the convoy; (8) Navigate by more than the stars; (9) Navigate to the correct shore; and (10) Know when the ship passes.

Hawkins, Brian L.; Oblinge, Diana G. (2006).  The Myth about the Digital Divide  EDUCAUSE Review, 41, 4. 

Although computer ownership is not 100 percent, progress has been made on closing the digital divide. However, defining the digital divide according to the haves and have-nots of computer ownership is only a starting point. Beyond computer ownership, colleges and universities should explore the "second-level digital divide," which can be caused by several factors: machine vintage; connectivity; online skills; autonomy and freedom of access; and computer-use support. In this article, the authors examine the truth behind the current status of the digital divide. They also observe that in thinking about the digital divide, college and university leaders should ask themselves the following strategic questions: (1) Do they know whether students have a computer? Do they know their skill level?; (2) Do they look beyond who has Internet access to consider online skills?; (3) Do they limit the definition of digital divide to a "haves" and "have-nots" dichotomy?; and (4) How limiting will inadequate online skills be to students?

Hawkins, Brian L.; Rudy, Julia A. (2007).  EDUCAUSE Core Data Service: Fiscal Year 2006 Summary Report 

EDUCAUSE Core Data Service Fiscal Year 2006 Summary Report summarizes much of the data collected through the 2006 EDUCAUSE core data survey about campus information technology (IT) environments at 933 colleges and universities in the U.S. and abroad. The report presents aggregates of data through more than 100 tables and accompanying descriptive text in five areas relevant to planning and managing IT in higher education: IT Organization, Staffing, and Planning; IT Financing and Management; Faculty and Student Computing; Networking and Security; and Information Systems. Appendices include a brief historical context, a list of participating campuses, the 2006 survey instrument, a glossary of terms from the survey, and Carnegie classification definitions. An index is also included.

Hawkins, Harry M. (2005).  Toy Truck Project Teaches Woodworking and Manufacturing Technologies  Tech Directions, 64, 9. 

Toys often work well for project activities. They appeal directly to youngsters, and older students like to make things that they can give to a younger sibling or relative. This article describes how to construct a toy truck. This project takes advantage of common 2 x 4 lumber stock to produce an economical toy. Of course, one could substitute hardwood to build a toy of a more durable nature, higher quality and a natural finish more pleasing to a craftsman. The toy truck also lends itself very nicely to mass or group production, since it consists of only two screws plus the wood parts, all of which students can mass produce.

Hawley, Helen; Benavides, Otto; Duffy, Sharon; Georgi, David; Guay, Diane; Redmond, Pamela; Richmond, James (2003).  StarTEC: A Technology Project in Education Reform. 

StarTEC (Staff, Teacher, and Restructured Technology Education Consortium) was a 3-year technology catalyst program funded by the U.S. Department of Education, and continued for a third year to complete its activities. The goal of StarTEC was to ensure that all teachers prepared by partners in the Consortium would meet the new California standard in technology required for the California Preliminary Teaching Credential or the Professional Clear Credential.This document describes the StarTEC project and draws some lessons for the integration of technology in higher education. Some case studies illustrate StarTEC activities: (1) the University of California, Riverside: Collaboration through Technology; (2) California State University, Fresno: Changing Culture; (3) California State University, Bakersfield: Education Technology Certification System; and (4)University of San Francisco: Using Technology as an Assessment Tool. The anecdotal evidence collected on these training programs though evaluation surveys shows that StarTEC can contribute to the field of technology integration through an increased understanding of the complexities of higher education reform related to technology integration and the key elements of effective technology training plans. Attachments include a discussion of the evolution of the Thought and Practice aspect of the Apple Computer initiative, a discussion of Sparrow Web software, and the new technology standards matrix. | [FULL TEXT]

Hawthorn, D. (2007).  Interface Design and Engagement with Older People  Behaviour & Information Technology, 26, 4. 

The current paper examines the design process that led to an unusually successful interactive tutorial for older people. The paper describes the issues that make designing for older people different. These include differences between the designer and the target population and the difficulty that older people have in interacting with low-fidelity prototypes. Ways of altering the design process to address these issues and to obtain useful design contributions from older participants are described.

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Hwang, G. J.; Tsai, P. S.; Tsai, C. C.; Tseng, J. C. R. (2008).  A Novel Approach for Assisting Teachers in Analyzing Student Web-Searching Behaviors  Computers & Education, 51, 2. 

Although previous research has demonstrated the benefits of applying the Internet facilities to the learning process, problems with this strategy have also been identified. One of the major difficulties is owing to the lack of an online learning environment that can record the learning portfolio of using the Internet facilities in education, such that the teacher can analyze and evaluate the learning performance of students, and hence the teaching strategies can be adjusted accordingly. In this paper, we propose a web-search learning environment, called Meta-Analyzer, which is able to assist the teachers in analyzing student learning behaviors of using search engines for problem solving. Two-hundred and twenty students and 54 teachers contributed to the trial of the system. The results have shown that the novel approach is able to gain a better understanding about students' learning processes and searching strategies in technology-enhanced environments, as well as to assist the teachers to acquire more about the learning status of students, and hence more constructive suggestions can be given accordingly.

Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yin, Peng-Yeng; Wang, Tzu-Ting; Tseng, Judy C.R.; Hwang, Gwo-Haur (2008).  An Enhanced Genetic Approach to Optimizing Auto-Reply Accuracy of an E-Learning System  Computers & Education, 51, 1. 

With the rapid development in Information Technology (IT), the Internet has become one of the central media for conducting learning. However, most of the existing web-based learning systems only provide stand-alone subject materials for browsing and may face some drawbacks. For example, if students encounter problems during the learning process, their learning performances could be significantly devastated due to no instant aid. As an on-line learning system may interact with thousands of students, it is almost impossible for the teachers or the teaching assistants to answer all the students' questions manually, which is not only inefficient, but also human laborious. To cope with this problem, an e-learning system that is able to automatically answer the students' questions on the fly based on the training cases given by the teacher will be presented in this paper. Moreover, an enhanced genetic approach is proposed to optimize the weights of keywords for each candidate answer according to the feedbacks provided by the students, hence more accurate answers can be provided in the future. Experimental results have shown that the developed system can provide more accurate answerers than existing approaches by employing the self-adjusting method.

Hwang, Lee (2006).  Mapping It out  American School & University, 79, 4. 

At some point, most education administrators must make difficult decisions because of fluctuating student enrollment. In the past, they might have spent months collecting student and facility data, hand-counting student population in certain areas, and driving throughout their communities to find available and affordable land for new school sites. Now, administrators can gain access to that information in minutes with a remarkable technology called geographic information systems (GIS). GIS is a collection of computer hardware, software and data that enables education facility planning firms to capture, store, update, analyze and display all forms of geographic information. Some people refer to it as an interactive map because it involves a mapping interface. GIS gives administrators the tools to analyze student demographic and geographic data in a new way so they can provide the smartest, safest and most efficient environments for students and teachers.

Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Chen, Nian-Shing; Hsu, Rueng-Lueng (2006).  Development and Evaluation of Multimedia Whiteboard System for Improving Mathematical Problem Solving  Computers and Education, 46, 2. 

This study developed a web-based multimedia whiteboard system to help students learning with mathematical problem solving. The purpose is to promote a new online mathematical learning model that students not only use electronic whiteboard to write down their mathematical problem solving solutions but also use voice recording tool to give oral explanations about their thinking behind the solutions. To cultivate students' critical thinking capability and encourage collaborative peer learning, the new learning model also requests students to criticize others' solutions and reply to others' arguments. With the multimedia supporting tools, students can communicate easily with each other about what they think and how they solve mathematical problems. We have conducted an experiment with sixth grade primary school students for evaluation. After the experiment, a questionnaire about students' attitude toward the multimedia whiteboard system for math learning was then held. The results show that students were satisfied with the use of the multimedia whiteboard system for helping them with learning fractional division. Most students were interested in studying mathematics with the multimedia whiteboard system and thought this tool is particularly useful for doing collaborative learning. After analyzing the recorded solving processes and discussions content of students, we found that the performance of female students was superior to male students in communications and mathematical problem solving. Additionally, students with higher final exam grades had better mathematical abilities for doing critiques, arguments and communications.

Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Wang, Chin-Yu; Sharples, Mike (2007).  A Study of Multimedia Annotation of Web-Based Materials  Computers and Education, 48, 4. 

Web-based learning has become an important way to enhance learning and teaching, offering many learning opportunities. A limitation of current Web-based learning is the restricted ability of students to personalize and annotate the learning materials. Providing personalized tools and analyzing some types of learning behavior, such as students' annotation, has attracted attention as a means to enhance Web-based learning. We describe a Web-based tool for creating and sharing annotations and investigate the effect on learning of its use with college students. First, an annotation tool was designed and implemented for the research. Second, learning support mechanisms, including full and group annotation sharing, were developed to promote students' motivation for annotation. Lastly, experiments with individual and shared annotation were conducted and the results show that the influence of annotation on learning performance becomes stronger with the use of sharing mechanisms. We conclude that there is value in further study of collaborative learning through shared annotation.

Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Wu, Shing-Ling (2003).  The Investigation of the Degree of Difficulty in the Learning Materials by the Recursive Method  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 29, 2. 

The purpose of this article is to identify the difficulty of learning materials in the network by using learner's portfolio in the asynchronous learning system. Asynchronous learning takes the advantage of information technology that records the learning portfolio of the learner. The data of the learning portfolio reflects the characteristics of the learning materials and the user. To explore useful information from the huge learning data warehouse and to build up a material characteristic model, the researchers use data mining technique. Several experiments were conducted, based on the built material characteristic model, to estimates the value of the difficulty of learning materials by a recursive method. In order to obtain an accurate difficulty value of the material, the researchers continuously conducted the experiments several times. After the data of each experiment was collected and integrated with the previous ones, the difficulty of the material was revised in the recursive way. Therefore, the degree of difficulty of learning material was dynamically adjusted according to the real learning data. It becomes more accurate and more objective.

Hwang, Young Suk; Fisher, William; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos (2001).  Calibrating a Measure of Motivation in Using Technology. 

This study examines the functioning of an instrument for measuring elementary school students' motivation to learn about technology. The theoretical framework of the study is based on expectancy-value theory, which focuses on cognitive factors in determining achievement behaviors. Participants were 129 sixth grade students. A questionnaire was group administered orally to the students. The 36 items in the questionnaire addressed the following areas thought to bear on a measure of motivation to learn about technology: self-concept of ability, perception of technology, intrinsic causal attribution, extrinsic causal attributions, task-involved motivation, ego-involved motivation, parents' perception, female gender issues, and male gender issues. It is concluded that the attempt to develop an instrument to measure motivation in learning about technology was successful. Several figures and tables presenting survey data are appended. | [FULL TEXT]

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Hay, David; Kinchin, Ian (2008).  Using Concept Mapping to Measure Learning Quality  Education & Training, 50, 2. 

Purpose: This paper aims to describe a method of teaching that is based on Novak's concept-mapping technique. Design/methodology/approach: The paper shows how concept mapping can be used to measure prior knowledge and how simple mapping exercises can promote the integration of teachers' and students' understandings in ways that are meaningful. Findings: The concept-mapping method facilitates quick and easy measures of student knowledge-change so that teachers can identify the parts of the curriculum that are being understood and those that are not. This is possible even among very large student groups in the 50-minute slots that are allocated to so much teaching in higher education. Research limitations/implications: Concept mapping is discussed in the wider context of student learning style. The styles literature has been criticised because it tends to encourage undue labelling of people or behaviours. The approach described here also uses "labels" to typify learning (using the terms non-learning and rote or meaningful learning to identify different qualities of change). Originality/value: The difference in this approach is that terms are attached to empirical measures of learning outcome, not to personal or psychological styles. Concept mapping makes learning visible so that the actual quality of the learning that has occurred can be seen and explored. Using concept mapping in the course of teaching means that learning is no longer a complex and intractable process, measurable only by proxy, but an observable phenomenon.

Haydn, Terry Anthony; Barton, Roy (2007).  Common Needs and Different Agendas: How Trainee Teachers Make Progress in Their Ability to Use ICT in Subject Teaching. Some Lessons from the UK  Computers & Education, 49, 4. 

The paper reports on the outcomes of a British Educational Communications and Technology Agency (BECTa) funded study which explored the views of teacher trainees and their mentors in two different school subjects on what strategies, interventions and resources had a positive impact on their ability to use ICT effectively in their subject teaching. The research aimed to explore both commonalities in trainees' views of which strategies and interventions had a positive influence on their ability to use ICT effectively in subject teaching, and subject discipline dimensions of ICT use, i.e. the ways in which training needs might vary between trainees in different school subjects. The study focused on the views of two successive cohorts of science and history trainees (133 trainees in all), and 21 of their supervising mentors. The outcomes showed that some important determinants of progression in the ability to deploy ICT confidently and effectively in subject teaching were common to both subject groups, but that there were differing views on which ICT applications offered most potential for enhancing teaching and learning in their subject and differences in their preferred priorities for investment in ICT. The study also revealed that trainees felt that many of the experiences and resources which they had encountered in the course of their training had not been helpful. A follow up survey was undertaken of 114 trainees across six subject areas to further explore some of the findings from the initial survey. The concluding section of the paper suggests ways in which trainee teachers might be prepared more effectively for using ICT in their subject teaching.

Hayes, Debra N. A. (2007).  ICT and Learning: Lessons from Australian Classrooms  Computers & Education, 49, 2. 

Research into Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in schools is well into its third decade but there is still a pressing need to better understand how computer-based technologies are influencing learning opportunities, and how the local conditions of schooling impact on teachers' attempts to integrate these technologies in their classrooms. In this article, we provide some insight into these questions through our research in six diverse public schools in the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. We observed classrooms and conducted interviews with teachers and other key stakeholders, such as principals and technology coordinators about the integration of ICT. Our goal was to describe and examine the ways in which teachers, in a range of settings, are utilising ICT in their classroom practices to mediate student's learning experiences. Our findings indicate that ICT is largely being integrated in ways that support and supplement existing classroom practices. From our observations, we believe that successful integration of ICT requires fundamental shifts in the core activities of schools. These shifts include new teaching. The cases described in this article suggest some ways in which these shifts may be initiated and sustained.

Hayes, Debra; Schuck, Sandy; Segal, Gilda; Dwyer, Joanne; McEwen, Celina (2001).  Net Gain? The Integration of Computer-Based Learning in Six NSW Government Schools, 2000. 

This study examined the impact on learning of the integration of computer-based technology (CBT). The study focused on six New South Wales (Australia) government schools that were at different stages of development of the integration of CBT. Data were gathered through classroom observations and structured interviews with key personnel, students, parents, and other stakeholders. Findings are presented in relation to: (1) issues faced, including the importance of the school's technology vision statement, the importance of involved leadership and succession planning, and the need for technical support; (2) strategies adopted, including getting started with a whole school project and collegial approaches to professional development; (3) views of key stakeholders, including teachers' understanding of the influence of computer-based learning and student's use of computers; (4) examples of the current use of CBT, including multimedia project work and the use of e-mail to enhance learning; (5) the CBL integration threshold; and (6) classroom observations and their interpretation. The processes that underpin curriculum change related to the integration of CBT are analyzed in four major areas--external context, milieu, learning programs, and leadership. Appendices include the teacher interview schedule, the classroom observation schedule, and a sample letter to principals.

Hayes, Elisabeth (2008).  Game Content Creation and IT Proficiency: An Exploratory Study  Computers & Education, 51, 1. 

Computer and video gaming are often considered to be potential routes to the development of aptitude and interest in using other forms of information technology (IT). The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine the extent to which young people who play games engage in related IT practices, such as creating and sharing content or creating fan sites. Additional goals were to identify differences in such practices according to grade level, gender, and access to IT-related resources in the home, as well as to explore relationships between engagement in game-related practices and perceived proficiency in general computer-related skills.

Hayes, Elizabeth; Silberman, Lauren (2007).  Incorporating Video Games into Physical Education  Journal of Physical Education

Contrary to common belief, several studies have found no relationship between video gaming and obesity or physical inactivity. In fact, video gaming is an untapped resource for enhancing young people's motivation and ability to participate in sports and other movement-based activities. Many popular video games offer sophisticated and engaging simulations of popular sports--such as basketball, soccer, tennis, and football. These simulated experiences may enhance students' motivation, confidence, understanding, and performance in athletic activities if incorporated into the physical education setting.

Hayes, Sandy (2007).  Technology Toolkit: Literary Road Trip  Voices from the Middle, 15, 1.

 

Hayes, Sandy, Ed. (2007).  Navigating the Detours  Voices from the Middle, 14, 3. 

Technology training usually suffers from a two-pronged problem. First, the demonstration content is so simple that when we use the new technology in our classrooms and something goes wrong (and it will), we abandon it, blaming the technology. Second, no one teaches us how to troubleshoot those inevitable glitches. Hayes offers some practical tips for using technology in the classroom and for avoiding the stress that accompanies the most common problems.

Haynes, Philip; Ip, Ken; Saintas, Patrick; Stanier, Stan; Palmer, Helen; Thomas, Nicola; Reast, Gareth; Barlow, Joyce; Maillardet, Fred (2004).  Responding to Technological Change: IT Skills and the Academic Teaching Profession  Active Learning in Higher Education the Journal of the Institute for Learning and Teaching, 5, 2. 

Six academics in a new university were seconded to the role of part-time learning technology support. It was necessary to have an informed view of the IT skills level of all academic teaching staff. A selfassessment questionnaire was designed based on the core competencies in the European Computer Driving Licence (ECDL). The results were used to offer a targeted pilot of a new online learning training method. Results showed considerable diversity in the range of IT skills. Over half (55%) of the staff could not use a range of IT software at a prescribed benchmark level. Staff were more likely to be skilled at word-processing and Internet tasks (average score above the benchmark) and less likely to be competent with presentations, spreadsheets and databases (average score below the benchmark). Staff working in science-based subjects tended to score higher. As a result of the survey, some staff were offered an online basic skills training programme. Staff liked the flexibility of this, but also found that they needed personal support and encouragement. It is necessary to raise the profile of IT skills and to argue for their relevance. A range of training opportunities is needed that will assist the needs and motivations of staff. Staff prefer training that they see as relevant to their subject area and professional context. Online software skills training does not provide a single solution, but can add an additional method that will appeal to some learners.

Haynie, W. J., III (2008).  Maximizing the Learning Value of Tests in Technology Education Classes: A Summary of Research Findings  Technology Teacher, 67, 6. 

Much of the learning in technology education is hands-on and best assessed via techniques other than traditional tests. Rubrics have become increasingly recognized as the best means of evaluating student efforts and accomplishments in projects, group work, presentations, various types of research papers, videotapes, web pages, and many other learning activities and products typical of the contemporary technology classroom. Tests are important for cognitive learning, and the time that technology teachers spend administering tests is well spent if the tests also help students learn. This article is one researcher's attempt to share findings from a series of experiments with technology teachers in the field. Beginning in 1985, the author of this article conducted nine experimental studies on the effects of test taking on retention learning in technology education settings and two studies that were post-hoc analyses of test items and tests written by technology teachers. The results of these studies indicate that students actually learn more while they are taking tests on technology content. Cognitive knowledge and comprehension objectives are often best assessed with tests. Though ability to apply knowledge to a specific problem is better assessed with a rubric of the student's solution, students' overall ability to apply their knowledge to multiple novel problems is better evaluated with skillfully designed test items. This article reports these research results to the professional community of technology teachers to help them maximize the learning value of testing in their classes.

Hays, Annette (2007).  Keeping FCS Relevant with Technology  Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 99, 1. 

Acorn School campus is located in the shadow of Rich Mountain, near Mena, Arizona. In fall 2006, the school enrollment (K-12) was 476 students, with 76% eligible for free or reduced-cost meals. Its one-teacher family and consumer services (FCS) department offers two programs of study: Family and Consumer Sciences Education and Food Production Management and Services. Class enrollment is open to all students, 8th through 12th grades. Support from the Acorn school board, administration, and community is strong and has enhanced its FCS program greatly. The primary focus of the Acorn FCS program is to keep student interest high and demands on teacher preparation manageable through the use of available technologies. The school's technology acquisition has evolved from 1992 when a grant was written to obtain a Macintosh computer for classroom management, to the fall of 2006, with the addition of a General Electric Profile electronic washer and dryer. This article describes how the use of technology in the Acorn FCS program has provided tremendous learning opportunities for FCS students.

Hayward, Nancy M.; Tuzi, Frank (2003).  Confessions of a Technophobe and a Technophile: The Changing Perspective of Technology in ESL.  TESOL Journal, 12, 1. 

Two university professors discuss the benefits of shared expertise and e-feedback in the design of an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) writing course.

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Hodge, Sue; Anderson, Bill (2007).  Teaching and Learning with an Interactive Whiteboard: A Teacher's Journey  Learning

A self-study methodology is used to explore the impact of introducing interactive whiteboard technology to a primary school classroom. Several key insights, described as "nodal moments", provided the impetus for the teacher to review her practice, reconsider her students' learning approaches and explore the relationship between the introduction of a new technology and the teaching and learning that was occurring in her classroom. In particular, she considers the nature of engagement and the ways in which the technology initially moved her away from an active pedagogy.

Hodges, Charles (2002).  QuickTime Virtual Reality for Web Delivery. 

Virtual reality (VR) can create a unique and interesting environment in which students at a distance can explore and investigate objects or scenes via the World Wide Web. Creating these VR components is a process that is much more simple than many believe. This paper outlines when using VR may be appropriate in instructional settings and describes the process necessary to create a VR panorama using Apple Computer's QuickTime Virtual Reality Authoring Studio Software, including four steps: plan, shoot, stitch, and make the panorama.  | [FULL TEXT]

Hodges, Charles (2008).  Self-Efficacy, Motivational Email, and Achievement in an Asynchronous Math Course  Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 27, 3. 

In this 15-week study the effects of motivational email messages on learner self-efficacy and achievement in an asynchronous math course were investigated. A repeated measures design was used. One hundred, ninety-six participants were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. Specially designed email messages were sent weekly to both groups for 4 weeks. Eighty-six participants completed the study. Self-efficacy to learn mathematics asynchronously (SELMA) was measured at weeks 0, 5, and 14. Achievement was measured at weeks 5 and 15. Statistically significant relationships were found between SELMA and achievement. Within each group, the SELMA measurements taken at week 5 were significantly higher than the other SELMA measurements. No significant differences were detected between the groups.

Hodges, Charles B. (2006).  Lessons Learned from a First Instructional Design Experience  International Journal of Instructional Media, 33, 4. 

This case study presents the experience of an instructional designer working on an instructional development project for the first time. The project team was creating online course materials for a college level business calculus course. Project management skills, considerations in the project budget, and communication issues are suggested as elements to avoid future mistakes.

Hodges, Charles B.; Stackpole-Hodges, Christene L.; Cox, Kenneth M. (2008).  Self-Efficacy, Self-Regulation, and Cognitive Style as Predictors of Achievement with Podcast Instruction  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 38, 2. 

The purpose of this study was to investigate possible factors that may affect academic achievement when instruction is delivered via podcast. Seventeen female Communication Sciences and Disorders students participated in this exploratory study conducted in the fall of 2006. Measurements of participants' individual differences on four variables were taken prior to learners experiencing instructional podcasts. Multiple regression analysis was used to predict learner success based on the four predictor variables: self-efficacy for online technologies, academic self-efficacy, academic self-regulation, and cognitive style. Learner success was measured via a pencil and paper, multiple-choice test covering the material delivered via podcast. Of the variables used in this study, only cognitive style was found to be a statistically significant predictor of achievement.

Hodges, Dodi; Mandlebaum, Linda Higbee; Boff, Colleen; Miller, Mitch (2007).  Instructional Strategies Online Database (ISOD)  Intervention in School and Clinic, 42, 4. 

This article describes an online database of evidence-based learning strategies for students. The database is a quick resource written in user-friendly language for teachers of all students but may be especially useful for teachers of students with disabilities.

Hodges, Thomas E. (2007).  Redefining a Model  Mathematics Teacher, 101, 3. 

This article describes an alternate way to utilize a circular model to represent thirds by incorporating areas of circular segments, trigonometric functions, and geometric transformations. This method is appropriate for students studying geometry and trigonometry at the high shool level. This task provides valuable learning experiences that require students to actively engage in mathematics. Students become involved in a problem with no explicit strategy or approach and use existing knowledge as a tool for solving a unique problem. These demands embody many of the components outlined by Smith and Stein (1998) when designing tasks that call for high levels of cognitive demand. This task provides another example of how a seemingly simple exercise in representing fractions can be the basis for in-depth study connecting mathematics concepts as called for in the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Standards

Hodgkinson-Williams, Cheryl; Slay, Hannah; Sieborger, Ingrid (2008).  Developing Communities of Practice within and outside Higher Education Institutions  British Journal of Educational Technology, 39, 3. 

Higher education institutions (HEIs) are largely built on the assumption that learning is an individual process best encouraged by explicit teaching that is, on the whole, separated from social engagement with those outside the university community. This perspective has been theoretically challenged by those who argue for a social constructivist learning theory and a more collaborative approach to learning. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) afford lecturers and students an opportunity for extending the boundaries of a learning experience, not merely beyond the lone individual, but beyond the limits of discipline boundaries within a specific university community and beyond the institution into the local community. This paper illustrates how a collaborative effort between lecturers and students from the Computer Science and Education Departments at Rhodes University, teachers from the local community, the provincial Department of Education and a non-governmental organisation developed into an unfolding virtual and physical community of practice which enabled ICT take-up in a number of schools in the Grahamstown District, South Africa. This discussion of what has become known as the e-Yethu project provides an example of how ICTs, underpinned by the insights of social constructivism, the notion of "community of practice" and in particular Hoadley and Kilner's C4P Framework for Communities of Practice, can serve to help HEIs understand ways in which ICTs can provide opportunities for developing collaborative learning within HEIs, and between the HEI and the local community.

Hodgson, Vivien E. (2002).  The European Union and E-Learning: An Examination of Rhetoric, Theory and Practice.  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 18, 3. 

Examines the impact that new information technology has had on the rhetoric, theory, and practice of trans-national educational collaboration within Europe. Highlights include the role of electronic learning in the European Union; models for describing online courses within open and distance learning (ODL); and three examples of ODL projects.

Hodgson, Vivien; Reynolds, Michael (2005).  Consensus, Difference and "Multiple Communities" in Networked Learning  Studies in Higher Education, 30, 1. 

The article reviews the popularity in networked learning designs for values of collaboration, and in particular, of community. Examples of this are drawn from the networked learning literature, highlighting corresponding arguments for networked learning providing the basis for a more democratic ethos within higher educational programmes. The authors critique the notion of 'community', especially its association with consensus and pressures to conform. They argue for an interpretation of community which would be more likely to take account of differences, without suppressing or 'managing' them, and cite examples of network learning structures which seem to be based on principles more sympathetic to this aim.

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(2001).  How Do We Know It Works? Evaluating the Effectiveness of Technology in Instruction.  Distance Education Report, 5, 14. 

Describes Flashlight Online, a collaborative Web-based service for creating, administering, and analyzing surveys that help institutions examine the effectiveness of their uses of technology in instruction. Explains how Flashlight Online is being used at Washington State University by faculty for online surveys of their courses.

_____. (2004).  How Children Can Benefit from the Transition to Digital TV: Putting the Remote Control Back into the Hands of Parents. Policy Brief  [Benton Foundation] 

Today, parents are struggling to ensure that their children have the education and skills they need to compete and win in the 21st century economy. But children spend more time watching television than any other activity except sleeping--and for many parents that is cause for concern. In fact, children spend 4 times as much time each week watching television as doing homework. Are there educational benefits to this viewing? By the time a child graduates from high school they will have watched 8,000 simulated murders. Should parents expect more? As children watch an average of 25 hours a week of television, is it possible to find a minimum of at least three hours a week of truly educational content? This policy brief explores this issue and gives suggestions on how to limit the amount of time children are watching TV. | [FULL TEXT]

Ho, Wai-chung (2004).  Use of Information Technology and Music Learning in the Search for Quality Education  British Journal of Educational Technology, 35, 1. 

This paper focuses on the paradigm shift in teaching that has resulted from the use of information technology (IT) and the ways in which IT in the curriculum enhances music learning in Hong Kong. In 1998 the government proposed a five-year strategy plan, Information Technology for Quality Education, and since this time the Hong Kong education system has changed rapidly, with increasing demands on teachers to upgrade their technological skills and practices. Semi-structured interviews concerning concepts of IT with 29 primary and secondary school teachers and their 543 students, held between February and August 2002, give situation-specific insights into their views. The paper concludes that when IT is carefully planned, designed and integrated into good music practice in classrooms, it can support students motivation and enhance the quality of learning.

Ho, Wai-Chung (2007).  Students' Experiences with and Preferences for Using Information Technology in Music Learning in Shanghai's Secondary Schools  British Journal of Educational Technology, 38, 4. 

This study explores the centrality of information technology (IT) to Chinese students' experiences in music lessons. Students involved in this qualitative and quantitative study described the possibilities of using technology when learning music. From among the students of 15 Shanghai secondary schools, 1741 responded to a written questionnaire and 68 took part in interviews. The students' perceptions of the use of IT were grouped in relation to three categories: (1) the students' motivation to learn music, (2) their preferred musical activities and (3) the musical styles preferred for classroom learning. Most students believed that IT could provide motivation for music learning. They used IT mainly in their listening activities but believed that it could also be helpful in learning both classical and popular musical styles. The findings suggest that the use of IT could extend the boundaries of music learning in the classroom, giving rise to a multitude of new and exciting possibilities. This approach to curriculum formulation is argued to be significant in terms of developing students' technological literacy and providing rich learning environments that make use of computer-mediated communications and the effectiveness of technology and teacher fidelity in implementing pedagogy.

Ho, Wai-Chung (2007).  Music Students' Perception of the Use of Multi-Media Technology at the Graduate Level in Hong Kong Higher Education  Asia Pacific Education Review, 8, 1. 

The core purpose of this paper is to draw together research issues and concrete problems with the use of multimedia technology at the graduate level in higher music education by examining one university's responses to the challenges posed by the use of multimedia technology as a teaching and learning aid for music education. Between June and July 2006, this study conducted a simple questionnaire and interview survey of 16 postgraduate students. The results suggest that music students are confident in their abilities to use multimedia technologies but that many do not believe that the introduction of multimedia technologies into the curriculum will improve the quality of their education. Whilst students' motivation to learn depends on their interest in the subject and their lecturer's approach, the incorporation of technology should always be relevant to each individual module. The results of this case study could help other universities respond to the changes brought about by electronic learning and other educational multimedia technology.

Howard, Bruce C.; McGee, Steven; Shin, Namsoo; Shia, Regina (2001).  The Triarchic Theory of Intelligence and Computer-based Inquiry Learning.  Educational Technology Research and Development, 49, 4. 

Discussion of the triarchic theory of intelligence focuses on a study of ninth graders that explored the relationships between student abilities and the cognitive and attitudinal outcomes that resulted from student immersion in a computer-based inquiry environment. Examines outcome variables related to content understanding, problem solving, and science-related attitudes. 

Howard, Elizabeth V. (2007).  Attitudes on Using Pair-Programming  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 35, 1. 

During a research study conducted over four semesters, students enrolled in an introductory programming class at a commuter campus used the pair-programming approach for both in-class labs and out-of-class programming assignments. This study was a comprehensive assessment of pair-programming using multiple measures of both quantitative and qualitative feedback about students' experiences with pair-programming. The results show that overwhelmingly, students reported positive reactions to working with a partner using the pair-programming paradigm. As expected at a commuter campus, the most common challenge students reported was difficulty of coordinating schedules. This article provides the results of the study and offers suggestions for managing pair-programming on a commuter campus.

Howard, Elizabeth V.; Teets, Janet (2006).  Electronic Nursing Notes: A Case Study on Interdisciplinary Collaboration  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 34, 4. 

In an interdisciplinary collaboration between the Computer & Information Technology (CIT) and Nursing (NSG) Departments at the Middletown and Hamilton regional campuses of Miami University (of Ohio), student team members created a Web-based application to create Electronic Nursing Notes. Students from the two departments worked together to design and develop the application, which will be used by the Nursing Department to teach their students. The NSG students were the customers and provided samples of a paper-based system currently used by the hospital where the nurses worked. From those samples, and with much interaction with the NSG students, the CIT students created the Electronic Nursing Notes application. In this article, we describe the project and present reactions from both the student team members and also the faculty team members.

Howard, Jennifer (2007).  Harvard Humanities Students Discover the 17th Century Online  Chronicle of Higher Education, 54, 9. 

This article profiles Harvard professor Stephen Greenblatt's new course, "Travel and Transformation in the Early 17th Century." The product of an intense, months-long collaboration between computing specialists, graduate students, librarians, and scholars, the course makes innovative use of all the tools and technical know-how a major university can deliver. That includes a course Web site far more extensive and interactive than undergraduates usually encounter, with texts, images, artwork, music, a library's worth of geographic, cultural, and historical resources, and even a virtual ship tour. The digital elements are not just a song and dance to keep students entertained. They are a vessel for Mr. Greenblatt's latest scholarly thinking. More than that, they are a central element in the university's campaign to refashion teaching in the humanities. Harvard has entered the final stage of its multiyear evolution from the static core-curriculum model to what it hopes will be a hands-on, interdisciplinary species of general education. With its blend of digital innovation and scholarship, "Travel and Transformation" may be the humanities course of the future.

Howard, W. Gary (2006).  Socrates and Technology a New Millennium Conversation  International Journal of Instructional Media, 33, 2. 

The Socratic Method has impacted thinkers and instructors from Hegel, who moved through the negation to the negation of the negation, to Marx, who viewed history through dialectical materialism, to C.C. Langdell, who introduced case law as an innovative method to study law as a science, to present-day professors who use this method to compel students to distinguish the ratio decidendi (rule of law) from obiter dicta (incidental comments) and defend their reasoning. This study proposed to apply the Socratic method through contemporary instructional technology. Hypermedia was employed in this study. Hypermedia is a multidimensional electronic information system which utilizes a computer to manage instruction and provide learner control. The following hypotheses were tested: (1) There will be significant learning among all levels of students; and (2) There will be no significant difference in learning between levels of students. A pre-test post-test study employing case method concepts was conducted. Along with it, a modified hierarchy with associative structures hypermedia module was developed. The first hypothesis dealt with whether or not significant learning occurred among the students employing the hypermedia. The second hypothesis related to significant learning with the levels of students. In this study, there was a significant change in performance of critical thinking using the Socratic method, and that hypermedia is a tool that can be applied to the study of classical techniques.

Howard-Vital, Michelle R. (2000).  Teaching and Learning in the 21st Century. 

This commencement address reflects on what students should learn in a core curriculum, what good learning environments should be like, and what quality teaching will look like in the future. It examines changes in education over the years, discussing the transformation in teaching and learning brought about by information technology. In this information-laden world, it is essential for teachers to prepare students with tools to interpret information and manage its meaning in their technology-driven lifestyles. Ultimately, instruction should be designed to help students understand how they learn best, allowing them to experiment with numerous learning strategies. Successful students should be able to demonstrate they have learned and understood the processes involved in establishing a long memory, associating information with previous knowledge, and using mnemonic devices to stimulate memory. Mentoring and guiding individuals as they enhance their learning strategies becomes the focus of teaching. With today's communication tools, teachers should be able to construct learning contexts that appeal to the learning styles of 21st-century students. Communications technologies are the catalyst for a paradigm shift in the delivery of education that is inextricably linked to the political, technological, social, and economic context of American education.

Howe, Christine; Tolmie, Andy; Thurston, Allen; Topping, Keith; Christie, Donald; Livingston, Kay; Jessiman, Emma; Donaldson, Caroline (2007).  Group Work in Elementary Science: Towards Organisational Principles for Supporting Pupil Learning  Learning and Instruction, 17, 5. 

Group work has been promoted in many countries as a key component of elementary science. However, little guidance is given as to how group work should be organized, and because previous research has seldom been conducted in authentic classrooms, its message is merely indicative. A study is reported, which attempts to address these limitations. Twenty-four classes of 10-12-year-old pupils engaged in programs of teaching on evaporation and condensation, and force and motion. Both programs were delivered by classroom teachers, and made extensive use of group work. Pupil understanding progressed from pre-tests prior to the programs to post-tests afterwards, and results suggest that group work played a critical role. Organizational principles are extrapolated from the findings, which could be readily adopted in classrooms.

Howe, Quincy (2006).  Math on the Fast Track  Educational Horizons, 84, 4. 

In this article, the author relates how a math-assessment software has allowed his school to track the academic progress of its students. The author relates that in the first year that the software was deployed, schoolwide averages in terms of national standing on the math ITBS rose from the 42nd to 59th percentile. In addition, a significant number of students became grade jumpers after the software had been installed. Because of the positive effects brought about by the software, the author concludes that the computer, the massive accumulation of performance data, and the descriptive power of standardized testing are among his most powerful allies as a teacher. | [FULL TEXT]

Howell, Dusti; Howell, Deanne (2002).  Using PowerPoint in the Classroom. 

This book is intended for those teachers who want to create more dynamic classroom lessons and presentations using quick and easy custom animations. The focus of this book is to explain how to use PowerPoint to create transitions, graphics, charts, graphs, and sound effects in a format that makes learning fun. The book is designed to give immediate results using either Windows or Macintosh platforms. Teachers will also learn the fundamentals of designing effective slides while discovering ways to use PowerPoint in the classroom. The book consists of six chapters: "Introduction to Microsoft PowerPoint"; "Creating a New Slide Show"; "Adding Graphs and Graphics"; "Special Effects"; "Presentation Delivery"; and "Classroom Applications." A quick review is provided at the end of each chapter. Chapters also contain troubleshooting tips that include possible problems users may encounter with alternative methods for performing the task, and time saving tips, as well as a feature called "Learn More" that suggests ideas for experimenting and becoming more proficient with PowerPoint. The book is illustrated throughout with sample screens and icons. (Includes an index.)

Howell, Robert T. (2007).  Crash Course in Course Development  Tech Directions, 66, 8. 

Many teachers find developing a new lesson or course quite difficult. It would be nice to have all necessary information, lesson plans and assessment materials ready at hand. But most often, they find themselves on their own when it comes to lesson and course development. The author faced this situation when he was asked to develop a lesson on fuel cell technology for science and industrial technology students. In this article, the author shares his experience with fuel cell course development to give other educators an effective procedure to follow as they develop their own courses.

Howell, Scott L. (2004).  Aligning Paper Tests with Multimedia Instruction  New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2004, 100. 

Although instructional methods are moving in ever greater number to a multimedia base, testing is not. What principles should be considered in correcting this misalignment?

Howell, Scott L.; Baker, Katherine; Zuehl, Jennett; Johansen, Justin (2007).  Distance Education and the Six Regional Accrediting Commissions: A Comparative Analysis  [Online Submission] 

Background: The last comparative analysis of how the six regional accrediting commissions review distance education programs was conducted in 2000. A few months later in March 2001 all six accrediting bodies did something that they hadn't done before, they adopted common standards for reviewing distance education programs. Purpose: The purpose was to reexamine seven years later those review policies and practices used by all six regional accrediting bodies for distance education programs following the 2000 study and also the March, 2001 adoption of common standards known as "Best Practices for Electronically Offered Degrees and Certificate Programs." Study Sample: All six regional accrediting bodies or commissions. Control or Comparison Condition: The entire population of all six regional accrediting bodies were compared. Findings: While all six regional accrediting bodies had acknowledged their adoption of common distance education standards in 2001, there remains unevenness today (2007) among the six in how much they promote the standards and use them to review their distance education programs. However, the disparity among the accrediting bodies is less than it was in the 2000 study, and, increasingly, the accrediting commissions are distinguishing less and less among distance education and traditional programs. Conclusion: Distance education programs are more commonplace today at postsecondary institutions. Regional accrediting bodies are also more in agreement as to what standards and best practices should characterize quality programs since the last comparative analysis was conducted. Furthermore, the accrediting commissions appear to be singling distance education programs out less than they were in the former analysis and reviewing them more as an integral part of the comprehensive institutional review that is focusing more on learning outcomes and less on delivery methods. Citation: Howell, S., Baker, K., Zuehl, J., and J. Johansen. (2007). Distance education and the six regional accrediting commissions: A comparative analysis. (ERIC Database Accession No. ED495650).  | [FULL TEXT]

Howell, Sheila; Harris, Michael; Wilkinson, Simon; Zuluaga, Catherine; Voutier, Paul (2004).  Teaching Mixed-Mode: A Case Study in Remote Delivery of Computer Science in Africa  Educational Media International, 41, 4. 

In February 2003, RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia, commenced delivery of a Computer Science diploma and degree programme using mixed mode delivery to 250 university students in sub-Saharan Africa, through a World Bank funded project designed for the African Virtual University (AVU). The project is a unique experience made possible by collaboration and co-operation between Australian and African partners and incorporating a student-centred philosophy and mixed-mode delivery. The project also has an ongoing commitment to building African capacity for online development and delivery of courseware through a defined capacity building programme for the University of Dar es Salaam, (UDSM), which will take over the project in 2007. This paper discusses the relevant philosophies of the major partners in the project, outlines the components of the mixed mode delivery strategy and identifies the successes and challenges uncovered in the first year of operation.

Howland, Dave; Becker, Mimi Larsen (2002).  GLOBE--The Science Behind Launching an International Environmental Education Program.  Journal of Science Education and Technology, 11, 3. 

Explains the work of the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program which is an international science and environmental education curriculum program that enables school children to learn about the environment by taking scientific measurements of their natural surroundings and sharing their data with scientists via the Internet. 

Howland, Jane; Wedman, Judy (2004).  A Process Model for Faculty Development: Individualizing Technology Learning  Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 12, 2. 

Participants (n = 156) were involved in the teacher preparation program at a large Research university located in the mid-west. The faculty (n = 21) participated in a two-year individualized professional development process to: 1) develop technology knowledge and skill efficacy and 2) integrate technology in teaching. The pre-service teachers (n = 135) were enrolled in the courses taught by the faculty participants. Evaluation of the professional development process included a pre/post questionnaire that yielded data for faculty's development of technology knowledge and skill efficacy, integration of technology into courses, and change in teacher practices. The pre-service teachers completed a survey that examined the frequency of technology use during the course in which they were enrolled. Analysis included computing frequencies, means, standard deviations, and significance levels. Results indicated change in faculty skill efficacy in the areas of communication (p less than .05), inquiry-based learning (p less than .01), feedback and metacognition (p less than .01), and problem-solving (p less than .05). Results related to technology integration indicated significant change in inquiry-based learning (p less than .01), feedback and metacognition (p less than .05), problem-solving (p less than .01), and content knowledge (p less than .05). Results related to changes in teaching practices indicated that the faculty significantly reduced the frequency of lecture (p less than .05) and integrated problem-based learning (p less than.001) more frequently. Pre-service teachers reported using a variety of technology applications during the courses.

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Hsu

Hsu, Hui-Yin; Wang, Shiang-Kwei; Comac, Linda (2008).  Using Audioblogs to Assist English-Language Learning: An Investigation into Student Perception  Computer Assisted Language Learning, 21, 2. 

This pilot study investigates how the use of audioblogs can help to meet an instructor's need to improve instruction in English as a second language (ESL). In this study, the instructor uses audioblogs to manage oral assignments, to interact with learners, and to evaluate performance outcomes. Learners record oral assignments through cellular phones, and maintain an individual audioblog in which they submit and archive the oral assignments. The instructor interacts with each learner through the individual audioblog to enhance his or her learning according to individual needs. Using mixed methodology (survey, open-ended questions, interview, and analysis of blogs), this study explores how the instructor's interaction with learners through audioblogs improves learners' oral English performance. The results indicate that the use of audioblogs meets the instructor's instructional needs, providing an efficient and effective way to evaluate students' oral performance and permitting individualized oral feedback. In addition, learners enjoy the ease of using audioblogs and believe that audioblogs assist their language-learning experience. This study also discusses the challenges that users of audioblogs face in the process of English-language instruction, and the implications of audioblog in language learning.

Hsu, Jeng-yih (2007).  Lexical Collocations and Their Impact on the Online Writing of Taiwanese College English Majors and Non-English Majors  [Online Submission, Paper presented at the International Conference on English for Specific Purposes (Taipei, Taiwan, May 4-5, 2007)] 

The present study investigates the use of English lexical collocations and their relation to the online writing of Taiwanese college English majors and non-English majors. Data for the study were collected from 41 English majors and 21 non-English majors at a national university of science and technology in southern Taiwan. Each student was asked to take a 45-minute online English writing test, administered by the web-based writing program, Criterion Version 7.1 (Educational Testing Services) to examine the subjects' use of lexical collocations (i.e., frequency and variety). The test was also used to measure writing fluency of the two student groups. Test results were examined to answer the two major questions for correlation (1) between the subjects' frequency of lexical collocations and their writing and (2) between the subjects' variety of lexical collocations and their writing. The study findings indicated that: (1) there seemed to be a positive correlation between Taiwanese college EFL learners' frequency of lexical collocations and their online writing scores; and (2) there seemed to be a significantly positive correlation between the subjects' variety of lexical collocations and their online writing scores. This present study also reports on a pattern of lexical collocation development observed among writers of different fluency levels, ranging from the lowest to the highest. Appended are: (1) Empirical Studies on Collocation Error Analysis; and (2) Scoring Guide by Criterion (7.1), ETS (http://criterion-cs.ets.org.) | [FULL TEXT]

Hsu, Shihkuan (2004).  Using Case Discussion on the Web to Develop Student Teacher Problem Solving Skills  Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, 20, 7. 

To help student teachers solve real world problems during their internships, support from multiple sources is needed. In this study, a website was developed to provide support for student teachers by sharing cases and personal experiences. Student teachers exchanged comments about posted cases with both peer student teachers and experienced teachers. After 2 months of using the web for case discussion, questionnaires were distributed and interviews were conducted with a group of 20 student teachers. The results suggested that such an exchange helped them to increase their understanding of problems, to obtain knowledge and skills to solve problems, and to gain positive attitudes towards teaching as a profession.

Hsu, Wen-Kai K.; Huang, Show-Hui S. (2006).  Determinants of Computer Self-Efficacy--An Examination of Learning Motivations and Learning Environments  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 35, 3. 

The purpose of this article is to discuss determinants of computer self-efficacy from the perspective of participant internal learning motivations and external learning environments. The former consisted of three motivations--interest, trend, and employment--while the latter comprised two environments--home and school. Through an intermediate variable--computer use--a causal model was constructed to analyze how the determinants affected participant computer self-efficacy. To validate the model, 235 vocational and technology college and university students were surveyed. The results indicated that computer use and interest motivation had significant direct effects on participant computer self-efficacy, as did school environment and trend motivations, but the latter was negative. The home environment and employment motivations had indirect effects on computer self-efficacy through computer use, as did the interest and trend motivations. Among the correlations of determinants, the home environment was significantly correlated with all of the learning motivations, but school environment was not. Demographic analysis indicated that most of the students were not satisfied with the learning environment of schools. The results could provide useful and practical information for educational administrators, computer instructors, and students.

Hsu, Ying-Shao (2006).  "Lesson Rainbow": The Use of Multiple Representations in an Internet-Based, Discipline-Integrated Science Lesson  British Journal of Educational Psychology, 37, 4. 

This paper presents the development and evaluation of a web-based lesson--Lesson Rainbow. This lesson features multiple representations (MRs), which purposefully deliver concepts in relation to distinctive disciplinary subject areas through story-based animations that are closely related to learners' life experiences. The researchers selected 58 2nd-year junior high school students as the participants (32 males and 26 females). A quasi-experimental method together with semi-structured interviews was utilized. This research project was intended to investigate students' conceptual progress, and to evaluate the use of MRs and of situated learning components in the design of Lesson Rainbow. The statistical results indicated that: (1) students' science concepts significantly increased ("t" = 3.84, "p" less than 0.01) through the use of Lesson Rainbow, and (2) students thought that the use of MRs in this web-based lesson was an effective pedagogical tool in as much as it allows for the learning of specific theoretical viewpoints in addition to the necessary background information. Lesson Rainbow employing MRs helps learners to understand the meanings of, and interrelationships between, different kinds of external representations. This kind of design facilitates their understanding of the correspondence between abstract symbolic expressions and real-world situations.

Hsu, Ying-Shao; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Hwang, Fu-Kwun (2008).  Fostering High School Students' Conceptual Understandings about Seasons: The Design of a Technology-Enhanced Learning Environment  Research in Science Education, 38, 2. 

The purpose of this study is to understand in what ways a technology-enhanced learning (TEL) environment supports learning about the causes of the seasons. The environment was designed to engage students in five cognitive phases: Contextualisation, Sense making, Exploration, Modeling, and Application. Seventy-five high school students participated in this study and multiple sources of data were collected to investigate students' conceptual understandings and the interactions between the design of the environment and students' alternative conceptions. The findings show that the number of alternative conceptions held by students were reduced except for the incorrect concepts of "the length of sunshine" and "the distance between the sun and the earth." The percentage of partial explanations held by students was also reduced from 60.5 to 55.3% and the percentage of students holding complete scientific explanations after using Lesson Seasons rose from 2.6 to 15.8%. While some students succeeded in modeling their science concepts closely to the expert's concepts, some failed to do so after the invention. The unsuccessful students could not remediate their alternative conceptions without explicit guidance and scaffolding. Future research can then be focused on understanding how to provide proper scaffoldings for removing some alternative concepts which are highly resistant to change.

Hsu, Yu-chang (2006).  Better Educational Website Interface Design: The Implications from Gender-Specific Preferences in Graduate Students  British Journal of Educational Technology, 37, 2. 

This study investigated graduate students gender-specific preferences for certain website interface design features, intending to generate useful information for instructors in choosing and for website designers in creating educational websites. The features investigated in this study included colour value, major navigation buttons placement, and navigation mode. In this study, 56 graduate students in a north-eastern research university in the US volunteered to evaluate 30 pairs of web page screenshots or website prototypes, and to indicate on the questionnaires their preferences within each pair of prototype. Each participant's preferences for the three features were coded and categorised for chi-square tests of independence to determine the relationships between gender and the investigated design features. The findings of gender effects on graduate students preferences for the afore mentioned features were presented and discussed.

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Hau

Hausknecht, Gina (2001).  The Fly's Tale: Technoskepticism, Electronic Pedagogy, and the Web.  Educational Technology, 41, 5. 

Presents skeptical views of the heavy reliance on the Web that sometimes occurs in higher education. Discusses information versus knowledge; the influence of the Internet on interpersonal relationships; the structure of the Internet and procedures of intellectual thought; the non-linearity of hypertext; and encouraging students to investigate the culture of the Internet.

 

Hauck, Mirjam; Youngs, Bonnie L. (2008).  Telecollaboration in Multimodal Environments: The Impact on Task Design and Learner Interaction  Computer Assisted Language Learning, 21, 2. 

With the development of new digital technologies and their gradual introduction into the language classroom, the Internet enables students to reach out beyond the confines of traditional teaching and learning settings, allowing previously non-existent access to foreign languages and cultures. On the one hand, the web allows learners to find authentic information and expand their knowledge; on the other, computer-mediated communication tools enable students to establish contact with target language learners and native speakers by engaging in telecollaborative exchanges. The tools at students' disposal are becoming increasingly more powerful, often combining different modes of communication in one single environment. In 2005, students of French at Carnegie Mellon University, US and French learners at the Open University, UK worked synchronously and asynchronously in online environments with native francophone students enrolled on a masters' programme in distance education at the Universite de Franche Comte, France. Completing a set of three collaborative tasks, synchronous meetings took place over 10 weeks in the Open University's online audio-graphic tuition environment "Lyceum", which provides multiple synchronous audio channels as well as synchronous text chat and several shared graphical interfaces. In addition to the output produced in this medium (oral, written and graphic) in the target languages (French and English), the project output, a shared reflection on cultural similarities and differences, took the form of several collaborative, asynchronous blogs. This contribution draws on data from pre- and post- treatment questionnaires, recordings of the online interactions, work published by the students in the blogs and discussions among learner and tutor participants exploring aspects of online partnership learning such as learning environment-specific affordances and their impact on task design as well as student and tutor perceptions of connectivity and interacvity.

 

Hauck, William A. (2006).  Online versus Traditional Face-to-Face Learning in a Large Introductory Course  Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 98, 4. 

In this article, the author presents a comparative study of student performance, satisfaction, and persistence between online and face-to-face classes. The purpose of this study was to examine differences between online and traditional classroom learning for a large introductory FCS undergraduate course. Specifically, the study asked if there was a difference between learning (measured by final course grades) and student satisfaction (measured by student evaluation of instruction ratings). The results found no significant difference in grades between online and traditional classes. However, students in the online course were significantly less satisfied with the course on several dimensions.

 

Haugsbakk, Geir; Nordkvelle, Yngve (2007).  The Rhetoric of ICT and the New Language of Learning: A Critical Analysis of the Use of ICT in the Curricular Field  European Educational Research Journal, 6, 1. 

This article focuses on how we perceive new technology and technological development within educational settings, and seeks to establish a critical link between the rhetoric of information and communications technology (ICT) and what Biesta called "the new language of learning". Within this "new language" the learner is a consumer, with needs that must be fulfilled by the teacher. This rhetoric implies that "teaching" has been replaced by "learning" and challenges the conventional curricula in many respects. The article applies Biesta's perspective to a concrete scrutiny of current trends in education and the introduction of ICT in education in particular. The analysis gives support to Biesta's main hypothesis, but it also indicates that the radical shift from teaching to learning is accompanied, and we might possibly say influenced, by the rhetoric connected to the use of ICT. In recent Norwegian curricular texts ICT takes a position as the rationalising tools by which teaching can be made efficient, individually designed and flexible. The intention is to critically examine the way in which teaching is more or less automatically replaced by learning, the influence the rhetoric of ICT has had, and how ICT and learning seem to be connected through merely rhetorical couplings.

 

Hauk, Shandy; Segalla, Angelo (2005).  Student Perceptions of the Web-Based Homework Program WeBWorK in Moderate Enrollment College Algebra Classes  Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 24, 3. 

Of 19 college algebra classes, 12 used WeBWorK and 7 used traditional paper and pencil homework (PPH). Given the earlier quantitative result that no significant difference in performance between WeBWorK and PPH classes was found, a qualitative analysis of 358 student and instructor surveys revealed 3 primary categories of student perceptions related to WeBWorK: views about its usefulness, intentionality in engaging with mathematics, and challenges to student beliefs about mathematics. Student and instructor comments are reported within the context of self-regulated learning. Results support the conjecture that even a narrow use of WeBWorK, as a substitute for handwritten homework, is at least as effective as traditionally graded paper and pencil homework for students learning college algebra.

 

Hauptman, Joe (2004).  Presentation of Type I and Type II Error Rates to Non-Statisticians  Teaching Statistics: An International Journal for Teachers, 26, 2. 

This article describes a simple computer program which graphically demonstrates both Type I and Type II statistical errors.

 

Haury, David L. (2001).  Learning about the Human Genome. Part 2: Resources for Science Educators. ERIC Digest. 

This ERIC Digest identifies how the human genome project fits into the "National Science Education Standards" and lists Human Genome Project Web sites found on the World Wide Web. It is a resource companion to "Learning about the Human Genome. Part 1: Challenge to Science Educators" (Haury 2001). The Web resources and instructional materials can assist educators in meeting the challenges discussed in Part 1 and can serve as starting places in developing school instruction and public outreach programs. | [FULL TEXT>

 

Hauser, Gregory M.; Koutouzos, Dennis W. (2005).  The Standards-Based Digital School Leader Portfolio: A Handbook for Preparation and Practice  [Rowman & Littlefield Education> 

This book is a comprehensive step-by-step tool for school leader preparation candidates and school leaders alike in the development of standards-based digital school leader portfolios. Readers receive a rich array of activities, worksheets, and rubrics useful in the planning, development, and assessment of standards-based digital portfolios. Readers may choose from two different templates to create individualized digital portfolios. One version of the template is provided in PowerPoint and another version in TaskStream. A free four-month subscription to TaskStream is included with every textbook and richly illustrated sample digital portfolios are included on the CD-ROM for review. References and appendices are included.

 

Hauser, Judy (2007).  Media Specialists Can Learn Web 2.0 Tools to Make Schools More Cool  Computers in Libraries, 27 n2 p6-8, 47-48 Feb 2007. 

Media specialists today are required to use more and more technology. Their responsibilities encompass everything from repairing overhead projectors to administrating an entire library's automated system. These responsibilities are in addition to working with students on research and information literacy, making book selections, and collaborating with classroom teachers on curriculum. Now more than ever, Web 2.0 tools such as blogs, wikis, podcasts, and RSS are of interest to media specialists for many reasons. Technology integration and the abundance of Web 2.0 tools provide media specialists with many opportunities to work with students. In this article, the author discusses Web 2.0, how she is training media specialists to use Web 2.0 tools with students, and some issues related to the use of these tools in schools.

 

Hausstatter, Rune Sarromaa; Nordkvelle, Yngve Troye (2007).  Perspectives on Group Work in Distance Learning  [Online Submission] 

Current distance education benefits greatly from educational software that makes group work possible for students who are separated in time and space. However, some students prefer distance education because they can work on their own. This paper explores how students react to expectations on behalf of the course provider to do their assignments in collaborative groups. They are seemingly both positively surprised by the challenges that group work offer, and they are less positive to the downsides of group work. The paper discusses both sides of the experiences and suggests why this might be a paradox to live with.  [A previous version of this paper, written in Norwegian, was printed in: Gunnar Grepperud, Anne Iversen, Gunnar Myklebost og Torstein Rekkedal (red.) "Til a bli klok av ...Et knippe prosjekterfaringer" Norgesuniversitetets skriftserie nr. 2/2005, Tromso |

 

Hautakangas, Sami; Kiilakoski, Tomi (2004).  The Information Society: Towards an Iron Cage of e-Learning?  , 1. 

The purpose of this article is to analyse the meaning of different cultural paradigms in the development of educational technology. The article analyses technology critically from the perspective of the philosophy of technology, examines the manifestations of instrumentalism in the curriculum theory and analyses its effects on the different levels of decision-making relative to the design processes of educational technology. It is claimed that instrumental rationality may increase if common curricular models are used when engineering technology. One major problem that affects the development is that instrumentalism and its manifestations on different levels of design and application of educational technology excludes alternatives by its internal logic, while it provides a general problem-solving model which is justifiably rational. The essential feature of educational technology in relation to the topic of the article is the underlying logical framework in which every feature that is to be supported by technology must be given a quantifiable description.

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Hu, Shouping; Kuh, George D. (2001).  Computing Experience and Good Practices in Undergraduate Education: Does the Degree of Campus Wiredness Matter? 

Responses to the College Student Experience Questionnaire Fourth Edition (C. Pace and G. Kuh, 1998) from 18,844 students at 71 colleges and universities were analyzed to determine if the presence of computing and information technology influenced the frequency of use of various forms of technology and other educational resources and the exposure to good educational practices. Undergraduates attending "more wired" campuses as determined by the 1998 and 1999 Yahoo Most Wired Campus survey more frequently used computing and information technology and reported higher levels of engagement in good educational practices than their counterparts at less wired institutions. Nontraditional students benefited less than traditional students, but both women and men students benefited considerably from campus wiredness. An appendix contains the survey items that represent good educational practices.   | [FULL TEXT]

Hussain, Irshad (2007).  Transnational Education: Concept and Methods  [Online Submission] 

Transnational education is a new and permanent reality in educational life. It should be viewed as a positive set of educational opportunities. It raises profound and far-reaching implications for all those involved in higher education. The challenges represented by it may impact at the local, regional, national and global levels and reactions to these multi-level challenges result in a co-ordinated set of global responses in the form of alliances. The globalisation of higher education manifests itself in various forms, of which transnational education is perhaps the most visible. It is something that can be focussed immensely for global pace. Transnational education has clear long-term implications for the nature and structure of educational provision throughout the world particularly in Europe. A brief list of web sites accessed is also included. | [FULL TEXT]

Hussain, Irshad (2007).  A Study of Students' Attitude Towards Virtual Education in Pakistan  [Online Submission] 

Virtual education paradigm has been developing as a form of distance education to provide education across the boundaries of a nation and/or country. It imparts education through information and communication technologies. In Pakistan the Virtual University of Pakistan imparts it. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the students' attitudes towards virtual education in Pakistan. The data were collected from BCS final semester students of the virtual university through questionnaire. The study revealed that virtual education is an alternate to the formal system of education. It can cater large students' body at all academic levels. It is flexible and convenient to the learners providing them exposure with emerging technologies. It integrates the nation extending the opportunities of higher education, uniform curricula, technology based instructional methodology and equal opportunities of higher education. However, students do face some problems as well. These include problems of password, computer vision syndrome (CVS), fingers' joint pain, backache, dizziness & headache and electricity failure. From the findings of the study it can be projected that in future formal universities may be adopting the virtual mode in some way.  | [FULL TEXT]

Hussin, Virginia (2007).  Supporting Off-Shore Students: A Preliminary Study  Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 44, 4. 

This paper reports on the first part of a recent research study into current initiatives to support the learning of non-English speaking background (NESB) transnational students in Asia who are studying off-shore at Australian universities. Learning support and development staff in 12 universities were surveyed using a questionnaire. The survey yielded data on the varied modes of learning support for transnational students, many of which are Web-based; their perceived effectiveness; their evaluation status and the number and nature of those with a focus on assisting students to avoid plagiarism. The questionnaire elicited responses about future plans, challenges and barriers in relation to the effective learning support of transnational students. Critical themes to emerge were: the importance of person-to-person contact; embedding of learning resources into course delivery; interventions to assist students to avoid plagiarism that acknowledge cultural factors; the need for planning, professional development; adequate resources and attitudinal change.

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Hofer, Mark (2004).  Online Digital Archives Technology That Supports Rich, Student-Centered Learning Experiences  Learning and Leading with Technology, 32 n2 p6, 7. 

Today's students watch the newest movie trailers on the Web, share music files, play video games with other players over the Internet, and swap digital pictures of the latest teen idols. Donald Tapscott points out in his book Growing Up Digital that as this rich multimedia experience becomes more a part of students' lives outside of school, they will further expect this kind of experience in school as well. | [FULL TEXT]

Hofer, Mark; Chamberlin, Barbara; Scot, Tammy (2004).  Fulfilling the Need for a Technology Integration Specialist  T.H.E. Journal, 32, 3. 

School-based technology specialists go by many names: technology coordinators, technology integration specialists, technology support specialists, instructional technology coordinators, technology mentor teachers, curriculum technology partners, educational technologists, coaches, expert trainers, technology support coordinators, and site-based technology facilitators--to name just a few. Their job descriptions also vary and range from being primarily computer lab teachers to full-time teacher consultants. For the purposes of this article, the authors define technology coordinators as school- or district-based coordinators or directors who have the responsibility of overseeing infrastructure, equipment, purchases and integration. They define a technology integration specialist as a school-based position whose primary concern is empowering teachers to harness the power of technology integration for student learning. This article describes the current role of a technology coordinator.

Hoff, David J.; Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy (2001).  Curriculum: No Easy Answers.  Teacher Magazine, 13, 3. 

The events of September 11, 2001 have made it clear to teachers that curriculum content and how it is taught cannot be stationary. Teachers are incorporating the unfolding events into their lessons. Textbook companies are scrambling to produce materials to help teachers address the situation. Students question teachers' knowledge because they have access to so much current information.

Hoffman, Ellen S. (2002).  Can Research Improve Technology Planning Policy? 

Technology planning policy in Michigan has been reviewed and revised through research on local school districts, with an emphasis on the effects of planning on program outcomes. This paper is a case study in the impact of research on practice as it evolved in relation to technology planning in Michigan. This paper reviews the study results and the resulting policy changes, including presentation of a rubric developed for scoring technology plans. It is designed as a focus for discussion rather than a detailed report of research findings. Study results are documented fully in an earlier report (E. Hoffman, 2001). Study findings identify some weaknesses and strengths in current plans, and result in some identified implications for educational policy. These include the following: (1) good plans do not necessarily equal good programs; (2) policies that encourage good planning processes are likely to be successful than those that encourage good writing; (3) policies should provide for planning focus on student outcomes and classroom learning rather than technology; and (4) policies need to encourage data-driven decision making. These issues have been considered in the technology planning rubric developed for Michigan schools that was tested during the summer of 2001 and distributed in the fall. | [FULL TEXT]

Hoffman, Kevin M. (2003).  Online Course Evaluation and Reporting in Higher Education  New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2003, 96. 

Many U.S. institutions of higher education are initiating and expanding the use of the Internet for collecting and reporting student ratings of instruction. The primary objective of this study was to better understand the effects of the Internet on student ratings of instruction in higher education. More specifically, data were collected to determine the extent to which institutions have adopted the Internet for data collection and reporting of student evaluations of instruction. A sample of five hundred U.S. colleges and universities was randomly selected, and email invitations to an online questionnaire were sent to each institution. Responses indicated that: (1) Ten percent of the responding schools used a campuswide Internet system as the principal means of collecting student ratings data for all courses; (2) Nearly two thirds of the respondents were already using the Internet to evaluate online courses in 2002, or were planning to implement an Internet ratings process in 2003; (3) 17 percent of responding institutions reported using the Internet in some capacity to collect student evaluation data for face-to-face courses; (4) 22 percent of respondents reported using the Internet to provide faculty with access to student rating results, and an additional 11 percent planned to do so in 2003; and (5) 12 percent of respondents reported using the Internet to share student evaluation results with students, while another three percent reported plans to implement such a system in 2003.

Hoffman, Richard (2005).  Driving Ms. Data: Creating Data-Driven Possibilities  Technology & Learning, 25, 7. 

This article describes how driven Web sites help schools and districts maximize their IT resources by making online content more "self-service" for users. It shows how to set up the capacity to create data-driven sites. By definition, a data-driven Web site is one in which the content comes from some back-end data source, such as a database, and is then formatted and presented to the user by the Web server. While the technology advances and users' expectations increase, it is likely that there have been no corresponding increases in human resources and technical staff to make all this happen. So, how does one reconcile the need for data-driven Web sites with the reality of current infrastructure? This article will provide a brief run-through of some strategies for giving staff and users what they need and expect.

Hoffman, Richard (2007).  A Wireless World: Charles County Public Schools Makes Wireless Universal  Technology & Learning, 27, 8. 

Wireless connectivity in schools is all the rage, and many school systems have at least gotten their feet wet with a wireless lab or a few portable laptop carts. But Bijaya Devkota, the chief information officer of Charles County Public Schools, has done what many school systems only dream of--implemented universal wireless access throughout his district, including data and voice services. Devkota shares some of his district's experiences in rolling out universal wireless, and the lessons and best practices learned throughout the process, as well as some thoughts on the benefits of implementing wireless capability.

Hofstein, Avi; Kesner, Miri (2006).  Industrial Chemistry and School Chemistry: Making Chemistry Studies More Relevant  International Journal of Science Education, 28, 9. 

In this paper, we present the development and implementation over the period of more than 15 years of learning materials focusing on industrial chemistry as the main theme. The work was conducted in the Department of Science Teaching at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. The project's general goal was to teach chemistry concepts in the context of industrial chemistry in order to present chemistry as a relevant topic both to the students personally as well as to the society in which they live. The learning materials that were developed during this period were in alignment with the changes and reforms that were conducted in the Israeli educational system. These developments were accompanied with intensive and comprehensive professional development courses and workshops. In addition, several research and evaluation projects were conducted with the goal to assess students' achievements and to probe into the students' perceptions regarding the classroom learning environment and the teachers' and students' attitudes towards the various instructional and learning materials techniques that were implemented in the programme throughout these years. This paper is structured attempting to describe the curricular cycle in alignment with Goodlad's and Van den Akker's curriculum representations.

Hofstetter, Fred T. (2001).  The Future's Future: Implications of Emerging Technology for Special Education Program Planning.  Journal of Special Education Technology, 16, 4. 

This article reviews emerging technologies, imagines how they can be used to help learners with special needs, and recommends new special education program initiatives to help these students make a meaningful transition from school to work. Wearable computers, personal computing devices, DVD, HDTV, MP3, and personal digital assistants are discussed.

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Henderson, Dave (2005).  13 Tech Support Strategies: Looking for Ways to Streamline It? Make Your Own Luck with These Time-Tested Techniques  Technology & Learning, 25, 8. 

Providing quality technical support in K-12 environments can be challenging. Unlike the business world, there is generally a less-than-ideal ratio of technical staff to computers, numerous software titles from dozens of vendors, and of course--a much smaller budget. The Victor Central School District in Victor, New York, has employed a number of techniques over the past five years to streamline tech support. The best techniques are described in this article. Each tip falls under one of three key areas: standardization, centralization, or documentation.

Henderson, George; Nash, Susan Smith (2007).  Excellence in College Teaching and Learning: Classroom and Online Instruction  [Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, Ltd] 

This book will improve the quality of instruction that college students need. It makes numerous suggestions that must be tended to when teachers instruct students. For example, the authors speculate about ways teachers can present what may at times seem to be a mountain of information without burying students under it; why teachers must continually update their Internet skills; and whether courses are taught on campus or online, they should not be academic fluff or pedagogical gimmicks. Throughout the book the authors punctuate sentences and paragraphs with metaphors, similes, hyperboles, and ironies in order to adequately capture a panoramic view of the consonance and dissonance that characterizes effective and ineffective teaching. Scattered throughout the book are suggestions about ways teachers can become more responsive to students. For example, it provides suggestions on how classroom and online teachers can consciously manage sounds, movements, colors, and the other aspects of teaching as though they were like drama, music, ballet, or literature in order to keep students attentive. This is one of the few books that give equal attention to teaching classroom and online courses. Face-to-face teaching is more art than science, so the first part of the book is interpersonally expansive. Online teaching is more technology and science than art. Therefore, the second part of the book is more straightforward, less interpersonal. By reading this book, teachers will find out what will work for him or her, and it provides a lot of interesting information about other teachers, including the authors. Also provided are succinct overviews of several instructional methods, including their theoretical foundations, that can be used independently or together to enhance the education of college students. Many of the topics discussed in one chapter are revisited in later ones. This spiral approach to learning is actually repetition and supplementation for knowledge transfer. The exercises at the end of each chapter serve dual purposes: they are both self-assessments and summaries of selected data. The book will serve as an excellent resource for would-be, new, and experienced teachers as well as professional development staff and librarians. This book divides into two parts and seven chapters. Part I, Teaching Classroom Courses, contains: Introduction (George Henderson); (1) "Lectures:" (Back to the Future/The Good, The Bad, The Ugly/Giving New Life to an Old Process/Questions and Answers/Discussion Groups/Lessons Learned/Et Cetera/Exercise 1: Irritating Lecturer Behaviors; (2) "Collaborative and Cooperative Activities:" The Process/Written Reports/Oral Presentations in Perspective/Role-Playing Improvisations/And Games, Too/A Few Other Group Activities/Making It all Work/ Exercise 2: Student Team Skills. and (3) "Classroom Group Dynamics:" Volatile Mixtures/Pressure/Competition/Teacher Attitudes/ Communication/Grades Forces Within Groups/Empowering Students/Exercise 3: Classroom Group Dynamics. Part II, Teaching Online Courses, contains: Introduction (Susan Smith Nash)/My Awakening/Thinking Globally/Exploring the Information Superhighway/We Haven't Gone Far Enough; (4) "E-Learning to the Maximum:" Why Does It Work?/Traditional Versus Online Institutions/Digital Natives/Feelings and Emotions Matter/Learning Strategies/A New Paradigm/Exercise 4: Digital Immigrants, Natives, or Geeks?; (5) "Virtual Learning Basics:" The Litmus Test/Time Management/Taking Notes: From an Online Student's Perspective/Text-Based Learning/Skill and Drill/Mobile Learning/Podcasts and the Working Memory/Vodcasts/Putting It Together/Exercise 5: E-Learning Beliefs and Behaviors = Attitudes; (6) "Situated Learning:Cyberspace Group Dynamics:" Communities of Scholars/Collaborative Team Assignments/Problem-Solving/Making Connections/How Online Programs Fail Students/Educational Bridges and Learning Styles/Plagiarism/Ethical Issues/Exercise 6: Feedback; and (7) "The Big Picture:" Paying the Price for Excellence/Appropriate Leadership/The Digital Divide/What Will We Gain?/Exercise 7: Goals for Professional Development. Appendices: "Helpful Handouts for Students and Analysis of Two Exercises," include: (A) Key Factors for Success in Online Courses; (B) Conducting Online Research; (C) Audience Analysis; (D) Why Do Kids Kill? A Sample Cause and Effect Essay; (E) Getting the Most From Video; (F) Getting the Most From Podcasts; (G) How to Study for an Online Quiz; (H) Digital Immigrants, Natives, or Geeks Analysis; and (I) Learning Beliefs and Behaviors Analysis. The book also includes a preface, bibliography, name index, and subject index.

Hengehold, Larry (2001).  Going the Last Mile: Connecting Virginia's Community Colleges.  Community College Journal, 72, 2. 

Reports that Virginia's community colleges have joined the partnership to establish a statewide Internet2 (I2) next-generation network. I2 will provide enough bandwidth capacity to allow robust distance education initiatives and a converged network--which implies that voice, data, and video traffic is carried over one physical structure--and to create one statewide cable network.

Henke, Karen Greenwood (2006).  Diminishing Resources, Increased Demands: What Funding Trends Can Educators Expect for the Year Ahead?  Technology & Learning, 26, 12. 

If necessity is the mother of invention, 2007 should be a banner year for K-12 educational technology. Deep cuts in federal dollars have reduced funds earmarked for technology while school districts face rising computing demands. From addressing No Child Left Behind testing requirements to dealing with the proliferation of student-owned devices, administrators are under pressure to do more with less. The good news is that new technologies and faster, cheaper, and more flexible applications may help innovative districts gain more access to the infrastructure already in place. As always, the onus will be on school leaders to make the case for continuing support for technology. In this article, the author explores the funding trends educators can expect for the year ahead.

Henke, Karen Greenwood (2007).  5 Web 2.0 Time Savers: These Applications Can Help Busy Administrators Reclaim Precious Hours  Technology & Learning, 27, 11. 

Web-based productivity tools help people collaborate, communicate, and save time--and the good news is most are free. This article presents five good strategies for using web-based productivity tools: (1) Clean out your inbox and focus your professional development with RSS; (2) Share your documents online with wikis or online productivity applications; (3) Start a dialogue with your community using a blog; (4) Mark the Web for discovery by tagging; and (5) Put it all together.

Henke, Karen Greenwood (2007).  How Fast Is Fast Enough?  Technology & Learning, 28, 3. 

Just how much bandwidth does the average student in the United States have access to today, and how much will he or she need in the future? That depends, according to district CTOs, state technology directors, industry experts, and classroom teachers. The National Center for Education Statistics reports that 97 percent of U.S. public schools with access to the Internet used broadband connections in 2005. But broadband encompasses a broad range of bandwidth. As capacity gets divided among more students using increasingly demanding data, voice, and multimedia applications, every student's service degrades. This article discusses the issue of adequate bandwidth and offers some tips for calculating.

Henke, Mitchell E.; Latendresse, Frank (2005).  Store and Forward: A Collaborative Approach for Developing Interactive Digital Media (IDM) for Classroom Instruction  Technology Teacher, 64, 8. 

The availability of digital media technology for consumer use has increased students' exposure to technology that was once limited primarily to educational and business environments. As students become more adept consumers and developers of digital media, their expectations in the classroom increasingly involve digital media as an instructional delivery mode. Delivering instruction using a variety of modes (visual and verbal) allows more students to receive and access information through their preferred media and can increase learning. The availability of hardware and software has allowed educators to bring flexibility into instruction. The technology not only allows one to incorporate visual and verbal information, but it allows for interactive and asynchronous delivery. Although digital technologies provide the capability to present media-rich, interactive instruction, an educator must take many items into consideration before integrating media into instruction.

Henn-Reinke, Kathryn; Chesner, Geralyn A. (2006).  Developing Voice through the Language Arts  [SAGE Publications (CA)] 

This book shows prospective teachers how to use the language arts to connect diverse students to the world around them and help them develop their own literate voices. It considers the integrated nature of the primary language arts--reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing, and visually representing. The authors encourage preservice and inservice teachers to take a reflective, balanced approach in preparing to teach language arts. Prospective teachers are encouraged to view not only their students as language users and learners but to develop themselves as literate models. Through their incorporation of the NCTE/IRA Standards for the English Language Arts, the authors explore the integrated nature of the language arts using children's literature, critical thinking, and technology. Through vignettes, views into classrooms, connections to the field, student artifacts, and an ongoing reflection journal this book provides prospective teachers with a wide range of activities that will help them to make connections between theoretical constructs and their manifestation in classroom practice. An accompanying Student Resource CD bound in the text includes video clips, exercises, questions, and additional resources. The Web-based Student Study Site provides a comprehensive Study Guide, links to standards, children's literature, reflection exercises, journal articles, and PRAXIS test preparation material (http://www.sagepub.com/dvtlastudy%29. An Instructor's Resource CD offers lecture outlines, PowerPoint slides, sample syllabi, video clips with student exercises, test bank, web resources, reflection portfolio guidelines, and more (Instructor's Resource CD: 1-4129-5013-9). Following a preface providing information on the features and organization of the text; the Instructor's Resources CD; the Web-Based Student Study Guide; and the Student Resources CD, this book is divided into three parts. Part I, Understanding Language Arts, presents: (1) Becoming a Reflective Teacher; and (2) What Are the Language Arts? Part II, Frameworks and Approaches to Teaching, Learning, and Assessing in the Language Arts, continues with: (3) Reading and the Language Arts; (4) Writing and the Language Arts; (5) Language, Word Study, and the Tools of Writing; (6) Strategies for Listening, Speaking, Viewing, and Visually Representing; (7) Children's and Young Adult Literature as a Tool for the Language Arts; (8) Language Arts and the Content Areas; and (9) Workshops in the Language Arts Curriculum. Part III, Language Arts Teaching, Learning, and Assessing from Early Childhood to Early Adolescence, concludes with: (10) Early Childhood Language Arts: Kathi Glick's First-Grade Classroom; (11) Middle Childhood Language Arts: Sandy Cabernathy's Third- and Fourth-Grade Classroom; and (12) Early Adolescence Language Arts: Joelle Quimby's Eighth-Grade Language Arts Classroom. An epilogue entitled, Reflecting on Your Future Teaching of the Language Arts; a glossary; and an index are also included.

Hennessy, Sara; Deaney, Rosemary; Ruthven, Kenneth (2005).  Emerging Teacher Strategies for Mediating "Technology-Integrated Instructional Conversations": A Socio-Cultural Perspective  Curriculum Journal, 16, 3. 

This article draws on socio-cultural learning theory as a conceptual framework for analysing how teachers structure classroom activities and interactions during "Technology-integrated Instructional Conversations" (TICs). It reports on a collaborative programme of small-scale projects undertaken by 15 teacher-researchers using various forms of computer-based ICT to support subject teaching and learning. The participants developed, trialled and refined new pedagogic approaches and activities in six curriculum areas (English, classics, design technology, geography, history, science) at secondary level. A cross-case analysis was conducted using lesson observations, follow-up teacher interviews and teachers' research reports. A typology of proactive and responsive pedagogic strategies for mediating pupil interactions with ICT was identified. These included exploiting the technology in new ways and circumventing its associated constraints. The strategies emerging illustrated how teachers structured activities judiciously; supported, guided and challenged; encouraged pupil collaboration, experimentation, reflection and analysis; avoided floundering and maintained a focus on subject learning; integrated the use of other resources; and developed information handling skills. These strategies and the gradual withdrawal of teacher support served to increase pupil participation and responsibility for their own learning. Pupils themselves played a role in structuring TICs through opportunistically soliciting teacher assistance and feedback.

Hennessy, Sara; Deaney, Rosemary; Ruthven, Kenneth; Winterbottom, Mark (2007).  Pedagogical Strategies for Using the Interactive Whiteboard to Foster Learner Participation in School Science  Learning

This study aimed to extend the currently limited understanding of how pedagogy is developing in response to the influx of interactive whiteboards (IWBs) in schools in the UK and some other countries. A case study approach was employed to investigate how experienced classroom practitioners are beginning to harness the functionality of this technology to support learning in science. The methods included focus group interviews with four secondary science departments, plus lesson observations and interviews with two teachers and their pupils. We analysed the data from a sociocultural perspective on learning, focusing on the strategies that teachers used to exploit the dynamic, manipulable objects of joint reference and annotative tools afforded by the technology to foster the cognitive, social and physical "participation" of learners in whole-class activity. The case study teachers demonstrated contrasting approaches to designing and supporting activity in which pupils shared, evaluated and developed ideas using the IWB. Pupil manipulation of objects on the IWB was deemed desirable but--along with pedagogical interactivity--was constrained by systemic school and subject cultures, curricular and assessment frameworks. Observed and potential opportunities for active cognitive and social participation are outlined.

Hennessy, Sara; Fung, Pat; Scanlon, Eileen (2001).  The Role of the Graphic Calculator in Mediating Graphing Activity.  International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 32, 2. 

Examines the impact of the recent shift towards calculating and computing tools on the nature of learning in traditionally difficult curriculum area. Focuses on the use of graphic calculators by undergraduates taking an innovative new mathematics course at Open University. Indicates that graphic calculator technology acted as a critical mediator in both the students' collaboration and in their problem solving. 

Hennessy, Sara; Ruthven, Kenneth; Brindley, Sue (2005).  Teacher Perspectives on Integrating ICT into Subject Teaching: Commitment, Constraints, Caution, and Change  Journal of Curriculum Studies, 37, 2. 

This paper examines how secondary teachers of the core subjects of English, mathematics, and science have begun to integrate information and communication technology (ICT) into mainstream classroom practice in English schools. It draws on an analysis of 18 focus-group interviews with subject departments in these fields. Evident commitment to incorporating ICT was tempered by a cautious, critical approach, and by the influence of external constraints. Teacher accounts emphasized both the use of ICT to enhance and extend existing classroom practice, and change in terms of emerging forms of activity which complemented or modified practice. A gradual process of pedagogical evolution was apparent; teachers were developing and trialling new strategies specifically for mediating ICT-supported learning. In particular, these overcame the potentially obstructive role of some forms of ICT by focusing pupils' attention onto underlying learning objectives.

Henning, Elizabeth; Van der Westhuizen, Duan (2004).  Crossing the Digital Divide Safely and Trustingly: How Ecologies of Learning Scaffold the Journey  Computers and Education, 42, 4. 

The article addresses the issue of "learning to elearn" in borderless programs in a globalised learning landscape and the associated problems of scaffolding the journey across the digital divide. The authors argue that the assumption underlying such courses is that cross-cultural programs are viable because they are conceived and designed to be "global", and that they assume this design to be inclusive. Henning and Van der Westhuizen claim that the global discourse in most domains can take only marginal note of the need to infuse such programs with a local semiotic--a course design criterion for which they argue. They furthermore forward the notion that the majority of the world's prospective elearners need various bridging mechanisms in order to be able to access the broader discourse and that one of these mechanisms can be explored through the metaphor of "information ecologies" as proposed by Nardi and O'Day [Nardi, B.A., & O'Day, V.L. (1999). "Information ecologies. Using technology with heart". Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press]. They also conclude that issues of the learners' trust in the course and its system need to be considered when contemplating programs for diverse target groups. By way of a case study, consisting of three portraitures of adult learners, they explore the limitations of assumed distributed cognition and claim that learning is, in reality, contained/constrained in the familiar local narrative of the novice adult elearners in a rural South African context. The case study illustrates how the resistance to technology and its power base becomes an obstacle for the students and how the support of peers becomes the main scaffolding mechanism for their entry into electronic learning environments. The findings thus show how the social context becomes the facilitator and the scaffold for elearning, more than technology and the curriculum itself.

Henning, Elizabeth; Van der Westhuizen, Duan; Diseko, Rabaitse (2005).  Knowledge Ecologies in Fragile Online Learning Environments. Research: Information and Communication Technologies  Perspectives in Education, 23, 4. 

This article gives an account of an inquiry into two different postgraduate student groups' ways of engaging with a virtual learning environment. Using a variety of data sources, including learning artefacts, interview data, open-ended qualitative questionnaires and online discussion postings, the inquiry captured processes of engagement of the two groups, finding some similarities but also noteworthy differences by way of discourse analysis. Applying the notion of "information ecology" as described by Nardi and O'Day (1999) in the processes of interpretation and with a theoretical framework of sociocultural theory and activity theory, the findings of the inquiry indicate that rudimentary learning and knowledge ecologies evolved from the online learning environment for students that function in what we have come to describe as fragile learning environments (the first group). Contrastingly, the other group, although they communicated amply and were more advanced in using computer technology, showed individual learning trajectories in a functionalist discourse.

Henning, Neal L. (2000).  A Case Study: Experiences in Developing Online Courses at a Community College. 

This study examined the experiences of nine faculty members in the development of two online courses at a community college in southeast Nebraska. The faculty members used Lotus Notes (software that was adapted for instructional delivery known as computer-mediated communication) as the delivery tool. Data was collected through interviews, observations, and participant-observations. Additionally, all online communications were analyzed. Findings included: (1) a single faculty member should not develop a course on his/her own-diverse groups help to ensure that the entire scope of the course is attended to; (2) faculty members need time to experiment and have fun so that they can become comfortable with the software and hardware; (3) faculty participants should be given the opportunity to be students before becoming online instructors; (4) it is important to screen faculty members before starting the actual training process for online course development-prospective participants should be screened for technical aptitude; and (5) online learning needs assessment in several areas. The development process of moving from a traditional classroom to an online environment is a time-consuming and complex task. This report records these experiences. | [FULL TEXT]

Henrichsen, Lynn E., Ed. (2001).  Distance-Learning Programs. Case Studies in TESOL Practice Series. 

The 14 cases in this book show how distance learning takes a variety of forms in teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL). The 15 chapters include the following: (1) "Beyond Adding Telecommunications to a Traditional Course: Insights into Human and Instructional Factors Affecting Distance Learning in TESOL" (Lynn E. Hendrichsen); (2) "Technology with a Human Touch: Reaching ESL Students in Their Own Communities through Interactive Television" (Janet L. Eyring); (3) "Closing the Distance in Adult ESL: Two Approaches to Video-Based Learning" (Sylvia Ramirez and K. Lynn Savage); (4) "`Show the Baby,' the Wave, and 1,000 Thanks: Three Reasons to Teach via Satellite Television and the Internet" (Christine Uber Grosse); (5) "Make it a Conference Call: An English Conversation Course by Telephone in South Korea" (Robert J. Dickey); (6) "Using the World Wide Web as a Resource for Models and Interaction in a Writing Course" (Janet Raskin); (7) "Teaching Tomorrow's Class Today: English by Telephone and Computer from Hawaii to Tonga" (Brent A. Green, Kory J. Collier, and Normal Evans); (8) "An Academic Writing Course in Cyberspace" (David Catterick); (9) "Making Distance Learning Dynamic: The Evolution of the TESOL Web-Based Teacher Education Program" (Joyce W. Nutta); (10) "Expanding Horizons: Delivering Professional Teacher Development via Satellite Technology and E-Mail in Israel" (Yael Bejarano, Esther-Klein-Wohl, and Lily Vered); (11) "Teacher Education at a Distance in Canada and Thailand: How Two Cases Measure Up to Quality Distance Education Indicators" (Ruth Epstein); (12) "The Pedagogy and Technology of Distance Learning for Teacher Education: The Evolution of Instructional Processes and Products" (C. Ray Graham, Annela Teemant, Melanie Harris, and Ramona M. Cutri); (13) "Expanding the Horizon of the TESOL Practicum via Distance Learning" (Michael Janopoulos); (14) "Practice What We Preach: Optimal Learning Conditions for Web-Based Teacher Education" (Joy Egbert and Chin-chi Chao); and (15) "Avoiding the Pitfalls of Test Writing in a Distance-Learning Situation: Our Experience at United Arab Emirates University" (Lisa Barlow and Christine Canning-Wilson). (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education.)

Henry, Alex (2007).  Evaluating Language Learners' Response to Web-Based, Data-Driven, Genre Teaching Materials  English for Specific Purposes, 26, 4. 

Using the tools of corpus linguistics, genre analysts are now able to easily identify the common linguistic features of the moves and strategies of genres. Such analyses produce large amounts of linguistic data which must be presented to language learners in a meaningful context. One proposed method of doing so is by hyperlinking the data to form an HTML website which learners can browse. This paper aims to determine the effectiveness of such a website in an ESP/EAP classroom by evaluating job application letters written by 13 language learners before and after accessing the website. The results of the study show that learners were able to make significant gains in achieving their communicative goals by learning from the discourse structures and using the lexico-grammatical features found on the site. In addition, the learners were very positive in their evaluation of the website. The paper concludes that the website is an effective way of presenting the results of a detailed genre analysis to language learners.

Henry, Anne; Crawford, Caroline M. (2001).  Graphic Representations for Learning: Developing a Learner's Conceptual Framework. 

This paper discusses the use of graphic representations to develop a learner's conceptual framework. The benefits of the graphic representation of information throughout the learning experience are summarized. Examples are then presented from the instructional technology specialization area of the University of Houston-Clear Lake (Texas) School of Education, including a graphic representation of the department's philosophical orientation and representational models of the teacher-centered and student-centered models of instruction. | [FULL TEXT]

Henry, Avril (2002).  Computer-Graphics and the Literary Construct: A Learning Method.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 33, 1. 

Describes an undergraduate student module that was developed at the University of Exeter (United Kingdom) in which students made their own computer graphics to discover and to describe literary structures in texts of their choice. Discusses learning outcomes and refers to the Web site that shows students' course work.

Henry, John; Wakefield, Lyn (2001).  Flexible Delivery as a "Whole-Organisation": What Does This Mean in Practice? 

A research project called Support Services for Flexible Delivery was commissioned by the Australian organization TAFE (technical and further education) Frontiers. Since 1995, the project has been conducted by using a research approach called the Generalizations from Case Studies (GCS) research method. The GCS method was developed, tested, and refined through the following research projects: Delivery of VET (vocational education and training) to Remote Aboriginal Communities; Informing New Apprenticeships through Indigenous Specific Pilots; Case Studies in New Learning Technologies; and Support Services for Flexible Delivery. The actual project proposal specified six detailed case studies of a training program delivered to an isolated Aboriginal community by a training organization in Australia's Northern Territory. The research was implemented through a dual structure consisting of a core group of researchers and six teams of case study researchers. During the course of the projects, a case study reporting framework was developed along with organizational analysis matrices in which six critical factors were framed against the theme of registered training organizations' preparedness. The GCS research approach was deemed capable of producing quality research products and highly relevant for the VET sector. The organizational analysis matrix and case study reporting framework are appended. | [FULL TEXT]

Hensleigh, Katherine Elizabeth; Eddy, James M.; Wang, Min Qi; Dennison, Darwin; Chaney, J. Don (2004).  The Impact of a Computerized Dietary Assessment on Nutrition Knowledge  International Electronic Journal of Health Education, 7

In recent years, many health educators have integrated computer applications into their health education program interventions. The assessment of the impact of these interventions is limited. This study assessed the impact of the Pyramid Challenge nutrition software program on nutrition knowledge levels of students enrolled in traditional personal health courses at The University of Alabama (UA). An experimental group consisted of students enrolled in two sections of the personal health course designed to relate directly to UA's "Healthy Campus" initiative. The control group consisted of students who enrolled in three other sections of personal health at UA. The integration of the Pyramid Challenge activity into a personal health course yielded no significant difference in nutrition knowledge between groups. However, this use of technology was an effective instructional methodology in that it allowed students to focus more closely on their personal eating behaviors and to design strategies to modify those eating behaviors without adversely influencing knowledge gain.  [Abstract provided in both English and Spanish.]

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Hoyle, Sally G. (2005).  Same Homework, New Plan: How to Help Your Disorganized Kid Sit Down and Get It Done  [Child Welfare League of America] 

This book offers easy-to-follow steps that busy parents can readily implement to decrease homework meltdowns and help kids achieve their academic potential. Written for all parents of kids ages 7 to 16--regardless of whether the problem is a homework power struggle, ADHD, unidentified giftedness, or something else--this book shows parents the techniques they need to win the homework war. Parents will learn how to: (1) establish a homework routine that is tailored to learning style and family needs; (2) help children manage and overcome organizational problems; (3) make teachers allies; (4) use a combination of inexpensive office supplies, high-tech gadgets, and easy-to-follow activities to boost children's self-confidence and independent learning skills; and (5) implement an organizational plan. "Same Homework, New Plan" is an indispensable tool for any family with school-age children. The following chapters are included in the book: (1) The Homework Wars; (2) The Causes and Costs of Underachievement; (3) Homework According to Hoyle: Short-Term Solutions for Tonight; (4) Homework According to Hoyle: Helping Your Child Become Organized for the Long-Term; (5) Low-Tech and High-Tech Homework Aids; (6) Your Homework Allies: The Teacher, the School, and Other Supports; (7) Coaches' Corner: Tips and Techniques to Help Parents Keep it Together; (8) The Homework Activist; (9) I Finished My Homework; and (10) Resources for Students and Families. | [FULL TEXT]

Hoyles, Celia; Noss, Richard (2008).  Next Steps in Implementing Kaput's Research Programme  Educational Studies in Mathematics, 68, 2. 

We explore some key constructs and research themes initiated by Jim Kaput, and attempt to illuminate them further with reference to our own research. These "design principles" focus on the evolution of digital representations since the early 1990s, and we attempt to take forward our collective understanding of the cognitive and cultural affordances they offer. There are two main organising ideas for the paper. The first centres around Kaput's notion of outsourcing of processing power, and explores the implications of this for mathematical learning. We argue that a key component for design is to create visible, transparent views of outsourcing, a transparency without which there may be as many pitfalls as opportunities for mathematical learning. The second organising idea is Kaput's notion of communication and the importance of designing for communication in ways that recognise the mutual influence of tools for communication and for mathematical expression.

Hoyt, Brian; Stockman, Mark (2001).  Research Findings on a Virtual Training Center--Measuring Web Based Training as an Effective Project Management Facilitation Intervention. 

This paper focuses on the design of an assessment plan that can accurately measure the impact of using World Wide Web-based deliveries to increase performance. Key trends in technology and training are reviewed, and effective assessment of online training deliveries is examined. The Virtual Business Training Center (VBTC) is an integrated business resource center that provides students with access to online market research, project management, and other project-based data analysis opportunities. It also functions as a business lab and virtual training for business partners. The authors used this unique virtual project environment to facilitate the access of project data by students (retrieval, analysis, evaluation), re-post as work in progress onto a Web-based environment for business partners' participation, then edit or move onto the next project phase. Current research results indicate that the Web-based environment enhances access to both volume and timeliness of data and information. This virtual training platform also speeds up analysis and contributes to more effective project completion. The contribution to project success was measured by adherence to schedule, agreed-upon deliverables, and resource allocation. | [FULL TEXT]

Hoyt, Rob; Workman, Jim; McNulty, Aaron (2004).  Serving 11 Institutions WebCT from a Central Location  [Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE)] 

This paper gives the details of The Appalachian College Association, a non-profit organization made up of 34 four-year colleges and universities in the central Appalachian region. The member institutions range from under 700 students to over 3,000 students within multi-campus environments. These colleges and universities are located in some of the most beautiful areas in the country, gently carved into the rolling Appalachian Mountains throughout a five state region. Its members share the goal of service to the people of the region through higher education and related services. The Association helps develop and share ideas, information, programs and resources to achieve its goals, which include promoting cooperation and collaboration among its member institutions to serve the people of Appalachia. The ACA functions independently of any one institution to serve all its members equally. [For complete proceedings, see ED490093.] | [FULL TEXT]

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Hegarty, Mary; Kriz, Sarah; Cate, Christina (2003).  The Roles of Mental Animations and External Animations in Understanding Mechanical Systems  Cognition and Instruction, 21, 4. 

The effects of computer animations and mental animation on people's mental models of a mechanical system are examined. In 3 experiments, students learned how a mechanical system works from various instructional treatments including viewing a static diagram of the machine, predicting motion from static diagrams, viewing computer animations, and viewing static and animated diagrams accompanied by verbal commentaries. Although students' understanding of the system was improved by viewing both static and animated diagrams, there was no evidence that animated diagrams led to superior understanding of dynamic processes compared to static diagrams. Comprehension of diagrams was enhanced by asking students questions that required them to predict the behavior of the machine from static diagrams and by providing them with a verbal description of the dynamic processes. This article proposes that predicting motion from static diagrams engages students' mental animation processes, including spatial visualization, and provides them with information about what they do and do not understand about how the machine works. Verbal instruction provides information that is not easily communicated in graphics and directs students' attention to the relevant information in static and animated diagrams. The research suggests that an understanding of students' mental animation abilities is an important component of a theory of learning from external animations.

Hegedus, Stephen (2007).  Classroom Connectivity: Increasing Participation and Understanding Inside the Classroom  Educational Technology Magazine: The Magazine for Managers of Change in Education, 47, 3. 

This article shows how highly mobile computing, when used with new forms of network connectivity, can allow new forms of activities in the mathematics classroom. Examples are provided, such as the ability to share, harvest, and aggregate mathematical objects, and the ability for teachers and students to analyze the entire set of classroom contributions.

Hegedus, Stephen J.; Kaput, James J. (2004).  An Introduction to the Profound Potential of Connected Algebra Activities: Issues of Representation, Engagement and Pedagogy  [International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education] 

We present two vignettes of classroom episodes that exemplify new activity structures for introducing core algebra ideas such as linear functions, slope as rate and parametric variation within a new educational technology environment that combines two kinds of classroom technology affordances, one based in dynamic representation and the other based in connectivity. These descriptions of how mathematical and social structures interact in the classroom help account for significant algebra learning gains in recent SimCalc teaching experiments among 13-16 year old students.  [For complete proceedings, see ED 489538.] | [FULL TEXT]

Hegedus, Stephen J.; Kaput, Jim (2003).  The Effect of a SimCalc Connected Classroom on Students' Algebraic Thinking  [International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Paper presented at the 27th International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education Conference Held Jointly with the 25th PME-NA Conference (Honolulu, HI, Jul 13-18, 2003), v3 p47-54] 

We report the findings of an empirical analysis of the performance of a group of middle and high school students before and after an after-school algebra enrichment program using the SimCalc software incorporating classroom networks. The results highlight statistically significant gains in their learning and briefly outline contributing factors of the innovation that gave rise to such improvement.  [For complete proceedings, see ED500858.] | [FULL TEXT]

Hegedus, Stephen J.; Penuel, William R. (2008).  Studying New Forms of Participation and Identity in Mathematics Classrooms with Integrated Communication and Representational Infrastructures  Educational Studies in Mathematics, 68, 2. 

Wireless networks are fast becoming ubiquitous in all aspects of society and the world economy. We describe a method for studying the impacts of combining such technology with dynamic, representationally-rich mathematics software, particularly on participation, expression and projection of identity from a local to a public, shared workspace. We describe the types of mathematical activities that can utilize such unique combinations of technologies. We outline specific discourse analytic methods for measuring participation and methodologies for incorporating measures of identity and participation into impact studies.

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Hou, Huei-Tse; Chang, Kuo-En; Sung, Yao-Ting (2007).  An Analysis of Peer Assessment Online Discussions within a Course that Uses Project-Based Learning  Interactive Learning Environments, 15, 3. 

In recent years project-based learning (PBL) incorporating online discussions has gradually been applied to courses that focus on writing projects. Past studies have shown that learners in PBL often face the difficulties of not having in-depth data analysis and peer discussions and how teachers design the rules and methods for online discussions has a significant influence on the quality of discussion. Since using a peer assessment strategy in the classroom could facilitate learners' critical thinking and meta-cognitive skills, this study conducts an empirical observational study in order to analyse the content and process of the discussion activities based on peer assessment without teacher intervention and tries to explore students' knowledge construction of the discussion. Sequential analysis and content analysis were conducted to observe the scale of each aspect of knowledge construction and the sequential pattern of students' knowledge construction during the discussions. Teachers didn't provide any guidance or intervention during the activity. Based on the results of the observations, this study discusses the possible difficulties that students may encounter when conducting peer assessment online discussions. Finally, this study also proposes suggestions about the timing and methods for teacher interventions.  [This research was supported by the National Science Council, Republic of China.]

Houchins, David E. (2001).  Assistive Technology Barriers and Facilitators during Secondary and Post-Secondary Transitions.  Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 24, 1. 

Twenty-seven disability technology specialists identified facilitators and barriers when moving from secondary education to post-secondary settings and from post-secondary settings to adult life. Common themes include increasing professional knowledge, improving student self-determination, using best transition practices within assistive technology, and establishing a technology infrastructure to support transition. 

Houge, Timothy T.; Peyton, David; Geier, Constance; Petrie, Bruce (2007).  Adolescent Literacy Tutoring: Face-to-Face and Via Webcam Technology  Reading Psychology, 28, 3. 

The purpose of this research project was to examine the effectiveness of supervised literacy tutoring delivered by 25 secondary teacher candidates to middle and high school students via webcam technology and in person. The results stem from two semester-long studies of technology-delivered tutoring from a university to middle and high school settings. Findings support the effectiveness of delivering literacy tutoring components through 18 one-hour tutoring sessions using webcam technology with secondary teacher candidates as instructors. In addition, the data revealed that there was no significant difference in the literacy growth among those students who received tutoring in person or via webcam technology.

Houghton, Stephen; Milner, Nikki; West, John; Douglas, Graham; Lawrence, Vivienne; Whiting, Ken; Tannock, Rosemary; Durkin, Kevin (2004).  Motor Control and Sequencing of Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) During Computer Game Play  British Journal of Educational Technology, 35, 1. 

The motor control of 49 unmedicated boys clinically diagnosed with ADHD, case-matched with 49 non-ADHD boys, was assessed while playing Crash Bandicoot I, a SonyTM Playstation platform computer video game. In Crash Bandicoot participants control the movements of a small-animated figure through a hazardous jungle environment. Operationally defined measures of motor control were designated by (1) the stage of the game completed (ie, the number of obstacles successfully passed) before losing the figure's life, (2) the level of complexity that the stage represented and (3) the time taken to get to that point during the video game play. These measures were assessed under contrasting conditions of low or high working memory and distracter loads. Four tasks were administered (totalling 12 trials), incorporating both with and without distracter conditions. For those trials with the distracter, a segment of the television show The Simpsons was simultaneously played on a television screen adjacent to the computer game monitor. A 5-way MANOVA revealed that ADHD boys took less time to complete their trials under the direct condition (ie, no working memory load) on Crash Bandicoot, compared to their matched non-ADHD peers. When the task required additional working memory, however, the ADHD boys took significantly longer. Cumulative frequency plots of game performance revealed that in terms of the number of obstacles completed, the control participants successfully navigated more obstacles on the low working memory load task than the ADHD participants, but that the performance of the two groups was less distinguishable on the high working memory load task. The findings have implications for assessment and management of children with ADHD.

Houle, Meredith E.; Barnett, G. Michael (2008).  Students' Conceptions of Sound Waves Resulting from the Enactment of a New Technology-Enhanced Inquiry-Based Curriculum on Urban Bird Communication  Journal of Science Education and Technology, 17, 3. 

The emerging field of urban ecology has the potential to engage urban youth in the practices of scientists by studying a locally relevant environmental problem. To this end, we are developing curriculum modules designed to engage students in learning science through the use of emerging information technology. In this paper, we describe the impact of one of the developed modules, urban bird bioacoustics, on students' understanding of sound. This module incorporates a technology-rich scientific investigation with traditional, well-established sound learning activities. Our findings suggest that while the investigation was successful, students' understandings of the properties of sound were mixed. These data suggest that instructional designers who are engaged in constructing a similar technology-enhanced curriculum should consider embedding their instructional support resources with appropriate student scaffolding questions, making explicit the connections between the investigation, technological tools and traditional science activities, and leveraging the multiple opportunities to learn content afforded by the technological tool. These findings will be used in next redesign of the curriculum materials. This work both shows how design-based research can be used to build knowledge about student scientific understanding and instructional and curricular design.

Hounshell, Paul B.; Hill, Stan; Swofford, Robert (2002).  Using Laptop Computers To Improve the Performance of Minority Students: A Pilot Project.  Journal of Science Education and Technology, 11, 1. 

Introduces the two-week Summer Science and Math Experience program developed for high school minority students which provides the opportunity for access to a laptop computer for personal use during both the summer and the academic year.

Hourigan, Triona; Murray, Liam (2006).  Mapping Successful Language Learning Approaches in the Adaptation of Generic Software  Computer Assisted Language Learning, 19, 4-5. 

This paper investigates the use of a generic piece of software, the "Copernic Summarizer" (www.copernic.com) as a language learning tool and considers two discrete pedagogical approaches used as part of its integration within the context of teaching and learning a foreign language. Firstly, this paper will present a brief overview on the emerging field of automated summary writing and its importance and relevance for language learners today. A description of our empirical study is then presented which concentrates on the integration of this tool within a third level classroom environment. Basically, this particular classroom context involved the use of two separate control groups; each one was introduced to and employed the "Copernic Summarizer" (CS) at different stages during the CALL integration process. In order to examine the students' application of this tool to their L2 learning, we examine the data from both learner-produced summaries and written commentaries in order to assess whether or not this software has been successfully established as part of the students' long-term integration strategies. As such, we will provide examples of the L2 benefits experienced in the summary writing task in order to consider how learners mapped these particular issues onto their adaptation of the tool.

Housego, Simon; Freeman, Mark (2000).  Case Studies: Integrating the Use of Web-based Learning Systems into Student Learning.  Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 16, 3. 

Discusses the integration of Web-based learning systems into higher education and presents five fictional case studies that incorporate innovation and academic development. Topics include good teaching practice; motivating change; assessment; the importance of teaching and learning strategies rather than just technology; and barriers to change.

Houston, Melissa (2007).  Linux Makes the Grade: An Open Source Solution That's Time Has Come  Technology & Learning, 28, 4. 

In 2001, Indiana officials at the Department of Education were taking stock. The schools had an excellent network infrastructure and had installed significant numbers of computers for 1 million public school enrollees. Yet students were spending less than an hour a week on the computer. It was then that state officials knew each student needed a computer, and Indiana's one-to-one initiative was launched. But how were they to pay for such a huge project that would have cost $100 million a year in software licensing alone? The often-misunderstood technology ( thought of as "just free Web 2.0 stuff" by the uniformed) has been the answer in Indiana--and a growing number of school systems across the country--to shrinking school technology budgets and soaring software costs. Today, more than 100,000 Indiana school kids (in all, 300,000 high schoolers are slated to receive one) have their own $298 computer and monitor with numerous free software applications, and, in turn, schools across the state have secure, reliable, sophisticated server systems because of the Linux-based open source technology. In this article, the author discusses the Linux-based open source technology and presents two case studies of Linux solution in California and in Maine.

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(2005).  Handhelds, Testing and Teaching  Technology & Learning, 26, 4. 

Research shows that technology makes a difference in student motivation, engagement, and active learning. It also helps students develop critical thinking, collaboration, and problem-solving skills. Providing each student with his or her own computing device such as a Palm handheld computer and appropriate software can have a great impact. This brief article cites several benefits of handhelds in learning.

Han, Seung Yeon; Hill, Janette R. (2007).  Collaborate to Learn, Learn to Collaborate: Examining the Roles of Context, Community, and Cognition in Asynchronous Discussion  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 36, 1. 

This study explored how asynchronous discussion supported by a Web-based learning system facilitated collaborative learning. The participants in this study consisted of the instructor, facilitators, and the students in a master's level course at a university in the south. Different sources of evidence were used in the study (individual/group interviews, and discussion board transcripts), and various methods were used to analyze the data (inductive analysis and discourse analysis). Three main categories with multiple themes emerged from the data as important for facilitating collaborative learning in online environments: context (i.e., structural support, active participation), community (i.e., a formation of membership, generation of social dialogue), and cognition (i.e., a social process of learning, communal facilitation). Implications for research and practice are described at the conclusion of the article.

Hanafin, Joan; Shevlin, Michael; Kenny, Mairin; Mc Neela, Eileen (2007).  Including Young People with Disabilities: Assessment Challenges in Higher Education  Higher Education: The International Journal of Higher Education and Educational Planning, 54, 3. 

Within a European context, facilitating the increased participation of marginalized groups within society has become a cornerstone of social policy. In higher education in Ireland this has generally involved the targeting for support of individuals representing groups traditionally excluded on the grounds of socio-economic status. More recently, people with disability have been included in this consideration. This approach has tended to focus on physical access issues and some technical supports. However, access is multi-faceted and must include a review of pedagogic practices, assistive provision (technological and personal), student's engagement with their workload (e.g. recording) and evaluation procedures: achieving accreditation levels commensurate with ability. This small-scale Irish study examined the experiences of two groups of young people with physical disabilities and with dyslexia in two higher education institutions. It was apparent that for students with physical disabilities and with dyslexia, assessment practices were fraught with additional limitations. Assessment practices were mediated for these students through the physical environment, the backwash effect of assessment on curriculum, the availability and use of assistive technology, and through the attitudes of staff and students. It can be concluded that access issues within higher education have been inadequately conceptualized and as a result failed to address fundamental issues around assessment for students with physical disabilities and with dyslexia.

Hance, Maureen (2002).  Playing Catch-Up with School Technology.  Principal, 81, 5. 

Highlights results of Market Data Retrieval survey of 89,300 public schools during the 2000-01 school years on the state of school technology. Describes technology spending, hardware, Internet access, teacher usage, and poor and minority schools. Asserts that despite the billions of dollars spent on school technology, there is still a "digital divide" among our nation's schools.

Hancock, Angie (2001).  Technology: The Great Equalizer.  Community College Journal, 72, 2. 

Asserts that, regardless of college size and budget, an Internet presence is attainable and will help increase the quantity and quality of communication between students, staff and faculty. Adds that this elevated level of interaction should result in time savings, increased registrations, higher retention, and happier students.

Hancock, Dawson R.; Flowers, Claudia P. (2001).  Comparing Social Desirability Responding on World Wide Web and Paper-Administered Surveys.  Educational Technology Research and Development, 49, 1. 

Examines social desirability responding (SDR) on surveys administered on the World Wide Web and on paper to graduate and undergraduate students. Discusses response bias; describes use of the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding; and reports findings that reveal no differences in SDR between the Web-administered and paper-administered surveys.

Hancock, Karen (2007).  Symmetry in the Car Park  Mathematics Teaching Incorporating Micromath

In this article, the author presents a lesson on rotational symmetry which she developed for her students. The aim of the lesson was "to identify objects with rotational symmetry in the staff car park" and the success criteria were "pictures or sketches of at least six objects with different orders of rotation". After finding examples of rotational symmetry, students went back to their classroom and discussed the different types of rotational symmetry they had found. This was a really enjoyable lesson to be involved in. The students were interested, and not just when they had the camera in their hands. They also produced some very useful pencil drawings to supplement the photos.

Hancock-Niemic, Mary; Llama, Gloria; Martin, Florence; Mansfield, Jennifer; Klein, James (2004).  Using Human Performance Technology (HPT) to Identify Potential Barriers to Online High School Course Development  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

A suburban high school district in Arizona was recently named as a provider of Technology Assisted Project Based Instruction (TAPBI). The district?s challenge was to create 20 effective, online high school courses in approximately nine months. Successful deployment depended in large measure on the ability of the teachers of those courses to effectively design and develop the instructional content. Therefore, the district had to train, prepare, and support the teachers in their work. To help identify factors that might prevent teachers from meeting the challenge, a team of students from Arizona State University worked closely with the district during a two-month period as the TAPBI program began. This paper documents the data collection methods employed, findings, and subsequent recommendations for attaining success. | [FULL TEXT]

Haneline, Douglas (2000).  Professional Development for English Faculty: Problems and Issues. 

This paper gives an overview, from an institutional point of view, of the problems and issues surrounding faculty development. The paper sketches out four main changes that are occurring in higher education that have defined the sense of what faculty development issues of the future will be: changes in academic disciplines; changes in students; changes in the teaching workforce; and changes in instructional technology. It also comments on two further phenomena that impact faculty development--assessment and post-tenure review. The paper discusses these changes primarily, although not exclusively, in terms of English Studies. One of the paper's main findings is that, collectively, the numbers and composition of today's student body require a level of understanding of the importance of the students' backgrounds, their extremely heterogeneous levels of preparation, and their varied attitudes toward education itself. The paper also notes that at the university in question, Ferris State University, affiliated with WebCT (a company that provides "integrated e-learning systems"), over a third of the faculty have Web-assisted courses. So regarding faculty development, the youngest and newest faculty is most adept at grasping the use of these new teaching technologies. It concludes that, upon entering the new millennium, higher education has a host of new faculty development challenges and opportunities. | [FULL TEXT]

Hanks, Rebekah Fulton (2002).  Environmental and Personal Factors Effecting K-12 Teacher Utilization of Technology. 

The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine to what extent instructional technology was being utilized; (2) determine what was the descriptive profile of teacher use; and (3) to examine the environmental and personal factors that effected the decision to use instructional technology. The survey data was analyzed by cross tabulations and regression analysis to look for correlation or predictive factors between variables. Results indicate that environmental factors such as access, the number of Internet connected computers, and the level of support and pressure are related to the focus and number of minutes of instructional technology use. Personal factors such as skill self-rating, and teacher beliefs were related to the focus, frequency, and number of minutes of instructional technology use. Teacher demographic characteristics of subject area taught, and years of computer experience were also indicated to be related to the number of minutes of instructional technology use.   | [FULL TEXT]

Hanley J. T.; Jackson, Paul (2006).  Making It Click: A California High School Test Drives and Evaluates Six New Personal Response Systems  Technology & Learning, 26, 11. 

Personal response systems, better known as "clickers," are all the rage on college and university campuses and are beginning to expand into the K-12 market. Clickers allow students and instructors to interact in a variety of interesting and innovative ways, both in classroom situations and professional development sessions. In this article, the authors describe how Bishop O'Dowd High School in California test drived and evaluated six new personal response systems. These personal response systems include: eInstruction's Classroom Performance System (CPS) and Classroom Performance System radio frequency (CPSrf); LearningSoft's Indigo Learning System; GTCO Calcomp's InterWrite PRSrf; TurningPoint; and Qwizdom Q4.

Hanna, Gila (2000).  Proof, Explanation and Exploration: An Overview.  Educational Studies in Mathematics, 44, 1-2. 

Explores the role of proof in mathematics education and provides justification for its importance in the curriculum. Discusses three applications of dynamic geometry software--heuristics, exploration, and visualization--as tools in the teaching of proof and as potential challenges to the importance of proof.

Hannafin, Michael J. (2006).  Functional Contextualism in Learning and Instruction: Pragmatic Science or Objectivism Revisited?  Educational Technology Research and Development, 54, 1. 

In this article, the author describes how Eric Fox presents an interesting case for applying functional contextualism (FC) constructs and principles to learning and instruction. He draws several well-debated issues related to the instructional design and technology (IDT) field's shifting philosophical-epistemological roots and pedagogical practices. However, Fox raises issues that require clarification. Moreover, Fox provides a selective and somewhat limited analysis of constructivist-inspired approaches to bolster the case for and significance of FC advocacy. In this article, the author questions several of Fox's assertions and argues that while FC has value for the IDT field, it is consistent with and an extension of objectivist-inspired instructional engineering rather than an alternative to constructivist-inspired approaches.

Hannafin, Michael J; McCarthy, James E.; Hannafin, Kathleen M.; Radtke, Paul (2001).  Scaffolding Performance in EPSSs: Bridging Theory and Practice. 

Electronic performance support systems (EPSS) help users accomplish tasks, using computational technologies. Scaffolding is the process through which efforts are supported while engaging a learning or performance task. A number of different types of scaffolds are possible, including conceptual, metacognitive, procedural, and strategic. Each of these types of scaffolding is defined in this paper, and a case study involving the application of different scaffolding approaches is presented. The Tactical Readiness Instruction, Authoring, and Delivery (TRIAD) project is developing a set of authoring and delivery tools that will enhance the quality of tactical guidance disseminated through the United States Navy. The bulk of requisite knowledge and skill is developed through experience and personal study of tactical publications (including Tactical Memoranda, or TACMEMOs) and combat system doctrine. TRIAD is a PC-based system being designed and developed to improve the coherence and usability of TACMEMOs. TRIAD will provide authors with an integrated tool set to enable them to create tactical documentation using a variety of multimedia presentation techniques, and to create associated interactive multimedia instruction to support the documented tactic/doctrine. In turn, readers will receive a multimedia tactical documentation "product set" that supports tactic/doctrine presentation and briefing, instruction, quick reference, and facilitation of electronic feedback regarding tactic/doctrine evaluation. TRIAD's online author interview scaffolding of TACMEMOs is emphasized. | [FULL TEXT]

Hannafin, Robert D. (2004).  Achievement Differences in Structured Versus Unstructured Instructional Geometry Programs  Educational Technology Research and Development, 52, 1. 

This study investigated the effect of students' ability and type of instructional program, structured and unstructured, on easy and difficult posttest items. Seventh-grade students worked through 14 instructional activities in The Geometer Sketchpad, a dynamic geometry program, and accessed a Geometry tutorial developed to parallel the state geometry standards. Low-ability students scored higher in the less structured program, whereas high- and medium-ability learners performed better in the structured program. High- and medium-ability students outscored low-ability learners by a greater margin on the difficult items than on the easy items. Although their overall performance was poor in both programs, that low-ability learners performed relatively better in the less structured, less traditional, mathematics activities is an encouraging finding for mathematics educators and designers of open-ended learning environments.

Hannafin, Robert D.; Foshay, Wellesley R. (2008).  Computer-Based Instruction's (CBI) Rediscovered Role in K-12: An Evaluation Case Study of One High School's Use of CBI to Improve Pass Rates on High-Stakes Tests  Educational Technology Research and Development, 56, 2. 

Patriot High School (PHS) adopted a remediation strategy to help its 10th-grade students at risk of failing the Math portion of MCAS, the state's end of year competency exam. The centerpiece of that strategy was a computer-based instructional (CBI) course. PHS used a commercially available CBI product to align the course content with the competencies covered on the MCAS exam. This case study examines the overall effectiveness of the PHS strategies, and in particular, the role of CBI. Participant MCAS scores and CBI performance (measured by module-mastery data) are analyzed, and an interview with the course instructor is summarized. Finally, PHS scores were compared to the overall state MCAS scores for the same years. Overall scores of all 10th graders increased significantly compared to their 8th-grade scores, students who participated in the CBI course improved more than the students who did not. The passing rate at PHS improved from 40% in 1999 to 84% in 2001, compared to an improvement of from 47% to 75% statewide. A significant correlation was identified between the MCAS scores and the program usage data, with student CBI module mastery correlated with higher MCAS scores. Overall, the instructor was positive about the impact of the course and believed that the course gave many under-performers a chance to succeed when more traditional methods had failed. It seems likely that CBI contributed to PHS's success. Although we report herein on just one case, we argue that CBI might play an important a role in the high stakes test environment in the USA and elsewhere.

Hannan, Andrew (2005).  Innovating in Higher Education: Contexts for Change in Learning Technology  British Journal of Educational Technology, 36, 6. 

This paper draws on three research projects (undertaken in 1997-99, 2002 and 2004-05) that have examined innovation in learning and teaching methods in UK higher education. The first two of these focused on such matters as departmental and institutional cultures and the factors that have either enabled or inhibited change. The third has begun to monitor the impact of the process of establishing Centres for Excellence in Teaching and Learning. The prospects for introducing innovations in teaching and learning in higher education are considered in relation to these wider contexts in terms of policies, structures and cultures.

Hannum, Wallace (2001).  The Physics of the Roller Coaster: Learning Physics through Simulation.  Educational Technology, 41, 1. 

This instructional design blends a structured learning environment (the physics lesson) with an engaging, playful, simulated environment (roller coaster construction), putting into operation ideas from both cognitive and constructivist theories. Two instructional models are used: a general design model for creating instruction and a lesson design model that specifies how technology-based instruction should operate.

Hannum, Wallace (2001).  Knowledge Management in Education: Helping Teachers To Work Better.  Educational Technology, 41, 3. 

Considers how organizations can identify the knowledge that individuals possess and make that knowledge available to other employees. Discusses knowledge management projects in businesses and government agencies; knowledge management software; and knowledge management needs and programs in education that would help teachers share expertise.

Hannum, Wallace H., Ed.; McCombs, Barbara L. (2008).  Enhancing Distance Learning for Today's Youth with Learner-Centered Principles  Educational Technology Magazine: The Magazine for Managers of Change in Education, 48, 3. 

Providing a research-validated, evidence-based framework for designing effective distance learning experiences and environments is a current challenge to those interested in using this technology effectively with adolescents. This article offers the Learner-Centered Psychological Principles (LCPs) developed and disseminated by the American Psychological Association as a framework for developing design principles for distance learning for use in high schools. The argument is made and supported by research that today's youth are increasingly disengaged from traditional forms of instruction, and unless distance learning can offer an alternative paradigm that meets their learning needs, the potential of distance learning will not be realized. More importantly, this technology alone will not address the needs of today's youth to be prepared with 21st century skills for a global world. The authors describe how the LCPs can be used to define not only new design principles for distance learning but also a new educational paradigm.

Hansen, J. Merrell; Nalder-Godfrey, Nancy (2004).  The Power of Action Research, Technology and Teacher Education  Computers in the Schools, 21, 1-2. 

This study is a review of a program and an endeavor that sought to examine the effects of preparing prospective teachers in the skills and abilities of action research, utilizing technological resources, and determining the impact of that upon teacher education efforts. A cohort of secondary student teachers were taught and prepared in the processes and activities associated with action research, a means of identifying one's own issues and concerns with teaching and conducting a valuable study and examination of those issues. They were asked to organize, prepare, present, and evaluate their research activities by utilizing technology and demonstrating these results. Finally, they were asked to evaluate the implications that this effort had on their teacher education program and professional development.

Hansen, Janet S. (2001).  21st Century School Finance: How Is the Context Changing? Education Finance in the States: Its Past, Present and Future. ECS Issues Paper. 

The challenge facing school finance is how to harness the school-finance system to the fundamental purpose of education: to improve learning for all students. The challenge is posed by political demands for better school performance and accountability, and by court rulings that tie school funding to standards of adequacy. This paper examines four new significant challenges, or changes, that will affect future finance scenarios. The first change is demographics. The number of school-aged children is expected to continue to increase. And as the student population grows, it is expected to become increasingly diverse, placing more pressure on education budgets. The second change is in labor. Schools must have personnel policies that will enable them to compete in the marketplace for skilled teachers. The third change is in technology. Funding will have to be available for technology in the classroom. The fourth change is in the move toward nontraditional education, notably charter schools, contracting, and vouchers. The growing number of educational providers and the increasing pressure for parent choice shifts the attention from how to fund districts to how to fund schools. While this paper offers no concrete solutions, it poses a number of questions for policymakers. | [FULL TEXT]

Hansen, Janet S. (2002).  New Funding Challenges.  American School Board Journal, 189, 5. 

Describes five major developments that are changing the way schools are funded: Linking finance to achievement; changing demographics, such as fewer households with school-age children; teacher shortages, especially for certain fields and certain locations; funding technology; and school choice.

Hansen, John A.; Barnett, Michael; MaKinster, James G.; Keating, Thomas (2004).  The Impact of Three-Dimensional Computational Modeling on Student Understanding of Astronomy Concepts: A Qualitative Analysis. Research Report  International Journal of Science Education, 26, 13. 

In this study, we explore an alternate mode for teaching and learning the dynamic, three-dimensional (3D) relationships that are central to understanding astronomical concepts. To this end, we implemented an innovative undergraduate course in which we used inexpensive computer modeling tools. As the second of a two-paper series, this report focuses on the qualitative differences of students' understandings of both spatial and declarative knowledge domains as reflected by their two distinct learning environments--a traditional astronomy classroom and an experimental astronomy course grounded in problem-solving and modeling with dynamic, 3D, computational modeling software. We found that students who constructed 3D computational models tended to have a more scientifically sophisticated understanding of dynamic spatial relationships, whereas students in the traditional class developed more accurate understandings of the properties and general facts and figures regarding celestial bodies.

Hansman, Catherine A., Ed. (2002).  Critical Perspectives on Mentoring: Trends and Issues. Information Series. 

This document contains six papers exploring emerging viewpoints, issues, and trends related to mentoring and adult learning. "Mentoring: From Athena to the 21st Century" (Catherine A. Hansman) traces the definitions of the term "mentor" and mentoring practices that have evolved since antiquity. "Emerging Perspectives on Mentoring: Fostering Adult Learning and Development" (Vivian M. Mott) examines the transformative nature of mentoring relationships, the limitations of mentoring relationships, personal narratives of several mentored professionals, and the promise of mentoring. "Mentoring in Contexts: The Workplace and Educational Institutions" (Andrea D. Ellinger) discusses the different contexts in which mentoring occurs and reviews recent research on mentoring in workplaces and educational institutions. "Telementoring: Shaping Mentoring Relationships for the 21st Century" (Talmadge Guy) defines telementoring, explains how it has been affected by technology, presents models of telementoring in schools and work organizations, and considers sociocultural and demographic factors affecting telementoring. "Diversity and Power in Mentoring Relationships" (Catherine A. Hansman) discusses the importance of mentoring for members of marginalized groups, including women and members of racial and ethnic minorities. "Facing Forward: Implications for Practice and Suggestions for Future Research" (Catherine A. Hansman) presents the story of a reluctant mentor and considers its implications for practice and research. | [FULL TEXT]

Hanson, Dale; Burton, Darla; Quam, Greg (2006).  Six Concepts to Help You Align with NCLB  Technology Teacher, 66, 1. 

The overall goal of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act is to have all students--100 percent--achieving at proficient levels by 2014. Between now and 2014, states, districts, and schools must take a series of specific steps toward that goal. The law requires that educators focus intensively on challenging academic standards and assessments in reading, math, and science, accountability for the performance of every child, and the guarantee of a highly qualified teacher in every classroom. This article discusses six concepts that can help teachers succeed in meeting these goals: (1) Accountability is here to stay; (2) Data-based decisions will drive the curriculum; (3) Reading in the content area; (4) Integration and collaboration with core subjects strengthens technology and engineering education and the core subjects; (5) Contextual learning in technology and engineering education connects students to the real world; and (6) Communicating technology and engineering education's value in supporting NCLB.

Hanson, Katherine; Carlson, Bethany (2005).  Effective Access: Teachers' Use of Digital Resources in STEM Teaching  [Education Development Center] 

The Effective Access (EA) team conducted a limited, multi-level investigation of high school science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educators and their use of digital objects. The team attempted to answer the following questions to identify teachers' unique needs in the digital library environment, to provide a better understanding of the possible impact of electronic resources on teaching and learning, and to develop a framework for future development of digital resources and technology supports: a) what are STEM educators doing with digital resources, what would they like to do, and what could they do? How do they use various educational resources for curriculum planning and instruction, and specifically, how do they use Web-based resources?; b) what are the barriers or supports for teachers' use of digital resources? What kind of access and capacity exists? How comfortable are they searching for and using digital resources? What training or other support do they receive? What kind of training and/or navigation/tutorial systems do they need/want to support the integration of Web-based resources?; and c) what role does diversity play in the development and use of effective digital resources? What is the relationship of gender/race/ethnicity/disability/language to educators' perceptions and use of digital resources? How does the diversity of their students impact their use of such resources? How does educator diversity influence experience with technology? This report summarizes the Effective Access team's findings and presents recommendations that emerge from this work. The report is organized in four major sections: (1) A brief literature review that highlights what teachers say they value and want in accessing technology; how contemporary students view technology; and challenges for teachers in making use of technology to support student learning; (2) A methods section which describes the design, time period, data collection, interview and survey participants, and methods of data analysis; (3) Findings organized around seven major themes: Benefits and Changes in Practice, Time, School/District Infrastructure, Search Strategies, Technology Environment, Content for Planning and Instruction, and Professional Development, along with observations from technology designers; and (4) Recommendations.

Hanson, Mary (2001).  Incentives in IT Yield Success at MIT.  Educause Quarterly, 24, 1. 

Describes the role of information technology (IT) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, explaining that attention to the unique characteristics of an MIT education and incentives for sustainable change are central to its IT efforts. Discusses various IT initiatives, such as Project Athena, provision on campus, international efforts, and security.

Hanson-Harding, Brian (2000).  Surf the Wave of the Future!  Instructor, 110 n4 p64-65, 66-69 Nov-Dec 2000. 

Internet-based courses are rapidly expanding professional development opportunities for teachers. Today, a small but growing number of organizations offer hundreds of classes enabling teachers to fulfill state requirements, accumulate continuing education units or professional development points, and earn graduate credit. Internet-based courses offer teachers convenience, flexibility, and variety.

Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth, Ed.; Rilling, Sarah, Ed. (2007).  Learning Languages through Technology  [Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL)] 

While posing important questions about how learning proceeds with new technologies, this volume demonstrates how teachers captivate the imagination of learners, from schoolchildren to postgraduates, by providing real-world purposes for language. The authors are from educational institutions in many regions of the world, and describe technology use from the lowest levels, such as word processing and scanning, to high-end multimedia and interactive communications through voice and video on the Internet. Technology is perhaps the best means to creating an environment conducive to language learning. Technology can support teachers in making language learning faster, easier, less painful, and more engaging, and helps create an optimal language learning environment. Learning Languages through Technology reflects the many and varied ways teachers are currently using computers and the Internet and provides a rich resource for both novice and expert educator. The volume is divided into four sections: (1) Language Development Online: Skill Building through Technology; (2) Content-Based and Task-Based Learning: Collaborative CALL; (3) Authentic Audience in a Web-Based World; and (4) Constructivism in Professional Development Features throughout the volume are helpful to pre- and in-service teachers. Each chapter opens with a preview of ideas to ponder before reading, and each of the four sections begins with a preview of the chapters and concludes with a thought-provoking issue in technology and pedagogy. Follow-up questions for class discussion, further research, and activities appear at the end of each section, leading readers further into the discussion of the role technology plays in learning--both currently and in the future. Appendices list the tools, software, and Web sites helpful in using technology with learners. This book contains nineteen chapters: (1) Introduction: Using Technology in Teaching Languages (Elizabeth Hanson-Smith and Sarah Rilling, United States); (2) Using Synchronous Communication Collaboratively in ESP (Dafne Gonzalez, Venezuela); (3) Problems of Time and Exposure in Vocabulary Acquisition: An Electronic Solution (Marti Sevier, Canada); (4) Using Online Academic Writing Modules in an IEP Environment (Randi Reppen and Camilla Vasquez, United States); (5) Developing a Web-Based Listening Course (In-Seok Kim, South Korea); (6) Issue: CALL and the Nonautonomous Learner: Build It, but Will They Come? (Thomas N. Robb, Japan); (7) Making Content Connections Online via the GLOBE Program (Theresa J. Kennedy, United States); (8) CALL and Content-Area Teaching (Bernard Susser, Japan); (9) Meaningful Tasks with Video in the ESOL Classroom (Nicolas Gromik, Japan); (10) An ESL Owl Takes Flight: Social and Cultural Issues in an Online Writing Lab (Sarah Rilling, United States); (11) Issue: Mismatch or Missed Opportunity? Addressing Student Expectations about Technology (Maggie Sokolik, United States); (12) First Steps in Experimenting with Computer; (13) Real-World Contexts, Skills, and Service Learning for Secondary School Language Learners (Mary Jewell, United States); (14) Redefining the Blog: From Composition Class to Flexible Learning (Graham Stanley, Spain); (15) Issue: The Teacher's Critical Role in Effective Online Courses (Latricia Trites, United States); (16) Virtual Basegroup: E-Mentoring in a Reflective Electronic Support Network (Anne Dahlman and Sarah Tahtinen, United States); (17) Reinvention of an Online Teacher Education Course: From Cooperation to Collaboration (Klaus Gommlich and Theresa Minick, United States); (18) Implementing an Online ESL Teacher Education Program (Andreas Schramm and Ann Mabbott, United States); and (19) Issue: Tools for Online Teacher Communities of Practice (Vance Stevens, United Arab Emirates). Also included are References, Contributors, and an index.

Hanssen, Graeme M.; Rana, Tohid Ahmed (2007).  E-Learning as Part of Disaster Recovery Planning  [Online Submission] 

The world has recently witnessed large natural disasters with the Asian tsunami, the Pakistan earthquake, etc, which has resulted in loss of life measured in hundreds of thousands. One or two years later surveys of reconstruction work have revealed less than 25% of schools have been re-established, implicating long term economic and social consequences. Disaster Recovery planning could include rapid deployment of E-learning systems adapted to disaster zones, even with an apparent lack of broadband telecommunications infrastructure. This paper proposes technically innovative solutions to the rapid re-starting of education in disaster-struck communities by introducing the concept of a mobile E-school. Planning for Disaster Recovery could include the solutions proposed herein, as it is also possible to imagine in this Globalization World that budgets of wealthier nations encompassing these concepts.  | [FULL TEXT]

Hansson, Thomas (2005).  English as a Second Language on a Virtual Platform--Tradition and Innovation in a New Medium  Computer Assisted Language Learning, 18, 1-2. 

A pilot study at a local school explores a virtual world during English lessons. The objective of applying a Vygotskian experimental design to the study is to investigate the potential of software, interaction and integration related to problem-solving defined as text composition in a foreign language. Focus of research and practices is on the development of a "virtual didactic", more specifically text interaction by a virtual game in the classroom and face-to-face dialogue by direct speech-dialogue in the computer room. The two-fold objectives cover understanding an integrated "didactic on English" and "computer efficacy". By investigating the design of a combined virtual and physical learning environment we describe how the video-game generation operates (in) a social system of peers as they develop their computer skills and text composing ability.

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Hokanson, Brad (2001).  Silk and Silicon: Technology Paradigms and Education.  Educational Technology, 41, 3. 

Reviews "The Silk Code" (novel by Paul Levinson, Professor of Communications, New York University) that encourages questions about how to choose and use the full range of technology; and compares and applies its ideas to current practices in educational technology. Topics include divergent views in educational theory; and examples of the use of fiction in societal acceptance of ideas.

Hokanson, Brad; Fraher, Robert (2008).  Narrative Structure, Myth, and Cognition for Instructional Design  Educational Technology Magazine: The Magazine for Managers of Change in Education, 48, 1. 

This article discusses the use of narrative and myth to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of instructional design. The central aim is to better connect instructional experiences with cognition. Explicitly stated, this writing proposes a structure for the interaction between the new technologies of contemporary education and the culturally ancient systems of the brain.

Hokanson, Brad; Hooper, Simon (2004).  Integrating Technology in Classrooms: We Have Met the Enemy and He is Us  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

This paper considers the potential of technology in education, examines what it means to "integrate" technology in the classroom, outlines barriers to technology integration, and considers several implications for effective technology use. It begins by noting doubts regarding computer use in schools and outlining the potential of computers. Next, it defines the term "integration" and examines various levels of educational technology use. Subsequently, it considers the idea of integration through the use of the metaphor of human rights; learning from the barriers and problems of the Civil Rights Movement. Barriers to computer integration into the curriculum are examined. The paper concludes with several implications of observations that are intended to guide teacher education and support professional development for in-service teachers. | [FULL TEXT]

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Hew, Khe Foon (2004).  Past Technologies, Practice and Applications: A Discussion on How the Major Developments in Instructional Technology in the 20th Century Affect the Following Qualities ? Access, Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Humaneness  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

The Association for Educational Communications and Technology defines Instructional Technology as the "theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning" (Seels & Richley, 1994). From the above definition, it can be seen that Instructional Technology can be considered in terms of the use of media (or resources) and the use of "systematic instructional design procedures" (Reiser, 2002, p. 28) that includes the processes such as design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation. For the purpose of this article, I shall refer the latter to instructional design for instructional purposes. The history of Instructional Technology in the 20th century is summarized, using these two qualities ? media and instructional design. Also included in this article is a discussion on how these two qualities affect the following four qualities of instructional technology: access, efficiency, effectiveness, and humaneness. | [FULL TEXT]

Hew, Khe Foon; Brush, Thomas (2007).  Integrating Technology into K-12 Teaching and Learning: Current Knowledge Gaps and Recommendations for Future Research  Educational Technology Research and Development, 55, 3. 

Although research studies in education show that use of technology can help student learning, its use is generally affected by certain barriers. In this paper, we first identify the general barriers typically faced by K-12 schools, both in the United States as well as other countries, when integrating technology into the curriculum for instructional purposes, namely: (a) resources, (b) institution, (c) subject culture, (d) attitudes and beliefs, (e) knowledge and skills, and (f) assessment. We then describe the strategies to overcome such barriers: (a) having a shared vision and technology integration plan, (b) overcoming the scarcity of resources, (c) changing attitudes and beliefs, (d) conducting professional development, and (e) reconsidering assessments. Finally, we identify several current knowledge gaps pertaining to the barriers and strategies of technology integration, and offer pertinent recommendations for future research.

Hew, Khe Foon; Hara, Noriko (2007).  Empirical Study of Motivators and Barriers of Teacher Online Knowledge Sharing  Educational Technology Research and Development, 55, 6. 

The focus of this study was to understand knowledge flows among teachers by examining what types of knowledge was shared by teachers, as well as what motivates or hinders teachers to share knowledge online. We examined an electronic mailing list (listserv) supporting a community of practice of literacy teachers. Data were gathered on the teachers in the listserv through online observations. Additional data were collected through semi-structured telephone interviews with 20 teachers. Findings suggest that two motives of community involvement--collectivism, and principlism appear to be the main motivators for knowledge sharers to share knowledge, while lack of knowledge and competing priority appear to be the main barriers. Practical implications for knowledge sharing and suggestions for future research are discussed. The findings of this study inform teachers, listserv moderators, teacher associations, as well as researchers of educational technology who are interested in knowledge sharing among teachers within communities of practice mediated by computer networks.

Hew, Khe Foon; Kale, Ugur; Kim, Nari (2007).  Past Research in Instructional Technology: Results of a Content Analysis of Empirical Studies Published in Three Prominent Instructional Technology Journals from the Year 2000 through 2004  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 36, 3. 

This article reviews and categorizes empirical studies related to instructional technology that were published in three prominent journals: "Educational Technology Research and Development, Instructional Science," and the "Journal of Educational Computing Research" from the year 2000 through 2004. Four questions guided this review: 1) What instructional technology research topics have been conducted? How do these topics fluctuate over the five years? 2) What types of research methods have been applied? How do these research methods fluctuate over the five years? 3) What data collection methods are prevalent in instructional technology research? How do these data collection methods fluctuate over the five years? and 4) In what settings have instructional technology research been conducted? How do these settings fluctuate over the five years? Based on these findings, we discuss current research trends and possible implications for which future research in instructional technology research can take.

Hew, Khe Foon; Liu, Shijuan; Martinez, Ray; Bonk, Curt; Lee, Ji-Yeon (2004).  Online Education Evaluation: What Should We Evaluate?  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

In recent years, Web technologies have helped expand distance education in higher education. Online programs have become widely and generally accepted in many countries. According to the U.S. Department of Education, the number of Institutions of Higher Education (IHEs) offering distance education has increased by one-third since 1994-1995; and 44 percent of IHEs offer distance courses. The number of enrollments reached 1.3 million credit hours, and thirty percent of all distance education courses now use the Web. A recently conducted survey found that the number of online learners in fall 2002 topped 1.6 million, with public institutions leading the way (having approximately 1.3 million online learners). The main purpose of this short paper is to describe the evaluation of current online education at three levels: (a) macro-level, referring to the evaluation of entire online programs; (b) meso-level, referring to the evaluation of individual online courses; and (c) micro-level evaluation, referring to the evaluation of online students' learning. At each level, relevant literature, pertinent evaluation issues, and questions are discussed. While many issues addressed in the paper are applicable to both educational and corporate settings, the paper is focused on the higher education setting. | [FULL TEXT]

Hewett, Stephenie M. (2004).  Electronic Portfolios: Improving Instructional Practices  TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 48, 5. 

The electronic portfolio (e-portfolio) is the collection of students' works and reflections made available on the Internet. E-portfolios have an advantage over hard copy portfolios by being "easily assessable, having the capability to store multiple media, being easy to upgrade, and allowing cross-referencing of student work" (Venezky & Oney, 2004). This article describes the use of e-portfolios in a teacher preparation class to enhance the level of knowledge in the use of technology, to promote reflection and subsequent growth of instructional practices and to develop a communication strategy for teacher candidates to introduce themselves to potential employers, students and/or parents. The use of the e-portfolio in the teacher preparation class also serves as a model for a learning-centered classroom which enhances growth in learning and metacognitive abilities. The electronic portfolio creates a personal collection of thoughts and work that enhances the use and knowledge of technology, improves instructional practices and showcases the candidates for potential employers, students and students' parents.

Hewitt, Allan (2008).  Children's Creative Collaboration during a Computer-Based Music Task  International Journal of Educational Research, 47, 1. 

The purpose of this study was to identify and analyse specific instances of transactive communication as children engaged in a paired melody writing task using a computer-based composing environment. Transactive communication has been identified as one of the features of general collaborative engagement that is most helpful in an educational sense, and which makes collaborative learning an important tool for learning and teaching. The paper reports the results of an empirical study in which a group of 10 and 11 year olds worked in pairs to compose short melodies using computers. Analysis of between-pupil dialogue suggested that levels of transactive communication varied between pairs, and also within pairs as pupils took on different roles at the computer. Factors of individual difference, such as musical expertise or whether the pair were friends, did not appear to have a significant influence on the extent of, or nature or, transactive communication.

Hewitt, Jim; Brett, Clare (2007).  The Relationship between Class Size and Online Activity Patterns in Asynchronous Computer Conferencing Environments  Computers & Education, 49, 4. 

This study analyzes the relationship between class size and student online activity patterns in a series of 28 graduate level computer conferencing courses. Quantitative analyses of note production, average note size, note opening and note reading percentages found a significant positive correlation between class size and mean number of notes generated. Significant negative correlations were found between class size and average note size and between class size and percent of notes opened. Analyses of average reading speeds among large classes and small classes revealed that students in large classes were more likely to scan lengthy notes (i.e., notes that contain more than 350 words). Possible explanations for these results are discussed.

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Hove, M. Christina; Corcoran, Kevin J. (2008).  Educational Technologies: Impact on Learning and Frustration  Teaching of Psychology, 35, 2. 

Educators are increasingly using educational technologies at the postsecondary level although little research has investigated the effects of such technologies on learning. Our research explored the effects of traditional lecture, slide-show-supplemented lecture, and virtual learning environment (VLE) on learning and frustration among college students. Participants in slide-show-supplemented lecture and VLE conditions demonstrated more learning than participants in the traditional lecture conditions. However, participants in the VLE conditions reported significantly higher levels of frustration relative to those in the traditional lecture and slide-show-supplemented conditions. Our findings may be particularly relevant in light of the increasing numbers of online college degree programs that use VLE platforms. We discuss additional implications and future research.

Hove, M. Christina; Corcoran, Kevin J. (2008).  If You Post It, Will They Come? Lecture Availability in Introductory Psychology  Teaching of Psychology, 35, 2. 

Web-enhanced educational programs such as Blackboard (2003; http://www.blackboard.com/%29 provide opportunities for instructors to make supplemental course materials available to students. However, little research has investigated the effects of unlimited access to course lectures on achievement and attendance in traditional postsecondary classroom settings. Thus, we investigated the effect of lecture presentation availability on class attendance and academic performance in 2 sections of introductory psychology courses. Students with unlimited access to lecture presentations earned significantly higher grades than students who did not have similar access. Although we did not find significant differences in attendance between classes, attendance moderated the relation between class format and course grade. We discuss further implications and future research.

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Hedberg, John (2004).  Designing Multimedia: Seven Discourses  Cambridge Journal of Education, 34, 2. 

This paper proposes that new design discourses are necessary if interactive learning resources are to effectively combine the skills of all members of the development team. As educational products take shape, there are numerous discourses between members of the team that lead to the development of an effective interactive resource. This paper explores some of those discourses and illustrates their impact on educational multimedia products. The discourses emphasize the importance on interactive design and the conceptualization of the learner's role as an active participant in the learning environment if the resultant product is to be engaging and meaningful.

Hedberg, John G. (2002).  Designing High Quality Learning Environments: Reflections on Some Successes and Failures. 

Over the past decade, there have been many changes in the tools used to design, the ways information can be represented and the underpinning theories which drive educational experiences. This paper focuses on several examples of software design that have been pedagogically successful and have demonstrated what is possible in software design and online learning. Contrasts are made with some examples of the current push into e-learning and how best to structure learning environments to ensure student participation and high quality learning outcomes especially when students come from differing backgrounds and cultural traditions. A summary of key projects and their focus is presented at the end of the paper. | [FULL TEXT]

Hedberg, John G. (2003).  Ensuring Quality E-Learning: Creating Engaging Tasks.  Educational Media International, 40, 3-4. 

Focuses on several examples of software design that have been pedagogically successful and have demonstrated what is possible in software design and online learning. Contrasts are made with some examples of the current push into e-learning and how best to structure learning environments to ensure student participation and high quality learning outcomes.

Hedberg, John G. (2006).  E-Learning Futures? Speculations for a Time Yet to Come  Studies in Continuing Education, 28, 2. 

This paper examines some of the ways in which e-learning has failed to live up to its early promise and suggests how this situation might be remedied. Two of the main challenges for the future of e-learning are explored: the ever shifting nature of the e-landscape, characterized by its rapidly changing technologies, software and marketing mechanisms; the difficulty of helping teachers find ways to exploit the capacities offered by these "disruptive technologies" as they continue to bring about change. It is argued that if our investment in e-learning is to be recouped then what is needed is a paradigm shift to the employment of "disruptive pedagogies." This would involve the use of teaching strategies that exploit the currently underused capacities of technology options in such a way as to enable student engagement, motivation and higher order thinking skills.

Hedberg, John G.; Brudvik, Ole C. (2008).  Supporting Dialogic Literacy through Mashing and Modding of Places and Spaces  Theory Into Practice, 47, 2. 

Technology-dependent teaching strategies can exploit the currently underused capacities of media-rich Web 2.0 technology to enable student engagement and support higher order thinking. In particular, Web 2.0 technologies support learners' opportunities to coconstruct ideas/knowledge and ways in which they can add their own interpretations in to Web 2.0 tolls that enable modding of existing products and collations of multimodal information from multiple sources through mashing.

Hedberg, John G.; McNamara, Sue (2002).  Innovation and Re-Invention: A Brief Review of Educational Technology in Australia.  Educational Media International, 39, 2. 

Provides a history of educational technology in Australia over the past 30 years. Highlights include Australian education structures; the impact of film and television on higher education; educational funding sources, including government and private sources; video; visual and media literacy; personal computers; curriculum development; and future possibilities.

Hedberg, John; Ping, Lim Cher (2004).  Charting Trends for E-Learning in Asian Schools  Distance Education, 25, 2. 

E-Learning is the confluence of many technology-based learning opportunities. It employs technologies as part of the delivery systems, as tools to assist with the representation of ideas, and most recently as the integration of processes and the topics to be learned. This paper reviews some of the approaches adopted by Asian schools and charts the trends that will guide instructional designers as they seek to effectively employ e-learning strategies. It also suggests a more integrated view of e-learning for those managing the learning and training systems within schools.

Hedberg, John; Sims, Rod (2001).  Speculations on Design Team Interactions.  Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 12, 2-3. 

Discussion of the design of effective learning environments focuses on design team interactions. Topics include designer intention and instructor implementation; technology tools and their use; instructional design processes, including computer interfaces and interaction possibilities; learner as actor; multimedia; and interpersonal communication.

Hedberg, John; Wills, Sandra; Oliver, Ron; Harper, Barry; Agostinho, Shirley (2002).  Developing Evaluation Frameworks for Assessing Quality ICT-Based Learning in Higher Education. 

This paper describes the evaluation of high quality learning designs, which are being selected for possible redevelopment in a National Project funded by the Australian University Teaching Committee (AUTC). The project focuses on "Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and Their Role in Flexible Learning" and is evaluating over 50 projects with a view to developing a range of software tools,templates and/or guidelines based on those that are deemed to be effective ICT-based learning projects. The approach is unique in that it tries to pinpoint the key attributes of ICT-based projects that make them suitable for application in other contexts and in other knowledge domains. | [FULL TEXT]

Hedestig, Ulf; Kaptelinin, Victor; Orre, Carl Johan (2002).  Supporting Decentralized Education with Personal Technologies. 

This paper deals with the use of personal technologies in decentralized university education. Decentralized education, delivered to off-campus students located in the same geographical area, is a hybrid genre combining features of both on-campus and distance education. The paper reports two studies. The first study focused on communication patterns among students in a regular decentralized education setting. It was shown that: there are obstacles preventing the students from developing communities of practice, and some of the obstacles are likely to be eliminated with personal technologies helping the students to get access to various resources and to communicate with each other. The second study included providing a student group with a set of PDAs and analyzing the impact of the technology on students' learning and communication patterns. The prospects for using personal technologies in decentralized education are discussed.

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Hudak, Tina (2008).  Are Librarians Reading Teachers, Too?  Library Media Connection, 26, 5. 

During the 1890s, the library media specialty was established through "a School Library Section as an integral part of the National Education Association" (Cole 90). In the ensuing decades, this role has expanded and changed; it demands a balancing act between the more traditional roles surrounding books and reading, and the newer expectations and understanding of technology use on all levels--from managing retrospective conversions, and designing Web sites, to teaching online search strategies with a variety of search engines, to software programs and their evaluations. In 2008, the discussion continues about school library media specialists as reading teachers--a core issue for all educators, and one for which teachers are specifically trained. Are library media specialists reading teachers, too? This article summarizes the literature regarding this question.

Hudson, Brian; Hudson, Alison; Steel, John (2006).  Orchestrating Interdependence in an International Online Learning Community  British Journal of Educational Technology, 37, 5. 

This paper focuses on research into the student experience as participants in the development of an international online community. The background context for this is an international master's programme and the specific context for the research is a module on Digital Media Applications (DMA), which are outlined. The programme design emphasises peer and formative assessment practices and the pedagogical approach aims to foster group collaboration in international teams. Following an overview of the research methods adopted, a number of emergent themes from the data analysis of student diaries are discussed, including issues of language, culture and identity. In conclusion, we offer some reflections on these issues and discuss the underpinning assumptions (in relation to assessment practices in particular) that have given direction to our subsequent ongoing research and development.

Hudson, Brian; Owen, David; van Veen, Klaas (2006).  Working on Educational Research Methods with Masters Students in an International Online Learning Community  British Journal of Educational Technology, 37, 4. 

In this paper we discuss the background to this study in the development of the international MSc "e-Learning Multimedia and Consultancy." The aims of the study focus on the conditions for achieving communication, interaction and collaboration in open and flexible e-learning environments. We present our theoretical framework that has informed the design of programme as a whole which is based on a socio-constructivist perspective on learning. Our research is placed within an action research framework and we outline our position within the critical or emancipatory tradition and also our standpoint on the use of ICT in education. We discuss the design of the programme and also our pedagogical approach and describe in detail the particular context for this study. We report on the student experience of being learners on this module, their perceptions of what they have gained most from learning from and with each other and their responses to the various ways in which "scaffolding" has been designed and implemented by the tutors. Finally we offer some reflections on the conditions for achieving well-orchestrated interdependence in open and flexible e-learning environments.

Hudson, James M.; Bruckman, Amy S. (2004).  The Bystander Effect: A Lens for Understanding Patterns of Participation  Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13, 2. 

A number of studies have shown that students are often more willing to participate in educational conversations online than in the classroom. However, other studies have shown that online environments have poor student participation Why is this the case? What causes participation to vary from one environment to another? To explore these phenomena, we borrow a concept from social psychology, the bystander effect, which explains why individuals are less likely to help in an emergency if others are present. Although the bystander effect specifically applies to helping behavior in emergency situations, we use this construct as a lens through which to view nonemergency situations such as educational environments. The bystander effect has 4 key components: self-awareness, social cues, blocking mechanisms, and diffuse responsibility. Focusing on these mechanisms can help us more fully characterize participation patterns observed in different educational environments and leverage this knowledge in the design of such systems. We present a case study of two students in both classroom and online French learning environments and show how the psychological mechanisms of the bystander effect help us understand observed behavioral changes.

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Hui, W.; Hu, P. J.-H.; Clark, T. H. K.; Tam, K. Y.; Milton, J. (2008).  Technology-Assisted Learning: A Longitudinal Field Study of Knowledge Category, Learning Effectiveness and Satisfaction in Language Learning  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24, 3. 

A field experiment compares the effectiveness and satisfaction associated with technology-assisted learning with that of face-to-face learning. The empirical evidence suggests that technology-assisted learning effectiveness depends on the target knowledge category. Building on Kolb's experiential learning model, we show that technology-assisted learning improves students' acquisition of knowledge that demands abstract conceptualization and reflective observation but adversely affects their ability to obtain knowledge that requires concrete experience. Technology-assisted learning better supports vocabulary learning than face-to-face learning but is comparatively less effective in developing listening comprehension skills. In addition, according to empirical tests, perceived ease of learning and learning community support significantly predict both perceived learning effectiveness and learning satisfaction. Overall, the results support our hypotheses and research model and suggest instructors should consider the target knowledge when considering technology-assisted learning options or designing a Web-based course. In addition, a supportive learning community can make technology-assisted learning easier for students and increase their learning satisfaction.

Huijser, Henk; Bedford, Tas; Bull, David (2008).  OpenCourseWare, Global Access and the Right to Education: Real Access or Marketing Ploy?  [Online Submission] 

This paper explores the potential opportunities that OpenCourseWare (OCW) offers in providing wider access to tertiary education, based on the ideal of "the right to education." It first discusses the wider implications of OCW, and its underlying philosophy, before using a case study of a tertiary preparation program (TPP) at the University of Southern Queensland (USQ) to draw out the issues involved in offering a program that is created in a particular national and social context on a global scale. This paper draws specific attention to the digital divide, its effects in national and global contexts, and the particular obstacles this presents with regards to OCW. This paper argues that OCW provides many opportunities, both in terms of access to education and in terms of student recruitment and marketing for universities. To take full advantage of those opportunities, however, requires a concerted effort on the part of tertiary education institutions, and it requires a vision that is fundamentally informed by, and committed to, the principle of "the right to education." [This paper, published in "The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning," is a part of a collaborative project sponsored by UNESCO. Six journals participated in this joint publishing initiative.] | [FULL TEXT]

Huilan, Wang (2007).  Education and the Discussions on Globalization: Between "Winning the Competition" and "Social Justice"  Chinese Education and Society, 40, 1. 

"Globalization" is a term that, over the past twenty years, has been very frequently used yet remains vague and changeable with respect to the phenomena it refers to and what specifically it connotes. Discussions encouraging globalization have quickly sprung up, spreading the use of terms such as "postindustrial society," "post-Fordism," "network society," "postmodernity," and so on, which express concepts that reflect large gaps between the new era and traditional society, particularly with reference to changes in areas such as economics, production, technology, communication, consumption, and culture. In contemporary social discourse and the context of language usage, "globalization" is often interchanged or combined with "global," "internationalization," "Americanization," or "global capitalism" to explain the tight interconnectedness of the international political situation or the influence of certain superpowers. Faced with a world situation that is constantly in flux, a steadily surging volume of discussions and articles on the subject, and the continuous stimulation, debate, and reform of education in countries around the world, in this article the author attempts to provide readers with a few strands of thought to pursue: (1) What sort of visions and lessons does globalization provide for us?; (2) Is globalization "an important and complex social phenomenon" or "a term that is both vague and tyrannical"?; (3) What are the important points for debate in the discussion of globalization?; and (4) What implication do the factors and changes described in the discussion on globalization offer us for reference as we try to understand the events and changes that are taking place in education? For a full understanding of global capitalism, particularly its serious impact on education, the author suggests that people should transcend the confines of a single, absolute ideology and strike a balance between "winning the competition" and "social justice."

Huiyu, Zhang; Yan, Dong; Geng, Chen (2005).  Educational Technology Training for Higher Education Teachers in China and Some Suggestions for Improving It  Chinese Education & Society, 38, 6. 

This article describes current practices in educational technology training for higher education teachers in China, using information derived from questionnaires and statistics. It addresses problems identified in questionnaires, such as upgrading and improving training content and training modes, and makes some constructive suggestions for the future.

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Hundhausen, Christopher D.; Brown, Jonathan L. (2008).  Designing, Visualizing, and Discussing Algorithms within a CS 1 Studio Experience: An Empirical Study  Computers & Education, 50, 1. 

Within the context of an introductory CS1 unit on algorithmic problem-solving, we are exploring the pedagogical value of a novel active learning activity--the "studio experience"--that actively engages learners with algorithm visualization technology. In a studio experience, student pairs are tasked with (a) developing a solution to an algorithm design problem, (b) constructing an accompanying visualization with a storyline, and finally (c) presenting that visualization for feedback and discussion in a session modeled after an architectural "design crit." Is a studio experience educationally valuable? What kind of technology can best support it? To explore these questions, we conducted an empirical study of two alternative CS1 studio experiences in which students used one of two different kinds of algorithm development and visualization technology: (a) a text editor coupled with art supplies, or (b) ALVIS Live!, a computer-based algorithm development and visualization tool. We found that the students who used ALVIS Live! developed algorithms with significantly fewer semantic errors. Moreover, discussions mediated by ALVIS Live! had significantly more student audience contributions, and retained a sharper focus on the specific details of algorithm behavior, leading to the collaborative identification and repair of semantic errors. In addition, discussions mediated by both ALVIS Live! and art supplies contained substantial evidence of higher order thinking. Based on our results, we make recommendations for educators interested in exploring studio-based approaches, and we propose an agenda for future research into studio-based learning in computer science education.

Hung, David (2001).  Design Principles for Web-based Learning: Implications from Vygotskian Thought.  Educational Technology, 41, 3. 

Discusses community of practice, situated cognition, learning as demand driven, learning as a social act, and learning via ways of seeing. Expands these ideas through Vygotsky's writings, including zone of proximal development and the general genetic law of cultural development; and considers implications for the design of Web-based learning environments.

Hung, David W. L.; Chen, Der-Thanq (2000).  Appropriating and Negotiating Knowledge: Technologies for a Community of Learners.  Educational Technology, 40, 3. 

Discussion of the notion of a community of learners focuses on two objectives: social constructivism, or negotiating knowledge; and apprenticeship, or appropriating knowledge. Topics include appropriating knowledge based on stipulated instructional objectives; developing epistemological dispositions; activity theory; implications for instructional technology; and future possibilities.

Hung, David W. L.; Wong, Philip S. K. (2000).  Toward an Information and Instructional Technology Research Framework for Learning and Instruction.  Educational Technology, 40, 6. 

Outlines fruitful areas of information and instructional technology (IIT) in education research: pedagogy of online environments; simulation, visualization, and modeling; mind-tools or cognitive tools; assessment tools; wireless computing; tools for learning communities; tools for project work and authentic tasks; integration of media, tools, and strategies; qualitative changes in learning; multiple intelligences and learning styles; knowledge states and types; social-cultural issues related to IIT-enriched environments.

Hung, David; Chee, Tan Seng; Hedberg, John G; Thiam Seng, Koh (2005).  A Framework for Fostering a Community of Practice: Scaffolding Learners Through an Evolving Continuum  British Journal of Educational Technology, 36, 2. 

This paper proposes a framework of an evolving community of practitioners along a simulation, participation, and codetermined interactions continuum. Simulation, participation, and codetermined interactions are three models of learning, which describe how learners can be brought through a scaffolded process within a community experience. The framework also focuses on the processes rather than on the outcomes or products of a community. In this paper, we describe a case study of a group of heads of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in schools being scaffolded through an experiential workshop to achieve learning outcomes such as ICT-based project work (as product) and other constructivist dispositions of learning (as processes). The proposed framework is intended to be sufficiently broad so that learners are supported from simulation to codetermined interactions where autonomy of learners co-construction efforts are encouraged and experienced.

Hung, David; Chen, Der-Thanq (2001).  Distinguishing between Online and Face-to-Face Communities: How Technology Makes the Difference.  Educational Technology, 41, 6. 

Discussion of the Internet and virtual communities focuses on differences between online and face-to-face communities. Topics include interdependency; infrastructure; intensity of participation; representation of members; accessibility to resources, information, and expertise; and activity theory as a framework for analyzing communities.

Hung, David; Chen, Der-Thanq (2002).  Understanding How Thriving Internet Quasi-Communities Work: Distinguishing between Learning About and Learning To Be.  Educational Technology, 42, 1. 

Discusses learning within the context of communities of practice, analyzes Internet-based communities to discover why some online communities thrive and why members are motivated to participate in them, distinguishes quasi-communities from communities, and suggests future directions.

Hung, David; Chen, Der-Thanq (2003).  Online Learning and Information Technology in the Asia-Pacific Region: Perspectives, Issues, and Divides.  Educational Technology, 43, 3. 

This special issue presents articles contributed by academics from the Asia-Pacific region on perspectives and progress made in online learning and information technology (IT). The articles discuss online learning and IT efforts in South Korea, Hong Kong, China, Taiwan, Japan, Singapore, Australia, Guam, and New Zealand.

Hung, David; Chen, Der-Thanq Victor (2007).  Context-Process Authenticity in Learning: Implications for Identity Enculturation and Boundary Crossing  Educational Technology Research and Development, 55, 2. 

This paper posits that authenticity is an aspect of both the context and the process of learning. These two aspects cannot be seen in isolation and must be analyzed as one unity. We refer to this coupling relationship as the context-process authenticity. Existing learning and instructional approaches associated with authenticity, such as simulations, participation, and co-evolution privilege the authenticity of professional practices and do not adequately tackle the issue of the transitions across contexts. To avoid demeaning the authenticity of schools, we recommend other approaches, which emphasize the identity enculturation aspect in diverse communities. Furthermore, we argue for a context-process authenticity continuum. This continuum encompasses both school and professional communities and the context-process authenticity coupling. Implications are discussed with respect to the proposed context-process authenticity continuum.

Hung, David; Chen, Der-Thanq; Koh, Thiam Seng (2006).  The Reverse LPP Process for Nurturing a Community of Practice  Educational Media International, 43, 4. 

In this article we suggest a facilitating process for nurturing a community of practice (CoP). This process can be seen as a reverse LPP (legitimate peripheral participation) process where a community starts with a group of core members and gradually grows to encourage new members into a CoP. In the heart of the reverse LPP process is the identity formation and enculturation of practice. A case study in the Singapore context is introduced. The discussion focuses on how leadership in a community of practice differs from leadership in an organization and how the two roles may complement each other. Some key issues are identified such as the intrinsic motivational dimensions of CoPs and these should be well understood by potential facilitators and designers of CoPs.

Hung, David; Chen, Der-Thanq; Tan, Seng Chee (2003).  A Social-Constructivist Adaptation of Case-Based Reasoning: Integrating oal-Based Scenarios with Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning.  Educational Technology, 43, 2. 

Proposes a social constructivist adaptation of case-based reasoning (CBR) by incorporating computer-supported collaborative learning tools into the thinking and reasoning process. Explains goal-based scenarios (GBS) as translations of CBR into simulated learning environments and discusses the incorporation of facilitation cues and the inclusion of a polling system.

Hung, David; Nichani, Maish (2001).  Constructivism and E-Learning: Balancing between the Individual and Social Levels of Cognition.  Educational Technology, 41, 2. 

Discussion of constructivism in learning focuses on a working constructivist framework for electronic learning that balances the individual and social perspectives. Presents two models of electronic learning: the first uses a traditional approach that focuses on the best use of media, and the second focuses on personalization and relationships.

Hung, David; Nichani, Maish Ramlal (2002).  Bringing Communities of Practice into Schools: Implications for Instructional Technologies from Vygotskian Perspectives.  International Journal of Instructional Media, 29, 2. 

Suggests how the principles undergirding communities of practice can be brought into schools. Examines learning clubs, learning communities, and communities of practice from a Vygotskian perspective and discusses activity theory, peer apprenticeship learning, collaboration between experts and students, and small group collaborative learning.

Hung, David; Tan, Seng Chee (2004).  Bridging between Practice Fields and Real Communities through Instructional Technologies  International Journal of Instructional Media, 31, 2. 

The perspective of communities as a situated context dates back to the works of Vygotsky (1978, 1981) who posited that cognition begins at the social inter-mental level and through the process of internalization meanings become translated or assimilated into the individual level. Within this social to individual transition, learners can be scaffolded to higher potentials through the aid of other more capable agents. Such a view supports the apprenticeship and coaching methods recently advocated. For these reasons, the concepts within communities of practices (CoPs) have been gaining currency. Within CoPs, learners begin as Legitimate Peripheral Participants (novices) and their identities become gradually transformed into legitimate central participants. Senge (1994) proposed the concept of practice fields where students can get to practice the kinds of problems they will encounter outside the school. Problem-based learning (PBL) is one example of practice fields which began with the medical profession where students were given real and historical cases to diagnose. Within this paper, the authors described a learning environment which facilitates both the design of practice fields and the bridging of real practitioners to learning in schools (in our case, a teacher education institute). They have also defined a learning environment which constitutes a physical and technological set-up which we believe facilitates a multi-learning environment where students can be engaged in different tasks and activities, e.g., tele-mentoring, group discussions, etc. simultaneously. Such a learning environment brings together a problem-based pedagogy not confined within the school context, but through technology bridge real communities into schools. In addition, they emphasize that the problems or issues discussed by students must have real-world implications and relevance to the students' themselves.

Hung, David; Tan, Seng Chee; Chen, Der-Thanq (2003).  IT Integration and Online Learning in the Singapore Schools.  Educational Technology, 43, 3. 

Reviews technology integration efforts in Singapore. Discusses examples of online learning in schools under four broad categories: cyber conferencing, e-learning services providers, e-publication, and wireless technology. Describes ways information technology is being used at the National Institute of Education in Singapore, as a tool for communication, visualization, data management, construction, and cognition.

Hung, David; Tan, Seng Chee; Chen, Der-Thanq (2005).  How the Internet Facilitates Learning as Dialog: Design Considerations for Online Discussions.  International Journal of Instructional Media, 32, 1. 

Online learning through the Internet is seen to be pervasive in today's educational and corporate sectors. Online learning also promises all kinds of possibilities for learning and this paper makes an attempt to clarify some of these issues. Instead of promising all kinds of learning, we suggest that the Internet affords distributed expertise, contextualized engagement and dialog, and reflection and evolution. From these three main tenets, we conceptualize design principles and considerations in order to make learning meaningful. These design considerations capitalize on the technologies present and in this sense transforms learning processes in contrast to more traditional approaches.

Hung, David; Tan, Seng-Chee; Koh, Thiam-Seng (2006).  From Traditional to Constructivist Epistemologies: A Proposed Theoretical Framework Based on Activity Theory for Learning Communities  Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 17, 1. 

This article is concerned with how learning communities are transformed as they evolve from traditional learning epistemologies towards constructivist orientations and pedagogies. Adopting activity theory as a framework, the article discusses how transformations take place through a two-way process of appropriation (learning from one another as a two-way interaction process) at both the social-collective and individual-learner levels of interaction and cognition. We distinguish transformations at two levels: context and process, acknowledging overlaps between the two. Context transformations involve the macro-level activity system, whereas process transformations are concerned with in-situ micro-level changes. Through the concept of activity systems, we hope to illustrate how evolving transformations are captured from a historical frame of reference. The article also discusses technologies as enablers within a proposed framework in support of such epistemological transformations.

Hung, T. C.; Wang, S. K.; Tai, S. W.; Hung, C. T. (2007).  An Innovative Improvement of Engineering Learning System Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Concept  Computers and Education, 48, 1. 

An innovative concept of an electronic learning system has been established in an attempt to achieve a technology that provides engineering students with an instructive and affordable framework for learning engineering-related courses. This system utilizes an existing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) package, Active Server Pages programming, Hyper Text Markup Language web page, and a database in the development of a user-friendly interface for the e-learning system. The structure of this learning system includes three components: a pre-processor which creates and defines the problems, a control program which links CFD package; searches for the identical problem with previously executed results or creates a new CFD execution and then saves the results in the database, and a post-processor which yields a graphic presentation of the computational results. This system would provide engineering students with a solid comprehension of the physical phenomena by changing the input parameters of a specific problem.

Hung, W. L. David; Chen, D. -T. Victor. (2002).  Learning within the Context of Communities of Practices: A Re-Conceptualization of Tools, Rules and Roles of the Activity System.  Educational Media International, 39, 3-4. 

Focuses on learning to be, or forming an identity within communities of practice. Discusses activity theory, re-conceiving an activity system, and technologies that support learning within communities of practices; and illustrates concepts through community-based examples such as universities and schools.

Hung, W. L. David; Koh, Thiam Seng; Chua, Chee Lay (2000).  Social-Cultural Perspectives of R & D in Educational Technology.  Educational Technology, 40, 4. 

Guidelines are provided for educators to use in exploring the feasibility of technology-oriented tools in teaching and learning based on social-cultural underpinnings, using activity theory as a framework for analysis. This research and development framework is intended to provide a concrete basis for understanding the impact of technology tools for learning, including instructional and policy implementation issues.

Hunley, Sawyer A.; Evans, James H.; Delgado-Hachey, Maria; Krise, Judy; Rich, Tammy; Schell, Connie (2005).  Adolescent Computer Use and Academic Achievement  Adolescence San Diego, 40, 158. 

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between adolescent computer use and academic achievement. Questionnaires and seven-day time logs were used to gather data from 101 tenth-grade students in southwestern Ohio. The adolescents both estimated and documented their computer use. The correlation between computer use and grade point average was not found to be significant. However, gender differences were found across grade point average and time spent doing homework on and off the computer. Estimates of time spent per week using the computer were correlated with the time recorded in logs.

Hunt, Andrew L.; Wood, Betty K.; Terrell, Mary Kate; Isom, Jim (2006).  Digital Portfolios Software Selection for Student Manipulation  Computers in the Schools, 23, 1-2. 

Educators are faced with developing performance indicators for reporting to state and national agencies on pre-service teacher candidates' ability to teach using innovative pedagogy as well as content- specific standards. Portfolio assessment has gained momentum as a standard in assessing student-learning outcomes. This paper is a discussion of digital portfolio development as a stimulus to the intellectual involvement of the learner (a Type II application). Digital portfolio development is an activity that naturally involves intellectual involvement as the learner identifies the problem (developing the digital portfolio) and then problem solves as he or she creates the digital portfolio. Each student is in control of portfolio development and manipulates the Web-based software to create the professional portfolio.

Hunt, Brian; Burvall, Patrik; Ivergard, Toni (2004).  Interactive Media for Learning (IML): Assuring Usability in Terms of a Learning Context  Education + Training, 46, 6-7. 

On account of competence-led market demands, it is important that employees gain new knowledge efficiently. One solution is to set-up IT-based courses using interactive media for learning IML so that employees can learn at their workplace and also learn as a part of their ordinary work. Choosing technology as a media for learning is not simply chosen for its own sake rather because it is more efficient for the task. However, for a number of reasons, it is becoming increasingly difficult to assess the efficient use of technology. Thus there are needs for processes to quality assure usability or even to create a process to certify usability. Before this is possible a number of issues have to be resolved. All issues are fundamental to assure usability. We address each issue in our paper. The purpose of this paper is to review current approaches to quality assurance as applied in the field of IML. This paper discusses the difficulties of distinguishing between learning and usability in an IML context. We discuss quality-assuring usability in terms of learning and we outline a certification process for IML in terms of usability. Our concluding remarks indicate possible future research directions.

Hunt, Catherine T. (2005).  It's Time to Re-Ignite our Commitment to Science and Technology!  Journal of Chemical Education, 82, 10. 

Science and technology has changed dramatically since 1985 and most of the jobs are automated, which calls for re-igniting our commitment towards it. An investment in science and technology would help understand the exciting and challenging field of science.

Hunt, Neville (2005).  Using Microsoft Office to Generate Individualized Tasks for Students  Teaching Statistics: An International Journal for Teachers, 27, 2. 

This article describes how the mail merge facility within Microsoft Word can be used in conjunction with Microsoft Excel to generate personalized assignments for students at all levels.

Hunt, Nicoll; Hughes, Janet; Rowe, Glenn (2002).  Formative Automated Computer Testing (FACT).  British Journal of Educational Technology, 33, 5. 

Describes the development of a tool, FACT (Formative Automated Computer Testing), to formatively assess information technology skills of college students in the United Kingdom. Topics include word processing competency; tests designed by tutors and delivered via a network; and results of an evaluation that showed students preferred automated testing as compared to traditional written tests.

Hunter, Beverly (2001).  Against the Odds: Professional Development and Innovation under Less-than-Ideal Conditions.  Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 9, 4. 

Reports accomplishments of teachers who overcame obstacles to create innovative learning opportunities using electronic technologies. Summarizes findings of a research project conducted by Department of Defense Education Activity schools with teachers who worked in small teams to plan, implement, and evaluate innovative practices and used Vanguard for Learning for professional development.

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Hogan, Bob (2005).  Singapore Math: Problem-Solving Secrets from the World's Math Leader  [Crystal Springs Books] 

Using this four CD-ROM disc set, teachers can have their very own math problem solving mentor as a leading expert in Singapore Math guides them through a lively presentation, working through math problems and explaining how Singapore has become the world's leading method in math. The expert's explanation of how to use Singapore's model-drawing approach is incredibly clear and amazingly simple. This seminar is recorded from a live Web training event, which includes the expert's answers to typical teacher questions. Disc 1 contains : "Working with Whole Numbers." Disc 2 contains: "Working with Fractions." Disc 3 contains: "Working with Percents, Decimals, Ratios, and More." Disc 4 contains: Singapore Math Wrap-Up."

Hogan, Kathleen; Thomas, David (2001).  Cognitive Comparisons of Students' Systems Modeling in Ecology.  Journal of Science Education and Technology, 10, 4. 

Examines the cognition of five pairs of high school students over time as they built quantitative ecological models using STELLA software. Applies theories of the multifaceted nature of cognition to describe object-level, metalevel, and emotional dimensions of cognitive performance that help explain the observed differences among students' approaches to STELLA modeling. 

Hogan, R. Lance; McKnight, Mark A. (2007).  Exploring Burnout among University Online Instructors: An Initial Investigation  Internet and Higher Education, 10, 2. 

Burnout has been identified as a significant issue among those in instructional positions. The purpose of the present research was to identify and describe the status of burnout among higher education online instructors. The population for this study included responses of 76 online instructors employed by baccalaureate granting institutions within the United States. A demographic survey and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) were used to collect data from respondents. Data analysis revealed online instructors possessed an average score on the emotional exhaustion subscale, high degree of depersonalization, and low degree of personal accomplishment.

Hogarth, Karah; Dawson, Drew (2008).  Implementing E-Learning in Organisations: What E-Learning Research Can Learn from Instructional Technology (IT) and Organisational Studies (OS) Innovation Studies  International Journal on E-Learning, 7, 1. 

This article explores the applicability of interdisciplinary research on the implementation of technological innovations to the field of e-learning research. Arguing that there are important ways in which e-learning systems can be treated as "technological innovations," this article presents a review of several key theoretical and research design approaches that have been developed for use in the Instructional Technology (IT) and Organisational Studies (OS) fields. The literature review presented here demonstrates the complexity of the processes associated with implementation and observes that, despite the long-standing research interest in this area, unsatisfactory implementation outcomes continue to be encountered in practice. Given a high failure rate for e-learning implementations and the field's newness relative to the IT and OS disciplines, it is argued that e-learning research could benefit from greater interaction with these literatures. This article concludes with a discussion of the ways in which IT and OS research can be amended to make them more directly applicable to e-learning systems and offers some suggestions for future research.

Hogarty, Kristine Y.; Lang, Thomas R.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D. (2003).  Another Look at Technology Use in Classrooms: The Development and Validation of an Instrument To Measure Teachers' Perceptions.  Educational and Psychological Measurement, 63, 1. 

Developed and provided initial validation of scores from a survey designed to measure teachers' reported use of technology in their classrooms. Interprets results from a sample of 2000 teachers in terms of the ability of the instrument to measure the confluence of factors that are critical for study of technology use in classrooms.

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Heide, Ann; Henderson, Dale (2001).  Active Learning in the Digital Age Classroom. 

This book examines the theoretical and practical issues surrounding today's technology-integrated classroom. The chapters cover the following topics: (1) reasons to integrate technology into the classroom, including the changing world, enriched learning and increased productivity, the learner, the workplace, past experience, and future trends; (2) planning for success, including examples of technology integration, other strategies, school-based technology planning, change, equipment, and business-education partnerships; (3) making it work, including evaluating computer software, the computer as tutor, the computer as productivity tool, and the computer as tutee; (4) the curriculum, including establishing learning outcomes, setting the context for learning, plan assessment and evaluation, gathering resources, selecting and designing learning experiences, planning student training for the technology, setting the timetable, and reconsidering; (5) getting started, including organizing space, establishing equipment care and protection routines, security of equipment, safety in the classroom, safety in cyberspace, scheduling computer use, keyboarding skills, ergonomics, strategies for training students to use technology, and preparing parents for technological change; (6) Internet-based curriculum projects, including copyright issues, evaluating World Wide Web sites, virtual field trips, publishing on the Web, sample collaborative Internet-based projects, planning the project, and school and classroom Web sites; (7) assessing student progress, including types of assessment, performance assessment, assessment portfolios, electronic portfolio assessment, evaluation, and using technology in assessment and evaluation; (8) students with special needs, including using technology to individualize the program, planning for exceptional students, cooperative learning and peer helping, modifying the program, and assistive technology and adaptive devices for special students; (9) technology tools for teachers, including lesson planning and presentation, assorted teacher utilities, online communication, administrative tasks, and training. (Appendices include sample technology-integrated learning experience plans, a sample acceptable use policy, and commonly asked questions about assessment. Accompanying Web site: http://www.heinemann.com. Contains an index. Contains 208 notes.)

Heift, Trude (2006).  Context-Sensitive "Help" in CALL  Computer Assisted Language Learning, 19, 2-3. 

This article discusses design and usability issues pertaining to context-sensitive "help" in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). As part of the discussion, we present a study in which we examined the effects of three independent factors on student usage of context-sensitive "help": feedback, exercise type, and language proficiency. Forty study participants used an online parser-based CALL system for German which, for the purpose of the study, provided two distinct styles of feedback to four different exercise types ranging from translations to dictations. Moreover, the study considered three levels of language proficiency. In all cases, the CALL program displayed a link to context-sensitive grammar "help" specifically geared to the task and error at hand. Study results indicate that learner access of context-sensitive "help" differs significantly with respect to feedback, exercise type, and language proficiency. The article concludes with a number of recommendations for implementing context-sensitive "help" in CALL.

Heift, Trude; Rimrott, Anne (2008).  Learner Responses to Corrective Feedback for Spelling Errors in CALL  System: An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, 36, 2. 

This article describes a study that investigates learner responses to three distinct types of corrective feedback for misspellings produced by English learners of German. Twenty-eight beginner and intermediate students used an online parser-based system for German that recorded student interaction with the software over 15 weeks. The study considered a corpus of 1268 misspellings and, for the two more explicit feedback types, the system provided correction suggestions for the misspellings. Study results indicate that, while the number of correct responses was significantly higher when the system provided a correction list, there was also significantly less learner uptake for the feedback type that did not provide any correction suggestions. Moreover, learners were far more successful in submitting the target word if it appeared in the suggestion list. Finally, the order in which the words appear in the suggestion list seems to be an influencing factor for students favoring one word over another.

Heilesen, Simon B.; Josephsen, Jens (2008).  E-Learning: Between Augmentation and Disruption?  Computers & Education, 50, 2. 

Based on a framework for analysis combining diffusion theory, content layer analysis and sense making, this paper discusses the theme of "e-learning as augmentation or disruption" from the point of view of technological innovation. Two cases of on-campus blended learning at Roskilde University, Denmark, are introduced to illustrate the discussion. They summarize experiences with three courses in Chemistry and Communication Studies, each of which has been taught over a period of three years or more. It is concluded that adoption of information and communication technology in education depends both on systemic factors and factors involving the world view and sense making of the individual. These various factors operate at different speeds, and the difference in time frame is likely to be one of the causes for the current apparently growing disillusionment with e-learning. However, focus on the absence of demonstrable disruptive effects tends to obscure the fact that more or less unobtrusive changes occurring over time do add up to an effect that eventually may well lead beyond simple augmentation of conventional practices.

Heine, Cindy (2002).  Kentucky School Updates: A Parent/Citizen Guide for 2002-04. 

This annual report is intended to assist parents and citizens to stay informed on the educational reforms in Kentucky schools and serves as a reference source for information concerning specific programs or areas of interest in Kentucky schools. Specific updates addressed in the report include the following: (1) assessment and school accountability; (2) early childhood programs; (3) primary school; (4) reading programs; (5) extended school services; (6) high schools; (7) career and technical education; (8) students with special needs; (9) equal opportunities in education; (10) school-based decision making; (11) family resource/youth services centers; (12) school safety; (13) technology and education; (14) professional development; (15) teacher preparation and the Education Professional Standards Board; (16) school finance; (17) governance; (18) alternative school schedules and calendars; and (19) parent involvement. Most of these sections of the report provide information on: the basics of the law; what is new in the current year; what parents and citizens might expect to see as a result of the changes; how to become involved; and a list of sources for more information. The guide concludes with a map of committee community support regions.

Heinecke, Walter F.; Milman, Natalie B.; Washington, Lisa A.; Blasi, Laura (2002).  New Directions in the Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Educational Technology  Computers in the Schools, 18, 2-3. 

Drawing from work by Shadish, Cook, and Leviton (1991) on social program evaluation, the authors discuss recent changes in evaluation theory and practices, and they connect these changes to technology and student learning. Concluding with a list of recommendations for evaluating the effectiveness of technology in teaching and learning, the authors challenge the purposes of education and prevalent goals for evaluation. After questioning how technology can impact student learning, they call for new and expanded definitions of student learning outcomes. Recommendations include redefining technology as a process rather than as a product, conducting implementation evaluations prior to outcome evaluations; reducing the reliance on standardized test scores as the primary outcome measure; and adopting multifaceted evaluation approaches (including case studies).

Heinecke, Walter; Blasi, Laura; Skerker, Sarah (2000).  The Process of an Evaluation in Progress. Measuring the Impact of Teaching with Technology: Comprehensive Interdisciplinary Performance Assessment. 

This paper discusses a pilot project in progress at Mantua Elementary School in Fairfax, Virginia begun on September 1, 1999 to develop, improve, and extend the school's current system of evaluating the effects of educational technology on student learning. The following sections are included: Purpose of the Project; Drawing upon the Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM); Measuring Current Approaches to Teaching with Technology; For Teachers and Instructional Designers: An Annotated Bibliography on Teaching and Learning, Performance Assessment, and Technology; Brief Introduction to the Teacher Inventory (downloadable); Preliminary Findings; Teachers and Students Have Their Say: Video Narrative; Questions We Have Raised as We Enter Fall of 2000; Working with a National Panel in Year Two; Digital Ethnography: Introducing Innovations in Year Two; and Our Own Experiences Working with Students (a pilot project with materials for teachers to download). | [FULL TEXT]

Heinrich, Eva; Jesshope, Chris; Walker, Nic (2001).  Teaching Cognitively Complex Concepts: Content Representation for AudioGraph Lectures. 

This paper investigates a solution to support the learning of cognitively complex concepts, through the recording, annotation and online delivery of multimedia lessons. Recording lessons for online delivery has the advantage of utilizing all of the pedagogical skills of the lecturers and teachers involved. To facilitate the retrieval of appropriate teaching material, the lessons are annotated using a notation called the Flexible Structured Coding Language (FSCL), which facilitates a rich and precise description of these concepts, in a natural language-like format. Different streams of meta data are produced to describe the lesson's properties, like cognitive type and media type. The approach to support the technology-based learning of cognitively complex concepts is based on the following elements: record complete lessons using the AudioGraph tools; capture different streams of meta data and associate those both with and within the media elements; and describe the lesson content using the FSCL. The approaches presented are set on the context of the IEEE draft standard on Learning Object Meta Data | [FULL TEXT]

Heinrich, Eva; Johnson, Russell; Luo, Daoshui; Maurer, Hermann; Sapper, Marianne (2001).  Learner-Formulated Questions in Technology-Supported Learning Applications. 

This paper looks at learner-formulated questions in technology-supported learning applications. Traditionally, technology-supported learning applications request input from the learner. The learner's response is used to assess the knowledge of the learner, to define a navigation path through the material or to construct a learner model. The objective is to add another form of interaction between learner and system, where the learner can pose questions to the system in similar fashion as to a human tutor. The paper discusses ways of dealing with these learner-formulated questions, question formats and existing approaches. It then introduces an approach for learner-formulated questions that is based on the Flexible Structured Coding Language (FSCL). Two specific approaches are presented: the syntax-based and the semantic-based. After a discussion of these approaches, the paper concludes with an outline of future work.   | [FULL TEXT]

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Hummel, H. G. K.; Burgos, D.; Tattersall, C.; Brouns, F.; Kurvers, H.; Koper, R. (2005).  Encouraging Contributions in Learning Networks Using Incentive Mechanisms  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 21, 5. 

We investigate incentive mechanisms to increase active participation in Learning Networks (LNs). The LN under study is LN4LD, an LN for the exchange of information about the IMS Learning Design specification. We examine how to encourage learners in LN4LD to contribute their knowledge, and whether incentive mechanisms can increase the level of active participation. We describe an incentive mechanism based on constructivist principles and Social Exchange Theory, and experimentation using the mechanism designed to increase the level of active participation. The incentive mechanism allows individual learners to gain personal access to additional information through the accumulation of points earned by making contributions. Repeated measurements according to a simple interrupted time series with removal design show that the level of participation was indeed increased by the introduction of the reward system. It can therefore be considered worthwhile to use incentive mechanisms in LNs.

Hummel, Paul A. (2003).  Human Performance Improvement: Lessons To Be Learned from Quality Improvement.  Educational Technology, 43, 1. 

Discusses quality improvement (QI) and how it can help human performance improvement (HPI). Compares QI and HPI and discusses focusing on products and services; focusing on the customer; using data more effectively; continuous improvement; benchmarking; establishing standards; specialization; and involving the clients.

Hummell, Laura (2006).  Synectics for Creative Thinking in Technology Education  Technology Teacher, 66, 3. 

Synectics is a creative problem-solving process developed by William J. J. Gordon and George Prince in the 1960s (Gordon, 1961). A result of Gordon and Prince observing brainstorming sessions that achieved varying levels of success, Synectics outlines the processes that people can use to help them overcome mental blocks while working on difficult tasks. By using Synectics, people's divergent thinking and capacity for solving problems increase. This article presents scenarios that an instructor, using Synectics and creative problem-solving techniques, can apply to teach students to solve a multitude of academic challenges. Synectics is yet another tool that can be used in creative problem solving to achieve more productive student problem-solving sessions. Synectics can be used in a wide variety of educational environments as well. Face-to-face, module-based, and distance education instructors alike can use the techniques to foster creative thinking and improve problem-solving skills among their students. Knowing how divergent thinking and Synectics work can help in any number of areas, from marketing, writing, personnel, leadership, and funding to general education.

Humphreys, Gillian; Spratt, Mary (2008).  Many Languages, Many Motivations: A Study of Hong Kong Students' Motivation to Learn Different Target Languages  System: An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, 36, 2. 

This article reports the findings of a 2003 study involving 526 Hong Kong tertiary students, aiming to explore their motivation towards the learning of English, Putonghua and a chosen third language (French, German or Japanese). Based on Dornyei's and Csizer's (2002) work [Dornyei, Z., Csizer, K., 2002. "Some dynamics of language attitudes and motivation: results of a nationwide survey." "Applied Linguistics" 23 (4), 421-462] on varying motivation towards different foreign languages among Hungarian school children, this study used an amended version of their questionnaire to examine possible varying motivation among Hong Kong respondents. Follow-up focus group interviews were also conducted; however, this paper focuses on the quantitative phase of the study. The results reveal quite distinct patterns of motivation towards the various languages, with the compulsory languages, English and Putonghua, being perceived as having a greater instrumental value than the chosen languages; but with English and the chosen languages being regarded more positively than Putonghua in affective terms. The paper describes these patterns, discusses the variables underlying them with suggested explanations from both inside and outside the socio-linguistic context of Hong Kong, and raises possible pedagogic implications. It also highlights similarities and differences between the findings of this study and those of Dornyei and Csizer in a bid to contribute to the debate on models of motivation for L2 learning.

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Horejsi, Martin (2003).  Making Technology Inclusive  Science and Children, 41, 3. 

Assistive Technology (AT) helps a person with a physical, cognitive, learning, or speech disability perform tasks that would otherwise be difficult or impossible. There are hundreds of specialized AT devices on the market, but their price tags often prevent their use in elementary science classrooms. Fortunately, affordable technologies "are" available to help students with disabilities gain equal access when it comes to computer use in science education. This article describes some of the many options available.

Horiguchi, Tomoya; Hirashima, Tsukasa (2001).  A Framework for Creating Counterexamples in Discovery Learning Environment. 

A framework for designing intelligent assistance in a discovery learning environment is proposed in this paper. The process of discovery learning is analyzed and the required functions for intelligent assistance are discussed. A flexible simulator that fits any type of discovery learning is necessary. The problem solvers that perform fundamental tasks of discovery are also needed: hypothesis generator and experiment designer. In particular, the paper focuses on another important function: evaluator of the effectiveness of counterexamples. Counterexamples have many clues for learning, but a learner often feels difficulty in utilizing them. This paper proposes the method of evaluating counterexamples from two educational viewpoints that ask the following: "Does it suggest the occurrence of error clearly?" (visibility), and "Does it suggest the cause of error?" (suggestiveness). Some case studies are presented to illustrate these functions, followed by a description of the framework.   | [FULL TEXT]

Horton, Gerald T.; Birmingham, Kathryn M. (2002).  The Working Conditions Program Assessment: Highlights.  Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 26, 1. 

Discusses the Working Connections Program, a program funded by Microsoft Corporation and administered by American Association of Community Colleges. Describes the program as being created to assist community colleges in the development and implementation of information technology (IT) programs that are designed to train skilled IT workers.

Horwedel, Dina M. (2006).  Blogging Rights  Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 23, 2. 

Growing in popularity among students and scholars, blogs are raising issues regarding free speech at colleges and universities. The new technology offers an exchange of ideas that wasn't as spontaneous--or even possible in some remote areas--previously. A blog can allow a scientist to share research with colleagues, ponder reasons for experimental outcomes or offer suggestions and input. Bloggers often tout the medium's ability to create a worldwide forum for open expression. But it is that kind of far-reaching impact that some administrators find unsettling, especially when it comes to criticism or other speech deemed contrary to the institution's mission. Some students and faculty have been punished for such posts. But advocates of freedom of speech in higher learning insist that faculty and students should be able to express themselves freely on any topic, and that protecting this academic freedom may even be the professional responsibility of colleges and universities.

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Hoole, Dushyanthi; Yogendran, N.; Thavachandran, S.; Priyatharshan, P.; Hoole, S. R. H. (2002).  A Bank of Chemistry Questions on an On-Line Server.  Journal of Science Education and Technology, 11, 1. 

Presents an on-line, server-based examination system for analytical chemistry or any other subject suitable for administration over large geographical areas for students in distance education to do self-assessment. Discusses the advantages of the system which combines course material with the examination system so that the examination system may be used by students to measure their preparedness.

Hooper, Simon; Hokanson, Brad; Bernhardt, Paul; Johnson, Mark (2002).  A Learning Software Design Competition.  Educational Technology, 42, 5. 

Explains the University of Minnesota Learning Software Design Competition, focusing on its goals and emphasis on innovation. Describes the review process to evaluate and judge the software, lists the winners, identifies a new class of educational software, and outlines plans for future competitions.

Hooper, Simon; Miller, Charles; Rose, Susan; Veletsianos, George (2007).  The Effects of Digital Video Quality on Learner Comprehension in an American Sign Language Assessment Environment  Sign Language Studies, 8, 1. 

The effects of digital video frame rate and size on American Sign Language (ASL) learner comprehension were investigated. Fifty-one students were randomly assigned to one of three video-size treatment groups: 480x360, 320x240, and 240x180 pixels. Within each treatment, three 30-second videos of signed narratives at frame rates of 6, 12, and 18 frames per second were presented to students. Participants used ASL to retell each story, while a digital video camera captured their performances and archived them for evaluation. Three ASL experts evaluated the video performances and generated a fluency score for each student. The results indicate that frame rate and the interaction between frame rate and ASL level had significant effects on learner comprehension, but video size did not significantly affect comprehension. These results were used to generate frame rate and video-size recommendations for displaying and recording student performance and instructor feedback videos in an ASL performance assessment software environment.

Hoover, Clara (2006).  Research-Based Instructional Strategies  School Library Media Activities Monthly, 22, 8. 

School library media specialists have four primary responsibilities: teacher, instructional partner, information specialist, and program administrator. As instructional partners, school library media specialists collaborate in designing instruction and learning activities that "reflect the best in current research and practice." Researchers at the Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL) recently conducted meta-analyses that identified effective instructional strategies; classroom management strategies; and school leadership responsibilities. All were shown to have positive effects on student achievement. School library media specialists should be familiar with the findings of the first study, especially because these strategies can and should be interwoven into learning activities that the instructional partnership designs. As instructional partners, school library media specialists need to be just as familiar with these strategies as do teachers. This article discusses the nine strategies identified by the McREL researchers.

Hoover, D. Sandy (2006).  Popular Culture in the Classroom: Using Audio and Video Clips to Enhance Survey Classes  History Teacher, 39, 4. 

Students often approach history survey classes with a significant degree of dread. Nevertheless, at least one history class is required for graduation from most, if not all, universities, and most students elect to take survey courses to fulfill that requirement. Students rarely enroll in an American history class eagerly, because they anticipate a semester of lengthy lectures in large, impersonal lecture halls, and essay exams that test their comprehension of information that often seems distant and without relevance to their lives. Too frequently, students realize their worst fears in survey classes, and as a result, they are less than attentive during lectures. However, the increased use of technology in the classroom has opened a number of new avenues through which to reach an often uninterested student population. PowerPoint, in particular, allows the instructor to supplement his or her lectures with a brief outline, pictures, and in some cases, audio and video clips, and recent studies indicate that the use of such technology is on the increase in college classrooms. The purpose of this article is to suggest a new way to use technology, particularly audio and video clips embedded in PowerPoint presentations, to more effectively reach students in American History survey classes.

Hoover, James P.; Main, Ron (2003).  Let the Professionals Do It.  American School Board Journal, 190, 12. 

Describes benefits of West Allegheny (Pennsylvania) School District's decision to outsource the management of its technology services. Benefits include improved efficiency, increased technical expertise, cost-effectiveness, personnel stability, and organizational focus. Lists important points to consider when selecting an outsourcing firm.

Hoover, John J.; Patton, James R. (2008).  The Role of Special Educators in a Multitiered Instructional System  Intervention in School and Clinic, 43, 4. 

The nature of special education has changed appreciably over the past several decades. As a result, the role of special educators needs to be examined and further developed to provide the most effective education for all learners at-risk and those with high- and low-incidence disabilities. In this article, the authors discuss five important roles in which special educators should possess skills to collaboratively educate learners at-risk within a multitiered instructional system.

Hoover, Mildred A.; Pelaez, Nancy J. (2008).  Blood Circulation Laboratory Investigations with Video Are Less Investigative than Instructional Blood Circulation Laboratories with Live Organisms  Advances in Physiology Education, 32, 1. 

Live organisms versus digital video of the organisms were used to challenge students' naive ideas and misconceptions about blood, the heart, and circulatory patterns. Three faculty members taught 259 grade 10 biology students in a California high school with students from diverse ethnolinguistic groups who were divided into 5 classes using microscopes (128 students) and 5 classes using digital video (131 students) to compare blood transport among invertebrates, fish, and humans. The "What Is Happening in this Class?" (WIHIC) questionnaire was used for assessment of microscope and video groups to detect students' perception of their learning environment following these teaching interventions. The use of microscopes had a clear effect on the perception of the investigative aspects of the learning environment that was not detected with the video treatment. Findings suggest that video should not replace investigations with live organisms.

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Hug, Barbara; Krajcik, Joseph S.; Marx, Ronald W. (2005).  Using Innovative Learning Technologies to Promote Learning and Engagement in an Urban Science Classroom  Urban Education, 40, 4. 

Recent reform movements within the United States have called for science for all and educational reforms to support this goal. In light of these reform movements and concerns regarding learning within urban schools, science educators and policy makers have pushed for the incorporation of learning technologies within schools as a way of creating equity and promoting learning among diverse learners. The Center for Learning Technologies in Urban Schools has been working to create and adopt standards and project-based science curricula in a large systemic reform effort. A core challenge of this partnership has been to embed learning technologies within these units to support active and engaged learning. This article examines how two interactive learning technologies embedded within an extended project-based science curriculum unit are capable of engaging urban students in actively learning key science concepts.

Hughes, Bob (2004).  The Opposite Intended Effect: A Case Study of How Over-Standardization Can Reduce Efficacy of Teacher Education  Teacher Education Quarterly, 31, 3. 

The hyper-regulation of education (and most recently the teacher preparation component of education) thrives on the premise that any perceived deficiencies in the educational system can be alleviated by reducing differences among the ways in which people are educated and by demanding adherence to standards. In its impact, however, this simplification has an opposite effect. Rather than raising expectations, a reliance on standards as the solution to perceived ineffectiveness has disconnected education from the more complex set of needs that should be addressed. To meet standards, teachers must often ignore issues which may also need to be addressed, but for which they are not being evaluated. Additionally, teachers must allow someone else to determine what is of value--even if that means ignoring the cognitive, cultural, and societal developmental needs of learners. As a direct result, K-12 schools now focus on a narrow band of certain content areas to the exclusion or diminution of others. This article presents an analysis of the technology standards which focuses on what the demands for standardization in teacher education misses. While presuming neutrality, the technology standards eliminate some skills and require others in ways that are inconsistent with the developmental needs of beginning teachers. In pursuing the gaps between what is required versus what exists, this analysis seeks to identify the impact that these gaps will have on teachers in programs like the one in which the author works.

Hughes, Gwyneth (2007).  Diversity, Identity and Belonging in E-Learning Communities: Some Theories and Paradoxes  Teaching in Higher Education, 12, 5-6. 

It is often assumed that online collaborative learning is inclusive of diversity. In this exploratory paper, I challenge this notion by developing a theory which proposes that inclusion occurs through congruence between learners' social identities and the identities implicitly supported through the interactions in a particular community. To build identity congruence, e-learning communities need spaces for both commonality and diversity, and I present three paradoxes which underlie the aims of online learners and teachers to embrace diversity online. I illustrate these with some examples from online learning and teaching. The ability to "listen" to each other online offers a way forward, and the paper ends with some future possibilities about how we can ensure that e-learning communities benefit from diversity.

Hughes, Gwyneth; Hay, David (2001).  Use of Concept Mapping To Integrate the Different Perspectives of Designers and Other Stakeholders in the Development of E-Learning Materials.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 32, 5. 

Discussion of multidisciplinary teams and stakeholders involved in the production of electronic learning materials focuses on a constructivist methodology for course design. Explains concept mapping that provided the basis for an electronic learning development project at the University of Surrey (United Kingdom) and includes examples of concept maps.

Hughes, Joan E. (2003).  Toward a Model of Teachers' Technology-Learning.  Action in Teacher Education, 24, 4. 

Presents a model of practicing teachers' technology learning processes, which emerged from comparative analysis across life-history case studies of four English teachers with varied technology and teaching experience. Teachers' knowledge and experience and the nature of the technology learning experience, together, led to multiple pathways through the model and impacted teachers' ability to integrate technology in support of subject matter learning.

Hughes, Joan E.; Kerr, Shantia P.; Ooms, Ann (2005).  Content-Focused Technology Inquiry Groups: Cases of Teacher Learning and Technology Integration  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 32, 4. 

Guided by a situated learning framework, this research examines the nature of teachers' technology learning when participating in a content-focused technology inquiry group, the ways teachers integrate what they learn into content-specific student learning activities, and how situated features of the learning context influence teacher learning. Longitudinal case studies of participating middle-school teachers reveal individual learning and technology integration accomplishments that were also inextricably linked to the group. The distributed nature of technology learning and integration evidenced in the cases raised the issue of whether teachers need to learn to operate the technology in order to integrate technology for student learning and the issue of sustainability when there is high reliance on participants outside the school organization during learning. The peer-supported learning also raised the wider societal issue about the role of teachers and highlighted the modest existence of professional learning communities in educational institutions. We recommend establishing technology inquiry groups within K-12 school settings and in teacher education courses.

Hughes, Joan E.; McLeod, Scott; Brown, Rachel; Maeda, Yukiko; Choi, Jiyoung (2007).  Academic Achievement and Perceptions of the Learning Environment in Virtual and Traditional Secondary Mathematics Classrooms  American Journal of Distance Education, 21, 4. 

This study examined Algebra students' achievement and perceptions of their classroom environments in both online and traditional face-to-face learning contexts using two validated assessments, the Assessment of Algebraic Understanding (AAU) test and the What is Happening in this Class? (WIHIC) classroom perceptions instrument. Three virtual and three traditional schools in three different states participated. Quantitative analysis revealed that online students consistently outperformed traditional students across the AAU subscales despite having lower proportions in a college preparation path. Traditional students were more likely to have significantly higher averages on their perceptions of Student Cohesiveness, Involvement, and Cooperation. Online students were more likely to perceive higher Teacher Support. The study reveals virtual students can access quality mathematics content and skilled teaching while also achieving academically. Increased access to virtual Algebra courses may provide more equitable early access to Algebra I and thus increase mathematics literacy among schoolchildren.  [Partial funding for this study was provided by the North American Council for Online Learning (NACOL) and Evergreen Consulting Associates.]

Hughes, Joan E.; Packard, Becky Wai-Ling; Pearson, P. David (2000).  The Role of Hypermedia Cases on Preservice Teachers' Views of Reading Instruction.  Action in Teacher Education, 22, 2A. 

Examined the impact of Reading Classroom Explorer (RCE), a video-based hypermedia tool, on the ways that preservice teachers used evidence to support claims about teaching reading in course papers. Results indicated that preservice teachers used video cases in RCE as an information resource, and they used RCE to varying degrees for investing in, complying with, or resisting the technology.

Hughes, Joseph J. (2002).  When Good Intentions Are not Enough: Motivating Faculty "Ownership" of IT Initiatives. 

This paper analyzes impediments to implementation of instructional technology (IT) initiatives as seen by a faculty member who has actively used IT since 1995. The three major impediments (the steep learning curve, difficulty in assessing success, and questions of applicability toward professional advancement) are discussed and some tentative solutions suggested.  | [FULL TEXT]

Hughes, Katherine L.; Golann, Joanne Wang (2007).  When the Virtual Becomes Real: Student Learning in the Virtual Enterprises Program  [Institute on Education and the Economy, Columbia University] 

Virtual Enterprises International (VE) is a high school program that teaches students about business through task-oriented and hands-on coursework. With the assistance of a coordinator and business mentors, VE students create and oversee a virtual firm, conducting business with other virtual firms nationally and internationally. The program enables students to learn about careers, develop interpersonal and organizational skills, and use technology. In some VE firms, students also study an applied economics curriculum, thereby linking the business enterprise to an academic subject required for high school graduation and increasing the academic content of the VE coursework. Participation in Virtual Enterprises is presumed to benefit students on a range of outcomes, including career preparation, college planning and readiness, and engagement. While the VE Central Office collects its own data on the program, there has been little research conducted externally. Thus, the VE Central Office invited the Institute on Education and the Economy (IEE) at Teachers College, Columbia University, to undertake a one-year, mixed method, multi-site study of the program with a focus on the influence that VE has on students' career and college readiness. The report presented here provides a deep description of the program features and the student and teacher perceptions of VE. It also discusses the relative effectiveness of various aspects of the program, such as technology use, project-based learning, and outside-the-classroom activities. The final section of this report offers recommendations to enhance the effectiveness of the New York City VE program.  [Funding for this study was provided by the Merrill Lynch Foundation to The Fund for Public Schools on behalf of the New York City Department of Education.] | [FULL TEXT]

Hughes, Katherine L.; Golann, Joanne Wang (2008).  A Virtual World with Real Results  Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers, 83, 3. 

This article describes how students learn invaluable job-readiness and academic skills by setting up and running their own businesses in a virtual world. Virtual Enterprises (VE) International is a high school career and technical education (CTE) program that teaches students about business by having a class create and operate its own virtual firm. In the VE network, there are many different types of firms--including law offices, insurance companies, specialty bicycle shops, and even a hotel in Cancun, Mexico. Students are employees of their firms, making decisions on which products to sell, how to market them, how to determine salaries, and so on. Advocates of CTE reform argue that CTE programs must be academically rigorous and technically relevant, and extend learning outside of school in order to better prepare students for both careers and college. By using a project-based, collaborative learning model, this program teaches students about business and technology through task-oriented coursework. In some VE firms, students also study an applied economics curriculum, thereby linking the business enterprise to an academic subject required for high school graduation, and increasing the rigor of the course. The program also integrates experiences outside of the school with classroom learning, offering students opportunities to participate in weekend career workshops, internships, city and national competitions, and college courses. | [FULL TEXT]

Hughes, Matthew; Ventura, Susie; Dando, Mark (2007).  Assessing Social Presence in Online Discussion Groups: A Replication Study  Innovations in Education & Teaching International, 44, 1. 

This paper argues that the emotional state of students' contributions need to be addressed in an online learning community. If feelings of fear, anger or isolation can lead to withdrawal or conflict then the potential for learning is reduced and a facilitator of an online course needs to manage these emotions at an early stage. Therefore, a validated method of assessment of emotional state is required. A method of assessing social presence--which includes emotional aspects--is tested through replication, amended and validated. The process refers to current literature around the nature of online facilitation and concludes with suggestions for monitoring the development of groups' social presence in this medium.

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Hesketh, E. A.; Stephen, K. W.; Laidlaw, J. M.; Binnie, V. I. (2001).  Lessons Learned from the Development of a Distance-Learning Programme.  Medical Teacher, 23, 1. 

Looks at seven key lessons learned when developing a distance-learning program that focuses heavily on needs assessment as well as team working and the need to consider a multiprofessional approach. Offers practical advice to those in the medical and dental professions wishing to produce their own educational programs. 

Hess, Diana (2007).  From "Banished" to "Brother Outsider", "Miss Navajo" to "An Inconvenient Truth": Documentary Films as Perspective-Laden Narratives  Social Education, 71, 4. 

The ubiquity of documentary films in social studies courses, along with their potential to influence what students learn, clearly show that documentary films matter in social studies education. While the high rate of documentary film usage by social studies teachers indicates that they are amenable to bringing new films into their classrooms, they also know that some films can provoke uproar in some communities. This is more likely to occur when the film is cutting edge--whether it's ahead of the mainstream consensus on what is considered school knowledge, perceived as taking a position on an issue that is highly controversial, or about a topic that some parents or other community members consider taboo. As a case in point, teachers in Federal Way School District, south of Seattle, were criticized for showing "An Inconvenient Truth" (a 2006 documentary, featuring Al Gore on the perils of global warming) because, as one parent argued, "Condoms don't belong in school, and neither does Al Gore. He's not a schoolteacher." Expecting documentary films to be neutral renditions of objective truth is problematic, because that is not typically their purpose. Better for social studies teachers to understand documentary films as what their makers intend them to be--perspective-laden narratives. In this article, the author has chosen three documentary films shown at the Sundance Film Festival to illustrate the role of perspective in documentary filmmaking. These documentary films are: (1) "Banished"; (2) "Miss Navajo"; and (3) "Brother Outsider". After viewing the films, the author interviewed their directors to get a sense of their purposes in making them. She asked what perspectives they hoped to portray, the ways in which the content of the film could be controversial, and how the high school students who viewed it at special Sundance screenings for students (or in schools) reacted.

Hess, Frederick M. (2007).  Business Goes to School: How the Private Sector Can Improve K-12 Education. Education Outlook. No.5  [American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research] 

This brief argues that the best way for businesses to help fix the education system is to stop backing a system that does not work, insist on accountability, and support entrepreneurs who will shake things up. It recommends five things that business can do to improve education. First, business has expertise in performance evaluation, human resources, information technology, and data systems, and thus can pass on lessons gained from decades of hard-won experience to schools. Second, any vibrant sector requires that strong new ventures have access to venture capital, be able to secure expertise and talent, and have the opportunity to grow. The lack of resources, networks, mentoring, and a straightforward way to locate potential investors, deter potential entrepreneurs. K-12 education directs the vast majority of funds to school systems on a per-pupil basis, resulting in little support for new entrants, and thus, even innovative schools have grown too slowly. The NewSchools Venture Fund is an example of an attractive model that offers funding to new providers while tapping its own network to give strategic planning, financial modeling, and fundraising help. Third, business can get out in front on contentious education reform issues when education innovators themselves cannot. Critical leadership is what outsiders often are best equipped to provide. Fourth, business needs to get tough with school boards, superintendents, and state officials. Business leaders have too often given money, muscle, and support without demanding substantial reform in exchange. Finally, business leaders have experience and credibility on issues like accountability, compensation, and management that can allow them to serve as the voice of reason when would-be reformers champion ill-conceived notions.

Hess, Kristen L.; Morrier, Michael J.; Heflin, L.; Ivey, Michelle L. (2008).  Autism Treatment Survey: Services Received by Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Public School Classrooms  Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 5. 

The Autism Treatment Survey was developed to identify strategies used in education of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in Georgia. Respondents of the web-based survey included a representative sample of 185 teachers across the state, reporting on 226 children with ASD in grades preschool-12th. The top five strategies being used in Georgia (Gentle Teaching, sensory integration, cognitive behavioral modification, assistive technology, and Social StoriesTM) are recognized as lacking a scientific basis for implementation. Analysis revealed the choice of strategies varied by grade level and classroom type (e.g., general education, special education). Results highlight clear implications for preservice and inservice educator training, and the need for continued research to document evidence-based strategy use in public schools for students with ASD.

Hess, Mary (2007).  Response to Shoemaker Review  Religious Education, 102, 4. 

In this article, the author responds to Dr. Shoemaker's review of her recent book. Their disagreement lies in differing definitions of collaborative learning. Dr. Shoemaker describes collaborative processes as privileging the affective over the cognitive, and minimizing engagement with content. He notes that the author supports the involvement of students in the learning process over the "traditionally esteemed role of transferring content." The author believes that this comment misunderstands collaborative learning and her description of it because what she wrote was that "It is far more important for us to help [students] develop information-accessing abilities, information-critiquing abilities, and information-integrating abilities than it is that we transfer content to them." That is not to say that content is not important, but rather that it must be given "full" importance by requiring students not only to be able to receive it, but also to search actively for it, judge its authority, and to be clear about any decisions they might come to in using it.

Hessley, Rita K. (2004).  A Computational-Modeling Course for Undergraduate Students in Chemical Technology  Journal of Chemical Education, 81, 8. 

The PC-based software technology, a computational-modeling course, for undergraduate chemistry students helps them to understand the molecular modeling in a better way. This course would be able to accommodate a wider array of topics and a greater depth of theory as the modeling is increasingly incorporated into the chemistry curriculum.

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Holcomb, Terry L.; Bray, Kaye E.; Dorr, David L. (2003).  Publications in Educational/Instructional Technology: Perceived Values of Ed Tech Professionals.  Educational Technology, 43, 5. 

Discusses publishing in the field of education technology. Topics include publishing as a tool for faculty evaluation; perceptions about publishing; academic versus nonacademic publications; quality versus quantity of scholarly work; refereed status; and journal rankings by academic prestige, general reading, and classroom use.

Holden, Jolly T.; Westfall, Philip J.-L. (2007).  An Instructional Media Selection Guide for Distance Learning. Fourth Edition  [Online Submission] 

Increasingly, educators and trainers are challenged within their respective organizations to provide for the efficient distribution of instructional content using instructional media. The appropriate selection of instructional media to support distance learning is not intuitive and does not occur as a matter of personal preference. On the contrary, instructional media selection is a systematic sequence of qualitative processes based on sound instructional design principles and is an integral component of the Instructional Systems Design process. In that role, media selection ensures that a specific distributed instructional medium can support the attainment of the desired learning objectives. Although media selection is often mentioned when studying the discipline of instructional technology or Instructional Systems Design (ISD), it is sometimes overlooked when applying the selection process in a distance learning environment.  | [FULL TEXT]

Holder, Bruce (2007).  An Investigation of Hope, Academics, Environment, and Motivation as Predictors of Persistence in Higher Education Online Programs  Internet and Higher Education, 10, 4. 

Predictors of persistence previously found useful in distinguishing successful from unsuccessful distance learners were assembled in a 60-item survey. The survey was completed by 259 learners enrolled in associate's, bachelor's, or master's level distance learning courses in accounting, business administration, information services, criminal justice, nursing, management, and education. The survey measured variables related to academics, environment, motivation, and hope as predictors of persistence, where persistence was defined as continuing beyond the first three classes in one of the three degree-granting programs. Persisters (N = 209) tended to score higher on environmental measures of Emotional Support, Self-efficacy, and Time and Study Management than non-persisters (N = 50). Surprisingly, high scores on a measure of Learner Autonomy (independent learning) were associated with non-persistence in the online programs. The findings were interpreted in the context of the cohort model used in the online programs attended by the students surveyed in the study.

Holdich, C. E.; Chung, P. W. H.; Holdich, R. G. (2004).  Improving Children's Written Grammar and Style: Revising and Editing with HARRY  Computers and Education, 42, 1. 

Children usually improve their writing in response to teacher comments. HARRY is a computer tutor, designed to assist children improve their narrative writing, focusing particularly upon grammar and style. Providing assistance involved identifying aspects of grammar and style on which to concentrate, including ways to enable the computer to detect weaknesses and then present information concerning how to make improvements. HARRY delivers general, conversational style suggestions for how to revise a text during composition, followed by editing suggestions targeting specific grammar and style weaknesses detected in the text. Finally, spellings and technical errors are corrected in MS Word. Evaluating a writing intervention strategy is problematic, as paradoxically, attempts by children to improve texts, can result in a deterioration in some aspects of writing quality. Four case studies are presented to demonstrate the effects of the HARRY writing system upon children's grammar and style. Each child wrote a control and a HARRY assisted story. HARRY's effectiveness at improving written grammar and style is demonstrated through analyses made of the narratives by CHECK TEXT, a utility tool that calculates and interprets quantitative data. Separate analysis of each stage of the HARRY assisted stories reveals the idiosyncratic pattern of improvement exhibited by each child.

Holland, Lisa A.; Tomechko, Sara; Leigh, Alyison, M.; Oommen, Anne; Bradford, Angela; Burns, Andrew E. (2004).  Real-Time Distance Research with IP Network Videoconferencing: Extending Undergraduate Research Opportunities  Journal of Chemical Education, 81, 8. 

Internet-based undergraduate research provides geographical flexibility and the removal of distance barriers, promotes diversity and interdisciplinary partnership. The data obtained from the undergraduate research project demonstrate that it is feasible to engage undergraduates using Internet-based synchronous video communication.

Holland, Patricia E. (2001).  Professional Development in Technology: Catalyst for School Reform.  Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 9, 2. 

This case study of teachers' professional development in instructional technology explores three assumptions: teachers are at various levels in their knowledge and use of technology; staff development needs to be based on currently construed best practices; and teacher's professional development in technology may serve to further larger goals of school reform.

Hollandsworth, Randall J. (2007).  Managing the Podcast Lecture: A Hybrid Approach for Online Lectures in the Business Classroom  TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 51, 4. 

This article discusses a pilot project applying podcast technology to a management course. The project was designed, implemented, and evaluated in spring 2006 in conjunction with the Management and Supervisory Development program at Athens Technical College (Athens, Georgia). The project goals were to evaluate the pedagogical, logistical, and technical effectiveness of the use of webcast technologies for college courses. The technical structure for this project was developed and maintained by the Athens Technical College Office of Computer Services with technical support from the Georgia Department of Adult and Technical Education Virtual Technical College. The Principles of Management (MSD 100) course, which develops skills and behaviors for effective supervision of people and tasks in business organizations, was delivered in a hybrid distance-learning format--a mix of online technology with classroom instruction. These two instructional strategies combine to achieve the flexibility and consistency of online learning with concentrated learning in the weekly classroom meeting. Students utilize a learning management system (LMS) to obtain class notes, conduct group discussions, and prepare online assignments. This pilot program served to provide an evaluation of the effectiveness of these learning strategies and technologies for use by other courses and schools within the Georgia Department of Adult and Technical Education.

Hollas, Betty (2007).  Differentiating Instruction in a Whole-Group Setting (7-12): Taking the Easy First Steps into Differentiation  [Crystal Springs Books] 

Applying concepts from lower grades, the author applies whole-group differentiation concepts to middle and high school, showing teachers how it is possible to differentiate within the whole-group setting in which many educators are comfortable. By allowing everyone to participate in the same activities at different levels of complexity or mastery, the book offers all students ways to join in and experience success. These strategies raise thinking to a higher level, give students choices regarding how they demonstrate their learning, and invite a range of responses. The author supplies specific ideas for assessment before, during, and after instruction, so that the teacher can adjust to meet class needs. Five chapters include: (1) Student Engagement Window; (2) Questioning Window; (3) Flexible Grouping Window; (4) Ongoing Assessment Window; and (5) Getting Started. Reproducibles, Recommended Resources (Print and Web Sites), and an Index are included.

Hollebrands, Karen F. (2007).  The Role of a Dynamic Software Program for Geometry in the Strategies High School Mathematics Students Employ  Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 38, 2. 

This study investigated the ways in which the technological tool, The Geometer's Sketchpad, mediated the understandings that high school Honors Geometry students developed about geometric transformations by focusing on their uses of technological affordances and the ways in which they interpreted technological results in terms of figure and drawing. The researcher identified different purposes for which students used dragging and different purposes for which students used measures. These purposes appeared to be influenced by students' mathematical understandings that were reflected in how they reasoned about the physical representations, the types of abstractions they made, and the reactive or proactive strategies employed.

Hollebrands, Karen Flanagan (2004).  Technology Tips  Mathematics Teacher, 97, 4. 

Directions for using a function called Mail Merge in Microsoft Office are mentioned. Using a spreadsheet and mail merge, allows one to create different assessments, complete with worked solutions, generate them on demand or save them for later use.

Hollenbeck, James E.; Hollenbeck, Darina Z. (2004).  Technology to Enhance Learning in the Multi-Lingual Classroom  [Online Submission] 

Research and various studies have showed that using multimedia in the classroom increases creativity, innovation problem solving and improves communication between people. Technology addresses equity and access issues for learners. Technology allows educators to refine teaching strategies and learning processes, and to be more inclusive of all types of learning styles regardless of native language. Technology effectively shrinks the world by sharing knowledge and experiences. This is easily observed in the multicultural and multilingual classroom represented today. | [FULL TEXT]

Holliman, Richard; Scanlon, Eileen (2006).  Investigating Cooperation and Collaboration in near Synchronous Computer Mediated Conferences  Computers and Education, 46, 3. 

The development and use of computer mediated communications as a tool for teaching and learning has grown considerably in recent years. It has been developed to extend the conventional face-to-face tutorial environment and for distance-learning purposes, actively engaging students in productive learning situations. Here we document the findings of an analysis of near synchronous conferencing where postgraduate distance learners worked in small groups to produce a report that examined media coverage of controversial science. The results suggest that students actively engaged in both cooperative and collaborative learning in preparing and producing these reports, and that tutor interventions were an important factor in influencing peer interaction. Furthermore, we have found evidence of cooperation between learners who passively participate in vicarious learning. We consider the implications of these findings with respect to current definitions of cooperation and collaboration.

Hollingsworth, Jan Carter (2007).  An Incredible Tool for Tracking Seizure Activity  Exceptional Parent, 37, 7. 

Eric Schumacher knows all too well the trials and tribulations of tracking seizures and daily activities in the ongoing attempt to gain seizure control. Diagnosed with epilepsy in his teens, he is now bringing a new and innovative tool to the market that could help countless people with epilepsy gain better control over their seizures and thus achieve a higher quality of life. EpiTrax is a software application designed to improve the lives of individuals with epilepsy and seizures. The program allows users to record daily journal logs with a multiple-choice answer format as well as a place to make general notes about everything from seizure episodes to daily activities. It allows the user to analyze seizure trends as well as possible correlations between seizures and seizure triggers, and, finally, to generate reports that can be taken or emailed to an individual's doctor or shared with friends and family that are team members in a person's seizure control plan. The software includes a place to make notes from recent visits to the doctor and a place to jot down questions and comments that might need to be addressed with the doctor on the next visit. It also offers the flexibility of recording thoughts and feelings or other notes in free-form fields. Uploading files, such as documents, spreadsheets, or graphic files, is also a handy feature, and these can be stored along with journal entries.

Hollingsworth, W. Craig (2004).  A Professional Development Model for Phoenix International School, Hong Kong  [Online Submission] 

The integration of technology into the curriculum is a key issue in today's schools. Whether technology should be used in schools is no longer an issue. Instead, the current emphasis is ensuring that technology is used effectively to create new opportunities for learning and to promote student achievement (The North Regional Educational Laboratory, 2003). This paper provides a professional development model to meet the needs of the staff at Phoenix International School and to ensure the effective use of technology and its integration. The following are appended: (1) Hardware and Software Competencies questionnaire; (2) Professional Development Figure; (3) "Example" Language Arts Technology Team; and (4) Five Levels of Professional Development Evaluation. | [FULL TEXT]

Hollingsworth, W. Craig (2005).  Comparing Hong Kong and Sweden ICT Policy in Education; Reaching the Third Phase  [Online Submission] 

In this study I address the problem of the implementation and the foreseeable success of the July 2004 document from the Education and Manpower Bureau of Hong Kong, "Empowering Learning and Teaching with Information Technology" (EMB 2004). The statements in this policy will be compared to Sweden's ICT policy and a report completed by Peter Kearns for the Australian Government. All of the fore mentioned policies will be compared to the 3 phases of ICT development mentioned in Kearns report, "Towards the Connected Learning Society: An International Overview of Trends in Policy for Information and Communication Technology in Education" (2002). The policies will also be examined and compared to different criteria also observed in Kearns (2002) article where he discusses the criteria for leading practice in policy for ICT in education. This report then goes on to analyze the Hong Kong policies and their implications. This paper argues that the new Hong Kong policy statement, however ambitious, will have many difficulties reaching certain goals. Appendix A contains Figures. [Master's Thesis, Hong Kong University.] | [FULL TEXT]

Hollingworth, Rowan W.; McLoughlin, Catherine (2001).  Developing Science Students' Metacognitive Problem Solving Skills Online.  Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 17, 1. 

Proposes a foundation for the design of an online learning environment being developed at the University of New England (Australia) for the acquisition of metacognitive problem solving skills in science. Discusses instructional design guidelines for developing learning environments that supply cognitive support to strengthen metacognitive and reflective skills.

Holma, Katariina (2004).  Plurealism and Education: Israel Scheffler's Synthesis and its Presumable Educational Implications  Educational Theory, 54, 4. 

Israel Scheffler, one of the most important figures in the history of philosophy of education in the United States, has recently introduced an interesting idea in terms of the long-standing debate between constructivism and realism. Scheffler's idea has its roots in his debate with Nelson Goodman, his Harvard colleague, who defended thoroughgoing constructivism and pluralism (a fusion he termed irrealism). Scheffler describes his plurealism as a synthesis of Peircean monistic realism and Goodmanian pluralist irrealism. This article elaborates the possible educational implications of all three of these positions: constructivism, realism, and plurealism. Scheffler's idea of plurealism is educationally rewarding since it preserves Goodmanian pluralism without slipping into his voluntarism or relativism. In educational terms, plurealism implies, first, the value of different ways to both see and describe the world and, second, the independent importance of different realms of science as well as other areas of human understanding. As a version of realism, it indicates that we can evaluate and improve our understanding of reality.

Holmes, Aliya; Polhemus, Linda; Jennings, Sybillyn (2005).  CATIE: A Blended Approach to Situated Professional Development  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 32, 4. 

The Capital Area Technology and Inquiry in Education program (CATIE) is a content-focused, inquiry-based professional development program developed by the Center for Initiatives in Pre-College Education (CIPCE) to assist K-6 teachers in the technology integration process. To address concerns of sustain-ability and cost-effectiveness, this situated model combined online and face-to-face professional development approaches to encourage thought-provoking experiences that inspire new pedagogies. CATIE united efforts with the Online Learning Forum (OLF) to offer blended mentoring experiences situated in and around the classroom context with a special focus on mathematics instruction. CATIE, formerly a high-resource model, transitioned into a multi-dimensional experience in an effort to sustain technology-rich learning communities and provide quality professional development resources for classroom instruction. This article explores the dimensions of CATIE, the transition to a blended model, and the contributions of this situated model to technology integration professional development.

Holmes, Jeffrey (2007).  Designing Agents to Support Learning by Explaining  Computers and Education, 48, 4. 

Although prior research has shown that generating explanations encourages students to learn new content with deeper understanding and to monitor their own comprehension more effectively, helping students learn how to explain properly remains a significant challenge. This study investigated the use of software agents as learning partners in an activity where students generated explanations about river ecosystem concepts. The results of the experiment demonstrated that software agents can have a positive impact as learning partners in a virtual world environment. It was found that the agents encouraged the use of explanation resources designed to help students generate more effective explanations. Students working with the agents generated deeper explanations than students who did not interact with an agent. Implications for the design of learning environments with agents as learning partners are discussed.

Holmes, Mark H. (2006).  Integrating the Learning of Mathematics and Science Using Interactive Teaching and Learning Strategies  Journal of Science Education and Technology, 15, 3-4. 

To help students grasp the intimate connections that exist between mathematics and its applications in other disciplines a library of interactive learning modules was developed. This library covers the mathematical areas normally studied by undergraduate students and is used in science courses at all levels. Moreover, the library is designed not just to provide critical connections across disciplines but to also provide longitudinal subject reinforcement as students progress in their studies. In the process of developing the modules a complete editing and publishing system was constructed that is optimized for automated maintenance and upgradeability of materials. The result is a single integrated production system for web-based educational materials. Included in this is a rigorous assessment program, involving both internal and external evaluations of each module. As will be seen, the formative evaluation obtained during the development of the library resulted in the modules successfully bridging multiple disciplines and breaking down the disciplinary barriers commonly found in their math and non-math courses.

Holowczak, Richard D. (2005).  Incorporating Real-Time Financial Data into Business Curricula  Journal of Education for Business, 81, 1. 

The need to incorporate business and economic data into curricula has been a driver of technology adoption in business schools. Web-based resources and professional data services, such as Reuters and Bloomberg, are being increasingly adopted by business programs to meet this need. There are clear trade-offs to adopting either technological approach. In this article, the author presents examples of incorporating real-time data from professional data services into a variety of business topics.

Holsbrink-Engels, Geralien A. (2001).  Using a Computer Learning Environment for Initial Training in Dealing with Social-Communicative Problems.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 32, 1. 

Discusses the use of role-play for the development of interpersonal skills and evaluates a computer-based learning environment for initial training in dealing with social-communicative problems. Discusses high cognitive load, explains the use of a conversational model, describes the results of two experiments with university students, and suggests implications for training.

Holstrom, Lisa (2003).  Eliminating Barriers for All E-Learners.  Educational Technology, 43, 6. 

Discusses ways to eliminate barriers to electronic learning based on experiences at the University of Cincinnati. Topics include meeting demands from a population that lacks access and skills; weak English proficiency; low income adults; acquiring computer skills; media use; computer hardware capabilities; and the need for continuing feedback.

Holt, Dale; Rice, Mary; Smissen, Ian; Bowly, Judy (2001).  Towards Institution-Wide Online Teaching and Learning Systems: Trends, Drivers and Issues. 

Universities worldwide are consolidating and enhancing their commitments to various models of e-learning. These activities are leading to the adoption of corporate-wide e-learning systems and accompanying changes in structures, processes, and infrastructure requirements. The professed ideal is to identify narrowly defined corporate instructional technology (IT) solutions that can deliver the full range of educational, administrative, and student support features to meet the organizational need to expand e-learning activities globally. The trend seems to be away from locally driven and controlled IT development and adoption towards investments in Instructional Management Systems (IMS). In reality, however, universities generally are developing and using a broader array of solutions to meet their needs than may be deemed desirable under a more centralized, corporatized IT approach. Focusing on IT evaluations conducted at Deakin University (Australia), this paper examines these trends by analyzing the drivers shaping corporate approaches to IT implementation, and reflects critically on some of the educational, economic, and organizational tensions and issues evident in institutional approaches to establishing such systems. The paper highlights the ongoing need for innovative, dynamic organizational solutions to progress the e-learning agenda, and the thoughtful reconciliation of centralized and decentralized approaches to achieving desired ends. 

Holt, Dennis M.; McAllister, Paula; Ingram, Erin Claxton (2002).  Technology 2000: Using Electronic Portfolios for the Performance Assessment of Teaching and Learning  Computers in the Schools, 18, 4. 

This article describes a collaborative university-school district project for improving teaching and learning by using state-of-the-art educational technologies. The work resulted in the simultaneous improvement of P-12 education and teacher education. The article illustrates some of the important outcomes of a project known as Technology 2000, a collaborative effort between a university, a school district, and a business partner. Through using appropriate educational technologies, pre-service teachers, in cooperation with their supervising teachers in five classrooms at two school sites, engaged in the collaborative alignment of curriculum, instruction, and assessment to facilitate student achievement. The participants believe that the outcomes of this educational technology project have important implications for improving teaching and learning in other schools and teacher education settings.

Holton, Derek (2005).  Tertiary Mathematics Education for 2024  International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 36, 2-3. 

In a future that is likely to be increasingly dominated by new technology, it is important to consider what mathematics is and how it might be taught. This article discusses these and related issues in the context of both universities and schools.

Holum, Ann; Gahala, Jan (2001).  Critical Issue: Using Technology To Enhance Literacy Instruction. 

Noting that technology has contributed to an expanded understanding of literacy, this guide offers research, best practices, and resources that support the integration of new technologies into literacy instruction. It begins with brief definitions of: information literacy, digital literacy, new literacy, computer literacy, computer-technology literacy, critical literacy, and media literacy. It discusses research on technology and literacy, and outlines technologies that support students' reading development and research and collaboration skills. In discussing professional development in technology and literacy, it notes that as educational technologies move the classroom toward a student-centered model, the role of the literacy teacher becomes that of a coach, facilitator, or mentor. The guide lists the following goals related to technological literacy: the school or district has a clear set of goals, expectations, and criteria for improvements in student literacy; educational technology supports literacy instruction in the classroom and is integrated into the literacy curriculum; all students have opportunities to use educational technology to improve their literacy skills; and ongoing professional development in literacy and technology provides educators with current and practical applications for enhancing students' literacy skills. Action options for teachers, library-media specialists, parents, and community members; implementation pitfalls; illustrative cases, and a list of contacts are provided. | [FULL TEXT]

Holzberg, Carol S. (2001).  Multimedia Reference Tools.  Instructor, 110, 6. 

Presents suggestions for content-rich classroom encyclopedias on CO-ROM and DVD, including: the Encarta Reference Suite 2001; the 2001 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, School Edition; the Britannica 2001 DVD; and the World Book 2001 Deluxe Edition, v5.0.

Holzinger, Andreas; Kleinberger, Thomas; Muller, Paul (2001).  Multimedia Learning Systems Based on IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM). 

One of the "hottest" topics in recent information systems and computer science is metadata. Learning Object Metadata (LOM) appears to be a very powerful mechanism for representing metadata, because of the great variety of LOM Objects. This is on of the reasons why the LOM standard is repeatedly cited in projects in the field of eLearning Systems. This multimedia learning related technology could enhance conventional learning systems. Some applications have many possibilities to interpret and use the information of the LOM base schema. One of the disadvantages of the very complex metadata structure is the fact that it is difficult or confusing to determine the relevant elements for a satisfying result. Therefore, a learning system based on the LOM standard is expected to provide an intuitive user interface that supports the user in getting good results. This article describes why metadata is needed, discusses the development from Dublin Core, Gateway to Educational Materials (GEM), and Warwick-Framework to the IEEE LOM, and presents four examples of successfully implemented systems.   | [FULL TEXT]

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Hope, Andrew (2006).  School Internet Use, Youth and Risk: A Social-Cultural Study of the Relation between Staff Views of Online Dangers and Students' Ages in UK Schools  British Educational Research Journal, 32, 2. 

Internet access has recently been introduced into over 30,000 schools in the UK. While web provision has been heralded by some as an educational panacea, it is also recognised that there are dangers inherent in school Internet use. Adopting the cultural risk perspective, drawing upon a social-cultural analysis of Internet regulation and utilising the concepts of liminality and "otherness", this article explores staff Internet risk perspectives. While staff expressed concern about online pornography, hate-sites, bomb/drug making websites, electronic communication, security issues and copyright violation, interpretations as to who was at risk varied with student age. Younger students' Internet activities were interpreted with reference to narratives of innocence, whilst the inappropriate online activities of youths were labelled as "dangerous". In conclusion, it is argued that a distinction needs to be drawn between risks arising from liminality and those associated with "otherness".

Hopkins, Janet (2004).  School Library Accessibility: The Role of Assistive Technology  Teacher Librarian, 31, 3. 

While doing research into the topic of assistive technology in libraries, Janet Hopkins, found many examples of libraries providing assistive technology and special services for clients with disabilities. However, most of those examples are in post-secondary and public libraries. It was difficult to identify K-12 school libraries that are providing access to assistive technology for students with disabilities. This is understandable for a couple of reasons. Assistive technology is a relatively new and rapidly developing field of educational technology specialization. Additionally, many special educators remain unaware of the range of enabling technology options for special needs students. Teacher-librarians can help students with disabilities make the most of media-rich school library resources by implementing accessible technology options. Inclusive education presents many challenges for schools and educators. Diverse student groupings in K-12 classrooms have prompted education leaders to explore new ways of meeting the needs of all learners. Also provided, is a list of 10 ideas for addressing library accessibility issues for students with disabilities, as well as a list of on line resources.

Hopkins, Janet (2006).  All Students Being Equal: Help Your Special Needs Students Using These Resources  Technology & Learning, 26, 10. 

Assistive technologies (AT) give special needs students the ability to access computer resources. AT can be life-changing for kids with significant communication, mobility, literacy, visual, and hearing challenges. But implementing AT in schools is a complex issue. There are various categories of commercial and open-source products, each with multiple technology options. Diverse learning environments, educator experience, product awareness, individual student needs, legacy computer systems, and budget limitations all have an influence on district AT selections and services, as well. Successful AT implementation takes additional time and often money. For most districts, both of these resources are in short supply, and some educators unfamiliar with the field of AT may feel overwhelmed. However, numerous books, Web sites, conferences, and online discussion groups can get educators up to speed on the educational applications of AT. This article presents a sampling of assistive technologies currently available on the market.

Hopkins, Joseph; Gibson, Will; Ros i. Sole, Cristina; Savvides, Nicola; Starkey, Hugh (2008).  Interaction and Critical Inquiry in Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Conferencing: A Research Agenda  Open Learning, 23, 1. 

This paper reviews research on learner and tutor interaction in asynchronous computer-mediated (ACM) conferences used in distance learning. The authors note claims made for the potential of ACM conferences to promote higher-order critical inquiry and the social construction of knowledge, and argue that there is a general lack of evidence regarding the actual achievement of these aims in such conferences. We present and discuss the relevant research literature currently available on the effects of social presence, the tutor's teaching and moderating strategies, and task type. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research in each of these areas.

Hopkins, Pamela Clinton; Cowell, Charles E.; Jorden, Debra; McWhorter, Rochell; Dobbs, Rita L.; Allen, W. Clayton (2006).  Technology's Impact on Human Resource Development across the Life Span: Pedagogy Starts with Andragogy  [Online Submission, Paper presented at the Academy of Human Resource Development International Conference (AHRD) (Columbus, OH, Feb 22-26, 2006) p709-715 (Symp. 34-2)] 

Human Resource Development (HRD) programs are faced with overwhelming challenges as there is a dearth of computer literate employees to meet the growing demands of the workplace. In other words, many employees are technologically and computer challenged thus impeding the instruction and learning process. Innovative organizations utilize computer technology in their initial and ongoing training programs. This computer knowledge deficit increases the cost burden of initial and on-going training. Luskin (2002) emphasized that "knowledge is recognized as a key to a company's competitive advantage and acknowledged as a key human capitol asset." When this human capitol knowledge is missing a human knowledge deficit exists.  [For complete proceedings, see ED491487.] | [FULL TEXT]

Hoppe, Sue E. (2004).  Improving Transition Behavior in Students with Disabilities Using a Multimedia Personal Development Program: Check and Connect  TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 48, 6. 

This article evaluates Check and Connect (Hoppe & Bray, 2000), a computer-assisted learning program funded by a competitive subgrant under the "Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Part B" (ages 3-21). The program targeted 20 students in high school with disabilities categorized as "learning disabilities," "other health impairment," "emotional disturbance" and "mental retardation." Moreover, these students exhibited many behaviors associated with risk for school failure, such as poor motivation, poor attendance, poor emotional control, poor self-esteem, impulsive behavior, non-compliant behavior to authority figures, poor self-management skills, low academic skills and poor pragmatic language skills. The major goal of the program was to create behavioral interventions that enabled students to acquire social and behavioral skills which generalized to the home, employment and community setting. Four constructs were explored to assess the efficacy of the Check and Connect personal development program: (1) work-related; (2) interpersonal; (3) social/community; and (4) overall rank. The indicators used to measure participation in school were based on the "Hawthorne Transition Behavior Scale." These indicators were used to measure an overall rank score in transition behavior. The rating scales were completed by the students' special education teacher and by a general education teacher. The four constructs were measured using a pre- and post-evaluation design. The data were analyzed and graphed to determine program effectiveness. The Check and Connect program appeared to be beneficial for the students targeted in the program. The students reported that the use of the computers and the pay incentive gave them reasons to stay in school. It was also observed by teacher and administrators that the students worked hard at achieving learning goals. The program enabled the school district to build on an existing work study program, build networks with community organizations and connections with individual professionals in the school district and the community at large. Check and Connect promoted a technological and vocational technique to address behavior, cognitive and affective domains of learning as well as promoted the development of positive behavioral interventions and support.

Hopper, Keith B. (2003).  In Defense of the Solitary Learner: A Response to Collaborative, Constructivist Education.  Educational Technology, 43, 2. 

Discusses online course design in higher education and cautions against blindly accepting constructivist and collaborative learning strategies. Explains many of the problems associated with these strategies, including the use of technology; considers social change; and describes groupthink and its influence in online courses.

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Huai, Nan; Braden, Jeffery P.; White, Jennifer L.; Elliott, Stephen N. (2006).  Effect of an Internet-Based Professional Development Program on Teachers' Assessment Literacy for All Students  Teacher Education and Special Education, 29, 4. 

This quasi-experimental study examined the effectiveness of Assessing One and All (AOA), a Web-based teacher professional development program. AOA was designed to enhance teachers' assessment literacy and skills in general and inclusive educational assessment practices. Fifty-five teachers from Arizona, South Carolina, and Wisconsin participated in the study. Repeated-measure analysis, matched-pair t-tests, and qualitative analysis were used to examine whether (a) AOA effectively enhanced teachers' knowledge and self-efficacy in inclusive assessment practices, and (b) teachers accepted the online course as an alternative to traditional professional development programs. Despite some limitations in the design and execution of the study, AOA improved teachers' knowledge and self-efficacy of assessment issues and can serve as an efficient and effective professional development tool.

Huang, Albert H. (2003).  End-User Training Management Systems.  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 31, 1. 

Discusses the need for employee training in this information-based economy; reviews the process of end-user training and related research; describes a system that manages end-user training; and proposes potential opportunities for future development. Topics include the diversity of end users; diversity of training methods; need for outcome assessment; and meeting business objectives.

Huang, Chenn-Jung; Chu, San-Shine; Guan, Chih-Tai (2007).  Implementation and Performance Evaluation of Parameter Improvement Mechanisms for Intelligent E-Learning Systems  Computers & Education, 49, 3. 

In recent years, designing useful learning diagnosis systems has become a hot research topic in the literature. In order to help teachers easily analyze students' profiles in intelligent tutoring system, it is essential that students' portfolios can be transformed into some useful information to reflect the extent of students' participation in the curriculum activity. It is observed that students' portfolios seldom reflect students' actual studying behaviors in the learning diagnosis systems given in the literature; we thus propose three kinds of learning parameter improvement mechanisms in this research to establish effective parameters that are frequently used in the learning platforms. The proposed learning parameter improvement mechanisms can calculate the students' effective online learning time, extract the portion of a message in discussion section which is strongly related to the learning topics, and detect plagiarism in students' homework, respectively. The derived numeric parameters are then fed into a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to predict each learner's performance in order to verify whether they mirror the student's studying behaviors. The experimental results show that the prediction rate for the SVM classifier can be increased up to 35.7% in average after the inputs to the classifier are "purified" by the learning parameter improvement mechanisms. This splendid achievement reveals that the proposed algorithms indeed produce the effective learning parameters for commonly used e-learning platforms in the literature.

Huang, Chenn-Jung; Liu, Ming-Chou; Chu, San-Shine; Cheng, Chih-Lun (2007).  An Intelligent Learning Diagnosis System for Web-Based Thematic Learning Platform  Computers and Education, 48, 4. 

This work proposes an intelligent learning diagnosis system that supports a Web-based thematic learning model, which aims to cultivate learners' ability of knowledge integration by giving the learners the opportunities to select the learning topics that they are interested, and gain knowledge on the specific topics by surfing on the Internet to search related learning courseware and discussing what they have learned with their colleagues. Based on the log files that record the learners' past online learning behavior, an intelligent diagnosis system is used to give appropriate learning guidance to assist the learners in improving their study behaviors and grade online class participation for the instructor. The achievement of the learners' final reports can also be predicted by the diagnosis system accurately. Our experimental results reveal that the proposed learning diagnosis system can efficiently help learners to expand their knowledge while surfing in cyberspace Web-based "theme-based learning" model.

Huang, David Wenhao; Aagard, Hans; Diefes-Dux, Heidi (2004).  Impact of Cognitive-Based Instructional Intervention on Learning Motivation: The Implementation of Student-Made Glossary in a Programming-Oriented Engineering Problem-Solving Course and Its Impact on Learning Motivation  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

This article describes the purpose, development, and implementation of a cognitive-based instructional intervention and its impact on learning motivation. The study was conducted in a programming-based problemsolving course for first-year engineering students. The results suggest that the instructional intervention developed based on the hierarchical analysis of intellectual skills development and partial-to-whole learning task approach has significant correlation with the Satisfaction component of ARCS Motivational Design Model. | [FULL TEXT]

Huang, David Wenhao; Matthys, Debbie; Wu, Xuemei; Schaffer, Scott (2004).  A Case Study on the Development and Implementation of a Graduate Level Human Performance Technology Course  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

Given the emerging trend of innovating Instructional Design process (ID) for Human Performance Technology (HPT) related application in order to more effectively addressing organizational performance problems in industries, it is necessary to prepare students majoring in Instructional Design or Educational Technology in terms of how they can apply and further develop the concepts and skills learned from the field of ID to a more complicated and challenging HPT setting for the increasing demand seen in job markets. This paper presents a case study on the design, development, and implementation of a graduate level HPT course for the purpose of better developing ID students for future HPT related tasks. Issues such as (1) locating potential HPT client in an academic setting, (2) the dynamic interaction among stakeholders, (3) Tools used to facilitate the communication (i.e. visual modeling method, WebCT), and (4) effectives of project-base learning for HPT courses are discussed. | [FULL TEXT]

Huang, G. Q.; Shen, B.; Mak, K. L. (2001).  www.teld.net: Online Courseware Engine for Teaching by Examples and Learning by Doing.  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 29, 3. 

Describes TELD (Teaching by Examples and Learning by Doing), a Web-based online courseware engine for higher education. Topics include problem-based learning; project-based learning; case methods; TELD as a Web server; course materials; TELD as a search engine; and TELD as an online virtual classroom for electronic delivery of electronic curriculum materials.

Huang, Gary G.; Du, Jianxia (2002).  Computer Use at Home and at School: Does It Relate to Academic Performance?  Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 8, 2. 

Examines how computer use produces generic benefit to all children and differential benefits to minority and poor children. Analyzes data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) of 1988-1992. 

Huang, Hsiu-mei (2000).  Instructional Technologies Facilitating Online Courses.  Educational Technology, 40, 4. 

Focuses on various technological tools that support online learning: e-mail (voice mail); online discussion groups; online resources; CD-ROM; online courseware; asynchronous communication; synchronous communication; and World Wide Web. Analyzes the attributes of online delivery systems, addressing interactivity and feedback; media features; learning modes; pace of learning; learning theory; exchange of information; and flexible course designs.

Huang, Hsiu-Mei (2002).  Toward Constructivism for Adult Learners in Online Learning Environments.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 33, 1. 

Examines the impact of constructivism in online learning environments with adult learners. Reviews theories of constructivism and of adult learning and considers interactive learning, collaborative learning, authentic learning, learner-centered learning, and higher order thinking skills.

Huang, Hsiu-Mei; Liaw, Shu-Sheng (2004).  Guiding Distance Educators in Building Web-Based Instructions  International Journal of Instructional Media, 31, 2. 

The advent of Web-based instructions, which relies upon the Internet, emphasizes the need for a clear understanding of how learners process and encode information presented in Web sites for instructional purposes. Distance educators need and want assistance in their efforts to integrate information technology into their instructions. In this article, the authors aim to provide a clear link among the theoretical principles of distance education, the practice of instructional design, and the practice of teaching. This article has identified a design of guiding principles embedded within distance education. Since the distance and the special environment of teaching and learning affect instructor's and learner's behaviors in major ways, there is a need to use some special techniques that lead to success. The instructor or instructional designer needs to select appropriate technology media and educational pedagogy based on instructional strategy, subject matter, and instructional theory to nurture distance learners' cognitive development. If a high quality Web-based instruction is provided, it will benefit distance learners, educators, and the society at large.

Huang, Shwu-Yong L. (2003).  Education Students' Perceptions of Computers: A Cross-Cultural Study  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 29, 4. 

This study investigates education students' perceptions of computers and the factors affecting their perceptions among education students in the United States and Taiwan. Sample subjects were 360 students from six colleges of education in the two places. The results reveal that there were significant differences. Education students in the United States demonstrated greater computer liking, comfort, and value than education students in Taiwan. Education students in Taiwan, however, indicated higher concerns about gender- and ability-related differences in students' computer use. Education students in the United States also rated greater effectiveness in improving student learning of computer resources in elementary, middle, and high schools than did their counterparts in Taiwan. Furthermore, gender, age, and length of computer use had various effects on different dimensions of computer perceptions of the two student groups. Plausible explanations and educational implications of these differences are discussed.

Huang, Tzu-Hua; Liu, Yuan-Chen; Shiu, Chia-Ya (2008).  Construction of an Online Learning System for Decimal Numbers through the Use of Cognitive Conflict Strategy  Computers & Education, 50, 1. 

The study focused on the effects of the CAL system constructed via cognitive conflict of decimal numbers for the sixth graders. The purpose of the system is to gauge decimal concepts of students. When students entertain misconceptions or misleading ideas, the system will in accordance with the types of the wrong answer generate appropriate cognitive conflicts as feedback to help the students realize the irrational part of their ideas. Then through the instruction screen for cognitive adjustment students' original concepts are corrected. Research objects of this study were sixth-grade students from an elementary school in Taipei. The study took a quasi-experimental approach that employed pretest-posttest, non-equivalent-group design. The two groups of students were given the pretest, posttest, and postponed test in order to measure the effect of the system. They were also interviewed to see how their concepts had changed. This study found that, although most of the sixth graders did not understand the basic concepts of decimal numbers very well and their misconceptions were similar to those identified by other studies, the result of the experiments showed significant improvement following the use of the computer-aided learning system. The learning system helped students better retain the decimal concepts they acquired. Data from the interviews also indicated that the system, constructed on cognitive conflicts, can help students clear their misconceptions of decimals numbers.

Huang, Weihong; Webster, David; Wood, Dawn; Ishaya, Tanko (2006).  An Intelligent Semantic E-Learning Framework Using Context-Aware Semantic Web Technologies  British Journal of Educational Technology, 37, 3. 

Recent developments of e-learning specifications such as Learning Object Metadata (LOM), Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM), Learning Design and other pedagogy research in semantic e-learning have shown a trend of applying innovative computational techniques, especially Semantic Web technologies, to promote existing content-focused learning services to semantic-aware and personalised learning services. To facilitate this transforming process, this paper presents a novel context-aware semantic e-learning approach to integrate content provision, learning process and learner personality in an integrated semantic e-learning framework. As the basis of the computational framework, a scalable and extensible generic context model is proposed to structure the semantics of contextual relations and concepts in various contexts, such as learning content description, learning model, knowledge object representation and learner personality. Corresponding technical and pedagogical developments of this framework also consider compatibility issues with existing technologies (e.g., XML/Resource Description Framework) and specifications (e.g., IEEE LOM) in order to achieve the best interoperability.

Huang, Wenhao; Huang, Wenyeh; Diefes-Dux, Heidi; Imbrie, Peter K. (2006).  A Preliminary Validation of Attention, Relevance, Confidence and Satisfaction Model-Based Instructional Material Motivational Survey in a Computer-Based Tutorial Setting  British Journal of Educational Technology, 37, 2. 

This paper describes a preliminary validation study of the Instructional Material Motivational Survey (IMMS) derived from the Attention, Relevance, Confidence and Satisfaction motivational design model. Previous studies related to the IMMS, however, suggest its practical application for motivational evaluation in various instructional settings without the support of empirical data. Moreover, there is a lack of discussion regarding the validity of the instrument. Therefore, this study empirically examined the IMMS as a motivational evaluation instrument. A computer-based tutorial setting was selected owing to its wide application in teaching large entry-level college courses. Data collected from 875 subjects were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and measurement modeling LISREL. Findings suggested that 16 original items should be excluded from the IMMS; the retained 20 items were found to fall into different constructs, indicating that instructional features of the tutorial may influence the validity of the survey items. The implication of the study supports the situational feature of the IMMS. Therefore, a preevaluation adjustment on the IMMS items is recommended to identify suitable items before the full motivational evaluation. Future research should focus on the further validation of the IMMS based on this preliminary evidence.

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Hutcheson, Brian (2007).  Flat Pack Toy Design  SchoolArts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 107, 2. 

In this article, the author introduces the concept of flat pack toys. Flat pack toys are designed using a template on a single sheet of letter-sized card stock paper. Before being cut out and built into a three-dimensional toy, they are scanned into the computer and uploaded to a website. With the template accessible from the website, anyone with access to the Internet can download the toy template, print it, and build their own flat pack toy. This project connects strongly with students, engages them in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional aspects of art and design, and utilizes technology to display their work, as well as fosters community within the school and the greater public.

Hutchison, David (2007).  Video Games and the Pedagogy of Place  Social Studies, 98, 1. 

In this article the author explores the construction of place within virtual worlds and, in particular, in video games that appeal widely to children and youths. With the notable exception of "edutainment" titles, gaming and education have traditionally been viewed as separate pursuits. Yet, after school, millions of children and teens spend inordinate amounts of time immersed in virtual worlds that invite exploration and reward. Although they are ignored or, worse yet, dismissed by many adults, video game environments are valued place contexts for millions of young people. The author explores the elements of design that make virtual worlds so attractive to gamers and suggests strategies for incorporating video games into educational programs in a pedagogically sound way.

Hutchison, Dougal (2007).  An Evaluation of Computerised Essay Marking for National Curriculum Assessment in the UK for 11-Year-Olds  British Journal of Educational Technology, 38, 6. 

This paper reports a comparison of human and computer marking of approximately 600 essays produced by 11-year-olds in the UK. Each essay script was scored by three human markers. Scripts were also scored by the "e-rater" program. There was a good agreement between human and machine marking. Scripts with highly discrepant scores were flagged and assessed blind by expert markers for characteristics considered likely to produce human-machine discrepancies. As hypothesised, essays marked higher by humans exhibited more abstract qualities such as interest and relevance, while there was little, if any, difference on more mechanical factors such as paragraph demarcation.

Hutinger, Patricia; Bell, Carol; Daytner, Gary; Johanson, Joyce (2005).  Disseminating and Replicating an Effective Emerging Literacy Technology Curriculum: A Final Report 
 

Emerging Literacy Technology Curriculum (ELiTeC 2, [referred to as E2 in this report]), housed at the Center for Best Practices in Early Childhood at Western Illinois University, was funded in 2000 by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) as a 3-year Phase 3 Steppingstones of Technology Research on Implementation Project. E2's technology-based curriculum and procedures combined effective computer applications and emergent literacy experiences and were based on the results of a 3-year research study (referred to in this report as E1) of 255 children and their families from diverse cultures and socioeconomic groups; 8 teachers, and 16 half-day preschool classes in rural and urban central Illinois (Godt, Hutinger, Schneider, & Robinson, 1999; Hutinger, 1999; Hutinger. et al., 1998). E2's target population was preschool children with a wide range of disabilities, those at risk, their families, teachers, and program staff. E2 had three major goals: (1) replicate and validate E1 research findings in a range of typical rural and urban educational settings; (2) study implementation and maintenance of the model as demonstrated by replication sites; and (3) disseminate information related to the study. These goals were supported by five objectives and their tasks. Two objectives related to management and dissemination, while three related to such activities as conducting staff development activities, implementation, and follow-up in replication sites; studying the implementation of the E2 approach in multiple, complex settings; and revising, developing, and disseminating E2 products and materials.  | [FULL TEXT]

Hutinger, Patricia; Bell, Carol; Johanson, Joyce; McGruder, Kathy (2002).  LitTECH Interactive Outreach. Final Report. 

This final report describes activities and findings of a 3-year federally supported outreach project, which was designed to replicate a developmentally appropriate interactive technology literacy curriculum model into early childhood special education programs serving children (ages 3-6) with mild to moderate disabilities. Major goals focused on linking results of emergent literacy research to early childhood practice; disseminating the project nationwide; and serving as a national resource on emergent literacy and technology. The project model, LitTECH, was replicated in 17 school districts and affected 89 classrooms, 94 teachers, and 3,097 children. Extensive data were collected on 643 children with disabilities, 1,012 children at risk, and 607 children without disabilities. Project findings point to positive benefits for teachers, children, and families and to conditions that promote effective implementation and maintenance of the model. Findings supported use of a variety of effective implementation techniques at the classroom level including using a sign-up sheet, using KidDesk for desktop management, and implementing software curriculum integration into the program curriculum. Following a statement of the project's goals and objectives and theoretical framework, individual sections describe the program, changes, methodology, results, project impact, and future activities. | [FULL TEXT]

Hutinger, Patricia; Robinson, Linda; Schneider, Carol; Daytner, Gary; Bond, Janet (2006).  Effectiveness of Online Workshops for Increasing Participants' Technology Knowledge, Attitude, and Skills: A Final Report of the Early Childhood Technology Integrated Instructional System-Phase 2   

The findings of EC-TIIS 2 provide evidence on the effectiveness of web-based training as a tool for educators and families in advancing educational opportunities for young children with disabilities. The resulting product and procedures will add valuable information to the field of early childhood technology as well as to the research on online data collection methods. EC-TIIS 2 staff impacted over 2500 educators and families with information on the EC-TIIS website and research results through dissemination activities, including international, national, regional, state, and local conference presentations and exhibits and postings on listservs and websites. Research on the effects of EC-TIIS on educators, families, university faculty, and both preservice and graduate students continues in Phase 3. | [FULL TEXT]

Hutzel, Karen (2007).  A "Service-Learning Approach" to Teaching Computer Graphics  Art Education, 60, 1.

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Havard, Byron; Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong (2008).  Online Collaborative Learning and Communication Media  Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 19, 1. 

The purpose of this study is to examine the dynamics of online collaborative learning and communication media regarding team projects. Media richness and social presence theories are well-accepted rational theories that explain media choices and media behaviors, and serve as the theoretical framework. Quantitative and qualitative data collection methods were used to gather data from the 26 graduate students participating in this study, conducted at a land-grant university in the southeastern United States. Quantitative data analyses revealed significance between pre and post course survey item themes regarding factors affecting successful collaboration and perceptions on online collaboration. Qualitative analyses revealed relationships between collaboration and communication media, factors necessary for successful online collaboration, and communication media selection decisions. The results may serve to guide research and practice in online collaborative learning by using communication media. This research may also guide instructors and instructional designers in developing online collaborative learning activities with communication media.

Havelock, Bruce; Reza-Hernandez, Laura (2005).  Teaching for Meaning with Technology in Texas  Learning and Leading with Technology, 32, 7. 

Two reporters walk toward the editor to share their article on Panamanian culture. Looking it over, the editor asks for a more detailed description and several pictures. Meanwhile, three other writers huddle around a computer, making decisions on the additional content they need for their article on Panamanian customs. Both articles will be included in a new Panamanian-American magazine illustrating similarities and differences between the two societies. As the deadline approaches, teams collaborate with each other, investigate, write, and read information from various Web sites. It is a busy day in the newsroom--at least, it feels like a newsroom: the reporters and editors are actually sixth graders at Sun Ridge Middle School in El Paso, Texas. | [FULL TEXT]

Havens, Kevin (2003).  Libraries: Drawn to Knowledge.  American School & University, 75, 12. 

Discusses how to make a college library the center of campus activity, explaining how to find the proper balance of technology and tradition (e.g., harnessing new media to teach critical thinking skills, having library staff assume primary responsibility for providing information literacy training, training students to use print as well as electronic information, and designing modern libraries to enhance students' experiences).

Havice, Pamela A.; Chang, Catherine Y. (2002).  Fostering Community through the Use of Technology in a Distributed Learning Environment.  College Student Affairs Journal, 22, 1. 

With the technology revolution, the importance of creating a sense of community in the learning environment is as significant as ever. This article shares the lessons learned in developing and teaching a multicultural counseling course via distance and distributed education. The authors discuss strategies for integrating and fostering a sense of community for students using this non-traditional mode of learning.

Havice, Pamela A.; Watson, Lemuel W.; Cawthon, Tony W.; Underwood, Susan J. (2000).  Support of Technology-based Distance Education: Administrators' Attitudes and Perceptions.  Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 1, 2. 

Examines administrator attitudes/perceptions about distance education and how this effects administrators' support. Findings indicate: attitudes varied significantly among levels of administrators; peers and personal experience influence attitudes; attitudinal differences not explained by any single variable; administrators, regardless of attitude, believe faculty distance education training is both necessary and insufficient; and a positive relationship exists between attitude toward and willingness to support distance education in the future. 

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Hamade, R. F.; Artail, H. A.; Jaber, M. Y. (2007).  Evaluating the Learning Process of Mechanical CAD Students  Computers & Education, 49, 3. 

There is little theoretical or experimental research on how beginner-level trainees learn CAD skills in formal training sessions. This work presents findings on how trainees develop their skills in utilizing a solid mechanical CAD tool (Pro/Engineer version 2000i[squared] and later version Wildfire). Exercises at the beginner and intermediate levels were designed so that several variations of a solid object are built by non-experienced trainees as they accumulate training time. In this case, trainees are fourth year mechanical engineering seniors and as such, they were of a similar technical and gender make-up. This assessment was conducted over the duration of training (16-week long semester). The test exercises were used to assess the trainees' speed and proficiency in the use of CAD by (1) measuring their performance time and (2) feature count (number of features-of-size used to build the test parts). Using performance time data, empirical learning curves are generated. Breaking these curves into declarative and procedural components provides insight into how fast the trainees develop cognitive and motor CAD skills. In order to confirm that this methodology can be extended to other CAD platforms, a follow-up study was performed on a different set of beginner-level trainees with similar make-up while using the same beginner-level parts but with a more recent version of Pro/Engineer: Wildfire. One significant result of this study is that the procedural and declarative components of CAD learning are largely cognitive.

Hamalainen, Raija (2008).  Designing and Evaluating Collaboration in a Virtual Game Environment for Vocational Learning  Computers & Education, 50, 1. 

Especially in vocational education, attention should be paid not only to the use of new technological solutions but also to collaborative learning and cooperative working methods in order to develop students' skills for their future jobs. This study involves a design experiment including the design process of a new game environment, description of the script developed for this game, as well as the empirical study with multiple data collection methods, data analysis, results and conclusions for further work. The aim of the study was twofold. Firstly, we aimed to develop a game environment to simulate the work context of a vocational design process, and secondly, to investigate how effective the game environment is in vocational learning and how scripting affected students' group processes during the game. It seems that, at their best, such "edugames" may enrich learning and the pedagogical use of technology. Although integrating learning and games provides tempting possibilities, it also contains many challenges, such as different group-specific learning processes despite the scripted environment.

Hamel, Cheryl J.; Ryan-Jones, David (2002).  Designing Instruction with Learning Objects.  International Journal of Educational Technology, 3, 1. 

Discussion of online learning and standards for web-based and computer-based courseware focuses on learning objects, defined here as small, stand-alone units of instruction that can be tagged with descriptors and stored for reuse in various instructional contexts. Presents principles of learning object design and guidelines for assuring that instructional content is modular and reusable.

Hamel, Cheryl J.; Ryan-Jones, David L. (2001).  We're Not Designing Courses Anymore. 

Developing standards for e-learning will have important implications for instructional designers. The most obvious change is that designers will not be designing courses any more; they will be designing small, stand-alone units of instruction called learning objects. This will create a learning object economy that will bring new challenges as well as open new opportunities for designers. This trend will affect the instructional design process in several ways: (1) design of instruction will focus on the creation of small, stand-alone, modular units, rather than courses; (2) units will be designed for multiple contexts of instruction, rather than for specific training requirements; (3) instructional content will be separated from display format, for easy customization of content; (4) instructional content will be standardized to be interoperable with other learning management systems; and (5) instructional units will be tagged and held in a repository so that they can be managed, searched, and easily updated. Instructional designers will have to change their design philosophy if they are to remain competitive and profit in the e-learning market.   | [FULL TEXT]

Hamermesh, D.S.; Parker, A. (2005).  Beauty in the Classroom: Instructors' Pulchritude and Putative Pedagogical Productivity  Economics of Education Review, 24, 4. 

Adjusted for many other determinants, beauty affects earnings; but does it lead directly to the differences in productivity that we believe generate earnings differences? We take a large sample of student instructional ratings for a group of university teachers and acquire six independent measures of their beauty, and a number of other descriptors of them and their classes. Instructors who are viewed as better looking receive higher instructional ratings, with the impact of a move from the 10th to the 90th percentile of beauty being substantial. This impact exists within university departments and even within particular courses, and is larger for male than for female instructors. Disentangling whether this outcome represents productivity or discrimination is, as with the issue generally, probably impossible.

Hamill, Paul (2002).  Humanists among Their Machines.  Liberal Education, 88, 4. 

Describes the challenges involved in creating digitally rich courses in the humanities, courses that can include opportunities for learning that are more effective than traditional approaches. Considers course development and the new skills required by faculty and students.

Hamilton, David; Dahlgren, Ethel; Hult, Agneta; Roos, Bertil; Soderstrom, Tor (2004).  When Performance Is the Product: Problems in the Analysis of Online Distance Education  British Educational Research Journal, 30, 6. 

This article examines two ideologies that have been prominent in recent, if not current, education thinking. The first is that means can be separated from ends (or processes from products); the second is that learning is merely a process of knowledge acquisition. Attention to these ideologies arises from two projects in the overlapping fields of information and communications technology (ICT) and instructional design. Both projects attend to conversation as an educational resource. They are animated by the questions: should a conversation be regarded as an activity in context or can it be decoupled from the circumstances that define it as a conversation? In other words, does a conversation take place within an environment, or by means of the environment? Relating these questions to the changing view of ICT held within the European Community, the article uses a bricolage of ideas from economic history, communication theory and discourse analysis to summarise how such inherited ideologies might be realigned in the analysis of online conversation.

Hamilton, Maryellen; Geraci, Lisa (2004).  Converting an Experimental Laboratory Course from Paper and Pencil to Computer  Teaching of Psychology, 31, 2. 

This article provides suggestions for developing a laboratory-based research methods course using computers. We describe important considerations for creating this type of course including selecting software, choosing experiments, and teaching students with different levels of computer skill. We also include 3 model projects that required increasing methodological and programming knowledge. The ultimate goal of the course was to have students submit a final project that they designed, ran, and programmed independently.

Hamilton, Paul V. (2004).  Enhancing Teaching using MATLAB Add-Ins for Excel  [Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE)] 

In this paper I will illustrate how to extend the capabilities of Microsoft Excel spreadsheets with add-ins created by MATLAB. Excel provides a broad array of fundamental tools but often comes up short when more sophisticated scenarios are involved. To overcome this short-coming of Excel while retaining its ease of use, I will describe how MATLAB's Excel-Builder converts MATLAB functions into Excel macros. The add-ins can be freely distributed and operate solely from Excel. To demonstrate the utility of add-ins, I will describe a project that I am currently working on in Excel that could be enhanced with the add-ins to carry out more sophisticated scenarios. The project deals with the question of when a person approaching retirement age should begin accepting social security. [For complete proceedings, see ED490093.] | [FULL TEXT]

Hamilton, Todd M. (2003).  Computers in Science: Thinking Outside the Discipline.  Journal of College Science Teaching, 32, 5. 

Describes the Computers in Science course which integrates computer-related techniques into the science disciplines of chemistry, physics, biology, and Earth science. Uses a team teaching approach and teaches students how to solve chemistry problems with spreadsheets, identify minerals with X-rays, and chemical and force analysis.

Hamlin, Barb (2005).  Motor Competency and Video Analysis  Teaching Elementary Physical Education, 16, 5. 

The author of this paper teaches grades 6-8 Health and Physical Education at a rural middle school in Howland, Maine (Hichborn Middle School). In 1996, the state legislature approved "The Maine Learning Results" as the document identifying the knowledge and skills essential to prepare Maine students for work, higher education, citizenship, and personal fulfillment. Simply stated, "The Maine Learning Results" express what students should know and be able to do at various checkpoints during their education. This article primarily focuses on how this teacher utilized technology to teach and assess one particular performance indicator: motor skills.

Hamlin, Michael D.; Griffy-Brown, Charla (2002).  Adapting Corporate Portal Technology for Management E-Learning. 

As the largest provider of MBA talent in the Western United States, the Graziadio School of Business and Management (Malibu, California) had a need to create a technology infrastructure to support students and staff distributed in seven educational centers throughout California. This paper describes the process by which the School came to recognize the potential for portal technology to foster communication, improve the quality of service, and enhance the learning and administrative environment. It also describes how the authors adapted and deployed real-world corporate portal technology to enhance executive and management education through e-learning. The School's process for adapting portal technology for e-learning and knowledge management to create a collaborative learning and working environment has implications and should be of interest to those in higher education and corporate/management training.

Hamm, Ellen M.; Mistrett, Susan G.; Ruffino, Amy Goet (2006).  Play Outcomes and Satisfaction with Toys and Technology of Young Children with Special Needs  Journal of Special Education Technology, 21, 1. 

This study examined parental preference of play outcomes and selection of toys and assistive technology used in meeting the identified outcomes for children, birth to 3, with developmental delays. Additionally, parent satisfaction related to how well selected materials assisted their child in meeting play outcomes was measured. Participants included families receiving assistive technology services to support play as part of an Early Intervention Program. Parents most often stated an interest in increasing play options as a play outcome for their child. Additionally, parents most often chose low-tech, off-the-shelf toys that encouraged functional play to help their child meet identified play outcomes, although no difference in satisfaction levels by type of toy was noted. Conclusions point to a need for interventionists and parents to encourage a variety of play through a variety of toys for children with special needs.

Hamm, Mary; Adams, Dennis (2002).  Collaborative Inquiry: Working toward Shared Goals.  Kappa Delta Pi Record, 38, 3. 

Working cooperatively in groups can help students connect learning with experience and build relationships at the same time. In collaborative inquiry, student questions can connect the big ideas that cut across disciplines. This paper describes how collaboration promotes social skills and a sense of partnership; discusses the appropriate learning climate; and examines problem solving and technology use in collaborative classrooms.

Hammer, Christy; Dusek, Val (2006).  The Rationale and Challenge for the Integration of Science Studies in the Revision of General Education Curricula  Journal of General Education, 55, 1. 

A broadened view of scientific literacy for general education revision is detailed, including the history, philosophy, and sociology of science and science and technology studies. We provide a case study from an interdisciplinary college, argue for the integration of science studies into general education curricula, and discuss barriers to success.

Hammersley, Martyn (2007).  The Issue of Quality in Qualitative Research  International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 30, 3. 

This article addresses the perennial issue of the criteria by which qualitative research should be evaluated. At the present time, there is a sharp conflict between demands for explicit criteria, for example in order to serve systematic reviewing and evidence-based practice, and arguments on the part of some qualitative researchers that such criteria are neither necessary nor desirable. At issue here, in part, is what the term "criterion" means, and what role criteria could play in the context of qualitative enquiry. Equally important, though, is the question of whether a single set of criteria is possible across qualitative research, given the fundamental areas of disagreement within it. These reflect divergent paradigms framed by value assumptions about what is and is not worth investigation. In addition, there are differences in methodological orientation: over what counts as rigorous enquiry, realism versus constructionism, and whether the goal of research is to produce knowledge or to serve other goals.

Hammersley-Fletcher, Linda; Kirkham, Glynn (2007).  Middle Leadership in Primary School Communities of Practice: Distribution or Deception  School Leadership & Management, 27, 5. 

English primary schools tend to operate on a rather different basis from secondary schools in terms of middle leadership. Dependent on the size of the school, the majority of primary teachers will have some form of middle leadership responsibility particularly as each of them is likely to hold a responsibility for at least one area of the curriculum. Thus, in a primary school, it would not be unusual to categorise all the teachers as "middle leaders". In this article the authors examine some of what is known about middle leadership in primary schools: first, through an exploration of the development of middle leadership roles; second, by consideration of the context of the primary school and the implications this has for operating as a leader; third, the ways in which teachers work together as a community of practice is discussed; finally, some key findings from recent research are reported. These elements are then drawn together to form a picture of the complex and evolving elements of acting as a middle leader. The article concludes by highlighting some specific and fertile areas for future research.

Hampel, Thorsten (2002).  sTeam--Providing Primary Media Functions for Web-Based Computer-Supported Cooperative Learning. 

The World Wide Web has developed as the de facto standard for computer based learning. However, as a server-centered approach, it confines readers and learners to passive nonsequential reading. Authoring and Web-publishing systems aim at supporting the authors' design process. Consequently, learners' activities are confined to selecting and reading (downloading documents) with almost no possibilities to structure and arrange their learning spaces nor do that in a cooperative manner. This paper presents a learner-centered, completely Web-based, approach through virtual knowledge rooms. Based on this concept, the goal of the presented work is firstly to develop a theoretical framework to explain the design potentials of technology-supported learning processes (distinguishing individual and cooperative primary media functions). Secondly, a technical framework (cf. www.open-steam.org) should be developed to allow for study of different technical configurations within the traditional university setting. Considering the systems design, the concept of virtual knowledge rooms is to combine event-based technology of virtual worlds with the classical document management functions in a client-server framework. Knowledge rooms and learning materials such as documents or multimedia elements are represented as a fully object-oriented model of objects, attributes and access rights. The paper does not focus on interactive systems managing individual access rights to knowledge bases, but rather on cooperative management and structuring of distributed knowledge bases. | [FULL TEXT]

Hamza, Mohammad Khalid (2003).  Web Evaluation Tool (WET): A Creative Web Tool for Online Educators  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 31, 3. 

The Nielsen/Net report Ratings 2000, reported that in 2002, online usage at work jumped 17 percent year-over-year, driven by female office workers. Nearly 46 million American office workers logged onto the Web, the highest peak since January 2000. It was also predicted that the number of students using the Internet was expected to reach 13.5 million by 2002, an increase from 3.4 million who were using the Internet in 1995. United States colleges and universities, in the year 2000, offered in excess of 6,000 accredited courses on the Web. Furthermore, nearly 10 million people over the age of 16 gained Internet access in the United States between the end of 2001 and the end of 2002, significantly more than in the other 10 markets studied. The Internet population of 71.1 percent in 2002 was up from 66.9 percent in 2000 [1, 2]. Many visually pleasing Web sites claim to be educational but have little, if any, pedagogical importance due to a poor application of a systematic design of instruction and the use of the technology as a cognitive tool to enhance the learning experience [3, 4]. Also, there is a need to measure and evaluate technology [5], but there is no standard review process for identifying a good educational Web site [6]. Therefore, the author of this article addresses the need to effectively and authentically evaluate "educational" Web sites, or those that claim to be educational, based on a sound and systematic process that incorporates elements of instructional design and cognitive tools principles. Hence, the "Web Evaluation Tool" (WET) was developed at the Center for the Advancement of Distance Education Technologies (CADET) (http://www.fau.edu/cadet%29. WET, a user-friendly tool that supports its users (teachers, trainers, and researchers), was created to enhance the evaluation process of educational Web sites and Internet environments to foster effective and creative learning at all levels.

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Healey, Deborah (2003).  Looking Back, Looking Forward (and Looking Back Again).  Essential Teacher, 1, 1. 

An English-as-a-Second-Language teacher recounts her first experience with computer-assisted language learning (CALL), discusses the emergence over the years of new technologies for language learning, including multimedia, authoring tools, and the Internet, and considers the future of CALL.

Healey, Kathryn N.; Lawler, Patricia A. (2002).  Old Assumptions, New Paradigms: Technology, Group Process, and Continuing Professional Education.  Journal of Continuing Higher Education, 50, 1. 

Continuing educators must consider the impact of technology on group processes, including ways in which it affects group pressures, communication patterns, and social and emotional components of learning. Administrators and faculty should integrate group process frameworks with educational technologies in order to provide effective learning environments.

Healy, Lulu (2004).  The Role of Tool and Teacher Mediations in the Construction of Meanings for Reflection  [International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education] 

This article reports on a study aiming to design learning systems in which students' knowledge of reflection is brought closer to institutional knowledge of this isometry and to compare how their activities shape and are shaped by different forms of mediation. It presents descriptions of interactions of groups of students (aged 12-13 years) with two computational microworlds, based on either dynamic geometry or multiple-turtle geometry, during attempts to construct and use a tool for reflections and considers how the tools of the microworlds along with the instructional approach adopted by the researcher were important in mediating the passage between meanings emphasizing reflection as property and those emphasizing reflection as function. [For complete proceedings, see ED489538.] | [FULL TEXT]

Healy, Lulu; Hoyles, Celia (2001).  Software Tools for Geometrical Problem Solving: Potentials and Pitfalls.  International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning, 6, 3. 

Explores the role of software tools in geometry problem solving and how these tools, in interaction with activities that embed the goals of teachers and students, mediate the problem solving process. Through analysis of successful student responses, shows how dynamic software tools can not only scaffold the solution process but also help students move from argumentation to logical deduction.

Healy, Lulu; Sinclair, Nathalie (2007).  If This Is Our Mathematics, What Are Our Stories?  International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning, 12, 1. 

This paper sets out to examine how narrative modes of thinking play a part in the claiming of mathematical territories as our own, in navigating mathematical landscapes and in conversing with the mathematical beings that inhabit them. We begin by exploring what constitutes the narrative mode, drawing principally on four characteristics identified by Bruner and considering how these characteristics manifest themselves in the activities of mathematicians. Using these characteristics, we then analyse a number of examples from our work with expressive technologies; we seek to identify the narrative in the interactions of the learners with different computational microworlds. By reflecting on the learners' stories, we highlight how particular features, common across the microworlds--motion, colour, sound and the like--provided the basis for both the physical and psychological grounding of the behaviour of the mathematically constrained computational objects. In this way, students constructed and used narratives that involved situating mathematical activities in familiar contexts, whilst simultaneously expressing these activities in ways which--at least potentially--transcend the particularities of the story told.

Heaney, Liam (2003).  Facing the Challenges--Using Information and Communications Technology To Support Teaching and Learning.  Gifted Education International, 17, 1. 

This article explores some of the key issues associated with the use of information and communications technology (ICT) in the classroom. To illustrate ICT integration, a teaching project on dinosaurs, which has been developed with students ages 10-11, is presented. A detailed scheme of work and lesson plans is included. 

Heath, Barbara; Herman, Russell; Lugo, Gabriel; Reeves, James; Vetter, Ron; Ward, Charles R. (2005).  Developing a Mobile Learning Environment to Support Virtual Education Communities  T.H.E. Journal, 32, 8. 

Learning communities gained attention in 1984 after the publication of the "Involvement in Learning" report, which was sponsored by the U.S. Education Department. The authors of the report stated that active engagement in learning processes enhances learning and leads to two fundamental principles: (1) The amount of student learning and personal development associated with any educational program is directly proportional to the quality and quantity of student involvement; and (2) The effectiveness of any educational policy or practice is directly related to the capacity of that policy or practice to increase student involvement in learning (NIE 1984). In order to address these limitations, a mobile learning environment (MLE) is being developed. This MLE will provide communication and collaboration tools that enable virtual interactions to take place which are independent of time and location--replacing the need for common residence halls and face-to- face meetings outside of the classroom. MLE makes it possible to create virtual learning communities (VLCs) that incorporate all of the positive aspects of traditional LCs, but without their time and space limitations. This article presents an MLE to support VLCs in science and mathematics in its early stages of a multidisciplinary research project.

Heath, Marilyn; Ravitz, Jason (2001).  Teaching, Learning and Computing: What Teachers Say. 

This paper examines the results from the "Teaching, Learning and Computing (TLC)" survey (Becker, H.J. & Anderson, R.E., 1998) administered to the "Applying Technology to Restructuring and Learning" (ATRL) project participants. The ATRL project was a five-year project funded by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, and carried out by the Southwest Educational Developmental Laboratory's Technology Assistance Program. The primary purposes of the project were to document how teachers and their teaching practices changed as they integrated technology in their classrooms and to document the role that technology played in that process. A major activity of this project was the design, development, and delivery of 72 hours of professional development that modeled constructivist learning environments supported by technology. The TLC results were examined to shed light on the benefits of the ATRL professional development intervention and also to help inform the three research questions under consideration in this study: (1) What do constructivist learning environments supported by technology look like in practice? (2) How can teachers be assisted in developing constructivist learning environments supported by technology? (3) How does technology facilitate the development of a constructivist learning environment? | [FULL TEXT]

Heath, Nicole M.; Lawyer, Steven R.; Rasmussen, Erin B. (2007).  Web-Based versus Paper-and-Pencil Course Evaluations  Teaching of Psychology, 34, 4. 

Our study compared the quantitative and qualitative outcomes associated with course evaluations collected over the Internet with those collected using a paper-and-pencil method. We randomly assigned students to 1 of the 2 different formats. There was no significant difference in quantitative student responses based on administration method, but students who completed evaluations over the Internet were more likely to give qualitative feedback compared to students who completed their evaluations in the classroom. Moreover, students in the Web-based condition provided longer qualitative comments than students in the paper-and-pencil group. We discuss the implications of these findings.

Heathman, Annette (2004).  From Pencil and Paper to the Digital Age: Change in Teacher Practices Brings New Skills to the Classroom  Journal of Staff Development, 25, 3. 

The Metropolitan District of Lawrence Township in Indianapolis, Indiana, needs a new model of teaching the latest technologies and strategies to teach kids. This paper presents the districts' implementation of the staff development plan. The plan focuses on enhancing teachers' abilities to teach: (a) basic literacy; (b) technological literacy; (c) visual literacy; (d) informational literacy; (e) self-direction; and (f) higher-order thinking. As part of the district's digital age literacy initiative, the district designed a web learning environment including e-discussions, online courses and meetings, list serves and digital age resources for township educators, parents, students, and community members to use.

Heaton-Shrestha, Celayne; Edirisingha, Palitha; Burke, Linda; Linsey, Tim (2005).  Introducing a VLE into Campus-Based Undergraduate Teaching: Staff Perspectives on Its Impact on Teaching  International Journal of Educational Research, 43, 6. 

This paper discusses the impact of the introduction of a virtual learning environment (VLE) on teaching practices within a new university in the UK, and explores the factors that have encouraged or, conversely, discouraged, the adoption of the VLE by teaching staff, from the latter's perspective. It is based on findings from the analysis of qualitative interviews with 23 members of academic staff from across four subject areas at Kingston University (KU), conducted as part of a broader research project on the use of VLEs in teaching and learning at KU (2002-2005). It reports on the areas of teaching that have been most affected by the VLE; details the specific ways in which practice has been transformed by the VLE and describes the nature of the adjustments that staff have had to make; and specifies the factors that have encouraged the adoption of a technology such as a VLE as part of teaching on undergraduate courses.

Heaton-Shrestha, Celayne; Gipps, Caroline; Edirisingha, Palitha; Linsey, Tim (2007).  Learning and E-Learning in HE: The Relationship between Student Learning Style and VLE Use  Research Papers in Education, 22, 4. 

The article addresses the issue of whether student learning style has an impact on use of a learning technology such as a virtual learning environment (VLE). It is based on material from a broader research project at a UK university (Kingston University) on the use of VLEs in teaching and learning and explores the findings from the analysis of qualitative interviews with 43 first-year undergraduate students, drawn from three faculties and four subject areas. It discusses the features of the VLE that are most valued by students (including their evaluation of more flexible modalities of learning); how students integrate the VLE with other learning and studying activities; and the specific ways in which various learning styles and approaches affect VLE use.

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Hur, Jung Won; Hara, Noriko (2007).  Factors Cultivating Sustainable Online Communities for K-12 Teacher Professional Development  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 36, 3. 

The purpose of this study is to discover factors related to fostering a sustainable online community for K-12 teachers. This study was conducted through the investigation of an online teacher community called INDISCHOOL in Korea. Data were gathered through in-depth telephone interviews with INDISCHOOL members, the examination of archived postings on the Web-boards, and participant observations. Twelve factors, including eight support factors and four hindrance factors, were identified as results of this study. These factors were categorized into three subgroups: internal, external, and outcome factors. Findings from this study revealed that internal factors, such as having a sense of ownership and autonomy and acknowledging the value of participation, played a significant role in the growth of INDISCHOOL. It was also noted that the value of teachers' participation was related to their belief that active involvement in INDISCHOOL improves student learning. These teachers also reported that INDISCHOOL participation is a valuable part of their professional development. Initial Interview Questions are appended.

Hurd, Stella (2007).  Anxiety and Non-Anxiety in a Distance Language Learning Environment: The Distance Factor as a Modifying Influence  System: An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, 35, 4. 

Foreign language anxiety in classroom-based language learning has a long history of research, but there are fewer studies examining this particular phenomenon with respect to the distance language learner. The isolated context and the physical absence of tutor and peers suggest that FL anxiety might be intensified in a distance setting. A longitudinal study using questionnaires, think-aloud protocols and one-to-one telephone interviews with students enrolled on a distance lower-intermediate French course at The Open University (UK) set out to test this hypothesis and to explore the nature of language anxiety in a distance learning environment and the strategies students use to cope with it. The findings indicated that although there were areas in which distance language learners shared aspects of anxiety with face-to-face learners, the distance factor could be causally linked to some marked differences with regard to the nature and extent of language anxiety. Moreover, there was evidence that the distance language learning setting may be associated with absence of anxiety for some learners, a finding that merits further investigation.

Hurme, Tarja-riitta; Jarvela, Sanna (2005).  Students' Activity in Computer-Supported Collaborative Problem Solving in Mathematics  International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning, 10, 1. 

The purpose of this study was to analyse secondary school students' (N = 16) computer-supported collaborative mathematical problem solving. The problem addressed in the study was: What kinds of metacognitive processes appear during computer-supported collaborative learning in mathematics? Another aim of the study was to consider the applicability of networked learning in mathematics. The network-based learning environment Knowledge Forum (KF) was used to support students' collaborative problem solving. The data consist of 188 posted computer notes, portfolio material such as notebooks, and observations. The computer notes were analysed through three stages of qualitative content analysis. The three stages were "content analysis of computer notes" in mathematical problem solving, "content analysis of mathematical problem solving activity" and "content analysis of the students' metacognitive activity". The results of the content analysis illustrate how networked discussions mediated mathematical knowledge and students' questions, while the mathematical problem solving activity shows that the students co-regulate their thinking. The results of the content analysis of the students' metacognitive activity revealed that the students use metacognitive knowledge and make metacognitive judgments and perform monitoring during networked discussions. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that working with the networked technology contributes to the students' use of their mathematical knowledge and stimulates them into making their thinking visible. The findings also show some metacognitive activity in the students' computer-supported collaborative problem solving in mathematics.

Hurn, Janet E. (2005).  Beyond Point and Click: Taking Web Based Pedagogy to a New Level  [Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE)] 

A group of faculty that currently teach asynchronous online courses were motivated to ensure that course quality remained high. Many people have seen the online courses that throw some written content up on the web and then have some tests and quizzes and call it an online course. To the faculty, that is not suitable in many ways on many levels. Their goal was to look at how teachers can maintain and help others maintain high quality, media rich, interactive courses. They started by receiving an Ohio Learning Network Learning Community Initiatives grant. The full story is included in this paper. [For complete proceedings, see ED490133.] | [FULL TEXT]

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Halat, Erdogan (2008).  A Good Teaching Technique: WebQuests  Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies

In this article, the author first introduces and describes a new teaching tool called WebQuests to practicing teachers. He then provides detailed information about the structure of a good WebQuest. Third, the author shows the strengths and weaknesses of using Web-Quests in teaching and learning. Last, he points out the challenges for practicing teachers and administrators.

Haldane, Maureen (2007).  Interactivity and the Digital Whiteboard: Weaving the Fabric of Learning  Learning

This article presents the interactive whiteboard as a unique teaching and learning medium and explores the distinctive pedagogy that is emerging as its functionality continues to be exploited by increasing numbers of teachers. It draws on Kozma's studies of the characteristics of other learning media and how these define pedagogic opportunities to benefit individual learners. His analytical approach is extrapolated into the context of a technology-enhanced whole group teaching and learning environment. Interactivity between teachers, learners and the medium of the digital whiteboard provides the focus for analysis of learning and teaching within this emergent learning environment. The process of learner's engagement with the medium is explored from the perspectives of both pupils and teachers, drawing on lesson observations and data elicited through interviews.

Halderson, Jeanne (2006).  Podcasting: Connecting with a New Generation  [National Middle School Association] 

In this article, the author describes how she uses podcasting as an educational tool for her seventh grade students. Using only the applications that come pre-loaded on the Mac iBook, they work together to develop the content, write storyboards, produce and edit the podcasts, and analyze their work. From creating the script to deciding how to piece the final project together, students spend the majority of the process in the upper levels of critical thinking. Moreover, podcasting has given them an authentic voice of their own, helped them learn to work together, and allowed them to feel pride of ownership for the finished product. This experience has convinced the author that podcasting is the perfect match for the middle school classroom. A rubric used for peer reviewing podcasts is included.

Hall, Charles T. (2001).  Wireless Technology in Schools: A Better Place To Learn and Teach.  School Business Affairs, 67, 11. 

Describes educational benefits of providing teachers with wireless telephones.

Hall, Darryl Ted; Damico, James (2007).  Black Youth Employ African American Vernacular English in Creating Digital Texts  Journal of Negro Education, 76, 1. 

The use of African American vernacular English among a group of secondary school students who participated in a digital media course as part of a pre-college summer enrichment program is examined. The study has highlighted the utility and importance of creating socially and culturally relevant spaces for technology teaching and learning and also the efforts to reduce the digital divide among African American students.

Hall, Don (2005).  Moving from Professional Development to Professional Growth  Learning and Leading with Technology, 32, 5. 

Julia sits down at her kitchen table to review tomorrow's lesson framework and the activities mapped out for her students. She is excited about the new unit on "the changing role of media in shaping public policy" they will be starting. Yet she silently admits to herself being a bit nervous because she is going to try a new teaching strategy with her class. Julia knows she is a good teacher and understands her content well, but this activity will require the application of some classroom management skills her instructional coach only recently covered with her. | [FULL TEXT]

Hall, Don (2005).  What's the Big Deal about ROI and TCO? As I See "It"  Learning and Leading with Technology, 33, 1. 

Technology leaders can often be heard talking about Return on Investment (ROI) and Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) as they extrapolate complex formulas as documentation for their board of directors. This brief article argues that these metrics are merely indicators corporate CIOs use to rationalize the need for more money to grow their personal empires, and that public education has now bought into this same madness. The author proposes two new measures unique to public education: ROA and TCI. ROA, or Return on Achievement, would measure how the investment in technology moves the core mission of the district forward. TCI, or Total Costs to Instruction, would indicate the expenses incurred in operating the technology department. | [FULL TEXT]

Hall, Don (2005).  So, What Is the Answer? Questions  Learning and Leading with Technology, 33, 3. 

Leaders are barraged daily by teachers, administrators, and students seeking answers to questions ranging from the simplistic to the metaphysical in their complexity. The author is sure leaders wonder at times, "How in the world can I free up enough time to answer them all?" Well, the author states that he hates to break the news, but it is impossible, and frankly that is not even leaders roles to begin with. Wow! That must be quite a relief from many leaders shoulders, but now leaders may be wondering, "So what is my role then?" Actually it is very simple. The job of leaders is to ask the right questions. | [FULL TEXT]

Hall, Don (2006).  From 1:1 to 1 to Won  Learning and Leading with Technology, 33, 5. 

In this article, the author discusses on the emphasis of how 1:1 computing program transforms classroom and education experience for students. Moreover, the author stresses that with this type of program, they have created vision where the culture, curriculum, and chores were designed to meet the needs of the digital age students in terms of rigor and relevance. | [FULL TEXT]

Hall, Don (2006).  Managing the Communications  Learning & Leading with Technology, 33, 6. 

This article discusses an issue which is important to technology leaders and for educational leaders as a whole--communications. Clearly if one is to be asked about the importance of effective communications, he would list it near the top of his priorities. However, inevitably when stakeholders are polled about areas where they want their leaders to improve, communication shows up near the top of their concerns. To that end, the author explores some practical ways one can tackle this issue in his department or district.

Hall, Don; Kelly, Pat (2005).  Security Code Red or Ready? Leaders Sharing--For Tech Leaders  Learning and Leading with Technology, 32, 6. 

Increasingly, teachers rely on computer software and networks to both enhance curriculum management and provide engaging learning opportunities in instruction. New software is enabling more frequent formative assessments to better focus day-to-day lessons on the unique needs of individual learners. Administrators use increasingly complex data management systems to assess students' progress (individually and aggregated) and make data-based decisions to improve student achievement. Together, they are developing school improvement plans to help students achieve mastery of academic standards as their schools face the growing call for even greater accountability at local, state, and national levels. This article is divided into the following sections: Where Do I Start? (model appropriate behaviors and set high expectations for compliance with your school district's Acceptable Use Policy (AUP); avoid shared, generic network logins; allow only district standard devices to be connected to the network; and exercise caution and investigate carefully when implementing any communication strategy permitting indirect connection to your network); May I Have the Keys Please? (Password Don'ts); and I've Been Hacked--Now What? (Key Steps for Containment). The article concludes the most effective protection is an educated staff who realize the power, potential and responsibility they have for being part of the solution. | [FULL TEXT]

Hall, Georgia (2006).  Teens and Technology: Preparing for the Future  New Directions for Youth Development, 2006, 111. 

In the past two decades, economic, technological, demographic, and political forces have stimulated major change in the learning and working landscape for young people. Understanding how to use computers and other technology for learning, productivity, and performance has become as fundamental to a person's ability to navigate through school and career as traditional skills like reading, writing, and arithmetic. As educators consider approaches to integrating twenty-first-century skills into the youth development experiences for older youth, this article proposes how it is important for them to recognize the gender and race differences in technology access and use. Understanding these differences will contribute to the development and implementation of appropriate youth service strategies around technology integration. In addition, this article examines the particular challenges that at-risk teens face and the possible learning resource role that technology may play. Finally, this article proposes several approaches for integrating technology into youth development experiences.

Hall, Georgia; Israel, Laura (2004).  Using Technology to Support Academic Achievement for At-Risk Teens During Out-of-School Time. Literature Review  [US Department of Education] 

This review conducted by the National Institute on Out-of-School Time (NIOST) explores the use of technology to support academic achievement for at risk high school age youth during their out of school time. The task of this literature review was to sort through the many publications, research briefs, and observations in this arena, with a particular focus on at risk teens and the out of school hours, and to summarize the latest thinking on both the theory and practice of using technology to support academic achievement. This paper begins with a discussion of at-risk teens and a look at the literature related to academic achievement. The second section examines the literature on the use of technology as a support to academic achievement and the use of technology with at-risk youth. The third section explores the literature on out-of-school time programs, looking specifically at: (1) the use of technology in such programs; (2)out of school time program content as a support to academic achievement, and (3) the experiences of at risk teens in out of school time programs. By combining insights from these three domains, this paper will help to inform leaders in the out of school time program field, educators, policymakers, technology program designers, and other stakeholders as to what to consider when creating out of school time programs that use technology based learning activities to support academic achievement for at-risk teens. | [FULL TEXT]

Hall, Ian; Higgins, S (2005).  Primary School Students' Perceptions of Interactive Whiteboards  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 21, 2. 

Students involved in the interactive whiteboard (IWB) evaluation, sponsored by the Centre for British Teachers (CfBT), were interviewed in regard to their perceptions about IWBs. Twelve group interviews (72 students) were conducted between January and Easter 2004 with Year 6 students (between 10 and 11 years of age) in six Local Education Authority (LEA) areas located in the North and South of England. Students were very enthusiastic about particular aspects of IWBs, such as their versatility in the classroom, multimedia capabilities and the fun and enjoyment they brought to learning. Students also highlighted, however, technical problems, teacher and students' information and communication technology skills, and students' lack of access to the technology as negative aspects.

Hall, Leslie D.; Fisher, Clint; Musanti, Sandra; Halquist, Don (2006).  Professional Development in Teacher Education: What Can We Learn from PT3?  TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 50, 3. 

The familiar adage states that teachers "teach like they were taught." The lack of technology integration in classroom teaching practices would then indicate that teachers are experiencing little technology integration in their teacher preparation programs. This article identifies many barriers to technology use in teacher education and reports approaches to faculty professional development that support increased integration of technology into teacher education. The authors examine 34 PT3 grants containing a teacher education faculty development component to explore the approaches taken, the barriers encountered, and the lessons learned from these grantees' experiences. The grantees involved with these professional development initiatives provided rich data concerning the approaches taken to offer personal experiences that in many cases altered beliefs about the role of technology in teacher preparation.

Hall, Randall W.; Butler, Leslie G.; McGuire, Saundra Y.; McGlynn, Sean P.; Lyon, Gary L.; Reese, Ron L.; Limbach, Patrick A. (2001).  Automated, Web-Based, Second-Chance Homework.  Journal of Chemical Education, 78, 12. 

Uses the World Wide Web to provide an active learning environment with rapid and accurate homework feedback which is also an effective tool to foster critical thinking skills. Allows students to submit a second chance homework following feedback to a previously wrongly answered question.

Hall, Richard (2002).  Aligning Learning, Teaching and Assessment Using the Web: An Evaluation of Pedagogical Approaches.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 33, 2. 

Analyzes how a United Kingdom higher education initiative has promoted learning and teaching innovation that supports collaborative, inclusive learning by integrating online and face-to-face delivery. Topics include aligning assessments, teaching processes, and learning objectives; educational media and learning processes; using online materials within curriculum design; and reflexive approaches to learning.

Hall, Richard H.; Hanna, Patrick (2004).  The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Colour Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics and Behavioural Intention  Behaviour and Information Technology, 23, 3. 

The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effect of web page text/background colour combination on readability, retention, aesthetics, and behavioural intention. One hundred and thirty-six participants studied two Web pages, one with educational content and one with commercial content, in one of four colour-combination conditions. Major findings were: (a) Colours with greater contrast ratio generally lead to greater readability; (b) colour combination did not significantly affect retention; (c) preferred colours (i.e., blues and chromatic colours) led to higher ratings of aesthetic quality and intention to purchase; and (d) ratings of aesthetic quality were significantly related to intention to purchase.

Hall, Scott S.; Seery, Brenda L. (2006).  Behind the Facts: Helping Students Evaluate Media Reports of Psychological Research  Teaching of Psychology, 33, 2. 

This article describes an activity that can help students (a) understand how the research process influences the outcomes of that research and (b) appreciate the media's limitations of reporting research findings. Students read about research reported in an online newspaper and in a scholarly journal and responded to questions that guided their critique of the research methods and their comparison of the 2 sources. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations suggested that this activity can help students understand the impact of research procedures on a study's findings and to appreciate the limitations in the reporting of such findings from mainstream media sources.

Hall, Tim; Kiggins, Beth; Weimer, George (2005).  E-Portfolios in Teacher Education Using TaskStream  [Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE)] 

After two years of unsuccessful pilot programs for e-portfolio development within the Teacher Education Department at the University of Indianapolis, implementation of an INTASC (Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium) standards-based assessment system including digital portfolio building using TaskStream (TS) seems to hold potential as a means of continual program improvement. Despite some difficulties, the affordability and general ease of use have encouraged the authors to believe they made a wise decision to implement the program. [For complete proceedings, see ED490133.] | [FULL TEXT]

Hall, Tim; Weimer, George (2004).  E-Portfolios for Student Teachers--Second Year of a Pilot Program  [Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE)] 

The Teacher Education Department at the University of Indianapolis has completed a two-year pilot program to enable student teachers to digitize their capstone portfolio for the student teaching experience. The Exit from Program Portfolio for Initial Preparation Programs, the third and final benchmark for completion of the licensure program, is based on the ten INTASC standards and is designed to maximize candidate reflection on teaching and learning during the first of two eight-week student teaching placements. During the first year of the pilot (2002-2003), volunteer candidates used Dreamweaver 4 to create e-portfolios. Though all pilot candidates were successful in completing the benchmark, problems arose with teaching and using Dreamweaver, and a determination was made that more user friendly software should be used. In the second year, candidates used Lectora software published by Trivantis Corporation. Software instruction was easier, but additional problems arose when Lectora was not available as promised for the Macintosh platform. Issues remain as full implementation for all candidates is scheduled to begin during the 2004-2005 school year. Sample portfolios will be demonstrated and additional questions concerning E-portfolios will be raised in the session. [For complete proceedings, see ED490093.] | [FULL TEXT]

Hall-Wallace, Michelle K.; McAuliffe, Carla M. (2002).  Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of GIS-Based Learning Materials in an Introductory Geoscience Course.  Journal of Geoscience Education, 50, 1. 

Investigates student learning that occurred with a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based module on plate tectonics and geologic hazards. Examines factors in the design and implementation of the materials that impacted student learning. Reports positive correlations between student' spatial ability and performance. Includes 17 references.

Haller, Peter (2001).  MarcoPolo Narrows the Search for Useful Classroom Materials.  Momentum, 32, 3. 

Addresses the issue of how teachers can conduct more efficient Internet searches in order to find sites that are unbiased, reliable, and accurate. Presents the MarcoPolo Project, a partnership among seven leading educational institutions, as a service that provides teachers with credible content through an easy-to-use Web interface.

Halliday, Jackie (2001).  The Graduate Diploma in Education Technology: The Development of an Online Programme. 

The Graduate Diploma in Education Technology (GDipEdTech) was developed at the UNITEC Institute of Technology (New Zealand) in 1993 as an open and distance program to meet the needs of teachers in the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors. The program aims to integrate the use of new and emerging technologies into their classroom programs. It has gone through a number of developments in order to keep pace with changing technologies. From being a largely print-based program, augmented by First Class communication software, it has moved to one that has been fully operational online since 1997. It was first developed using HTML. At the end of 1999 the program was transferred into a commercial online course shell, Blackboard. This development has meant a challenge for the program leader and lecturers to present a program that takes account of contemporary learning theories, adapting them to an online learning environment. They must keep abreast of parallel developments in both World Wide Web-based technologies and online teaching techniques. 

Hallinger, Philip; Snidvongs, Kamontip (2008).  Educating Leaders: Is There Anything to Learn from Business Management?  Educational Management

The current focus on school leader preparation reflects the importance societies around the world are placing upon the goal of improving their educational systems. The investment of substantial new resources into leadership preparation and development activities is based upon "the belief that school leaders make a difference" in both the effectiveness and efficiency of schooling. Developing school leaders who do make a difference, however, requires a management curriculum that is relevant to schools, up-to-date in learning methods, and which draws upon knowledge from disciplines inside and outside of education. This article examines the implications that curricular trends in the development of business leaders may have for leadership preparation and development in education. The authors acknowledge, at the outset, that differences in the practice of education and business management require some differences in the content of preparation programs. At the same time, we argue for an integration of selected business-related understandings of organizational management that are highly relevant for the improvement of schools.

Hallman, Heidi L. (2007).  Negotiating Teacher Identity: Exploring the Use of Electronic Teaching Portfolios with Preservice English Teachers  Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 50, 6. 

Electronic portfolio use within the context of a teacher education program is explored in this article. Although the use of e-portfolios has emerged as a topic that integrates new technologies and the education of preservice teachers, little work thus far has documented the complexities involved in the authoring process of e-portfolios. To address this gap, this article focuses on two preservice teachers' processes of crafting e-portfolios. Specifically, the article documents the realities of presenting oneself to multiple audiences through the vehicle of the electronic teaching portfolio. The term "teacher identity" is introduced as a way to describe preservice teachers' need to present themselves through the e-portfolio as both "competent beginning teachers" and "inquisitive college students." The author analyzes interviews with preservice teachers, concluding that e-portfolios can be viewed as potential spaces for important talk about teacher identity.

Halpine, Susana Maria (2004).  Introducing Molecular Visualization to Primary Schools in California: The STArt! Teaching Science Through Art Program  Journal of Chemical Education, 81, 10. 

The STArt! teaching Science Through Art program was developed to help both students and teachers address the new California Science Content standards. An initial presentation of program introduces molecular visualization using narrative discussions, handheld models, visualization software and art workshops and it also emphasize low-cost materials, and freeware programs such as WebLab Viewer Lite.

Halttunen, Lynda Gavigan (2002).  Palomar College: A Technological Transformation.  Community College Journal, 73, 2. 

Offers advice for colleges intending to undergo software conversions, asserting that sufficient resources are key to a smooth process. Describes the conversion process at Palomar College (California) in 1997, when Palomar purchased PeopleSoft enterprise-wide software in response to Y2K compliance issues. Stresses the ongoing need for training and retraining.

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_____. (2000).  Higher Education Reform for Quality Higher Education Management in the 21st Century: Economic, Technological, Social, and Political Forces Affecting Higher Education. Proceedings of the 1999 Six-Nation Summit (Hiroshima, Japan, September 20-21, 1999). RIHE International Seminar Reports, No. 11. 

This publication presents proceedings from a 1999 conference on higher education reform and quality that involved six countries: China, Germany, Japan, Singapore, Switzerland, and the United States. The first section, "Report of the Six-Nation Higher Education Project," presents "Summary of the Progress of the Higher Education Research Project and the Meaning of the President's Summit" (Akira Arimoto). The next section, "Keynote Address," presents "Governance in the 21st Century University: The World is Changing Faster than the Governance System can Accommodate" (Kenneth P. Mortimer). The third section, "Presidents' Session Reports," includes: "A System in Transition: Higher Education Policy Update and Future Plans from China" (Ruiqing Du); "Reform for Quality Higher Education in the 21st Century: Policy and Future Plans from the United States Perspective" (Elisabeth A. Zinser); "Present and Future of Higher Education in Japan" (Makoto Nagao); "Establishment of Efficient Management in an Institution of Higher Education" (Yasuo Harada); "Strategies for Lifelong Learning: Re-thinking University Education in Terms of Continuing Education" (Werner Meissner); "Financial Management and Planning: or How to Implement Changes More Smoothly" (Luc Weber); "The Strategic Planning Process at the University of Hawaii" (Kenneth P. Mortimer); "Singapore's Experience in Higher Education" (Linda Low); "Reform Measures for Universities in the 21st Century" (Naoki Murata); "Promoting Financial Efficiency through Administrative Technology Applications" (Stephen T. Golding); "E-Enabled Information at the University of Pennsylvania" (Robin H. Beck); "The Internet Changes Everything" (Darren Rushworth); "Technology and the Curriculum: The NTU Experience"(Charng-Ning Chen); and "Science and Technology in Universities in the 21st Century" (Yoshiyuki Naito). The Fourth Section, "Transcriptions of the Discussion Parts," transcribes discussions from two conference days. The fifth section, "Summary Comments," includes: "Brief Comments on the Presidents' Session 2: Which Ideal Must Lead 'Strategic Management for Universities'?" (Shigetaka Imai); "Commentary on the Concluding Session, Day 1, Higher Education Summit" (Robert Zemsky); "Reflections on the Presidents' Summit of the Six-Nation Research Project" (Noel F. McGinn); and "Reform for Higher Education in the 21st Century" (Ulrich Teichler). Appended are a conference program and list of participants. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (2001).  Higher Expectations: Essays on the Future of Postsecondary Education. 

The essays in this collection were commissioned to launch an initiative focusing on state policies to respond to the challenges facing higher education in the new century. The initiative will engage governors and their key advisors in three priorities: increasing student access, learning, and degree attainment; building and sustaining seamless learning; and fostering economic development. The essays are: (1) "Privatization in Higher Education" (Arthur Levine); (2) "Economics, Demography and the Future of Higher Education Policy" (Anthony P. Carnevale and Richard A. Fry); (3) "Assessing the Quality of Student Learning: An Imperative for State Policy and Practice" (Richard H. Hersh and Roger Benjamin); (4) "Technology: Creating New Models in Higher Education" (Robert W. Mendenhall); and (5) "Creating High-Performance Postsecondary Education" (Donald F. Kettl). An appendix uses the case study of Oregon's higher education system to illustrate issues in the future of higher education.

_____. (2001).  High Schools That Work Presents a Pre-Engineering Program of Study. 

The Southern Regional Education Board partnered with the not-for-profit organization Project Lead the Way (PLTW) to develop a program connecting challenging academic courses with a pre-engineering program of study. The programs goal is to increase the number and quality of engineers and engineering technologists by providing the following items: (1) a fully developed curriculum for high schools; (2) a middle grades technology program; (3) extensive training for teachers; (4) training for school counselors; (5) access to affordable equipment; and (6) college-level certification and course credit. The program's middle grades component combines challenging academic courses with courses devoted to design and modeling, the "magic" of electrons, the science of technology, and automation and robotics. The high school component consists of a challenging standards-based pre-engineering curriculum that requires students to apply their knowledge and skills in mathematics, science, and technology to solving real-world engineering problems in five hands-on pre-engineering courses. The program's teacher and counselor preparation component includes preassessment, a summer training institute, and ongoing training. The estimated costs of 1 middle grades laboratory with 26 student stations and the high school component for a class of 20 students are estimated at $54,147 and $95,508, respectively. Students who have participated in the program have spoken of it very highly. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (2004).  Higher Education Technology and Research: Creating Excellence through State Investments  [New Jersey Commission on Higher Education] 

Colleges and universities in New Jersey play a critical role in building and sustaining economic prosperity and quality of life in the state and beyond. Through advancements in technology and research, higher education helps to create new jobs, improve the workforce, develop new knowledge, and boost the overall economy. This report summarizes the primary state investments in higher education technology and research since fiscal 1998 and highlights the substantial returns that have been realized. It provides an overview of the considerable and far-reaching benefits of the state's investments. Interspersed throughout the report are quotes from higher education leaders, reflecting on the importance of higher education technology and research. Overall the aim of the report is to provide both a resource to inform future state planning and support for technology and research and a showcase for accomplishments in creating excellence through state investments. The following sections are included: (1) Introduction; (2) Higher Education Technology Infrastructure Fund; (3) Higher Education Equipment Leasing Fund; (4) High-Tech Workforce Excellence Grant Program; (5) Research Capacity Building Grants; (6) State Matching Funds for Biomedical and Other Technology Research; (7) New Jersey Virtual University; (8) New Jersey Commission on Science and Technology; (9) New Jersey Economic Development Authority; and (10) Other Technology and Research Investments. Appended are: Higher Education Technology Infrastructure Fund: Direct Institutional Allocations Detail of Expenditures; and Equipment Leasing Fund: Direct Institutional Allocations Detail of Expenditures. | [FULL TEXT]

Higgins, Eleanor L.; Raskind, Marshall H. (2005).  The Compensatory Effectiveness of the Quicktionary Reading Pen II on the Reading Comprehension of Students with Learning Disabilities  Journal of Special Education Technology, 20, 1. 

The study investigated the compensatory effectiveness of the Quicktionary Reading Pen II (the Reading Pen), a portable device with miniaturized optical character recognition and speech synthesis capabilities. Thirty participants with reading disabilities aged 10-18 were trained on the operation of the technology and given two weeks to practice decoding single words and using various dictionary functions during independent silent reading in the classroom and other settings. Participants were then given a reading comprehension test under the following conditions: (a) reading passages silently using the Reading Pen, and (b) reading passages silently without assistance. Paired sample comparisons revealed significant differences under the two conditions in favor of using the pen (p less than .0001+). Results are discussed in light of previous research on related technologies.

Higgins, Steve (2001).  ICT and Teaching for Understanding.  Evaluation & Research in Education, 15, 3. 

Considers some of the ways in which Information and Communications Technology (ICT) can support teaching for understanding in primary (elementary) schools. Previous research and research in progress about ICT training for teachers suggest that there are clear possibilities for improving learners' understanding using ICT. Identifies some barriers to ICT use.

Higgins, Steve; Beauchamp, Gary; Miller, Dave (2007).  Reviewing the Literature on Interactive Whiteboards  Learning

The aims of this article are to review the existing literature on the introduction and use of interactive whiteboards (IWBs) in schools and to summarise the key issues arising from this analysis in order to provide a context for the articles which follow in this special issue of "Learning, Media and Technology." The article reviews the evidence about the initial adoption of the technology in classrooms, the existing empirical evidence of its impact on teaching and learning in schools as well as presenting an analysis of some of the underlying theoretical and conceptual issues.

Higgins, Steve; Moseley, David (2001).  Teachers' Thinking about Information and Communications Technology and Learning: Beliefs and Outcomes.  Teacher Development, 5, 2. 

Examined factors associated with successful use of information and communications technology (ICT) in elementary school. Linking it with teachers' constructs of good teaching and learning, the study demonstrated clear links between patterns of thinking and positive use of ICT. These patterns of thinking impacted on student outcomes in literacy and numeracy.

Higgs, Graham E.; Budd, John (2007).  Toward an Authentic Ethos for Online Higher Education  Policy Futures in Education, 5, 4. 

The influence of capitalism on education's telos is a subject of critical concern. This article argues that a neo-liberal ideal that markets should determine educational efficacy and process is antithetical to the cultural good. The authors describe education as fundamentally teleological, responsible for defining, building and sustaining civilization. They further argue that an illusory ethos built upon the purely instrumental goals of the marketplace is replacing the authentic ethos for culture and identity building found in education's traditional telos. The authors hope to open a discussion that addresses the philosophical assumptions which underlie the emerging and burgeoning industry in online higher education. A call is made for a critical examination of the instrumental ethos and it is claimed that an authentic ethos will necessarily include a discourse that questions the goals for culture found in education.

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Hatch, Jay; Jensen, Murray; Moore, Randy (2005).  Manna from Heaven or "Clickers" from Hell: Experiences with an Electronic Response System  Journal of College Science Teaching, 34, 7. 

Instructors used an electronic response system to enhance student-centered learning in large and small college biology classes. The system worked well to engage students in learning the subject matter and to assess their prior knowledge and misconceptions. It provided useful feedback to students as well as instructors. Problems encountered resulted mainly from not having permanent installation of the hardware components in the large class.

Hatch, Thomas (2005).  Into the Classroom: Developing the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning  [Jossey-Bass, An Imprint of Wiley] 

Teachers are the "lone rangers" of education. They are sequestered in their classrooms, unable to see what their colleagues are doing. All too often, good teachers have few, if any, opportunities to share their teaching techniques with others in their profession. Based on the development of the Carnegie Academy for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, "Into the Classroom" clearly shows the advantages of bringing teaching into the public arena and making it possible for many people to see the nature and quality of the teaching that goes on inside schools. Once teaching is more public unprecedented opportunities for teachers to learn from one another and for others to participate constructively in supporting and improving schools can be created. This book outlines the myriad issues that must be addressed in order for the teaching profession to become a true learning profession. This book contains well-researched recommendations for ways to facilitate communication, collegiality, and information sharing, and includes suggestions for: (1) Documenting and representing what teachers actually do in the classroom; (2) Establishing new forums for the presentation, publication, and review of teachers' work; (3) Creating an audience for teachers' work and building the collective capacity to interpret and assess what goes on in the classroom; (4) Implementing standards that recognize and encourage teachers' professionalism; and (5) Developing new standards that support Federal mandates for improving teaching quality. In addition, the book offers useful case examples of professional development, and describes the policies and practices that help teachers to develop and share their own expertise. Following a foreword, preface: Making Teaching Public, and Overview: Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, the book contains six chapters: (1) Introduction: Bringing Teaching Out of the Shadows; (2) In the Classroom: Challenges and Opportunities for Learning from Teaching; (3) Beyond the Classroom: How One Teacher's Inquiry Can Influence Her Peers; (4) Beyond the School: How Teachers' Learning Can Advance the Field; (5) Knowledge Out of Practice: Using Technology to Build on Teachers' Expertise; and (6) Conclusion. Also includes references and an index.

Hatch, Thomas; Bass, Randy; Iiyoshi, Toru; Mace, Desiree Pointer (2004).  Building Knowledge for Teaching and Learning: The Promise of Scholarship in a Networked Environment  Change, 36, 5. 

Roberto Corrada's labor law course at the University of Denver embodies both growing interest in new approaches to teaching and learning and some of the latest uses of educational technology in the scholarship of teaching. In that course, Corrada engages his law school students, many of whom have had little experience in union work settings, in a simulation in which they have a chance to form their own union and to negotiate with him as their "employer." In the process, he extends classroom conversations in online discussion forums. He has also created a course Web site with links to numerous materials, claim forms, and other resources students can use to help them form their union, and he provides opportunities for them to create multimedia resources such as an online newspaper that reports on relevant developments in their organizing efforts. Practitioners' efforts around the country are also targeted at developing a new medium for the production and exchange of faculty knowledge and getting past obstacles. They are creating innovative strategies for collecting teaching materials, they are making those materials public, and they are experimenting with new forms of representation that reflect the complexity of teaching. They are also inventing tools that can facilitate the creation of new representations of knowledge and establishing the electronic environments and platforms that can support the scholarship of teaching and learning. This article explores the promise of scholarship in a networked environment in the following sections: Making Teaching Public; From Collections to Compression; Tools for Scholarly Representations; Developing Environments for Sharing the Knowledge of Teaching and Learning; and Conclusion. List of the URLs referenced in the article and related resources are included.

Hathorn, Lesley G.; Ingram, Albert L. (2002).  Online Collaboration: Making It Work.  Educational Technology, 42, 1. 

Discussion of computer-mediated communication in education focuses on online collaboration. Highlights include characteristics of a collaborative group, including participation, interaction, and interdependence; collaborative situations; non-collaborative groups, including cooperation without collaboration; factors that promote or inhibit collaboration; and encouraging and teaching collaboration, including adding accountability.

Hattie, John A. C.; Brown, Gavin T. L. (2008).  Technology for School-Based Assessment and Assessment for Learning: Development Principles from New Zealand  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 36, 2. 

National assessment systems can be enhanced with effective school-based assessment (SBA) that allows teachers to focus on improvement decisions. Modern computer-assisted technology systems are often used to deploy SBA systems. Since 2000, New Zealand has researched, developed, and deployed a national, computer-assisted SBA system. Eight major principles for the development of an SBA system are derived from those experiences and outlined. These principles focus on curriculum alignment, calibration, innovative communication, choice, low consequences, and local control. Incremental design and deployment of computer technology ensures success. We argue that these principles can be used in any nation to bring about effective improvements in learning and teaching outcomes, while providing quality assurance to governments and citizens.

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Herder, P. M.; Subrahmanian, E.; Talukdar, S.; Turk, A. L.; Westerberg, A. W. (2002).  The Use of Video-Taped Lectures and Web-Based Communications in Teaching: A Distance-Teaching and Cross-Atlantic Collaboration Experiment.  European Journal of Engineering Education, 27, 1. 

Explains distance education approach applied to the 'Engineering Design Problem Formulation' course simultaneously at the Delft University of Technology (the Netherlands) and at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU, Pittsburgh, USA). Uses video taped lessons, video conferencing, electronic mails and web-accessible document management system LIRE in the course.

Herder, P. M.; Turk, A. L.; Subrahmanian, E.; Westerberg, A. W. (2002).  Communication and Collaborative Learning in a Cross-Atlantic Design Course. 

The authors' activities in co-teaching an engineering design course across the Atlantic, at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), USA, and at Delft University of Technology (DUT), the Netherlands, at the same time, required the use of information and communication tools for communication and collaboration purposes between students and between instructors and students. This paper analyzes the overseas communication and collaboration processes among students and instructors, and their implications for learning. A theoretical framework was used for collaborative learning and for stimulating active participation, for analyzing observations and for translating results to a broader theoretical framework. In practice, it meant that the authors experimented among other variables with group compositions and with instructor role descriptions. It is concluded that many of the techniques mentioned in literature did enhance collaboration and learning between students, but that intense communication with overseas instructors is still a major stumbling block. | [FULL TEXT]

Heritage, Margaret; Lee, John; Chen, Eva; LaTorre, Debbie (2005).  Upgrading America's Use of Information to Improve Student Performance. CSE Report 661  [National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST)] 

School data often exists in disparate forms and locations, making it difficult to organize efficiently and to retrieve quickly (Thorn, 2001). Many computer systems are outdated and inadequate, and schools and districts often lack appropriate userfriendly software for data analysis (Bernhardt 2004; Wayman, Stringfield, & Yakimowski, 2004). Furthermore, educators frequently lack the skills of to make effective use of data (Baker, 2003; Choppin, 2002; Cizek, 2000; Cromey, 2000). To address these problems, for the past three years work at the National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Testing CRESST at UCLA has focused on the following objectives: (1) Design and develop a decision support tool, the web-based Quality School Portfolio (QSP) version 4.0; (2) Develop a standardized training system for trainers and end users with certification for trainers; (3) Implement a national rollout of QSP with multiple approaches to training and support; (4) Conduct evaluation research to evaluate the effectiveness of the features and functions of QSP, the effectiveness of the training, and the benefits of QSP use on educational improvement; and (5) Design requirements for the 5th generation of decision-support tools using results from the foregoing objectives. This report covers work related to these objectives over a three year period. Contains 33 figures (some color enhanced), and 12 Tables. Appended are color enhanced, and include: (1) History Subtab of the Students Tab; (2) Digital Portfolio; (3) Groups Tab; (4) Sample Reports from 24 Reporting Options; (5) Goals Tab; and (6) Standards Subtab of the Gradebook. | [FULL TEXT]

Herman, Marlena F., Ed. (2001).  MSaTERs: Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators & Researchers of The Ohio State University. Proceedings of the Annual Spring Conference (5th, Columbus, Ohio, May 5, 2001). 

The Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators and Researchers of The Ohio State University (MSaTERs-OSU) is a student organization that grew out of the former Ohio State University Council of Teachers of Mathematics (OSU-CTM). Papers from the fifth annual conference include: (1) "Models of the Structure of Matter: Why Should We Care about What Students Think" (Gordon Aubrecht); (2) "Virtual Reality on the Web: A Vehicle with New Ways to Enhance Spatial Visualization" (Ohnam Kwon); (3) "Developing Identity as Mathematicians through Questioning and Discourse" (Clare V. Bell); (4) "Introduction to Symbolic Mathematics Guide: A Pedagogical Computer Algebra System for High School Algebra Students" (Todd Edwards); (5) "Using the 'I Wonder Journal' as an Example of Open-Ended Inquiry in the Classroom" (Tracy Huziak); (6) "An Analysis of Writing in College-Level Remedial Mathematics" (Drew Ishii); (7) "Integrating Social Technologies with Respect to Calculus: 'Active' Learning and the Group as a Unit of Change" (Robert Klein); (8) "Curriculum and Assessment in the Age of Computer Algebra Systems" (Michael Meagher); (9) "Reform Mathematics within a Traditionally-Structured Course: Using Authentic Mathematical Activity to Investigate Slope-Intercept Form" (Jeffrey Mills); (10) "Components of Effective Professional Development" (Stephen J. Pape and Beth Greene Costner); (11) "A High-Tech Textbook in a Precalculus Classroom" (Jeremy F. Strayer); (12) "Parent Involvement" (Sharon Sweeney); (13) "Stories in Juxtaposition: Narrative Inquiry Research in an Urban School Setting" (Paul Vellom); and (14) "On the Road to a National Dialogue: Standards-Based Education Reform--Is This What We Meant?" (Debra L. White). | [FULL TEXT]

Hernandez, Victor; McGee, Steven; Reese, Debbie Denise; Kirby, Jennifer; Martin, Judy (2004).  A Program in the Making: Year 1 Annual Report. NASA Explorer Schools Evaluation Brief 3 
 

The briefs in the NES Evaluation Briefs series provide updates on evaluation results relevant to the design, implementation, and impact of the NES program. This Brief highlights how the program was implemented in Year 1. The Brief provides contextual information about participating schools, organizational approaches to participation, strategic planning, professional development supports, and impact on teachers and schools. In 2003 the NASA Explorer School (NES) program was launched nationally with the participation of 50 school teams. Designed as a three-year partnership with schools, the goal of the NES program is to help middle schools improve teaching and learning in science, technology, engineering, and math through significant structural (e.g., professional development, stipends) and curricular supports based on NASA's resources. The research and evaluation team of the Classroom of the Future is conducting the evaluation of the NES program. The goal of the evaluation is to document the design decisions that NASA and participating schools make throughout the program as well as the impact of those design decisions on the program objectives. This brief provides an update on program progress at the end of Year 1 of the program. [Brief was produced by NASA-sponsored Classroom of the Future[TM], Center for Educational Technologies[R], Wheeling Jesuit University.]

Hernandez-Ramos, Pedro (2005).  If Not Here, Where? Understanding Teachers' Use of Technology in Silicon Valley Schools  Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38, 1. 

This article presents results of a survey conducted in the spring of 2004 of practicing teachers in K-12 schools in Santa Clara County, California, also known as "Silicon Valley." Exposure to technology in teaching preparation programs, knowledge of software applications, and constructivist beliefs were found to be positively related to more frequent use of technology by teachers, both for themselves and their students. Other factors such as availability of technical support also seem to affect frequency of technology use. It is argued that the individual teachers do not mainly determine technology integration in K-12 classrooms, even in technology-centric regions such as Silicon Valley, but that other technology-specific and contextual factors also play critical roles. | [FULL TEXT]

Hernandez-Ramos, Pedro (2007).  Aim, Shoot, Ready! Future Teachers Learn to Do Video  British Journal of Educational Technology, 38, 1. 

This paper describes an intensive 2-hr workshop designed to introduce preservice teachers to digital video in the context of an instructional technology course or as a stand-alone activity. Acknowledging time constraints in most real-life instructional situations, this format takes novices with no or very limited knowledge of video making to the point where they have experienced most of the steps involved in crafting a finished (though almost certainly unpolished) digital video. Conversations introduce project-based collaborative learning as the pedagogical context for digital video production, the value of supporting a sense of creativity in students to promote deeper engagement with subject matter through hands-on activities, and how to involve a variety of learning modalities as opposed to predominantly passive reading and listening. Possible extensions like time-lapsed video are discussed.

Herndon, Linda (2001).  Sister Mary Theresa Brentano, OSB's Innovative Use of Magnetic Audio Tapes: An Overlooked Story in the History of Educational Technology. 

This paper tells the story of Sister Mary Theresa Brentano, O.S.B's (1902-1987) innovative use of magnetic audiotapes to provide instruction for students in grades K-12. From 1952 to approximately 1968, Brentano implemented, refined, and tested her tape teaching methods with special emphasis on individualizing instruction in the elementary school. Brentano's innovative tape teaching ideas are not mentioned in Saettler's "The Evolution of American Educational Technology" (1990), DeVaney's "Voices of the Founders: Early Discourses in Educational Technology" (1996), or Butler's "Women in Audiovisual Education, 1920-1957: A Discourse Analysis" (1995). This paper provides an interpretive biographical look at Brentano's tape teaching innovation. It discusses her rationale for and implementation of tape teaching and shares some of the successes and struggles of tape teaching. The paper concludes by discussing two ways this research into Brentano's individualized tape teaching innovation benefits the field of educational technology. | [FULL TEXT]

Herne, Steve (2005).  Download: Postcards Home Contemporary Art and New Technology in the Primary School  International Journal of Art and Design Education, 24, 1. 

Postcards Home using photography, scanning, digital image manipulation, text and colour printing was the third Download project devised by the education department of the Whitechapel Art Gallery, London, England. It was led by artist Laurie Long with teachers and pupils from Pooles Park primary school in Islington, an inner city borough in North London. Based on the production of a postcard featuring an image of personal significance, the children were involved in exploring and constructing their own and others' identities whilst developing their technology skills in creative ways. The project raises interesting questions about the applicability of contemporary art practices to the primary classroom. The research is based on participant observation and includes the voices of the artist and teachers involved.

Herod, L. (2000).  Integrating Technology into Canadian Adult Literacy Programs: The Need for a Curriculum Deliberation Process. 

The issue of integrating technology into adult literacy programs would benefit greatly from the implementation of a curriculum deliberation process such as that suggested by Schwab (1973). Technology (computers in particular) presents the field with a range of questions from the philosophical to the educational to the practical. This provides both an opportune time and a compelling reason to establish a deliberative process. The inclusion of the "four commonplaces" suggested by Schwab--practitioners, learners, subject matter experts, and milieus--would ensure the development of coherent curricula. That is, it would ensure curricula that are meaningful and useful to a wide range of stakeholders. The key consideration in any deliberative process must be, however, the efficacy of computers in terms of educational outcomes. The benefits of a curriculum deliberation process in the field of adult literacy cannot be overstated. They include the rationalization of computers in literacy curriculum; representation by primary and peripheral stakeholders in curriculum development, implementation, and evaluation; development of coherent curriculum; sharing over time of "best practices" and "lessons learned" as computers are integrated into the curriculum; and collaboration in other areas of literacy such as advocacy. | [FULL TEXT]

Herod, Lori-Kyle (2001).  Computers in Adult Literacy: The Need for Curriculum Deliberation.  New Horizons in Adult Education, 15, 1. 

The issue of integrating technology into adult literacy programs would benefit from the implementation of a curriculum deliberation process that includes perspectives of practitioners, learners, subject matter experts, and milieus. This would ensure the development of coherent curricula, with the key consideration being the efficacy of computers in terms of educational outcomes.

Herraez, Angel (2006).  Biomolecules in the Computer: Jmol to the Rescue  Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 34, 4. 

Jmol is free, open source software for interactive molecular visualization. Since it is written in the Java[TM] programming language, it is compatible with all major operating systems and, in the applet form, with most modern web browsers. This article summarizes Jmol development and features that make it a valid and promising replacement for Rasmol and Chime in the development of educational materials, as well as in basic investigation of biomolecular structure. The description is set up by comparison with the well known abilities of Rasmol and Chime. Jmol is suitable for molecular model display and analysis in biochemistry, molecular biology, organic and inorganic chemistry, crystallography, and materials science.

Herrera, Gerardo; Alcantud, Francisco; Jordan, Rita; Blanquer, Amparo; Labajo, Gabriel; De Pablo, Cristina (2008).  Development of Symbolic Play through the Use of Virtual Reality Tools in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Two Case Studies  Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 12, 2. 

Difficulties in understanding symbolism have been documented as characteristic of autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). In general, virtual reality (VR) environments offer a set of potential advantages for educational intervention in ASD. In particular, VR offers the advantage, for teaching pretend play and for understanding imagination, of it being possible to show these imaginary transformations explicitly. This article reports two case studies of children with autism (aged 8:6 and 15:7, both male), examining the effectiveness of using a VR tool specifically designed to work on teaching understanding of pretend play. The results, confirmed by independent observers, showed a significant advance in pretend play abilities after the intervention period in both participants, and a high degree of generalization of the acquired teaching in one of them.

Herrera, Terese A. (2004).  Number Time  Teaching Children Mathematics, 10, 9. 

This article features Number Time, a site developed by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) for young mathematics learners, located at www.bbc.co.uk/schools/numbertime. The site uses interactive animation to help children in pre-K through grade 2 understand and practice number basics. Users will find online games, videos that tell number stories, worksheets for offline work, and support for teachers and parents.

Herring, Donna F.; Notar, Charles E.; Wilson, Janell D. (2005).  Multimedia Software Evaluation Form for Teachers  Education, 126, 1. 

Schools are currently receiving increased funds for multimedia software for classrooms. There is a need for good software in the schools, and there is a need to know how to evaluate software and not naively rely on advertisements. Evaluators of multimedia software for education must have the skills to critically evaluate and make decisions not only about format, but also content and the process of learning. The evaluation form developed in this paper is a simple and practical product that presents a balanced set of guidelines for evaluating and selecting educational multimedia software.

Herrington, Jan; Herrington, Anthony; Sparrow, Len (2000).  Learning To Assess School Mathematics: Context, Multimedia and Transfer.  Mathematics Teacher Education and Development, 2

Explores the use of a multimedia program on assessment strategies within a preservice teacher mathematics method unit and investigates the extent of transfer to classroom practice. Indicates that all students used a variety of assessment strategies and according to the beliefs of the students themselves, were influenced in their use of strategies by the multimedia learning environment. 

Herrington, Jan; Kervin, Lisa (2007).  Authentic Learning Supported by Technology: Ten Suggestions and Cases of Integration in Classrooms  Educational Media International, 44, 3. 

Technology use in classrooms is often employed for all the wrong reasons--such as convenience, pressure from school administrators, the belief that students need to be entertained, and so on. In this article, the authors argue that technology presents the opportunity to employ powerful cognitive tools that can be used by students to solve complex and authentic problems. In order for this to occur, however, technology needs to be used in theoretically sound ways, and it needs to be used by students rather than teachers. Ten practical ways are presented for technology to be used effectively and meaningfully in school classrooms that are based on principles of authentic learning.

Herrington, Jan; Reeves, Thomas C.; Oliver, Ron (2006).  Authentic Tasks Online: A Synergy among Learner, Task, and Technology  Distance Education, 27, 2. 

Fostering synergies amongst "learner," "task," and "technology" to create innovative and immersive distance learning environments runs counter to the widespread practice of incorporating traditional classroom pedagogical strategies into Web-based delivery of courses. The most widely accepted model of online higher education appears to be one of reductionism, whereby learning management systems facilitate the design of easily digested packets of information, usually assessed by discrete stand-alone tests and academic assignments. This article describes a model for the development of authentic tasks that can assist in designing environments of increased, rather than reduced, complexity. It provides a robust framework for the design of online courses, based on the work of theorists and researchers in situated learning and authentic learning. It describes the characteristics of a task's design that facilitates the requirements of an entire course of study being readily satisfied by its completion, where the students make the important decisions about why, how, and in what order they investigate a problem. The article describes several learning environments that were investigated in depth in the study, and explores the synergies that exist between the learners, tasks, and technology engaged in authentic learning settings. The article leads readers to a conceptual understanding of the role of authentic tasks in supporting knowledge construction and meaningful learning, and illustrates the principles of authentic task design for online learning environments.

Herrmann, Allan; Fox, Robert; Boyd, Anna (2000).  Unintended Effects in Using Learning Technologies.  New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education

Unintended effects of learning technologies include temptation to play, competing needs for access, displacement of teaching goals, and displacement rather than transfer of costs. These effects can be managed by focusing on design and development, the user, and feedback.

Herrmann, Thomas; Kienle, Andrea; Reiband, Natalja (2003).  Meta-Knowledge-A Success Factor for Computer-Supported Organizational Learning in Companies.  Educational Technology & Society, 6, 1. 

Introduces different kinds of meta-knowledge which all have positive influence on the usage of knowledge-management systems. Presents results from a qualitative study conducted in five German companies, and derives relations between kinds of meta-knowledge and the characteristics of knowledge management systems. Only if this experience with meta-knowledge guides the design of knowledge management systems can a technological innovation be successful.

Hershey, David R. (2002).  Hippeastrum Is Hardly a Humdrum Classroom Plant.  Science Activities, 39, 3. 

Introduces the plant Amaryllis, which is the common name for the Hippeastrum species. Describes how to grow and bloom Amaryllis in soil using hydroponics. Introduces experiments investigating the anatomy of the bulb, growing and elongation rates, the flower, and foliage.

Hertzog, Nancy; Klein, Marjorie (2005).  Beyond Gaming: A Technology Explosion in Early Childhood Classrooms  Gifted Child Today, 28, 3. 

This article shares examples of how technology has been integrated into the curriculum. The impact of technology has personalized and differentiated instruction. This document provides some suggestions for others and concludes with possibilities for the future. At University Primary School, the use of technology as Mindtools has been a particularly good match for channeling students' creativity and critical thinking. Students use technology individually and collaboratively to produce reflections of their own learning and representations of their thinking. They enjoy becoming technology-literate. In addition, technology has enhanced the differentiation of the curriculum by facilitating open-ended activities and creative production such as writing, drawing, photojournaling, bookmaking, and webbing. Technology has supported students in moving from concrete experiences to abstract concepts. Just like adults, 3- to 7-year-olds use technology to research answers to their own questions and produce representations of their findings. Students have gone beyond gaming and consuming. They have grown socially, emotionally, and cognitively as they used technology to create, collaborate, and problem solve in order to express their ideas. | [FULL TEXT]

Herz, J. C. (2005).  The Space between: Creating a Context for Learning  EDUCAUSE Review, 40 n3 p31-32, 34. 

The article discusses a vast river of data or information and creating a context in which the information makes sense and can be understood. As technologists, they have this kind of awkward responsibility to deal with social context. In order to provide value to their organizations, they need to understand the messy activity of groups of people using and exchanging information, as well as understand all of the not easily specified results. This article talks about experience and the learning substrate for students who are affected by having a private versus a semi-private versus a public space. The space between--between the raw technology and the new tools, between the way that things have traditionally been done and the way that things can possibly be done, between the offline and the online--causes the most tension but also offers the most opportunities. To find the most value in this space, they need to think about their knowledge topography, their information landscape, in the same way that an urban planner thinks.

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Hemard, Dominique (2006).  Design Issues Related to the Evaluation of Learner--Computer Interaction in a Web-Based Environment: Activities v. Tasks  Computer Assisted Language Learning, 19, 2-3. 

If web-based technology is increasingly becoming the central plank of contemporary teaching and learning processes, there is still too little evidence to suggest that it is delivering purposeful learning activities beyond its widely perceived potential as a learning resource providing content and learning objects. This is due in part to the "bandwagon" effect created by the ubiquity and popularity of the web but also because e-learning is being institutionally managed and pedagogically harnessed without serious design considerations being given to its interactive specificity, which only seem to manifest themselves through sporadic and mainly inconsequential evaluation. On this premise, this paper attempts to identify some of the main design issues involved at both conceptual and implementation levels whilst making the case for the necessary collection and subsequent analysis of valid data. Therefore, it will re-examine the role, value and means of exploitation of existing evaluative data within the design process in order to facilitate the adoption of a more appropriate conceptual approach and to better understand web-based interaction in relation to learner requirements through the application of activity theory. The ulterior motive behind this study is to show the importance and relevance of the conceptual understanding of the web as a learning interactive construct and how the learning process it is meant to generate, can be improved through targeted and integrated evaluation.

Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene; Fox, Lise (2006).  Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning: A Conceptual Model for Intervention  School Psychology Review, 35, 4. 

Over the last several years, there has been an increased focus on school readiness and supporting children during the preschool years to learn the skills they need to be successful in elementary school and beyond (Bowman, Donovan, Burns, et al., 2000; Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000). The capacity to develop positive social relationships, to concentrate and persist on challenging tasks, to effectively communicate emotions, and to problem solve are just a few of the competencies young children need to be successful as they transition to school. In this article, we describe the "Teaching Pyramid" (Fox, Dunlap, Hemmeter, Joseph, & Strain, 2003), a model for promoting young children's social-emotional development and addressing children's challenging behavior and its link to critical outcomes for children, families, and early childhood programs. The "Pyramid" includes four components: building positive relationships with children, families, and colleagues; designing supportive and engaging environments; teaching social and emotional skills; and developing individualized interventions for children with the most challenging behavior. Given the unique characteristics of early childhood settings, implementation issues and implications of the model are a primary focus of the discussion.

Hemphill, Hoyet (2000).  The Language of Instruction: Assessing the Instructional Syntax of Technology-based Training.  Educational Technology, 40, 4. 

Instructional syntax analysis is one approach to evaluating how a technology-based training course will interact with the learner. By plotting fluctuations in engagement and feedback levels over time, general level of interactivity in a course can be analyzed. Basic principles of instructional syntax analysis are described, with an example of how they might be implemented. Tables list engagement and feedback criteria.

Hemphill, Leaunda S.; Hemphill, Hoyet H. (2007).  Evaluating the Impact of Guest Speaker Postings in Online Discussions  British Journal of Educational Technology, 38, 2. 

This study investigated the impact of virtual guest speakers facilitating asynchronous discussions. The setting was an online instructional technology course with 16 graduate students and two guest speakers. The research reports the quantity and level of critical thinking of the students and guests. Each posting was coded for frequency and critical thinking. The results indicate that higher-order thinking occurred and student participation remained high throughout the length of both threaded discussions, regardless of the amount of postings and time spent by the guests. The findings support that guest speakers can be used sparingly in online discussions while still maintaining the quality of the online discussion and frequent, meaningful interactions among students.

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Hron, Aemilian; Cress, Ulrike; Hammer, Karsten; Friedrich, Helmut-Felix (2007).  Fostering Collaborative Knowledge Construction in a Video-Based Learning Setting: Effects of a Shared Workspace and a Content-Specific Graphical Representation  British Journal of Educational Technology, 38, 2. 

This study examined means of fostering videoconference-based collaborative learning. An experiment was conducted with 15 learning dyads divided into three conditions of videoconference-based learning: without shared workspace, with shared workspace and with shared workspace plus a content-specific graphical representation. Compared with those with a shared workspace, learning dyads without a shared workspace in the videoconference-based setting tended to make more effort at verbal coordination. This coordination effort did not affect the quality of collaboratively written texts or individual knowledge acquisition. Without shared workspace, participants' coordinative utterances involved more frequent referrals to the learning content, which might have facilitated the cognitive processing of the learning content and might have compensated for the potential disadvantage of verbal coordination load. The content-specific graphical representation led to more coherent content-related dialogues and had positive effects on the quality of the collaboratively written texts and on individual knowledge acquisition. The study shows that content-specific graphical representation can be a meaningful support measure in videoconference-based learning settings, whereas the effects of a shared workspace should be further investigated.

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_____. (2000).  Helping Schools Make Technology Work: Managing Information Technology from Classrooms to Lunchrooms. 

This report discusses the following "Top 10" ways to make technology work for schools: (1) develop long and short-range plans and budgets--don't fly blind; (2) create policies, procedures, and standards--the bedrock of effective technological change; (3) know what you need before you buy it; (4) apply the "Yellow Pages test" when deciding to buy or rent expertise; (5) locate funding to fill growing needs; (6) make sure computer systems are compatible--system integration; (7) understand that training is the key to success or failure; (8) communicate and cooperate, inside and outside the district; (9) keep systems up and running--staffing and technical support; and (10) control your inventory--know what you have and where it is. World Wide Web sites for obtaining additional information about the processes discussed in the report are listed. | [FULL TEXT]

Helgeson, Lars; Francis, Carolee Dodge (2006).  Diabetes Education in Tribal Schools  Science Teacher, 73, 3. 

Diabetes is a prevalent disease in the United States. The emergence of Type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents within the American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities brings increased public health and quality of life concerns. In this article, the authors describe an initiative titled "Diabetes Education in Tribal Schools K-12 Curriculum Project" to address the epidemic rates of Type 2 diabetes among AI/AN populations. The qualitative lesson plan's purpose is to introduce and promote ethnographic research skills among students. Working in teams of two, students developed investigation questions and then practiced observation and data collection skills among their peers. Adult community members volunteered to come to campus to participate in student interviews. Through the interview process, students acquired research skills, presentation experience, and constructed new understandings. In addition, students were able to glimpse, in a very personal way, how this disease is affecting their community and what their role might be in preventing the growth of this epidemic.

Helic, Denis (2004).  Delivering Relevant Training Objects to Personal Desktop with Modern WBT-Systems  International Journal on E-Learning, 3, 2. 

To participate in a particular Web-based training session students work with a number of tools reflecting a particular training strategy. By doing so they access different training objects containing relevant information for their current training task. Since modern WBT systems support dozens of different, sometimes rather complex tools and provide access to thousands of training objects students are often confronted with a complex user interface, to say at least. Moreover, users who prepare training sessions for modern WBT systems, that is, authors and tutors experience similar problems of a complex, inscrutable user interface. This paper describes a simple general WBT user interface solution that we developed in order to overcome such problems. Additionally, the paper provides an evaluation of the responses from users that we gathered after we applied that solution in one modern WBT system--WBT-Master. This evaluation showed us that there was much more potential in our solution than we believed at the first, resulting in the evolution of our user interface solution to a simple knowledge delivery tool. By applying this tool in our training sessions we achieved the following. Only the most relevant and up-to-date training objects residing in the system could become a part of our training sessions. Moreover, these training objects were always accompanied with conceptual maps describing their relationships with other training objects in the system.

Helic, Denis; Krottmaier, Harald; Maurer, Hermann; Scerbakov, Nick (2005).  Enabling Project-Based Learning in WBT Systems  International Journal on E-Learning, 4, 4. 

It is our experience that many Web-based training (WBT) systems do not consider the latest advances in teaching or learning paradigms--they simply reflect Web technology. We believe that such a technical approach to building WBT systems has a number of drawbacks, since WBT systems are primarily about teaching and learning, rather than about technology. Thus, WBT systems should actually combine conventional and innovative tools compatible with current Web technology to support well-known, well-tested techniques, and also to enable implementation of new and innovative teaching and learning paradigms in a Web-based environment. Therefore, we built an innovative WBT system called WBT-Master as a Web-based platform supporting a wide range of different teaching and learning paradigms. In this paper, we present a WBT-Master tool that implements the well-known and highly accepted project-based learning paradigm. Further, we present results of the application of this tool in conducting a project-oriented software engineering course attended by more than 200 university students. We also present evaluations of applying WBT-Master within a corporate environment.

Helic, Denis; Maurer, Hermann; Scerbakov, Nick (2002).  Implementing Complex Web-Based Training Strategies with Virtual Classrooms. 

Current training strategies implemented in online Web-based training (WBT) sessions are rather simple strategies. They lack a number of typical classroom training strategies, such as: composite training strategies, the possibility to customize and adapt training strategy, and collaborative training strategies. This paper presents a novel WBT tool called Virtual Classrooms, which was implemented to support such aspects. The intention was to mirror at least a small part of the typical classroom experience into online training sessions in a WBT environment. Virtual Classrooms are implemented as part of the modern WBT system called WBT-Master.

Helland, Barbara J. (2004).  The Constructivist Learning Environment Scorecard: A Tool to Characterize Online Learning  [Online Submission, Paper presented at the Academy of Human Resource Development International Conference (AHRD) (Austin, TX, Mar 3-7, 2004) p618-625 (Symp. 29-2)] 

Over the past five years, the number of individuals engaging in online learning as well as the number of online course offering has grown exponentially. At the same time, outcome research on online learning design is sparse. This paper describes the development of a constructivist learning environment scorecard and explores its usefulness in characterizing and comparing online learning courses and subsequently learning outcomes.  [For complete proceedings, see ED491481.] | [FULL TEXT]

Heller, Isabel (2005).  Learner Experiences and CALL-Tool Usability -- Evaluating the "Chemnitz InternetGrammar"  Computer Assisted Language Learning, 18, 1-2. 

The way people interact with knowledge has changed tremendously for today's society, in that the skills of information-management are required more than those for the retention of knowledge. This "knowledge society" (Ruschoff, in Mibler & Multhaup, 1999, p. 80) thus greatly supports the implementation of technology in the education sector due to its capacities in storage, retrieval and communication of information. Yet this solution is not a straightforward one, since the merits of pedagogical tools need to be investigated first (Chapelle, 1998). The Chemnitz InternetGrammar (CING) is a web-based English grammar learning tool with an extensive body of authentic English language examples. To the researcher's knowledge no self-instruction tool with such a diversity of authentic English grammar material as that of the Chemnitz InternetGrammar exists. With its inductive-deductive presentation of content, various tools (CorpusSearch Engine, Learning-strategy Test, Placement Test) the CING offers more than most instructional programmes. "Researchers and teachers do not have a clear conception of a task unless they observe how the task actually turns out during instruction" (Chapelle, 1998, p. 28). The CING faces a similar dilemma as using it is a task in itself, which is why its usability needs to be evaluated, to ensure its future success with learners (Preece, 2000). This evaluation shall contribute to an understanding of learners' experience with the tool's tasks and how the CING's usability is supported or needs to be improved. It is hoped to be a contribution to questionnaire design and evaluation in current CALL research. The results of more than 60 evaluation questionnaires on usability and content difficulty were collected over a period of three months. They indicate the kinds of problems users have with the CING and their positive learning experience. The group of subjects consisted of more than 60 students between terms one and seven, studying at the Universmediate3 level of English grammar or higher. Questionnaires were filled in by CING users after self-guided learning sessions with the "InternetGrammar".

Heller, Joan I.; Curtis, Deborah A.; Jaffe, Rebecca; Verboncoeur, Carol J. (2005).  The Impact of Handheld Graphing Calculator Use on Student Achievement in Algebra 1  [Online Submission] 

This study investigated the relationship between instructional use of handheld graphing calculators and student achievement in Algebra 1. Three end-of-course test forms were administered (without calculators) using matrix sampling to 458 high-school students in two suburban school districts in Oregon and Kansas. Test questions on two forms were drawn from Texas and Massachusetts publicly-released standardized test items, and the third form was custom-designed to emphasize conceptual understanding and math applications. All classes used Key Curriculum Press's "Discovering Algebra" textbook. Results showed that the more access students had graphing calculators, and the more instructional time in which graphing calculators were used, the higher the test scores. In addition, scores were significantly higher where teachers reported receiving professional development on how to use a graphing calculator in math instruction. Appended are: (1) Teacher Survey; (2) Classroom Survey; (3) End-of-Course Algebra Test Form T; (4) End-of-Course Algebra Test Form M; and (5) End-of-Course Algebra Test Form C.  [This work was also funded by Key Curriculum Press.] | [FULL TEXT]

Heller, Jurgen; Steiner, Christina; Hockemeyer, Cord; Albert, Dietrich (2006).  Competence-Based Knowledge Structures for Personalised Learning  International Journal on E-Learning, 5, 1. 

Competence-based extensions of Knowledge Space Theory are suggested as a formal framework for implementing key features of personalised learning in technology-enhanced learning. The approach links learning objects and assessment problems to the relevant skills that are taught or required. Various ways to derive these skills from domain ontologies are discussed in detail. Moreover, it is shown that the approach induces structures on the assessment problems and learning objects, respectively, that can serve as a basis for an efficient adaptive assessment of the learners' skills, and for selecting personalised learning paths.

Helms, T. C.; Doetkott, C. (2007).  Educational Software for Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL)  Journal of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Education, 36

This educational software was developed to aid teachers and students in their understanding of how the process of identifying the most likely quantitative trait loci (QTL) position is determined between two flanking DNA markers. The objective of the software that we developed was to: (1) show how a QTL is mapped to a position on a chromosome using a hands-on approach; (2) show how varying the guessed position of the QTL changes the mixture of QTL genotypes within each marker class. A least squares approach was used to determine the F statistic associated with each guessed QTL position between the flanking DNA markers. When the F statistic reaches a maximum value, the correct position of the QTL has been identified. The instructor identifies the true position of the QTL, while the students enter a guess as to the QTL position between flanking markers. The histograms generated by the software show the discrepancy between the true and guessed mixture of QTL genotypes within each of the nine marker classes. The output also shows how the design matrix and test statistic change as the guessed QTL position is altered. This software will aid the instructor in explaining how a QTL is mapped. Students will learn to associate the degree of recombination between markers and the QTL with resulting magnitude of the F statistic.

Helms, T. C.; Doetkott, C. (2007).  An Educational Software for Simulating the Sample Size of Molecular Marker Experiments  Journal of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Education, 36

We developed educational software to show graduate students how to plan molecular marker experiments. These computer simulations give the students feedback on the precision of their experiments. The objective of the software was to show students using a hands-on approach how: (1) environmental variation influences the range of the estimates of the magnitude of a quantitative trait loci (QTL) and; (2) how the number of F[subscript 2] plants used to map the QTL influences the range of estimates of the magnitude of the QTL. The histograms generated by the software show the range in the magnitude of the QTL genetic effect as the magnitude of the residual variance and number of F[subscript 2] plants are varied. Students will learn the influence of environmental variation on the magnitude of the QTL and why it is important to report confidence intervals for the QTL magnitude. The number of F[subscript 2] plants used in the experiment can also be varied to simulate the influence of segregating background genes that are not linked to the QTL. This software will enhance student understanding of the results of molecular marker experiments that they have either read about or conducted from their own research effort.

Helms-Park, Rena; Radia, Pavlina; Stapleton, Paul (2007).  A Preliminary Assessment of Google Scholar as a Source of EAP Students' Research Materials  Internet and Higher Education, 10, 1. 

While the use of a search engine to find secondary sources is now a commonplace practice among undergraduate writers, recent studies show that students' online searches often lead to materials that are wholly or partially unsuitable for academic purposes. Accordingly, this project set out to determine whether using a more specialized search engine, Google Scholar, would lead to qualitative differences in the sources selected by second-language (L2) students working on a research-based assignment in a first-year English for Academic Purposes (EAP) course. The participants in this study (N=27) were required to submit an annotated bibliography consisting of ten sources, sought from print or electronic media, on their research topic. Students were required to indicate how these sources were located (e.g., Google, Google Scholar, the university library's catalogue of electronic resources, or a traditional search for print materials). Three independent raters, who were not given any information on the search mechanisms used, evaluated each electronic source (N=72) using WATCH, an analytic website assessment scale, [Stapleton, P., & Helms-Park, R. (2006). Evaluating Web sources in an EAP course: Introducing a multi-trait instrument for feedback and assessment. English for specific Purposes, 25(4) 438-455.]. Mann-Whitney comparisons revealed no significant differences between sources obtained through Google Scholar and the university library's catalogue of electronic resources (p set at [less than or equal] 0.05). On the other hand, there were significant differences between Google Scholar and Google sources, as well as between electronic sources obtained through the library and Google, in key areas such as academic rigor and objectivity.

Heltne, Mari M.; Nye, Judith B. (2004).  E-Listening: Transforming Education Using Collaborative Tools for Assessment and Evaluation  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

This paper discusses how the authors' department curricula, classroom environments, and ultimately student learning might be improved by "high tech" assessment and evaluation techniques to find out "what people really care about." Collaborative technologies are used to gather and process the opinions of students, faculty, and other stakeholders. ?E-Listening? is defined as the use of collaborative technologies to gather and process the opinions of students and other stakeholders for departmental improvement, and the attempt to extend the process and its benefits to the broader institution. Coordinated assessment activities using two different collaborative technologies, Group Systems and Facilitate.com were designed for the purposes of assessment and evaluation in college classroom. The advantages to students and faculty of the using the collaborative tools are described. | [FULL TEXT]

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Himmelberger, Kathleen S.; Schwartz, Daniel L. (2007).  It's a Home Run! Using Mathematical Discourse to Support the Learning of Statistics  Mathematics Teacher, 101, 4. 

Contrasting cases are a way to stimulate productive student discussions, discussions that prepare students to learn from more traditional activities such as classroom lectures and worked examples. Examples from a unit on variability show that students gain long-lasting insight into the structure and purpose of statistical formulas.

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Hlapanis, G.; Dimitrakopoulou, A. (2007).  A Course Model Implemented in a Teacher's Learning Community Context: Issues of Course Assessment  Behaviour & Information Technology, 26, 6. 

How could we design course programmes in a teachers' learning community context? Is it possible to conceive a concrete and appropriate course model? And if so, how could we assess the effectiveness of such a course model in such a complex learning situation? In this paper, a model implementation of technology-based courses is presented. The model was specified according to adult collaborative learning principles and was implemented in a learning community context. This model was put into practice during a distance learning educational programme, concerning further education of in-service primary and secondary education teachers. The programme was named "School-Teacher's Learning Community" and hosted many different web-based supported courses. Within this broad "e-Learning Community" students were educated, via the Internet, on aspects mainly concerning uses of information and communication technologies (ICT) in their teaching practices. The application of the previously specified course model was pursued, yet instructors responsible for each course were given substantial independence and the degree of harmonization with the course model was up to them. Some aspects of the case study, which was conducted within the context of this educational programme, are also presented. Emphasis was given to correlations that are derived from the analysis of data related to the research question concerning "the extent of successful results that the application of the specified course model produced". Course assessment issues were dealt with and evaluation of positive results was accomplished through the measurement of the degree of satisfaction of certain criteria that were considered decisive. Finally, conclusions, benefits and perspectives of issues presented in the paper are also presented.

Hlawaty, Heide (2002).  Silence in Science: Break the Code!  American Biology Teacher, 64, 6. 

Introduces the Reading-Is-The-Answer (RITA) method which teaches students to read while considering their learning styles. Recommends using technology combined with RITA for older students.

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Hsi, Sherry (2007).  Conceptualizing Learning from the Everyday Activities of Digital Kids  International Journal of Science Education, 29, 12. 

This paper illustrates the intensified engagement that youth are having with digital technologies and introduces a framework for examining "digital fluency"--the competencies, new representational practises, design sensibilities, ownership, and strategic expertise that a learner gains or demonstrates by using digital tools to gather, design, evaluate, critique, synthesize, and develop digital media artefacts, communication messages, or other electronic expressions. A primary goal of this paper is to identify promising perspectives through which learning is conceptualized, and to share the methodological challenges in investigating digital fluency in both individual and collaborative learning activities that take place in complex naturalistic settings and socially constructed online worlds. A review is provided of the current and prospective research methods that researchers use to capture, document, and study the compelling ways in which children and young people are using digital technologies such as Information and Communication Technologies, social networking software, video games, multimedia authoring tools, and mobile phones in everyday life to learn and play. The paper argues for a need to study the authentic, inventive, and emergent uses of digital technologies and interactive learning environments among youth to contribute to advancement of theories of everyday learning and to build a deeper understanding of how learning occurs in out-of-school settings from a practise-oriented perspective rather than a knowledge-centred one. Implications for instructional practise are also discussed in addition to ethical and pragmatic issues that will need to be addressed in the study of digital kids.

Hsieh, Chung-Hsiang; Sun, Chuen-Tsai (2006).  MUD for Learning: Classification and Instruction  International Journal of Instructional Media, 33, 3. 

From a constructivist point of view, the importance of MUDs (Multiple User Dungeons) in education is justified based on their community-forming, learning, and role-playing functions. The authors propose a typology for educational MUDs and discuss their individual instructional approaches in order to measure MUD potential in ten-os of learning-specific angle. According to the metaphor, technology, and instruction we found in educational MUDs, we categorize them as teacher-centered, learner-centered, environment-centered, or construction-centered. After describing the learning structures and characteristic features of our classification system, we use three MUDs developed and tested in Taiwan to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of using a MUD-based learning approach.

Hsieh, Patricia Yee (2004).  Web-Based Training Design for Human Resources Topics: A Case Study  TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 48, 2. 

Human resources (HR) departments are often responsible for providing employee and supervisory training in soft skill areas-such as performance management-and in compliance with HR-related laws, such as the Family and Medical Leave Act. Traditionally, this training has occurred in classrooms. In recent years, however, HR departments have made greater use of technology to provide or supplement training. This article describes how instructional technology theories have been applied in developing web-based training to enable a large state system of higher education, The Texas A&M University System, to meet its HR training needs more efficiently.

Hsiung, Yu-Lu; Arvold, Bridget; Johnson, Nancy; Wojtowicz, Patricia (2003).  Students' and Cooperating Teachers' Perceptions of the Secondary Teacher Education Program. 

This study, an evaluation component of the Mathematics English Technology Education Resources (METER) project, examined student teachers' and cooperating teachers' perceptions of the Secondary Teacher Education Program redesign at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. METER was part of the Illinois Professional Learners' Partnership (IPLP) a federally funded 5-year program to improve the quality of teacher education programs. This study examined four of nine key focus areas of IPLP: teaching diverse student populations, content area knowledge, clinical experience, and technology integration. It focused on students' satisfaction with program components, cooperating teachers' perceptions of the program, and how the program responded to students' needs. Data were collected via program feedback forms, and results were organized by content area, student cohort, semester of enrollment, and common themes. Data analysis indicated that students' and cooperating teachers' perceptions of the program were inconsistent across content areas. There was evidence that the program responded to student needs. Students perceived program improvement in some areas but program decline in other areas. An appendix presents data on the percentage of students whose comments were significant themes. | [FULL TEXT]

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Hafner, Christoph A.; Candlin, Christopher N. (2007).  Corpus Tools as an Affordance to Learning in Professional Legal Education  Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 6, 4. 

Considerable research has now been undertaken into the development of different approaches to exploiting language corpora for pedagogic purposes in the context of ESP. The question of how language corpora might be utilized by students beyond the immediate language-teaching context is, however, one as yet seldom addressed in the literature. This study attempts to explore the relationship between student use of online corpus tools and academic and professional discourse practices in the context of a professional legal training course at The City University of Hong Kong. Students enrolled in this course were given instruction in how to consult an online concordancer as language support when completing their legal writing assignments. Drawing on narratives of student experience, and other informant data including detailed logs of searches and the outcomes of assessments of English language proficiency, the paper discusses the ways in which students make strategic use of the corpus tools provided to develop competence in writing for legal purposes. The paper concludes by appraising the potential of corpus-based methods as an affordance for studying the practice of Law, in particular as a means of enhancing the acquisition of professional expertise by novice lawyers.

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Huon, Gail; Spehar, Branka; Adam, Paul; Rifkin, Will (2007).  Resource Use and Academic Performance among First Year Psychology Students  Higher Education: The International Journal of Higher Education and Educational Planning, 53, 1. 

Multiple questionnaires completed over the semester by 514 students enrolled in a first year psychology course reveal that no single pattern of reliance on print, online, or in-person resources guarantees a high mark. Analyses of the reported and measured frequency of use of various resources correlated against students', performance on both individual assessments and their final marks suggests that students employ a range of strategies in their use of class resources. They tend to rely on their textbooks, Web-based lecture notes, and online quizzes, but their final marks are more strongly determined by their university entrance scores than by their resource use strategy, their sex, or whether or not English is their first language. The data suggest that students adapt their learning strategies to the resources available, with an apparent emphasis on learning what will be assessed rather than exploring for understanding. Importantly, the results argue that investment in development of educational technologies--and students', use of educational technologies--must be informed by empirical data concerning its impact on the efficiency and quality of learning.

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Hasenekoglu, Ismet; Timucin, Melih (2007).  Biology Teacher and Expert Opinions about Computer Assisted Biology Instruction Materials: A Software Entitled Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis  [Online Submission] 

The aim of this study is to collect and evaluate opinions of CAI experts and biology teachers about a high school level Computer Assisted Biology Instruction Material presenting computer-made modelling and simulations. It is a case study. A material covering "Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis" topic was developed as the "case". The goal of the material is modelling relevant terms and phenomena. Having formed the material, then expert opinions were asked for technical and teacher opinions for educational assessment. Research data were collected via: An Assessment Scale for Experts, An Assessment Scale for Teachers and A Teacher Interview. Data on Assessment Scales were evaluated by determining percentage-frequencies and material proved adequate both in educational and structural point of view. Both qualifying and quantifying Teacher and Expert assessments about the software on "Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis" were positive.  | [FULL TEXT]

Hashemzadeh, Nozar; Wilson, Loretta (2007).  Teaching with the Lights out: What Do We Really Know about the Impact of Technology Intensive Instruction?  College Student Journal, 41, 3. 

In this study, we attempt to determine the extent to which students enrolled in economic courses benefit from extensive use of modern technology based teaching/learning tools such as electronic slide presentations. Our results are mixed. We find more support for the traditional teaching pedagogies as compared to what is being customarily used in many of our classes. Survey findings support the view that technology intensive instructional innovations do not necessarily imply increased student engagement or achievement in undergraduate classes. To the contrary, both goals appear to be better served by traditional pedagogies at this point. According to our results, there is no correlation between the chalk and talk method and passive learning and student disengagement, a correlation that is widely assumed. More than 95 percent of our survey respondents placed greater value on the instructor's lecturing skills in their learning experience compared to alternative methods.

Haspekian, Mariam (2005).  An "Instrumental Approach" to Study the Integration of a Computer Tool into Mathematics Teaching: The Case of Spreadsheets  International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning, 10, 2. 

This article reports on research focused on the integration of a specific computer tool, the spreadsheet, into mathematics teaching. After presenting some important results obtained by research in this area, we revisit these in the light of an instrumental approach, which we perceive as essential to analyse the construction of mathematical meanings in spreadsheet environments and to understand better the questions of technological integration. Then, these theoretical elements are used in order to design an exploratory experiment with grade 7 pupils and analyse its results.

Hasse, John; Colvard, Chuck (2006).  Inverse Distance Learning: Digitally Enhancing a Geography Field-Course  Journal of Geography, 105, 4. 

This paper explores the use of technological tools often utilized for traditional distance learning course delivery to provide a means of allowing virtual participation in a month-long geography field-course. Students participated in documenting the daily activities through digital photography and construction of a regularly updated course web page. Although the effort to create and maintain the inverse distance learning component of the course was substantial, many benefits were realized that enhanced then field-based and experiential objectives of the course such as enrichment of the experiential component for both real and virtual course participants, collaborative decision-making, and the acquisition of technological skills necessary fro the rapidly changing field of geography.

Hasselbring, Ted S. (2001).  A Possible Future of Special Education Technology.  Journal of Special Education Technology, 16, 4. 

This article discusses three trends and technologies that will have a significant impact on the lives of students with high-incidence disabilities: the development of computing devices, the delivery of information and instructional materials anytime and anyplace, and the development of instructional materials and practices that are based on science-of-learning principles.

Hasselbring, Ted S.; Bausch, Margaret E. (2006).  Assistive Technologies for Reading  Educational Leadership, 63, 4. 

Although approximately half of the six million students receiving specialized services for an identified disability are learning disabled, research shows that assistive technologies are far more commonly used with students who manifest physical or sensory disabilities than they are with those with learning disabilities. Assistive technology can help students with learning disabilities struggling to master grade-level work in inclusive classrooms. Hasselbring and Bausch describe two computer software applications that support learning disabled students in reading material at grade level: Read & Write Gold and READ 180. Read & Write Gold uses synthetic speech to read text aloud while a student watches the text scroll on a computer screen, and includes features to help hesitant writers compose. READ 180 strengthens students' reading experiences and skills by supplying "anchor videos" giving overall background for various topics. The program presents a passage related to the content of the video, comprehension questions, and instruction that helps readers decode and more deeply understand any words they may read haltingly.

Hasselbring, Ted S.; Glaser, Candyce H. Williams (2000).  Use of Computer Technology To Help Students with Special Needs.  Future of Children, 10, 2. 

Reviews the role of computer technology in promoting the education of children with special needs within regular classrooms, discussing: technologies for students with mild learning and behavioral disorders, speech and language disorders, hearing impairments, visual impairments, and severe physical disabilities. Examines barriers to effective technology use for the population (e.g., inadequate teacher training and high costs).

Hasselbring, Ted S.; Goin, Laura I. (2004).  Literacy Instruction for Older Struggling Readers: What Is the Role of Technology?  Reading and Writing Quarterly, 20, 2. 

In this article, we describe the development of a technology-based intervention program for older struggling readers. Developed over several years, this program was based on a theoretical understanding of reading acquisition. In addition, it capitalized on pedagogical principles that can be enhanced through the use of integrated media. The end result of this R&D activity is a powerful prototypic program that has been shown to enhance the reading skills of middle and high-school students who have struggled with reading during most of their school careers.

Hasselbring, Ted S.; Lewis, Preston; Bausch, Margaret E.; Axelson, Mary; Kay, Ken; Honey, Margaret (2005).  InSight. Volume 5  [Appalachia Educational Laboratory at Edvantia] 

This final edition focuses on two global issues that encompass most, if not all, of the topics explored in previous issues. With an emphasis on academic success for all children, the authors look at a method of universally designed assessment developed by the Kentucky Department of Education and based on the tenets of universal design for learning. This paper describes the leadership role taken by officials in this state to develop assessments for all students and the state's vision for future assessments. The other articles in this edition explore a foundational concept at the very heart of new and emerging technologies: technology literacy. Articles include: (1) Assessing Students with Disabilities: Moving Assessment Forward through Universal Design (Ted S. Hasselbring, Preston Lewis, and Margaret E. Bausch); (2) Online Assessments of Technology Literacy: The Perfect Petri Dish (Mary Axelson); and (3) Beyond Technology Competency: A Vision of Information Communication Technology Literacy to Prepare Students for the 21st Century (Ken Kay and Margaret Honey). | [FULL TEXT]

Hasselbring, Ted S.; Smith, Laurie; Glaser, Candyce Williams; Barron, Linda; Risko, Victoria J.; Snyder, Chris; Rakestraw, John; Campbell, Marilyn (2000).  Literature Review: Technology To Support Teacher Development. 

This literature review discusses the importance of technology to support teachers' professional development. Section 1, "Technology and Professional Development," highlights technology capacity of America's schools; barriers to effective technology use and professional development (e.g., lack of teacher training and lack of hardware and software); professional development in exemplary schools and districts; and improving professional development in technology. Section 2, "Preparing Preservice Teachers to Use Technology," notes that there are very few studies on the use of technological applications in schools of education, though those that exist indicate that technology can be a powerful tool in helping preservice teachers understand and grasp educational concepts that may be difficult to explain in traditional formats. Section 3, "Technology in Support of the Teacher Development Cycle," highlights teacher competency and school improvement, new competencies for the digital age, and a new type of ongoing staff development. Section 4, "Concluding Remarks: The Teacher of Tomorrow," presents examples of actions that state policymakers can take related to preservice education, teacher licensure, staff development, and technology infrastructure. | [FULL TEXT]

Hassett, Dawnene D. (2006).  Technological Difficulties: A Theoretical Frame for Understanding the Non-Relativistic Permanence of Traditional Print Literacy in Elementary Education  Journal of Curriculum Studies, 38, 2. 

Currently, definitions of "science", "reading", and "literacy" in the US lend a seemingly nonrelativistic permanence to these terms, and render them resistant to critique. This paper offers a theoretical frame for critiquing this permanence, analysing why early-literacy instruction is tightly tied to traditional forms of print literacy, focusing primarily on phonics and word-recognition, in an age when new technologies, multi-modal texts, and new literacies flourish. The theoretical framework uses Foucault's notions of technologies of production, of sign systems, of power, and of the self. Four specific examples of early-literacy programming are analysed in terms of Foucault's technologies, producing an outline of reasoning about "best practices" in early-literacy instruction in the US. These ways of reasoning are investigated as relative, impermanent, and possibly open to change.

Hassini, Elkafi (2006).  Student-Instructor Communication: The Role of Email  Computers and Education, 47, 1. 

We report on the use of email lists as a supplement to teaching. We argue that email lists can provide a valuable students-instructor communication channel and describe the process of setting up and managing such lists. A case study of email messages exchanged in an introductory operations research course is also included. The case illustrates how a "strategic" use of email leads to a richer learning experience, by providing an extra medium for communication, and offers a valuable feedback database that can, among other things, be used to improve future editions of a course.

Hastings, Nancy B.; Tracey, Monica W. (2005).  Does Media Affect Learning: Where Are We Now?  TechTrends Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 49, 2. 

In 1983, Clark declared that instructional methods determine how effective a piece of instruction is and that media?s only influence is on cost and distribution. His argument (Clark, 1983) was that "media are mere vehicles that deliver instruction but do not influence student achievement any more than the truck that delivers our groceries causes changes in our nutrition" (p. 445). In 1991 and again in 1994, Kozma challenged Clark's position, contending that the unique attributes of certain media can affect both learning and motivation. His argument (Kozma, 1994) was that "if there is no relationship between media and learning it may be because we have not yet made one" (p. 7). Thus began the great media effects debate. A careful review of the arguments and counter arguments presented by Clark (1983; 1994) and Kozma (1991; 1994), responses published in the past 20 years (Jonassen, Campbell presented by Clark (1983; 1994) and Kozma (1991; 1994), & Davidson, 1994; Morrison, 1994; Reiser, 1994; Shrock, 1994) and existing instructional design literature (Morrison, Ross & Kemp, 2001; Reiser & Dick, 1996; Smith & Ragan, 1999) indicates there is, and always has been, significantly more agreement on this subject than the debate would indicate.

Hastings-Taylor, Juli (2007).  Traditional yet Progressive: A Twist on Teacher Preparation  Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers, 82, 6. 

At the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout), students can work toward earning a Bachelor of Science in Career, Technical Education and Training (CTET) without leaving home. In the summer of 2006, UW-Stout's School of Education put a new twist on postsecondary career and technical teacher preparation; it began offering the 35-credit professional core of the degree online. The program targets individuals who are currently teaching in technical and community colleges and need to obtain their bachelor's degree. For UW-Stout, developing the online CTET curriculum was not a fly-by-night decision. As any major change causes a critical examination of current practices, beliefs and goals, so did the process of developing CTET courses for online delivery. This article takes a look at how teachers at UW-Stout collaborate with their students through the online course. Details on the program's development, implementation, and evaluation are also presented in this article.

Hasty, Will (2006).  Theory Meets Praxis: From Derrida to the Beginning German Classroom via the Internet  Unterrichtspraxis/Teaching German, 39, 1-2. 

Based on practical experience in a new online beginning German course sequence, the author of this essay argues that contemporary cultural developments associated with the emergence of new technologies, particularly computer-assisted language learning, provide new opportunities to theorize German Studies curricula from the beginning level onward. Students' employment of computer-based technologies for the purpose of learning German at the beginning level, in courses with online and distance learning platforms, can and should be an opportunity to engage in reflections about cultural developments of which these technologies are a driving force. A theoretical framework for such reflections is provided by ideas articulated by poststructuralist theorists such as Jacques Derrida, which have anticipated significant aspects of current cultural developments and provide conceptual tools with which to comprehend or "theorize" them.

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Hadas, Nurit; Hershkowitz, Rina; Schwarz, Baruch B. (2000).  The Role of Contradiction and Uncertainty in Promoting the Need To Prove in Dynamic Geometry Environments.  Educational Studies in Mathematics, 44, 1-2. 

Describes two activities that led students to contradictions between conjectures and findings. Analyzes the conjectures, working methods, and explanations given by students when faced with the contradictions that arose.

Haddad, Caroline, Ed. (2006).  Equivalency Programmes (EPs) for Promoting Lifelong Learning  [UNESCO Bangkok] 

Equivalency programmes (EPs) refers to alternative education programmes that are equivalent to the formal education system in terms of curriculum and certification, policy support mechanisms, mode of delivery, staff training, and other support activities such as monitoring, evaluation and assessment. The development of EPs is potentially an important strategy in achieving EFA (Education for All) goals, side by side with the promotion of lifelong learning. UNESCO Bangkok initiated a project on equivalent programmes within the framework of the Asia Pacific Programme of Education For All (APPEAL) in 2003. Its overall objective was to strengthen synergies between formal and non-formal education as part of national EFA action plans and to promote lifelong learning of disadvantaged populations. The report provides a summary of good practices in equivalency programming in several countries including India, Indonesia, Philippines and Thailand and addresses issues of EP planning and implementation. The outcomes of a Regional Workshop on EPs for Promoting Lifelong Learning that took place on 25-29 April 2005 in Manila, Philippines, are summarised. The workshop agenda included sharing of experience, discussion on policy, target groups and delivery mechanisms and related issues such as curriculum development and assessment. A CD-ROM provides the full text of research studies, workshop presentations and reports. Appended are: (1) A Guideline for Preparation of Research Studies on Equivalency Programmes for the Promotion of Lifelong Learning; and (2) List of Participants. [This project has been supported by the Japanese Funds-in-Trust (JFIT) and the UNESCO Regular Programme Budget. Accompanying CD-ROM is not available from ERIC.] | [FULL TEXT]

Haddad, Caroline, Ed.; Rennie, Luisa, Ed. (2005).  Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum: Analytical Catalogue of Key Publications. ICTs for Education Catalogue Series, Volume One  [UNESCO Bangkok] 

Although many excellent materials now exist that detail the full range of potential uses of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) in education, already overworked policy makers and others often lack the time it takes to surf the Internet, or access libraries and other sources of information on their own in search of ideas and material support (usually in a second language). In the Asia-Pacific region, leaders, educational managers and teachers have the added challenge of trying to enrich education with technologies that are often a recent introduction to the country, or in many cases, are not yet present. This is one of the main reasons why the Regional Clearing House on ICTs in Education for Asia and the Pacific Project at UNESCO Bangkok was set up. The Clearing House collects, analyses, filters, repackages and disseminates information on ICTs in education in Asia and the Pacific in a variety of formats, be it Web-based portal, CD-ROMs or publications. As part of this process, this publication is the first in a new Catalogue Series on topical issues dealing with various aspects of ICT use in education. Presented is a catalogue of key publications produced by UNESCO Bangkok's ICT in Education Programme to highlight useful resources in the field of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) in Education. The catalogue contains a range of resources in the form of books, CD-ROMs, online publications, websites and articles from e-journals that aim to provide teachers, school managers, curriculum developers and administrators with guidelines and strategies for integrating ICTs into the teaching and learning process. Divided into six sections with different focus areas, readers can gather resources through detailed abstracts and excerpts from corresponding publications. [This catalogue was published by the UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education, UNESCO, Bangkok. It was funded by Japanese Funds-in-Trust.] | [FULL TEXT]

Haddad, Paul R.; Shaw, Matthew J.; Madden, John E.; Dicinoski, Greg W. (2004).  A Computer-Based Undergraduate Exercise Using Internet-Accessible Simulation Software for the Study of Retention Behavior and Optimization of Separation Conditions in Ion Chromatography  Journal of Chemical Education, 81, 9. 

The ability to scan retention data over a wide range of eluent composition opens up the possibility of a computerized selection of the optimal separation conditions. The major characteristics of retention behavior, peak-shape effects and pH effects evident in ion chromatography (IC) using common stationary phases and eluents are illustrated.

Hadderman, Margaret, Comp. (2001).  School Finance. Trends and Issues. 

During the past several years, policymakers and practitioners have concentrated their energies on resolving equity/adequacy issues, reforming school tax structures, improving schools' efficiency and cost-effectiveness, developing school-based accountability, and exploring alternative cost-cutting and fundraising strategies. Total expenditures for public elementary and secondary education approached $336 billion for 2000-01, making education the largest single spending category in all the states. In late February 2001, 31 states reported revenues as being on target, but because of recession 11 states were instituting budget cuts. Trends in funding show slight increases in state support and slight decreases in local and intermediate support as states assume greater financial responsibility. Schools are spending an increasing proportion of their instructional budgets on special education. Although funding for educational technology increased with regard to hardware, technological support seems to be largely ignored. Districts are spending less money on facility maintenance and repair, and teachers' salaries are not keeping up with inflation. The following topics are discussed in their own sections: statistical overview, persistent funding disparities, major developments in school finance equity, new attention to outcomes and adequacy, improving efficiency and cost-effectiveness, school-level data-collection initiatives, cost-cutting trends, fundraising strategies, and future policy and research directions. | [FULL TEXT]

Hadley, James A.; Bentley, Joanne; Christiansen, Todd P. (2003).  Instructional Design Issues for Current and Future Interactive Video Media.  TechTrends, 47, 5. 

Addresses some of the issues that instructional designers will face in the near future and ways to deal with new instructional affordances and constraint, including: Menu and Audio, Video, Subpicture Interleaved, Streamlining Digital Media (MAVSI-SDM); three-dimensional flowcharting; designing multi-faceted storyboards and scripts; managing video, audio, and menu scripts synchronously; and layout and interface recommendations.

Hadley, Kathryn; Korb, Michele (2007).  Through the Bugscope  Science and Children, 45, 1. 

The projection screen in the dimly lit auditorium was ready and an online chat window was open on the computer screen. Computer experts and entomologists were ready on the other end. One by one, students filled up the rows of seats eagerly anticipating what was going to happen next. Each student was asked to close their eyes. Ms. Hadley asked them: "How many of you really know what an insect looks like? Think of the ant you found crawling on the grass, the ladybug you found by your window, or the insects you learned about in class. What is on the insect? What color is it? Does it have antennae? Does it have a stinger?" With a click of the computer mouse, the first image captured via the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) at the University of Illinois-Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) was projected on a large screen. The students then opened their eyes. "Wow! Whoa! Cool! Gross!" These are just a few of the reactions when these images were projected onto the large auditorium screen to a group of 75 second graders.

Hadley, Nancy J. (2007).  The Portfolio Forum: Power in Reflection  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 35, 4. 

Many electronic portfolios become shining but superficial collections instead of environments for nurturing insight. Instructors must balance instructional time between perfecting the technical expertise of the student and fully developing the critical expertise needed for the student to become a thoughtful scholar. In a deliberate move, I have developed a "portfolio forum" in a higher education venue to capitalize on the benefits of the reflective factor, and I have been amazed by the results. During the process, I uncovered some surprising discoveries while developing guidelines for expediting the electronic portfolio process, crafting a methodology for exploiting the reflective factor, and compiling essential "portfolio forum" principles. By utilizing the "portfolio forum," each step in the reflection process is deliberately developed to create an orchestrated discussion arena for stimulating intellectual maturity, professionalism, and growth in all students and it can be adapted to any level of instruction.

Hadwin, Allyson Fiona; Winne, Philip H. (2001).  CoNoteS2: A Software Tool for Promoting Self-Regulation and Collaboration.  Educational Research and Evaluation: An International Journal on Theory and Practice, 7, 2-3. 

Outlines contemporary theories of self-regulation and presents a four-phase model of self-regulation. Builds on this theory to describe features of CoNoteS2 ( a prototype electronic notebook) that support self-regulation through tacit and explicit scaffolding. Discusses how learning theory can be used to drive instructional innovation and technological enhancement in the classroom.

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Hacifazlioglu, Ozge; Sacli, Oser Asim; Yengin, Ilker (2007).  Lecturers' Attitudes Towards the use of Technology: Alternative Strategies for Faculty Administrators  [Online Submission] 

For the last two decades of this age of globalization we are living, technological advancement remarked every aspect of our lives significantly and especially the developments in the information technologies has revolutionized the teaching and learning centered activities as well as the research related activities in higher education. Apart from providing quality teaching to a larger number of adult students via remarkable technologies, higher education institutions are required to improve their administrative activity, efficiency and accountability in response to the new demands. The study aims to determine lecturers' attitudes towards the acceptance and use of new technologies in their lectures within the context of higher education and provide alternative strategies for the faculty administrators in terms of increasing technology adaptation responding to the demands of both faculty and students. A series of works have been undertaken to collect data for the research. Related literature was reviewed and a questionnaire was developed by the researchers. The study was also followed by semi-structured interviews conducted with the university lecturers and administrators. The questionnaire was applied to 106 lecturers and 44 responses were received, which is equal to a response rate 41 per cent in the quantitative analysis. Data regarding the qualitative side was collected from 7 senior students.  | [FULL TEXT]

Hackbarth, Steven (2004).  Changes in 4th-Graders' Computer Literacy as a Function of Access, Gender, and Race  Information Technology in Childhood Education Annual, 2004, 1. 

This is the third in a series of studies examining young students' attitudes toward and knowledge about computers. Data were collected at the end of students' third and fourth grade academic years and analyzed with respect to their "love" of computers, their feelings of competence in using them, and the number of computer terms they listed in three minutes. Comparisons were made across five New York City "midtown" fourth grade classes varying widely in teacher experience and practice, as well as with respect to findings at a more affluent, less racially diverse "uptown" school. Absence of teacher incentives and training contributed to failures in effectively structuring classroom computer access around challenging assignments that might have served to increase computer literacy and to narrow gender and racial gaps. Contrasts with the more affluent "uptown" school in terms of facilities and scheduling, home Internet access, and "computer literacy" gains are striking. Implications are drawn for changes in curriculum priorities, administrative practices, and ongoing inservice teacher education to better ensure equitable computer access and student learning.

Hackbarth, Steven L. (2001).  Changes in Primary Students' Computer Literacy as a Function of Classroom Use and Gender.  TechTrends, 46, 4. 

Assessments were made of fourth grade students' attitudes toward computers, their computer vocabulary, and their estimates of classroom access at the end of the academic year 2000. Findings indicate that teachers need sustained hands-on guidance in learning to design and schedule classroom computer activities that both relate to the curriculum and challenge students to learn new skills.

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Hynes, Ellen Mary, Ed.; Blair, Catherine, Ed. (2005).  Mission Mathematics II: Prekindergarten-Grade 2 (with CD-ROM)  [National Council of Teachers of Mathematics] 

Get students into math using outer space! Mission Mathematics translates the NASA experience into language and experiences appropriate for young learners, and provides teachers with mathematics activities that complement many of the available NASA resources for students and educators. In these motivating investigations, young children engage in deep and sustained interactions with fundamental mathematical ideas; reason and communicate; identify and explore patterns and relationships; apply problem solving strategies; and discover connections with other mathematical concepts. Sample student activities involve covering a model airplane; constructing a "veggie" space shuttle; making fizzy-tablet rockets; exploring gravity and weight; launching protractor rockets; and collecting the sun's rays over time. The Mission Mathematics II series is developed by NASA and National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in an unprecedented effort to link the science of aeronautics with the Standards that NCTM has developed for all aspects of mathematics education. Following the publication of the original Mission Mathematics series in 1997, this revision focuses on aligning the activities with NCTM's "Principles and Standards for School Mathematics" (2000) in the context of aerospace activities. The activities in each book focus on actively engaging students in NCTM's Process Standards, translating the work of engineers and scientists at NASA into language and experiences appropriate for young learners, and providing teachers with mathematics activities that complement many of the available NASA resources for students and educators. The CD-ROM that accompanies this book features resource pages, links, and posters for your classroom. Following a foreword, preface, and "Matrix of Activities and Mathematics Standards," this book is divided into 10 sections: (1) Aerospace Technology; (2) Space Flight; (3) Space Science; (4) Earth Science; (5) Biological and Physical Research (includes appendixes: NASA Resources for Educators; NCTM Information; Charting the Planets; and Resource Pages); (6) Aerospace Technology; (7) Space Flight; (8) Space Science; (9) Earth Science; and (10) Bibliography. The book concludes with information on the contents of the CD-ROM.

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Hlynka, Denis (2003).  The Cultural Discourses of Educational Technology: A Canadian Perspective.  Educational Technology, 43, 4. 

While the prevailing discourse in the field of educational technology is one of technology-as-progress, that discourse is seen in this article as a unique United States oriented trend and not a universal one. This article suggests that educational technology is not neutral, but rather is culturally set and conveyed.

Hlynka, Denis; Broderick, Pauline (2007).  Recognition of the Japanese Zero: What We Have Learned 65 Years Later  Educational Technology Magazine: The Magazine for Managers of Change in Education, 47, 4. 

The purpose of this article is to explore a particular technological artifact from multiple perspectives. The artifact in question is a 1943 US military training film titled "Recognition of the Japanese Zero". The article begins with an acknowledgment of the film's behaviorist context, then discusses its aesthetic underpinnings, and concludes by illustrating a figure/ground shift as 1943 turns into 2007. This film is analyzed here as a clear example of the many historical and archival materials on which the field of educational technology has developed.

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Hrabe, David P.; Gazda, Russell B. (2004).  Igniting the SPARK: Supporting the Technology Needs of Online Learners  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

Students taking hybrid or online classes are often unprepared for the kinds of skills that are needed to be successful in this environment. This report provides an overview of one approach, an interactive CD-ROM (SPARK), that faculty can use to assist students in narrowing the gap between needed online learning skills and their current technical knowledge. | [FULL TEXT]

Hrastinski, Stefan (2006).  The Relationship between Adopting a Synchronous Medium and Participation in Online Group Work: An Explorative Study  Interactive Learning Environments, 14, 2. 

Achieving student participation, it has been argued, is one of the most important challenges in distance education. This explorative study examines whether a synchronous communication medium, instant messaging (IM), may enable students to participate more actively in online group work. When comparing two groups that adopted IM with two groups that didn't it was found that the adopters had a higher sense of participation and spent more time working with the content and communicating with their peers. Moreover, the social networks of the adopters were slightly denser. Thus, the study indicates that the groups that adopted IM operated with a higher level of participation, although it should be noted that these results are based on a small group of students. All groups used e-mail for group interactions but the adopters also used IM as a complement to e-mail. This paper concludes by calling for more research to test the results of this study in other contexts.

Hrastinski, Stefan; Keller, Christina (2007).  An Examination of Research Approaches that Underlie Research on Educational Technology: A Review from 2000 to 2004  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 36, 2. 

This study examines the research approaches that underlie research on educational technology. A classification framework was developed and used when examining all articles published in four well-known journals between 2000 and 2004 (n = 660). The aim of the study was to contribute toward an understanding of the research approaches that characterize research on educational technology. It was found that research is increasingly dominated by empirical articles that adopt a pluralistic approach, both regarding research methods but also regarding different types of non-empirical research. The focus has been to apply rather than develop frameworks, concepts, and theory. Published articles in the four journals were more different from each other than what the aims and scopes of the journals led the authors to believe. Finally, researchers are challenged to reflect on the state of the field and how it may be further developed.  [An earlier version of this article was presented at the Netlearning conference in 2006. This research was partly supported by The Swedish Research School of Management and IT where both authors are members.]

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Heun, Christopher (2006).  Making Online Assessment Work: How K-12 Technologists Are Prepping Their Infrastructures and Staffs for Web-Based Testing  Technology & Learning, 27, 4. 

With federal funding riding on test scores, student performance is crucial. Information systems are an important ingredient of assessments that are sometimes overlooked. Small rural school districts, such as Orange County, Virginia, often have only a modest IT budget and must find ways to improve the reliability and redundancy of their systems. Orange County recently upgraded its network storage capacity to RAID (redundant array of independent disks--a system that uses multiple hard drives to share data to improve fault tolerance and increase performance). The Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA), a nonprofit group that works with roughly 2000 school districts around the U.S., uses a server application that downloads tests and then delivers them to individual student computers, thus avoiding dependence on the Web. The focus on online assessments has also led to increased teacher training in Orange County, Virginia, where the state government has mandated new positions for "technology integration specialists."

Heun, Christopher (2006).  Teaching Tech Literacy to the MySpace Generation: When It Comes to Sharpening Students' IT Skills, Districts Take Different Approaches  Technology & Learning, 27, 4. 

This article describes the approaches taken by various school districts in teaching technology literacy to their students. One such example is the Science Leadership Academy in Philadelphia, developed in partnership with The Franklin Institute, a science museum, which teaches a curriculum that stresses science, technology, mathematics, and entrepreneurship. Instead of a computer lab, students will take a "technology infusion workshop," where they will learn how to use Microsoft Office, how to make a movie, and how to use the school's network. In another example, the Scottsdale Unified School District in Scottsdale, Arizona, has adopted the National Educational Technology Standards (NETS), an initiative of the International Society for Technology in Education and a consortium of partners, including the Software Information Industry Association and the National Education Association. The district works with Learning.com to implement these standards with web-based tutorials that students can complete in school computer labs or from home.

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Honawar, Vaishali (2005).  Federal Grant Boosts Educational Television, Faces Fresh Scrutiny  Education Week, 24 n22 p1, 25 Feb 2005. 

This article reports how the Ready to Learn program, which has helped transform children's educational television over the past decade, faced scrutiny after it aired a controversial topic. The Ready to Learn program attracted unusual attention when one of the shows it helped get on the air, "Postcards from Buster," drew criticism from Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings over its production of an episode featuring two Vermont families headed by lesbian couples. Since Ready to Learn's inception in 1995, the program has been administered, in turn, by one of two major entities in public TV: (1) the Corporation for Public Broadcasting; and (2) the Public Broadcasting Service. There has been no serious discussion of eliminating the federal Ready to Learn funding, although the dispute over "Postcards from Buster" brought to mind the battles in the early 1990s over federal aid for public television. Some conservatives sought to cut or eliminate funding for the Corporation for Public Broadcasting--a quasi-governmental organization that distributes federal funding to public TV and radio organizations--because of a variety of perceived sins, such as a liberal bias in public-broadcasting news programs.

Honey, Margaret; Culp, Katherine McMillan; Carrigg, Fred (2000).  Perspectives on Technology and Education Research: Lessons from the Past and Present.  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 23, 1. 

Reviews the past three decades of educational technology research and discusses future directions of the field and technology's role in education. Describes collaborative efforts of the Center for Children and Technology and the Union City (New Jersey) school district to coordinate educational technology research and systemic school improvement. 

Hong Hong, Kinshuk; He, Xiaoqin; Patel, Ashok; Jesshope, Chris (2001).  Application of Mobile Agents in Web-Based Learning Environment. 

Web-based learning environments are strongly driven by the information revolution and the Internet, but they have a number of common deficiencies, such as slow access, no adaptivity to the individual student, limitation by bandwidth, and more. This paper outlines the benefits of mobile agents technology, and describes its application in Web-based learning environments to improve the learning process. The TILE (Technology Integrated Learning Environment) project aims to provide an integrated system for the management, authoring, delivery, and monitoring of education at a distance. Mobile agents technology is being used in the implementation of the TILE adaptation mechanism.  | [FULL TEXT]

Hong, Seong B.; Broderick, Jane T. (2003).  Instant Video Revisiting for Reflection: Extending the Learning of Children and Teachers. 

This article discusses how instant video revisiting (IVR) promotes reflective thinking for both teachers and children. IVR was used as a daily classroom experience with both the children and the teachers throughout one semester in two preschool classrooms with children 2.5 to 5 years old. The teachers used a digital video camera to generate data to help them understand the behavior of the children and revisit the children's actions immediately, with the children using the video clips to extend their learning. Two classroom examples illustrate how IVR supports the children's learning and the teacher's reflection of this learning. The first example describes how IVR helped the children reflect on their actions and solve their own conflicts. The second example describes the use of IVR to scaffold the children's idea of the middle of a story, thereby strengthening their own thought processes in relation to a story construction. | [FULL TEXT]

Hong, Seong B.; Trepanier-Street, Mary (2004).  Technology: A Tool for Knowledge Construction in a Reggio Emilia Inspired Teacher Education Program  Early Childhood Education Journal, 32, 2. 

This article describes the application of technology in Reggio Emilia inspired early childhood and teacher education programs at the University of Michigan-Dearborn. We have found that technology used in a Reggio inspired program can be a valuable tool for the representation and organization of ideas, collaboration among a specific learning community, visualization and reflection on thinking, and communication of learning to the broader community. Our experiences and reflections suggest that the integration of technology in a Reggio inspired curriculum supports knowledge construction of both children and student teachers.

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_____. (2006).  Hot Technologies for Education: What's Happening Now and Later?  [National Middle School Association] 

The Consortium for School Networking's report, "Hot Technologies for K-12 Schools: The 2005 Guide for Technology Decision Makers," discusses some of the technologies that are likely to be tomorrow's "must-have" tools in schools. Perhaps the greatest promise of emerging technologies is their potential to transform learning. This article examines emerging technologies in the areas of instruction and assessment. MP3 players such as Apple's iPod are being converted from music players to storage devices useful for backing up schoolwork for transfer to a desktop computer and continue works-in-progress elsewhere. With a microphone accessory, students and teachers can record classroom talk or take oral notes on a science experiment in the field, then play these back at any time to study or share with others. Students can use their files to put together multimedia presentations. Three new technologies are available to educators. Wireless or online classroom assessment systems can be used for standards-based formative and summative assessments. Intelligent essay graders are automated systems that are useful in assessing students' essays on content, structure, and writing mechanics. Finally, intelligent pattern analysis and performance projections technologies help educators and administrators make sense of the increasing volume of data that schools are collecting and storing, as well as identify such problems as low performance of at-risk students in specific subjects. Future technologies will be convenient, capable, customized and content-rich, convergent, creative, and compliant. The article concludes with recommendations for technology decision makers. | [FULL TEXT]

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Hird, Kathryn; Hennessey, Neville W. (2007).  Facilitating Use of Speech Recognition Software for People with Disabilities: A Comparison of Three Treatments  Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 21, 3. 

This study examined the relative benefit of three interventions (i.e. physiological, behavioural, and pragmatic) designed to facilitate speech recognition software use. Participants were 15 adults with dysarthria associated with a variety of aetiological conditions, including cerebral palsy, Parkinson's disease, and motor neuron disease. Results suggested no clear dysarthric profile that would preclude at least some degree of speech recognition system use. Participants demonstrated systematic improvement in their dictation rates regardless of treatment order. The physiological treatment produced significantly higher dictation rates overall than the behavioural--but not the pragmatic--treatment. This finding suggests that improvement was not simply a function of software training, at least for the physiological treatment. This conclusion also was supported by changes in the participants' speech production during a post-treatment assessment.

Hirsch, Jim (2004).  Sizing Up, Virtually: Whether Buying Existing Courses or Developing Your Own, Online Classes Demand Attention to Detail  School Administrator, 61, 4. 

School districts have two basic routes to incorporate online courses: Develop their own online curriculum or buy into an existing virtual school program. Decision makers might consider six strategic questions before moving ahead with their plans to build their own online course offerings. These questions deal with sizing up of existing providers, developing courses internally, providing sufficient administrative support, training online faculty and considering budget, space and equipment needs. The questions are discussed in this article.

Hirsch, Jim (2004).  Planning for Technology-Enthused Classrooms  School Administrator, 61, 11. 

After 25 years of evolution of technology resources in schools, your leadership team, board of education and local community have finally gotten the message that these tools are here to stay and belong in every classroom for student access. A budget has been appropriated, equipment purchased, professional development completed and new curriculum strategies are in place and you are able to proudly claim your classrooms are "technology infused." As more school districts across the country are finding out, having equipment and software available in classrooms is not enough any longer for our digital-age students. To truly harness their enthusiasm for learning, students must have access at school to those technology resources and methods that they use in their personal lives while away from school. How do we even begin to accomplish such a task? It is simple: Ask the students themselves.

Hirsch, Jim (2005).  Learning Collaboratively with Technology: Students' Social Interactions Demand New Applications of Digital Learning Tools  School Administrator, 62, 7. 

A recent study published by the Kaiser Family Foundation titled "Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8-18 Year Olds" finds that young people today spend an average 6 1/2 hours per day with one or more forms of media. Given that a majority of media available today is in digital format, students are increasingly expecting to use the same or similar access in school. In addition, most of these newer technologies involve students collaborating with one another. Sometimes this is a simple one-to-one communication over distance such as a phone call, but increasingly it is more often a many-to-many conversation using Internet connectivity and a variety of applications. Today's students still follow that same social interaction pattern by getting together as a group, but now they bring DVDs to watch or connect cables that enable them to play games in a collaborative fashion. In this article, the author describes the technology resources that students use and considers new ways to use digital tools that allow students to work with one another in solving problems and creating projects.

Hirschbuhl, John; Zachariah, Sajit; Bishop, Dwight (2002).  Using Knowledge Management To Deliver Distance Learning.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 33, 1. 

Discusses how universities can close the gap between the rate of change via technology and the rate of learning in a distance learning environment and describes knowledge management tools that deliver distance learning and can close the gap. Highlights include instructional design plans; paradigm shifts in methodology and collaborative strategies; and planning Web-based courses.

Hirshon, Arnold (2005).  A Diamond in the Rough: Divining the Future of E-Content  EDUCAUSE Review, 40 n1 p34, 36. 

The challenges we face in the e-content environment are significant, and errors are costly. Our ability to divine the future is limited, but the prognostication diamond can help. We must examine not only those changes at the center of the diamond--that is, within higher education--but also those changes at the four connecting points of the diamond: communications technology, the communications business, e-content development, and the e-content business. By working together to share their knowledge, librarians and information technologists can ensure sufficient resources to address the issues of alternative publishing, archiving, and open access in e-content development and the e-content business and to meet the convergence and pricing challenges of communications technology and the communications business. This article discusses the following topics: The Changing Nature of Higher Education; The E-Content Prognostication Diamond; Communications Technology: Convergence; Communications Business: Pricing; E-Content Development, Part 1: Moving from Alternative to Mainstream Publishing; E-Content Development, Part 2: Archiving the Alternative Future; E-Content Development, Part 3: Open Access; E-Content Business: Alternative Publishing and Open Access; and Preparing for the Future.

Hirst, Tony (2001).  The Open Source Teaching Project (OSTP): Research Note. 

The Open Source Teaching Project (OSTP) is an attempt to apply a variant of the successful open source software approach to the development of educational materials. Open source software is software licensed in such a way as to allow anyone the right to modify and use it. From such a simple premise, a whole industry has arisen, most notably in the form of the wealth of companies supporting GNU/Linux. However, open source content initiatives, at least in the educational context, have so far failed to achieve popular, widespread success to the extent that open source software has. This research note briefly describes a development model based on the open source software phenomenon, identifying those key features that are potentially generalizable to other industries; in particular, the creation of 'preversioned', reusable components, and the demonstration that giving away intellectual property can make commercial sense. These aspects are developed in the context of the production and distribution of educational materials, and from this identify the "hard problems" (i.e., the major research issues) that have been identified within the OSTP are identified. Includes one figure. An appendix includes "The Proposed e-University (Notes for the OSTP on HEFCE document 44/00)." | [FULL TEXT]

Hirumi, Atsusi (2003).  Get a Life: Six Tactics for Optimizing Time Spent Online  Computers in the Schools, 20, 3. 

A frequent concern raised by distance educators is that e-learning takes more time to facilitate than traditional classroom instruction. The simple fact that it takes more time to read and write than to speak and listen warrants consideration. To establish viable e-learning programs, we need to optimize the amount of time educators spend online. This article posits five tactics for optimizing time spent facilitating the e-learning process and one tactic for optimizing time spent developing e-learning materials. Together, the tactics applied within the context of an overall systematic instructional design process yield replicable results. The investment in systematic design is thought worthwhile because the materials are reusable and allow instructors to focus their attention on facilitating, rather than directing and clarifying, the e-learning process.

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Huer, Mary Blake (2005).  Using Concept Maps for Educational Based Implementation of Assistive Technology: A Culturally Inclusive Model for Supervision in Special Education  Journal of Special Education Technology, 20, 4. 

This article addresses three emerging problems in special education: (a) new learning environments with different teaching styles, (b) equity in access to assistive technology (AT), and (c) an on-going infusion of new AT opportunities within special educational environments. Instructions for designing and creating concept maps are presented as a solution to meet the immense needs currently for AT preservice and inservice personnel preparation. Three sets of teacher/learner questionnaires as well as a new Personal Planning Protocol are introduced for integrating collaborative strategies during AT decision-making, and advocating for a culturally-inclusive model for supervision in special education.

Huerta, Luis A.; d'Entremont, Chad; Gonzalez, Maria-Fernanda (2006).  Cyber Charter Schools: Can Accountability Keep Pace with Innovation?  Phi Delta Kappan, 88, 1. 

The rapid growth of charter schools has encouraged innovation and led to new models of schooling. Foremost among these are cyber charter schools where students learn from computer-based lessons beyond the walls of the traditional schoolhouse setting. The authors present the case of cyber charter schools in Pennsylvania. They describe how cyber schooling has upset traditional accountability structures and led politicians, educators, and parents to challenge the organizational structures, enrollment patterns, and per-pupil funding formulas that sustain cyber charters. They conclude by advancing policy recommendations that address salient policy issues that state and local policymakers will likely encounter as cyber- and home-school charters continue to evolve.

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Hill, Ann Marie (2003).  Technology and Its Study in Canadian Secondary Schools.  Canadian Journal of Science

Provides a brief overview of Canada as a country, education in Canada, and the study of technology in Canada at the secondary school level. Examines courses offered under the name of technology and considers the question of making the study of technology a requirement for secondary school graduation.

Hill, Janette R. (2006).  Flexible Learning Environments: Leveraging the Affordances of Flexible Delivery and Flexible Learning  Innovative Higher Education, 31, 3. 

The purpose of this article is to explore the key features of "flexible learning environments" (FLEs). Key principles associated with FLEs are explained. Underlying tenets and support mechanisms necessary for the implementation of FLEs are described. Similarities and differences in traditional learning and FLEs are explored. Finally, strategies and techniques for becoming a successful learner and facilitator in FLEs are presented.

Hill, Janette R.; Hannafin, Michael J. (2001).  Teaching and Learning in Digital Environments: The Resurgence of Resource-based Learning.  Educational Technology Research and Development, 49, 3. 

Several issues related to the educational uses of varied resources must be addressed in order to successfully implement resource-based learning environment. This paper traces the changing nature of resources and perspectives in their use for learning in the digital age, describes the overarching structures of resource-based learning environments, and identifies key challenges to be addressed.

Hill, Paul T. (2006).  A Foundation Goes to School: Bill and Melinda Gates Shift from Computers in Libraries to Reform in High Schools  Education Next, 6, 1. 

The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, a philanthropic organization created by the Microsoft founder and his wife in 2000, has already invested nearly a billion dollars in an effort to redesign the American high school. It supports some 1,500 existing schools; 450 of them are either restructured or brand new. But the foundation's focus was not always on high schools. In fact, in the beginning it wasn't even about schools. This article details the shifting focus of the foundation, from investment in Internet access in libraries, to an emphasis on Internet-based teacher learning and the integration of technology into the classroom, to its current concern with the content and quality of the education itself. It also discusses some of the strategies the Gates foundation has pursued in its recent attempts to reform high school education.

Hill, Roger B. (2004).  Dreamweaver and Flash: Strategies for Updating Communication Systems Instruction  Technology Teacher, 63, 7. 

The rate of innovation and change impacting technology education communication systems instruction has been vigorous for longer than most people can remember. Trends have included analog systems being replaced by digital systems, integration of networks and system devices, computerization, optical storage, and wireless transmission of data. The challenges for technology teachers have included decisions about hardware and software upgrades, revision of curriculum materials, and the learning curve associated with staying functionally literate with processes, materials, and equipment being used. The materials described in this article were developed to guide new users of Dreamweaver and Flash in technology education communication systems activities.

Hill, Roger B. (2006).  New Perspectives: Technology Teacher Education and Engineering Design  Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 43, 3. 

Initiatives to integrate engineering design within the field of technology education are increasingly evident. The National Science Foundation has encouraged and funded opportunities for technology educators and engineers to work collaboratively. However, perspectives regarding the role engineering should play within the discipline of technology education vary considerably. Implementing an engineering design focus within technology education has significant ramifications. As such, it is essential that the field recognize the key issues so that steps are taken to provide and facilitate necessary professional development. This article discusses how the integration of engineering design into the field of technology education will affect the profession's curriculum, educational philosophy, instructional strategies, and collaborative relationships. This article also emphasizes the importance of having each member of the technology education profession determine the role they would play and their involvement in the move to integrate engineering design in technology education.  | [FULL TEXT]

Hill, Thomas P. (2004).  NonStop University: Characteristics of a Global Learning Community  Performance Improvement, 43, 2. 

NonStop University is an online university community application service designed, developed, and deployed by Hewlett-Packard (HP) to serve the computer product training needs of 2,500 staff members in more than 50 countries. By identifying a set of learner characteristics that supported a set of key elements while using technology and focusing on issues beyond those of the traditional learning model, the model can be used to apply computer products and concepts in the culture, the market, and the local business environment of each employee. Hill discusses these cognitive and social domain issues, associated variables, and potential future directions of the online learning service.

Hillenbrand, James M.; Gayvert, Robert T. (2005).  Open Source Software for Experiment Design and Control. (tutorial)  Journal of Speech

The purpose of this paper is to describe a software package that can be used for performing such routine tasks as controlling listening experiments (e.g., simple labeling, discrimination, sentence intelligibility, and magnitude estimation), recording responses and response latencies, analyzing and plotting the results of those experiments, displaying instructions, and making scripted audio-recordings. The software runs under Windows and is controlled by creating text files that allow the experimenter to specify key features of the experiment such as the stimuli that are to be presented, the randomization scheme, interstimulus and intertrial intervals, the format of the output file, and the layout of response alternatives on the screen. Although the software was developed primarily with speech-perception and psychoacoustics research in mind, it has uses in other areas as well, such as written or auditory word recognition, written or auditory sentence processing, and visual perception.

Hillis, Peter (2002).  Multi-Media and History Education: A Partnership To Enhance Teaching and Learning.  Educational Media International, 39, 3-4. 

Considers the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in the classroom and discusses the impact of five multimedia programs relating to themes within Scottish history on teaching and learning in Scottish elementary and secondary schools. Suggests criteria that must be met for the successful integration of ICT into the history classroom.

Hillman, Marguerite; Moore, Terry (2005).  The Web and Early Literacy  Computers in the Schools, 21, 3-4. 

The Web as an appropriate vehicle for educating young children in formal and informal school settings is the subject of widespread, international debate (Anderson, 2000; Attewell, Suazo-Garcia, & Battle, 2003; Davis & Shade, 1994; Dolowy, 2000; Filipenko & Rolfsen, 1999; Pendleton, 2001; Vail, 2001; Wardle, 1999). Regardless of these debates, however, the Web's use in early education continues to grow. This article describes current Web usage in early education, particularly literacy education, and suggests possibilities for the future.

Hillman, Susan L.; Malotka, Cathy M. (2004).  Changing Views: Fearless Families Conquering Technology Together  Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 10, 4. 

This article describes a workshop for parents and middle school students that clarifies an appropriate role for using hand-held technology in learning mathematics.

Hillstock, Laurie G. (2005).  A Few Common Misconceptions about Distance Learning  [Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE)] 

At present, with new technologies emerging daily and the growing need for more flexibility in scheduling, there seems to be an overall drive towards the need for distance learning. According to PBS Campus, 67% of colleges and universities agree that online education is a critical, longterm strategy for their institution. As a result, 49% of public colleges and universities and 34% of all higher education institutions offer complete online degree programs (PBS Campus, 2004). In addition, according to the National Center for Education Statistics, "in the 12-month 2000-2001 academic year, there were an estimated 3,077,000 enrollments in all distance education courses offered by 2-year and 4-year institutions. There were an estimated 2,876,000 enrollments in college-level, credit-granting distance education courses, with 82 percent of these at the undergraduate level" (Waits & Lewis, 2003, p. 1). The fundamental premise of distance learning was to create and widen access to education and to improve its quality, using distance education techniques and associated technologies to meet the particular requirements of individuals who were unable to participate in the traditional classroom environment. The purpose of this paper is to explore factors related to common misconceptions about distance learning, including: faculty preparation time, effective use of appropriate technology, learning styles of students, the need for orientation, training and support, and cost.  [For complete proceedings, see ED490133.] | [FULL TEXT]

Hilton, Margaret, Ed. (2002).  Enhancing Undergraduate Learning with Information Technology: A Workshop Summary (Washington, DC, June 20-21, 2000). 

This document summarizes the content and conclusions of a workshop focusing on the transformation of traditional science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SME&T) lectures and laboratories into more active learning environments. Presenters described innovative undergraduate courses in a range of SME&T disciplines. Using information technology (IT), these courses have been transformed in ways that appear to enhance learning for a diverse spectrum of undergraduate students, but workshop participants noted that the full educational potential of IT has not yet been realized. Several factors, including the difficulty of assessing student learning in technology-rich environments, the state of current technology, and cultural and institutional factors could pose barriers to rapid deployment of technology in SME&T classrooms. Many workshop participants thought that it is both possible and essential to begin planning for what the future might hold. The first section of the report, Innovations in Pedagogy and Technology, presents case studies of innovative courses and discusses evaluation and assessment challenges and cultural and institutional constraints to IT use. The second section, Planning for Uncertainty, summarizes steps that should be taken to make the best use of IT for future course development and the improvement of SME&T education. Four appendixes contain the background paper sent to participants before the workshop, the agenda, a list of participants, and biosketches of planning group members. | [FULL TEXT]

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Hubball, Harry; Gold, Neil; Mighty, Joy; Britnell, Judy (2007).  Supporting the Implementation of Externally Generated Learning Outcomes and Learning-Centered Curriculum Development: An Integrated Framework  New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2007, 112. 

This article provides an overview of one Canadian provincially initiated curriculum reform effort in which several generic learning outcomes were established. It also presents a flexible, practical, and integrated framework for the development, implementation, and evaluation of program-level learning outcomes in undergraduate curricula contexts. When learning outcomes are externally mandated (or strongly encouraged), it is important that institutions have effective road maps for their implementation. Guiding principles and comprehensive strategies are provided here from critical lessons learned from the experience.

Hubbell, Elizabeth R.; Kuhn, Matt (2007).  Using Technology to Promote Science Inquiry  Principal, 87, 2. 

This article makes the case for infusing technology into the five stages of the science inquiry process established by the National Science Education Standards--engagement, planning, investigating, analyzing, and communicating.

Hubbell, Elizabeth Ross (2003).  Integrating Technology into the Montessori Elementary Classroom.  Montessori Life, 15, 2. 

Asserts that if used correctly, with forethought and respect to the Montessori philosophy, technology will advance and complement the experiences made available to children. Addresses the integration of technology into the Montessori elementary classroom focusing on the learning environment and the reduction of teacher time spent on tedious tasks.

Hubbell, Elizabeth Ross (2006).  Authenticity and Technology in Montessori Education  Montessori Life: A Publication of the American Montessori Society, 18, 2. 

Montessori classrooms commonly integrate their learning across the curriculum, and participate in service learning projects. Both of these practices are authentic experiences for children. This article outlines examples of technology being used to create authentic learning environments, tasks, audiences, sources, and assessments. Technology provides access to the information, tools, and personnel that were once only available through extended research and in laboratories. Through technology, students no longer have to work with old data to learn weather patterns; they now have the capability to download real time data and make predictions about the weather. In this article, the author discusses the different authentic tasks that she used in the classroom. Providing authenticity to those learning experiences, supplemented with the wealth of educational resources available through technology, can only enrich the daily lessons and further the Montessori's mission to create lifelong learners of both students and educators.

Hubel, Joy Alter (2005).  Eureka: Six Easy Steps to Research Success  Library Media Connection, 23, 6. 

Eureka is similar to the Big6(super TM) research skills by Michael Eisenberg and Bob Berkowitz, as both methods simplify the complex process of critical information gathering into six user-friendly steps. The six research steps to Eureka are presented.

Huber, Herbert E.; Lowry, Jean C. (2003).  Meeting the Needs of Consumers: Lessons from Postsecondary Environments  New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 2003, 100. 

Online learning is having a tremendous impact on the education process in schools, universities, and corporate settings. As technology continues to develop, this delivery method will increase in quality and quantity. Consumers should be cautioned, however, that all online programs are not of equal quality, and they should carefully evaluate each program. Basing their remarks on personal experience, two recent graduates of an online master's degree program share their insights on this educational technology from the consumer's perspective, including benefits, challenges, and recommendations for students and institutions. They report that their learning experience increased in value as they developed new competencies by using the learning technologies. They believe that online learning provides experiential learning in the course content, as well as the learning technologies, and supports the development of new skills and character traits that are beneficial in all areas of life.

Huber, Joe (2004).  And What's Not!  Library Media Connection, 23, 1. 

The single technology that continues to make the largest impact on education is wireless networking. There may come a time in the very near future when there will be no worry about wiring a school for data or even purchasing wireless equipment.

Huber, Joe (2005).  Desktop Security ... Now More than Ever  Library Media Connection, 23, 4. 

Desktop security is the foundation of your overall security plan in K-12 education. National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) mainly states that students at all grade levels should know to make changes in the default settings for the operating system and its applications.

Huber, Joe (2005).  T.C.O. and R.O.I.: The Business of Technology Planning  Library Media Connection, 24, 1. 

Total cost of ownership (T.C.O.) and return on investment (R.O.I.) are factors to remember when planning technology investment. Additionally questions relating to the purpose of the new technology and the connected hardware and software purchases need to be asked when contemplating purchase of new technology.

Huber, Joe; Gillan, Bud (2004).  Don't Let Your COWS Be an Udder (Utter) Disaster: Wirelessness and Education Test the Electromagnetic Spectrum  Library Media Connection, 22, 5. 

Just when thinking about the Internet and other tidal waves of technology have found their places in schools, along comes a brash new upstart called wirelessness. This discussion takes on more simple task of providing more useful information to schools in their quest for being wireless, including the use of COWS (computer on wheels) is related to the laptop programs being implemented today.

Huber, Richard A.; Moore, Christopher J. (2002).  High Stakes Testing and Science Learning Assessment.  Science Educator, 11, 1. 

Discusses the problems arising with standardized testing which play an important role in the structure and politics of K-12 education. Describes the benefits of using interactive Internet technologies for the assessment of inquiry-based science instruction.

Hubscher-Younger, Teresa; Narayanan, N. Hari (2003).  Authority and Convergence in Collaborative Learning  Computers & Education, 41, 4. 

Teachers and students have established social roles, norms and conventions when they encounter Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) systems in the classroom. Authority, a major force in the classroom, gives certain people, objects, representations or ideas the power to affect thought and behavior and influences communication and interaction. Effective computer-supported collaborative learning requires students and teachers to change how they understand and assign authority. This paper describes two studies in which students' ideas about authority led them to converge on what they viewed as authoritative representations and styles of representation too early, and the early convergence then hindered their learning. It also describes a third study that illustrates how changes to the CSCL system CAROUSEL (Collaborative Algorithm Representations Of Undergraduates for Self-Enhanced Learning) improved this situation, encouraging students to create representations that were unique, had different styles and emphasized different aspects of algorithms. Based on this research, methods to help students avoid premature convergence during collaborative learning are suggested.

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Hiemstra, Roger; Poley, Janet (2007).  Lessons Pertinent for Teaching with Computers  Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies

The Internet's growth and its impact on learners has been phenomenal and accessing the Web is the norm in our daily lives. Youths use the Internet to support their school activities in many ways. The National Science Foundation supported a qualitative research project that was designed to better understand the Internet's impact. It involved extensive interviews with thirty-four rural youths in two states who had broadband Internet access via satellite transmissions. Subjects rapidly gained skills through Web use to support their learning. The authors describe, through the youths' own words, various ways in which they interact with the Internet. The authors provide several suggestions on how teachers can exploit the growing Internet savvy of their students.

Hietala, Pentti (2001).  Enthusiasm Meets Experience: Collaboration of Two Communities through Computer Conferencing. 

This paper reports on a course format where a group of in-service teachers works together with a group of computer science and mathematics majors via a computer conferencing system. Most of the time, participants studied using the Internet, but at the end they produced and presented a seminar paper together in pairs. This type of course has now been given twice, and both times produced different outcomes. The teacher group did not turn out to be more discursive or more active in moderating than the student group. The teachers participated in a larger number of discussion topics while the students concentrated on those that were compulsory. However, an analysis of the discussion threads shows that both communities took equal part in most of the longer discussions, suggesting that the course goal of sharing multiple perspectives was fulfilled. Computer conferencing was shown to alleviate the problems of participating and running the courses. | [FULL TEXT]

Hietala, Pentti; Koivunen, Kimmo (2002).  Asynchronous Conferencing with a Twist of Synchronicity: In Search for Tools for Collaborative Moderation in Online Discussions. 

Carrying out argumentative discussion online has become rather common in higher education. This task is traditionally supported by asynchronous collaboration tools, but this paper suggests that also synchronous supports could be useful. This paper focuses on scaffolding the knowledge construction: the work of two student moderators jointly moderating a theme as part of a seminar type university level course. As a new scaffold, the paper describes a collaborative note-taking tool as an extension to a standard conferencing system. This new tool can be utilized either asynchronously or "semi-synchronously." An empirical evaluation of the first implementation of this tool is reported. There were almost 60 students on three courses who had an opportunity to use the tool. The evaluation shows that the students were not used to working together this way, although they recognized the benefits of joint moderating. Explanations are offered for these results and further plans in this area are discussed.

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Hinckley, June M. (2001).  A Sound Education.  Educational Leadership, 59, 2. 

Although band, chorus, and orchestra are still mainstays of most school music programs, many schools are incorporating technology, multicultural music, composition, and improvisation into the course offerings. Music teachers must balance tradition and innovation. Many advocate higher standards, multicultural and interdisciplinary connections, and more varied course offerings.

Hinde, Robert J.; Kovac, Jeffrey (2001).  Student Active Learning Methods in Physical Chemistry.  Journal of Chemical Education, 78, 1. 

Describes two strategies for implementing active learning in physical chemistry, one involving supplementing the traditional lecture course with heavily computer-based active learning exercises carried out by cooperative groups, the other using cooperative learning almost exclusively supplemented by occasional mini-lectures. Both approaches seemed to result in better student learning and more positive attitudes toward the subject.

Hines, Jean D.; Frey, Diane K.; Swinker, Mary E. (2005).  Lifelong Learning: Web-Based Information Literacy Module for Merchandisers  Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 97, 4. 

Universities are strategically positioned to serve as a vital impetus in developing pre-professionals' lifelong learning skills. The development of a Web portal, InfoWIZARD, a tool for integrating information literacy and information technology in problem-based research assignments is described in this article. InfoWIZARD includes 20 modules in different subject areas, including merchandising. The merchandising module contains problem-based research assignments related to (a) global issues in textiles and clothing and (b) digital images for use in product development. The Web-based module holds potential for developing lifelong learning skills.

Hinostroza, Enrique; Mellar, Harvey (2000).  Teachers' Beliefs about Computers: Report of a Case Study.  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 22, 4. 

Reports on a case study that led to a model of how teachers use computers in classroom teaching. This model conceptualizes the computer as a teaching resource that helps teachers to develop their teaching strategy, replacing the teachers in their role of managing students' rehearsal of materials and serving as a classroom management tool.

Hinostroza, J. E.; Guzman, A.; Isaacs, S. (2002).  Innovative Uses of ICT in Chilean Schools.  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 18, 4. 

Presents results of seven case studies of innovative pedagogical practices using ICT (information and communication technology) in Chile, conducted as part of the SITES (Second Information Technology in Education Study) M2 project. Discusses the lack of evidence of impact on student learning achievement as defined in the national curriculum.

Hinson, Janice M (2005).  Investigating the Perceptions and Behaviors of Elementary Students and Teachers when Internet Access is Universal  Computers in the Schools, 22, 1-2. 

This study presents a preliminary investigation into changes in the perceptions and behaviors of teachers and students when all have universal Internet access at home and school using Internet-on-TV technology. Four hundred fourth-grade students and their teachers from seven schools participated in the WISH TV (WorldGate Internet School to Home) Project. Through the use of qualitative research methodology, results indicated that teachers' perceptions of the benefits of Internet use and the Internet-on-TV technology had a direct impact on their decisions regarding instructional delivery. Technical and instructional support also influenced teachers' willingness to integrate Web-based resources into lesson plans. Teacher behaviors also affected student use of the Internet. In classrooms where teachers implemented Web-based resources, students reported that they were doing more homework, searching for more information, and getting better grades. Reactions to the Internet-on-TV technology varied and depended on the expectations and experiences of the users. Service limitations and technical difficulties may have curtailed enthusiasm. With some upgrades, however, the Internet-on-TV technology holds some promise for connecting underserved children who lack resources to connect from home in any other way.

Hinson, Janice M.; LaPrairie, Kimberely N. (2005).  Learning to Teach Online: Promoting Success through Professional Development  Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 29, 6. 

The study reported in this paper examined the types of professional-development activities, support systems, and organizational structures necessary for community college faculty to make transitions from traditional teaching to Web-based teaching. Results indicate that (a) instructional change can by initiated through sustained professional development; (b) change is more meaningful and effective when it occurs in context over a sustained period of time; (c) faculty can embrace innovations when supported by knowledgeable professionals and their peers; and (d) students welcome the use of Web-based components in course work. The implications for practice may be useful to those wishing to increase faculty's online instructional competence.

Hinton, Samuel (2007).  Multicultural Education Online for Graduate Teachers: Some Challenges  [Online Submission, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society (51st, Baltimore, MD, Feb 25-Mar 1, 2007)] 

Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to share and discuss some pedagogical challenges experienced in an online multicultural education graduate course for teachers at a regional American university. Methodology. Multicultural education is multidimensional, and this presents instructional challenges and opportunities related to learning goals and outcomes. The procedures followed in designing this course addressed the following issues: The characteristics of the online or distance instructor and learner, a review of selected definitions on multicultural education, and brief discussion of theory. This was followed by a review of course content and activities, and multicultural education. Next are discussions of instructional design, and an efficient online delivery platform. Result. The result was a discussion of an appropriate and realistic online graduate course in multicultural education for experienced teachers. Such a course enabled these teachers to develop a transformative teaching disposition facilitating professional growth, and an attention to the individual and group diversity in their classrooms. The goals were directed to specific performance outcomes creating resources for multicultural teaching such as lesson plans, professional development plans, critical analyses of published research, group projects, and a class portfolio. Conclusion. Anecdotal reviews and reflections of pedagogical challenges related to online teaching and learning contribute to the research literature and broaden the intellectual dialog of instructors and students in relevant disciplines. Recommendations. Further analyses of the content of performance based outcomes such as lesson plans, critiques of research, professional development plans, and course portfolio content are recommended.  | [FULL TEXT]

Hinzen, Heribert, Ed. (2002).  Adult Education and Development. 

The following papers are included: "Editorial" (Heribert Hinzen); "Skills and Literacy Training for Better Livelihoods: A Review of Approaches and Experiences" (John Oxenham, Abdoul Hamid Diallo, Anne Ruhweza Katahoire, Anna Petkova-Mwangi, Oumar Sall); "'Learning to Read Woke Me Up!': Motivations, and Constraints, in Learning to Read in Pulaar (Senegal)" (Sonja Fagerberg-Diallo); "Literacies and Livelihoods: the DFID (Department for International Development) Kathmandu Conference" (Julia Betts); "A Case for Renewed Engagement with Adult Basic Education in Africa" (Jon Lauglo); "Questions for Adult Educators" (Usa Duongasaa); "Uganda's Exemplary Fight against AIDS" (Sabine Ludwig); "Inaugural Address of the 11th German Adult Education Conference" (Johannes Rau); "Lifelong Learning in Europe" (Viviane Reding); "Globalization: Is the South Losing Touch?" (Franz Nuscheler); "Reflections on International Cooperation and New Partnerships in the 'Age of Globalization'" (Marcie Boucouvalas, John A. Henschke); "A Forum for Information and Exchange. Impressions from 'The Future Needs Learning Needs a Future' Conference" (Heribert Hinzen); "Development Policy in the 21st Century: Potential and Options for Action" (Michael Bohnet); "From Leisure Education to Lifelong Learning: 50 Years of the UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) Institute for Education" (Joachim H. Knoll); "Communique from the First Meeting, UNESCO, Paris, 29-30 October 2001)" (High-Level Group on Education for All); " Participants' Bill of Rights: Declaration of Rights of Adults in Education"; "Participation in the ICAE (International Council for Adult Education) World Assembly: Thematic Workshop on Documentation and on Training of Adult Educators" (Anthony Okech); "Adult Learning: A Key to Democratic Citizenship and Global Action" (International Council for Adult Education); "Third International Meeting of the Network of Pedagogical Universities of the South Caucasus Region (Yerevan, Armenia, 14-16 November, 2001)" (UNESCO); "Global Learn Day, a 24-Hour Celebration of Distance Education and Technology" (Terrence R. Redding); "Adult Learners' Week: The Australian Experience" (Roger K. Morris); "A System of Lifelong Learning--Aims and Direction of Reforms in Georgia" (Wachtang Sartania); "Education for Nation Building: The Contribution of Non-Formal Education in Fiji" (Akanisi Kedrayate); and "Popular Education and Improved Material and Cultural Prospects for Kondh Adivasis in India" (Dip Kapoor, Kumar Prasant). Some papers contain substantial bibliographies. | [FULL TEXT]

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Ho, Chia-Huan; Swan, Karen (2007).  Evaluating Online Conversation in an Asynchronous Learning Environment: An Application of Grice's Cooperative Principle  Internet and Higher Education, 10, 1. 

This study goes beyond student perceptions of online learning experiences, satisfaction, and attitudes, to examine the actual participation and dynamics that occur in online discussions and their relationship to student learning outcomes. A content analysis approach was used to investigate students' socio-cognitive processes in an online graduate-level English grammar class. Student postings were rated using a newly developed Gricean Cooperative Principle scoring rubric to assess student participation as determined by four maxims: Quantity, Quality, Relevance, and Manner. Results suggest that Quality is the most important criterion for predicting direct responses to a posting. Students with high average Quality scores also received higher final course grades than did their counterparts. In addition, students with high scores for Manner earned higher conference grades than did their counterparts.

Ho, Curtis P.; Burniske, R. W. (2005).  The Evolution of a Hybrid Classroom: Introducing Online Learning to Educators in American Samoa  TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 49, 1. 

This study examines the efficacy of combining onsite and online instruction in a hybrid course designed for American Samoan teachers engaged in a course examining technology in education. This case study suggests that the process of designing and facilitating hybrid courses in the island community of American Samoa required continuous negotiation with respect to the pace of instruction and the acculturation to online learning. The need for gentle transitions, such as constructing the face-to-face community before rushing into the online community, was apparent for instructors and students. Without honoring the local community, and making time for its renewal on a regular basis, the online community would be difficult, if not impossible, to sustain.

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Hull, Glynda A.; Nelson, Mark Evan (2005).  Locating the Semiotic Power of Multimodality  Written Communication, 22, 2. 

This article reports research that attempts to characterize what is powerful about digital multimodal texts. Building from recent theoretical work on understanding the workings and implications of multimodal communication, the authors call for a continuing empirical investigation into the roles that digital multimodal texts play in real-world contexts, and they offer one example of how such investigations might be approached. Drawing on data from the practice of multimedia digital storytelling, specifically a piece titled Lyfe-N-Rhyme, created by Oakland, California, artist Randy Young (accessible at http://www.oaklanddusty.org/videos.php%29, the authors detail the method and results of a fine-grained multimodal analysis, revealing semiotic relationships between and among different, copresent modes. It is in these relationships, the authors argue, that the expressive power of multimodality resides.

Hulshof, Casper D.; de Jong, Ton (2006).  Using Just-in-Time Information to Support Scientific Discovery Learning in a Computer-Based Simulation  Interactive Learning Environments, 14, 1. 

Students encounter many obstacles during scientific discovery learning with computer-based simulations. It is hypothesized that an effective type of support, that does not interfere with the scientific discovery learning process, should be delivered on a "just-in-time" base. This study explores the effect of facilitating access to knowledge and skills through just-in-time information. An experiment was conducted in which a group of students who worked with a computer simulation on geometrical optics had access to "information tips" during learning. Performance of this group was compared with that of a group who had no access to information tips. Results showed that the first group showed a better learning gain than the second group. The implications of the results are shortly discussed.

Hulshof, Casper; Eysink, Tessa; de Jong, Ton (2006).  The ZAP Project: Designing Interactive Computer Tools for Learning Psychology  Innovations in Education & Teaching International, 43, 4. 

In the ZAP project, a set of interactive computer programs called "ZAPs" was developed. The programs were designed in such a way that first-year students experience psychological phenomena in a vivid and self-explanatory way. Students can either take the role of participant in a psychological experiment, they can experience phenomena themselves, or they can take the role of researcher and learn by discovery. ZAPs provide added value to existing learning materials about psychological topics and can elicit experiential and discovery learning activities. This article discusses the practical and theoretical considerations that underlie the design and structure of ZAPs and provides guidelines for their practical application in different educational settings.

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Haberstroh, Shane; Parr, Gerald; Gee, Robert; Trepal, Heather (2006).  Interactive E-Journaling in Group Work: Perspectives from Counselor Trainees  Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 31, 4. 

This qualitative study explores the dynamics of exchanging e-journals among counseling trainees who participated in an interpersonal growth group. Interviews were conducted with participants who discussed the influence of e-journals on their group experience. E-journaling extended the group both spatially and temporally, and participants reported how exchanging e-journals differed from and complemented face-to-face group interaction. Recommendations and directions for using e-journals as an adjunct in group work for counselor trainees are provided.

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Huk, T. (2006).  Who Benefits from Learning with 3D Models?: The Case of Spatial Ability  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 22, 6. 

Empirical studies that focus on the impact of three-dimensional (3D) visualizations on learning are to date rare and inconsistent. According to the ability-as-enhancer hypothesis, high spatial ability learners should benefit particularly as they have enough cognitive capacity left for mental model construction. In contrast, the ability-as-compensator hypothesis proposes that low spatial ability learners should gain particular benefit from explicit graphical representations as they have difficulty mentally constructing their own visualizations. This study examines the impact that interactive 3D models implemented within a hypermedia-learning environment have on understanding of cell biology. Test scores in a subsequent knowledge acquisition test demonstrated a significant interaction term between students' spatial ability and presence/absence of 3D models. Only students with high spatial ability benefited from the presence of 3D models, while low spatial ability students got fewer points when learning this way. When using 3D models, high spatial ability students perceived their cognitive load to be low whereas the opposite was true for low spatial ability students. The data suggest that students with low spatial ability became cognitively overloaded by the presence of 3D models, while high spatial ability students benefited from them as their total cognitive load remained within working memory limits.

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Hakes, Judith A.; Eisenwine, Marilyn J. (2003).  An Electronic CLASP: Connecting Children and Social Studies  Social Studies, 94, 2. 

Social studies instruction in the elementary school is sometimes far removed from the students' daily lives, and teachers continually search for ideas to create more meaningful learning experiences. That is especially true when students study history, which can often be distant, abstract, and impersonal. As many classroom teachers realize, children learn history more easily by acting as historians and recording information that is relevant to them. Because no social studies text or curriculum guide can personalize the study of history, teachers and students must create child-sized experiences and products. Fortunately, child-sized history happens every day in the classrooms. When teachers label those happenings "Classroom Lore," they can blend information about daily events, stories, jokes, games, artwork, and customized learning into a record of childhood history and artifacts. The children can learn from their past, just as they learn from the recorded past of a city, a state, a nation, and the world. One thing that teachers can do to preserve valuable classroom lore and use it for teaching history is to build an electronic classroom lore and artifacts study project (CLASP) that will better connect children and history. A CLASP can be produced through the use of technology and preserved digitally or with a hard copy, which makes it possible for each child to treasure the class product. The personalized history vehicle provides students with opportunities for learning social studies content, skills, affects, and understandings.

Hakkinen, Paivi (2002).  Challenges for Design of Computer-Based Learning Environments.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 33, 4. 

Presents a review of the basic foundations and recent challenges of the main instructional design traditions. Topics include learner characteristics; learner-controlled instruction; learning environments; the role of instructional interventions; computer-based instruction and other new technologies; and new theories of learning and design.

Hakkinen, Paivi (2003).  Collaborative Learning in Networked Environments: Interaction through Shared Workspaces and Communication Tools  Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 29, 3. 

Today, a variety of web-based learning environments have been developed for educational purposes, especially in higher education and continuing education courses. At the same time many studies have reported how networked interaction in many learning projects results in superficial and experience-based discussion, and does not reach the level of theory-based reflections and argumentation [e.g. W.F. Admiraal, D. Lockhorst, T. Wubbels, F.A.J. Korthagen & W. Veen (1998) "Computer-mediated communication in teacher education: computer conferencing and the supervision of student teachers," "Journal of Learning Environment Research," 1(1), pp. 59-74]. Challenged by this, this research project investigates social construction of knowledge in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning settings, especially the possibilities and problems of shared virtual environments in supporting learning and interaction. The first of two related sub-projects is focused on using shared workspaces and cognitive tools to support co-construction of understanding in complex science and civic phenomena in secondary school settings. The other project aims to develop the kind of pedagogical models for teacher training purposes that would facilitate deeper-level interaction and argumentation in networked communication.

Hakkinen, Paivi; Jarvela, Sanna (2006).  Sharing and Constructing Perspectives in Web-Based Conferencing  Computers and Education, 47, 4. 

This study investigates the quality and nature of virtual interaction in a higher education context. The study aims to find out variables that mediate virtual interaction, particularly the emerging processes of sharing and constructing perspectives in web-based conferencing. The purpose of this paper is to report the results on different levels of web-based discussions with parallel findings on the amount of sharing perspectives. The findings of two empirical studies are compared, and thereby also the impact of the pedagogical model designed between these two studies is evaluated. Possible explanations for why some discussions reach higher levels and include more perspective sharing than others are also searched for. Particular attention is paid to the qualitatively distinct ways in which individual students interpret their participation in virtual interaction and the impact of group working on their own learning. These findings lead us on to discuss specific processes by which participants could better understand each other, create joint goals and construct meanings in virtual interaction.

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_____. (2000).  Historically Black Colleges and Universities: An Assessment of Networking and Connectivity. 

This report contains findings from a technology needs assessment conducted at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). The study assessed the computing resources, networking, and connectivity of HBCUs and other institutions that provide educational services to predominantly African American students. Out of 118 HBCUs, 80 responded to questions about campus planning and policies, facilities and resources, connectivity, and campus network infrastructures. Of those 80 HBCUs, 98 percent had basic access to the Internet, World Wide Web, and campus networks. However, there were serious concerns with the digital divide in the areas of: student access to networking and computing resources; usage of higher bandwidth technologies for accessing the Internet, World Wide Web, or other networks; faculty utilization of Web-based resources in the classroom and in professional exchange and development; awareness of the importance of network security; and utilization and maintenance of technology strategic plans to incorporate innovation and update changing technology. These problems were particularly noticeable at smaller, private, rural institutions. Six appendixes include a U.S. Department of Commerce press release; participating HBCUs; references; information about the National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education; information about the study team; and the study instrument. | [FULL TEXT]

Hishina, Masateru; Okada, Roberto; Suzuki, Katsuaki (2005).  Group Formation for Web-Based Collaborative Learning with Personality Information  International Journal on E-Learning, 4, 3. 

This article addresses the question of how to build human relations in web-based collaborative learning. Although the field of web-based education/training (WBE/T) has grown rapidly in the last few years, there has been little systematic research on the issue of group formation in such environments. It is the difficult to build human relations in such situations, due to the associated problems in computer-mediated communication. In physical environments, a person often guesses other's personality through nonverbal communication, which is very limited in Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC). The aims of this article are three-fold. First, the concept of personality information for awareness (PIA) is proposed, followed by the design of a a PIA-based system called "PIAGETS", which supports human relations building for collaborative learning in WBE. Next, the details of self-analysis subsystems and user aide subsystems, consisting of YG personality test module and Group Formation module respectively are given. Finally, the details of a basic investigation of human relation in face-to-face class are provided. The aim of this experiment is to clarify the human relation building with focus on group formation process in face-to-face classes which hopefully could be applied or extended to online class, i.e. web-based collaborative learning.

Hisim, Nusret (2005).  Technology in the Lab; Part II: Practical Suggestions for Using Probeware in the Science Classroom  Science Teacher, 72, 7. 

Probeware is increasingly being implemented in science classrooms because it is less expensive than it used to be and improvements in hardware and software have made it more accessible to students and teachers. Many probes or sensors can now simply be connected to a computer, calculator, or other handheld device, and will immediately begin to collect data once connected. Part II of this two-part article offers a range of practical suggestions for using probes in laboratory teaching across the sciences. The author focuses on probeware activities he has used in the classroom and worked on with individual students as science fair projects. By being able to collect, analyze, and adjust data so quickly and easily with probeware, students can investigate science topics of interest to them in an exciting manner.

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Hobart, Jordan (2001).  An Enlightening Experience.  School Planning & Management, 40, 5. 

Discusses the lighting demands of today's advancements in educational technology and how wireless lighting controls are being designed to meet these demands.

Hobbs, Renee (2006).  Non-Optimal Uses of Video in the Classroom  Learning

This paper examines some instructional practices concerning the non-optimal uses of video, films and other mass media in the K-12 classroom. Based on a six-year process of observing and interviewing teachers regularly in two school districts in Massachusetts, USA, this paper presents a typology of seven common patterns of non-optimal media use, instructional practices that diminish or weaken the value of film and video viewing as a learning tool. A telephone survey was conducted with a purposive sample of 130 middle-school and high-school teachers to provide additional evidence concerning teacher perceptions of the frequency of their colleagues' non-optimal use of video. Teachers in the USA report that their colleagues frequently use media for non-educational purposes, including to fill time, to keep students quiet, as a break from learning, or as a reward for good behavior. The implications of non-optimal media use are considered in light of renewed interest in integrating media literacy into K-12 instruction.

Hobbs, Tim; Day, Sheryl L.; Russo, Anthony C. (2002).  The Virtual Conference Room: Online Problem Solving for First Year Special Educators  Teacher Education and Special Education, 25, 4. 

Virtual teams, using existing telecommunications technology, are employed by government and industry to meet the changing needs of the new millennium. The use of virtual teams by business has become part of the new workplace phenomena. Despite their obvious potential, virtual communications in Special Education are limited to electronic mail, video-conferencing, and discussion forums. The use of virtual teams in field of education is largely unexplored. The following is a description of a web-based, virtual, problem-solving process used by teams of Special Educators to address problems encountered by first year teachers. Assessment by team participants indicates that an in vivo problem solving and collaboration process was successfully replicated as an online phenomenon and a representative case, illustrating the process, is presented. A web-site, titled The Conference Room, is proposed as a model for building electronic bridges between teacher preparation faculty and their graduates and for offering confidential consultation, support and mentoring for first year teachers.

Hobbs, Vicki (2004).  The Promise and the Power of Distance Learning in Rural Education. Policy Brief  [Rural School and Community Trust] 

A rapidly growing number of rural students are increasingly involved in some form of distance learning for all or part of the school day (or night). The precise long-term impact of distance learning technologies on schooling will not be known for several years. But this paper embraces the likelihood that distance learning will revolutionize the concept of 'schooling'--not by abandoning schools and individualizing and isolating students in the process, but rather by enhancing individual and class educational opportunities most often in the context of a school. It focuses on the applicability and potential of two-way interactive television for small and rural K-12 schools as a primary asset in improving educational access and equity and calls for the adoption of enlightened distance learning policies and guidelines at the state and local levels. The following are appended: (1) Characteristics of Major Distance Learning Technologies; (2) Types of Distance Learning Technologies; and (3) a Categorization of State Videoconferencing Policies. A glossary is also included.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Hebert, Thomas P.; Hammond, Daniel R. (2006).  Guided Viewing of Film with Gifted Students: Resources for Educators and Counselors  Gifted Child Today, 3. 

Using movies to guide gifted students toward self-understanding provides them with numerous benefits. Movies have the potential to enrich and influence the lives of gifted students in constructive ways. A good movie, for example, can become a meaningful metaphor that explains the essence of a young person's dilemma. When an appropriate movie is combined with a discussion and supportive follow-up activities, gifted students may view their situation through a more positive lens, enabling them to appreciate multiple aspects of difficult situations they may encounter. This article presents guidelines to teachers on the implementation of guided viewing sessions in school settings, an example of guided viewing, and a selected bibliography of films for guided viewing with gifted elementary and high school students. Each film entry gives a description, suggested audience, Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating, and key issues for discussion that might become the focus of a guided viewing lesson. | [FULL TEXT]

Heble, Ayesha (2007).  Teaching Literature Online to Arab Students: Using Technology to Overcome Cultural Restrictions  Arts and Humanities in Higher Education: An International Journal of Theory

This article presents an experiment in teaching literature at Sultan Qaboos University in the Sultanate of Oman. As I was required to teach two sections of the same course, "Introduction to Drama", I decided to teach one section entirely face-to-face and to supplement my classroom teaching in the other section with online elements. While online teaching did not have a significant effect on the student's final exam results, it certainly seems to have helped them overcome some of the more intangible cultural restrictions that they function within and to have allowed them to engage in an active and uninhibited exchange of opinions and ideas across genders.

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Hyde, Hartley (2007).  CACTUS (Calculator and Computer Technology User Service): Some Easter Mathematics  Australian Mathematics Teacher, 63, 1. 

In the Western Gregorian Calendar, the date of Easter Sunday is defined as the Sunday following the ecclesiastical Full Moon that falls on or next after March 21. While the pattern of dates so defined usually repeats each 19 years, there is a 0.08 day difference between the cycles. More accurately, the system has a period of 70 499 183 lunations which is about 5 700 000 years: more details are at astro.nmsu.edu/~lhuber/leaphist.html. This website also provides one version of an algorithm, attributed to Oudin, which is valid for any Gregorian year "y" to calculate the month "m" and day "dy" of Easter Day. In this article, the author shows how to manage a larger sample of dates by adapting the Oudin algorithm to a spreadsheet. With about forty calendars used in the World today, a study of cultural and religious dates often leads to interesting mathematical challenges.

Hyde, Ros (2001).  Ideas for Using Graphics Calculators with Middle School Pupils.  Micromath, 17, 2. 

Offers teaching suggestions for activities using the TI-73 graphing calculator in middle schools. Topics include the number line, data handling, and algebraic thinking.

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Hey, John D. (2005).  I Teach Economics, Not Algebra and Calculus  Journal of Economic Education, 36, 3. 

Most people learn to drive without knowing how the engine works. In a similar vein, the author believes that students can learn economics without knowing the algebra and calculus underlying the results. If instructors follow the philosophy of other economics courses in using graphs to illustrate the results, and draw the graphs accurately, then they can teach economics with virtually no algebra or calculus. The author's intermediate micro course is taught using mathematical software that does the mathematics and that draws accurate graphs from which students can see the key results. He backs up this no-algebra no-calculus approach with tutorial exercises in which students do economics and with exams that require no knowledge of algebra and calculus. The students end up feeling the economics, rather than tearing the algebra and the calculus.

Hey, William T.; Temple, Mark A.; Hey, Donna B. (2004).  Using the Internet Effectively for Advocacy in Health Education  TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 48, 6. 

In the simplest of terms, the Internet is a tool for communication from one computer to another (Gray & Cao, 2000; Saha, 1998). When thought of as a tool, the usefulness of this network of networks becomes apparent. It allows quick, economical communication of information to individuals and large groups of people connected to the internet. It also makes available a staggering amount of information on virtually every imaginable subject. One example of the usefulness of the Internet is the plethora of political and interest groups using the internet to communicate and provide information in ways and with ease virtually unimaginable twenty years ago. The most common uses of the Internet are electronic mail and information and resource retrieval. These are the applications that are considered in this article with specific focus on their use for advocacy in health education. The authors conclude that Health education advocacy efforts should merge onto the "information superhighway" known as the Internet. They further add that professional organizations, as well as inservice and preservice professionals, should examine the contribution they can make to development of an internet-based advocacy network. The Internet can serve as a key tool in the profession's effort to create systemic change that will help produce a healthier world.

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Heffernon, Rick (2006).  Enriching Arizona's Knowledge Economy: Creating the Research Connections, Attention, and Talent Arizona Needs to Compete. Proposition 301 Investments at Arizona State University, FY 2002-FY 2005  [Morrison Institute for Public Policy, Arizona State University] 

This report presents results tracked by the CAT Measures, a 21st century assessment tool for enabling policymakers to monitor "en route" performance of their public investments in science and technology research. Developed by Morrison Institute for Public Policy at Arizona State University, the CAT Measures analyze growth supporting three pillars of the knowledge economy: (1) Connections--the networks developed among researchers, entrepreneurs, and venture capitalists that help transfer knowledge and generate economic opportunities; (2) Attention--the "buzz" generated by research and research networks that attracts businesses, private investment, and highly skilled workers to a region and; and (3) Talent--the top scientists, students, and technically skilled workers that help make a region fertile ground for research, innovation, entrepreneurship, and economic growth. The CAT Measures are designed to augment the state's Proposition 301 investment strategy. Their purpose is to: (1) track key knowledge economy impacts from state-supported science and technology research activities; (2) provide timely feedback to policymakers and research managers and; and (3) complement Arizona's existing measures for assessing state science and technology investments. Appended are: (1) Overview of Proposition 301 Research Projects at ASU; and (2) ASU's Annual Performance Measures and Deliverables Reported to Arizona Board of Regents. [This publication was written with Rob Melnick and Lili Stiefel.] | [FULL TEXT]

Heffner, Michelle; Cohen, Stanley H. (2005).  Evaluating Student Use of Web-Based Course Material  Journal of Instructional Psychology, 32, 1. 

Course management software and on-line course material are becoming more available. As a result, many instructors have developed WebCT course Web sites to deliver on-line course material that supplements lecture topics. The present study examined associations between student characteristics, course performance, and access of Web-CT course material. We tracked and coded patterns of Web usage by 154 students in a Psychology as a Profession course. Frequency of student access to Web-based material correlated positively with grades on course assignments. Females accessed the home page more often than males. Self-reports from students evaluated the course Website as highly valuable. These results suggest important advantages in supplementing lecture courses with on-line material.

Hefzallah, Ibrahim M. (2004).  The New Educational Technologies and Learning. Empowering Teachers to Teach and Students to Learn in the Information Age, Second Edition  [Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, Ltd] 

This book examines the new learning and telecommunications technologies and their potential applications to enrich the learning process, to ensure educational equality for all students and to help cultivate the educated person. In the light of recent studies, educational technology developments, and emerging educational needs of the twenty-first century, the book chapters have been revised and updated in this new edition. A new section on children and youth's safety on the Internet was added, and a new chapter on television in education was introduced. The book is divided into four sections: Education in the Information Age, The Learning Environment, The New Learning and Telecommunications Technologies, and Necessary Conditions for Effective Utilization of the New Learning and Telecommunications Technologies. Section I examines the need for educational reform, the goal of that reform, and the role of technology in realizing that goal. Section II addresses the significance of the learning environment and the necessary conditions for providing teachers and students with access to models of excellence in human resources and in learning materials. Section III presents the new learning and telecommunications technologies with emphasis placed on their potential applications in education. Section IV focuses on necessary conditions conducive to the empowerment of the teachers to teach and the students to learn in the Information Age. Among these conditions are the cultivation of technology literate teachers, technology literate students, and efficient school media specialists. It will be an excellent resource for teachers, student teachers, and school administrators.

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Hoag, Craig M. (2005).  Simple and Inexpensive Computer Interface to a Durrum Stopped-Flow Apparatus Tested Using the Iron (III)--Thiocyanate Reaction  Journal of Chemical Education, 82, 12. 

A simple Vernier software and Technology LabPro unit was used to interface a computer with a Durrum model 110 stopped-flow apparatus using the iron (III)--thiocyanate reaction. The software can readily be used to retrieve that data from the stopped-flow apparatus using one probe to measure the voltage and a second probe to trigger the data collection.

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He, Q.; Tymms, P. (2005).  A Computer-Assisted Test Design and Diagnosis System for Use by Classroom Teachers  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 21, 6. 

Computer-assisted assessment (CAA) has become increasingly important in education in recent years. A variety of computer software systems have been developed to help assess the performance of students at various levels. However, such systems are primarily designed to provide objective assessment of students and analysis of test items, and focus has been mainly placed on higher and further education. Although there are commercial professional systems available for use by primary and secondary educational institutions, such systems are generally expensive and require skilled expertise to operate. In view of the rapid progress made in the use of computer-based assessment for primary and secondary students by education authorities here in the UK and elsewhere, there is a need to develop systems which are economic and easy to use and can provide the necessary information that can help teachers improve students' performance. This paper presents the development of a software system that provides a range of functions including generating items and building item banks, designing tests, conducting tests on computers and analysing test results. Specifically, the system can generate information on the performance of students and test items that can be easily used to identify curriculum areas where students are under performing. A case study based on data collected from five secondary schools in Hong Kong involved in the Curriculum, Evaluation and Management Centre's Middle Years Information System Project, Durham University, UK, has been undertaken to demonstrate the use of the system for diagnostic and performance analysis.

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Hosie, Peter; Schibeci, Renato (2001).  Evaluating Courseware: A Need for More Context Bound Evaluations?  Australian Educational Computing, 16, 2. 

Reviews literature relating to educational courseware evaluation and the need for context-bound evaluations. Highlights include the promise of educational technology; implications for online learning; technological developments, including use of the Internet in education; comparing modes of delivery; examples of context-bound evaluations; and the importance of instructional design.

Hosie, Peter; Schibeci, Renato (2005).  Checklist and Context-Bound Evaluations of Online Learning in Higher Education  British Journal of Educational Technology, 36, 5. 

A review is undertaken of what different commentators have written about the evaluation of educational courseware in higher education. Speculation is made on the reasons for the lack of such evaluations. The role of checklists for evaluating online courseware is discussed despite the acknowledged limitations. Checklists have been developed at Edith Cowan University specifically for assessing aspects of online pedagogical learning materials in higher education. These checklists are intended to be useful indicators of the areas where online learning materials are strong and identify areas that may be deficient rather than to arrive at a numeric score. The form of checklist proposed is a valuable screening device to use before undertaking a context-bound evaluation of courseware. Contextual evaluations are a complementary and valuable alternative to traditional forms of evaluation of educational courseware, such as checklists. A case is also made in this article for using a checklist developed for assessing aspects of online pedagogical learning materials in higher education. It is argued that, when used in conjunction with a context-bound approach, such checklists may be more useful in indicating the pedagogical quality of online learning materials. Quality of the instructional design remains an important consideration in evaluating courseware. Continuing comments and dissent are invited on the value of contextual evaluations of educational courseware to reinvigorate the debate over appropriate ways of evaluating online courseware that will provide helpful information for higher education.

Hoskins, Sherria L.; van Hooff, Johanna C. (2005).  Motivation and Ability: Which Students Use Online Learning and What Influence Does it Have On Their Achievement?  British Journal of Educational Technology, 36, 2. 

There has been much recent research examining online learning in universities, but two questions seem to have been largely overlooked in this context: (1) Which students voluntarily utilise web-based learning; and (2) Does this use influence their academic achievement? The current study aimed to determine whether the approaches to studying, ability, age, and gender of 110 undergraduates in the second year of a psychology degree predicted the extent to which they utilised online learning using Web Course Tools (WebCT) in support of a core Biological Psychology unit. Data were obtained from WebCT's student tracking system, Entwistle and Ramsden's 18-item Approaches to Studying Inventory (1983) and academic records. Multiple linear regressions and discriminant function analysis were used to examine whether individual differences predicted WebCT use, while analysis of covariance determined whether web use influenced academic achievement. The number of hits, length of access, and use of the bulletin board was predicted by age, with older students using WebCT more. These factors were also influenced by ability and achievement orientation. The degree of participation in self-assessment was not predicted by student variables, but, of those that repeated an online quiz, improvement was more likely in those with lower achievement orientation. Only bulletin board use influenced achievement, with those posting messages outperforming those not using, or passively using bulletin boards. However, because individual differences will determine the extent to which students utilise this facility, it is suggested that future research should focus on developing online learning environments that incorporate activities with both a beneficial influence on learning and appeal to a wide student population.

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Hyun, Eunsook (2005).  A Study of 5- to 6-Year-Old Children's Peer Dynamics and Dialectical Learning in a Computer-Based Technology-Rich Classroom Environment  Computers and Education, 44, 1. 

The aim of the study was to explore characteristics of 5- to 6-year-old kindergartners' peer dynamics during a seven week learning experience in a computer-based technology-rich classroom in the US. The children (9 boys and 9 girls) were placed in pairs by the classroom teacher, based on her perception of the their friendships. Measures of each child's computer proficiency were obtained at the beginning and conclusion of the experience, using a 20-item instrument called the individualized computer proficiency checklist (ICPC), developed for this study. Overall, the children showed an average gain of 38.5% on their ICPC scores. Paired children who differed in computer proficiencies but shared similar interests worked very well, exemplifying Vygotsky's dialectical constructivist perspective on peer teaching and learning characteristics. Their conversations displayed self-confidence, multiple perspective-taking skills, and reflective self-assessment. The pairs demonstrating limited computer proficiency frequently engaged in serial turn taking and nonpurposeful clicking on the computer screen. The study concludes with pedagogical implications for teachers.

Hyun, Eunsook; Davis, Genevieve (2005).  Kindergartners' Conversations in a Computer-Based Technology Classroom  Communication Education, 54, 2. 

This qualitative study examined emerging inquiries and dialogue of five- to six-year-old kindergartners (9 boys and 9 girls) taking place around computers as they engaged in a mapping project in a technology-rich classroom in the U.S. Discourse analysis of young children's conversations in a technology-rich classroom shed light on their perceptions of computer-based technology as a learning tool. Key findings revealed: (a) cumulative talk patterns among the children evolved into exploratory talk; (b) children's thinking, questioning, and talking was purposeful, reflective, and autonomous; (c) children's speech and dialogue influenced their emergent technological literacy skills; (d) peer collaboration and teacher input scaffolded student development; and (e) students discovered personal preferences in using various tools.

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