Dicheva, Darina; Dichev, Christo (2004).  A Framework for Concept-Based Digital Course Libraries  Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 15, 4. 

This article presents a general framework for building conceptbased digital course libraries. The framework is based on the idea of using a conceptual structure that represents a subject domain ontology for classification of the course library content. Two aspects, domain conceptualization, which supports findability and ontologies, which support reusability of learning resources are incorporated uniformly in the library architecture. The suggested framework implies a layered information structure of the library content consisting of three layers, each capturing a different aspect of the information space - conceptual, resource-related, and contextual. We present an environment, TM4L (Topic Maps for Learning), aimed at supporting the development and use of concept-based digital course collections. The new ISO standard, XML Topic Maps (XTM), that provides a paradigm for organizing, retrieving, and interchanging information on the Web, is used in the proposed framework to implement concept-based digital course libraries.


Dicheva, Darina; Dichev, Christo (2006).  TM4L: Creating and Browsing Educational Topic Maps  British Journal of Educational Technology, 37, 3. 

In this article, we describe TM4L, an environment for building, maintaining and using standards-based, ontology-aware e-learning repositories. It is based on the idea that concept-driven access to learning material implemented as a topic map can bridge the gap between a learner and targeted knowledge. One of the driving goals of this work is to increase the reusability of available educational resources by enabling the use of a developed subject ontology with courses on the same subject with different stricture. Another goal of TM4L is to support an efficient context-based retrieval of learning content tailored to the needs of a learner working on an educational task. The paper focuses on three aspects of the TM4L environment: domain modelling, editing capabilities and the interface for exploring the learning collection. The key features of the TM4L functionality are illustrated with some examples.


Dick, Donna M. (2005).  Clearing Hurdles. Leaders Sharing--Professional Development  Learning and Leading with Technology, 32, 6. 

Technology is the key to improving student achievement, but without high-quality professional development, technology will never be successful in fulfilling that role. To create successful professional development, it is necessary to carefully plan programs and activities that model constructivism and take into consideration characteristics of adult learners. Making the transition from traditional teaching to a more constructivist style that integrates technology can be very intimidating. It is a hurdle that is difficult to jump. To help teachers ease into it, the author of this article uses an activity that models a constructivist approach, while taking into account characteristics of adult learners. The technology integration activity is used as part of a graduate class for teachers, but it could be adapted for an after-school training workshop. Instead of focusing on all of the current activities that are listed in the article, the instructor could focus on one or two areas. However it is used, as a whole or in part, it will serve to help teachers jump the hurdle and move toward making use of technology in their classroom activities. | [FULL TEXT]


Dickard, Norris, Ed. (2002).  Great Expectations: Leveraging America's Investment in Educational Technology. The E-Rate at Five, Enhancing Policymaking and New Evaluation Models. 

In February 2000, the Benton Foundation, with the Center for Children and Technology, released "The E-Rate in America: A Tale of Four Cities." This report is a continuation of that work. Two overarching concerns have emerged in the current policy climate: it is imperative that the E-Rate program is structured in such a way as to maximize impact and it is critical to be able to measure a return on the nation's massive educational technology investment. Findings and observations are compiled in this report, with chapters written by experts in the field of educational technology. The first chapter, "E-Rate 102," by Norris Dickard, recounts some of the E-Rate program's growing pains and new policy challenges facing it. In the second chapter, "The E-Rate Takes Hold, but Slowly," Donna Harrington-Lueker reports on lessons that emerged from interviews with administrators, teachers, and technology researchers in the same four cities studied in "The E-Rate in American" (Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit and Milwaukee). In the third chapter, "New Approaches to Assessing Students' Technology-Based Work," Margaret Honey addresses the timely issue of measuring return on investment in a policy climate focused on accountability. The fourth chapter, "Assessment of Students' Technology-Based Work: An Overview of the Toolkit and Case Studies" by Andy Gersick, Constance Kim, Julie Thompson Keane, Wendy Friedman, and Katie Culp, presents case studies in which researchers worked in individual classrooms with teachers in the cities of Chicago and Milwaukee. Together, they developed assessment tools and guidelines to help teachers measure learning gains as students learned to use various information technology tools for research and presentation-compiled into an "evaluation toolkit" (available online and as a supplementary publication to this report). In the last chapter, "Enhancing State and Local Policymaking about Educational Technologies," Chris Dede introduces his "state policy framework" and outlines the need for a more coordinated and systematic approach to policymaking around educational technology. Appendixes present the "State Policy Framework" and outline educational technology evaluation resources. | [FULL TEXT]


Dickard, Norris, Ed. (2003).  The Sustainability Challenge: Taking EdTech to the Next Level. 

This publication summarizes the lessons learned during 2002 in a collaborative project that had two central goals: (1) to assess the current thinking on sustainability and outlays for educational technology (edtech) investments by using as national case studies the cities of Chicago, Cleveland and Milwaukee; and (2) to highlight critical issues and models related to sustaining good educational technology practice. Sustainability is defined as strategies for maintaining and nourishing effective programs over time. Contents include: "Introduction: The Challenge of Taking Edtech to the Next Level" (Norris Dickard, Margaret Honey, Anthony Wilhelm); "Edtech 2002: Budget Challenges, Policy Shifts and Digital Opportunities" (Norris Dickard); "Back to the Future: Total Cost of Ownership and Other Edtech Sustainability Models" (Sara Fitzgerald); "Toward a Sustainability Framework: Lessons from the Literature and the Field" (Julie Thompson Keane, Andrew Gersick, Constance Kim, Margaret Honey); "Getting the Center To Hold: A Funder's Perspective" (Ronald Thorpe); and "Edtech in Indian Country" (Kade Twist). Appendixes include: "No Child Left Behind Act, Edtech Provisions" and a table, "What Is Your School District's Total Cost of Ownership Type?" | [FULL TEXT]


Dickey, M. D. (2008).  Integrating Cognitive Apprenticeship Methods in a Web-Based Educational Technology Course for P-12 Teacher Education  Computers & Education, 51, 2. 

The purpose of this study is to investigate the integration of a cognitive apprenticeship model in a Web-based course. The subject of this study is an educational technology course for pre-service P-12 teacher education students. Specifically, this study presents student reports of how cognitive apprenticeship methods impacted student learning processes of (a) technology skills and (b) technology integration methods for teaching. The methodological framework for this qualitative investigation is an interpretive case study. Student reflections and teacher observations revealed that students found modeling, coaching, scaffolding, and exploration key to fostering skill knowledge, and they found the use of cognitive apprenticeship methods fostered an understanding of integrating technology for teaching and learning.


Dickey, Michele D. (2004).  The Impact of Web-Logs (Blogs) on Student Perceptions of Isolation and Alienation in a Web-Based Distance-Learning Environment  Open Learning, 19, 3. 

In the rush to promote the use of computer-mediated technologies for both traditional and distance learning, relatively little research has been conducted about learner feelings of isolation, alienation and frustration. More recent technologies such as web-logs (blogs) may provide a wider range of tools for bridging learners' feelings of isolation. The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of using blogs in a web-based learning environment. This qualitative investigation presents an interpretive case study of student perceptions of using blogs in a web-based technology integration course for K-12 pre-service teacher education students. Findings indicate that the use of blogs helped prevent feelings of isolation and alienation for distance learners.


Dickey, Michele D. (2005).  Three-Dimensional Virtual Worlds and Distance Learning: Two Case Studies of Active Worlds as a Medium for Distance Education  British Journal of Educational Technology, 36, 3. 

Online three-dimensional (3D) virtual worlds are emerging technologies that offer unique learning opportunities for traditional and distributed education. One of the more popular 3D virtual worlds, Active Worlds, is currently being used as a medium for synchronous and asynchronous distance learning. This investigation presents two exploratory case studies of different, but exemplary educational activities using Active Worlds for formal and informal education. The focus of each case study is to investigate how Active Worlds is being used for distance learning and to determine the type of learning experiences afforded by this 3D virtual environment. Whilst more research is necessary to explore fully the potential of 3D virtual worlds for learning, this initial investigation illustrates how Active Worlds affords opportunities for experiential learning and situated learning within a collaboration learning environment.


Dickey, Michele D. (2005).  Brave New (Interactive) Worlds: A Review of the Design Affordances and Constraints of Two 3D Virtual Worlds as Interactive Learning Environments  Interactive Learning Environments, 13, 1-2. 

Three-dimensional virtual worlds are an emerging medium currently being used in both traditional classrooms and for distance education. Three-dimensional (3D) virtual worlds are a combination of desk-top interactive Virtual Reality within a chat environment. This analysis provides an overview of Active Worlds Educational Universe and Adobe Atmosphere and the pedagogical affordances and constraints of the inscription tools, discourse tools, experiential tools, and resource tools of each application. The purpose of this review is to discuss the implications of using each application for educational initiatives by exploring how the various design features of each may support and enhance the design of interactive learning environments.


Dickey, Michele D. (2005).  Engaging By Design: How Engagement Strategies in Popular Computer and Video Games Can Inform Instructional Design  Educational Technology Research and Development, 53, 2. 

Computer and video games are a prevalent form of entertainment in which the purpose of the design is to engage players. Game designers incorporate a number of strategies and tactics for engaging players in "gameplay." These strategies and tactics may provide instructional designers with new methods for engaging learners. This investigation presents a review of game design strategies and the implications of appropriating these strategies for instructional design. Specifically, this study presents an overview of the trajectory of player positioning or point of view, the role of narrative, and methods of interactive design. A comparison of engagement strategies in popular games and characteristics of engaged learning is also presented to examine how strategies of game design might be integrated into the existing framework of engaged learning.


Dickey, Michele D. (2006).  Girl Gamers: The Controversy of Girl Games and the Relevance of Female-Oriented Game Design for Instructional Design  British Journal of Educational Technology, 37, 5. 

Digital games have typically been considered a male leisure activity; however, recent statistics indicate that increasing numbers of females are now playing games. The purpose of this review is to investigate how the influx of girl gamers and the emergence of female-oriented game design can inform instructional design for the construction of interactive learning environments. This review presents an overview of digital games and gender, an outline of girl games and "pink" software, a discussion of the controversy of girl games, and a review and discussion of the research and implications of female-oriented game design for instructional design. The goal of this review is to examine the influx of girl gamers into a male pastime and to analyse the implications of this for the design of interactive learning environments.


Dickey, Michele D. (2006).  Game Design Narrative for Learning: Appropriating Adventure Game Design Narrative Devices and Techniques for the Design of Interactive Learning Environments  Educational Technology Research and Development, 54, 3. 

The purpose of this conceptual analysis is to investigate how contemporary video and computer games might inform instructional design by looking at how narrative devices and techniques support problem solving within complex, multimodal environments. Specifically, this analysis presents a brief overview of game genres and the role of narrative in popular adventure game design, along with an analysis of how narrative supports problem solving in adventure games. Additionally, an analysis of the underlying structure used in game design for developing narratives is presented along with design heuristics for constructing narratives for educational purposes.


Dickey, Michele D. (2007).  Game Design and Learning: A Conjectural Analysis of How Massively Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) Foster Intrinsic Motivation  Educational Technology Research and Development, 55, 3. 

During the past two decades, the popularity of computer and video games has prompted games to become a source of study for educational researchers and instructional designers investigating how various aspects of game design might be appropriated, borrowed, and re-purposed for the design of educational materials. The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of how the structure in massively multiple online role-playing games (MMORPGs) might inform the design of interactive learning and game-based learning environments by looking at the elements which support intrinsic motivation. Specifically, this analysis presents (a) an overview of the two primary elements in MMORPGs game design: character design and narrative environment, (b) a discussion of intrinsic motivation in character role-playing, (c) a discussion of intrinsic motivational supports and cognitive support of the narrative structure of small quests, and (d) a discussion of how the narrative structure of MMORPGs might foster learning in various types of knowledge.


Dickinson, Gail K. (2008).  A Place to Stand  Library Media Connection, 26, 6. 

Since the earliest days of the profession, school libraries have been establishing standards and guidelines to guide and shape school library programs. For the most part, the standards have shaped what programs are and what they do. Rarely has a set of standards focused on the content and process of what school libraries teach students. The information age has affected most of a person's personal and professional life in ways that could not possibly have been foreseen, and looking into the future as a profession, the content of what is needed to be taught must focus on what students need to learn in this century. Pundits in their pulpits usually point to two documents that point the way for the path to perfection in information use. The first is the new National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) from the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE), and the second is the "enGauge" 21st Century Skills: Literacy in the Digital Age from the North Central Regional Education Laboratory (NCREL). The American Association of School Librarians (AASL) has added to this national conversation by launching the AASL Standards for the 21st Century Learner. This article discusses these standards and describes how to achieve full implementation of these learning standards.


Dicks, Dennis (2002).  Evaluation of a High-End Distance Delivery MBA Program. 

The John Molson School of Business at Concordia University in Montreal has been addressing the need for new skills in aviation management for almost a decade through its International Aviation MBA, in partnership with the International Air Transport Association (IATA). The School set out in early 1999 to create a version of the program which could be largely delivered at a distance, anywhere in the world. This paper evaluates the technical and pedagogical decisions that formed the program, successfully launched in 2000, now graduating its first cohort and welcoming its third. On the technical side, after evaluating a number of commercial templates and courseware purveyors, the authors chose to develop a custom-made approach with a local provider, "Hypermedia-Builder." On the pedagogical side, drawing upon extensive experience in multimedia production, they have provided intensive support for faculty members, on both technical and pedagogical issues, as they develop and deliver their courses. Feedback from students and other data indicate that these efforts enabled the program to achieve its academic goals. The experience suggests a need for innovative approaches to the problem of evaluating technology-supported instruction.


Dicks, Matthew J. (2005).  Show Me the Way  Educational Leadership, 63, 3. 

Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly simply strategy of videotaping students and reviewing the tape closely with them helps his students assess--and improve--their patterns of learning. Dicks details how videotaping students enhances their learning in the areas of reading, science, and classroom behaviors. He also regularly turns the camera on himself to improve his own instructional practice.


DiClementi, Jeannie D.; Handelsman, Mitchell M. (2005).  Empowering Students: Class-Generated Course Rules  Teaching of Psychology, 32, 1. 

After we gave 2 classes of introductory psychology students the syllabus, the first class (the experimental group) generated rules for classroom behavior. The instructor presented the second class (the comparison group) with the list of rules and said they were instructor generated. Students rated the rules, several aspects of the course, and the instructor. The comparison group (n = 88) reported higher frequencies of negative behavior by class members. Students in the experimental class (n = 62) rated the instructor more positively. The groups did not differ in grades, perceived fairness, or perceived importance of the rules.


_____. (2001).  Delta Pi Epsilon National Conference. Book of Readings (Nashville, Tennessee, November 15-17, 2001). 

This document contains 23 papers from a conference on promoting excellence in research and teaching for business. The following are among the papers included: "Alternative Licensure/Certification Assessment of State Specialists" (Marilyn Chalupa, Ginny Richerson, Nancy Groneman, Kimberlee Bartel, Randy L. Joyner, Dennis LaBonty); "Assessing Online Instruction Self-Efficacy" (Frederick Augustus Randall); "Computer Application Skills of High School Students in Georgia" (Ric Calhoun, Melinda McCannon, Tena B. Crews); "Computer Use Confidence and Skill Level Gain in Lecture-Based and Text-Based Instruction: An Action Research Study" (Jonathan R. Anderson, Alexa B. North); "Developing Web-Enabled Interactive Financial Tools without HTML and Script Languages" (Jensen J. Zhao);"Employment Attributes" (Nancy Buddy Penner, Harry Nowka); "Identification of Job Experiences of IS (Information Systems) Graduates and Comparison of Graduates' and Professionals' Perceptions on the Importance of Skills Required for the Workplace" (Diane C. Davis, Nancy M. Gonzenbach); "Learning Styles and Computer Success" (Margaret J. Erthal, Kathy Harting); "Recommended Computer End-User Skills for Business Students by Fortune 500 Executives--2001 Report" (Jensen J. Zhao, Melody W. Alexander); "The Status of High-End Technology Skills Taught in Business Teacher Education Programs" (Kelly Wilkinson, Cheryl Wiedmaier); "The Survey of Office Roles and Responsibilities in China" (June Lu, Wanda L. Stitt-Gohdes); "Does Business Education Fit into OCRE (Off Campus Residential Experience)? (Cyril Kesten); "Examination of How Business Executives Use Proofreading by Co-Workers When Preparing Documents" (Sherry J. Roberts, Paula Jones); "Learning Styles and the Learning Curve: A Comparison of Knowledge Gained from Research Projects for Classes and a Research Project for Publication" (Kushani Vidanagama, Faye L. Smith); "Online Course Delivery: A Qualitative Review of Policy and Theory Using WebCT" (John Duncan, Fred Reneau); "Strategies for Teaching Internet Ethics" (Martha H. Rader); "Using a Course Management Program to Foster the Teaching/learning Process in Business Communication Courses" (Allen D. Truell, Robert Underwood, Melody W. Alexander, James E. Bartlett); "Conducting Longitudinal Research: An Action Research Guide to the Process" (Michael Bronner); "Needed Research in Business Education" (Martha H. Rader, William J. Wilhelm); and "Selecting an Appropriate Sample Size for Conducting Survey Research" (James E. Bartlett, Chadwick C. Higgins, Joe W. Kotrlik). Many papers contain substantial bibliographies. | [FULL TEXT]


_____. (2007).  Delivering Courses beyond Campus Walls: Off-Campus and Distance Education in Nebraska, 2004-05 and 2005-06  [Nebraska Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education] 

This report highlights distance delivery courses in Nebraska for the academic years 2004-2005 and 2005-2006. All six community colleges, the three state colleges, and the University of Nebraska campuses offer courses at distance; more than 40 degrees, endorsements and certificates are now offered completely by distance technology. The total number of students served by some form of distance education was 92,272 in 2004-2005 and 116,584 in 2005-2006. Three types of off-campus/distance education are includes: (1) traditional delivery; (2) synchronous delivery; and (3) asynchronous delivery. Since first collection of this information in the early 1990s, asynchronous sources have steadily increased, and now surpass both synchronous and traditionally-delivered courses. Almost every type of course is offered at distance, including courses requiring hands-on activities. Most asynchronous courses are available anywhere a student has access to a computer, including his or her home or work place; most synchronous courses require a location capable of receiving a live transmission from the campus.  | [FULL TEXT]


De La Caba Collado, Mariangeles; Lopez Atxurra, Rafael (2006).  Democratic Citizenship in Textbooks in Spanish Primary Curriculum  Journal of Curriculum Studies, 38, 2. 

This paper analyses how textbooks deal with the issues of education for democratic citizenship encompassed within the European framework and Spanish educational reforms. The sample comprised the 24 individual texts in social science, natural science, and technology for 6-12-year-olds. This paper delimits and defines the six themes for analysis: responsibility, participation, conflict resolution, diversity, and human rights. It offers a qualitative description of the content of each theme as well as a quantitative assessment of the frequency with which they appear. The results indicate that European ideals of citizenship education are dealt with unevenly, and in some cases barely, in these textbooks.


de la Paz, Ed., Kathleen B. (2004).  Engineering Design: A Standards-Based High School Model Course Guide. Advancing Technological Literacy: ITEA Professional Series  [International Technology Education Association (ITEA)] 

Unfortunately, students in many schools can still graduate, having had no practical contact with engineering concepts of case studies. One major problem of secondary education is that schools teach science, technology, and mathematics only in the context of the specific disciplines. Although many students may not become engineers, they do need problem-solving skills for life in the technologically complex twenty-first century. This guide presents content and activities in a cornerstone technology education model course for the high school. The information contained in this guide, will assist teachers in preparing to implement Standards for Technological Literacy (STL). In addition it can be used by state, provincial, and local curriculum developers in creating a standards based curriculum. Following the Preface, the guide is divided into 3 chapters. Chapter 1, Scope and Sequence, addresses the high school learner and scope of a standards-based high school curriculum, an overview of methods described in this guide, and appropriate strategies for assessing students. Chapter 2, Units of Instruction, features the units of instruction for this course. Each unit presents standards-based content for students in Grades 9-12. The unit framework consists of an overview, enduring results, teacher preparation, unit content, suggested learning activities, assessment, and resources. Chapter 3, Appendix, contains descriptions of resources, materials, and references that teachers may obtain as they develop curriculum and instructional materials. Teachers, curriculum developers, and other interested readers are encouraged to review this guide in its entirety. The content across the chapters and instructional units collectively contribute to quality instruction that addresses the standards. | [FULL TEXT]


De La Paz, Susan; Hernandez-Ramos, Pedro; Barron, Linda (2004).  Multimedia Environments in Mathematics Teacher Education: Preparing Regular and Special Educators for Inclusive Classrooms  Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 12, 4. 

A multimedia CD-ROM program, Mathematics Teaching and Learning in Inclusive Classrooms, was produced to help preservice teachers learn mathematics teaching methods in the context of inclusive classrooms. The contents include text resources, video segments of experts and of classroom lessons, images of student work, an electronic notebook, and a tool to select content for visual presentations. Experiences using the program in undergraduate and graduate courses are reported. Overall, students liked using the CD-ROM and saw it as a valuable resource to gain exposure to expert opinions and inclusive classroom situations that would be otherwise inaccessible. A reflection on pedagogical issues surrounding the use of multimedia CD-ROMs in the teacher preparation context suggests that careful integration of high-quality resources such as this CD-ROM with traditional resources such as journal articles may offer the best experience for preservice students.


de la Teja, Ileana; Lundgren-Cayrol, Karin; Ganesan, Radha; Spector, J. Michael (2003).  An Introduction to Issues in the Evaluation of Educational Technology: International Perspectives.  Evaluation and Program Planning, 26, 2. 

Introduces the articles of this special section on the evaluation of educational technology and provides an overview of each paper. Calls for adjustments to, rather than replacement of, existing evaluation frameworks.


De Lievre, Bruno; Depover, Christian; Dillenbourg, Pierre (2006).  The Relationship between Tutoring Mode and Learners' Use of Help Tools in Distance Education  Instructional Science: An International Journal of Learning and Cognition, 34, 2. 

This article presents an experimental study demonstrating how 120 learners use help tools in a virtual learning set-up. More specifically, several types of tutoring are investigated to find out the extent of the use of help tools in each. The effects of two independent variables which may have an impact on the behaviour of learners are studied: (1) whether or not they have access to a human tutor (HT) and (2) the tutor's means of intervention (reactive or proactive). One of the goals of the study is to determine whether these modes of tutoring can influence positively or negatively distance learners' use of lexical, conceptual, metacognitive and navigational help tools. The results of analysis of variance show that it is useless to prompt (effect of proactivity) learners to use the help that is available to them but that prompting is sometimes more subtle than initially foreseen. It appears that the presence of an HT pushes learners to use help tools, but this effect (of the presence of the HT) is still relatively weak and therefore may not justify the cost of employing a human tutor. It is also important to show the necessary intrinsic quality of the tools made available in order for a given mode of tutoring to have an effect on their use.


Del Bruno, Ron (2005).  "How I Did It!": 8 Teachers Share Their Top Tech Solutions  Instructor, 114, 6. 

All teachers probably want to save hours of planning per week, as well as create innovative lesson plans that connect with kids. This article presents several teachers who have saved hours of planning by embracing technology in their classrooms. This article also provides several strategies that teachers can use to save a great amount of preparation time.


Del Favero, Marietta; Hinson, Janice M. (2007).  Evaluating Instructor Technology Integration in Community and Technical Colleges: A Performance Evaluation Matrix  Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 31, 5. 

The press for implementing technology based instructional delivery systems in community and technical colleges is well documented. Yet faculty face numerous challenges in integrating technology into instruction (AL-Bataineh & Brooks, 2003; Groves & Zemel, 2000; Khoury, 1997). Stimulating faculty ownership in technology, diffusion of technology use throughout institutions, and linking technology use to the faculty reward system are key concerns addressed in this proposed tool for evaluating faculty technology integration performance. The tool is based on research on faculty development (Howery, 1997) and the technology adoption process (Hall, Loucks, Rutherford, & Newlove, 1975). Stimulating development of faculty expertise linked to technology goals is the goal of applying the tool.


Del Monte, Erin; Manso, Angela (2001).  Where Do I Find It?--An Internet Glossary.  Community College Journal, 72, 2. 

Lists 13 different Internet search engines that might be of interest to educators, including: AOL Search, Alta Vista, Google, Lycos, Northern Light, and Yahoo. Gives a brief description of each search engine's capabilities, strengths, and weaknesses and includes Web addresses of U.S. government offices, including the U.S. Department of Education. Provides a glossary of Internet-related terms.


del R. Medina-Diaz, Maria; Echegaray, Francisco; Motta, Noel (2000).  Formative Evaluation of the Project Enhancement of Problem Solving and Scientific Reasoning Skills through Computerized General Chemistry Modules. 

This paper reports on the formative evaluation results of the project "Enhancement of Problem Solving and Scientific Reasoning Skills through Computerized General Chemistry Modules." This project includes the design, development, and implementation of two interactive computer modules for the enhancement of mathematical and problem solving skills of undergraduate students who are taking general chemistry courses at the University of Puerto Rico. Studies have shown that there is a correlation between students' performance and their math skills. The modules, Introductory and Equilibrium, were designed and written in Spanish, then translated into programming language. The Introductory module includes math skills, graphs, and problem solving. For the evaluation process, the first trial used a single experimental group with a pre-post test while the second trial used a pre- and post-test between an experimental and control group. | [FULL TEXT]


del Valle, Rodrigo; Oncu, Semiral; Koksal, Nur Fatma; Kim, Nari; Alford, Paul; Duffy, Thomas M. (2004).  Effects of Online Cognitive Facilitation on Student Learning  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

The purpose of this exploratory experimental study was to examine how online cognitive facilitation that promotes cognitive presence, while keeping facilitator's social presence constant, affects student learning and satisfaction in an online community of inquiry. In this context, we explored the following questions: (1) Does online high cognitive facilitation promote collaboration and critical thinking? and (2) Does online high cognitive facilitation promote student learning and improve satisfaction? | [FULL TEXT]


dela Pena-Bandalaria, Melinda (2007).  Impact of ICTs on Open and Distance Learning in a Developing Country Setting: The Philippine Experience  [Online Submission] 

The influence of the information and communication technologies (ICTs) in open and distance learning (ODL) in a developing country, the Philippines, is critically evaluated in this paper. Specifically, this paper examines how ICTs have influenced or shaped the development of ODL in this country. Also examined are the different stages or generations of distance education (DE) in the Philippines, which are characterized mainly by the dominant technology used for the delivery of instructional content and student support services. The different ICTs being used in ODL and their specific applications to the various facets of this mode of delivery are also described. Also included is an examination on how quality of education is ensured in a technology-driven system of teaching and learning, which includes, among others, the employment of the "quality circle approach" in the development of courses and learning packages, and the provision of appropriate technologies to perform academic processes and achieve institutional goals. Experiences of the various universities in the Philippines are also cited in this paper. Lessons have been drawn from the ODL experience to guide educators from other developing countries. [This article was published in the Regional Focus Issue: Changing Faces of Open and Distance Education in Asia.] | [FULL TEXT]


Delfino, Manuela; Manca, Stefania; Persico, Donatella (2007).  Harmonizing the Online and Face-to-Face Components in a Blended Course on Educational Technology  [Online Submission] 

This article analyses the relationship between the face-to-face and the online components of a blended course in Educational Technology, run by the Institute for Educational Technology for the local Postgraduate School for Secondary Teaching. The course designers developed criteria for harmonising and integrating the two educational modalities, with the aim to take advantage of their specific features. These criteria derive from a multidimensional model that comprises four aspects: course themes and content (cognitive dimension), teaching and learning strategies (teaching dimension), interaction among participants (social dimension) and reflection on the learning path and the teaching profession (meta-cognitive dimension). | [FULL TEXT]


Delfino, Manuela; Persico, D. (2007).  Online or Face-to-Face? Experimenting with Different Techniques in Teacher Training  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 23, 5. 

This paper illustrates a 5-year case study (from 2001 to 2005) regarding a course in educational technology that involved from 100 to 150 student teachers per year for a total of more than 500 trainees. Since the first version of the course, which was entirely based on a face-to-face approach, computer mediated collaborative learning techniques have gradually been introduced into the training program. The paper outlines the main problems faced in the various versions of the course, where different combinations were experimented with, and discusses the solutions adopted. The difficulties concern the demands of a large, diversified population and the methodological problems related to the non-neutrality of the introduction of online learning in the socio-cultural and organizational context of the study. The solutions include a highly flexible course design and a good balance and strict integration between traditional and online training techniques in the delivery of the course and in the assessment of trainees. Finally, we suggest possible directions for further research aimed at facilitating the infusion of online techniques in initial teacher training.


Delialioglu, Omer (2005).  Investigation of Source of Motivation in a Hybrid Course  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

The current study investigated the sources of motivation for learning in a hybrid course. The subjects of the study were 25 students taking a hybrid course that was designed and developed covering computer networks topics. An interview form that revealed answers about the motivation source of the students was developed and used in the study. One on one interviews were made with the students. Students' answers to the questions were recorded and transcribed. The interview data for the students were analyzed by content analysis. Students' responses were interpreted and categorized into two types of motivation, extrinsic and intrinsic. Results indicated that intrinsic motivation and internally rewarded learning is the key element of web based instruction and hybrid courses. Interviews revealed that students with extrinsic motivation are more prone to loosing motivation. It was seen that some students in the hybrid course with extrinsic motivation lost their motivation and will to learn easily by external factors, and were frustrated by the course content. On the other hand, students with internal motivation were more aware of objectives of the course and had the ability to plan and evaluate their own learning. An in depth analysis of students' sources of motivation in a hybrid course on computer networks revealed that intrinsic motivation plays a more important role than extrinsic motivation does. | [FULL TEXT]


DeLisse, Regina L. (2000).  Rationale for Computer Ethics Policies and a Model Policy for the North Carolina Community College System. 

This study addresses new concerns of higher education organizational leaders as a result of the extended use of information technology on college campuses. Some of the most important and controversial issues include ethical and legal matters such as privacy, freedom of speech, intellectual property, and legislative attempts for Internet regulation. A survey of community college administrators and system administrators in the North Carolina Community College System was conducted. This survey was designed to explore the extent to which various unethical or antisocial incidents have occurred in computer labs or elsewhere on the campuses, and to solicit input in the development of computer ethics policies and an ethical instruction plan. Twenty-four out of the 58 invited system administrators participated in the survey (response rate 41%). Survey findings support implementing ethics instruction on campus. A model computer ethics policy and accompanying instructional plan is presented with this study as a practical solution to technology-induced dilemmas for organizational leaders within higher education. This document also reviews perspectives on ethics and computer ethics. Behavioral theories, particularly the Theory of Deindividualization, are highlighted to illuminate underlying assumptions and behavioral intentions of computer users and are used to develop a set of computer ethics policies and procedures. | [FULL TEXT]


Dell, Amy G., Ed. (2002).  TECH-NJ, 2000-2002. 

These three issues of "TECH-NJ" from 2000 to 2002 focus on technology and children with disabilities in New Jersey. The issues address how technology can support language development and people with learning disabilities, and technology tools that support reading. Featured articles include: (1) "Adaptive Technology Center for New Jersey Colleges at the College of New Jersey"; (2) "Making It Happen: Integrating Computers into an Elementary Reading Program" (Sharon Goldberg); (3) "AlphaSmart a Success in Inclusive Classroom" (Kavita Tanega); (4) "Can We Talk? Software for Language Development" (Susan Kelley-Smith); (5) "Adaptive Technology Center for New Jersey Colleges: 2001 Update" (Amy G. Dell); (6) "Using Technology To Foster Independent Writing in Students with Learning Disabilities" (Karen Pike); (7) "Computers in Art Class Bring Success to Students with Learning Disabilities" (Janet Friedman); (8) "Know Your Rights: Know the Procedures To Follow" (Amy G. Dell), which discusses the rights of school-aged children and college students with disabilities for support services and accommodations; (9) "Scan/Read Systems: Powerful Technology To Support Reading"; (10) "College Student Combines Motivation and Technology To Succeed" (Wolf Shipon); and (11) "Laptop System Provides a Voice and Access to Curriculum for 8-Year-Old" (Lisa Howarth). Each issue also includes reviews of computer software. | [FULL TEXT]


DeLoach, Stephen B.; Greenlaw, Steven A. (2007).  Effectively Moderating Electronic Discussions  Journal of Economic Education, 38, 4. 

Although instructors are increasingly using electronic discussions with both traditional and online classes, little has been written about how to best moderate these discussions. Moderating online discussions requires tremendous skill. As with in-class discussions, the primary goal of the moderator is to ensure that the discussion continually makes progress toward more advanced critical thinking. Because of this, moderator comments should be limited to helping students make the transitions associated with increasing cognitive complexity rather than leading them to predetermined answers. Building on the existing literature on both in-class and online discussions to teach critical thinking, the authors develop concrete strategies that can be used to make discussions more productive.


de Mestre, Neville (2004).  Laboratory Mathematics  Australian Mathematics Teacher, 61, 1. 

Computers were invented to help mathematicians perform long and complicated calculations more efficiently. By the time that a computing area became a familiar space in primary and secondary schools, the initial motivation for computer use had been submerged in the many other functions that modern computers now accomplish. Not only the mathematics department used computers, but every other discipline insisted on access for word processing, data storage and retrieval, and the Internet. In fact, many mathematics departments decided not to compete with other departments for use of the computer laboratory, and shifted to an emphasis on programmable calculators which were cheaper for every student to obtain and easier to carry to wherever they were needed by the class or at home. | [FULL TEXT]


Demana, Franklin (2000).  Using Technology To Prepare All Students for Success in Algebra. 

This paper discusses uses of TI-73 graphing calculators for middle school mathematics students. It indicates that with the appropriate use of the TI-73, students can develop understanding about variables and basic concepts of algebra, and explore mathematical topics. Background on middle school students' difficulties with those subjects is provided along with examples of teaching some middle school mathematics concepts with the TI-73 such as order of operations, solving equations, and variables. | [FULL TEXT]


Demb, Ada; Erickson, Darlene; Hawkins-Wilding, Shane (2004).  The Laptop Alternative: Student Reactions and Strategic Implications  Computers and Education, 43, 4. 

Designing the technology infrastructure for a college or university is a strategic decision that affects the quality of the educational experience for both students and faculty, and influences an institution's image and its ability to attract students. This article reports the results of survey research which explored student reactions to a campus-wide laptop initiative at a small liberal arts institution. Student perceptions of the value of the laptop are examined in seven contexts: academic success, study habits, faculty utilization, the development of a learning community, personal use, future plans and cost. The results broaden our understanding of the relationship between technology and learning and will assist institutional decision-makers as they evaluate technology options.


Demetriadis, S. N.; Papadopoulos, P. M.; Stamelos, I. G.; Fischer, F. (2008).  The Effect of Scaffolding Students' Context-Generating Cognitive Activity in Technology-Enhanced Case-Based Learning  Computers & Education, 51, 2. 

This study investigates the hypothesis that students' learning and problem-solving performance in ill-structured domains can be improved, if elaborative question prompts are used to activate students' context-generating cognitive processes, during case study. Two groups of students used a web-based learning environment to criss-cross and study case-based material in the software project management domain. The experimental group was additionally prompted to consistently answer a set of questions based on a model of context-generating processes, meant to engage students in deeper processing of information presented in cases. Students were also classified as having either "complex" or "simple" EB profile (based on their epistemological beliefs record), thereby establishing a 2x2 factorial design. Results indicated that scaffolding treatment had a significant main effect on students' performance, with the experimental group performing better in both domain knowledge acquisition and knowledge transfer post-test items. There is also tentative indication that EB profile and scaffolding treatment interact, with complex-EB learners benefiting most from the scaffolded condition. Overall, the study provides evidence that it is possible to improve individual learning in a technology environment for case-based learning, by implementing appropriate questioning strategies that trigger students to activate their context-generating cognitive processes, while studying the contextually rich material of cases.


Demetriadis, S.; Barbas, A.; Molohides, A.; Palaigeorgiou, G.; Psillos, D.; Vlahavas, I.; Tsoukalas, I.; Pombortsis, A. (2003).  "Cultures in Negotiation": Teachers' Acceptance/Resistance Attitudes Considering the Infusion of Technology into Schools  Computers & Education, 41, 1. 

A teachers' training project, employing teacher-mentored in-school training approach, has been recently initiated in Greek secondary education for the introduction of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into the classroom. Data resulting from this project indicate that although teachers express considerable interest in learning how to use technology they need consistent support and extensive training in order to consider themselves able for integrating it into their instructional practice. Teachers are interested in using ICT (1) to attain a better professional profile, and (2) to take advantage of any possible learning benefits offered by ICT but always in the context of the school culture. They are willing to explore open and communicative modes of ICT-based teaching whenever school objectives permit, otherwise they appear to cautiously adapt the use of ICT to the traditional teacher-centered mode of teaching (strongly connected to the established student examination system). Teachers' attitude to adapt ICT mode of use is supported by research evidence that emphasize the situational character of knowledge and expertise. Authors discuss the view that introducing ICT into schools can be understood as initiating a "negotiation" process between cultures and the way that technological tools are used reflects school "single context" epistemological stance.


Demir, Kamile (2006).  School Management Information Systems in Primary Schools  [Online Submission] 

Developments in information technologies have been impacting upon educational organizations. Principals have been using management information systems to improve the efficiency of administrative services. The aim of this research is to explore principals' perceptions about management information systems and how school management information systems are used in primary schools. The respondents of this study were 98 elementary school principals in Edirne. Data were gathered using a five-part questionnaire. The first part collected demographic information about respondents. The others had statements about school management information systems. The data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation. Results indicated that although technologic infrastructures of elementary schools are insufficient, school management information systems have an important contribution to school management.  [Abstract included in Turkish.] | [FULL TEXT]


Demiraslan, Yasemin (2008).  Investigating the Propriety of a Science and Technology Curriculum in Turkiye  [Online Submission] 

The purpose of this paper is analyzing the new Science and Technology curriculum, which was declared as the new primary school curriculum in August 2004 by Turkish Minister of Education (MoE), based on Posner's (2004) curriculum analysis framework. The written curriculum was examined and the findings were supported with a variety of resources including online newspaper articles regarding with the scope and implementation of the new curriculum in Turkiye, critiques of some educational organizations and forum discussions of teachers. After stating the strengths and weaknesses of the curriculum, some suggestions that are important for the curriculum to be implemented effectively were recommended. [Abstract modified to meet ERIC guidelines.] | [FULL TEXT]


Demiray, Ugur; Nagy, Judy; Yilmaz, R. Ayhan (2007).  Strategies for the Marketing of Higher Education with Comparative Contextual References between Australia and Turkey  [Online Submission] 

Education is now a global product with institutions worldwide competing for students and finding ever more creative ways to satisfy student needs and preferences. With the continuing rise in the preference for flexible distance learning, educational institutions are finding that when students and faculty have significantly different cultural backgrounds and learning styles that the expectations of the learning experience can be unfulfilled. In Australia, international students have made education Australia's third largest service export, earning $5.8 billion. This means that student populations have moved from being homogeneous and captive to domestic constraints and expectations, to being multi-cultural, dispersed and subject to a plethora of constraints and expectations. Today in Turkey, education is the responsibility of government however, in recent years, the private sector has entered the market providing educational services at all levels. In particular, after the 1990s, private higher education institutions (HEIs) with a commercial focus have mushroomed. In 2007, there are 25 private universities in Turkey with more than 2.000.000 students enrolled in these universities. Of these students, more than 1.000.000 are registered in distance education faculties. With such large student numbers competition between private universities for students has intensified particularly over the last 15 years. As a consequence the need to develop strategies for attracting students has become more important. Marketing strategies in Turkey have tended to concentrate on three distinct categories: strategies between governmental HEIs, private HEIs and distance education HEIs. The contribution of technologies to education processes has been immense with students and faculty each learning to adapt to an environment of continuous change and opportunities. This paper seeks to explore the notion that a competitive advantage in marketing of higher education can be attained by customizing learning experiences for particular student cohorts in a pro-active and constructive way. | [FULL TEXT]


Demirbilek, Muhammet; Tozoglu, Dogan; Varank, Ilhan (2001).  Comparing Different Genres of the Internet in Education. 

If technology is to be integrated into schools successfully, then teachers must understand that instructional technology is not just hardware or software, but rather a process and/or approach to teaching and learning. There are many benefits of and barriers to using technology in teaching. First, with the use of technology, the lesson can be adapted to accommodate special needs students. Technology helps the teacher individualize the lesson to meet all students' needs. Second, technology also helps make learning meaningful. Through the use of technology, learning can be presented in a novel and creative way. When students take personal interest in a topic, they begin to take ownership of their newly acquired knowledge. Even though the Internet has many benefits, it also has weaknesses with the use of technology. This study is a review of different genres of online educational tools and is aimed at elucidating the purposes, benefits, and barriers of using different Internet genres.   | [FULL TEXT]


Demirdogen, R. Esra (2007).  Synergistic Relation between Global Education Infrastructure and Global Information Society  [Online Submission] 

This paper is about a study, which has been carried out at a chemical production facility in Izmir, Turkey during the spring of 2006 using Participatory Action Research process in a training course exploiting Learning Management System. The system has been tested with 12 chemists working in this factory. The technical training course was carried on in a web-based environment and also routine meetings with the instructors were provided. While for one of the two test groups was expected to deal with problems encountered in the work-place as abstracts problems the other group was expected to bring solutions to the same problems in the factory production line. It was observed that the achievement of both groups was the same, but the work skill of the latter group was better. Hence, it can be concluded that the modes and methods used in education impact competencies of individuals and hence the society.  | [FULL TEXT]


Demirdogen, R. Esra (2007).  Continuous Advances in Technology for Continuing Adult Learning  [Online Submission] 

This paper is about a study carried out at a chemical production facility in Izmir, Turkey during 2005/6 using CNC Learning environment and Kolb cycle. The system has been tested with 12 chemists working in this factory. The training course was carried on in a web-based environment and also routine meetings with the instructors were held. The target was to increase competency and compatibility to new technological advances through creating a continuous learning and experimenting environment for all faculty members and especially for adults. It was observed that this method of learning and training was successful in enabling individuals at any age to become informed, capable and creative enough to cope with the demands of new economy and era. Hence, it can be concluded that using an CNC environment for LLL with a collaborative tool advances the performance and efficiency.  | [FULL TEXT]


Drenoyianni, Helen (2006).  ICT in Education: The Opportunity for Democratic Schools?  European Journal of Vocational Training, 3, 39. 

What is the future of schools and what is the role of ICT in this future? To some of us, ICTs are emblematic of contemporary discussions about educational reform; their incorporation into education offers significant improvement to the overall quality of education our children receive. For others, this improvement cannot be realised under current educational conditions. For the liberating, dynamic and emancipatory capacities of ICT use to grow, we need a different terrain, suited to a human and democratic vision for education. This article attempts to examine these two perspectives in the context of facts, figures and stories from the reality of classrooms, and to raise critical arguments about the potential role of ICT in education.


Drent, Marjolein; Meelissen, Martina (2008).  Which Factors Obstruct or Stimulate Teacher Educators to Use ICT Innovatively?  Computers & Education, 51, 1. 

This article discusses the factors which stimulate or limit the innovative use of ICT by teacher educators in the Netherlands. Innovative use of ICT is defined as the use of ICT applications that support the educational objectives based on the needs of the current knowledge society. Explorative path analysis and case studies were used to study the potential influencing factors. Results show that several factors on teacher level influence the implementation of innovative ICT-use in education. Especially, teachers who are so-called "personal entrepreneurs" are important for the integration of ICT in teacher education. School level factors turn out to be of limited importance for innovative use of ICT. This indicates a limited involvement of the management of teacher training institutes towards the use of ICT within the curriculum.


Dressman, Michael R. (2007).  The History of the English Language Course: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach to the Humanities  Arts and Humanities in Higher Education: An International Journal of Theory

The study of the history of the English language can help students become aware of major issues in several academic fields, including history, literature, political science, anthropology, communication, economics, the Arts, and, of course, languages and linguistics. Even though instructors may not have an especially broad background in the Humanities, the students themselves bring their own set of interests to the course. The students' curiosity for their already existing interests can be exploited to broaden the course and to help them see connections between methodologies and subjects. With carefully designed assignments--perhaps using the assistance of colleagues in other fields--an instructor can make a course in the history of the English language a catalyst for learning in a variety of academic areas.


Drew, Sue; Thorpe, Louise (2006).  Factors Affecting Students' Usage and Perceptions of a Generic Intranet Learning Resource: Models of Use  Innovations in Education & Teaching International, 43, 4. 

The Key to Key Skills Project made portable to other universities an intranet system, developed at Leeds Metropolitan University, to support students' Key Skills. The system was piloted and evaluated in three partner institutions (Sheffield Hallam University, Leeds Metropolitan University and the University of Plymouth). The evaluation revealed that how the system was introduced, rather than demographic or course factors, affected students' usage and perceptions of it.


Dreyer, Carisma; Nel, Charl (2003).  Teaching Reading Strategies and Reading Comprehension Within a Technology-Enhanced Learning Environment.  System, 31, 3. 

Many South African students who enroll in higher education are underprepared and have low reading ability. Outlines the reading strategic component of an English for professional purposes course offered for such students in a technology-enhanced environment. Results indicate that students who received strategic reading instruction received higher marks on reading comprehension measures than students in a control group.


Duncan, John; Wallace, Mary K. (2002).  Assessing Online Technology: Edutainment or Desktop-Rubbishing.  Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 44, 1. 

Problems in the assessment of online courses relate to decisions about what types of delivery systems are most effective and relevant to which learning styles. Other issues include the commodification of distance education and the fact that most research investigates a specific course in general terms.


Dunlap, Craig George (2002).  Effective Technology Integration: A Plan for Professional Development. 

Is educational technology effective in increasing student learning? If technology is an effective tool in the classroom, how can teachers best be trained to use it appropriately? An experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a constructivist math class utilizing computer technology as well as other tools. The study occurred in a Christian school in Northern Kentucky using 51 sixth grade students. One class comprised the control group, with math instruction that differed little from the traditional background of the school. The other class was the experimental group, which used the Internet, spreadsheets, word processors, and measuring devices to learn in a hands-on environment. Two math units were used in the 6-week study. A one-way ANOVA test showed no significant difference in the first unit scores. The one-way ANOVA test of the second unit showed a significant difference in favor of the control group. Despite these results, the researcher was not discouraged, primarily because chi-square tests of a survey given to students in the experimental group overwhelmingly showed positive motivation in math during the study. Appendices include instructions for group activities and a copy of the student survey.   | [FULL TEXT]


Dunlap, Cynthia; Ramsay, Priscilla (2005).  National Education Summit--Connecting for Change  T.H.E. Journal, 33, 5. 

How can technology in education affect the workforce and economic development? What kind of leadership will it take to align learning and technology in the 21st century? Can we bridge the gap between education reform, technology, and No Child Left Behind requirements simultaneously? The answers to these and many other related questions were examined at the National Education Summit on Leadership, Learning, and Technology for the 21st Century, held in Brewster, MA, on Cape Cod, from Oct. 6-8. The purpose of this second annual summit was to bring together a diverse mix of the best and brightest education and technology leaders to discuss the challenges facing U.S. educators and academic institutions. In a collaborative partnership, the summit was hosted by CELT Corp., the Council of Chief State School Officers, and the Education Commission of the States, and was facilitated by EduStrategies. In this article, the authors list the major host organizations and the state and district participants at the 2005 National Education Summit, and discuss a number of issues, comments, and concerns that were shared by summit participants during both the plenary and breakout sessions.


Dunlap, Joanna C. (2004).  The Web Resource Collaboration Center  TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 48, 2. 

The Web Resource Collaboration Center (WRCC) is a web-based tool developed to help software engineers build their own web-based learning and performance support systems. Designed using various online communication and collaboration technologies, the WRCC enables people to: (1) build a learning and professional development resource that provides them with immediate support and guidance; (2) develop structure, strategies and skills for subsequent learning and professional development activities; (3) strengthen their ties to the larger communities of practice in the domain while building a local learning community: and (4) take responsibility for creating original resources that support their learning and the learning of other members of the larger and local communities of practice. This article describes the WRCC, the situation that led to its development and the foundations on which it was developed.


Dunlap, Joanna C. (2005).  Problem-Based Learning and Self-Efficacy: How a Capstone Course Prepares Students for a Profession  Educational Technology Research and Development, 53, 1. 

Problem-based learning (PBL) is apprenticeship for real-life problem solving, helping students acquire the knowledge and skills required in the workplace. Although the acquisition of knowledge and skills makes it possible for performance to occur, without self-efficacy the performance may not even be attempted. I examined how student self-efficacy, as it relates to being software development professionals, changed while involved in a PBL environment. Thirty-one undergraduate university computer science students completed a 16-week capstone course in software engineering during their final semester prior to graduation. Specific instructional strategies used in PBL--namely the use of authentic problems of practice, collaboration, and reflection--are presented as the catalyst for students' improved self-efficacy. Using a self-efficacy scale as pre- and post-measures, and guided journal entries as process data, students were observed to increase their levels of self-efficacy.


Dunlap, Joanna C. (2005).  Workload Reduction in Online Courses: Getting Some Shuteye  Performance Improvement, 44, 5. 

Instructors are a key component of any successful facilitated, asynchronous online course. They are tasked with providing the infrastructure for learning; modeling effective participation, collaboration, and learning strategies; monitoring and assessing learning and providing feedback, remediation, and grades; troubleshooting and resolving instructional, interpersonal, and technical problems; and creating a learning community in which learners feel safe and connected. Accomplishing these objectives is labor and time intensive, often requiring instructors to be constantly online. Besides being impractical, this can lead to questionable instructional quality and eventual instructor burnout. Fortunately, there are instructional strategies that can help achieve instructor presence without requiring that an instructor be online all the time: course orientation and management; assessment of learners during online activities; and discussion facilitation and management. These strategies not only help instructors manage their time without overly increasing learners' workload, but also enhance the learning and overall online course experience for everyone involved.


Dunlap, Joanna C.; Sobel, Donna; Sands, Deanna I. (2007).  Supporting Students' Cognitive Processing in Online Courses: Designing for Deep and Meaningful Student-to-Content Interactions  TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 51, 4. 

Online education has skyrocketed in popularity. Every year, more universities are starting online programs. This increase is mostly due to institutional economics, and the demands of students who face a number of obstacles that make the on-campus format inconvenient. The University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center is no different. Over the last few years, there have been numerous institutional initiatives to encourage faculty to create new online programs or online versions of existing on-campus programs. As part of a program level effort to offer a fully online licensure program in the area of special education that would meet the growing statewide demand, the authors were charged to create an online version of the "Instructional Strategies for Students with Severe Needs" course. As part of a professional preparation program, this course is a methods course designed to prepare pre-service teachers to work with students who have significant support needs. The purpose of the course is twofold: (a) to promote the acquisition of knowledge and skill in service provision for children and youth who have a range of "low incidence disabilities," including severe and multiple disabilities; and (b) to support pre-service teachers' evolvement into empathetic, self-aware, socially conscious educators. This article describes two important steps in their design process: (1) Determining appropriate strategies for supporting deep and meaningful student-to-content interactions; and (2) structuring student-to-content interactions within professionally relevant problems.


Dunleavy, Katie Neary; Martin, Matthew M.; Brann, Maria; Booth-Butterfield, Melanie; Myers, Scott A.; Weber, Keith (2008).  Student Nagging Behavior in the College Classroom  Communication Education, 57, 1. 

Nagging is a persuasive tactic yet to be fully explored in instructional communication. Nagging involves an exchange in which a student makes persistent requests of an instructor who fails to comply. The purpose of the study was to examine student nagging behavior and, specifically, to examine nagging as a potentially face threatening act as part of Politeness Theory. Students (n=189) described a nagging exchange with an instructor by reporting on one of eight nagging strategies. Nagging is threatening to the positive and negative face of both students and instructors, with the Elicit Sympathy nag the most threatening to the students' positive face, and the Demonstrate Frustration with the Instructor nag the most threatening to the instructors' positive face. The Strike a Deal nag was found to be the most threatening to the students' negative face, and the Flatter Instructor nag the most threatening to the instructors' negative face. The majority of these face threatening acts are committed off record, or indirectly, and with a degree of ambiguity.


Dunleavy, Matt; Dexter, S.; Heinecke, W. F. (2007).  What Added Value Does a 1:1 Student to Laptop Ratio Bring to Technology-Supported Teaching and Learning?  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 23, 5. 

The purpose of this study was to document typical use and configuration of 1:1 computing in two schools focusing on the added value and unique challenges these uses present. A qualitative case study design was used in two middle schools (sixth, seventh and eighth grade) in the south-eastern United States purposefully selected for their 1:1 computing programmes. Data were collected through formal and informal interviews, direct observations and site documents. Results indicated that online research, productivity tools, drill and practice, and eCommunications were the most frequent uses of computers in the 1:1 classroom. Moreover, the 1:1 classroom provided potentially transformative added value to these uses while simultaneously presenting unique management challenges to the teacher. In addition, the presence of 1:1 laptops did not automatically add value and their high financial costs underscore the need to provide teachers with high-quality professional development to ensure effective teaching. In order to create effective learning environments, teachers need opportunities to learn what instruction and assessment practices, curricular resources and classroom management skills work best in a 1:1 student to networked laptop classroom setting. Finally, researchers documented wide variation in fidelity to 1:1 computing, which suggests the need for further research exploring the conditions under which this variation exists.


Dunleavy, Matt; Heinecke, Walter F. (2008).  The Impact of 1:1 Laptop Use on Middle School Math and Science Standardized Test Scores  Computers in the Schools, 24, 3-4. 

Researchers and evaluators have been attempting to document the impact of ubiquitous or 1:1 computing on students, teachers, schools, and communities. However, the most recent reviews of research on 1:1 computing initiatives reflect a dearth of rigorous studies and emphasize the need for well-designed, scientifically based research to measure the impact of 1:1 learning on student achievement. This study investigates the effect of 1:1 laptop to student ratios on math and science achievement in at-risk middle school students. The researchers used a pretest-posttest control-group design. The findings are based on between-groups analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) of longitudinal data comparing standardized achievement test scores. The researchers compared the test scores of students randomly assigned to 1:1 laptop classrooms with the test scores of students in classrooms without 1:1 laptops in the same middle school. Students were exposed to the treatment for two years and the authors used the students as the unit of analysis. Pre-existing achievement scores for each student were included as a covariate to statistically equate groups previous to analysis. Results showed significant post-intervention program effects for science achievement. Furthermore, there was a gender effect in science achievement, with boys significantly outperforming girls in the same 1:1 laptop classroom. In contrast, no significant program effects for math achievement were obtained. The results suggest that 1:1 laptop instruction can increase student achievement under certain conditions. This study has implications for policymakers, instructional designers, and educators who are currently implementing a 1:1 laptop program or considering such an implementation. The authors suggest the need for further research to help determine the efficacy of 1:1 laptop instruction and the implementation conditions necessary for increased student achievement in this context.


Dunn, Peter (2008).  Building-In Quality Rather than Assessing Quality Afterwards: A Technological Solution to Ensuring Computational Accuracy in Learning Materials  Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 27, 1. 

Quality encompasses a very broad range of ideas in learning materials, yet the accuracy of the content is often overlooked as a measure of quality. Various aspects of accuracy are briefly considered, and the issue of computational accuracy is then considered further. When learning materials are produced containing the results of mathematical computations, accuracy is essential: but how can the results of these computations be known to be correct? A solution is to embed the "instructions" for performing the calculations in the materials, and let the computer calculate the result and place it in the text. In this way, quality is built into the learning materials by design, not evaluated after the event. This is all accomplished using the ideas of literate programming, applied to the learning materials context. A small example demonstrates how remarkably easy the ideas are to apply in practice using the appropriate technology. Given the technology is available and is easy to use, it would seem imperative the approach discussed is adopted to improve quality in learning materials containing computational results.


Dunn, Peter K.; Harman, Chris (2002).  Calculus Demonstrations Using MATLAB  International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 33, 4. 

The note discusses ways in which technology can be used in the calculus learning process. In particular, five MATLAB programs are detailed for use by instructors or students that demonstrate important concepts in introductory calculus: Newton's method, differentiation and integration. Two of the programs are animated. The programs and the graphical user interface have been specifically designed to help the student understand the processes behind these important introductory concepts. Each program has a series of demonstrations that show unusual, difficult or important cases.


Dunn, Sharon Elise (2000).  Technology: Where Is It Taking Us? A "Writing" Perspective.  Montessori Life, 12, 1. 

Examined the positive and negative aspects of using computers to teach writing within a context of intensive teacher and peer feedback and support for fifth- and sixth- year Montessori students. Found that technology enhanced the writing process for creative, collaborative work and for peer response and editing.


Dunnivant, Frank; Danowski, Dan; Timmens-Haroldson, Alice; Newman, Meredith (2002).  EnviroLand: A Simple Computer Program for Quantitative Stream Assessment.  American Biology Teacher, 64, 8. 

Introduces the Enviroland computer program which features lab simulations of theoretical calculations for quantitative analysis and environmental chemistry, and fate and transport models. Uses the program to demonstrate the nature of linear and nonlinear equations.


Dunsmuir, Sandra; Clifford, Vivienne (2003).  Children's Writing and the Use of Information and Communications Technology  Educational Psychology in Practice, 19, 3. 

This paper outlines issues around learning to write and considers the range of difficulties children may experience. The role of Information and Communications Technology in facilitating writing development is considered. Software applications that can be used to support aspects of the writing process and target teaching are outlined. Criteria for evaluation of existing products and the implications for practice in educational psychology are discussed.


Dunsworth, Qi; Atkinson, Robert K. (2007).  Fostering Multimedia Learning of Science: Exploring the Role of an Animated Agent's Image  Computers & Education, 49, 3. 

Research suggests that students learn better when studying a picture coupled with narration rather than on-screen text in a computer-based multimedia learning environment. Moreover, combining narration with the visual presence of an animated pedagogical agent may also encourage students to process information deeper than narration or on-screen text alone. The current study was designed to evaluate three effects among students learning about the human cardiovascular system: the modality effect (narration vs. on-screen text), the embodied agent effect (narration + agent vs. on-screen text), and the image effect (narration + agent vs. narration). The results of this study document large and significant embodied agent and image effects on the posttest (particularly retention items) but surprisingly no modality effect was found. Overall, the results suggest that incorporating an animated pedagogical agent--programmed to coordinate narration with gaze and pointing--into a science-focused multimedia learning environment can foster learning.


_____.  Descriptors: Grade 4; Graduate Students; Student Attitudes; Information Science; Mathematics; Educational Technology; Computer Science Education; Questionnaires; Relevance 

The main purpose of this study is to identify the levels of the necessity and applicability of the courses offered in the Departments of Computer Education and Instructional Technologies based on the views of the fourth grade and graduated students. In the study descriptive research model was used. The population of the study were final-year and graduated students in the departments of computer education and instructional technologies, which were established within the faculties of education. The sample were randomly selected from fourth grade and graduate students. As an assessment tool, a questionnaire was used in data collection. In analyzing data, arithmetic mean and standard deviation were calculated and t test was used to test if there was a significant difference among variables. According to the results of the study, pedagogical formation courses, informatics and informatics education application courses were found as the most necessary courses for the branch. The least necessary courses were science and mathematics courses.  | [FULL TEXT]


De Simone, Christina (2006).  Preparing Our Teachers for Distance Education  College Teaching, 54, 1. 

Much of the focus in the distance education (DE) literature centers around the learner and learning, almost to the exclusion of the teacher and teaching. Consequently, instructors of DE courses have been left suspended in virtual space. This article focuses on the teachers' position in the DE course content, especially with respect to the type of training they receive. An example of an alternate mode of teacher preparation is presented and suggestions for improvement in DE teacher training are discussed.


De Simone, Christina (2007).  Applications of Concept Mapping  College Teaching, 55, 1. 

This article reviews three major uses of the concept-mapping strategies for postsecondary learning: the external representation of concept maps as an external scratch pad to represent major ideas and their organization, the mental construction of concept maps when students are seeking a time-efficient tool, and the electronic construction and exchange of concept maps between learners when the goal is to diversify ideas and gain new insights. A discussion is presented of the benefits and limitations of each of these uses of concept mapping.


De Simone, Christina; Schmid, Richard F.; McEwen, Laura A. (2001).  Supporting the Learning Process with Collaborative Concept Mapping Using Computer-based Communication Tools and Processes.  Educational Research and Evaluation: An International Journal on Theory and Practice, 7, 2-3. 

Studied the effects of a combination of student collaboration, concept mapping, and electronic technologies with 26 students in a graduate level learning theories class. Findings suggest that concept mapping and collaborative learning techniques complement each other, and that students found the combined approach useful.


De Smet, Marijke; Van Keer, Hilde; Valcke, Martin (2008).  Blending Asynchronous Discussion Groups and Peer Tutoring in Higher Education: An Exploratory Study of Online Peer Tutoring Behaviour  Computers & Education, 50, 1. 

In the present study cross-age peer tutoring was implemented in a higher education context. Fourth-year students (N=39) operated as online tutors to support freshmen in discussing cases and solving authentic problems. This study contributes to a better understanding of the supportive interventions of tutors in asynchronous discussion groups. Peer tutor interventions were studied by means of a content analysis scheme based on the e-moderating model of Salmon [Salmon, G. (2000). A model for CMC in education and training. E-moderating. The key to teaching and learning online. London: Kogan Page]. The descriptive results reveal that the type of tutor activities varies over the consecutive discussion themes. No evidence was however found for a significant evolution from introductory and social talk to contributions eliciting cognitive processing and critical thinking along the themes. Tutors' social support seems to be of continuous importance. Further, cluster analysis resulted in a classification of the tutors into three different subtypes or tutor styles ("motivators", "informers" and "knowledge constructors"), which was interpreted as confirmation of Tutor-dependent online peer tutoring behaviour.


Desjarlais, Malinda; Willoughby, Teena (2007).  Supporting Learners with Low Domain Knowledge when Using the Internet  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 37, 1. 

Having low domain knowledge is a significant constraint when using the Internet. This study examined the effectiveness of three potential supports for learners with low domain knowledge, including having plenty of time to search the Internet, using notes taken during the search when writing an essay about the topic, and having high levels of motivation to use the Internet. Sixty undergraduate students were randomly assigned to: a) search the Internet for 60 minutes prior to writing an essay with notes present; b) search the Internet for 60 minutes prior to writing an essay without notes present; or c) write an essay with no prior search of the Internet. Participants completed two essays, one in a high knowledge domain and another in a low knowledge domain. Searching the Internet facilitated learning regardless of domain knowledge. The significant support for low domain knowledge was providing plenty of time to search the Internet.


Desouza, Romualdo T.; McClean, Cheryl L.; Berger, Paulette (2008).  Changing the Education System with CALM: Computer Assisted Learning Method  Phi Delta Kappan, 89, 7. 

Over the past decade, at both the university and high school levels, chemistry instructors have become keenly aware of an increasing number of students who are proving to be unable to solve complex problems. Today's students have grown up with technology, and most would prefer to do their homework using a digital tool rather than pencil and paper. Those students who do try to work out pencil-and-paper problems can become easily frustrated if they encounter difficulties and are unable to get immediate, useful feedback. In this article, the authors introduce a novel online learning tool called CALM (Computer Assisted Learning Method). CALM was originally intended for use in a university setting. Its adoption in high schools provides a good example of the kind of cross-level cooperation that a P-16 system would make possible.


de Boer, W. F.; Fisser, P. H. G. (2002).  Best Practices Experiences: Successful Use of Electronic Learning Environments. 

Two popular learning environments, TeleTOP and Blackboard, are implemented for specific educational contexts in many universities and other institutions. The goal is to increase the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in education, particularly network technology or Web-based systems. These electronic learning environments do not seem to differ a lot in functionalities and use. Also, the problems that instructors have to deal with are similar. Instructors must learn how to work with these new tools, and discover how they effect their education. Based on two similar "best practice days" the successful experiences with functionalities offered and functionalities used by the instructors are described, and outcomes are presented. Instructors can make education flexible (in time and place) for students, but should be aware of time consuming activities that cause dissatisfaction and frustration. The target should be that students should benefit from the added value of electronic learning environments, that functionalities are useful for the students and that the use is consistent. | [FULL TEXT]


De Bra, Paul; Aerts, Ad; Smits, David; Stash, Natalia (2002).  AHA! Version 2.0: More Adaptation Flexibility for Authors. 

AHA! is a simple Web-based adaptive hypermedia system. Because of this simplicity it has been studied and experimented with in several research groups. This paper identifies shortcomings in AHA! and presents AHA! version 2.0 which tries to overcome the known problems with AHA! while maintaining its biggest asset: simplicity. The paper illustrates how different user modeling and adaptation aspects can be expressed in the new AHA! system, features that would be difficult in the old system, and impossible in most other systems. Discussion highlights include: introduction and background on the development of the AHA! system; the domain model/ adaptation model in AHA! version 2.0; user model in AHA! version 2.0; document (page) formats; examples of AHA! applications; and future work. 


de Bruyn, Lisa Lobry (2004).  Monitoring Online Communication: Can the Development of Convergence and Social Presence Indicate an Interactive Learning Environment?  Distance Education, 25, 1. 

More units of study are being offered flexibly, using distance education and online facilities, as a consequence of recent educational developments in higher education, with learner expectations of being able to study when they like and where they like, as well as increasing class enrolments and more students studying remotely or part-time. However, the quality of the learning experience and the efficacy of placing learning activities that require student interaction and discourse in an online environment have been questioned. The concerns raised by educators regarding placing learning activities online are often about the types of learning environments that are being created and the tools available to support student communication in a virtual learning environment. Asynchronous computer-mediated communication is one means of allowing students to communicate independently of time and place, and to communicate questions, opinions and queries when transferring interactive learning activities to an online environment. The use of threaded, online discussions that allow asynchronous communication has been criticised for not producing the perceived benefits for learners and educators. This paper assesses the use of asynchronous computer-mediated communication and the degree of convergence and level of social presence as indicators of developing highly responsive and interactive learning environments in the context of an inquiry-based learning activity, using a case study approach with problem solving and self-directed research.


de Byl, Penny; Taylor, Janet (2007).  A Web 2.0/Web3D Hybrid Platform for Engaging Students in e-Learning Environments  [Online Submission] 

This paper explores the Web 2.0 ethos with respect to the application of pedagogy within 3D online virtual environments. 3D worlds can create a synthetic experience capturing the essence of "being" in a particular world or context. The AliveX3D platform adopts the Web 2.0 ethos and applies it to online 3D virtual environment forming a Web 2.0/Web3D hybrid that has wider usability than previous alternatives. This combined with the AliveX3D Scene Editor allows learning experiences, which are controlled by the learner, appear authentic and facilitate collaboration conversations to be developed simultaneously. This immersion enables learners to negotiate meaning based on their own personal cognitive, affective and kinaesthetic experiences rather than on the descriptions of others' experiences. We conclude by suggesting the choices embedded within the worlds allow the learning focus to shift away from isolated pre-designed interactions, to a situation that encourages the learner to control, manage and direct their own learning.  | [FULL TEXT]


DeBard, Robert; Guidera, Stan (2000).  Adapting Asynchronous Communication To Meet the Seven Principles of Effective Teaching.  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 28, 3. 

Proposes that asynchronous communication via email, course Web pages, and the Internet can be adapted to meet the seven principles of effective teaching as well as enhance student outcomes. Considers problems associated with asynchronous learning, including access to computers; and presents strategies for overcoming problems through course design and accountability.


DeBell, Matthew (2005).  Rates of Computer and Internet Use by Children in Nursery School and Students in Kindergarten Through Twelfth Grade: 2003. NCES Issue Brief. NCES 2005?111rev  [National Center for Education Statistics] 

This Issue Brief describes the percentages of students in grades 12 or below who used computers or the Internet in 2003. Data for this Issue Brief come from the October 2003 Computer and Internet Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS is a sample survey representative of the civilian noninstitutional population in the United States. The survey is conducted in approximately 56,000 households each month. In October 2003 it collected information regarding 29,075 children enrolled in nursery school through 12th grade. A member of each household who is at least 15 years old provides information about household members. As a result of this data collection method, data regarding computer and Internet use by students were not collected directly from students in most cases, but from another member of the household; this method is a potential source of error. Computer users are identified by questions that ask if the subject uses computers at home, at work, or at school. Internet users are identified by questions that ask if the subject uses the Internet at any location. (For further detail about CPS survey methods, see U.S. Census Bureau 2002). The use of computers and the Internet by students is commonplace and begins early. In upper grade levels, nearly all students use computers and a substantial majority use the Internet. Even before kindergarten, a majority of nursery school children use computers, and 23 percent use the Internet.  | [FULL TEXT]


DeBell, Matthew; Chapman, Chris (2006).  Computer and Internet Use by Students in 2003. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2006-065  [National Center for Education Statistics] 

This report examines the use of computers and the Internet by American children enrolled in nursery school and students in kindergarten through grade 12. The report examines the overall rate of use (that is, the percentage of individuals in the population who are users), the ways in which students use the technologies, where the use occurs (home, school, and other locations), and the relationships of these aspects of computer and Internet use to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics such as students' age and race/ethnicity and their parents' education and family income. This report confirms that patterns of computer and Internet use seen in previous research are observed in more recent data. One of the more important findings presented in the report is that schools appear to help narrow the disparities between different types of students in terms of computer use. Differences in the rates of computer use are smaller at school than they are at home when considering such characteristics as race/ethnicity, family income, and parental education. Appended are: (1) Methodological and Technical Notes; and (2) Supplemental Tables.  | [FULL TEXT]


Debevec, Kathleen; Shih, Mei-Yau; Kashyap, Vishal (2006).  Learning Strategies and Performance in a Technology Integrated Classroom  Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38, 3. 

This study examines students' use of technology for learning (accessing the course Web site to download PowerPoint slides for note taking and exam preparation) relative to more traditional learning methods (reading the textbook and taking notes in class and from the textbook) and the effect of their learning strategies on exam performance and class attendance. Students who were categorized as high on use of technology and low on traditional learning methods or low on technology and high on traditional learning methods exhibited higher attendance and performance than those students categorized as high or low on both technology and traditional learning methods. Results suggest that there is more than one path for optimal exam performance.  | [FULL TEXT]


DeBord, Kurt A.; Aruguete, Mara S.; Muhlig, Jeannette (2004).  Are Computer-Assisted Teaching Methods Effective?  Teaching of Psychology, 31, 1. 

Two studies examined effects of computer-assisted (CA) teaching methods in introductory psychology classes. In Study 1, we provided students with lectures supplemented with either overhead transparencies or CA visuals. In Study 2, we compared students who used an optional Web site with students who did not. In both studies we held constant lecture content, course instructor, exams, and assignments. Results of the two studies showed that students liked the CA teaching interventions, although CA instruction had no effect on student performance in the courses. Based on these and other published findings, we recommend that universities examine closely their goals and priorities when devoting resources to instructional technology.


Debowski, Shelda (2005).  Across the Divide: Teaching a Transnational MBA in a Second Language  Higher Education Research and Development, 24, 3. 

China is a growing market for the provision of transnational programs. However, there are many challenges associated with providing good--quality learning opportunities while ensuring cost-effectiveness, particularly in bilingual programs. This paper describes the experience of business academics teaching a postgraduate MBA program in Mandarin to students located in China. The academics found that their attempts to provide an effective teaching/learning environment while teaching through translators led to many additional challenges, including increased rigidity of teaching processes and difficulties in monitoring learning outcomes. The paper identifies some ways in which staff teaching transnationally might be supported, while also suggesting that teaching across a language divide needs to be carefully considered before universities venture into this complex educational setting.


Dawson, Jennifer (2004).  Installing and Managing PC Time-Control Software  Computers in Libraries, 24 n6 p18-20, 22-23 Jun 2004. 

Employees of a West Virginia library system were tired of intervening in frequent patron fights over the public access PCs. In this article, the author discusses how the implementation of time-control software for an automated session reservation/management service reduced the conflict. A team was assigned to investigate PC management software. Its goals were to find a solution that would achieve equity of access to electronic resources, efficient and orderly management of resources, and elimination of threats to create a safe environment for computer usage. They started by researching and reviewing software packages. Then they considered policies, training, evaluation, and promotion of computer usage. Among other things, the author describes their first year as a period of adjustment.


Dawson, Kara (2006).  Teacher Inquiry: A Vehicle to Merge Prospective Teachers' Experience and Reflection during Curriculum-Based, Technology-Enhanced Field Experiences  Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38, 3. 

This study describes and analyzes a four-year effort to provide curriculum-based, technology-enhanced field experiences for prospective teachers. These field experiences and this associated study espouse the notion that experiences and reflective activity must coalesce to yield professional growth for prospective teachers. The study suggests that teacher inquiry, a process that scaffolds prospective teachers to systematically and intentionally study their use of technology, may (1) counter many shortcomings associated with traditional strategies designed to promote reflective activity, (2) focus prospective teachers' attention on student learning outcomes, and (3) facilitate more desirable integration strategies during curriculum-based, technology-enhanced field experiences. The study notes that teacher inquiry is widely recognized in the general teacher education literature, yet novel within the context of curriculum-based, technology-enhanced field experiences, and encourages educational technologists to further explore its possibilities as a tool for teacher preparation and educational research.  | [FULL TEXT]


Dawson, Kara M. (2007).  Blog Overload  Chronicle of Higher Education, 53, 22. 

The most effective blogs provide important and cutting-edge information (e.g., Tech Crunch), communicate deeply personal experiences through narrative (e.g., the Cancer Blog), or write to a specific audience (e.g., chemistry teachers). Most people with successful blogs are deeply committed to posting, for personal reasons, such as a passion for their subject, the satisfaction of reaching a wide audience, or the ego boost associated with having others find their narratives important enough to read. Many people with successful blogs also have an innate slant toward the writing profession. In this article, the author believes that Internet blogging has a definite role to play--especially given what readers know about the importance of metacognition and social interaction in the learning process.


Dawson, Kara; Dana, Nancy Fichtman (2007).  When Curriculum-Based, Technology-Enhanced Field Experiences and Teacher Inquiry Coalesce: An Opportunity for Conceptual Change?  British Journal of Educational Technology, 38, 4. 

National agencies advocate the use of field experiences to help prepare teachers to integrate technology in their classrooms. However, prospective teachers often fail to synthesise the integration of technology with the complexities of teaching during such experiences. This study suggests teacher inquiry, a strategy for helping educators systematically and intentionally study their own practice, provides important benefits for prospective teachers participating in curriculum-based, technology-enhanced field experiences. Specifically, this study explores whether or not engagement in teacher inquiry can promote conceptual change related to teaching with technology. Thirteen inquiries conducted by prospective teachers in six elementary schools were analysed and one instrumental case was identified. The case exemplifies how curriculum-based, technology-enhanced field experiences and teacher inquiry may coalesce to support conceptual change for prospective teachers. In fact, the marriage of curriculum-based, technology-enhanced field experiences and teacher inquiry embodies research-based conditions necessary for conceptual change. Teacher inquiry is widely recognised and supported in the general teacher education literature yet its use by prospective teachers in curriculum-based, technology-enhanced field experiences is novel. This exploratory study highlights its potential and encourages further research into its usefulness as a tool to prepare the next generation of teachers to be effective technology-using educators.


Duran, Mesut; Fossum, Paul R.; Luera, Gail R. (2007).  Technology and Pedagogical Renewal: Conceptualizing Technology Integration into Teacher Preparation  Computers in the Schools, 23, 3-4. 

Research indicates that, if future teachers are to effectively use technology, their pre-service preparation should employ multiple components. These components include core course work in educational technology, faculty modeling, and clinical experiences. This paper describes and analyzes one model for drawing these three components coherently together in a teacher preparation program. The paper further reports on a research project that applies this model at a major Midwest research university. In the conclusion section the paper identifies and discusses ways in which the model presented responds effectively to the need for a comprehensive program for preparing a technology-proficient teaching force.


Duran, Richard P. (2003).  Implications of Electronic Technology for the NAEP Assessment. NAEP Validity Studies. Working Paper Series. 

This report emphasizes the need for the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) to integrate the use of technology into its assessment procedures. It reviews major options and suggests priorities to guide the integration. The paper identifies three short-term goals for this development: (1) a linear computer-administered assessment in a target subject area such as mathematics should be implemented; (2) a computer-administered writing assessment should be developed and implemented; and (3) the introduction and evaluation of technology-based test accommodations for handicapped students and English-language learners should be continued. The paper suggests that the NAEP consider redesign as an integrated electronic information system that would involve all aspects of the assessment process including assessment delivery, scoring and interpretation, development of assessment frameworks, specifications of population and samples, collection of data, and preparation and dissemination of results. | [FULL TEXT]


Duran, Robert L.; Colarulli, Guy C.; Barrett, Karen A.; Stevenson, Catherine B. (2005).  An Assessment of the Effectiveness of the University of Hartford First-Year Interest Group Model  Journal of The First-Year Experience & Students in Transition, 17, 1. 

A first-year interest group (FIG) is a learning community using course clusters. An effective model of FIGs and an innovative faculty development process are briefly described. Evaluation results found that University of Hartford FIGs improved student learning, improved curricular integration, fostered student community, and promoted faculty collaboration and innovation.


Durbin, James M. (2002).  The Benefits of Combining Computer Technology and Traditional Teaching Methods in Large Enrollment Geoscience Classes.  Journal of Geoscience Education, 50, 1. 

Examines data collected from large enrollment, entry level Geoscience courses over a span of seven semesters and investigates the use of computers as a presentation tool and the incorporation of the Internet as a means to give students increased exposure to course content, increased exam scores, and knowledge of Earth Sciences. Includes 13 references.


Durham, Helen; Arrell, Katherine (2007).  Introducing New Cultural and Technological Approaches into Institutional Practice: An Experience from Geography  British Journal of Educational Technology, 38, 5. 

With increasing international collaboration in the delivery of higher education e-learning programmes, the requirement for changes in institutional practice needs to be considered in relation to the creation of shared online resources. A group of academic and learning technologists involved in a US/UK project experimented with technology and a new cultural approach to creating learning material suitable for use in geography programmes on either side of the Atlantic. The methodology, called Collaborative Learning Activity Design was undertaken to develop a series of learning activities to support the use and understanding of the Global Positioning System. As a result of this study, effective communication, reliable and flexible technology and a robust, iterative methodology were identified as critical factors for successful outcomes. These outcomes included learning materials that are readily redeployable in other institutions and cross-fertilisation of ideas and knowledge to produce higher quality resources. The experiences of designing and developing multi-institutional learning materials from the viewpoint of practitioners at the University of Leeds are discussed in this paper.


Durick, Mary Ann (2001).  The Study of Chemistry by Guided Inquiry Method Using Microcomputer-based Laboratories.  Journal of Chemical Education, 78, 5. 

Highlights and provides information about the grant awarded to Bismarck State College, Bismarck, North Dakota by the National Science Foundation


Durmus, Soner (2001).  The Use of Graphing Calculators with Symbolic Calculations on Performance Gains in a College Algebra Class  [Online Submission] 

More sophisticated graphing calculators available for college students can be incorporated into college algebra classes to result a higher student achievement. For this purpose, in this study 117 college students were randomly assigned into either experimental groups where students were allowed to the use of graphing calculators or control groups where the traditional lecture format was given. Pre-and-post measurements were made on students' algebra knowledge in two levels: action and process levels. Action questions were routine, basic, and conceptual questions, whereas process questions were high level, procedural questions. Result indicated that regardless of initial differences, the average and process pre- to post-treatment gain of students in the experimental group was significantly higher than in the control group. There was no significant difference detected between the groups in terms of action gain. Suggestions for future research were discussed.  | [FULL TEXT]


Durmus, Soner; Karakirik, Erol (2005).  An Alternative Approach to Logo-Based Geometry  [Online Submission] 

Geometry is an important branch of mathematics. Geometry curriculum can be enriched by using different Technologies such as graphing calculators and computers. Logo-based different software packages aim to improve conceptual understanding in geometry. The goals of this paper are i) to present theoretical foundations of any computer software developed to enrich primary and secondary school geometry curriculum, ii) to introduce main features of Logo, iii) to introduce a new version of Logo called LogoTurk, and iv) to present some recommendations for future research. An appendix shows a car drawn in LogoTurk.  | [FULL TEXT]


Durmus, Soner; Karakirik, Erol (2005).  A Computer Assessment Tool for Structural Communication Grid  [Online Submission] 

Assessment is one of the most important part of educational process that directs teaching, learning as well as curriculum development. However, widely used classical assessment techniques such as multiple choice tests are not adequate to provide neither a correct picture of students' performances nor the effectiveness of the teaching process. Structural Communication Grid is an alternative assessment approach to classical multiple choice tests because it reveals students' ideas and reasoning by forcing them to organize interrelated set of givens rather than focusing on the correct answer. The set of givens such as statements, graphics, pictures, etc can be presented as a grid of numbered boxes each containing a piece of information. The grid is usually designed to contain more than one correct choice in order to externalize the student's conceptual structure and to assess their degrees of meaningful learning. Several questions could be designed with the same set of givens in order to avoid finding the correct choices by elimination method. However, it is difficult to implement and evaluate it by paper and pencil tests since both the boxes chosen and the choosing order are required to be graded. In this study, the basic features and elements of the first computerized version of structural communication grid tester, called SCGT, will be presented and its possible contributions to mathematics education will be discussed.  | [FULL TEXT]


Durmus, Soner; Karakirik, Erol (2006).  Virtual Manipulatives in Mathematics Education: A Theoretical Framework  [Online Submission] 

Meaningful educational activities and cognitive tools might improve students' active involvements in the teaching-learning process and encourage their reflections on the concepts and relations to be investigated. It is claimed that usage of manipulatives not only increase students' conceptual understanding and problem solving skills but also promotes their positive attitudes towards mathematics since they supposedly provide "concrete experiences" that focus attention and increase motivation. A concrete experience in mathematics context is defined not by its physical or real-world characteristics but rather by how meaningful connections it could make with other mathematical ideas and situations. For instance, a student might create the meaning of the concept "four" by building a representation of the number and connecting it with either real or pictured blocks. Computer manipulatives, also called virtual manipulatives, may provide interactive environments where students could pose and solve their own problems to form connections between mathematical concepts and operations, and get immediate feedback about their actions. Hence, it is necessary to design specific math manipulatives focusing at different mathematical concepts. Virtual manipulatives might also provide further advantages over physical manipulatives by eliminating some of the constraints they impose on the task. In this paper, virtual manipulatives in mathematics education will be introduced, their main characteristics will be explained and the implications of the usage of virtual manipulatives in mathematics classrooms will be thoroughly discussed. | [FULL TEXT]


Durnin, John H. (2003).  Pre-Service Teachers Taught Classroom Technology by In-Service Teachers. 

This paper describes a project in which inservice teachers, who were educated in technology, offered workshops to undergraduate preservice teachers. Project goals were to enhance inservice teachers' ability with technology and to prepare preservice teachers for the use of technology in the classroom. Workshops were held during two semesters. Evaluation involved questionnaires administered anonymously to participants following the workshops. Results for the first semester preservice teachers indicated that they tended to agree to statements affirming their ability to apply what was learned for classroom instruction through the workshops. Results were similar for the second semester preservice teachers for all items except those regarding their ability to help students with databases and spreadsheets. These overall affirmative answers were supported by the answers of cooperating teachers. Inservice teachers tended to view themselves as more capable of helping others with technology than did preservice teachers. Many preservice teachers made positive comments about having inservice teachers conduct the workshops. | [FULL TEXT]


Durrant, Cal (2001).  2001: A Space Oddity.  English in Australia

Examines a sample of four English/literacy education texts dealing with technology published or distributed in Australia in 2001. Concludes that the authors and editors of these texts have created new spaces in which English/literacy teachers can play by helping them to look at different versions and combinations of teaching, learning, and technology.


Durrant, Judy; Holden, Gary (2006).  Teachers Leading Change: Doing Research for School Improvement. Leading Teachers, Leading Schools  [Paul Chapman Publishing] 

This book bridges theory and practice quite deliberately in the knowledge that there is much work to be done to improve communication and understanding between teachers and others working in schools, policymakers and the academic and research communities. It provides both a theoretical and a practical rationale for teachers' leadership of change through enquiry. The authors offer opportunities for teachers and headteachers to engage with the interacting school improvement, school leadership and methodological discourses. Equally importantly, they provide insights into the world of schools and classrooms through their experience as teachers, tutors, advisors and consultants. This book contains the following six chapters: (1) Teachers as Leaders of Learning; (2) Unlocking School Cultures; (3) Teachers Research--and Beyond; (4) Enquiry to Support Teachers Leading Changes; (5) Teachers' Stories of Change; and (6) Towards New Ways of Working. Following a bibliography and an index, appended materials include: (1) An audit of professional development activity; (2) Some definitions of leadership; (3) The impact of teacher-led development work; (4) How can headteachers support teachers leading change?; (5) What can teacher leaders do to build capacity?; and (6) Has your research taken full account of ethical issues?


DeNeui, Daniel L.; Dodge, Tiffany L. (2006).  Asynchronous Learning Networks and Student Outcomes: The Utility of Online Learning Components in Hybrid Courses  Journal of Instructional Psychology, 33, 4. 

The current research focuses on the impact that learning management systems (LMS), specifically the Blackboard interface, are having on courses in psychology. Blackboard provides instructors with access to a powerful web-based instructional platform. One of the main benefits to students is the unfettered access to virtually anything an instructor presents in the classroom. For example, access to syllabi, course notes, interactive demonstrations, handouts, audio or videotaped lectures are all possible via this interface. Currently, few empirical studies have examined the impact of LMS on objective measures of student learning. The current project examines the relationship between the frequency of usage of these various utilities and student performance in a hybrid class. Results revealed a significant positive partial correlation between overall usage and their exam scores. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to the current course; however, a discussion of the broader pedagogical implications is included as well.


Deniz, Hasan; Cakir, Hasan (2006).  Design Principles for Computer-Assisted Instruction in Histology Education: An Exploratory Study  Journal of Science Education and Technology, 15, 5-6. 

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development process and the key components of a computer-assisted histology material. Computer-assisted histology material is designed to supplement traditional histology education in a large Midwestern university. Usability information of the computer-assisted instruction (CAI) material was obtained through formative research methodology. Findings indicate that computer-assisted instruction should be used as complimentary to traditional histology instruction.


Dennen, Vanessa P.; Darabi, A. Aubteen; Smith, Linda J. (2007).  Instructor-Learner Interaction in Online Courses: The Relative Perceived Importance of Particular Instructor Actions on Performance and Satisfaction  Distance Education, 28, 1. 

This article examines the relative perceived importance of 19 instructor actions in online courses according to both instructors and students. The instructor actions were culled from guidelines in the online learning literature base and then reviewed and rated by 14 experts. Thirty-two online instructors and 170 students from their classes at a large public university and a private online university were asked to review and rate these guidelines. Findings show that the instructors believe that learner performance is more likely tied to instructor actions that are focused on course content and provide both proactive (models, expectations) and reactive (feedback) information to learners about their ability to demonstrate knowledge of course material, but learner satisfaction is more likely tied to learners' feeling that their interpersonal communication needs are met. Learners rated items focused on communication needs and being treated as individuals as most important, aligning their stated preferences with the instructors' perceptions of what actions are most satisfying to online learners.


Dennen, Vanessa P.; Spector, J. Michael (2007).  Preparing Educational Technology Leaders: Reflections on the Past, Present, and Future  Educational Technology Magazine: The Magazine for Managers of Change in Education, 47, 4. 

The field of educational technology is continuously changing to reflect the increasingly global workplace and development of new technologies and standards. Are educational technology programs keeping up? Are they, in their present form, able to address the evolving needs of the workplace and prepare the next generation of educational technology leaders? This article reflects on the history of the field, and then examines the present state of educational technology programs in light of current and anticipated future needs.


Dennen, Vanessa Paz (2005).  From Message Posting to Learning Dialogues: Factors Affecting Learner Participation in Asynchronous Discussion  Distance Education, 26, 1. 

Generating true learning dialogue as opposed to a collection of loosely affiliated posted messages on a class discussion board can be challenging. This paper presents the results of a cross-case analysis of nine naturalistic case studies of online classes, looking at how activity design and facilitation factors affected various dimensions of student participation. Findings show that use of guidelines, deadlines and feedback and type of instructor presence affect the resulting discourse in an online class. Additionally, the paper explores how particular types of learning activities are better suited to generating discussion than others and how the integration of discussion activities with the rest of the course activities and requirements impacts learner motivation and participation.


Dennen, Vanessa Paz; Wieland, Kristina (2007).  From Interaction to Intersubjectivity: Facilitating Online Group Discourse Processes  Distance Education, 28, 3. 

This article examines the online discourse that took place in representative threads from two classes, seeking to document indicators that students did or did not engage in co-construction of knowledge. Stahl's (2006) social theory of computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) is used along with discourse analysis methods to examine these course dialogues. Findings show the class that had a peer-like, consistent facilitative instructor and discussion anchored around questions and shared artifacts was more likely to engage in discussion leading to the negotiation of knowledge and understanding. This class relied on social acknowledgements, questions, and shared exploration of perspectives and theories throughout their discussion. These elements and strategies appear to be important components that make up for lower levels of tacit understanding in online environments, thus enabling learners to interact in social learning processes. The other class, which lacked a facilitative instructor, did not have the same results. Although interaction levels were equal and students carried topical motifs such as the phrase "faster, better, cheaper" from message to message, students in this other class did not engage deeply or develop new understanding of the course material through the discussion.


Dent, John; Preece, Paul (2002).  What Is the Impact on Participating Students of Real-Time Video Monitoring of Their Consultation Skills?  British Journal of Educational Technology, 33, 3. 

Discusses the use of video recordings to demonstrate clinical skills in higher education and describes a study that assessed the impact of real-time monitoring of clinical history taking on medical students. Considered whether the opportunities for personal reflection, peer critique, and tutor feedback outweighed unpleasant feelings of personal and professional insecurity.


Denton, David R. (2002).  Summer School and Summer Learning, 2002: Progress and Challenges. 

In June 2002, the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) adopted a new set of goals for the 21st century. Those goals included reaching every student, from preschool to high school, to ensure that achievement exceeds national averages and that performance gaps are closed. According to this brief report, research clearly shows that quality summer programs for struggling students are essential to closing those gaps. This report describes the efforts in 2002 by several states and local schools to maintain and improve their summer programs. It begins with a recap of an earlier SREB report, "Summer School: Unfilled Promise" (June 2002). This report includes successes, failures, and practices. In states with strict standards for promotion and graduation, summer school gives students a fair chance to succeed. Students who repeat grades are more likely to drop out of school eventually. Between 40 percent and 50 percent of students who participate in high-quality summer programs can be expected to improve their performance to passing levels. The report concludes that summers without meaningful learning doom some students to failure. | [FULL TEXT]


Denton, Jon (2003).  Technology Mentor Fellowship Program, Performance Period September 23, 1999-December 30, 2002. 1999 PT3 Grant Final Report. 

The Technology Mentor Fellowship Program (TMFP), a consortium consisting of 6 rural East Texas school districts, 1 urban Central Texas School district, and Texas A&M University has designed an approach for integrating technology into teacher preparation programs that impacted over 5,000 minority, language-minority, and children of poverty and of geographic isolation to access teachers that are prepared to teach in their increasingly high-tech classrooms. The TMFP matched technologically-proficient pre-service teachers with K-12 teachers and University faculty to model technology as an instructional tool in K-12 classrooms and college classrooms. Undergraduate student mentors and a Web-based resource bank supported campus and school-based teacher preparation faculty involved in professional development. Across the three years of this grant, 628 Technology Fellow placements have provided one-on-one technology support to teacher education faculty. The Tech Fellow faculty dyads have collaboratively developed 1,043 learning objects across a wide range of content areas for learners from kindergarten through graduate school. Many of these digital learning objects have been integrated into online courses. Through their direct experience with technology instructional development, both the Technology Fellows and their faculty partners have gained a greater appreciation of what is possible regarding technology applications for their classrooms. The project staff and external evaluation team remained stable across the project as the continuing implementation of the redesigned elementary and secondary teacher preparation programs was supported. The elementary program has 9 Professional Development Schools (PDS) and 17 Integrated Methods Schools (IMS). Integrated Methods Schools are pairs of schools that support the field-based teacher preparation programs. Actual methods of teaching course experiences are conducted at the school sites.  | [FULL TEXT]


Denton, Jon J.; Clark, Francis E.; Allen, Nancy J. (2002).  A Dilemma for Technology Professional Development in Colleges of Education: Building Capacity vs. Providing Tech Support. 

This paper addresses issues related to the development and preservation of tacit knowledge (i.e., institutional knowledge rooted in actions and experiences) for technology integration. Results of a 1999 survey of teacher preparation programs in Texas are presented. The survey asked administrators in colleges of education to identify skills that might be important to teacher education majors and to assess the adequacy of general skills training currently received by preservice teachers. The majority of the respondents felt that preservice teacher skills were adequate to operate a computer system and to use software and tools directly related to individual professional use, such as productivity tools and databases, word processing programs, and spreadsheets. Respondents reported, however, that preservice teachers were just beginning to produce and use multimedia in projects. Key features and outcomes of the Technology Mentor Fellowship Program at Texas A&M University are described. Objectives of the project included developing proficiency of the College of Education faculty in the use of various instructional and communications technologies; developing capacity within the College of Education in digital media that supports national standards; and supporting faculty transitioning to the new teaching program by providing technical assistance. A model for institutional development for technology integration is presented. | [FULL TEXT]


Denton, Jon J.; Smith, Ben L.; Davis, Trina J.; Strader, Roy Arlen; Clark, Francis E. (2002).  Technology Professional Development Enabled by an Electronic Management System. 

The need is clear for colleges of education to prepare student and teachers for a technological world. Most Texas institutions of higher education are struggling with integrating technology into courses and content areas an in offering online courses. This project was undertaken to address the need for increased faculty proficiency in technology while recognizing the challenge and the potential of the disparity between faculty and student in technology skills. The goals of the project were to facilitate faculty development through building capacity and providing technical support. Across the project, 633 technology fellows were placed with teacher education faculty (both campus and school-based faculty who work with teaching candidates). Anticipating the logistical challenges of tracking so many technology fellows at a time, an Electronic Management System (EMS) was developed during project start-up to support project management functions. The EMS is presently being used to archive 843 electronic learning objects and to support those faculty who have placed ten courses online. As additional project challenges evolved, such as assessing technology skill competence and offering professional development experiences to the technology fellows, underlying databases and programmed routines in the EMS were re-purposed to meet the need or resolve the challenge.  | [FULL TEXT]


Denton, Jon J.; Strader, Arlen (2000).  Building a Case for Conducting Technology Surveys On-Line. 

A Technology in Texas Public Schools 1998 Survey instrument was integrated into a Web-based response system enabling the instrument to be accessed, completed, submitted, and instantaneously analyzed over the Internet. A mark-sense or optical scan paper version of the instrument was also developed for mail-out distribution to each school district in the state of Texas. The decision to provide two response options to school administrators for this survey provided the research question for this investigation: "Is there a difference in survey responses submitted by Internet or mail?" The findings revealed no observed differences in responses whether the survey was submitted electronically or by mail. Other issues of cost, time, and human networks were discussed.  | [FULL TEXT]


Denton, Jon; Davis, Trina; Strader, Arlen; Clark, Frank; Jolly, Deborah (2003).  Technology Professional Development of Teacher Education Faculty by Net Generation Mentors. 

The Technology mentor Fellowship Program (TMFP) matched technologically proficient preservice teachers with K-12 teachers and university faculty to model technology as an instructional tool in K-12 classrooms and college classes. A consortium consisting of seven participating independent school districts and Texas A&M University designed an innovative approach for integrating technology into teacher preparation programs that allowed over 5,000 minority, language-minority, and children of poverty to access teachers who are prepared to teach in their increasingly high-tech classrooms. Over the course of the project, 450 undergraduate students were employed to fill 628 Technology Fellow placements. Placements were made each semester and many students were employed as Technology Fellows for multiple semesters. Similarly, 279 teacher educators (46 campus-based and 233 school-based) worked with the 450 employed Technology Fellows across the project. These participants have collaboratively developed 1,043 learning objects across a wide range of content areas for learners from kindergarten through graduate school.  | [FULL TEXT]


Denton, Jon; Davis, Trina; Strader, Arlen; Durbin, Brooke (2003).  Report of the 2002 Texas Public School Technology Survey Prepared for the Telecommunications Infrastructure Fund Board and Texas Public Schools. 

Over the past four legislative sessions, the Texas State Legislature enacted laws that have accelerated the integration of technology into public education. The significant effort to build technology infrastructure in Texas is evident through the thousands of public school awards provided by the Telecommunications Infrastructure Fund (TIF) Board, the Technology Literacy Challenge Fund grants and the E-Rate discounts. With such an influx of funding into technology education, the following questions were posed to guide this inquiry: What technology resources have been put in place in schools as a result of these awards? What professional development activities are being provided to educators to use these technology resources? The telecommunications infrastructure in the public schools across Texas has changed significantly across the past six years with over 98% of classrooms in Texas public schools having Internet access, and technology professional development activities for Texas classroom teachers having increased. Yet much still needs to be accomplished, because just 21% of the districts indicate their teachers use online resources in their instruction. | [FULL TEXT]


Denton, Philip; Madden, Judith; Roberts, Matthew; Rowe, Philip (2008).  Students' Response to Traditional and Computer-Assisted Formative Feedback: A Comparative Case Study  British Journal of Educational Technology, 39, 3. 

The national movement towards progress files, incorporating personal development planning and reflective learning, is supported by lecturers providing effective feedback to their students. Recent technological advances mean that higher education tutors are no longer obliged to return comments in the "traditional" manner, by annotating students' work with red pen. This paper considers some of the options currently available for returning computer-assisted feedback, including the Electronic Feedback freeware. This MS Office application enables tutors to readily synthesise and email feedback reports to students. To further ascertain the value of this software, 169 1st-year Pharmaceutical Science and Pharmacy students completed a questionnaire to gauge their reaction to formative feedback on an extended laboratory report. This included 110 responses from students graded by three tutors who marked work using either handwritten annotations or the Electronic Feedback program. Principle component analysis (PCA) of the Likert scale responses indicates that the identity of the marker did not significantly affect the response of students. However, the type of feedback was a factor that influenced the students' responses, with electronic feedback being rated superior. A Mann-Whitney analysis of the satisfaction ratings (generated by PCA) indicates that four features of the assignment and feedback were considered significantly improved when the software was used to create feedback, namely; markscheme clarity, feedback legibility, information on deficient aspects, and identification of those parts of the work where the student did well. Modern academics face a number of challenges if they wish to return meaningful and timely feedback to students, among them large class sizes and infrequent face-to-face contact. It is pleasing to note, therefore, that assessors reported taking less time to mark when using the software. It is concluded that electronic formative feedback can be returned more quickly and may be used to synthesise relevant feedback that is both fair and balanced.


(2004).  Dallas' Challenge: Upgrade IT but Hold down High-Tech Costs  T.H.E. Journal, 31, 11. 

Bringing the Dallas Independent School District (Dallas ISD) up to speed (as well as to a computer-to-student ratio of 3:1, up from its current respectable 4:1) requires, before additional desktops can be contemplated, a massive commitment to upgrading the network. Though HP has been a long-time partner with the Dallas ISD, the bidding for the contract was competitive. Several vendors offered some creative academic programs, but HP really hit the mark best overall. They listened to needs, tailored a solution specifically and delivered exactly what was asked for. This article briefly discusses the process that led up to the Dallas ISD choosing HP as their vendor.


Dale, R.; Robertson, S.; Shortis, T. (2004).  'You Can't Not Go With the Technological Flow, Can You?' Constructing 'ICT' and 'Teaching and Learning'  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 20, 6. 

This paper seeks to show how policy, management and information and communications technology (ICT) were constructed for schools in England between 2000 and 2003 and to discuss some effects of these constructions on teaching and learning in the institutions involved in the InterActive Education Project. It argues that their contribution collectively constituted ICT as a particular kind and form of challenge for schools, and that recognising the nature of this constitution is crucial to understanding the relationship between ICT and teaching and learning. Informed by an abductive methodology, this paper draws on analyses of policy documents and interviews with the head teachers of the educational institutions taking part in the InterActive Education Project to show how the possibilities and opportunities of using ICT were shaped by those constructions. It suggests that the main policy framing ICT in education over the period in question, the National Grid for Learning, had the provision of hardware and infrastructure as its main target, but offered little advice on how they might be used. This constituted the core of the management problem of ICT for schools. The final section of the paper outlines some of the mechanisms through which schools addressed these issues and discusses some possible implications for what counts as teaching and learning with ICT.


Daley, Barbara J.; Watkins, Karen; Williams, Saundra Wall; Courtenay, Bradley; Davis, Mike; Dymock, Darryl (2001).  Exploring Learning in a Technology-Enhanced Environment.  Educational Technology & Society, 4, 3. 

Explores connections between learning and technology based on a participatory action research case study in which students in universities in the United States, England, and Australia created and analyzed cases from their teaching practice. Findings indicate that students' attitudes and perceptions of technology influenced their ability to acquire, integrate, and use knowledge meaningfully.


Dalgarno, Barney (2001).  Interpretations of Constructivism and Consequences for Computer Assisted Learning.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 32, 2. 

Discusses changes in accepted approaches to teaching and learning, shifts in psychological and pedagogical theory towards a constructivist view of learning, and the consequences of these theoretical shifts for computer assisted learning. Explains a classification scheme for constructivism that provides a framework for looking at constructivist approaches to computer assisted learning.


Dalgarno, Nancy; Colgan, Lynda (2007).  Supporting Novice Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Induction in Professional Communities and Providing Innovative Forms of Pedagogical Content Knowledge Development through Information and Communication Technology  Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, 23, 7. 

This paper reports on the needs identified as important to 27 novice elementary mathematics teachers and examines how Connect-ME, an online mathematics community, provides these supports. Qualitative data were collected using two focus groups and 16 telephone interviews. Findings validate the need for alternative teacher professional development (TPD) models and the value of professional communities and knowledge acquired through technology-facilitated learning. The results indicate that teachers actively seek formal and informal TPD experiences, opportunities for sharing and communicating, and access to quality resources. This study provides educational researchers and administrators with essential elements for effectively supporting novice elementary mathematics teachers.


Dalton, Aaron (2005).  Russian, with Love. Learning a Supposedly Passe Langauge Can Have its Benefits, as Students in Connecticut Are Finding Out  Teacher Magazine, 17 n3 p13-14, 16-17 Nov 2005. 

Almost since the moment the Berlin Wall crumbled, American schools' interest in teaching Russian did likewise. But precisely because the numbers of Russian learners fell off sharply, Glastonbury and the few other schools that have stuck with the language are finding their students very much in demand. In this article, the author reports how despite of the reduced educational allocation for Russian language instruction, Glastonbury has continued to provide Russian lessons to their students through educational technology. The author also reports how students who know the language have gone on to wonderful careers in multinational corporations seeing investment opportunities in Russia.


Dalton, Aaron (2006).  A Lesson Earned  Teacher Magazine, 18, 2. 

This article features Paul Edelman, a former teacher who develops the teacherspayteachers.com to bring experienced educators' battle-tested classroom materials to other teachers willing to pay for them. Putting course materials online is not a revolutionary idea--many other sites offer curriculum resources for teachers. What's new and different is the notion, expressed in the site's URL, that teachers can do something with their valuable materials at the end of the year besides chuck or give them away: Sell them. Because buyers can customize the products, rate them on the site, and send written feedback, Edelman maintains that TPT actually encourages better teaching materials, and ultimately, better teaching. In this article, the author describes how the idea came to Edelman and how the site has helped teachers find quality teaching materials.


Dalvitt, Lorenzo; Murray, Sarah; Terzoli, Alfredo; Zhao, Xiaogeng; Mini, Buyiswa (2005).  Providing Increased Access to English L2 Students of Computer Science at a South African University  [Online Submission] 

In our paper we describe an intervention aimed at providing increased chances of success in the study of Computer Science (CS) to members of South Africa's historically disadvantaged communities. Research has shown that many African students perform poorly in CS, possibly because of language problems. We have developed a web-based application that integrates classroom practice in first year. In our research we explore the relationship between English and the students' mother tongues in constructing technical meanings with a particular focus on the integration of new terminology into existing knowledge structures. We hope that this new approach and an early intervention will provide better access to the study of CS to more African students and contribute to overcome the inequalities of Apartheid.  [This paper is based on work sponsored by the Telkom Centre of Excellence of Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa.] | [FULL TEXT]


Daly, Una (2005).  The Hidden Costs of Wireless Computer Labs  T.H.E. Journal, 33, 1. 

Various elementary schools and middle schools across the U.S. have purchased one or more mobile laboratories. Although the wireless labs have provided more classroom computing, teachers and technology aides still have mixed views about their cost-benefit ratio. This is because the proliferation of viruses and spyware has dramatically increased number of computer maintenance hours, and laptops stored in carts can prove cumbersome to update and disinfect. The original goals for purchasing the labs varied among the schools, but the common theme was an improvement in the student-to computer ratio and flexible computing resources. Most schools already had a dedicated computer lab that was fully utilized, but they wanted a better alternative to the few aging desktop computers that typically were in a classroom. Multi-day checkouts of mobile labs further enhanced their usefulness by eliminating daily setup and shutdown times. The mobile lab also proved to be a valuable alternative for one school that lacked the room for a dedicated computer lab. Still, while space savings and an improved student-to-computer ratio was realized throughout some school districts, security and maintenance issues surfaced that were not always factored into the purchase decision. In this article, the author discusses whether mobile labs are ready to replace dedicated computer labs.


D' Angelo, Jill M.; Woosley, Sherry Ann (2007).  Technology in the Classroom: Friend or Foe  Education, 127, 4. 

This study explores students' perceptions of the value that technology brings to the classroom. A survey administered to undergraduate students enrolled in criminal justice courses showed that the majority of students have been taught with PowerPoint and/or blackboard. The findings further suggest that students maintain the perception that modern teaching methods (PowerPoint, videos/programs) are effective in increasing their learning. Last, there may be differences in students' perceptions based on one's academic major. Overall, students seem to have mixed reactions to technology. Hence, instructors who wish to involve students may need to rethink how and why they are using technology.


Danaher, Joan, Ed.; Armijo, Caroline, Ed. (2005).  Part C Updates: Seventh in a Series of Updates on Selected Aspects of the Early Intervention Program for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities, Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)  [National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (NECTAC)] 

Part C Updates is a compilation of information about the Early Intervention Program for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities (Part C) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The intent of the compilation is to collect, in a convenient format, a variety of resources that meet the information needs of state and jurisdictional Part C program staff, the Office of Special Education Programs of the U.S. Department of Education, and policy makers at all levels. It contains information about: (1) Part C program administration, including funding and contacts at the federal and state level; (2) Part C program implementation, including a list of sources of states' Part C rules, regulations and policies, state eligibility definitions, and a survey of Part C coordinators and assistive technology; and (3) Part C data for child count, settings, exiting, services, and personnel. An appendix contains the full text of Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (Public Law 108-446). (For the sixth in the series, see ED490588.) | [FULL TEXT]


Danaher, Joan; ; Armijo, Caroline; ; Kraus, Robert; ; Festa, Cathy (2002).  Compilation of Projects Addressing the Early Childhood Provisions of IDEA. Discretionary Projects Supported by the Office of Special Education Programs under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Fiscal Year 2001. 

This directory describes approximately 300 discretionary projects addressing the early childhood provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). It was compiled from four volumes separately published by the ERIC/OSEP Special Project. The discretionary grants and contracts authorized by the 1997 Amendments to the IDEA are administered by the Research to Practice and Monitoring and State Improvement Planning Divisions of the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP). The directory divides the projects into the following seven categories: (1) Research and Innovation; (2) Studies and Evaluations; (3) Personnel Preparation; (4) Technical Assistance and Dissemination; (5) Parent Training and Information; (6) State Improvement Grants; and (7) Technology and Media Services. In each section, projects are grouped by the programs and competitions by which they were funded and within each competition, they are arranged in order from earliest to most recent. For each project the following information is provided: grant number, title, project director, contact information, beginning and ending dates, and a description of the project's purposes, proposed methods, and proposed products. Access to project information is enhanced by the following four indexes: (1) Project Directory Index; (2) Organization Index; (3) State Index; and (4) Subject Index. | [FULL TEXT]


Daniel, Ben K.; Schwier, Richard A.; Ross, Heather M. (2007).  Synthesis of the Process of Learning through Discourse in a Formal Virtual Learning Community  Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 18, 4. 

This article reports on the analysis of online discussions among graduate students studying the theoretical and philosophical foundations of educational technology, with the aim of understanding the process of learning through discourse in these communities. Content analysis techniques based on grounded theory were employed to synthesize, categorize, and summarize various variables reflecting the process of learning. Results suggest there are fundamentally two categories of discourse variables in formal virtual learning communities--intentional and incidental. Both types contribute to our understanding of the process of learning in virtual learning communities and how a sense of community among learners can be nurtured. Overall results revealed that learning was multivariate and diverse in these courses, and that our tentative categories of learning share variance.


Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini (2001).  Participant Interaction Models and Roles in a Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) Environment: A Malaysian Case Study. 

In this paper, three models of participant interactions in a Web-based instruction courses were identified among a diverse group of seven adult learners in a Course-On-Line, Masters of Instructional Technology Program at the University of Malaya (Malaysia). The three models were named the cyclical model, the hierarchical model, and the parallel model. The cyclical model depicts the interactions of the computer, instructor and the learner as in a cycle. The hierarchical model views the instructor and the computer as the participants in a level higher than the learner. The parallel model sees the learner and the instructor progressing parallel to one another mediated by the computer. The roles of the participants in the computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) class as perceived by the learners are also discussed. The paper concludes: it can be said that this case study has uncovered some insights into how a diverse group of adult learners perceived interactions between participants in a CSCL environment and how they utilized this dynamic interaction to construct and create knowledge out of a colossal amount of information.   | [FULL TEXT]


Daniel, Trent (2001).  Storybook Science.  Science Teacher, 68, 5. 

Introduces an interdisciplinary project called Learning Chemistry through Science Literature and Technology that involves the collaboration of a high school and an elementary school in Florida. Groups of elementary and high schools students produced science storybooks by using technology to record on CDs.


Daniels, Anthony (2004).  Composition Instruction: Using Technology to Motivate Students to Write  Information Technology in Childhood Education Annual, 2004, 1. 

The study investigated the motivational effects of computer technology on writing instruction and performance of 5th-grade students. The participants (students and instructors) were engaged in preparatory sessions to take the Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) test. Questionnaires on instructor observations and attitudes toward computer usage were administered. Instructor's responses indicate an increase in motivation and writing length for student's who integrated computers into the writing process. Instructors also share the difficulties faced by students with computer literacy issues and also the positive results shown by almost all of the participants. The study notes that students were motivated by computer technology along with other factors like teacher participation, extra-curricular instruction and personalized assistance.


Daniels, Harvey; Bizar, Marilyn; Zemelman, Steven (2001).  Rethinking High School: Best Practices in Teaching, Learning, and Leadership. 

The purpose of this book is to help guide the inquiry of people who want to improve high schools. It presents 11 general issues, assertions, or principles needed to create a good high school. The issues and their accompanying assertions come from national curriculum standards developed by research centers; authoritative educational research; practices of high-performing high schools throughout the United States; and the firsthand experiences of the authors, founders of the Best Practice High School in Chicago. The 11 issues, assertions, or principles for a good high schools are as follows: (1) size; (2) climate; (3) voice and leadership; (4) teaching; (5) curriculum; (6) community experience; (7) scheduling; (8) technology and materials; (9) assessment; (10) professional development; and (11) relationships. For each assertion, the book shows how the issue affects students. It then reviews research in an attempt to determine what works and what does not in secondary education. The book also presents case histories where the particular principles have been put into practice. And it offers specific ways to engage with the ideas of each assertion or principle. Information on an accompanying website is also included.


Daniels, Terry (2002).  Using Face-to-Face Tools for Success in Distance Education.  Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 3, 3. 

Discusses the training needs of preservice and inservice teachers to become successful in making the transition from face-to-face instruction to distance education. Recommends a transitional stage, using modules to scaffold student learning, and describes a course of study that included four projects using the Internet and Web sites.


Danielson, Jared A.; Bender, Holly S.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Lockee, Barbara B. (2003).  A Tool for Helping Veterinary Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving.  Educational Technology Research and Development, 52, 3. 

Describes the result of implementing the Problem List Generator, a computer-based tool designed to help clinical pathology veterinary students learn diagnostic problem solving. Findings suggest that student problem solving ability improved, because students identified all relevant data before providing a solution.


Danielson, Jared A.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Preast, Vanessa A.; Young, Karen M.; Christopher, Mary M.; George, Jeanne W.; Wood, R. Darren; Bender, Holly S. (2007).  Characteristics of a Cognitive Tool That Helps Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving  Educational Technology Research and Development, 55, 5. 

Three related studies replicated and extended previous work (J.A. Danielson et al. (2003), "Educational Technology Research and Development," 51(3), 63-81) involving the Diagnostic Pathfinder (dP) (previously Problem List Generator [PLG]), a cognitive tool for learning diagnostic problem solving. In studies 1 and 2, groups of 126 and 113 veterinary students, respectively, used the dP to complete case-based homework; groups of 120 and 199, respectively, used an alternative method. Students in the dP groups scored significantly higher (p = 0.000 and 0.003, respectively) on final exams than those in control groups. In the third study, 552 veterinary students responding to a questionnaire indicated that the dP's gating and data synthesis activities aided learning. The dP's feedback and requirement of completeness appear to aid learning most.


Dantas, Arianne M.; Kemm, Robert E. (2008).  A Blended Approach to Active Learning in a Physiology Laboratory-Based Subject Facilitated by an e-Learning Component  Advances in Physiology Education, 32

Learning via online activities (e-learning) was introduced to facilitate existing face-to-face teaching to encourage more effective student preparation and then informed participation in an undergraduate physiology laboratory-based course. Active learning was encouraged by hypothesis formation and predictions prior to classes, with opportunities for students to amend their e-learning submissions after classes. Automatic or tutor feedback was provided on student submissions. Evaluation of the course was conducted via student questionnaires, individual student interviews, and analysis of student marks in examinations and of the e-learning component. Student feedback on this entire subject in the university-wide quality of teaching survey was very high by University of Melbourne standards and most encouraging for the first implementation of such a curriculum modification. Results from further detailed surveys of student interactions and engagement and correlation analysis between student responses were also very supportive of the effectiveness of the course. There were no significant differences between examination marks in the new course with e-learning and the previous year without e-learning. However, there was a significant correlation between assessment of student e-learning work and their final examination mark. Correlation analysis between various survey responses helped interpret results and strengthened arguments for e-learning and suggested future improvements for student use of e-learning. This mode of e-learning used to support face-to-face learning activities in the laboratory can be adapted for other disciplines and may assist students in developing a greater appreciation and a deeper approach for learning from their practical class experiences.


Dantas, Maria Luiza (2007).  Building Teacher Competency to Work with Diverse Learners in the Context of International Education  Teacher Education Quarterly, 34, 1. 

This paper reports on an international experience designed, within a sociocultural frame, for teacher education students to examine theoretical knowledge and make visible local knowledge on diversity issues, and the interrelatedness and complexity of language, literacy and culture and its impact on educational practices. It examines the context of international education, as part of a graduate program of studies, as a promising way for teacher education students to gain knowledge of communities' funds of knowledge and situated cultural and literacy practices, use knowledge and engage in action as learners in an uncommon, out-of-the-ordinary context, and act on personal, professional and instructional implications. This international experience, which involved a course taught in the U.S. and Brazil, was designed to engage American graduate students, with different levels of teaching experience, in active exploration of their assumptions about the nature of literacy and culture, and communities' funds of knowledge. The purpose of this situated learning experience was to deepen teacher education students' understanding of self, cultural identities and deficit beliefs, and its impact on their curriculum design and instructional process, and interactions with their own students and their families. This paper also examines the American students' explorations and cultural clashes, what became visible about their invisible assumptions that turned into "rich points" and led to transformed understandings and actions.


Danzig, Arnold; Zhang, Jingning; You, Byeong-kuen (2005).  Learning to Be an Education Leader: How a Web-Based Course Meets Some of the Challenges of Leadership Training and Development  Scholar-Practitioner Quarterly, 3, 1. 

This article captures how a web-based course, designed as a part of the School Leadership Grant Program, meets some challenges of leadership training and development. The content, structure and discussion board exercises of the sample course are designed to provide more reflective and practical opportunities for leader-learners to develop expertise. In addition, the article discusses the opportunities and problems that lie in the written form, including the rich information sources and e-mail communications that are unique to web classes.


David Diedriech; Lynda LaRoche (2005).  Creating a Collaborative Environment: Instructional and Learning Services  [Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE)] 

Instructional technology consists of many elements, including information technology, knowledge of pedagogy and faculty needs, technical support, and training. DePauw University has recently reorganized its Information Services staff to include several staff areas, including technicians, library staff and help desk, as well as faculty support staff. As part of this reorganization, a new group, entitled Instructional and Learning Services, was formed. We will discuss the elements of this group and the decision to meld these individual areas together, our vision for this group and its identity on our campus. We will also talk about how collaboration within the group has been a catalyst for our successful integration. This discussion will appeal to those trying to integrate disparate staff groups, as well as those interested in collaboration within departments. [For complete proceedings, see ED490133.] | [FULL TEXT]


Davidovitch, Lior; Parush, Avi; Shtub, Avy (2008).  Simulation-Based Learning: The Learning-Forgetting-Relearning Process and Impact of Learning History  Computers & Education, 50, 3. 

The results of empirical experiments evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of the learning-forgetting-relearning process in a dynamic project management simulation environment are reported. Sixty-six graduate engineering students performed repetitive simulation-runs with a break period of several weeks between the runs. The students used a teaching tool called the project management trainer (PMT) that simulates a generic dynamic, stochastic project management environment. In this research, we focused on the effect of history recording mechanism on the learning forgetting process. Manual or automatic history recording mechanisms were used by the experimental group, while the control group did not use any history recording mechanism. The findings indicate that for the initial learning phase, the manual mechanism is better than the automatic mechanism. However, for the relearning phase, the break period length influenced the performance after the break. When the break period is short, the manual history keeping mechanism is better, but for a long period break, there is no significant difference. A comparison between the experimental group and the control group revealed that using any history recording mechanism reduced forgetting. Based on the findings, some practical implications of using simulators to improve the learning-forgetting process are discussed.


Davidson, Judith (2003).  A New Role in Facilitating School Reform: The Case of the Educational Technologist.  Teachers College Record, 105, 5. 

Demonstrates the critical nature of role formation processes in school reform initiatives, suggesting that a richer understanding of these processes would benefit those engaged in reform implementation as well as those concerned with measuring the penetration of reform initiatives. The article focuses on the role of the educational technologist, a role that is growing rapidly within school in conjunction with the widespread adoption of networked technology.


Davidson, Lynn; Garton, Susan; Manges, Charles D. (2000).  Teacher Leadership Academy: Achieving Systemic School Improvement. 

This study investigated professional development as provided through the Teacher Leadership Academy (TLA) model used in rural Illinois area school districts and district consortia. Surveys were distributed to TLA participants that sought their perceptions of the desirability, involvement, and feasibility of school reform in general and the desirability, involvement, and feasibility of specific indicants of school change. The indicants included active learning, active teaching, integrated curriculum, application of technology, performance assessment, teacher empowerment, and teacher accountability. The study results support the premise that a strong desire for reform is present. Participants indicated that restructuring efforts are feasible. However, they expressed less confidence in being able to achieve integrated curriculum, teacher empowerment, and teacher accountability. All of the selected indicants of reform were desirable, with the exception of teacher accountability and performance assessment, for which desirability was significantly lower. 


Davidson, Sally (2000).  Teaching with the World Wide Web.  Kappa Delta Pi Record, 37, 1. 

Students can make connections with their school, teachers, parents, and community via the Internet. This article describes one junior high school computer teacher's experiences developing a school Web site and presents the student-created, student- designed links. It emphasizes the importance of equipping students, teachers, and parents with the necessary knowledge and skills to succeed in today's world.


Davidson, Stephanie; Nail, Melissa; Ferguson, Beth; Lehman, Michael; Hare, R. Dwight (2001).  Investigating the Significance of the Role of the Educational Technologist in Middle School Environments: A Qualitative Study. 

This paper is a report of a study of a federally funded technology innovation grant, C*R*E*A*T*E for Mississippi. Qualitative techniques were used to examine the significance of the role of a school-based educational technologist (ET) in four middle schools. The study also examined how the qualifications that the ET possesses impact the effectiveness of the project. Data were collected through observations, interviews, and document analysis. Preliminary results indicate that knowledge of technology alone does not make a successful ET. Results show that ETs with a background in the middle school setting have a greater impact than ETs without a background in the middle school setting.  | [FULL TEXT]


Davidson-Shivers, Gayle V.; Barrington, Michael E. (2004).  Revisiting the Professional Status of Instructional Design and Technology and the Specializations Within  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

The purpose of this presentation is to continue the dialogue on the professional status of and the specialization within the instructional design and technology (IDT) field. This presentation highlights the similarities and differences among the various classification systems, which are used for ranking occupational fields, and discusses the most appropriate system for categorizing the professional status for IDT. A second purpose is to discuss the delineation of specialization within the IDT field. | [FULL TEXT]


Davidson-Shivers, Gayle V.; Salazar, John; Hamilton, Karen M. (2005).  Design of Faculty Development Workshops: Attempting to Practice What We Preach  College Student Journal, 39, 3. 

In this paper, the authors describe the ID procedures that were used to plan and implement a faculty workshop. In a workshop designed to teach faculty to use PowerPoint[TM] as a means to integrate technology into their classrooms, a modified version of the generic instructional design model, known as ADDIE, as well as other ID principles are used. Two regression analyses were then used to explore which instructional strategies influenced the dependent variables: (1) Workshop Satisfaction and (2) Impact on Teaching. The impact of instructional strategies, planned and employed, produced a strong satisfaction rating for the workshops. A survey instrument was developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the instructional strategies, the impact of the workshop on the participant's teaching development and skills, and overall satisfaction with the workshop. The development and implementation of these PowerPoint[TM] workshops design used the ADDLE model of instructional design. Quality of content, demonstration, self-paced practice, immediate feedback, and technological assistance provided these participants the opportunity to learn through hands-on discovery (Gandolfo, 1998; Padgett & Conceao-Runlee, 2000). The findings suggest that the ID approach to planning and implementing the workshops were successful and may have ultimately enhanced faculty teaching and instructional use of technology. Further exploration on the use of the ID approach needs to be expanded to other areas of faculty development as well as to other higher education institutions.


Davidson-Shivers, Gayle V.; Wimberg, Jane E.; Jackson, M. Katherine (2004).  Student Attitudes toward Web-Enhanced and Web-Based Versions of a Learning Tools Course  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

The presentation describes the revisions to a course and the resulting student attitudes and learning. Learning Tools was revised in 2003 from oncampus only to both oncampus and online delivery. Revisions were made by standardizing the two versions, updating the technology applications presented, and modifying the instructional strategies used. These changes were based, in part, on the evolving technology and survey data (former students and instructors). The results of student opinion survey will be presented as well as suggestions for future directions of the course. | [FULL TEXT]


Davies, Alison; Ramsay, Jill; Lindfield, Helen; Couperthwaite, John (2005).  Building Learning Communities: Foundations for Good Practice  British Journal of Educational Technology, 36, 4. 

The School of Health Sciences at the University of Birmingham provided opportunities for the development of student learning communities and online resources within the neurological module of the BSc Physiotherapy degree programme. These learning communities were designed to facilitate peer and independent learning in core aspects underpinning clinical practice, thus laying the foundation for the development of effective clinical reasoning. This paper examines some of the problems that staff encountered, including the lessons that they learnt through the design, development, and implementation processes of the module, and the subsequent modifications that were made. Student experiences of this course are also included, as they provided staff with further insights into the ways in which these problems impacted upon their preparation for clinical practice and how the module might be improved for future cohorts. From an analysis of the problems that staff encountered and then sought to resolve, and of student experiences of the course, this paper identifies foundations for good practice in the development and delivery of innovative learning and teaching methods.


Davies, Alison; Ramsay, Jill; Lindfield, Helen; Couperthwaite, John (2005).  A Blended Approach to Learning: Added Value and Lessons Learnt from Students' Use of Computer-Based Materials for Neurological Analysis  British Journal of Educational Technology, 36, 5. 

This paper examines BSc Physiotherapy students' experiences of developing their neurological observational and analytical skills using a blend of traditional classroom activities and computer-based materials at the University of Birmingham. New teaching and learning resources were developed and supported in the School of Health Sciences using Web Course Tools combined with a wide range of video clips of patients with neurological disorders on CD-ROM. These resources provided students with the opportunity to observe "real patients" prior to clinical placements, thus bridging the gap between their theoretical understanding of these disorders and their practical experience of evaluating abnormal movement in the clinical setting. This paper considers how this blended approach to learning enhanced students' experiences of developing their neurological skills and of preparing for their clinical placements. This paper also discusses the lessons that have been gained from students' experiences to provide future or similar projects with the opportunity to learn from these experiences.


Davies, Gordon, Ed.; Owen, Charles, Ed. (2000).  WebNet 2000 World Conference on the WWW and Internet Proceedings (San Antonio, Texas, October 30-November 4th, 2000). 

The 2000 WebNet conference addressed research, new developments, and experiences related to the Internet and World Wide Web. The 319 contributions of WebNet 2000 contained in this proceedings comprise the full and short papers accepted for presentation at the conference, as well as poster/demonstration abstracts. Major topics covered include: commercial, business, professional, and community applications; education applications; electronic publishing and digital libraries; ergonomic, interface, and cognitive issues; general Web tools and facilities; medical applications of the Web; personal applications and environments; societal issues, including legal, standards, and international issues; and Web technical facilities. | [FULL TEXT]


Davies, Graham (2002).  ICT and Modern Foreign Languages: Learning Opportunities and Training Needs.  International Journal of English Studies, 2, 1. 

Considers why technology has not lived up to it expectations in bringing about improvements in language learning. Looks at a Website that offers a considerable volume of ICT training materials for language teachers, the ICT4LT website (http://www.ict4lt.org). Examines the aims behind the site as a whole and the pattern of visits to different modules of the site.


Davies, Jo; Graff, Martin (2005).  Performance in E-Learning: Online Participation and Student Grades  British Journal of Educational Technology, 36, 4. 

The beneficial effects of learners interacting in online programmes have been widely reported. Indeed, online discussion is argued to promote student-centred learning. It is therefore reasonable to suggest that the benefits of online discussion should translate into improved student performance. The current study examined the frequency of online interaction of 122 undergraduates and compared this with their grades at the end of the year. The findings revealed that greater online interaction did not lead to significantly higher performance for students achieving passing grades; however, students who failed in their courses tended to interact less frequently. Other factors that may be salient in online interactions are discussed.


Davies, JoAnne E.; Szabo, Michael; Montgomerie, Craig (2002).  Assessing Information and Communication Technology Literacy of Education Undergraduates: Instrument Development. 

In recent years, the view that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is vital in K-12 education has become widespread. ICT use in schools has increased and various professional bodies have set ICT standards for students and teachers. Schools of education are under pressure to produce teachers who are able to effectively integrate technology into their teaching. However, most teacher preparation programs do not adequately prepare teachers in ICT, nor assess candidates relative to ICT standards. This paper discusses the development of a computerized system to assess ICT declarative and procedural knowledge and to provide a profile to the participant. | [FULL TEXT]


Davies, Larry; Hassan, W. Shukry (2001).  On Mediation in Virtual Learning Environments.  Internet and Higher Education, 4, 3-4. 

Discusses concepts of mediation and focuses on the importance of implementing comprehensive virtual learning environments. Topics include education and technology as they relate to cultural change, social institutions, the Internet and computer-mediated communication, software design and human-computer interaction, the use of MOOs, and language.


Davies, Louise T. (2006).  Meeting the Needs of Your Most Able Pupils: Design and Technology [with CD-ROM]. Gifted and Talented Series  [David Fulton Publishers] 

This book provides specific guidance on: (1) Recognising High Ability and Multiple intelligences Planning; (2) Differentiation and Extension/enrichment in Design and Technology; (3) Teacher Questioning Skills; (4) Support for More Able Pupils with Learning Difficulties (Dyslexics, ADHD, Sensory Impairment); (5) Homework Recording; and (6) Assessment Beyond the Classroom: Visits, Residentials, Competitions, Summer Schools, Masterclasses, Links with Universities, Business and other Organisations. Comprehensive appendices and accompanying CD include: Useful contacts and resources; Lesson plans and monitoring sheets; Liaison sheets for Teaching Assistants; and Homework Activities. After a foreword and introduction, the book is divided into the following chapters: (1) The National Picture; (2) Departmental Policy and Approach; (3) Recognising High Ability or Potential; (4) Classroom Provision; (5) Supporting the Learning of More Able Pupils; and (6) Beyond the Classroom. Also included are appendices; and a list of references.


Davies, Peter; Dunnill, Richard (2008).  "Learning Study" as a Model of Collaborative Practice in Initial Teacher Education  Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 34, 1. 

Learning Study provides a distinctive model for collaborative practice in teacher development. It combines the intensive "plan-teach-review" model developed by the Japanese "Lesson Study" model with a focus on the outcomes of learning using variation theory. We present an argument for expecting this approach to help trainees in initial teacher education to progress to more sophisticated conceptions of teaching. We also present findings from the implementation of Learning Study in the initial teacher education programme at one UK university over a period of two years. We conclude that it is practicable and beneficial to use Learning Study in this context and that the representational device of a 'Learning Outcome Circle' helps trainees to understand the implications of variation theory and opens up their vision of teaching.


Davis, Dave; Ryan, David; Sibbald, Gary; Rachlis, Anita; Davies, Sharon; Manchul, Lee; Parikh, Sagar (2004).  Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and the Delivery of Continuing Medical Education: Case Study from Toronto  Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 24, 2. 

Introduction: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) struck Toronto in the spring of 2003, causing many deaths, serious morbidity, forced quarantine of thousands of individuals, and the closure of all provincial hospitals for several weeks. Given the direction by public health authorities to cancel or postpone all continuing medical education (CME) courses, including those sponsored by the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine, SARS has had a profound effect on the delivery of CME in Toronto and beyond. Method: Case study design using existing documents and self-report. Results: The immediate, specific response of the University of Toronto CME program to SARS is described for the period from March 2003 to September 2003. Discussion: During major outbreaks of infectious disease, continuing education providers should maintain regular contact with public health authorities and learners, enact a rational process for postponing or canceling courses, and implement a disaster plan flexible enough to ensure the delivery of education using technological advances.


Davis, Hugh C.; Fill, Karen (2007).  Embedding Blended Learning in a University's Teaching Culture: Experiences and Reflections  British Journal of Educational Technology, 38, 5. 

Blended learning, the combination of traditional face-to-face teaching methods with authentic online learning activities, has the potential to transform student-learning experiences and outcomes. In spite of this advantage, university teachers often find it difficult to adopt new online techniques, in part because institutional practices are still geared to support more traditional approaches. This paper describes how a project, funded to support international collaboration to enhance learning and teaching in Geography, has allowed a university to explore models for change. It briefly examines the associated issues of sharing and repurposing resources; it reflects on the impact of the project on local strategy, and the importance of sustaining the collaborations and approaches to learning and teaching after the funding is completed.


Davis, James N. (2005).  Power, Politics, and Pecking Order: Technological Innovation as a Site of Collaboration, Resistance, and Accommodation  Modern Language Journal, 89, 2. 

The author summarizes and interprets data collected while he was a visiting scholar in a foreign language (FL) department at a large U.S. public research university. This qualitative case study focuses on: (a) the process of developing widely acclaimed Web-based beginning FL teaching software, and (b) the political implications of the development team's success within their host department. As the team forged strategic alliances across the campus and received substantial funding through their university's technology initiatives, certain traditional intradepartmental power relationships (especially between language- and literature-teaching faculty) were destabilized. The most striking outcomes of the events described here were the subversion of longstanding rules and procedures for granting tenure and promotion and the empowerment of the beginning program coordinator and his associates. The findings of the present research are framed in terms of theoretical constructs proposed by Jordan (1999) and Bourdieu (1988). The conclusion includes suggestions for consumers and creators of large-scale technology projects.


Davis, John C.; Canney, George F.; Kmitta, Daniel (2004).  A Study of the Effectiveness of Using Computers to Assess the Phonic Knowledge of Pre-Service Teachers  Computers in the Schools, 20, 4. 

This study addressed the following question: Does a computerized test with an auto-score feature enhance students' test performance of phonic content compared to an existing paper-and-pencil test? Students in two four-semester-credit courses (teaching reading in the elementary school) formed the two treatment groups. The results indicate that on the one hand the two groups did not differ on performance -- the computer group did not outperform the paper-and-pencil group. However, on the other hand, the use of the computerized assessment can be a valid, cost-effective replacement for the pencil-and-paper version.


Davis, N. E.; Roblyer, M. D. (2005).  Preparing Teachers for the "Schools that Technology Built": Evaluation of a Program to Train Teachers for Virtual Schooling  Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 37, 4. 

As a result of the growth of virtual schools across the United States, K-12 school courses and diplomas are increasingly offered, either completely or partly, at a distance. In light of this increase, it is apparent that there will be demand for teachers who are prepared to teach from a distance and a complementary need for local counselors. The U.S. Department of Education agreed that the creation of a model for incorporating virtual schooling in preservice teacher education programs accompanied by appropriate assessment of the effect for a range of competencies would be a significant innovation. This article describes the planned model led by Iowa State University and the evaluation designed to establish its effectiveness, including dissemination through a national community of practice. For example, evaluation of the competence of counselors, who will be prepared to mentor K-12 students learning from a distant teacher, moves from a formative approach into scientifically-based research with experimental and control groups. In addition, instruments to measure institutional adoption include a modified version of the CBAM instrument developed by Christensen and longitudinal surveys of preservice student teachers and graduates. | [FULL TEXT]


Davis, Niki; Niederhauser, Dale S. (2007).  Virtual Schooling  Learning & Leading with Technology, 34, 7. 

Virtual schooling, in which K-12 courses and activities are offered mostly or completely through digital communication technologies, has become firmly established in K-12 education across the United States. The VS movement continues to expand at a rapid rate, especially at the high school level. The continuing success of VS efforts will require K-12 teachers, administrators, and support staff at host schools to collaborate effectively with VS providers. Virtual schooling requires substantial shifts in teachers' roles and necessitates distributing responsibilities for providing an educational experience among host school participants and VS providers. Delineating new roles and responsibilities for teachers can raise their awareness of the demands of VS, and help them understand how teaching roles and responsibilities are likely to change in response to the needs of their digital native students. This article aims to raise the awareness of the people that every teacher may have a role to play in the facilitation of VS now that it is becoming a common experience in U.S. education.


Davis, Niki; Roblyer, M. D.; Charania, Amina; Ferdig, Rick; Harms, Chad; Compton, Lily Ko Li; Cho, Mi Ok (2007).  Illustrating the "Virtual" in Virtual Schooling: Challenges and Strategies for Creating Real Tools to Prepare Virtual Teachers  Internet and Higher Education, 10, 1. 

Virtual schooling, or the practice of offering K-12 courses via distance technologies, has rapidly increased in popularity since its beginning in 1994. Although effective interaction with and support for students in these environments requires a unique set of skills and experiences, teacher education programs currently place very little emphasis on teaching and facilitation competencies for virtual school education. This article reports on a federally-funded project to develop a model preparation program for virtual educators. After a brief review of project goals (identifying and building competencies, developing tools to support virtual teacher education, and scaffolding a national community of virtual school practice), the description focuses on the development and formative evaluation procedures and findings with a tool designed to give preservice students in introductory teacher education classes foundation concepts in effective virtual schooling practices. Also included are implications of evaluation findings and recommendations for further research and development.


Davis, O. L., Jr. (2002).  Today's Educational Situation: Which? Whose? Why? What Possible Consequences? Editorial.  Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 17, 2. 

Asserts that John Dewey's three-essay analysis and critique of the state of elementary, secondary, and higher education at end of the 19th century merits attention by today's curriculum scholars on both intellectual and professional grounds. Introduces framework for three-paper symposium discussing Dewey's ideas and method of analysis in light of the current educational situation.


Davis, Paula K.; Young, Amanda; Cherry, Hollie; Dahman, Dana; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne (2004).  Increasing the Happiness of Individuals with Profound Multiple Disabilities: Replication and Extension  Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 4. 

A multielement design was used to compare the effects of three treatments on the happiness of 3 individuals with profound multiple disabilities. The conditions were typical programming using materials selected by staff, presentation of preferred materials plus social interaction, and social interaction alone with no materials present. Both the presentation of the preferred items with social interaction and social interaction alone resulted in higher happiness indicators than typical programming. The combination of preferred items and social interactions was somewhat superior to social interaction alone. | [FULL TEXT]


Davis, Richard; Schlais, Dennis (2001).  Learning and Technology: Distributed Collaborative Learning Using Real-World Cases.  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 29, 2. 

Describes the application of Internet technologies for collaboration of globally distributed college student teams working on real-world case problems. Discusses project goals, including giving students a real-world collaborative experience; being active participants; providing a global learning experience; and using several different types of information technology and media delivery systems.


Davis, T.; Fuller, M.; Jackson, S.; Pittman, J.; & Sweet, J. (2007).  A National Consideration of Digital Equity  [International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE)] 

The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) report, "Computer and Internet Use by Students in 2003" (NCES, 2006) reveals that the digital divide continues to exist, particularly along demographic and socioeconomic lines. Though an exact definition remains elusive, the term "digital divide" generally refers to the disconnect that occurs between those with access to technology and those without, while recognizing that myriad factors can have a direct impact on that inequity. Digital equity is defined as equal access and opportunity to digital tools, resources, and services to increase digital knowledge, awareness, and skills. When considering the role of technology in development of the twenty-first century learner, digital equity is more than a comparable delivery of goods and services, but fair distribution based on student needs. The International Society for Technology in Education hosted a Digital Equity Summit at the 2006 National Educational Computing Conference (NECC), addressing four critical dimensions of the digital divide in education: (1) Professional Development; (2)Leadership and Support; (3) Infrastructure and (4) Teaching and Learning. Through this report, the following questions are answered: (1) What are the critical issues pertaining to digital equity; (2) What are the challenges to digital equity and what solutions are being sought; (3) What are the essential components for creating an environment that supports digital equity; and (4) What principles are necessary to move toward digital equity. The report concludes with five strategies participants identified to help make progress toward digital equity: (1) Legitimize the significant role culture plays in students' educational experience; (2) Continue to challenge perceptions about the role of technology in education; (3) Encourage others to recognize the critical link between technology professional development and classroom practice; (4) Create opportunities for students to access technology outside of the classroom and (5) Continue to seek funding for technology in spite of challenges.  [The Digital Equity Summit was sponsored by: Audio Enhancement: Discovery Education; Intel Education: Pearson Education and Thinkfinity.org.]


de Fatima D'Assumpcao Castro, Maria; Alves, Luiz Anastacio (2007).  The Implementation and Use of Computers in Education in Brazil: Niteroi City/Rio de Janeiro  Computers & Education, 49, 4. 

The introduction of computer technology has touched off an actual revolution for teaching and learning activities. In the present study, we investigated the impact of the implementation and use of computers in the public school system, from the elementary grades to high school, in Niteroi city, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). This city, with a total population of approximately 500,000, was chosen for this study based on the claim it offers the best educational project in Brazil, and on the fact that it is ranked as the first city in terms of digital inclusion in the state of Rio de Janeiro, and the second one in all Brazil, according to IBGE--Brazilian Institute of Statistics and Geography (Census 2000). This is a rather significant standings and represents an important qualitative and quantitative feature in comparison to other Brazilian municipalities and even to the experience in other countries. In our survey, we found that 82% of the municipal elementary schools (from the 1st to 4th grades, equivalent to the elementary school system in the US, and to the first phase of secondary education in France, and 32% of the state schools, including secondary school (high school system in the US, and the 2nd phase of secondary education in France) have computer laboratories. Difficulties were observed, such as the adequacy of teachers' training and continuing education, computer laboratory schedule, number of computers available, and equipment maintenance. In this context, this work is useful for the establishment of policies of implementation and use of this technology in Brazil, since as yet there is no established world policy, despite UNESCO initiatives.


de Freitas, S.; Oliver, M.; Mee, A.; Mayes, T. (2008).  The Practitioner Perspective on the Modeling of Pedagogy and Practice  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24, 1. 

The promotion of e-learning in policies internationally has led to questions about how best to employ technology in support of learning. A range of models has since been developed that attempts to relate pedagogy to technology. However, research into the effectiveness of such models in changing teaching practice is sparse, and work that compares these models to practitioners' own representations of their practice is absent. The study described here involved asking practitioners to model their own practice, and to compare these with a model developed by a government organization. Practitioners were adept at using existing models and repurposing them to suit their own context. Our research provided evidence of broad acceptance of the existing model with practitioners, but indicated that practitioners would take this tool and remodel it for their own contexts of learning to make it meaningful, relevant and useful to them.


de Freitas, Sara (2007).  Post-16 e-Learning Content Production: A Synthesis of the Literature  British Journal of Educational Technology, 38, 2. 

This paper provides a metareview of how e-learning content is currently being produced and embedded in the learning practice in further education, work-based learning and community learning contexts. Based upon this metareview, the paper has identified four categories of content production used: (1) learner-authored content, (2) practitioner-authored content, (3) commercial- and public sector-commissioned content and (4) combinations of these categories. The metareview also identifies several well-used, practitioner-based and institutional models for embedding e-learning content into practice, exploring some of the implications of this upon practitioners.


de Freitas, Sara; Griffiths, Mark (2008).  The Convergence of Gaming Practices with Other Media Forms: What Potential for Learning? A Review of the Literature  Learning

Nowhere in the current digital technology landscape is the process of "blurring the lines between media" more apparent than with the uses and applications of gaming practices and technologies. Here the overlaps between new media and media interfaces are becoming significant as games technologies and practices are becoming more pervasive as commonplace social practices. This article reviews literature for evidence of these trends of convergent media forms as a starting point for a wider debate for using games technologies and practices to support learning practices. The article outlines convergences between gaming and cinema, gaming and the Internet, and gaming and emergent technologies and interfaces (e.g. mobile phones and social software). The article aims to foreground major dimensions of convergence in relation to the potential of innovations in educational practice and activities. The article concludes that variant forms of gaming are widespread. But while the converging forms of gaming with other media forms provide potential for supporting educational practices, these new forms still need to be considered in relation to clear pedagogic strategies, supported peer interactions and tutor engagement.


de Freitas, Sara; Harrison, Ian; Magoulas, George; Mee, Adrian; Mohamad, Fitri; Oliver, Martin; Papamarkos, George; Poulovassilis, Alexandra (2006).  The Development of a System for Supporting the Lifelong Learner  British Journal of Educational Technology, 37, 6. 

Given the rapidly changing skills needs of post-industrial economies, lifelong learning forms an integral part of government policy within the UK and abroad. However, like the UK, most economies are faced with the problem of how to reach those sections of the community that have traditionally not embraced learning and educational opportunities. In this paper, the development and evaluation of a system designed to address this problem is described. The Lifelong Learning in London for All (L4All) project has investigated the concept of trails as a way of organising lifelong learning opportunities. The L4All pilot system combines a set of web services to provide the functionality needed to support this central idea. The development process was outlined, and the findings of an empirical study were used to confirm proof of concept.


de Freitas, Sara; Oliver, Martin (2005).  Does E-Learning Policy Drive Change in Higher Education? A Case Study Relating Models of Organisational Change to E-Learning Implementation  Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 27, 1. 

Due to the heightened competition introduced by the potential global market and the need for structural changes within organisations delivering e-content, e-learning policy is beginning to take on a more significant role within the context of educational policy per se. For this reason, it is becoming increasingly important to establish what effect such policies have and how they are achieved. This paper addresses this question, illustrating five ways in which change is understood (Fordist, evolutionary, ecological, community of practice and discourse-oriented) and then using this range of perspectives to explore how e-learning policy drives change (both organisational and pedagogic) within a selected higher education institution. The implications of this case are then discussed, and both methodological and pragmatic conclusions are drawn, considering the relative insights offered by the models and ways in which change around e-learning might be supported or promoted.


de Freitas, Sara; Oliver, Martin (2006).  How Can Exploratory Learning with Games and Simulations within the Curriculum Be Most Effectively Evaluated?  Computers and Education, 46, 3. 

There have been few attempts to introduce frameworks that can help support tutors evaluate educational games and simulations that can be most effective in their particular learning context and subject area. The lack of a dedicated framework has produced a significant impediment for the uptake of games and simulations particularly in formal learning contexts. This paper addresses this shortcoming by introducing a four-dimensional framework for helping tutors to evaluate the potential of using games- and simulation-based learning in their practice, and to support more critical approaches to this form of games and simulations. The four-dimensional framework is applied to two examples from practice to test its efficacy and structure critical reflection upon practice.


Defranco-Tommarello, Joanna; Deek, Fadi P. (2005).  A Study of Collaborative Software Development Using Groupware Tools  Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 16, 1. 

The experimental results of a collaborative problem solving and program development model that takes into consideration the cognitive and social activities that occur during software development is presented in this paper. This collaborative model is based on the Dual Common Model that focuses on individual cognitive aspects of problem solving and programming. The Dual Common Model, shown to improve the problem solving and programming skills of individual programmers (Deek, 1997), was extended to integrate groupware needs. The model was tested using a groupware tool called Groove. The study includes four conditions: Groove and the collaborative model, Groove alone, the collaborative model alone, and neither groove nor the collaborative model. The subjects were students of a graduate course in object oriented programming at the New Jersey Institute of Technology.


Der-Thanq, Chen; David, Hung W. L. (2002).  Two Kinds of Scaffolding: The Dialectical Process within the Authenticity-Generalizability (A-G) Continuum.  Educational Technology & Society, 5, 4. 

Discusses problems relating to situated cognition and cognitivist approaches to learning and instruction. Contends that authenticity and generalizability are compatible; introduces the notion of the authenticity-Generalizability (A-G) continuum, where the emphasis should be scaffolding within the continuum; and proposes two kinds of information technology scaffolds.


Der-Thanq, Chen; Hung, David; Wang, Yu-Mei (2007).  Educational Design as a Quest for Congruence: The Need for Alternative Learning Design Tools  British Journal of Educational Technology, 38, 5. 

There is a common predicament faced by educational designers, that is, the lack of learning design tools for nontraditional pedagogies of learning. Because of this lack of alternatives, educational designers often use traditional design tools (such as task analysis) in contexts where nontraditional learning activities (such as collaborative projects) are desired. Because the learning goals of objectivist and alternative epistemologies differ, the designed instructional/learning activities do not match the original goals or desired learning outcomes. It is argued that learning design should be understood of as a quest for congruence between learning epistemologies and designs. This paper proposes an analytical framework to help identify the congruence or lack thereof of a learning design. The framework consists of: (1) the employed epistemology and desired learning outcome, (2) focus of analysis, (3) focus of design and (4) the design process. It is hoped that this framework will provide a lever for developing design tools that are more congruent with alternative pedagogies.


DeRoma, Virginia; Nida, Steve (2004).  A Focus on "Hands-On," Learner-Centered Technology at The Citadel  TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 48, 5. 

While advances in technology have enhanced the quality and variety of visual presentations in teaching, most instructors find themselves teaching to a generation of students who are difficult to dazzle. Although the innovative use of technology in and outside of the classroom is a challenge, selecting practices that optimize technology as a tool may foster a learner-centered climate for students who have been speeding along the technological highway for many years. Huba and Freed (2000) have noted the following hallmarks of learner-centered teaching and assessment: (a) promotes high expectations; (b) respects diverse talents; (c) enhances early years of study; (d) promotes coherence in learning; (e) synthesizes experiences, fosters ongoing practice of learned skills and integrates education and experience, (f) actively involves students in learning and promotes adequate time on task; (g) provides prompt feedback; (h) fosters collaboration and (i) depends on increased student-faculty contact. This article discusses the technological practices adopted by instructors at The Citadel that promote five of the nine learner-centered goals identified by Huba and Freed. These include coherence in learning, ongoing practice, active involvement in learning, prompt feedback and collaboration. Instructors at The Citadel who are interested in transforming traditional classrooms into learner-centered environments have been restructuring their teaching practices to focus on and incorporate tools of teaching that promote engagement and learning (Darden & Richardson-Jones, 2003). In summary, technological practices related to use of virtual reality programs have promoted students' active involvement in learning. The tools discussed here have revolutionized how the faculty at The Citadel think about ways of knowing and have encouraged them to challenge themselves with new practices that maximize student interest and successful learning. Blending technology with a learner-centered approach can send a powerful message to students at any level: we are willing to meet you where you are. Technology has changed lives because it is designed to help tasks get done more quickly, and the Citadel faculty members have discovered that technology can speed up the top-priority task in their department and their institution: student learning.


Derry, J. (2007).  Epistemology and Conceptual Resources for the Development of Learning Technologies  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 23, 6. 

The issues raised by the design and development of technologies to enhance learning has led to a demand for an appropriate language and form of conceptualization. However, we are insufficiently familiar with the way in which different types of mediated tool use occur, to develop the theoretical models needed for the development of this language and form of conceptualization. In its absence a somewhat eclectic variety of concepts and research, such as the concept of affordance, are recruited in accounts of learning with new technologies. In looking briefly at the relevant area in philosophy this paper will consider whether or not the use of concepts such as affordance give adequate weight to social practice, meaning and knowledge in the design of educational technology. A fruitful source for work in this field which has not been sufficiently exploited is philosophy, particularly recent work in epistemology.


DerVanik, Rick (2005).  The Use of PDAs to Assess in Physical Education  Journal of Physical Education

Technology in the 21st century is dominating the way we live our lives. Computers, Internet, cell phones, global positioning systems, and video game programs all shape the way we view the world. As technology advances, expectations for the use of technology and the data that technology provides advance. Technology is making it easier for our society to become data driven. Many, if not all, decisions made by businesses, school districts, and major corporations are based on collected data. The idea of collecting data about the strengths and weaknesses of a physical education program in an efficient manner left the author with an interesting question: How can one incorporate technology into physical education in a way that would collect assessment information that can be converted into meaningful data for students, staff, and administrators? The answer that the author came up with was to use personal digital assistants


Dervarics, Charles (2005).  Wiring Schools for Success: Lawmakers Revive Bill to Assist Minority-Serving Institutions in Upgrading Technology Infrastructure  Black Issues in Higher Education, 22, 2. 

It is no secret that many historically Black colleges and universities are trailing behind TWIs (Traditional White Institutions) in the technology race. In fact, a 2000 study conducted by the National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education (NAFEO) for the U.S. Department of Commerce found that most HBCUs did not have high-speed Internet access and only 3 percent of colleges said financial help was available to help students purchase computers and close the digital divide. But help may be on the way as a long-delayed plan to improve the technology infrastructure at Black colleges is showing new signs of life in Congress this year.A bill from Sen. George Allen, R-Va., would revive the concept, with annual funding of $250 million for five years.


Derwing, Tracey M.; Munro, Murray J. (2005).  Second Language Accent and Pronunciation Teaching: A Research-Based Approach  TESOL Quarterly: A Journal for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages and of Standard English as a Second Dialect, 39, 3. 

Empirical studies are essential to improving our understanding of the relationship between accent and pronunciation teaching. However, the study of pronunciation has been marginalized within the field of applied linguistics. As a result, teachers are often left to rely on their own intuitions with little direction. Although some instructors can successfully assist their students under these conditions, many others are reluctant to teach pronunciation. In this article we call for more research to enhance our knowledge of the nature of foreign accents and their effects on communication. Research of this type has much to offer to teachers and students in terms of helping them to set learning goals, identifying appropriate pedagogical priorities for the classroom, and determining the most effective approaches to teaching. We discuss these possibilities within a framework in which mutual intelligibility is the primary consideration, although social ramifications of accent must also be taken into account. We describe several problem areas and identify some misconceptions about pronunciation instruction. In addition, we make suggestions for future research that would address intelligibility, functional load, computer-assisted language learning, and the role of the listener. Finally, we recommend greater collaboration between researchers and practitioners, such that more classroom-relevant research is undertaken.


Donahue, Steven (2001).  Language Learning Online.  Distance Education Report, 5 n17 p1, 3 Sep 1. 

Two programs that have been successful at integrating a number of suitable conditions for learning a foreign language in the online environment are Spanish at Rio Salado Community College in Tempe, Arizona, and French at Coastline Community College in Fountain Valley, California. Discussion includes instructional delivery; course lab experience; activities and testing; communication and participation; and multimedia tools.


Donald, David; Wallace, Iain (2007).  Seeking to Institutionally Embed Lessons from a Funded Project: Experiences from the Digital Libraries in the Classroom Spoken Word Project at Glasgow Caledonian University  British Journal of Educational Technology, 38, 5. 

The Joint Information Systems Committee and the National Science Foundation programme, Digital Libraries in the Classroom (DLiC), addresses implications for the learning of the revolution in scholarly communication. What are the obstacles to undergraduates "'writing' on and for the Internet"? Glasgow Caledonian University (GCU) is a partner in one of the DLiC-funded projects, Spoken Word. At GCU the focus was on the practical demonstration of the implications and potential for learning of a remote electronic library extremely and extensively rich in culturally significant multimedia; the archives of the British Broadcasting Corporation. This paper considers one significant objective--embedding the developments generated in the project. It considers the reactions of major stakeholders to the attempts of the project team to raise institutional awareness of developments and pursue a strategy to induce change. This account is interim; the project has a 5-year life, from 2003 to 2008.


Dondi, Claudio; Moretti, Michela (2007).  A Methodological Proposal for Learning Games Selection and Quality Assessment  British Journal of Educational Technology, 38, 3. 

This paper presents a methodological proposal elaborated in the framework of two European projects dealing with game-based learning, both of which have focused on "quality" aspects in order to create suitable tools that support European educators, practitioners and lifelong learners in selecting and assessing learning games for use in teaching and learning processes. Both projects Uni-Game (Game-Based Learning for Universities and Life Long Learning) and Sig-Glue (Special Interest Group for Game-Based Learning in Universities and Lifelong Learning) have been cofunded by the European Commission since 2002, and both have involved organisations from different European countries, backgrounds and expertises, and as a result of this work, a "classification of games by learning purposes" and an "evaluation framework for assessing games" have been designed and placed at the disposal of European educators, practitioners and lifelong learners.


Dong, Andy; Agogino, Alice M. (2001).  Design Principles for the Information Architecture of a SMET Education Digital Library. 

This implementation paper introduces principles for the information architecture of an educational digital library, principles that address the distinction between designing digital libraries for education and designing digital libraries for information retrieval in general. Design is a key element of any successful product. Good designers and their designs put technology into the hands of the user, making the product's focus comprehensible and tangible through design. As straightforward as this may appear, the design of learning technologies is often masked by the enabling technology. In fact, they often lack an explicitly stated instructional design methodology. While the technologies are important hurdles to overcome, the report advocates learning systems that empower education-driven experiences rather than technology-driven experiences. This work describes a concept for a digital library for science, mathematics, engineering and technology education (SMETE), a library with an information architecture designed to meet learners' and educators' needs. Utilizing a constructivist model of learning, the paper presents practical approaches to implementing the information architecture and its technology underpinnings. The study proposes the specifications for the information architecture and a visual design of a digital library for communicating learning to the audience. The design methodology indicates that a scenario-driven design technique sensitive to the contextual nature of learning offers a useful framework for tailoring technologies that help empower, not hinder, the educational sector.   | [FULL TEXT]


Dongping, Yang (2006).  An Analysis of Commidification of Education  Chinese Education and Society, 39, 5. 

Today, with the development of a market economy, education has taken on certain characteristics of an industry. It needs to adopt some market mechanisms to increase its vitality and efficiency. Society generally has accepted that the individual should share some cost of education. Supporters and opponents of the concept recognize this point. The debate centers on whether education is to be commodified. The author maintains that this debate on terminology does not carry much theoretical significance. On the contrary, it detracts people's attention from this process. Although official policies do not mention the commodification of education, the issue is a serious one and one that does not exist in countries with a developed market. The fate of an approach is not decided by theoretical debates or position statements, but by the needs, values, and interests in a society. There are different opinions as to what actions and contents constitute the commodification of education. People attach different meanings to this term. In the narrow sense, it refers to school-operated enterprises, science/technology, and service industries. In the broadest sense, commodification of education means using various market means to expand educational resources and market mechanisms to operate education. The sharp criticisms of and opposition to the commodification of education in public opinion are based precisely on this broad understanding of the term that covers all the irrationality and chaos engendered by the schools' preoccupation with business and profit. The commodification of education and the marketization of higher education do have their special theoretical connotation and implication. The author is inclined to regard the maladies as the consequences of a reform that has adhered to an "exclusively financial perspective." This requires special analysis and understanding at the present time.


Donker, Afke; Reitsma, Pieter (2007).  Young Children's Ability to Use a Computer Mouse  Computers and Education, 48, 4. 

Because there is little empirical data available on how well young children are able to use a computer mouse, the present study examined their proficiency in clicking on small objects at various positions on the screen and their skill in moving objects over the screen, using drag-and-drop and click-move-click. The participants were 104 children from Kindergarten 2 and Grade 1. The results show that children in Kindergarten 2 clicked and moved slower than children in Grade 1. Nearly all of the children were able to click within 3 mm horizontally and 6 mm vertically from the centre of a 3 mm target. The findings also demonstrate that in educational software drag-and-drop is the most appropriate movement procedure as it was found to be faster than click-move-click and resulted in fewer interaction errors. Interesting differences between horizontal and vertical movements were found. It is concluded that young children are generally well capable of using a mouse to operate educational software, making this a suitable input device for such applications.


Donlevy, Jim (2004).  How Do You Keep 'Em down on the Farm after They've Seen Technology? The Stone Barns Center for Food and Agriculture  International Journal of Instructional Media, 31, 4. 

In an age dominated by technology, teachers are challenged as never before to help students understand the deep connections they share with people from earlier times and nowhere is this more dramatically revealed than in basic farm life. This article discusses the Stone Barns Center for Food and Agriculture and describes technology use that connects one to the past and shows the links between food, farm and table. As a counterweight to the developments of technology, the Center shows clearly how farming is essential to the quality of life, how animals must be cared for to produce food, and how proper practices can sustain a healthful environment for the local and global communities.


Donlevy, Jim (2004).  Innovation: A Multimedia Program Series Focusing on Technological Advances  International Journal of Instructional Media, 31, 2. 

Innovation is an eight-part multimedia television series airing on public broadcasting stations throughout the United States. It focuses on technological breakthroughs and the personalities and circumstances that bring about dramatic changes in daily living. The series offers an array of fascinating material designed to engage students with current trends in technology and to stimulate classroom learning. As part of the program series, Innovation provides a comprehensive website offering lesson plan ideas, video clips and extensive resource materials suitable for classroom use. This article describes the series and its benefit to teachers and students.


Donlevy, Jim (2004).  Preparing Future Educational Leaders: Technology Standards for School Administrators  International Journal of Instructional Media, 31, 3. 

Professional organizations, academicians, departments of education and others concerned with the preparation of future school leaders have recognized that there are a variety of competencies and skills needed by those who will lead schools and districts. At the least, among those competencies are an ability to convey a strong sense of leadership and purpose, capability to work cooperatively with a variety of groups and teams, and capacity to assess, manage, develop and improve programs. This article discusses standards in technology developed by the Collaborative for Technology Standards for School Administrators (TSSA). These standards will be described along with implications for programs preparing future school leaders.


Donlevy, Jim (2004).  Cyberchase: A Website for Parents and Teachers  International Journal of Instructional Media, 31, 1. 

Cyberchase is an animated television series airing on public broadcasting stations throughout the United States. It focuses on mathematics for elementary-level students ages 8-11 and is designed to engage young people with math concepts in a highly stimulating multimedia format. As part of continuing program improvement, a website for parents and teachers has been added to existing online resources. Building upon the success of the Cyberchase website for students, the website for parents and teachers offers sound advice to help busy adults navigate the series and its various episodes. This brief article describes the program series, online resources and the website for parents and teachers.


Donlevy, Jim (2005).  Teachers, Technology and Training: A New Year's Resolution for 2005--Greater Understanding of the Most Vulnerable Students  International Journal of Instructional Media, 32, 1. 

As another calendar year gets under way, many personal New Year's resolutions are being discussed; some will be cast aside and others will be implemented. The field of education also witnesses numerous calls for change and renewal from year to year. This article calls for a modest New Year's resolution for the field of education; namely, that there be greater understanding of the most vulnerable children in schools and districts.


Donlevy, Jim (2005).  Instructional Media Initiatives: Focusing on the Educational Resources Center at Thirteen/wnet, New York, New York-- Slavery and the Making of America  International Journal of Instructional Media, 32, 1. 

Slavery and the Making of America, a four-part series from PBS, is airing throughout the United States during February 2005. This landmark series examines the history of slavery in the United States and the significant role it played in shaping the development of the Nation. This article describes the series, including online resources, and discusses its usefulness for teachers and students.


Donlevy, Jim (2005).  Envisioning the Future: The U.s. Department of Education's National Technology Plan.  International Journal of Instructional Media, 32, 2. 

Considerable thought is being directed toward the future of education and technology. What will schools of the future look like? What impact will technology have on how teachers teach and how students learn? What transformations are already underway with the Internet and an array of digital tools? This article examines these questions and discusses the U.S. Department of Education's recently released National Technology Plan.


Donlevy, Jim (2005).  The Future of Work: Technology Beckons  International Journal of Instructional Media, 32, 3. 

In the schools, each day, teachers see cell phones, laptops, iPods, personal digital assistants, computer games and more. They are struggling to cope with this technological profusion as new devices seem to appear almost daily. With the pace of technological change, the emergence of new technologies, demographic changes and trends towards globalization, schools and teachers lace tremendous challenges to help their students prepare for the world opening before them. In this article, the author discusses the future of work, the role of technology and how teachers should be helping their students to prepare for the future. While the future cannot be predicted with certainty, the major trends discussed in this article suggest that greater technological skills coupled with technical expertise will give students the competitive edge in higher education and the workforce of tomorrow.


Donlevy, Jim (2005).  Innovative Teacher Professional Development: PBS Teacherline  International Journal of Instructional Media, 32, 3. 

Teachers, like other professionals, must stay current with developments in the field and continue to increase their knowledge and skills to remain effective in the classroom. Professional development requires a commitment of time and resources. Schools and districts understand this obligation to support staff development and expect increased student learning in the face of higher standards and graduation requirements. With full daily schedules and pressing workloads, teachers are always looking for better ways to improve their skills and meet the professional requirements of their positions. Internet options for advanced education and professional development are gaining increased attention. One innovative online provider is the PBS TeacherLine. In this article, the author describes the service and sketch advantages of PBS TeacherLine for teachers.


Donlevy, Jim (2005).  New York State's Virtual Learning System  International Journal of Instructional Media, 32, 4. 

This article deals with the Virtual Learning System (VLS) (http://eservices.nysed.gov/vls/%29 which has been developed by New York State's State Education Department. This article describes VLS and discusses advantages to teachers, students, parents and the general public. VLS is designed to encourage use of the Internet as a teaching tool and to help classroom teachers locate appropriate educational resources. In this article, the author talks about the Gateway to Educational Materials and the MCI Marcopolo Initiative, which provides access to educational materials.


Donlevy, Jim (2005).  A Celebration of Teaching and Learning  International Journal of Instructional Media, 32, 4. 

This article deals with a two-day conference entitled "Celebration of Teaching and Learning," presented by Public Broadcasting Stations Thirteen/WNET and WLIW, which includes presentations, opportunities for professional development, a "Town Hall" meeting and various exhibits to showcase educational materials, products and services. This article describes the event and discusses benefits for teachers and other potential attendees. Among other things, this article presents founding partners of the "Celebration of Teaching and Learning."


Donlevy, Jim (2006).  Instructional Media Initiatives Focusing on the Educational Resources Center at Thirteen/WNET, New York, New York: Resources for Teachers--Accessing Technology-Rich Lesson Plans  International Journal of Instructional Media, 33, 1. 

This article discusses one excellent source of lesson plan resources for teachers, which is Public Broadcasting Station Thirteen/WNET (www.thirteen.org/edonline). This article describes the lesson plans available in multimedia formats and discuss benefits to teachers. Here, the author points out that the high quality lessons available online have been developed by master teachers and will surely be welcomed by professional teaching staff as they look to improve and enhance their pedagogical skills.


Donlevy, Jim (2006).  Teachers, Technology and Training  International Journal of Instructional Media, 33, 3. 

Future-point learning is a perspective that anticipates new developments and concentrates on the future emerging into view. Future-point learning takes as its starting point the requirements of tomorrow and what will be needed in the future. This article discusses professional development for school leaders grounded in the idea of future-point learning and considers some strategies for enhancing programs.


Donlevy, Jim (2006).  Texas Ranch House: Interactive Programming from Thirteen/WNET  International Journal of Instructional Media, 33, 3. 

Texas Ranch House, produced by Thirteen/WNET and Wall to Wall Television, is a dynamic look at life in Texas in the 1860s, before the development of modem conveniences. In addition to the video program series, Texas Ranch House boasts an extensive interactive website (www.pbs.org/wnetlranchhouse) that will be of interest to teachers and students. This brief article describes the initiative.


Donlevy, Jim (2006).  Teachers, Technology and Training: Future-Point Learning and Prospective School Leaders  International Journal of Instructional Media, 33, 4. 

Future-point learning is a perspective that looks ahead to the future rather than backwards to yesterday. It asks, "What will be needed tomorrow?" rather than focusing on today's or yesterday's learning requirements. This article describes some career planning strategies from the perspective future-point learning and suggests the usefulness of this approach in work with prospective school leaders.


Donlevy, Jim (2006).  CYBERCHASE: The Interactive Math Adventure Series Enters Its Fifth Season  International Journal of Instructional Media, 33, 4. 

CYBERCHASE, an interactive math-based adventure series for young viewers, is entering its fifth season on public broadcasting stations in the United States. This article explore season highlights and suggests benefits of using CYBERCHASE to supplement math lessons in school and at home.


Donlon, Joe (2007).  Classroom Independence  Exceptional Parent, 37, 10. 

As a technician for the Continuing Education department at Confederation College, the author was approached by an Academic Support Strategist from college's Learning Centre who was looking for a solution for one of her students. She was working with a hard-of-hearing student, and at the time, they were sitting together in the classrooms, sharing a laptop on which the strategist was typing notes about the course content. The strategist wanted the student to be able to be as independent as possible in the classroom yet still benefit from the "real time" notes she was taking for her. As a solution, the author recommended Elluminate's VRoom, a free software application, for the student and note taker. They were able to share notes using their laptops (Windows and Mac OS) in real time.


Donnell, Kelly; Harper, Kelly (2005).  Inquiry in Teacher Education: Competing Agendas  Teacher Education Quarterly, 32, 3. 

To address the lack of connection between theory and practice, a number of recent reforms in teacher education have included inquiry-based programs and/or new types of education courses, which encourage student teachers to be reflective problem solvers and change agents. Based on a pilot course for student teachers, the authors, also aspiring teacher educators, studied the process of implementing an inquiry approach toward teaching and learning to teach while simultaneously responding to the issues and needs of the student teachers. Results of their study indicated that inquiry-as-a-stance for both beginning teachers and teacher educators provides a more ecological approach to teacher education.


Donnelly, Roisin (2006).  Blended Problem-Based Learning for Teacher Education: Lessons Learnt  Learning

This paper explores case study research of the group process for teachers as learners in an Online Learning Module delivered in a blended problem-based learning (PBL) environment. Blended learning, as the name suggests, consists of a blend of at least two pedagogical approaches: within the context of this research, blended learning is the integration of the PBL face-to-face learning in a classroom with an e-learning environment. The 10-week module was part of an accredited Postgraduate Diploma in Third Level Learning and Teaching for academic staff (lecturers, librarians, learning technology support staff) from a range of higher education institutions in the Republic of Ireland. This Post graduate Diploma attracts academic staff keen to experience and implement a variety of pedagogical approaches within their own teaching. Over the four years of the module's existence, there have been a wide variety of subject disciplines in higher education represented. This paper shares experiences and lessons learnt from the case study, and provides a set of recommendations for other teachers pursuing this form of blended PBL with students.


Donohue, Chip; Clark, Douglas (2004).  Learning Online: The Places You'll Go!  Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine Since 1978

The Internet is a powerful tool for building community, for exchanging ideas and information, and for learning. Taking a course or training program online can be very gratifying, yet equally frustrating. Learning online can be a wonderful adventure. This article discusses survival skills and practical tips in taking online class or training programs. These skills and tips are as follows: (1) know the tech specs; (2) get a handle on the basics; (3) try out all the tools, and (4) use them or lose them. Furthermore, the authors share their secrets to success. These secrets includes the following: (1) stay connected; (2) do not be shy; (3) get help; (4) sample everything; (5) participate; and (6) collaborate. Furthermore, the authors suggest that everyone should make the most of discussions. To keep online discussions lively and interactive, one must always: make it personal, keep the tone friendly and conversational, but professional, be clear, be brief, speak up, and observe the standard rules of Netiquette.


Donohue, Chip; Fox, Selena; LaBonte, Monica (2004).  eLearning: What Students Can Teach Us  Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine Since 1978

Online courses, credentials, and degree programs in early childhood education have become a significant way to deliver teacher education and professional development. Online students have many choices and can access training and courses with few, if any, limitations of times and distance. Much has been written about how to design and deliver effective online courses and how to be an effective eTeacher, but less is known about what it is like to be an online student, and what experiences students value most. Administrators need to ask if the eLearning experiences they offer are based on accurate assumptions about what students want and need. In this article, the authors share some of their "lessons learned" from the real eLearning experts--the online students--to better understand the characteristics and elements of an effective online course for early childhood professionals. The authors identify a few of the lessons they learned from the students, and they explore the implications for early childhood eTeaching and eLearning.


Donohue, Chip; Fox, Selena; Torrence, Debra (2007).  Early Childhood Educators as eLearners: Engaging Approaches to Teaching and Learning Online  Young Children, 62, 4. 

Early childhood educators are going to class online in ever increasing numbers, yet many questions remain about appropriate uses of technology, learning effectiveness, learner support, and faculty development in this emerging environment for teacher education and professional development. This article explores teaching and learning online through the eyes of early childhood learners and teacher educators; discusses online learning standards and guidelines; and profiles a higher education institution launching an online mode of study.


Donohue, Patricia J.; Kelley-Lowe, Mary Beth; Hoover, John J. (2001).  From Mythology to Technology: Sisyphus Makes the Leap To Learn. 

A five-year U.S. Department of Education Technology Innovation Challenge Grant, the NatureShift! Linking Learning to Life project was awarded in 1997 to the partnership of Dakota Science Center and the Grand Forks Public Schools (North Dakota). It was designed with partners from the Sahnish Cultural Society and the University of North Dakota to take technology and hands-on learning to an information-isolated highway of communities, including public schools, tribal schools, parks, museums and libraries. It soon became a true test of mettle for learners, educators, community volunteers, and instructional designers alike. This paper discusses lessons learned from the project's first three years of training educators in the application of the NatureShift Exploration Model, a teaching and learning strategy that borrows heavily from informal education, formal education, and instructional technology. The model establishes a standard for teaching and learning with technology derived from constructivist, inquiry-based educational theory and practice. As a professional development and learning tool, the model proved as difficult to teach as the new technologies it used. It soon proved its value, however, once trainers stopped teaching it and began using it to teach. Likewise, the findings of the project have shown that teaching new technology works more effectively when educators are not taught the technology but rather are given opportunities to use it to do what they do best--teach.  | [FULL TEXT]


Donovan, Loretta; Hartley, Kendall; Strudler, Neal (2007).  Teacher Concerns during Initial Implementation of a One-to-One Laptop Initiative at the Middle School Level  Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 39, 3. 

Many schools are initiating projects that place laptop computers into the hands of each student and teacher in the school. These projects entail a great deal of planning and investment by all involved. The teachers in these schools are faced with significant challenges as they prepare for teaching in classrooms where every student has a computer. Using the Concerns-Based Adoption Model of change, this study investigated the concerns of teachers in the early stages of a one-to-one laptop initiative. The results of the study indicate that teachers fall into two relatively well-defined categories in terms of their concerns regarding the innovation. The majority of teachers have genuine concerns about how the introduction of laptop computers into the school environment will impact them personally. A lesser number have concerns about how they will be able to best use the laptops to meet the needs of the students. Implications for professional development include differentiating training based on teacher concerns, ensuring teachers have a voice in the process and are well-informed of decisions pertaining to the adoption, and implementation of the innovation.  | [FULL TEXT]


Darabi, A. Aubteen (2005).  Application of Cognitive Apprenticeship Model to a Graduate Course in Performance Systems Analysis: A Case Study  Educational Technology Research and Development, 53, 1. 

This article reports a case study describing how the principles of a cognitive apprenticeship (CA) model developed by Collins, Brown, and Holum (1991) were applied to a graduate course on performance systems analysis (PSA), and the differences this application made in student performance and evaluation of the course compared to the previous semester. I analyzed the requirements for the CA learning environment and identified the contributions of instructor, students, and the course based on those requirements. I then applied the findings to create an authentic learning environment based on CA principles. In this case the students became performance consultants, immersed in practical application of the PSA content and methodology to authentic organizational performance issues provided by real clients. Finally, I compare student evaluations of the course to student evaluations in the previous semester, and report their responses to a set of open-ended questions concerning the application of CA principles.


Darabi, Abbas; Nelson, David W. (2004).  Training and Transfer of Complex Cognitive Skills: Effects of Worked Examples and Conventional Problem-Solving  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

Thirty six senior students in chemical engineering were randomly assigned to three treatment groups in an experimental study that examined the impact of different instructional strategies for troubleshooting malfunctions in a computer-based simulation of a chemical processing plant. In two groups, different types of worked examples, process-oriented and product-oriented, were given to participants as instructional strategies for troubleshooting four plant malfunctions. The third group was given a conventional problem solving strategy for the same four problems. The results of participants' performance on solving a set of eight near-transfer problems indicated no significant transfer differences among the treatments. Neither did a far transfer task result in any significant differences. The findings of the current study supported the notion of the "expertise reversal effect" (Kalyuga, Ayres, Chandler, & Sweller, 2003), which argues that presenting new information to learners with pre-existing schemata in a given domain does not improve transfer and may induce extraneous cognitive load. Given the prior knowledge of the participants, these findings were also consistent with Sweller's (2004) thesis on the "central executive function" and his description of the "redundancy effect." | [FULL TEXT]


Darden, Edwin C., Ed. (2001).  Legal Issues & Education Technology: A School Leader's Guide. An ITTE Technology Leadership Network Special Report. Second Edition. 

This book is intended to help school leaders achieve a workable balance that allows schools to take advantage of the educational and administrative benefits of digital technologies while protecting the district from disruptive and expensive litigation. Chapter 1, "Student Learning and the Law of School Technology," focuses on developing policies and practices for regulating student use of e-mail, the Internet, and the World Wide Web. Chapter 2, "Administrative Issues in School Technology," addresses school-district liabilities in areas such as sexual harassment and universal access for persons with disabilities. Chapter 3, "Legal Considerations in Regulating Employee Use of School Technology," addresses several issues related to staff access to computers, such as personal use and privacy, and First Amendment concerns. Chapter 4, "Copyright Law," reviews fundamental principles of copyright law that educators are likely to encounter when dealing with digital technologies. Each chapter concludes with a resource list. Eight appendices contain questions to consider regarding the effects of technology on behavior, annotated sample policies on employee computer use, fair-use guidelines, a sample letter requesting permission to use print materials, and guidelines for uses of music and off-air recordings of broadcast programming for educational purposes. A glossary of technology terms concludes the book.


Darling, Ann L. (2005).  Public Presentations in Mechanical Engineering and the Discourse of Technology  Communication Education, 54, 1. 

Dannels (2001) has advocated Communication in the Disciplines (CID) as a model for Communication Across the Curriculum (CXC) teaching and scholarship. Turning attention toward CID work requires an alternative way of thinking and planning, and invites an expanded, discipline-specific agenda for CXC scholarship. The purpose of this study was to engage in that discipline-specific agenda--using Carolyn Miller's discourse of technology framework to interpret and explore the communication practices of one disciplinary community (mechanical engineering) with attention to the public presentation genre. Using an ethnographic orientation, data were extracted from a variety of documents (the Department of Mechanical Engineering website, course syllabi, assignment descriptions, and guidelines for evaluating oral performances) as well as field notes from meetings and classroom observations. Results illustrate this community was indeed driven by the discourse of technology--that speaking well in this community meant focusing attention on the "object" (and/or visual representations of that object) and away from the self or personal identity of the speaker. This study concludes by discussing implications of these results in terms of CID practice--specifically asking whether we should become agents of those disciplinary discourses with whom we work or whether we should retain some responsibility to the broader mission of a college education.


Darling-Hammond, Linda, Ed.; Bransford, John, Ed. (2005).  Preparing Teachers for a Changing World: What Teachers Should Learn and Be Able to Do  [Jossey-Bass, An Imprint of Wiley] 

Based on rapid advances in what is known about how people learn and how to teach effectively, this important book examines the core concepts and central pedagogies that should be at the heart of any teacher education program. Stemming from the results of a commission sponsored by the National Academy of Education, Preparing Teachers for a Changing World recommends the creation of an informed teacher education curriculum with the common elements that represent state-of-the-art standards for the profession. Written for teacher educators in both traditional and alternative programs, university and school system leaders, teachers, staff development professionals, researchers, and educational policymakers, the book addresses the key foundational knowledge for teaching and discusses how to implement that knowledge within the classroom. Preparing Teachers for a Changing World recommends that, in addition to strong subject matter knowledge, all new teachers have a basic understanding of how people learn and develop, as well as how children acquire and use language, which is the currency of education. In addition, the book suggests that teaching professionals must be able to apply that knowledge in developing curricula that attends to students' needs, the demands of the content, and the social purposes of education: in teaching specific subject matter to diverse students, in managing the classroom, assessing student performance, and using technology in the classroom. After a Preface, this book is divided into the following chapters: (1) Introduction (John Bransford, Linda Darling-Hammond, and Pamela LePage); (2) Theories of Learning and Their Roles in Teaching (John Bransford, Sharon Derry, David Berliner, and Karen Hammerness, with Kelly Lyn Beckett); (3) Educating Teachers for Developmentally Appropriate Practice (Frances Degen Horowitz, Linda Darling-Hammond, and John Bransford, with James Comer, Kathy Rosebrock, Kim Austin, and Frances Rust); (4) Enhancing the Development of Students' Language(s) (Guadalupe Valdes, George Bunch, Catherine Snow, and Carol Lee, with Lucy Matos); (5) Educational Goals and Purposes: Developing a Curricular Vision for Teaching (Linda Darling Hammond, James Banks, Karen Zumwalt, Louis Gomez, Miriam Gamoran Sherin, Jacqueline Griesdorn, and Lou-Ellen Finn); (6) Teaching Subject Matter (Pamela Grossman and Alan Schoenfeld, with Carol Lee); (7) Teaching Diverse Learners (James Banks, Marilyn Cochran-Smith, Luis Moll, Anna Richert, Kenneth Zeichner, Pamela LePage, Linda Darling-Hammond, and Helen Duffy, with Morva McDonald); (8) Assessment (Lorrie Shepard, Karen Hammerness, Linda Darling-Hammond, and Frances Rust, with Joan Baratz Snowden, Edmund Gordon, Cris Gutierrez, and Arturo Pacheco); (9) Classroom Management (Pamela LePage, Linda Darling-Hammond, and Hanife Akar, with Cris Gutierrez, Evelyn Jenkins-Gunn, and Kathy Rosebrock); (10) How Teachers Learn and Develop (Karen Hammerness, Linda Darling-Hammond, and John Bransford, with David Berliner, Marilyn Cochran-Smith, Morva McDonald, Kenneth Zeichner); (11) The Design of Teacher Education Programs (Karen Hammerness and Linda Darling-Hammond, with Pamela Grossman, Frances Rust, and Lee Shulman); and (12) Implementing Curriculum Renewal in Teacher Education: Managing Organizational and Policy Change (Linda Darling-Hammond, Arturo Pacheco, Nicholas Michelli, Pamela LePage, and Karen Hammerness, with Peter Youngs). A Name Index and Subject Index are included.


Darrington, Anjanette (2008).  Six Lessons in e-Learning: Strategies and Support for Teachers New to Online Environments  Teaching English in the Two-Year College, 35, 4. 

In her second semester teaching for Arizona State University, the author suddenly found herself teaching a fully online writing course for the first time. Originally she had been scheduled to teach the course in a hybrid format, meeting face to face with students once a week; however, a coding error in the online class schedule resulted in the necessity of making the course fully online to accommodate students "attending" from multiple campuses. This sudden thrust into the world of online education precluded her receiving much of the excellent training offered by the university and permitted her to commence the experience with many misconceptions and assumptions still firmly in place. Underprepared and unenlightened though she was, the combination of colleague encouragement, technological support, and student feedback contributed to a rapid refinement and, where necessary, restructuring of her approach to meet the needs of her students. The result was valuable lessons in e-learning in terms of course design and educational practice. In this article, the author offers her learning experience in hopes of assisting other new online instructors in breaking through similar misconceptions. The lessons she learned in the virtual classroom encompassed an awareness of technological proficiency, a refinement of effective communication, and an understanding of the true time commitment.


Darrow, Rob (2005).  Big6 Stage 3 - Location and Access Treasure Hunting  Library Media Connection, 23, 7. 

Locating sources and accessing the information they contain is part of the Big6 approach to information problem solving. In this stage of knowing where to look and how to find the required source, library media specialists train students in the use of the card catalog in the library media center.


de Wet, Catharina F. (2006).  Beyond Presentations: Using PowerPoint as an Effective Instructional Tool  Gifted Child Today, 29, 4. 

PowerPoint presentations can be a very effective way of involving all the senses and attention of gifted students. While PowerPoint is a wizard-driven and conceptually easy to use, the use of it should be thought through very carefully--as carefully as any other instructional strategy. Teachers can master the basic principles of effective PowerPoint presentations and more advanced features of the software program while they also plan absorbing and varied learning opportunities for their gifted students by following the suggestions presented in this article.  | [FULL TEXT]


De Wever, Bram; Van Keer, Hilde; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin (2007).  Applying Multilevel Modelling to Content Analysis Data: Methodological Issues in the Study of Role Assignment in Asynchronous Discussion Groups  Learning and Instruction, 17, 4. 

This study focuses on the process, output, and interpretation of "multilevel analyses" on "quantitative content analysis data" derived from asynchronous discussion group transcripts. The impact of role assignments on the level of knowledge construction reflected in students' contributions and the relation between message characteristics and these levels of knowledge construction is studied. Results show that summarisers' contributions and contributions focussing on theory, content moderating, or summaries result in significantly higher levels of knowledge construction. Multilevel modelling handles the hierarchical nesting, interdependency, and unit of analysis problem and is presented as a suitable technique for studying content analysis data from CSCL-environments.


DeWitt, Scott W.; Horn, Patricia S. (2005).  Ubiquitous Computing--Are We Crazy? Point/Counterpoint  Learning and Leading with Technology, 32, 8. 

The push for ubiquitous computing (UC) relies on an understandable and well-intentioned belief that teaching and schooling need to be transformed. This view appears credible based on large-scale criteria, such as test scores relative to other countries, drop-out rates, and economic changes. And the use of technology to achieve this goal is attractive, given the dramatic advances that have recently taken place. But the history of our schools tells us that reform that ignores teachers' views doesn't work. Teachers need to buy in if sustainable change is going to happen in classrooms. Veteran teachers often initiate rookies by telling them to ignore the newest educational fad because whatever they are already doing will come back in fashion soon enough. | [FULL TEXT]


Dewstow, Ross; Wright, Noeline (2005).  Secondary School Students, Online Learning, and External Support in New Zealand  Computers in the Schools, 22, 1-2. 

Efforts combining online learning with classroom-based learning in secondary schools are not often reported. It is even more unusual to read reports detailing ways in which external experts can help both students and teachers learn "on-the-job" using both classroom and online facilities. This is particularly true in New Zealand, where teachers in secondary schools are beginning to understand the possibilities of online learning as an adjunct to normal classroom activities. This report describes a small project in which a secondary school teacher and her students learn about Web design as part of their ICT (information communication technologies) subject and work with an external expert from the local university. Within this project, the external expert acts as a facilitator for both the students' and the teacher's learning.


de Oliveira, E. Capelas (2008).  On a Particular Case of Series  International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 39, 3. 

We present a general formula for a triple product involving four real numbers. As a particular case, we get the sum of a triple product of four odd integers. Some interesting results are recovered. We derive a general formula for more than four odd numbers.


Doering, Aaron; Beach, Richard (2002).  Preservice English Teachers Acquiring Literacy Practices through Technology Tools.  Language Learning & Technology, 6, 3. 

Analyzes the use of various technologies to enhance literacy practices within a multi-genre writing project involving pre-service teachers and middle school students. Twenty-seven pre-service teachers, simultaneously enrolled in a methods and a technology course, collaborated with middle school students using a synchronous Web discussion to develop hypermedia projects that fostered and promoted the use of technology as a tool.


Doering, Aaron; Beach, Richard; O'Brien, David (2007).  Infusing Multimodal Tools and Digital Literacies into an English Education Program  English Education, 40, 1. 

In this article the authors stress the importance of using interactive Web 2.0 tools within methods courses and practicum sites by reflexively noting how and why these tools function to achieve certain rhetorical purposes and foster constructivist learning.


Doering, Aaron; Veletsianos, George; Yerasimou, Theano (2008).  Conversational Agents and Their Longitudinal Affordances on Communication and Interaction  Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 19, 2. 

In this study, we investigate the effects of conversational agents on communication and interaction when used to assist participants in developing an online portfolio. Data from 52 participants were gathered and analyzed through questionnaires, written reflections, transcripts of student-agent interactions, and focus groups. Data revealed that participants communicated with the agents on issues ranging from portfolio development to popular culture. Although participants did not view the agents as particularly helpful in completing class activities, they did use them as social companions throughout the four-week study. Implications of the findings for future design and research include: (a) learner-developed conversational agents, (b) improved "intelligence" with which agents deliver content-based knowledge, and (c) further developed virtual characters that can meet users' humanistic and utilitarian expectations.


D'Orsie, Sharon M.; Day, Karen (2006).  Ten Tips for Teaching a Web Course  Tech Directions, 65, 7. 

Distance learning is a growing trend. There were an estimated 3,077,000 enrollments in all distance education courses offered by two- and four-year institutions in 2000-2001. A survey by the National Center for Educational Statistics revealed that in 2000-2001, 56 percent of two- and four-year degree-granting institutions offered some type of distance learning, and 90 percent of those institutions deliver at least some of their courses via the Internet. This article offers 10 tips for teaching a web course: (1) Identify prerequisites and requirements in preparation for the course listing in the catalog; (2) Clarify the computer requirements for course participation; (3) List the methods a student can use to obtain technical computer support; (4) Be specific (and test the system) with concerns related to how students can purchase books or other learning material before the start of class; (5) Refresh yourself on school policies; (6) Decide on the method of participation and evaluation; (7) Explain the course schedule and student time requirements; (8) Prepare your syllabus as soon as you can; (9) Send each registrant a "welcome letter" upon registration; and (10) Build a learning community.


Dorazio, Patricia; Hickok, Corey (2008).  Modeling the Global Workplace Using Emerging Technologies  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 36, 2. 

The Fall 2006 term of COM495, Senior Practicum in Communication, offered communication and information design students the privilege of taking part in a transatlantic intercultural virtual project. To emulate real world experience in today's global workplace, these students researched and completed a business communication project with German students attending Fachhochschule Hannover, Germany. Students had to come to grips with differences in language and culture, but in doing so, they also developed and refined competencies and skills in emerging technologies. This article covers the course's project and its goals, analyzes the students' experiences, and focuses on the technologies students discovered and used to bridge the cultural, virtual, and communication divide.


Dori, Yehudit J.; Sasson, Irit (2008).  Chemical Understanding and Graphing Skills in an Honors Case-Based Computerized Chemistry Laboratory Environment: The Value of Bidirectional Visual and Textual Representations  Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 45, 2. 

The case-based computerized laboratory (CCL) is a chemistry learning environment that integrates computerized experiments with emphasis on scientific inquiry and comprehension of case studies. The research objective was to investigate chemical understanding and graphing skills of high school honors students via bidirectional visual and textual representations in the CCL learning environment. The research population of our 3-year study consisted of 857 chemistry 12th grade honors students from a variety of high schools in Israel. Pre- and postcase-based questionnaires were used to assess students' graphing and chemical understanding-retention skills. We found that students in the CCL learning environment significantly improved their graphing skills and chemical understanding-retention in the post- with respect to the prequestionnaires. Comparing the experimental students to their non-CCL control peers has shown that CCL students had an advantage in graphing skills. The CCL contribution was most noticeable for experimental students of relatively low academic level who benefit the most from the combination of visual and textual representations. Our findings emphasize the educational value of combining the case-based method with computerized laboratories for enhancing students' chemistry understanding and graphing skills, and for developing their ability to bidirectionally transfer between textual and visual representations.


Dori, Yehudit J.; Tal, Revital T.; Peled, Yehuda (2002).  Characteristics of Science Teachers Who Incorporate Web-Based Teaching.  Research in Science Education, 32, 4. 

Characterizes and classifies the way junior high school science teachers incorporate Web-based learning environments and materials into their teaching. Applies qualitative interpretive methodology and identifies four basic types of science teachers based on professional growth and beliefs about Web-based teaching: (1) the initiator and pathfinder; (2) the follower and conformist; (3) the avoider; and (4) the antagonist. 


Dori, Yehudit Judy; Belcher, John (2005).  How Does Technology-Enabled Active Learning Affect Undergraduate Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism Concepts?  Journal of the Learning Sciences, 14, 2. 

Educational technology supports meaningful learning and enables the presentation of spatial and dynamic images, which portray relationships among complex concepts. The Technology-Enabled Active Learning (TEAL) Project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) involves media-rich software for simulation and visualization in freshman physics carried out in a specially redesigned classroom to facilitate group interaction. These technology-based learning materials are especially useful in electromagnetism to help students conceptualize phenomena and processes. This study analyzes the effects of the unique learning environment of the TEAL project on students' cognitive and affective outcomes. The assessment of the project included examining students' conceptual understanding before and after studying electromagnetism in a media-rich environment. We also investigated the effect of this environment on students' preferences regarding the various teaching methods. As part of the project, we developed pre- and posttests consisting of conceptual questions from standardized tests, as well as questions designed to assess the effect of visualizations and experiments. The research population consisted of 811 undergraduate students. It consisted of a small- and a large-scale experimental groups and a control group. TEAL students improved their conceptual understanding of the subject matter to a significantly higher extent than their control group peers. A majority of the students in the small-scale experiment noted that they would recommend the TEAL course to fellow students, indicating the benefits of interactivity, visualization, and hands-on experiments, which the technology helped enable. In the large-scale implementation students expressed both positive and negative attitudes in the course survey.


Dorin, Michelle (2007).  Online Education of Older Adults and Its Relation to Life Satisfaction  Educational Gerontology, 33, 2. 

The purpose of this research was to study the effect of participation in online education on the life satisfaction of the older adult. Life satisfaction was assessed by scores obtained using questions the from Nuegarten, Havighurst, and Tobin (1961) Life Satisfaction Index-A (LSI-A). Other data was obtained using demographic and procedural questions. Raw data suggested that participation in online education can, in fact, increase life satisfaction. However, when results were tested significance was not determined. An implication of the research is that older adults are positively impacted by even minimal exposure to online education.


Dormann, Claire; Biddle, Robert (2006).  Humour in Game-Based Learning  Learning

This paper focuses on the benefits and utilisation of humour in digital game-based learning. Through the activity theory framework, we emphasise the role of humour as a mediating tool which helps resolve contradictions within the activity system from conjoining educational objectives within the computer game. We then discuss the role of humour within the digital game and its advantages for the learning process, in sustaining emotional and cognitive engagement, as well as stimulating social presence. We argue that humour makes the game experience more enjoyable, through emotional and persuasive arguments and characters that are more believable and interesting, thus in turn stimulating affective learning. We hope that through designing an engaging role-play, we can sustain personalised knowledge that encourages critical thinking.


Dornisch, Michele M.; Sperling, Rayne A. (2004).  Elaborative Questions in Web-Based Text Materials  International Journal of Instructional Media, 31, 1. 

Mayer's SOI theory suggests that supplements added to designed environments can promote learners' knowledge construction and that different types of supplements will serve different purposes in knowledge construction. Some adjuncts can facilitate selection. Other adjuncts, such as diagrams, might facilitate the organization of important information because they require the learner to see relationships not readily apparent in the text. Yet other adjuncts, such as animation, might facilitate the integration of important information within the supplement and with prior knowledge and therefore assist learners' knowledge integration. This study addressed the effects of two different types of inserted supplements in to-be-learned web-based instructional materials. In accord with SOI theory, one type, factual questions, is designed to promote learners' selection of important information. The other, elaborative interrogation, is designed to facilitate deeper processing through integration of the to-be-learned information and prior knowledge. In summary, then, the current work examined the use of inserted questions designed to focus learners' attention or deeper-level processing.


Dornisch, Michele M.; Sperling, Rayne A. (2006).  Facilitating Learning from Technology-Enhanced Text: Effects of Prompted Elaborative Interrogation  Journal of Educational Research, 99, 3. 

The authors examined the use of the elaborative interrogation (EI) strategy with a lengthy text in a technology-enhanced environment. As commonly found in traditional and online text materials, questions appeared in the right margins of the text. Seventy-five randomly assigned volunteers in 2 conditions read instructional materials delivered by the Internet. Dependent measures included learning outcomes of free recall, recognition, and transfer tasks. At immediate and delayed testing, differences between higher order recognition questions and number of elaboration units recalled provided support for integrating EI prompts in technology-enhanced environments. Design suggestions for development and use of Web-based instruction materials in K-16 classrooms are discussed. Future research directions that more fully investigate EI and other strategy prompts within technology-enhanced materials are provided.


Drier, Hollylynne Stohl (2001).  Conceptualization and Design of "Probability Explorer" A Research-based Journey Toward Innovative Educational Software.  TechTrends, 45, 2. 

The design of "Probability Explorer" was inspired by: lack of research-based elementary probability software; constructivist principles for designing computer microworlds; and research on children's probabilistic reasoning. Discussion includes the inspirational and theoretical basis for design; conceptualizing the "Probability Explorer" environment; and the iterative design process.


Drier, Hollylynne Stohl (2001).  Teaching and Learning Mathematics with Interactive Spreadsheets.  School Science and Mathematics, 101, 4. 

Highlights work done in a variety of preservice and in-service mathematics teacher education courses to help teachers use commonly available spreadsheets as an interactive exploratory learning tool. Discuses several examples of teachers' subsequent use of spreadsheets in their own teaching. 


Dringus, Laurie P.; Ellis, Timothy (2005).  Using Data Mining as a Strategy for Assessing Asynchronous Discussion Forums  Computers and Education, 45, 1. 

The purpose of this paper is to show how data mining may offer promise as a strategy for discovering and building alternative representations for the data underlying asynchronous discussion forums. Presently, the instructor's view of the output of a threaded forum is limited to reviewing a transcript or print version of the written dialogue produced by participants. With potentially hundreds of contributions to review for an entire online course, the instructor lacks a comprehensive view of the information embedded in the transcript. In this context, the authors attempt to sort out the question, ''what is data from an online forum?'' among other key questions. The present work seeks to intersect the information (i.e., participation indicators) an instructor may wish to extract from the forum with viewable and useful information that the system could produce from the instructor's query. Temporal participation indicators are used to show how using data and text mining techniques in the query process could improve the instructor's ability to evaluate the progress of a threaded discussion.


Dringus, Laurie P.; Scigliano, John A. (2000).  From Early to Current Developments in Online Learning at Nova Southeastern University: Reflections on Historical Milestones.  Internet and Higher Education, 3, 1-2. 

Traces the major historical milestones achieved by Nova Southeastern University in its pioneering of graduate level online learning programs. Highlights include delivery systems; Web-based electronic classrooms; overview of the technology, including telecommunications through UNIX; evaluation and research; and technology used in the School of Computer and Information Sciences.


Driscoll, Kelly (2007).  E-Portfolios  SchoolArts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 107, 2. 

E-portfolios are online spaces for teachers and students to communicate, share, reflect, and collaborate inside and outside of the classroom. They have created exciting opportunities for teaching and learning worldwide. This article discusses three key factors to the popularity and wide adoption of e-portfolios: easy access, low cost, and high impact on teaching and learning. The process of creating an e-Portfolio not only gives teachers and students an opportunity to build necessary technology skills, but also provides an excellent opportunity for acknowledging strengths, recognizing areas for improvement, and setting goals and milestones.


Driscoll, Marcy (2000).  Fuzzy Cognitive Maps, Web-based Instruction, and Technology Integration. A Report on AECT 2000 Summer Leadership Institute.  TechTrends, 44 n5 p12, 25 Sep 2000. 

Reports on the Association for Educational Technology (AECT) Summer Leadership Institute (Montreal, Canada, July 2000). The Institute opened with icebreaker activities. Then the results of last year's summer institute were reviewed. Participants re-acted to the fuzzy cognitive map that was generated last year. AECT and its future, Web-based instruction, and technology integration were the main themes of the sessions.


Driscoll, Marcy P. (2001).  Computer for What? Examining the Roles of Technology in Teaching and Learning.  Educational Research and Evaluation: An International Journal on Theory and Practice, 7, 2-3. 

Comments on the papers in this special issue. The authors use technology in at least three senses in their discussions, conceptualizing it as technology integration, instructional strategies, and technology tools. Papers such as these are necessary if the use of various types of technology is to be supported by a sound basis in research.


Driscoll, Marcy P. (2002).  How People Learn (and What Technology Might Have To Do with It). ERIC Digest. 

This digest contains four sections that discuss the following broad principles that offer a framework to teachers for thinking about how technology can support their instruction: (1) learning occurs in context, including ways that technology can facilitate learning by providing real world contexts that engage learners in solving complex problems, and computer simulations and computer-based microworlds that offer contexts for learners to explore and understand complex phenomena in a variety of subject areas; (2) learning is active, including the use of brainstorming, concept mapping, or visualization software, as well as simulations that enable learners to experiment with modeling complex ideas; (3) learning is social, including software that supports a networked, multimedia environment in which students collaborate on learning activities; and (4) learning is reflective, including technologies that promote communication within and outside the classroom, making it easier for feedback, reflection, and revision to occur. | [FULL TEXT]


Driscoll, Margaret, Ed.; Reeves, Thomas C., Ed. (2002).  E-Learn 2002 World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, & Higher Education. Proceedings (7th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, October 15-19, 2002). 

The 7th annual E-Learn world conference on e-learning in corporate, government, healthcare, and higher education organized by the Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE) includes more than 600 papers. Papers from this proceedings come from contributors representing more than 50 countries, sharing their perspectives and experiences with electronic learning in elementary, secondary, and postsecondary education. Topics include: military training; course Web site creation; instructional design; new trends in health care and medicine; information and knowledge dissemination; knowledge management; learning repositories; instructional innovation and activities design; cognitive style; virtual communities; issues in e-government; success in distance education; computer system design; the Internet-connected classroom; teachers' and facilitators' roles; computer software development; professional development; distance education quality; usability tests and use studies; ethical issues; standards; student evaluation; collaboration; evaluation frameworks; theory and practice; instructional strategies; teleconferencing; search strategies; virtual reality; instructional effectiveness; instructional material design; computer simulation; gender equity; digital libraries; instruction for individuals with disabilities; technology integration; multimedia materials; and information skills development.


Du, Janxia; Sansing, William; Yu, Chien (2004).  The Impact of Technology Use on Low-Income and Minority Students' Academic Achievements: Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

Analyzing data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002), this report examines how computer use produced generic benefit to all children and differential benefits to minority and poor children. Specifically, we examined computer use at home vis-a-vis computer use at school in relation to the academic performance of disadvantaged children and their peers. Home computer use typifies socially differentiated opportunities, whereas school computer use promises generic benefits for all children. The findings suggest that, with other relevant conditions constant: (a) disadvantaged children did not lag far behind their peers in computer use at school, but they were much less likely to use computers at home; (b) computer use at home was far more significant than computer use at school in relation to high academic performance; (c) using a computer at school seemed to have dubious effects on learning; (d) disadvantaged children benefited less than other children from computer use, including computer use at home; and (e) compared to their peers, disadvantaged children's academic performance seemed less predictable by computer use than other predictor variables. | [FULL TEXT]


Du, Jianxia; Zhang, Ke; Olinzock, Anthony; Adams, James (2008).  Graduate Students' Perspectives on the Meaningful Nature of Online Discussions  Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 19, 1. 

This study investigated graduate students' perceptions of the online collaborations and the factors that contribute to the quality of online discussion with a qualitative case study. Data were collected through interviews with 20 graduate students in an online course, their online discourse, and the instructor's observation notes. The case study found out that manner of response, size of the group, and the topic of discussion in the online discussions were identified by the students as the important factors that determined the quality of online discussions. From students' perspective, this study helped identify patterns in which online discussion is conducted in conjunction with course context and individual characteristics for enhancing learning growth. Knowledge of such patterns can facilitate new designs and improvement of online collaborative learning.


Din, Feng S.; Caleo, Josephine (2000).  Playing Computer Games Versus Better Learning. 

This study investigated whether kindergarten students who played Sony Play Station (Lightspan) computer games learned better than peers who did not play such games. Participants were 47 African-American kindergartners from two classes of an urban school in the Northeast. A pretest and posttest with control group design was used in the study. The experimental group played the games for 40 minutes per day in school for 11 weeks. The Wide Range Achievement Test-R3 was used for measurement. Findings from data analysis via ANCOVA indicated that the experimental group made significantly more gains in the spelling and decoding areas. No difference was found in the math area.   | [FULL TEXT]


Din, Feng S.; Whitson, James M. (2001).  The Effects of Using the TI92+ Calculator as a Demonstration Device in Geometry Instructions. 

This study investigated the effects of using the TI-92+ calculator to demonstrate geometric diagrams to students in class. The participants (N=83) were from three 10th grade classes. A pretest, treatment, posttest with control group design was used in the study. The treatments lasted for 12 weeks. Results from data analyses via the Dependent t-test and the ANCOVA test indicated that for the within-class comparisons, all classes made significant gains in their geometry learning, and no significant differences were found from the between-class comparisons, which indicates that the TI-92+ calculator can be used as an effective demonstration device in geometry instructions.   | [FULL TEXT]


Dineen, Brian R. (2005).  TeamXchange: A Team Project Experience Involving Virtual Teams and Fluid Team Membership  Journal of Management Education, 29, 4. 

TeamXchange, an online team-based exercise, is described. TeamXchange is consistent with the collaborative model of learning and provides a means of fostering enhanced student learning and engagement through collaboration in virtual teams experiencing periodic membership changes. It was administered in an undergraduate Organizational Behavior course over two 4-week sessions using WebCT classroom support technology. Quantitative and qualitative results demonstrate some support for the exercise objectives. Specifically, learning of course material, learning about teamwork, and confidence for working in virtual teams were enhanced among those without prior experience working in virtual teams. Team cohesiveness and social loafing behavior were lower in fluid teams than in stable teams. Finally, introverted individuals perceived themselves as having more influence and their teams as more cohesive and communicative than did more extraverted individuals. These results suggest the potential value of TeamXchange, especially for those who have not previously been exposed to virtual teams or who are normally more reticent in face-to-face team or large-class settings. Exercise implications and lessons learned are discussed.


Ding, Yanren (2007).  Text Memorization and Imitation: The Practices of Successful Chinese Learners of English  System: An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, 35, 2. 

Good language learner studies show that attending to form is associated with successful learning. This paper reports interviews with three university English majors who had won prizes in nationwide English speaking competitions and debate tournaments in China. The interviewees regarded text memorization and imitation as the most effective methods of learning English. They had been initially forced to use these methods but gradually came to appreciate them. The practice enabled them to attend to and learn collocations and sequences, to borrow these sequences for productive use, to improve pronunciation, and to develop the habit of attending to details of language in the context of language input. The paper concludes that such practice enhances noticing and rehearsal and hence facilitates second language acquisition.


Dinov, Ivo D. (2006).  SOCR: Statistics Online Computational Resource  [Online Submission] 

The need for hands-on computer laboratory experience in undergraduate and graduate statistics education has been firmly established in the past decade. As a result a number of attempts have been undertaken to develop novel approaches for problem-driven statistical thinking, data analysis and result interpretation. In this paper we describe an "integrated educational web-based framework" for: interactive distribution modeling, virtual online probability experimentation, statistical data analysis, visualization and integration. Following years of experience in statistical teaching at all college levels using established licensed statistical software packages, like STATA, Splus/R, SPSS, SAS, Systat, etc., we have attempted to engineer a new statistics education environment, Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR). This resource performs many of the standard types of statistical analysis, much like other classical tools. In addition, it is designed in a plug-in object-oriented architecture and is completely platform independent, web-based, interactive, extensible and secure. Over the past 4 years we have tested, fine tuned and reanalyzed the SOCR framework in many of our undergraduate and graduate probability and statistics courses and have evidence that SOCR resources build students' intuition and enhance their learning.  | [FULL TEXT]


Dinov, Ivo D.; Sanchez, Juana; Christou, Nicolas (2008).  Pedagogical Utilization and Assessment of the Statistic Online Computational Resource in Introductory Probability and Statistics Courses  Computers & Education, 50, 1. 

Technology-based instruction represents a new recent pedagogical paradigm that is rooted in the realization that new generations are much more comfortable with, and excited about, new technologies. The rapid technological advancement over the past decade has fueled an enormous demand for the integration of modern networking, informational and computational tools with classical pedagogical instruments. Consequently, teaching with technology typically involves utilizing a variety of IT and multimedia resources for online learning, course management, electronic course materials, and novel tools of communication, engagement, experimental, critical thinking, and assessment. The NSF-funded Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR) provides a number of interactive tools for enhancing instruction in various undergraduate and graduate courses in probability and statistics. These resources include online instructional materials, statistical calculators, interactive graphical user interfaces, computational and simulation applets, tools for data analysis and visualization. The tools provided as part of SOCR include conceptual simulations and statistical computing interfaces, which are designed to bridge between the introductory and the more advanced computational and applied probability and statistics courses. In this manuscript, we describe our designs for utilizing SOCR technology in instruction in a recent study. In addition, present the results of the effectiveness of using SOCR tools at two different course intensity levels on three outcome measures: exam scores, student satisfaction and choice of technology to complete assignments. Learning styles assessment was completed at baseline. We have used three very different designs for three different undergraduate classes. Each course included a "treatment" group, using the SOCR resources, and a "control" group, using classical instruction techniques. Our findings include marginal effects of the SOCR treatment per individual classes; however, pooling the results across all courses and sections, SOCR effects on the treatment groups were exceptionally robust and significant. Coupling these findings with a clear decrease in the variance of the quantitative examination measures in the treatment groups indicates that employing technology, like SOCR, in a sound pedagogical and scientific manner enhances overall the students' understanding and suggests better long-term knowledge retention.


Dinsmore, Jan; Wenger, Kerri (2006).  Relationships in Preservice Teacher Preparation: From Cohorts to Communities  Teacher Education Quarterly, 33, 1. 

This article presents a qualitative case study that explored preservice teachers' perceptions about their own learning within the culture of a branch-campus, cohort-model teacher preparation program and through their first year of teaching. This study investigated how a cohort of twelve preservice teachers--many of whom were nontraditional-aged students, unable to relocate from their rural communities, and inexperienced with higher education--experienced their branch-campus, cohort teacher preparation program. This study was guided by two primary questions: (1) How did preservice teachers characterize their cohort community as a vehicle for their own learning about teaching? and (2) How did this sense of community influence how new teachers taught their first year in area schools? Three main recurrent themes emerged through the data analysis as important factors contributing to the students' learning within this cohort model: "field experience relationships," "peer relationships," and "instructor relationships." The data is interpreted through these three coding categories, which describe the students' perceptions of essential factors that contributed to their learning as the cultural community evolved.


De Poorter, John; De Jaegher, Lut; De Cock, Mieke; Neuttiens, Tom (2007).  Video Feedback in the Classroom: Development of an Easy-to-Use Learning Environment  Physics Education, 42, 6. 

Video feedback offers great potential for use in teaching but the relative complexity of the normal set-up of a video camera, a special tripod and a monitor has limited its use in teaching. The authors have developed a computer-webcam set-up which simplifies this. Anyone with an ordinary computer and webcam can learn to control the video feedback parameters in less than one hour. Besides the normal video feedback images, a simplified method to generate video feedback fractals is presented. Fractals such as the Cantor set and Sierpinsky triangle, along with new fractals, can be obtained, giving an insight into the properties of fractals.  [This project was made possible with the financial support of Arteveldehogeschool.]


DePillis, Lydia (2006).  Taking Technology to Takoradi  Educational Leadership, 63, 4. 

High school students in Seattle's Global Technology Academy bring refurbished computers to schools and orphanages in developing areas of the world and teach young people the skills they need to advance in an increasingly information-based global marketplace. In 19 trips to date, teams of 5-15 students have taken computers and knowledge to such countries as Mozambique, Nepal, Mexico, the Philippines, Ethiopia, and Guatemala. In a recent trip to Ghana, students learned about technology as they taught those skills to others. They also learned how to respond in a socially responsible and sensitive way to a community's environmental, economic, and cultural issues.


Depradine, Colin (2007).  A Role-Playing Virtual World for Web-Based Application Courses  Computers & Education, 49, 4. 

With the rapid development of the information communication and technology (ICT) infrastructure in the Caribbean, there is an increasing demand for skilled software developers to meet the ICT needs of the region. Consequently, the web-based applications course offered at the University of the West Indies, has been redeveloped. One major part of its upgrading is the use of virtual worlds, such as the negotiate and deal environment (NADE) system, to bridge the disconnect that can occur between the technical/academic skills and the issues associated with developing software in a competitive business environment. NADE is a role-playing virtual environment for teaching the art of creating secure, Java, web-based systems for information processing and backend applications. The system provides an environment where group interactivity and strategic planning are key success factors.


Depradine, Colin; Gay, Glenda (2004).  Active Participation of Integrated Development Environments in the Teaching of Object-Oriented Programming  Computers and Education, 43, 3. 

With the strong link between programming and the underlying technology, the incorporation of computer technology into the teaching of a programming language course should be a natural progression. However, the abstract nature of programming can make such integration a difficult prospect to achieve. As a result, the main development tool, the Integrated Development Environment, generally takes a passive role during the learning process. These software environments play a pivotal role in the development process and so should perform a more active role in the overall academic process. This paper describes the pronounced D-Chk system, which is an integrated development environment for the Java language. This system allows tighter integration between the theory and the practical aspects by incorporating several user interface and functionality enhancements.


Dotger, Sharon (2008).  Using Simple Machines to Leverage Learning  Science and Children, 45, 7. 

What would your students say if you told them they could lift you off the ground using a block and a board? Using a simple machine, they'll find out they can, and they'll learn about work, energy, and motion in the process! In addition, this integrated lesson gives students the opportunity to investigate variables while practicing measurement skills, using technology, and communicating their ideas. As with the other simple machines, studying levers provides students with an opportunity to apply their developing mathematical skills to problems with real-world application.


Doty, Michelle; Seiler, Ron; Rhoads, LaRae (2001).  Assistive Technology in the Schools: A Guide for Idaho Educators. 

This manual is designed to provide Idaho educators, parents, students with disabilities, and related service providers with assistance in identifying, selecting, and acquiring assistive technology (AT) devices and services. The consideration of AT devices and services is required during the development of every Individualized Family Service Plan and every Individualized Education Program (IEP). The first section of the manual begins by explaining the importance of assistive technology in education and the challenge of delivering AT devices and services. Part 2 discusses assistive technology in special education law and includes an extensive list of case law related to adaptive equipment. Part 3 introduces a model of service delivery for AT, describes a series of quality indicators for AT services, and outlines how to include AT in the IEP. The suggested forms to use are included in this section. The final part discuses funding options for AT. Appendices provide a list of acronyms used in the manual, examples of AT for computer access and communication, examples of switches, examples of writing AT into the IEP, and a list of state and national resources for AT.   | [FULL TEXT]


Dragan, Pat Barrett (2008).  Kids, Cameras, and the Curriculum: Focusing on Learning in the Primary Grades  [Heinemann] 

The author demonstrates how simple snapshots can open new entryways into literacy for all children and help educators view teaching and learning in new ways, building classroom-wide and school-wide community. The book offers projects that help children see real-world possibilities in literate behaviors by using photos as a stimulus for literacy activities, linking children's curiosity and enthusiasm with curricular goals, boosting the confidence of struggling students, and giving English learners new opportunities and support as they work toward fluent expression. Dragan shows how a single snapshot of groups and individuals can provide a new perspective on what is happening in the classroom, to identify potential conflicts, to determine if lessons are working according to plan, or to capture a breakthrough. Nine chapters include: (1) Seeing the Classroom through the Camera's Eye; (2) Simple Camera Projects for Home and School; (3) Kids Behind the Cameras: Going Digital; (4) Photography: A Way in for English Language Learners; (5) Photography Across the Curriculum; (6) The Kids' Press: Kids Deliver the News; (7) Taking to the Streets; (8) Imagination Stations: Giving Students Opportunities to Investigate and Learn Their Way; and (9) Photo-Essays: Publishing a Literary Magazine--An After-School Enrichment Project.


Drager, Kathryn D. R.; Light, Janice C.; Speltz, JoHannah Curran; Fallon, Karen A.; Jeffries, Lauren Z. (2003).  The Performance of Typically Developing 2 1/2-Year-Olds on Dynamic Display AAC Technologies with Different System Layouts and Language Organizations.  Journal of Speech

Thirty children (age 2) were assigned to three system approaches: vocabulary in a grid format organized taxonomically; vocabulary in a grid format organized schematically; and vocabulary in an integrated scene organized schematically. Children performed poorly in all conditions but were able to locate more items in the schematic scene condition. 


Drager, Kathryn D.R.; Light, Janice C.; Carlson, Rhonda; D'Silva, Karen; Larsson, Brittany; Pitkin, Laura; Stopper, Gini (2004).  Learning of Dynamic Display Aac Technologies by Typically Developing 3-Year-Olds: Effect of Different Layouts and Menu Approaches.  Journal of Speech

The present study investigated the learning demands of dynamic display augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) technologies that differed in system layout and menu page approaches for 3-year-old children. Ten typically developing children were randomly assigned to each of 3 technology approaches and were asked to located vocabulary items within a play context. Results indicated that the children had difficulty with all of the technologies on initial exposure. After the 1st learning session, children performed significantly better with AAC technologies in a contextual scene format than in a grid format. Some limited generalization to new vocabulary was evident. AAC technologies for young children need to be redesigned to better reflect the developmental models of children. Results are discussed with implications for practice and suggestions for future research.KEY WORDS: augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), assistive technology, dynamic displays, children, learning


Draper, Roni Jo; Smith, Leigh; Sabey, Brenday (2004).  Supporting Change in Teacher Education: Using Technology as a Tool to Enhance Problem-Based Learning  Computers in the Schools, 21, 1-2. 

Sponsored by a Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers to Use Technology (PT3) grant, we participated in various activities designed to help us learn to infuse technology in our teacher education courses. The purpose of this paper is to describe the specific impact of the PT3 project activities on our change process -- including the formation, evolution, and efforts of our curriculum design team -- and to share the activities and products that we developed through participation in the grant activities.


Draper, S. W.; Brown, M. I. (2004).  Increasing Interactivity in Lectures Using an Electronic Voting System  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 20, 2. 

An overview of the experience of the opening two years of an institution-wide project in introducing electronic voting equipment for lectures is presented. Eight different departments and a wide range of group size (up to 300) saw some use. An important aspect of this is the organizational one of addressing the whole institution, rather than a narrower disciplinary base. The mobility of the equipment, the generality of the educational analysis, and the technical support provided contributed to this. Evaluations of each use identified (formatively) the weakest spots and the most common benefits, and also (summatively) showed that learners almost always saw this as providing a net benefit to them. Various empirical indications support the theoretical view that learning benefits depend upon putting the pedagogy (not the technology) at the focus of attention in each use. Perceived benefits tended to increase as lecturers became more experienced in exploiting the approach. The most promising pedagogical approaches appear to be Interactive Engagement (launching peer discussions), and Contingent Teaching designing sessions not as fixed scripts but to zero in on using diagnostic questions on the points that the particular audience most needs on this occasion.


Dutke, Stephan; Rinck, Mike (2006).  Multimedia Learning: Working Memory and the Learning of Word and Picture Diagrams  Learning and Instruction, 16, 6. 

From the cognitive model of multimedia learning proposed by [Schnotz, W., & Barnett, M. (2003). Construction and interference in learning from multiple representation. "Learning and Instruction, 13", 141-156], two hypotheses regarding the learning of spatial arrangements of objects were derived: the integration hypothesis and the multiple source hypothesis. In the experiment, ninety-six participants first studied spatial arrangements of five objects each. The complete arrangements had to be inferred from pairs of objects, because participants were shown either word pairs or picture pairs depicting adjacent objects. Afterwards, they were tested using either object pairs or complete arrangements, and the test items consisted either of words or of pictures. In addition, the participants were divided into four groups according to their verbal and visuospatial working memory capacity. The results showed (a) that integrating pairs of objects into complete spatial arrangements required more working memory resources than evaluating the pairs, irrespective of the objects represented by words or pictures, (b) that integration of elements from different sources (verbal descriptions and pictorial depictions) required more working memory resources than integrating only depictive elements. The results yield evidence for the proposed internal structure of Schnotz and Bannert's model. The results are discussed with regard to individual differences in working memory capacity, cognitive load and the design of multimedia-supported learning tasks.


Dutt-Doner, Karen; Allen, Susan M.; Corcoran, Daniel (2006).  Transforming Student Learning by Preparing the Next Generation of Teachers for Type II Technology Integration  Computers in the Schools, 22, 3-4. 

Integrating Type II technology applications into the school is problematic. One method of facilitating this is through pre-service teacher preparation. Pre-service teachers have "grown up digital," but being comfortable with technology is not adequate preparation for understanding how to meaningfully integrate technology. This is because meaningful technology integration is not so much a technological endeavor as it is a pedagogical one. This case study from a pre-service graduate teacher education program at a private university illustrates how technical literacy, Web resources, meaningful technology teaching experiences, and a culture of collaboration were integrated into the curriculum. Its goal is to prepare the next generation of teachers to work with technology and library professionals to bring meaningful technology integration to students.


de Jesus, Helena Pedrosa; Almeida, Patricia; Teixeira-Dias, Jose J.; Watts, Mike (2007).  Where Learners' Questions Meet Modes of Teaching: A Study of Cases   Research in Education, 78

This paper is concerned with "match-mismatch" problems. In particular it seeks to match students' questioning to different modes of teaching in undergraduate chemistry. Kolb's theory of experiential learning is used to bridge between learners' questioning and teaching formats. Three case studies illuminate both sets of characteristics, the preferences that students have for asking questions and for different formats of teaching. The aim is to establish relations between the capacity of learners to generate and formulate questions and different organizations of teaching, including traditional approaches and some innovations. This study concludes that different learners with diverse learning styles have dissimilar preferences as to teaching strategies. It is observed that students with distinct learning styles have particular questioning behaviors. On the other hand, distinct teaching strategies also lead students to ask different types of questions. The results underline the need for teachers to use a variety of teaching strategies, so that they are likely to make connections with all students, and to stimulate questioning in a variety of ways.  [Funding for this article was provided by Fundacao para a Ciencia e Tecnologia.]


de Jong, Maria T.; Bus, Adriana G. (2004).  The Efficacy of Electronic Books in Fostering Kindergarten Children's Emergent Story Understanding  Reading Research Quarterly, 39, 4. 

A counterbalanced, within-subjects design was carried out to study the efficacy of electronic books in fostering kindergarten children's emergent story understanding. The study compared effects of children's independent reading of stories electronically with effects of printed books read aloud by adults. Participants were 18 four- to five-year-old Dutch kindergarten children in the initial stages of developing story comprehension but beyond just responding to pictures. Electronic reading produced experiences and effects similar to adult-read printed books. Children frequently interacted with the animations often embedded in electronic stories, but there was no evidence that the animations distracted children from listening to the text presented by electronic books, nor that the animations interfered with story understanding. Findings suggested that children at this stage of development profited from electronic books at least when electronic books are read in a context where adults also read books to children.


Dyer, James U.; Towns, Marcy; Weaver, Gabriela C. (2007).  Physical Chemistry in Practice: Evaluation of DVD Modules  Journal of Science Education and Technology, 16, 5. 

The Physical Chemistry in Practice (PCIP) DVD contains video programs (modules) and experimental data that present the research of scientists working in applications of physical chemistry. The DVD allows students to learn about cutting edge research in physical chemistry while making connections to the theoretical concepts learned in lecture. "PCIP-DVD" allows students to build verbal and pictorial models of the experiments, instrumentation, and data that can be integrated with the material covered in lecture. For each of the modules implemented students were tested in a pre/post test fashion over content related objectives. For every module the students demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in their understanding.


Deacon, Andrew; Jaftha, Jacob; Horwitz, David (2004).  Customising Microsoft Office to Develop a Tutorial Learning Environment  British Journal of Educational Technology, 35, 2. 

Powerful applications such as Microsoft Office's Excel and Word are widely used to perform common tasks in the workplace and in education. Scripting within these applications allows unanticipated user requirements to be addressed. We show that such extensibility, intended to support office automation-type applications, is well suited to the creation of learning activities and learning environments. We have developed a range of tutorial activities using Excel and Word in introductory mathematics, writing and economics courses. These tutorials have the dual purpose of teaching academic concepts and practical computer literacy skills. The software architecture of our learning environment includes a database-supported back-end to automatically record students responses, which allows for greater control over what students do. Additionally, this allows one to automate common procedures to improve usability and feedback automation to support learning. We have been applying our ideas for the last six years and currently 1,500 students are using the environment. We suggest that this pragmatic solution can provide a high degree of interactivity and flexibility in a range of learning contexts that represents a cost-effective alternative for use alongside traditional approaches.


Deal, Walter F., III (2004).  RFID: A Revolution in Automatic Data Recognition  Technology Teacher, 63, 7. 

Radio frequency identification, or RFID, is a generic term for technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects. There are several methods of identification, but the most common is to store a serial number that identifies a person or object, and perhaps other information, on a microchip that is attached to an antenna (the chip and the antenna together are called an RFID transponder or an RFID tag). The antenna enables the chip to transmit the identification information to a reader. The reader converts the radio waves reflected back from the RFID tag into digital information that can then be passed on to computers that can make use of it. A dark cloud may loom over the RFID technology because of precisely what it does and potential for abuse. At a recent meeting of the World Summit on Information Technology in Geneva, Switzerland, the badges worn by some high-level attendees included an embedded RFID tag. Some of the participants were not aware of the embedded chips, and privacy issues were raised. While the chips could provide tracking information on the whereabouts of individuals, they were not long-range devices that could track every move and were intended to provide increased security at entry checkpoints. This raised questions about what was being done with the data collected. As with any new technology and its applications, there are issues and concerns that may foster or hinder the development and acceptance of the technology.


Deal, Walter F., III (2004).  Using Flash Technology for Motivation and Assessment  Technology Teacher, 63, 8. 

A visit to most any technology education laboratory or classroom will reveal that computers, software, and multimedia software are rapidly becoming a mainstay in learning about technology and technological literacy. Almost all technology labs have at least several computers dedicated to specialized software or hardware such as Computer-aided Design (CAD), Computer Numerical Control (CNC), design and desktop publishing, or video editing. Few technology teachers would argue the fact that almost all students are fascinated by computers, software, and hardware found in the technology laboratory. Technology teachers are fortunate, in that technology education laboratory facilities and content are visible and tangible learning resources and an exciting place to learn about technology. But there are concerns about motivation and assessment where students perform poorly. This article examines technology education programs in terms of student motivation and assessment.


Deal, Walter F., III (2004).  Electric Motors Everywhere: Most Forms of Energy Go through Some Conversion Process to Do Useful Work for Us  Technology Teacher, 64, 1. 

This article discusses electric motors and the many ways in which they are used. Selecting the most appropriate miniature DC electric motor wisely will contribute toward success and satisfaction in designing and building motorized projects and activities. Typical parts suppliers stock a variety of miniature DC motors and provide sufficient information to select motors that will meet every teacher's project needs. Topics covered in this article include: (1) History of Electric Motors; (2) Basic Electric Motor Operation; (3) Energy Conversion; and (4) Choosing Electric Motors.


Deal, Walter F., III; Hsiung, Steve C. (2007).  Exploring TeleRobotics: A Radio-Controlled Robot  Technology Teacher, 67, 2. 

Robotics is a rich and exciting multidisciplinary area to study and learn about electronics and control technology. The interest in robotic devices and systems provides the technology teacher with an excellent opportunity to make many concrete connections between electronics, control technology, and computers and science, engineering, and technology. This article introduces the concept of telerobotics--that is to control a robotic system remotely using lowcost, off-the-shelf radio transmitter and receiver electronics.


Dettori, Giuliana; Giannetti, Tania; Persico, Donatella (2006).  SRL in Online Cooperative Learning: Implications for Pre-Service Teacher Training  European Journal of Education, 41, 3-4. 

The aim of this article is to investigate the relation between self-regulated learning and online collaborative environments. Based on the study of a blended course for trainee teachers, it explores the potential of the online collaborative component of the course for the practice and development of Self-Regulated Learning. The study made use of two questionnaires, developed within the TELEPEERS European project, to evaluate the potential support to SRL provided by technology-enhanced learning environments. The results provide information about the aspects of SRL practised in our environment. These include social competences, such as communication and negotiation with tutors and peers, emotional and motivational aspects, such as keeping up motivation and maintaining and restoring a positive working attitude, and cognitive and metacognitive skills such as management of time and learning environment and reflection on learning outcomes. The study also suggests the need to consider not only the SRL of the individuals involved in the learning process, but also the SRL of the whole community, that is, the result of the mediation between individual autonomy and group collaboration.


Dettori, Giuliana; Persico, Donatella (2007).  Indicators of Self-Regulation in Computer Supported Collaborative Learning  [Online Submission] 

This paper tackles the problem of understanding whether Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) is taking place and whether students are developing SRL abilities in a Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) environment. To this end, the authors propose a taxonomy of indicators based on Zimmerman's learning cycle model, with several adaptations derived from subsequent research on SRL in Technology Enhanced Learning Environments. These indicators support the identification of SRL-related events in CSCL processes and have been tested in an experimental setting (the online component of a blended course for teachers) to analyse the messages exchanged by the learners. Content analysis was carried out manually by two coders on a sample of messages. The results of this descriptive, exploratory study are illustrated and compared with those previously obtained with different methods.  | [FULL TEXT]


DeTure, Monica (2004).  Cognitive Style and Self-Efficacy: Predicting Student Success in Online Distance Education  American Journal of Distance Education, 18, 1. 

This study was designed to identify those learner attributes that may be used to predict student success (in terms of grade point average) in a Web-based distance education setting. Students enrolled in six Web-based, general education distance education courses at a community college were asked to complete the Group Embedded Figures Test for field dependence/independence and the Online Technologies Self-Efficacy Scale to determine their entry-level confidence with necessary computer skills for online learning. Although the students who were more field independent tended to have higher online technologies self-efficacy, they did not receive higher grades than those students who were field dependent and had lower online technologies self-efficacy. Cognitive style scores and online technologies self-efficacy scores were poor predictors of student success in online distance education courses.


Dag, Funda; Erkan, Kadir (2007).  Realizing the Personalized Learning Paths in a LMS  [Online Submission] 

In this work is proposed that an adaptation tool that is for the automatic generation and personalization of courses of a general-purpose LCMS that is named A Tutor. A Tutor is a Learning Content Management System. The architecture of the adaptation tool that allows a personalized sequencing of LOs in A Tutor for the learner's learning goals, learning styles and cognitive state is presented.  | [FULL TEXT]


Domermuth, David (2004).  Chop Saw SUCCESS!: "Crash Proofing" a Metalworking Lab  Tech Directions, 63, 6. 

The Technology Department at Appalachian State University runs a metals lab to introduce students to basic metalworking processes. Many of the students have never worked with metal before. The class objectives call for teaching students metal properties, processing, and design problem solving. The average student is a 20-year-old junior whom technology teachers encourage to show a sense of responsibility and self-motivation. To this end, after carefully demonstrating each project, they turn the students loose in an open lab environment. They keep their metals lab open 7 to midnight and sometimes on weekends. Having an open lab situation has lead them to keep projects quite simple--and to make the facility fairly "crash proof." This article describes how they have made metal-cutting lab work convenient and fairly foolproof.


Domermuth, David (2005).  Creating a Smart Classroom  Tech Directions, 64, 6. 

This article provides a description of an affordable, smart classroom system that was built for the Technology Department at Appalachian State University in Boone, NC. In the hope that other educators might find his department's experience useful, this author, David Domermuth (the department's coordinator of manufacturing) describes the system, which consists of three basic components: a home theater combo, a tablet PC, and a digital projector. A podium, screen, and projecter mount will also be needed.


Domine, Vanessa (2006).  4 Steps to Standards Integration  Learning & Leading with Technology, 34, 3. 

It is too easy for teachers and library media specialists to entangle themselves in the multiple strands of standards: State core curriculum content standards, National Educational Technology Standards for Students (NETS.S), National Educational Technology Standards for Teachers (NETS.T), and the Information Literacy Standards (ALA). To prevent teachers from drowning professionally in this vast sea of accountability, the author presents an exercise that untangles the standards and helps teachers to align their teaching style with immediately accessible instructional technologies. This exercise is a useful anchor for inservice teachers and media specialists to experiment using new media technologies to support existing curriculum or, conversely, use traditional media technologies to support new or unfamiliar curriculum standards. The author also outlines a curriculum design process that allows educators to visually assemble curriculum where standards are at the forefront of their teaching and where instructional technologies play a supporting role. The article includes a technology integration matrix showing standards, strategies, and technologies.


Dominick, Jay (2000).  Wireless on Campus.  Syllabus, 14 n4 p18-20, 22 Nov 2000. 

Discussion of wireless technology focuses on whether there is enough value in a wireless infrastructure for schools to justify the cost. Considers issues campuses must face, including access to the Internet, telecommunications, and networking; explains technical details; and describes wireless initiatives at Wake Forest University.


Dynarski, Mark; Agodini, Roberto; Heaviside, Sheila: Novak, Timothy; Carey, Nancy; Campuzano, Larissa; Means, Barbara; Murphy, Robert; Penuel, William; Javitz, Hal; Emery, Deborah; Sussex, Willow (2007).  Effectiveness of Reading and Mathematics Software Products: Findings from the First Student Cohort. Report to Congress  [National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance] 

The National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance produced this major study of the effectiveness of education technology. Mandated by Congress, the report uses scientifically based research methods and control groups to focus on the impact of technology on student academic achievement. Thirty-three districts, 132 schools, and 439 teachers participated in the study. Sixteen products were selected for the study based on public submissions and ratings by a study team and expert review panels. This report is the first of two from the study. The second report will present effects for individual products. The current report presents effects for groups of products. The main findings of the study are: (1) Test scores were not significantly higher in classrooms using the reading and mathematics software products than those in control classrooms. In each of the four groups of products-reading in first grade and in fourth grade, mathematics in sixth grade, and high school algebra-the evaluation found no significant differences in student achievement between the classrooms that used the technology products and classrooms that did not; and (2) There was substantial variation between schools regarding the effects on student achievement. Although the study collected data on many school and classroom characteristics, only two characteristics were related to the variation in reading achievement. For first grade, effects were larger in schools that had smaller student-teacher ratios (a measure of class size). For fourth grade, effects were larger when treatment teachers reported higher levels of use of the study product. The following are appended: (1) Data Collection Approach and Response Rates; and (2) Estimating Effects and Assessing Robustness.  [This report was published by the Institute of Education Sciences' National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.] | [FULL TEXT]


Dugan, Kimberly; Letterman, Margaret (2008).  Student Appraisals of Collaborative Teaching  College Teaching, 56, 1. 

Scholars have argued that team teaching promises great benefits for students. However, little systematic research exists to show how such benefits occur. Team teaching takes various forms including the simultaneously taught two-person course (coteaching), the alternating two-person course (alternate), and the panel of three or more faculty (panel). The authors analyze and compare student appraisals of these three different models of team-taught classes to a norm of traditional, solo-instructed courses. Team-taught student assessment data were compared with a baseline of student evaluations of individually instructed courses nationwide. Results indicate that there are no real differences in student attitudes toward team-taught and traditional classes. However, there were some significant differences between the types of team-taught courses.


Dugan, Lauren M.; Campbell, Philippa H.; Wilcox, M. Jeanne (2006).  Making Decisions about Assistive Technology with Infants and Toddlers  Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 26, 1. 

The present study examined and contrasted beliefs and decision-making practices concerning the use of assistive technology (AT) with infants and toddlers. Participants were 424 multidisciplinary early intervention providers drawn from across the United States. A majority of professionals disagreed with proposed belief statements about AT with infants and toddlers. Decision-making practices, however, followed the reported trend of underutilization of AT in early intervention in that providers did not generally select AT options until children were older than 24 months. Reported beliefs were not associated with decision-making practices. Future research and training should focus on factors that are likely to influence the decisions that professionals make in practice.


Duggan, Ashley; Hess, Brian; Morgan, Deanna; Kim, Sooyeon; Wilson, Katherine (2001).  Measuring Students' Attitudes toward Educational Use of the Internet.  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 25, 3. 

Describes a study that developed an instrument to provide a quantitative measure of the attitudes of undergraduates toward educational use of the Internet and studied selected behavioral correlates of those attitudes. Discusses keeping track of educational Internet sites, sharing educational Internet information with friends, and choosing classes that require Internet use.


Duggan, Michael B. (2004).  E-Mail as Social Capital and Its Impact on First-Year Persistence of 4-Year College Students  Journal of College Student Retention Research Theory and Practice, 6, 2. 

This study addressed the influence of social capital factors on the first-year persistence of beginning first- and second-generation four-year college students. First-generation students were those students whose parents had never attended college. Second-generation students had at least one parent who attended college. A case was made for considering e-mail to be a form of social capital. Data for the study were from the NCES Beginning Postsecondary Students (BPS) 1996/1998 survey. Findings from the cross-tabulations indicated that first-generation students differed from second-generation students over a range of demographic, socioeconomic, high school, social capital, academic and social integration, and college performance factors. Findings from the sequential logistic regressions indicated that first-generation status, after controlling for all other factors in the study, had a statistically significant, but comparatively minor, negative effect on persistence. Findings indicated that whether a student had an e-mail account was a statistically significant predictor of persistence.


Dugger, William E., Jr.; Naik, Nitin (2001).  Clarifying Misconceptions between Technology Education and Educational Technology.  Technology Teacher, 61, 1. 

Attempts to allay the confusion between technology education and educational technology. Discusses their purpose and direction as well as the standards used in both


Diederen, Julia; Gruppen, Harry; Hartog, Rob; Voragen, Alphons G. J. (2005).  Design and Evaluation of Digital Learning Material to Support Acquisition of Quantitative Problem-Solving Skills within Food Chemistry  Journal of Science Education and Technology, 14, 5-6. 

One of the modules in the course Food Chemistry at Wageningen University (Wageningen, The Netherlands) focuses on quantitative problem-solving skills related to chemical reactions. The intended learning outcomes of this module are firstly, to be able to translate practical food chemistry related problems into mathematical equations and to solve them and secondly, to have a quantitative understanding of chemical reactions in food. Until 3 years ago the learning situation for this module was inefficient for both teachers and students. For this learning situation a staff/student ratio of 1/25 was experienced to be insufficient: the level of student frustration was high and many students could not finish the tasks within the scheduled time. To make this situation more efficient for both students and teachers and to lower the level of frustration, digital learning material was designed. The main characteristic of this learning material is that it provides just-in-time information, such as feedback, hints and links to background information. The material was evaluated in three case studies in a normal educational setting (n = 22, n = 31, n = 33). The results show that now frustration of students is low, the time in classes is efficiently used, and the staff/student ratio of 1/25 is indeed sufficient. A staff student ratio of around 1/40 is now regarded as realistic.


Diederen, Julia; Gruppen, Harry; Voragen, Alphons G. J.; Hartog, Rob; Mulder, Martin; Biemans, Harm (2002).  Design Guidelines for Digital Learning Material for Food Chemistry Education. 

This paper describes the first stage of a 4-year research project on the design, development and use of Web-based digital learning material for food chemistry education. The paper discusses design guidelines, based on principles that were selected from theories on learning and instruction, and illustrates in detail how these guidelines were used for the design and implementation of digital learning objects (LO). Six cases, a set of presentational LO and a dozen interactive exercises have been designed, developed, implemented, and imported in different learning environments. The design guidelines proved to be useful during the design process. The digital learning material has been evaluated positively by students and lecturers. The material forms now a set of inspiring examples for food chemistry in higher education. | [FULL TEXT]


Diehl, Christine L. (2000).  "Reasoner's Workbench" Program Supports Students' Individual and Collaborative Argumentation. 

This research evaluates the effectiveness of computer-mediated support for students' individual and collaborative argumentation. "Convince Me" is a "reasoner's workbench" program that aids students in generating and analyzing arguments, providing feedback on argument coherence from a general computational model. Laboratory studies indicate that students working individually with Convince Me to build arguments obtain benefits that are often associated with collaborative activity. The current research investigates whether these benefits can be attributed to the feedback from Convince Me's simulation model, that is, does the program serve as a "computer partner" in place of a "student partner." Students in four urban, ninth-grade Integrated Science classes used Convince Me either with or without model feedback. Half of the students in each group worked individually with the program and half worked in pairs. Results show that in attempting to "convince" Convince Me, students who receive feedback are encouraged to reflect on their reasoning strategies. Convince Me also appears to support reflection on argument construction and evaluation for pairs of students working together in the absence of feedback from the simulation model.   | [FULL TEXT]


Diehm, Celleste (2004).  Classroom Practice: From Worn-Out to Web-Based--Better Student Portfolios  Phi Delta Kappan, 85, 10. 

In this article, the author suggests solutions to unleash student creativity. The article focuses on the author's idea for electronic portfolios, Web-based collections of a student's work. To put her idea into practice, the author created an electronic portfolio project that spanned five 90-minute class sessions (about one session every week or two). The first step was for students to create an opening page for their portfolios using the software of their choice. One of the advantages of electronic portfolios, the author claims, is that students can create them using any software program with which they are comfortable, whether that be MS Publisher, MS PowerPoint, MS Word, or any other program. This article further describes the benefits of electronic portfolios.


Diem, Richard A. (2006).  A Positive or Negative Force for Democracy: The Technology Instructional Paradox  International Journal of Social Education, 21, 1. 

Over the past two decades, the technology "revolution" has evolved to touch nearly every aspect of the people's lives. More than just a convenience, this force has become a necessity throughout business, government, and education. One of the most invasive forces of technology is the way in which it plays a role in the types of instructional constructs, or lessons, that are used in schools, especially in social studies classrooms. The difference in how technology is applied in social studies instruction rests in the choices made while developing the intent, or meaning, of instruction. These intents form the discourse of instruction. Decisions here impact not only instructional operations but also the way in which content is understood and applied. Together they rest on a continuum that begins with little choice, in terms of learning outcomes, and ends with an expansive view of the self and instructional technology applications. This article describes the intents of instruction namely, (1) instruction for conformity; (2) instruction for information; (3) instruction for reason; and (4) instruction and the individual. In preparing today's students for the type of society they will enter, using technology applications to instruct students for conformity, information, reason, and self has a place in the social studies classroom, depending on the content and purposes of the lesson.  | [FULL TEXT]


Dietel, Ronald (2001).  How's Your Child Doing in School? Ten Research-based Ways To Find Out.  Our Children, 26, 6. 

Presents tips, gleaned from federal research, to help parents understand how their children are doing in school, including: know what is expected; know the child's reading level; understand test scores; solicit teacher feedback; become familiar with the child's homework; use report cards to identify overall progress; stay attuned to social skills; evaluate technology skills; and listen to the child.


Dieterle, Ed (2005).  Mentoring Alex Bick  Learning and Leading with Technology, 32, 8. 

On February 10, 2004, Alex Bick contacted Chris Dede, the Timothy E. Wirth Professor of Learning Technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, seeking a mentor for his work to determine whether handheld computers regularly carried by high school students generally affect academic achievement. At the time, Bick was a 10th grader enrolled in an independent research program called "Science Research" that allows students to complete individual and original research based on a topic of interest. In his initial e-mail, he cited the Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL), a research project that seeks to determine how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching in which Dede serves as principal investigator. As the doctoral research assistant for HDUL, Dede forwarded Bick's letter of introduction on to me and asked if I had the time and interest in working with him. | [FULL TEXT]


Dietz, Mary E. (2001).  Designing the School Leader's Portfolio. 

This book presents a process and framework designed to improve the chances that administrators will learn within the context of leading. It shows administrators how to use portfolios to develop their philosophy and leadership, zero in on goals, create plans and participate in professional development, coach peers, and assess and articulate what they have learned. The book offers examples, graphics, tools, logs, and registries to help administrators develop their own portfolios. There are six chapters focusing on: (1) "The Role of the Portfolio in Improving School Leader Performance" (e.g., the portfolio process and assembling the portfolio); (2) "Establishing a Purpose for the School Leader's Portfolio" (e.g., defining the purpose and defining one's own philosophy); (3) "Focusing the Portfolio" (e.g., determining goals and involving school staff); (4) "The Process of Collaboration and Professional Development" (e.g., creating a learning plan and identifying areas for learning); (5) "Portfolio Outcomes for Continuous Improvement" (e.g., leaders as learners and unexpected outcomes of the portfolio process); and (6) "Technology and the Portfolio Process" (employing electronic support). Four appendixes focus on: the portfolio process, steps in the portfolio process, blacklines of portfolio tools, and sample completed portfolio tools.


Dietz-Uhler, Beth; Fisher, Amy; Han, Andrea (2008).  Designing Online Courses to Promote Student Retention  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 36, 1. 

Although the issue of student retention is a campus-wide one, it is of special interest in online distance learning courses, where retention rates are reported to be lower than in face-to-face classes. Among the explanations and theories of retention rates in online courses, one that struck us as most useful is a structural one, namely, course design. The question we raise is, can online course designs promote student retention? In this article, we report on how we used Quality Matters to design and revise online courses in psychology and statistics. Quality Matters, a research-based initiative, advocates the use of eight general review standards to review online courses. In our psychology and statistics courses, our retention rate across multiple offerings of both courses is approximately 95%.


Diez, Keri S.; Pleban, Francis T.; Wood, Ralph J. (2005).  Lights, Camera, Action: Integrating Popular Film in the Health Classroom  Journal of School Health, 75, 7.


Dai, Jing; Turgeon, A. J. (2008).  Loop-Imbedded (Non-Linear) Instruction Modules: A Novel Delivery Method for Online Learning  Journal of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Education, 37

Instructional modules are typically designed with the linear format of PowerPoint slide sets, thus mimicking classroom-based instruction with its temporal and spatial constraints. In an attempt to make instructional modules more student-centered and thus more individualized for online education, a prototype non-linear module was developed on the subject of physiology and culture of annual bluegrass ("Poa annua L."). Alternative pathways were provided in the sample module by imbedding specialized clarification, preparation, and elaboration loops, which responded to the varying needs of a diverse student body. Forty introductory turfgrass students volunteered to review the sample module and complete a survey. The survey contained students' background information, ratings of statements on specific features of the sample module, several short essay questions, and comments/suggestions. More than 90% of the students agreed the loop-imbedded (non-linear) modules are superior to the traditional linear modules. A majority of the students also indicated they prefer online courses in the non-linear format. Loop-imbedded (non-linear) modules can individualize students' learning experiences and provide instructors with powerful learning resources to better meet the needs of a diversified student population.


Deek, Fadi; Espinosa, Idania (2005).  An Evolving Approach to Learning Problem Solving and Program Development: The Distributed Learning Model  International Journal on E-Learning, 4, 4. 

Traditionally, novice programmers have had difficulties in three distinct areas: breaking down a given problem, designing a workable solution, and debugging the resulting program. Many programming environments, software applications, and teaching tools have been developed to address the difficulties faced by these novices. Along with advancements in information and communication technology, methods of learning have evolved. In addition, the scope of learning can now be extended outside of the domain of traditional classroom education. Distributed learning among social educational environments, such as family, work, schools, and extracurricular groups, can directly enhance a student's learning experience. This paper identifies the potential enhancements in the delivery of introductory computing that result from the utilization of a distributed learning approach. It also identifies existing issues that cannot be adequately resolved with the distributed learning paradigm.


Deeney, Theresa A. (2008).  Coordinating Supplemental Reading Instruction  Intervention in School and Clinic, 43, 4. 

Although supplemental reading services are meant to improve reading achievement of struggling readers and students with reading disabilities, without concerted effort to ensure communication and coordination with in-school instruction, they may fall short of their desired mark. To promote learning, it is critical that any services provided outside of the typical curriculum be coordinated to ensure that students are reaping the maximum benefit. This article describes six dynamic steps to coordinate supplemental instruction and contextualizes these through examples and vignettes of a second-grade struggling reader.


Deeson, Eric (2001).  Running the Power Station.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 32, 4. 

Considers the history of the information technology revolution in education in Britain. Topics include the early ZX80 machine; the development of microcomputers; government support; audio-visual equipment; and problems that current teachers in training still have in using technology appropriately.


Dwyer, David C. (2002).  Since Computers Came to School.  Educational Technology, 42, 4. 

Reviews the growth of computer uses in education; discusses the increasing rate of change in society and the need for schools to provide students with information skills and the ability to build personal conceptual models; and considers the role of technology in schools, including expanding the learning community and developing authentic audiences.


Dwyer, Francis M. (2007).  The Program of Systematic Evaluation (PSE): Evaluating the Effects of Multimedia Instruction 1965-2007  Educational Technology Magazine: The Magazine for Managers of Change in Education, 47, 5. 

The Program of Systematic Evaluation (PSE), which began as an attempt to explore the instructional dimensions of multimedia, has evolved into the most comprehensive set of experimental multimedia studies exploring the varied dimensions of cognitive load theory as they relate to the design of effective and efficient visual learning environments for different types of educational objectives. To date more than 160 experimental studies have been completed, and 130 research associates and over 100,000 participants have been involved in the PSE. Research studies conducted in the PSE have resulted in more than 175 refereed publications in scholarly journals, 100 doctoral dissertations, and more than 300 refereed presentations at the state, regional, national, and international levels. The "unique feature" of the PSE is that all studies utilized the same instructional module and four individual criterion measures while systematically examining the effectiveness of different cognitive load variables.


Dwyer, Francis; Dwyer, Carol (2006).  Effect of Cognitive Load and Animation on Student Achievement  International Journal of Instructional Media, 33, 4. 

Animation continues to be used extensively in learning environments; however, research regarding its effectiveness in facilitating different kinds of learning objectives remains inconclusive. Systematically designed content, four individual criterion measures assessing different kinds of learning outcomes, and a variety of animation and animation enhancement strategies were employed in five independent studies involving 781 subjects. Results have significant implications for the use of animation in facilitating knowledge acquisition.


Duke, Roger; Graham, Alan (2007).  Inside the Letter  Mathematics Teaching Incorporating Micromath

In this article, the authors describe how a Java applet can help to build learners' intuitions about basic ideas of algebra. "Matchbox Algebra" is a Java applet the authors have designed to enable learners to grasp a key idea in learning algebra: that the letter "x" may be thought of as representing an as-yet-unknown number. They describe the "MLT" triad, a model commonly used in mathematics education. It sets out the main elements that comprise mathematical learning: the mathematics (M), the learner (L) and the teacher (T). All three are set in some sort of "environ", which represents the physical, social and psychological contexts within which the learning takes place. The authors discuss how the mathematical education of learners can be supported by ICT, an element that can be incorporated into the diagram by reinterpreting the T as the "teacher with technology". They present three ways of interpreting algebraic letters: (1) letter as object; (2) letter as specific unknown; and (3) letter as generalised number.


Dron, Jon (2005).  E-Learning and the Building Habits of Termites  Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 14, 4. 

Transactional distance theory predicts an inverse relationship between dialogue and structure in an educational transaction. It is a powerful theory, but it is inherently fuzzy in formulation and may have exceptions. This article reinterprets the theory as one of transactional control, where the central issue is one of choices and who makes them. The article discusses a class of computer-based educational environments that anomalously seem to combine both high dialogue and high structure, providing the learner with both high and low degrees of constraint simultaneously. In these environments the behavior of users causes structural change, which in turn causes changes in the behavior of users. Such processes are a form of stigmergy, a word originally used to describe this effect in termites, where it coordinates the formation of termite mounds. Stigmergy in an e-learning environment can enable a self-organized structure to arise out of dialogue, simultaneously providing both high and low transactional distance/control. Environments built this way may be very flexible learning spaces. A number of exemplars embodying the principle are described, followed by an exploration of unresolved issues and directions for future research.


Dron, Jon (2007).  The Safety of Crowds  Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 18, 1. 

If we assume that learning is best achieved in a social setting, then a vital aspect of any learning environment is its ability to support the development of trust. Trust takes many forms, from helping to identify the validity or the effectiveness of a learning resource to feelings of safety and reliance on support from fellow learners and teachers. This article explores how the environment may support or diminish trust in several types of systems, situating them within a conceptual model of trust based on their social, cognitive, technical, interface and systemic features. It goes on to describe a learning environment called Dwellings, which uses a design based on Jane Jacobs's observations of what makes city districts thrive or decay. Dwellings may be thought of as a cross between a wiki, a moo and a learning object repository. It is built to enable trust to develop, through a combination of safety through a "succession of eyes," a fluid locus of control and social navigation approaches to collaborative recommendation. The article concludes with a discussion of issues that have arisen through the use of Dwellings and some thoughts on general features and future developments of learning environments that encourage the development of trust.


Dron, Jon; Boyne, Chris; Mitchell, Richard (2002).  Evaluating Assessment Using N-Dimensional Filtering. 

This paper describes the use of the CoFIND (Collaborative Filter in N Dimensions) system to evaluate two assessment styles. CoFIND is a resource database that organizes itself around its users' needs. Learners enter resources, categorize, then rate them using "qualities," aspects of resources which learners find worthwhile, the n dimensions of CoFIND. Categories and qualities are created by CoFIND's users, so the system sculpts itself to a group's expressed needs. This paper contrasts two uses of CoFIND where students added and rated their own Web-based assignments. The first of these provided useful material to help the students with further learning goals, while the second let them use skills they had acquired in a concrete setting. The use of qualities in each instance was very different, reflecting the students' different needs in each case. Based on the results, suggestions are made for how virtual ecologies of self-organizing groups of learners might be encouraged to thrive and grow.


Dron, Jon; Boyne, Chris; Mitchell, Richard (2004).  The Evaluation of Forms of Assessment Using N-Dimensional Filtering  International Journal on E-Learning, 3, 4. 

This paper describes the use of the CoFIND (Collaborative Filter in N Dimensions) system to evaluate two assessment styles. CoFIND is a resource database which organizes itself around its users' needs. Learners enter resources, categorize, then rate them using "qualities," aspects of resources which learners find worthwhile, the n dimensions of CoFIND. Categories and qualities are created by CoFIND's users, so the system sculpts itself to a group's expressed needs. Two uses of CoFIND are contrasted where students added and rated their own Web-based assignments. The first of these provided useful material to help the students with further learning goals, while the second let them use skills they had acquired in a concrete setting. The use of qualities in each instance was very different, reflecting the students' different needs in each case. Based on these results, suggestions are made as to how virtual ecologies of self-organising groups of learners might be encouraged to thrive and grow.


Dillenbourg, P.; Tchounikine, P. (2007).  Flexibility in Macro-Scripts for Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 23, 1. 

In the field of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), scripts are designed to support collaboration among distant learners or co-present learners whose interactions are (at least partially) mediated by a computer. The rationale of scripts is to structure collaborative learning processes in order to trigger group interactions that may be rare in free collaboration. Fixing the degree of coercion is a delicate design choice: too rigid scripts would spoil the richness of collaborative interactions; too flexible scripts would fail to induce the targeted interactions. Because of the unpredictability of how scripts will be enacted, both the teacher and the students must be allowed to modify some script features. In this article we propose a conceptual analysis of this notion of flexibility, arguing for a dissociation of constraints that are intrinsic to the pedagogical design of the script and constraints induced by the technology or contextual factors. This difference sets up the limits of flexibility both for the teacher and for the students and provides specification for the computational design. This analysis leads to the conclusion that the operationalization of CSCL scripts should be addressed by implementing script engines handling multiple representations of the script: the script to be executed, the emergent organization of teams, the set of intrinsic and extrinsic constraints and the visual representation of the script for students and teachers.


Dillon, Patrick (2004).  Trajectories and Tensions in the Theory of Information and Communication Technology in Education  British Journal of Educational Studies, 52, 2. 

For largely historical reasons, information and communication technology in education has been heavily influenced by a form of constructivism based on the transmission and transformation of information. This approach has implications for both learning and teaching in the field. The assumptions underlying the approach are explored and a critique offered. Although the transmission approach is entrenched in procedures and pedagogies, it is increasingly challenged by an action-theoretical form of constructivism. In this ecology of ideas, the value of the two theoretical stances might be judged in terms of their practical utility and the contributions they make to understanding ICT.


Dillon, Teresa (2003).  Collaborating and Creating on Music Technologies  International Journal of Educational Research, 39, 8. 

Across all UK secondary school subject areas the proliferation of information and communication technologies (ICTs) has changed the nature of learning. Music education now includes the use of digital tools, such as programmable keyboards and computers, as key learning and music making instruments. Despite such usage there is relatively little understanding of the kinds of musical experiences and interactions such instruments might support. This research note discusses the outcomes of a series of studies that explored the processes employed by 42 young people (30 dyads, 12 triads; 11-17 years) when using a pre-recorded sample software package called eJay (http://www.ejay-uk.com). The results provide an overview of the kinds of collaborative creative thinking process the young people engaged in, and how important the processes of discovery and exploration were to their shared discussions. This research note briefly examines the importance of understanding open-ended tasks and computer supported collaborative creativity for learning.


Dillon-Marable, Elizabeth; Valentine, Thomas (2006).  Optimizing Computer Technology Integration  Adult Basic Education: An Interdisciplinary Journal for Adult Literacy Educational Planning, 16, 2. 

The purpose of this study was to better understand what optimal computer technology integration looks like in adult basic skills education (ABSE). One question guided the research: How is computer technology integration best conceptualized and measured? The study used the Delphi method to map the construct of computer technology integration and required qualitative analysis of expert opinion, gathered in a variety of ways. Based on that analysis, we conclude that optimal computer technology integration: (a) allows for seamless movement between technology- and nontechnology-based instructional formats, (b) is appropriate for adult literacy learners, (c) is facilitated by instructors, and (d) empowers learners.


Duman, Bilal (2007).  "Celebration of the Neurons": The Application of Brain Based Learning in Classroom Environment  [Online Submission] 

The purpose of this study is to investigate approaches and techniques related to how brain based learning used in classroom atmosphere. This general purpose were answered following the questions: (1) What is the aim of brain based learning? (2) What are general approaches and techniques that brain based learning used? and (3) How should be used brain based learning on learning-teaching process in classroom atmosphere? | [FULL TEXT]


_____. (2000).  Discovering Hidden Resources: Assistive Technology Recycling, Refurbishing, and Redistribution. RESNA Technical Assistance Project. 

This monograph discusses the benefits of recycling and reusing assistive technology for students with disabilities. It begins by discussing the benefits of recycled assistive technology for suppliers, students, and consumers, and then profiles programmatic models for assistive technology recycling programs. The advantages and disadvantages for giving assistive technology away, becoming a durable medical equipment dealer, becoming a discount broker, loaning it at no cost, and incorporating it into an existing redistribution organization are outlined for consumers, nonprofit organizations, and durable medical equipment dealers. The following sections address: (1) management aspects of recycling; (2) refurbished equipment marketplace; (3) components of computer recycling programs, including starting a recycling program, partnerships, and program management; (4) assistive technology recycling efforts around the globe; and (5) national issues, such as payment and funding for recycled devices, federal funding sources, transportation, policy issues concerning payment by public and private insurance programs, and program sustainability. Recycling efforts by different nonprofit organizations are profiled throughout the monograph. Appendices include a RESNA Technical Assistance Project bulletin on exchanging and recycling assistive technology programs. | [FULL TEXT]


_____. (2000).  Distance Learning in the Community Colleges: A Look at the Online and Teleclass Experience. A Level 1 Review. 

This study was conducted to gather data about courses currently available to students through distance technologies, and to gather information from both faculty members and students concerning their perceptions of teaching and learning through remote processes in the Florida Community College System. This study focuses particularly on two-way interactive teleclasses and on-line courses with the overall goal of learning more about how many students participate, and how their instructors and they regard their learning experiences. The results of this study indicate that community college students appreciate the access and convenience of distance learning courses and are willing to adapt to and accommodate themselves to the technology. However, faculty who teach distance learning are ambivalent. They are struggling with the demands of teaching distance learning courses and are concerned about the challenges distance learning brings to the learning environment. Two ways in which the Florida Community College System has addressed quality concerns, as well as the Commission on Colleges Southern Association of Colleges and Schools' criteria about offering appropriate support services for distance learners, have been through the development of the Florida Academic Counseling and Tracking System (FACTS) and through the Distance Library Learning Initiative. Appendices listing the available community college distance learning courses and the complete surveys used in the study constitute over half of the report. | [FULL TEXT]


_____. (2002).  Distance Learning. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices. 

This brochure, part of a series about good practices in vocational training in the European Union, describes 12 projects that use distance learning to promote lifelong learning in adults. The projects and their countries of origin are as follows: (1) 3D Project, training in the use of IT tools for 3D simulation and animation and practical applications in architecture, industry, and graphics projects from Spain; (2) Multipalio, a European network of qualifications for teachers and trainers in open and distance learning from Italy; (3) Interfoc, Internet training of occasional trainers in businesses from France; (4) Electron, distance teaching and lifelong learning in the electronics sector with the development and use of updated tools for information networks from Greece; (5) AYTEM, support for young teachers on the training market via distance learning from Lithuania; (6) Multiformat Technical and Business English, an open and distance learning program from Finland; (7) a multimedia hypertext navigation system for distance learning from Ireland; (8) Material for open and distance learning in powder metallurgy at the European level; (9) Flexiform, the use of new technologies for flexible and distance continuous vocational training in environmental protection and forestry occupations in France; (10) university/industry cooperation in designing pilot self-training courses in the area of continuous training in engineering in Portugal; (11) distance courses in management control in Italy; and (12) Bayer International Management Simulation, business management self-training programs at the workplace and by distance learning in Germany. All project descriptions include contacts for more information. | [FULL TEXT]


_____. (2007).  Distance Education Survey, 2007. A Report on Course Structure and Educational Services in Distance Education and Training Council Member Institutions 

In April 2007 the Distance Education and Training Council (DETC) surveyed 67 of its accredited institutions to determine current aspects of the distance study educational practice. (Military and international institutions were omitted.) This report is a collection and summary of the data received. This survey contained questions in the following areas: (1) General; (2) Course Development; (3) Educational Services; and (4) Conclusion (Future Outlook). It is hoped that these surveys will make it easier for distance study educators to make accurate benchmark comparisons and provide practical information for institutional planning. Three categories of DETC membership are included: (1) High School; (2) Postsecondary; and (3) Degree Granting. A summary of comments indicate that the following are widely-held beliefs within the DETC membership: (1) Outlook for the distance education market is strong and will continue to grow for many years; (2) Higher education, including traditional on-site schools, will be turning to distance education as a mainstream delivery medium; (3) Public acceptance of distance education is growing; (4) Competition in distance education at all levels is increasing; (5) New technology will play a great role in distance education; (6) Internet and online learning will continue to be heavily utilized; (7) Excellence in product and service are vital; (8) Distance educators are reaching out to more and various markets, including international students; (9) Regulatory interest in distance education has increased, and will continue to do so as new providers create more activity and potential problems for quality oversight officials; and (10) DETC institutions are optimistic about market forces broadening school transfer credit policies. A copy of the survey is included. [For the 2004 report, see ED483321.] | [FULL TEXT]


diSessa, Andrea A. (2004).  Reflections on Component Computing from the Boxer Project's Perspective  Interactive Learning Environments, 12, 1-2. 

The Boxer Project conducted the research that led to the synthetic review "Issues in Component Computing." This brief essay provides a platform from which to develop our general perspective on educational computing and how it relates to components. The two most important lines of our thinking are (1) the goal to open technology's creative possibilities to the broadest range of people possible, and (2) to do so on the basis of a single architecture, a computational medium, that includes the possibility of constructing and modifying interactive, dynamic constructions by all participants.


diSessa, Andrea A.; Azevedo, Flavio S.; Parnafes, Orit (2004).  Issues in Component Computing: A Synthetic Review  Interactive Learning Environments, 12, 1-2. 

This paper provides a review of the rhetoric behind the component movement in educational software, and a critical analysis and synthesis of issues underlying the movement. We draw on case studies of several significant recent component projects in order to assess claims and to uncover and examine issues that are less often considered. While our empirical base cannot definitively answer all the questions raised, we hope to bring some clarity and some empirically based judgments to bear on how a promising technological innovation can best serve educational ends. Our study led to a focus on three critical issues: (1) the nature of the environment in which components are configured and used; (2) the extent of modifiability that is necessary for effective re-use of components; (3) how the work of designing components and component configurations is distributed among people with different competencies.


Dismukes, Delisa; Yarbrough, Sondra; Zenanko, Marsha; Zenanko, Mike (2004).  Technology at the "Center for Two Learners"  TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 48, 6. 

In this paper, an early component of the teacher education practicum program in the College of Education and Professional Studies at Jacksonville State University is described. This program includes an on-campus one-on-one tutorial that is facilitated through the Teaching/Learning Center (T/LC). The T/LC was established so that the JSU College of Education and Professional Studies students could have real world experience by tutoring a child in the age group and subject area in which they plan to teach. The center has been referred to as the "center for two learners," since both JSU students and children from the community benefit from the T/LC program. One of the goals of secondary education programs is to prepare teachers to incorporate technology into their teaching practices (Pearson & Young, 2002). The required tutoring practicum gives preservice teachers an opportunity to use technology to attain learning objectives at an early stage in their professional development. By encouraging the use of technology at this entry level, it is hoped that these future teachers will come to view technology as a viable instructional tool and a means of enhancing more traditional methods of teaching. This opportunity is also believed to offer preservice teachers experiences using educational technology that will increase their confidence level in their ability to use technology effectively.


Dyck, Brenda A. (2006).  When Digital Natives Come to School  [National Middle School Association] 

As the first generation of students to grow up surrounded by and using digital media comes through the classroom doors, teachers must realize that these students' almost constant interaction with technology has caused them to think and process information differently than students did 10 years ago. Marc Prensky calls today's digital learners Digital Natives and the adults in their lives Digital Immigrants--people who are trying to adapt to the new learning environment but who always have one foot in the past and retain their "accent" or natural tendency to address learning as they did in the past. This immigrant status can cause teachers to make curriculum choices that lack relevancy to their students and to miss using technology in meaningful, forward-thinking ways. Thankfully, Prensky has some advice to offer digital immigrant instructors so that the learning mark isn't missed with their students: (1) Communicate in the language and style of students by learning how to implement a faster paced, more interactive style of presentation; (2) Teach both traditional curriculum (reading, writing, arithmetic, reading comprehension, history, logical thinking) and the content of the future (ethics,politics, sociology, languages, diversity of thought); (3) Invent games--and invite students to invent games--to teach all subjects; and (4) Don't ask whether technology can be used to teach effectively, ask how it can be used.


Diakun, Denyce; Phillips, Rodger (2001).  Can We Get National Labour Market Information into the Classroom Faster? The Information Technology Professional Program. An Association of Canadian Community Colleges Sponsored Sectoral Case Study. 

The Software Human Resource Council (SHRC) is a nonprofit sectoral council that speaks for software professionals throughout the Canadian economy. The SHRC's mission is to increase the number of Information Technology (IT) workers in Canada. This paper gives a brief overview of the evolution of SHRC's Information Technology Professional Program (ITPP), a fast-track comprehensive one year program. ITPP is a model of collaboration between educational institutions, the government, industry, and the SHRC. ITPP was developed in response to the tremendous need for IT workers in Canada. The SHRC and the Human Resource Development Commission set out together to address this human resource issue on a national basis. The goals of the program are: (1) to increase the number of IT workers in Canada; (2) to re-skill qualified people who wish to change careers and take advantage of the opportunities in IT; and (3) to ensure that Canada remains competitive in the global marketplace. It was determined that the most effective means of achieving this agenda was to form partnerships among leaders in education, training, government, and the industries. This paper addresses the lessons learned and the benefits of partnerships, and also delineates future challenges for the program. | [FULL TEXT]


Diamantes, Thomas (2007).  Technology's Impact on Graduate Level Reading: Using Technology to Improve Student Assignment Completion Rates  College Student Journal, 41, 1. 

This paper discusses the critical relation between professor, student and technology in the process of encouraging graduate students to read required textbook sections. It discusses how using online management software, graduate students are required to submit weekly chapter summaries to the professor by 5:00 pm on Fridays. In addition to the chapter summary, graduate students write a personal reflection on how they will connect and use the selected reading assignment in their professional/personal life for self-improvement. Finally, this paper discusses the graduate student's positive and negative reactions towards the integration of the online management software system.


Diaz, Derek D.; Sims, Valerie K. (2003).  Augmenting Virtual Environments: The Influence of Spatial Ability on Learning from Integrated Displays  High Ability Studies, 14, 2. 

The present study examined if spatial knowledge gained from a virtual environment is affected by the spatial ability of the participant, and whether information can be more efficiently acquired and applied to a physical space when participants are given a display featuring both overhead and first-person visual cues. Three spatial training displays were examined: first-person view, overhead-map view, or first-person view with integrated map (composite view). Participants learned the locations of seven targets in a computer simulation of a building. Spatial knowledge for these targets was assessed in the physical building. Results indicate that both the type of training display and spatial ability predicted performance level and that the utility of the composite display was a function of spatial ability and task. For distance estimation, the map-only view was the most accurate. For directional estimation, participants with high spatial ability were the most accurate regardless of their display condition. For route learning, spatial ability facilitated performance with only the map view. While route training using the composite view mimicked the advantages of the two other displays, it did not reproduce the deleterious effects also observed. Success in navigational learning from the simulated environments depended on a complex interaction between spatial ability, navigational task, and type of training display.


Diaz, Veronica (2004).  Sources and Information for Distance Educators  New Directions for Community Colleges, 2004, 128. 

This chapter presents additional information and resources for distance educators at community colleges, focusing in particular on the Americans with Disabilities Act, the TEACH Act, and learning objects and models.


Doyle, Al (2006).  No Fuss Video  Technology & Learning, 27, 2. 

Ever since video became readily available with the advent of the VCR, educators have been clamoring for easier ways to integrate the medium into the classroom. Today, thanks to broadband access and ever-expanding offerings, engaging students with high-quality video has never been easier. Video-on-demand (VOD) services provide bite-size video clips streamed or downloaded from the Internet. Any classroom equipped with a computer and Internet access can use VOD. This article offers some tips for getting the most out of VOD in the classroom.


Doyle, Denis P. (2004).  Accountability, Diagnostics, and Information Technology  Phi Delta Kappan, 85, 8. 

This article argues that while accountability is the watchword of overseers, too often it is the bane of the overseen. At its best, it reflects a prudent concern for good stewardship and responsible management of necessarily scarce resources; at its worst, it becomes a form of mindless hector-ing, in which careful oversight gives way to invective and finger pointing. How is it that the same word has such divergent connotations? According to Webster, the word first appears in 1714, and it means, as one would assume, to be held to account. But its modern usage--also according to Webster--is disproportionately connected to education. In particular, it is linked to the idea that the executive and legislative branches of government must keep a baleful eye on school performance, reward the successful, and punish the wicked to ensure high student achievement levels.


Doyle, John (2006).  Postmodernism and The Approach to Writing in Irish Primary Education  Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 6, 2. 

In attempting to define postmodernism, many search for a "neat central core" (Beck, 1993) thus attempting to universalize all postmodern theories and operate "within the modern obsession with control and reason" (Slattery, 2000: 137). In this article, I refrain from attempting a universal definition, but instead present an exploration of the most commonly identified features which contribute to a broad understanding of the phenomenon known as postmodernism. Following this exploration, I examine the approach to writing advocated in the Irish Primary curriculum, which incorporates a number of principles that find a resonance in postmodern philosophy. Three of the more significant of these principles are looked at in detail: "the process of writing is as important as the product", "children will have significant control over the subject of their writing", and "the teacher will act as mentor and guide in the process".


DiRamio, David; Wolverton, Mimi (2006).  Integrating Learning Communities and Distance Education: Possibility or Pipedream?  Innovative Higher Education, 31, 2. 

As demands for accountability continue and increase, higher education administrators require tools for evaluating campus programs. Learning communities, as a course design strategy, have proven successful in confronting challenges associated with attrition and retention. Because high attrition is associated with online distance education, learning community principles might be applicable to online courses. The authors surveyed attendees at a learning communities conference to determine the applicability of learning community principles to Internet learning and assessment. On the basis of their findings, they developed a rudimentary diagnostic tool for ascertaining whether online course design takes learning community principles into account.


Dirkin, Kathryn Hershey; Mishra, Punya; Altermatt, Ellen (2005).  All or Nothing: Levels of Sociability of a Pedagogical Software Agent and Its Impact on Student Perceptions and Learning  Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 14, 2. 

This article reports the results of an experimental study on multimedia learning environments, which investigated the impact of increasing the social behaviors of a pedagogical agent on students' perceptions of social presence, their perceptions of the learning experience, and learning. Paradoxically, in this experiment students detected higher degrees of social presence in both the text only and the fully animated social agent conditions than students in the voice only and the static image of the agent with voice conditions. Furthermore, students had more positive perceptions of the learning experience in the text only condition. The results support the careful design of social behaviors for animated pedagogical agents if they are to be of educational value, otherwise, the use of agent technology can actually detract from the learning experience.


Dirkx, John M.; Kielbaso, Gloria; Smith, Regina O. (2004).  Epistemic Beliefs of Teachers in Technology-Rich Community College Technical Education Programs  Community College Review, 31, 4. 

Dramatic changes in the nature of work and its organization emphasize the need for workers to address complex and ill-structured problems and to produce knowledge useful in the workplace. Integrated use of computer-based technologies in education-for-work and workplace learning programs can address this need. Such potential, however, depends on the epistemic beliefs of teachers and trainers, as well socio-cultural factors. The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of the epistemic beliefs of teachers in such programs. Our findings indicate that the teachers observed use technology largely to transmit content to their students and to control and pace of that transmission process. The constructivist promise inherent in computer technology was largely unrealized and curricular practices observed.


Doucette, Don (2001).  Mission Possible: Management Systems on a Manageable Budget.  Community College Journal, 72, 2. 

Reports that the Metropolitan Community Colleges (MCC) (Missouri) upgraded their information systems in four years, for less than $7 million. Offers advice based on lessons learned in the MCC process, including: (1) identify implementation leadership among veteran staff; (2) train everyone who will use the system; and (3) test and test again.


Dougherty, Barbara J.; Zilliox, Joseph (2003).  Voyaging from Theory to Practice in Teaching and Learning: A View from Hawaii  [International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Paper presented at the 27th International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education Conference Held Jointly with the 25th PME-NA Conference (Honolulu, HI, Jul 13-18, 2003), v1 p17-32] 

This document contains two contributions: "Voyaging from Theory to Practice in Teaching: Measure Up" (Barbara J. Dougherty) and "Voyaging from Theory to Practice in Learning: Teacher Professional Development" (Joseph Zilliox). Hawaii is a place of diverse cultures, ethnicities, and traditions representing a myriad of global regions. Education within such a setting creates a unique opportunity and challenge to create tasks and processes by which all students can learn. The two papers presented in this plenary illustrate how theory and practice in the Hawaii setting build on each other, one focusing on teaching and the other focusing on learning. The theories surrounding the two papers may be slightly different to accommodate the foci of the papers. However, both papers use the theories and experiences from practice to address the perspectives of the classroom and the needs of the key stakeholders--teachers and students.  [For complete proceedings, see ED500857.] | [FULL TEXT]


Doughty, Catherine J.; Long, Michael H. (2003).  Optimal Psycholinguistic Environments for Distance Foreign Language Learning.  Language Learning & Technology, 7, 3. 

Defines 10 methodological principles for task-based language learning and illustrates their implementation in the case of foreign language distance learning for less commonly taught languages.


Douglas, Graeme (2001).  ICT, Education, and Visual Impairment.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 32, 3. 

Reviews developments in the use of information and communications technology (ICT) in the education of children with visual impairments. Highlights include the population of children with visual impairments in the United Kingdom; and World Health Organization classification of disability as a criteria by which the relevance of ICT can be measured.


Douglas, Ian (2006).  Issues in Software Engineering of Relevance to Instructional Design  TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 50, 5. 

Software engineering is popularly misconceived as being an upmarket term for programming. In a way, this is akin to characterizing instructional design as the process of creating PowerPoint slides. In both these areas, the construction of systems, whether they are learning or computer systems, is only one part of a systematic process. The most important parts of this process, analysis and design, precede the actual construction. In studies of software failure, the failure is more often traced to poorly stated or missing requirements than it is nonfunctional code (Standish Group International, 1999). Even when programs are functional, the interface design may prevent easy access to that functionality by end-users. There is scope for instructional designers to use some of the body of research and experience in software engineering, especially as technology increasingly infuses learning systems. Goodyear (1995) and Bostock (1998) both refer to "courseware engineering," which represents the intersection of the fields of instructional design and software engineering. Other attempts to draw parallels between the two areas include Wilson, Jonassen and Cole (1993), who note how software engineering has largely moved away from the linear process model, still prevalent in instructional design, toward more iterative approaches utilizing prototyping. Also, an emerging concept in instructional design borrowed from the software engineering world is that of the learning object. In this article, the author introduces several software-engineering process issues of relevance to the development of methodological thinking in instructional design.


Douglass, John Aubrey (2005).  How All Globalization is Local: Countervailing Forces and Their Influence on Higher Education Markets  Higher Education Policy, 18, 4. 

Globalization trends and innovations in the instructional technologies are widely believed to be creating new markets and forcing a revolution in higher education. Much of the rhetoric of "globalists" provides a simplistic analysis of a paradigm shift in higher education (HE) markets and deliverables "(educational services)." This essay provides an analytical framework for a more nuanced understanding of global influences on national HE systems. It then identifies and discusses the "countervailing forces" to globalization that illuminate the complexities of the effects of globalization (including the General Agreement on Trade and Services). Globalization does offer substantial and potentially sweeping changes to national systems of HE, but there is no uniform influence on nation-states or institutions. This essay builds on a growing body of research that demonstrates that globalization is in fact subject to a complex set of local influences. It also offers case examples in which have rushed into entrepreneurial universities new markets without fully understanding these influences.


Douglass, John Aubrey (2005).  All Globalization Is Local: Countervailing Forces and the Influence on Higher Education Markets. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.1.05  [Online Submission] 

Globalization trends and innovations in the instructional technologies are widely believed to be creating new markets and forcing a revolution in higher education. Much of the rhetoric of globalists has presented a simplistic analysis of a paradigm shift in higher education markets and the way nations and institutions deliver educational services. This essay provides an analytical framework for understanding global influences on national higher education systems. It then identifies and discusses the countervailing forces to globalization that help to illuminate the complexities of the effects of globalization (including the General Agreement on Trade and Services) and new instructional technologies on the delivery and market for teaching and learning services. Globalization does offer substantial and potentially sweeping changes to national systems of higher education, but there is no uniform influence on nation-states or institutions. All globalization is in fact subject to local (or national and regional) influences.  [An earlier version of this article was published in Tjeldvoll A. and Zhou F. (ed.) (2004) "University Development and Globalization," Norwegian University of Science and Technology, No. 21.] | [FULL TEXT]


Dupagne, Michel; Stacks, Don W.; Giroux, Valerie Manno (2007).  Effects of Video Streaming Technology on Public Speaking Students' Communication Apprehension and Competence  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 35, 4. 

This study examines whether video streaming can reduce trait and state communication apprehension, as well as improve communication competence, in public speaking classes. Video streaming technology has been touted as the next generation of video feedback for public speaking students because it is not limited by time or space and allows Internet users to view video content without prior downloading. Seventy-two public speaking students in two treatment classes and two control classes taught by the same instructor participated in a quasi-experiment to test three hypotheses. Although students who had viewed their speeches online reacted positively to their video streaming experience, results revealed no significant differences in communication apprehension and competence between the treatment and control groups.


Dupin-Bryant, Pamela A. (2004).  Teaching Styles of Interactive Television Instructors: A Descriptive Study  American Journal of Distance Education, 18, 1. 

This study identified teaching styles of university interactive television instructors. The instructors (N = 203), representing nine Land Grant universities, completed a demographic survey and the Principles of Adult Learning Scale, a forty-four item teaching-style assessment instrument. Descriptive statistics revealed that interactive television instructors displayed behaviors representative of both learner-centered and teacher-centered styles, with a strong inclination toward a teacher-centered approach to the distance teaching process. Results indicate discrepancies between what research and theory suggest is the most appropriate distance teaching style and what is actually being employed in interactive television classrooms.


Dupont, Stephen (2000).  Hard Hitters!  Instructor, 109, 6. 

Presents a selection of computers and peripherals designed to enhance the classroom. They include personal digital assistants (the AlphaSmart 30001R, CalcuScribe Duo, and DreamWriter IT); new Apple products (the iBook laptop, improved iMac, and OS 9 operating system); PC options (new Gateway and Compaq computers); and gadgets (imagiLab, the QX3 Computer Microscope, and Launch Pad).


Dowdall, Clare (2006).  Dissonance between the Digitally Created Words of School and Home  Literacy, 40, 3. 

This article considers the potential for dissonance that one 12-year-old child (Clare) may experience as a text producer using new technologies, when working across a range of contexts. In this ongoing case study, two types of text are explored: a computer-generated text produced as a homework task for school, and texts produced using an Internet-based social network site called "Bebo." Key features of Clare's text production in both contexts are identified and compared in an attempt to establish the dissonance that may be experienced as she switches from one context to another. However, by placing the texts alongside each other, it can be seen that although they look markedly different, the acts of composing the texts bear some significant resemblance. The article concludes by suggesting that experiences of dissonance in relation to text production may in fact be lodged more firmly with the recipient of any text, when it fails to meet their social, cultural and linguistic expectations, than with the child composer.


Dowie, Sandra (2000).  The Virtual Retina: Is Good Educational Technology Always Strategic? 

Educational technology units must continually monitor their strategic plans to ensure that they are aligned with the realities of their institutions. Strategic dissonance occurs when previously successful strategies are no longer achieving the same positive outcomes. The Virtual Retina CD-ROM project is used in this paper as an example of strategic dissonance for the Academic Technologies Center (ATL) at the University of Alberta. In addition, a number of methods for analyzing the strategies used by educational technology units are presented. These methods provide a means for units in higher education to conduct the ongoing task of maintaining their strategic plans. The following questions are used to structure the discussion: (1) What is the unit's external competitive environment? (2) How well is the present strategy working? (3) What are the organization's resource strengths and weaknesses and its external opportunities and threats? (4) Are the educational technology unit's prices and costs competitive? (5) How strong is the center's competitive position? (6) What strategic issues do educational technology units face? | [FULL TEXT]


Dowie, Sandra (2002).  Grappling with Strategic Dissonance.  Planning for Higher Education, 31, 1. 

Presents a case study of the Virtual Retina project (an instructional CD-ROM for ophthalmology students) at the University of Alberta as an example of strategic dissonance in an educational technology unit. Offers methods to analyze the external competitive environment and internal capabilities of educational technology units.


Downes, Stephen (2005).  Understanding PISA  [Online Submission] 

The headline was dramatic enough to cause a ripple in the reading public. "Students who use computers a lot at school have worse maths and reading performance," noted the BBC news article, citing a 2004 study by Ludger Woessmann and Thomas Fuchs (Fuchs and Woessman, 2004). It was not long before the blogosphere took notice. Taking the theme and running with it, Alice and Bill ask, "Computers Make School Kids Dumber?" They theorize, "If you track the admitted decline of education, you'll probably notice that it follows along with the increase of technology in the classroom." In a similar vein, James Bartholomew asks, "Do you think that the government will turn down the volume of its boasting about how it has spent billions introducing computers in schools (while keeping down the pay of teachers so much that there are shortages)? Do you think it will stop sending governors of state schools glossy pamphlets about insisting that computers are used in their schools as much as possible?" In this study, therefore, PISA looks well beyond educational attainment, and also includes school demographics, such as whether it is a public or private school, has large or small classes, or has access or not to technological resources. Finally, it does measure student information-their family background, access to books and computers and parental support as well. The PISA survey departs from previous surveys in disregarding the stated curricula of the schools being measured. Therefore, the conclusion is not surprising, nor even wrong for him to consider independently of any parental or teacher support, considered without reference to the software running on it, considered without reference to student attitudes and interests, does not positively impact an education. Finally, he focuses on missing the reporting of results. | [FULL TEXT]


Downey, Steve (2001).  Strategic Planning of Online Instructional Programs: A Practitioner's Perspective.  International Journal of Educational Technology, 2, 2. 

This practitioner-oriented article addresses some of the more commonly overlooked areas of online instructional development. Five sections discuss specific aspects of online program planning and development: (1) Building a Strategic Plan; (2) Technology Planning and Selection; (3) Systemic Instructional Design Considerations; (4) Training and Support Program Necessities; (5) Addressing Administrative and Policy Issues.


Downey, Steve; Wentling, Rose Mary; Wentling, Tim; Wadsworth, Andrew (2004).  The Relationship between National Culture and the Usability of an E-Learning System  [Online Submission, Paper presented at the Academy of Human Resource Development International Conference (AHRD) (Austin, TX, Mar 3-7, 2004) p871-878 (Symp. 40-2)] 

This study sought to measure the relationship between national culture and the usability of an e-Learning system by using Hofstede's cultural dimensions and Nielson's usability attributes. The study revealed that high uncertainty avoidance cultures found the system more frustrating to use. The study also revealed that individuals from cultures with low power distance indicators (e.g., people more accepting of uneven power distribution) rated the system's usability higher than individuals from high power distance cultures.  [For complete proceedings, see ED491481.] | [FULL TEXT]


Downey, Thomas E. (2000).  The Application of Continuous Quality Improvement Models and Methods to Higher Education: Can We Learn from Business? 

Continuous quality improvement (CQI) models, which were first applied in business, are critical to making new technology-based learning paradigms and flexible learning environments a reality. The following are among the factors that have facilitated CQI's application in education: increased operating costs; increased competition from private schools and nontraditional modes of learning; students' increased awareness of what they need to succeed in the workplace; and the need to keep costs down while maintaining quality and demand. A macromodel for quality and CQI in student learning has been proposed as a comprehensive approach for strategic planning and management of "educational products." Components of the model include the following: institutional vision, primary values, and goals based on the strategic implications of using technology-based educational solutions; a program quality assurance system; a faculty development plan that includes provisions for delivering the technical and nontechnical training needed to incorporate technology into the curriculum; assessment of learning from a distance and in the classroom; enabling policies, structures, and resources; and cross-departmental, cross-functional support groups. The CQI process must promote the following items: self-paced learning; standardization; anytime, anyplace learning; reduced operational costs; and development of "virtual team" skills in students. | [FULL TEXT]


Downing, Kevin; Chim, Tat Mei (2004).  Reflectors as Online Extraverts?  Educational Studies, 30, 3. 

Increasingly, online learning is perceived as an effective method of instruction. Much recent educational research has focused on examining the purposes and situations for which online education is best suited. In this paper, students enrolled in two online courses are compared with their peers enrolled in equivalent classroom-based courses to investigate aspects of the relationship between learning style and mode of delivery. Student satisfaction measures are taken from participants in both modes of delivery and compared with student learning style. Feedback from the 'Reflector' learning style demonstrates higher satisfaction levels with the online mode of delivery compared with their matched counterparts following equivalent classroom-based courses. Therefore, whilst 'Reflectors' might be regarded as Introverts in the traditional classroom setting, the additional time for reflection offered by online delivery makes this group more likely to contribute to online discussion, report higher satisfaction levels and generally behave more like online Extraverts.


Duffield, Judith A.; Moore, Julie A. (2006).  Lessons Learned from PT3  TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 50, 3. 

Technology integration is a three-pronged effort. Not only do teachers, no matter the level, need to know how to use technology, they need to know how to integrate it into their curriculum. These two prongs were a consistent theme throughout the Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers to Use Technology (PT3) projects. Add access to technology to these and one has a powerful base from which emerge technology-using teachers. PT3 only addressed this third prong during the first round of applications through capacity building grants. These were targeted toward supplying institutions with computers and other hardware and infrastructure necessary to their being able to integrate technology into their teacher preparation programs. The purpose of this special edition of "TechTrends" was to capture and share the knowledge gained from the over three hundred PT3 catalyst and implementation projects initiated between 1999 and 2001 and completed by 2005. As is implied by the title, the intent of the PT3 program is to change the way preservice teachers are prepared so that they enter the teaching profession with the skills and dispositions necessary to integrate technology into their classrooms and schools. In this section, the authors review the strategies that were most prevalent and successful. They can be grouped into three types of activities: professional development, curricular reform and incentives.


Duffy, Francis M. (2004).  The Destination of Three Paths: Improved Student, Faculty and Staff, and System Learning  Educational Forum

Piecemeal change to improve schooling is an approach that at its worst does more harm than good, and at its best is limited to creating pockets of good within school districts. When it comes to improving schooling in a district, however, creating pockets of good isn't good enough. Whole school systems need to be improved. This article focuses on helping educators learn how to transform entire school systems to create unparalleled opportunities to improve student, faculty and staff, and system learning, and presents a set of principles to help change leaders in school systems navigate large-scale, district-wide change to create these multiple learning opportunities.


Dosen, Anthony J.; Gibbs, Michael G.; Guerrero, Rosalie; McDevitt, Patrick J. (2004).  Technology in Nonsectarian and Religious Private Schools  Journal of Research on Christian Education, 13, 2. 

In this article, the authors report the results of a survey on technology access and use in both religious and nonsectarian schools in the state of Illinois. Four hundred surveys were sent to a cross section of private schools, with a response rate of 45%. The study demonstrates there were only minimal differences between sectarian and nonsectarian schools and that they both had adequate, up-to-date equipment. Most schools provided their students and faculty with access to computer/Internet technology in dedicated labs, media centers, and classrooms. The study does show that while both religious and nonsectarian private schools have the tools to integrate technology into the curriculum, and principals who positively rate the use of computer technology, most principals report that a majority of their teachers do not make use of technology in ways that promote higher-order thinking.


Doshi, Ameet (2006).  How Gaming Could Improve Information Literacy  Computers in Libraries, 26, 5. 

This article outlines some of the innovative ideas expressed at the December 2005 Gaming, Learning and Libraries symposium attended by the author, as well as his own notions about the potential for integrating gaming with information literacy. The purpose of this article is to recognize the possibilities to engage students in an environment that is relevant to their world view. By including a gaming element in library skills teaching, the potential exists to excite this millennial generation about information literacy, and to infuse them with lifelong library skills.


Dexter, Sara L.; Anderson, Ronald E.; Ronnkvist, Amy M. (2002).  Quality Technology Support: What Is It? Who Has It? and What Difference Does It Make?  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 26, 3. 

Defines quality technology support for teachers as consisting of access to one-on-one personal guidance and help; teacher participation in technology-oriented professional support among peers; professional development; and access to resources. Suggests the instructional aspects of technology support are important for successful technology integration in elementary and secondary education.


Dexter, Sara; Doering, Aaron H.; Riedel, Eric (2006).  Content Area Specific Technology Integration: A Model for Educating Teachers  Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 14, 2. 

In this article we present a model of content-area specific technology preparation. This approach was premised on the fact that even if preservice teachers know how to operate technology, they need help to understand how to flexibly incorporate new technology resources into their knowledge of a content area in ways that enhance student learning. Important factors for implementation success were our collegewide support for the model, technology-using K-12 teachers who facilitated technology integration into methods courses, and taking a content-area specific view of technology integration. We conclude that it will likely take a systemic view to implement a collegewide innovation of content-area specific teacher technology preparation, and that faculty would need motivation, opportunities, and support to learn. To sustain such a model would likely require it become a basic, underlying assumption of the program of teacher preparation.


Dexter, Sara; Riedel, Eric (2003).  Why Improving Preservice Teacher Educational Technology Preparation Must Go beyond the College's Walls.  Journal of Teacher Education, 54, 4. 

Surveyed preservice teachers regarding important factors in predicting their professional uses of technology and having K-12 students use technology in the classroom. Results found that setting high expectations for designing and delivering instruction using technology was effective in getting student teachers to use technology during clinical experiences. Other important factors were level of access to technology and support and feedback from cooperating teachers during student teaching.


Dexter, Sara; Seashore, K. R.; Anderson, R. E. (2002).  Contributions of Professional Community to Exemplary Use of ICT.  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 18, 4. 

Discusses the relationship between professional community and the effective use of ICT (information and communication technology), based on case studies at elementary and secondary schools in the United States. Topics include access to technology; teachers' learning through professional development; collaboration among staff; and reflective dialogue.


Diker, Vedat G. (2004).  Improving Open Online Content Development for K-12 Education  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

The study summarized in this paper explored policies for improving open online content development projects with respect to growing the development community and improving the quantity and quality of materials developed. The study made use of dynamic feedback simulation and interviews with the members of an established content development community that specializes in K-12 instructional materials development. | [FULL TEXT]


Dikkers, Amy Garrett; Hughes, Joan E.; McLeod, Scott (2005).  A Bridge to Success: STLI--In that No Man's Land between School Technology and Effective Leadership, the University of Minnesota's School Technology Leadership Initiative Is a Welcoming Bridge  T.H.E. Journal, 32, 11. 

Few mechanisms exist today in K-12 education to prepare school leaders to understand and espouse innovative technologies, even as technological innovation is occurring so rapidly. Although nearly all public school teachers now have access to computers or the Internet somewhere in their schools, only one-third of them feel "well prepared" or "very well prepared" to integrate the use of computers and the Internet into their teaching, according to the National Center for Education Statistics. What is more, it has been demonstrated that in recent years, few school administrators use technology meaningfully to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their own work. The University of Minnesota has designed the first academic program in the country designed to comprehensively address the need for effective technology leaders in K-12 schools--a bridge across the no man's land between technology and leadership that might be considered a national model for other technology leadership initiatives in the future. This program is called the School Technology Leadership Initiative (STLI) and it is detailed in this article.


Dikli, Semire (2006).  Automated Essay Scoring  [Online Submission] 

The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES) has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali, 2004). AES is defined as the computer technology that evaluates and scores the written prose (Shermis & Barrera, 2002; Shermis & Burstein, 2003; Shermis, Raymat, & Barrera, 2003). Revision and feedback are essential aspects of the writing process. Students need to receive feedback in order to increase their writing quality. However, responding to student papers can be a burden for teachers. Particularly if they have large number of students and if they assign frequent writing assignments, providing individual feedback to student essays might be quite time consuming. AES systems can be very useful because they can provide the student with a score as well as feedback within seconds (Page, 2003). Four types of AES systems, which are widely used by testing companies, universities, and public schools: Project Essay Grader (PEG), Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), E-rater, and IntelliMetric. AES is a developing technology. Many AES systems are used to overcome time, cost, and generalizability issues in writing assessment. The accuracy and reliability of these systems have been proven to be high. The search for excellence in machine scoring of essays is continuing and numerous studies are being conducted to improve the effectiveness of the AES systems. | [FULL TEXT]


Deubel, Patricia (2001).  The Good and Bad News of Software Use for Mathematics Proficiency Test Preparation.  Ohio Journal of School Mathematics

Surveys grade 8 mathematics, special education, and proficiency intervention teachers in 35 middle schools to address the question of whether software use has made any difference on students' passing of the mathematics portion of the Ohio Ninth Grade Proficiency Test.


Deubel, Patricia (2001).  The Effectiveness of Mathematics Software for Ohio Proficiency Test Preparation.  Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 33, 5. 

Examines the use and effectiveness of software to help students pass the mathematics portion of the Ohio Ninth Grade Proficiency Test. Results indicated that administrative support, teachers' instructional style, teachers' perceived priority of learning about computers and software, computer availability and access, technical assistance, and software quality were significant factors affecting teachers' decisions to use technology in mathematics instruction. 


Deubel, Patricia (2006).  Game On!  T.H.E. Journal, 33, 6. 

This article describes digital game-based learning (DGBL), the uniting of educational content with computer or online games, that holds the potential for a wealth of educational applications, if managed properly. DGBL motivates by virtue of being fun. It is versatile, can be used to teach almost any subject or skill, and, when used correctly, is extremely effective. Its use is also supported by constructivist theory, which calls for active engagement and experiential learning. DGBL promises to bring broad learning benefits on several fronts: (1) Provide deep digital engagement to students who have come to expect it; (2) Offer motivation for persistence in completing courses; (3) Enable customized learning experiences; and (4) Promote both long-term memory and transfer of learning to practical, everyday life endeavors.


Deimann, Markus; Keller, John M. (2006).  Volitional Aspects of Multimedia Learning  Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 15, 2. 

Research on multimedia learning has produced a vast body of findings which, however, are not yet being integrated into a comprehensive framework of reference. For a considerable time, cognitive centered approaches have dominated the literature. Although motivational variables are now being taken into account, there is still a large gap in regard to an adequate representation of motivation in multimedia learning. This is an important concern given the various challenges and obstacles, such as navigational problems, distractions, and cognitive overload, that learners have to face due to the very nature of hypermedia. A promising area of theory that can help concerning this matter is represented by volition, an old concept in the study of human motivation and action (James, 1902), which has been reestablished within recent developments in psychology, such as the "theory of action control" (Kuhl, 1984). In this article, a volitional framework to supplement the mostly cognitively-based research on multimedia learning is introduced to serve as a basis for critically reviewing and reinterpreting current research findings. In particular, the volitional framework is applied to common phenomena in multimedia such as "lost in hyperspace," "cognitive overload," and "seductive details" together with other obstacles to persistence and learning. In addition, several future directions in research on both theory and practical strategies based on the application of volitional strategies in multimedia learning are provided.


Di, Xu; Dunn, Denise; Lee, S. J. (2000).  An Integrated Approach to Instructional Technology.  Action in Teacher Education, 22, 2A. 

Examined the impact of instructional technology in an educational foundations course on students' perceptions of instructional technology, research skills, and learning. Surveys indicated that while utilizing the Internet for research, students improved their perception of instructional technology related to confidence and comfort level, frequency of computer use, and views on instructional technology in teaching. This led to higher student achievement.


Dixit, Avinash (2005).  Restoring Fun to Game Theory  Journal of Economic Education, 36, 3. 

The author suggests methods for teaching game theory at an introductory level, using interactive games to be played in the classroom or in computer clusters, clips from movies to be screened and discussed, and excerpts from novels and historical books to be read and discussed.


Dixon, Felicia; Cassady, Jerrell; Cross, Tracy; Williams, David (2005).  Effects of Technology on Critical Thinking and Essay Writing among Gifted Adolescents  Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 16, 4. 

This article presents results of a study that compared critical thinking in two writing samples (essays) from gifted adolescents who attended a residential school. The essays were written at the beginning of the junior year (when students were admitted to the school) and at the beginning of the senior year. All students in the study composed their first essay in handwritten form. On the second essay, some students were randomly assigned to a computer condition and composed their essays on the computer. Results demonstrated a gender-specific effect of using computers to compose essays. Boys using the computers produced significantly more words, sentences, and paragraphs than boys who did not use the computer to write and received higher ratings on a structured rubric. Girls scored the same in both conditions and performed consistently at a level on par with the boys using computers.  | [FULL TEXT]


Dobbins, Kenneth W. (2005).  Getting Ready for the Net Generation Learner  EDUCAUSE Review, 40, 5. 

Kenneth W. Dobbins, president of Southeast Missouri State University, discusses attending a June 2004 conference on "The Key to Competitiveness: Understanding the Next Generation Learner," sponsored by the American Association of State Colleges and Universities, EDUCAUSE, and Microsoft. The conference addressed what today's students, the "Net Generation," expect from information technology, based on their lifetime experiences with instant messaging, chat rooms, Googling, online games, virtual tours, and bulletin boards. He describes what his campus has done to prepare for the net generation learner. A task force was formed to help faculty and staff prepare for meeting the needs of Net Generation learners and to enable faculty and staff to adjust teaching strategies for these learners. Task force members observed classrooms to learn how technology was used with teachers and students in fourth-grade computer-enriched classrooms, in eleventh-grade classrooms, and at Southeast Missouri State University. Results of these observations are presented. Dobbins concludes by stating that substantive changes in curriculum delivery to meet this generation's technology demands can only be achieved with a critical mass of faculty and staff who believe that such changes are needed and who will champion those changes.


Dobosenski, Laura (2001).  Girls and Computer Technology: Building Skills and Improving Attitudes through a Girls' Computer Club.  Library Talk, 14 n4 p12-14, 16 Sep-Oct 2001. 

Describes a girls' computer club started at one elementary school as an action research project. Discusses research findings about girls and computer technology; getting started; building community and establishing communication; activities and projects; using games to build computer fluency; involving volunteers; and success of the club. Includes survey questions used to assess the girls' skills and attitudes.


Dobson, Stephen (2006).  The Assessment of Student PowerPoint Presentations--Attempting the Impossible?  Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 31, 1. 

Assessing students through their Microsoft PowerPoint presentations might be thought to be impossible, a waste of time or a fascination with new technology which will pass sooner or later. However, to make a judgement on such assertions requires examining the strengths and weaknesses of such a form of assessment. Examples within an academic setting are few and far between, but this paper explores one such case--a Microsoft PowerPoint assessment used in an undergraduate Bachelor programme in Travel and Tourism in a Norwegian university college. The goal of this essay is to look at its validity, measured in terms of how well its empirical evidence and theoretical rationales support the adequacy of its inferences on assessment.


Dabaj, Fahme; Isman, Aytekin (2004).  Communication Barriers in Distance Education: "Text-Based Internet-Enabled Online Courses"  [Online Submission] 

With the rapid technological changes and the diverse people demands and conditions, traditional educational systems and institutions are forced to provide additional educational opportunities. A number of educational establishments are contributing to these conditions and demands by developing and offering distance education programs. Distance education is a delivery system of teaching and learning, when the teacher and the student are separated by physical distance and time, using alternative media resources when students and instructors have difficulties of establishing face-to-face communication. In distance education, instruction delivery between tutors and students is done using different delivery systems such as computer mediated communication systems, video tapes, printed material, cassettes, instructional television (Berge, 1998). With development of the Internet and the global network system, universities immediately took the advantage of the World Wide Web to deliver the instruction to almost any node in the world, regardless of physical distance and time. The initial questions to be resolved by institutions offering distance education relate to how effective is the program taught by distance learning, and is it a sufficient replacement for traditional face-to-face education. The effectiveness of online instruction is measured by the level of interaction, how well it satisfies the students' needs, and how it eliminates communication barriers between the involved participants. Communication barriers exist in any communication process. They are greater in distance education due to physical distance between members, insufficient technology skills, difficulties using media, need for more human interaction, time constraints and restrictions, and lack of experience with distance education. These problems make it hard to establish the distance education process and develop effective communication between members. The degree of these barriers differs from institution to institution, from one program to another, and for different systems used for delivery.  | [FULL TEXT]


Dabbagh, Nada (2001).  Authoring Tools and Learning Systems: A Historical Perspective. 

Authoring tools have evolved over the last decade based on technological and pedagogical innovations, from authoring bounded, program-controlled learning systems such as Computer-Based Instruction (CBI) to authoring unbounded, learner-centered environments such as Web-Based Instruction (WBI). This paper discusses the current state of authoring tools and their pedagogical effect on the development of learning systems. It provides a taxonomy of authoring tools and their underlying paradigms and a detailed table that compares and contrasts pedagogical attributes of CBI and WBI. The paper also discusses tow innovative approaches on how future authoring tools can preserve the level of usability and the instructional methods that instructional designers have become familiar with while allowing more powerful and flexible learning systems to be built.   | [FULL TEXT]


Dabbagh, Nada (2002).  The Evolution of Authoring Tools and Hypermedia Learning Systems: Current and Future Implications.  Educational Technology, 42, 4. 

Discusses the evolution of authoring tools and hypermedia learning systems based on technological and pedagogical innovations. Highlights include instructional products; computer-based instruction and Web-based instruction; classes of authoring tools; Web-based course management tools; scalability and usability; object oriented designs; learners as producers of hypermedia learning systems; and learning objects systems architecture.


Dabbagh, Nada; Denisar, Katrina (2005).  Assessing Team-Based Instructional Design Problem Solutions of Hierarchical Versus Heterarchical Web-Based Hypermedia Cases  Educational Technology Research and Development, 53, 2. 

For this study, we examined the cogency, comprehensiveness, and viability of team-based problem solutions of a Web-based hypermedia case designed to promote student understanding of the practice of instructional design. Participants were 14 students enrolled in a graduate course on advanced instructional design. The case was presented to students using two hypermedia structures, hierarchical (tree-like structure) and heterarchical (network-like structure). Results from analyses of four data sources revealed that problem solutions developed in response to the heterarchical case design were more cogent and convincing than problem solutions developed in response to the hierarchical case design. Specifically, the heterarchical case solutions provided evidence of a heuristic problem-solving process facilitating the identification of an expert-like solution to the case and the articulation of learners' understanding and application of grounded and engaging instructional designs.


Dabbagh, Nada; Kitsantas, Anastasia (2004).  Supporting Self-Regulation in Student-Centered Web-Based Learning Environments  International Journal on E-Learning, 3, 1. 

Numerous benefits of student-centered web-based learning environments have been documented in the literature; however the effects on student learning are questionable, particularly for low self-regulated learners primarily because these environments require students to exercise a high degree of self-regulation to succeed. Currently few guidelines exist on how college instructors should incorporate self-regulated strategies using web-based pedagogical tools. The scope of this paper is to (a) discuss the significance of self-regulation in student-centered web-based learning environments; (b) demonstrate how instructional designers and educators can provide opportunities for student self-regulation using web-based pedagogical tools; and (c) redefine the role of the instructor to support the development of independent, self-regulated learners through the use of web-based pedagogical tools.


Dabbagh, Nada; Kitsantas, Anastasia (2005).  Using Web-Based Pedagogical Tools as Scaffolds for Self-Regulated Learning  Instructional Science: An International Journal of Learning and Cognition, 33, 5-6. 

The purpose of the present study was to confirm previous research findings that different categories of Web-based pedagogical tools (WBPT) (e.g., collaborative and communication tools, content creation and delivery tools) supported different self-regulated learning (SRL) processes (e.g., goal setting, self monitoring), and to further examine which WBPT were most effective in supporting student SRL while completing course assignments. The sample surveyed consisted of 65 students enrolled in three distributed courses. A mixed methods methodological approach was implemented. As expected, quantitative analyses confirmed that different WBPT supported different SRL processes. In addition, analyses of qualitative data collected revealed that WBPT were highly effective in activating the use of SRL processes necessary to support specific types of learning tasks required for completion of course assignments. Educational implications for using WBPT as scaffolds for SRL are discussed.


Doo, Min Young (2005).  The Effects of Presentation Format for Behavior Modeling of Interpersonal Skills in Online Instruction  Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 14, 3. 

The purpose of this study was to identify the most effective model presentation format in behavior modeling to teach interpersonal skills in online learning environments. Four model presentation formats were compared; video, pictures plus audio, audio only, and text-script only. The effects of the model presentation were investigated in terms of learning outcomes, which were measured by learners' reactions; cognitive retention of learning content; and behavioral reproduction. No significant differences between groups were found in any measure of learning outcomes. The implication of the findings is that it is reasonable to use cost-effective model presentation formats to teach interpersonal skills using behavior modeling. Also, three possible moderating variables of the relationship between model presentation formats and learning outcomes are discussed.


Dooley, Kim E.; Murphy, Tim H. (2001).  College of Agriculture Faculty Perceptions of Electronic Technologies in Teaching.  Journal of Agricultural Education, 42, 2. 

Responses from agricultural education faculty (n=263) at land-grant institutions indicated their perception of a lack of institutional support for educational technologies; most had websites for course enhancement and were technically competent; they recognized the increasing importance of technologies. Barriers to adoption included lack of infrastructure and methodological knowledge.


Doornekamp, Gerard (2002).  A Comparative Study on ICT as a Tool for the Evaluation of the Policies on ICT in Education.  Studies in Educational Evaluation, 28, 3. 

Compared results from the Second Information Technology in Education Study, which assessed information and communication technology (ICT) for West-European countries (five for primary education and six for lower secondary education), focusing on The Netherlands.


Dodds, Philip; Fletcher, J. D. (2004).  Opportunities for New "Smart" Learning Environments Enabled by Next-Generation Web Capabilities  Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 13, 4. 

Empirical evaluations suggest that use of interactive technologies can reduce the costs of instruction by about one-third. In addition, they can either increase achievement by about one-third while holding time constant or reduce time needed to achieve targeted instructional objectives by about one-third. These technologies can be delivered over the Web, which can also support systems that generate instruction on demand. Development of either generative instruction or pre-specified interactions will benefi t from a ready supply of instructional objects such as those specified by the Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM), which is now receiving wide, international acceptance. SCORM will be further enhanced by the development of the Semantic Web, which will allow more extensive links between available representations of knowledge and enhance the discovery of learning objects for use in instruction.


Dodds, Ted (2006).  Changing Assumptions in Best Practice  EDUCAUSE Review, 41, 4. 

More than a decade ago, the predominant means by which colleges and universities deployed major information systems shifted from in-house development to the acquisition of packaged software. The author of this article suggests, however, that institutionally defined business or academic processes may or may not fit the embedded definition of "best practice" in current-generation systems. He suggests several factors that, when taken together, can broaden the available alternatives for planning next-generation campus systems, including: (1) Institutional commitment to designing end-to-end business and academic processes so that they are end-user centric, plus identifying those processes that have the potential to strategically differentiate individual institutions; (2) Modular systems made up of well-defined business processes that themselves are composed of software services built on a foundation of rigorous open standards; (3) Community source (open source) software development and the rapid evolution of multiple organizational models that can sustain product development and support over time; (4) Next-generation tools that are designed on a network model so that they can leverage the Internet's critical success factors: end-to-end design, layered architecture, and open standards; and (5) A growing knowledge base of how to make these new approaches work effectively in higher education.


Dodigovic, Marina (2005).  Vocabulary Profiling with Electronic Corpora: A Case Study in Computer Assisted Needs Analysis  Computer Assisted Language Learning, 18, 5. 

Since the inception of computer assisted language learning (CALL), computers have been successfully used to provide leaning and assessment opportunities for groups or individual learners. This article describes a use of computer that is fundamentally different to most CALL approaches, and yet contributes to language learning. While presenting a case study conducted in higher education in the Gulf of Arabia, the paper builds a strong case for computer assisted vocabulary profiling as a means of objective needs analysis and language program evaluation. This approach is based on a lexical comparison of learner corpora with the corpora of teaching resources. The software used for this purpose is The Compleat Lexical Tutor.


Dede, Chris (2003).  No Cliche Left Behind: Why Education Policy Is Not Like the Movies.  Educational Technology, 43, 2. 

Discusses federal educational policies for educational reform and improvement based on standards, student assessment, and accountability. Topics include the No Child Left Behind initiative; standardized tests; the Elementary and Secondary Education Act; the role of learning technologies; distributed learning; infrastructures for learning technologies; teacher education; and equity.


Dede, Chris (2004).  Enabling Distributed Learning Communities via Emerging Technologies--Part Two  T.H.E. Journal, 32, 3. 

This article represents the second part of a two part article. It begins with a summary of part one of the article published in the September issue of "T.H.E. Journal." This second part of the discussion presents vignettes that demonstrate how many current approaches to teacher preparation, new teacher induction and continuing professional development are clearly inadequate to achieve the goals; and how an innovative strategy for schooling might attract a much broader range of skilled and committed people to the profession of teaching. Brief illustrative examples of how distributed learning communities might guide design efforts toward such an innovation strategy are also described. The article concludes that powerful new models for teacher preparation, induction and professional development--as well as for evolving the public's conceptions of learning and schooling--are essential to take full advantage of the opportunities new technologies pose. To meet this challenge, those in teacher education should lead the way with improvement initiatives based on a distributed learning communities process of innovation.


Dede, Chris (2004).  Making Educational Technology Work: State Policies in the North Central Region. NCREL Policy Issues. Number 15  [Learning Point Associates / North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL)] 

As the responsibility for allocating resources for technology shifts from federal administrators to state and local education agencies, state and local policymakers face greater accountability for making fiscally and educationally sound decisions. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL), the research and development arm of Learning Point Associates, is committed to assisting state and local education agencies with under-standing the many issues related to developing and implementing technology programs. This policy study presents findings from an analysis of the educational technology policies of the seven states in the North Central region: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. The analysis was conducted through the lens of the State Policy Framework for Assessing Educational Technology Implementation, developed by the author (Dede, 2002b). This framework delineates a menu of ways in which state policies can enhance educational technology usage to improve student learning and standards-based educational reform. [This report was produced by Learning Point Associates, North Central Regional Educational Library.] | [FULL TEXT]


Dede, Chris, Ed.; Honan, James P., Ed.; Peters, Laurence C., Ed. (2005).  Scaling Up Success: Lessons Learned from Technology-Based Educational Improvement  [Jossey-Bass, An Imprint of Wiley] 

Drawing from the information presented at a conference sponsored by the Harvard Graduate School of Education and the Mid-Atlantic Regional Technology in Education Consortium, educators, researchers, and policymakers translate theory into practice to provide a hands-on resource that describes different models for scaling up success. This resource includes illustrative examples of best practices that are grounded in real-life case studies of technology-based educational innovation, from networking a failing school district in New Jersey to using computer visualization to teach scientific inquiry in Chicago. The book demonstrates how lessons learned from technology-based educational innovation can be applied to other school improvement efforts. Following a Foreword (Ellen Condliffe Lagemann) and Preface, the book includes eleven chapters: (1) Moving from Successful Local Practice to Effective State Policy: Lessons from Union City (Fred Carrigg, Margaret Honey, and Ron Thorpe); (2) Dewey Goes Digital: Scaling Up Constructivist Pedagogies and the Promise of New Technologies (Martha Stone Wiske and David Perkins); (3) Adapting Innovations to Particular Contexts of Use: A Collaborative Framework (Barry J. Fishman); (4) Designing for Scalable Educational Improvement: Processes of Inquiry in Practice (Susan R. Goldman); (5) Scaling Up Professional Development in the United Kingdom, Singapore, and Chile (Laurence C. Peters); (6) Technology as Proteus: Digital Infrastructures That Empower Scaling Up (Chris Dede and Robert Nelson); (7) Scaling Up Data Use in Classrooms, Schools, and Districts (Sam Stringfield, Jeffrey C. Wayman, and Mary E. Yakimowski-Srebnick); (8) Foundations for Success in the Great City Schools: Lessons from Some Faster-Improving Districts (Michael Casserly and Jason C. Snipes); (9) Scaling Up Technology-Based Educational Innovations (Barbara Means and William R. Penuel); (10) Critiquing and Improving the Use of Data from High-Stakes Tests with the Aid of Dynamic Statistics Software (Jere Confrey and Katie M. Makar); and (11) Scaling Up Success: A Synthesis of Themes and Insights (Chris Dede and James P. Honan). Information about the contributors, acknowledgments, and indexes by both name and subject conclude the book.


Dedic, Helena; Rosenfield, Steven; Cooper, Miriam; Fuchs, Marketa (2001).  "Do I Really Hafta?" WebCal, A Look at the Use of LiveMath Software in Web-based Materials That Provide Interactive Engagement in a Collaborative Learning Environment for Differential Calculus.  Educational Research and Evaluation: An International Journal on Theory and Practice, 7, 2-3. 

Studied the use of a Web-based Computer Algebra System called LiveMath in a computer supported collaborative learning environment for differential calculus. Results for one college class from this exploratory study suggest areas requiring further study and identify problems students had with the "WebCal" system, including the perception that they worked harder than students in other classes.


(2004).  Digital Community Colleges and the Coming of the "Millenials": Report of Major Findings from the Center for Digital Education's 2004 Digital Community Colleges Survey  T.H.E. Journal, 32, 3. 

This article presents the executive summary of a report produced by the Center for Digital Education. Investments in digital technologies have helped community colleges across America prepare for the needs and expectations of "millenials," the name given to a generation of 60 million people born between 1979 and 1994, according to the Center for Digital Education. This conclusion comes from analysis of the findings from the second national Digital Community Colleges Survey, which was conducted in conjunction with the American Association of Community Colleges. The survey, based on responses from self-selected colleges representing 44 states in 2004, covers the availability of online admission, registration, student self-service options, grade viewing and transcript ordering, technology skills development for faculty, technology support on campus, and more. The 2004 results rank colleges in three major categories that reflect the size and geography of the communities served: Large/Urban, Midsized/Suburban and Small/Rural.


_____. (2000).  Digital Divide: Gender and Race Variations of Computer Use by NVCC Students. OIR Report. 

The report presents the findings of the PC and Internet Survey, administered to Northern Virginia Community College (NVCC) students in spring 1999. The survey examined NVCC students' access and use of personal computers, e-mail, and the Internet, both at home and at work. The report presents the findings by the gender and race of the respondents. The survey found that a larger percentage of white respondents (89%) had computer access than black respondents (79%). However, the differences among different racial groups at NVCC were not as marked as those observed in some national studies. Male respondents were more likely to have access to a home computer. Additionally, male respondents used a home computer more frequently and for more hours during the week than female respondents did. However, female respondents who had computer access at home were more likely to have e-mail access than were male respondents. Black respondents had the largest percentage of access to a computer at work (69%). Of students with computers at home, Hispanic males had the largest percentage of Internet access (100%), followed by Asian female respondents (91%). Black male respondents had the lowest Internet access (73%). | [FULL TEXT]


Digby, Todd R. (2004).  Where Does that Electronic Resource Fit on the Library Web Page?  Computers in Libraries, 24 n1 p6-7, 55-56 Jan 2004. 

The author of this article is an automation librarian, but at times he also works at the reference desk, as well as teaching library instruction and literacy classes. Working at the reference desk, he learns how users handle their library's information technology. This article explores the conclusions that the author has reached regarding the issues of how users handle their library information technology and what librarians are doing to present their electronic resources to the users. According to the author, today's electronic resources have evolved from indexes that mimicked their print equivalents to whole new forms of information that were never available before. So, they need a new plan to present these new resources. He realized that many researchers are not aware of the variety and types of electronic resources that are now available. Therefore, the role of informing searchers and leading them to the various types of resources was and remains the role of the reference librarian. The author also presents a number of suggestions on how to improve access and awareness. The first method is categorizing by the type of resource, such as books, journal articles, reference sources, and occasionally, electronic books. The second method is presenting materials based on the general subject that a resource fits into. Looking toward the future, Digby believes that a library software holds exciting opportunities to the searchers.


_____. (2006).  Decreasing the Digital Divide: Technology Use for College Preparation Programs 


This paper examines the use of instructional technology for college preparation programs. Over the last decade, the proliferation of personal computers and internet access has led to the widespread adoption of instructional technology in all educational sectors. This paper provides a typology of instructional technology specific to college preparation programs and includes examples of how technology can be harnessed to compliment and supplement current initiatives designed to promote college going. Distance learning technology, video games, and networking websites can offer new ways to provide college-going support to students of all ages. General areas that may benefit from further use of technology include: academic support, college knowledge, social support, and family education and support. The adoption of instructional technology in college preparation programs requires several considerations. The following five recommendations are offered when considering technology for college preparation programs: (1) Technology is expensive and takes time; (2) Technology requires access; (3) Cultural differences and learning styles are factors; (4) Technology must be purposeful; and (5) Structure and media does matter. College preparation programs would be remiss if they did not carefully consider each of these recommendations when adopting various media technologies. The adoption of technology to aid in college going has the potential to help students succeed, but should be carefully considered and purposefully implemented.  | [FULL TEXT]


de Castell, Suzanne; Bryson, Mary; Jenson, Jennifer (2002).  Object Lessons: Towards an Educational Theory of Technology.  First Monday, 7, 1. 

Discusses the emphasis in schools on using new technologies for education, particularly integrated learning systems and networked electronic learning environments, and suggests that more emphasis needs to be placed on educational goals first to lead to an educational theory of technology rather than theorizing educational technology.


de Castell, Suzanne; Jenson, Jennifer (2004).  Paying Attention to Attention: New Economies for Learning  Educational Theory, 54, 4. 

Challenging formal education's traditional monopoly over the mass-scale acculturation of youth, the technological infrastructure of the new economy brings in its wake a new attentional economy in which any connected adult or child owns and controls a full economic share of her or his own attention. For youth who have never known the text-bound world from which their elders have come, new technologies afford them far greater power and greatly expanded rights that enable them to decide for themselves what they can see, think, and do, as their teachers grapple with ways to attract, rather than compel, students' voluntary attention. This paper reviews various formulations of attentional economy, and it urges the study of popular forms of technologically enabled play. These technologies effectively mobilize, direct, and sustain the engaged attention of youth, whose learning in and through play far exceeds the kind of glazed-eyed button-mashing complained of by those who have made little effort to understand the educative prospects of computer gaming.


de Croock, Marcel B. M.; Paas, Fred; Schlanbusch, Henrik; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G. (2002).  ADAPT[IT]: Tools for Training Design and Evaluation.  Educational Technology Research and Development, 50, 4. 

Describes a set of computerized tools that support the instructional design and evaluation of competency-based training programs. Discusses authentic whole-task practice situations; the 4C/ID* methodology; an evaluation tool that supports the subsequent revision of the competency-based training design; and future plans.


Decker, Kathy (2004).  Technology Planning Strategies  [Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE)] 

Effective planning strategies drive achievement of an overall technology goal to increase access to electronic information in real time in order to increase efficiency, productivity, and communication across campus. Planning relies on providing access, 'Anytime Anywhere' to student information, calendar, email, course management tools, and the Intranet to improve services and support to students, faculty, and staff. Eight strategies form the framework of our plan: (1) Student services drive project priorities; (2) Administrative support leads to technology innovation; (3) Teamwork builds on collaborative decision-making; (4) Innovation relies on informed research; (5) Adaptations evolve as technology changes; (6) Standards determine purchasing; (7) Projects are phased-in according to specified timelines; and (8) Communication promotes successful implementation. Planning is initiated, explored, and promoted through members of the Technology Learning Roundtable, Academic and Administrative departments, and Information Technology Services. Implementation and maintenance of a highly reliable technology enriched campus focuses on resources, training, support, innovation, and communication. [For complete proceedings, see ED490093.] | [FULL TEXT]


Dmitrenko,T. A. (2005).  Educational Technologies in the System of Higher Education  Russian Education and Society, 47, 6. 

Studies of the problem of the professional training of future specialists have explored the essence, content, and structure of professionally oriented technologies of instruction. The most important characteristics of such technologies are: successfulness; economy (the amount of material that is effectively learned in a unit of time); ergonomic quality (the instruction takes place in an atmosphere of cooperation, a positive emotional microclimate, with no overload or excessive fatigue); and the creation of a high level of motivation to study the subject so as to bring out the students' personal qualities and abilities. The essential characteristics of professionally oriented technologies of instruction in a higher pedagogical institution include the following: the use of the latest achievements in didactics, psychology, information science, and other sciences; a high level of information in the content of instruction; the development of general learning skills; methodological support enabling students to engage in a high level of vigorous thinking activity; and so on.


Daud, Nuraihan Mat; Husin, Zamnah (2004).  Developing Critical Thinking Skills in Computer-Aided Extended Reading Classes  British Journal of Educational Technology, 35, 4. 

One of the skills that can be taught in an English proficiency class that adopts literary texts for teaching the language is critical thinking. The background, characters and their motives are among those that invite critical inquiry and interpretation. Although it has been claimed that discussing literary texts in the traditional way can help develop students critical thinking skills, it is yet to be proved whether the use of a teaching aid can help the process. This study is, therefore, carried out to see if the use of computer software can help to develop such skills. It specifically looks at the potential of a literary text, Othello, and a concordancer in developing and enhancing critical thinking abilities of 40 English as a Second Language (ESL) students at the International Islamic University Malaysia. An experimental study was carried out, where an experimental group was exposed to text analysis using a concordancer whilst the control group analysed the text manually. The Cornell Critical Thinking Test was used to analyse the critical thinking ability of the students. The experimental group outperformed the control group in all the subscales measured, but the percentage of variance in the scores was low.


Daugherty, Hubert; Cohn, Julie; Gorry, G. Anthony (2003).  The EduPop: Improving Streaming Video for an Electronic Community.  Educause Quarterly, 26, 4. 

Provides examples of the need for enhanced streaming video in the greater Houston area, discussing how the EduPop router architecture meets this need by acting as a bridge for academic and commercial entities in the area. Catalogues the technological, organizational, and political challenges faced in implementing this architecture, offering a general framework for other institutions in metropolitan areas seeking enhanced off-campus access to their digital resources.


Duhaney, Devon C. (2004).  Blended Learning in Education, Training, and Development  Performance Improvement, 43, 8. 

The term "blended learning" has been growing in popularity, particularly in training and development arenas. Blended learning can be described as the use of synchronous or asynchronous technologies and traditional face-to-face instruction, in different forms or combinations, so as to facilitate teaching and learning. This mixture or blending of different technologies with the traditional face-to-face approach to teaching and learning has given rise to a new paradigm in the education environment. The emergence of blended learning as a preferred way of conducting education, training, and development is allowing corporate trainers and higher education faculty to integrate the advantages of face-to-face classroom interactions with positive characteristics of distance learning (Kriger, 2003). This article focuses on blended learning as a tool for education, training, and development that is also changing the distance education model.


Duhaney, Devon C. (2005).  Technology and Higher Education: Challenges in the Halls of Academe  International Journal of Instructional Media, 32, 1. 

As new technologies become a part of the 'landscape' of universities and colleges, many questions arise concerning the transformation resulting from their utilization in these institutions. This paper discusses the increasing use of technology for education, training, and development in higher education, and challenges that higher education faces in its integration.


Dymond, Stacy K.; Bentz, Johnell L. (2006).  Using Digital Videos to Enhance Teacher Preparation  Teacher Education and Special Education, 29, 2. 

The technology to produce high quality, digital videos is widely available, yet its use in teacher preparation remains largely overlooked. A digital video library was created to augment instruction in a special education methods course for preservice elementary education teachers. The videos illustrated effective strategies for working with students with disabilities in general education settings. All videos were filmed in the local public schools. The processes involved with identifying who, what, and where to videotape, obtaining parental permission, collecting digital video, and creating digital movies are described in this article. Considerations for teacher educators seeking to construct and use digital videos as a form of pedagogy are examined, and directions for future research are discussed.


Dolan, Thomas G. (2003).  The Challenge of Computer Furniture.  School Planning & Management, 42 n8 p22, 24. 

Explains that classrooms and school furniture were built for a different era and often do not have sufficient power for technology, discussing what is needed to support modern technology in education. One solution involves modular cabling and furniture that is capable of being rearranged. Currently, there are no comprehensive standards from which schools can base their decisions about computer environments for children.


Dolliver, H. A. S.; Bell, J. C. (2006).  Using Scientific Visualization to Represent Soil Hydrology Dynamics  Journal of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Education, 35

Understanding the relationships between soil, landscape, and hydrology is important for making sustainable land management decisions. In this study, scientific visualization was explored as a means to visually represent the complex spatial and temporal variations in the hydrologic status of soils. Soil hydrology data was collected at seven stations along a 125- meter summit to depression transect in south-central Minnesota from 1995 to 1998. Three-dimensional (X, Y, and "time") and 4-dimensional (X, Y, Z, and "time") animations of water table fluctuations were constructed using an off-the-shelf product and supercomputing resources. When constructing and evaluating the animations, specific attention was given to educational value, user functionality, portability, and ease of animation development. The animations developed in this study can be used in a variety of educational settings (soil/hydrology courses, wetland delineation training, septic system suitability assessment, etc.) and will make it easier for users of all educational backgrounds to more effectively understand complex hydrologic processes.


Dolowy, Beth (2000).  Educators Share Ideas about Software for Children--Educational Tool or Inappropriate Activity.  Child Care Information Exchange

Preschool teachers discuss how they evaluate the educational value of educational computer software designed for young children, the type of computer learning they view as appropriate for young children, and appropriate circumstances for using entertainment software. Young children share what they would like to do with computers.


D'Ambrosio, Jay (2004).  Integrating Web Portfolios into the Learning Process  Library Media Connection, 22, 6. 

Web portfolios should be integrated in the learning process as they encourage the students to take an active interest in their own learning and highlights the individual students, their interests and their goals, increases student motivation and provides an excellent method for teaching students. Implementation of Web portfolios could be made more efficient by the joint effort between the teachers and the library media specialists and their collective curricular and technological experience.


D'Amico, Joseph J. (2001).  Technology in America's Schools: An Overview of Status and Issues.  ERS Spectrum, 19, 1. 

Student/computer ratios are rising, funding has increased, and academic outcomes are mostly positive. However, the high-tech educational community may not be large, comprehensive, or well-staffed and well-equipped enough to meet technology literacy needs. The digital divide, inappropriate instructional use, and inadequate teacher preparation are tough challenges.


Damarin, Suzanne K. (2000).  The 'Digital Divide' versus Digital Differences: Principles for Equitable Use of Technology in Education.  Educational Technology, 40, 4. 

Suggests that "digital differences" is a more appropriate view of the situation facing educators than the concept of the "digital divide." Introduces five principles providing direction for the design and development of technology-enhanced educational activities appropriate to the diversity of students-with-computer-access: parsimony, accessibility, multiplicity, separability, and full utility. Gives examples of how to use these principles effectively.


Dahan, Jean-Jacques (2002).  Another Way to Teach Derivative and Antiderivative Functions with Cabri. 

The Cabri programming language is a dynamic geometry software used all around the world by many of teachers, students, and researchers in mathematics. This paper presents examples of using Cabri and graphing calculators as a tool to practice mathematics and provides ways that mathematics could be approached, taught, and received in a way permitting all students to do real mathematics.  | [FULL TEXT]


Dahl, Mark (2004).  Building an OpenURL Resolver in Your Own Workshop  Computers in Libraries, 24 n2 p6-8, 53-54. 

OpenURL resolver is the next big thing for libraries. An OpenURL resolver is simply a piece of software that sucks in attached data and serves up a Web page that tells one where he or she can get the book or article represented by it. In this article, the author describes how he designed an OpenURL resolver for his library, the Lewis & Clark College's Watzek Library.


Dahm, Kevin D.; Hesketh, Robert P.; Savelski, Mariano J. (2002).  Is Process Simulation Used Effectively in ChE Courses?  Chemical Engineering Education, 36, 3. 

Investigates the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction in the chemical engineering curriculum. Explains how chemical process simulators can be successfully implemented into courses.


Ducate, Lara C.; Lomicka, Lara L. (2005).  Exploring the Blogosphere: Use of Web Logs in the Foreign Language Classroom  Foreign Language Annals, 38, 3. 

The words blog, blogger, blogging, and blogosphere have entered online technological dictionaries in the last decade. Recently, these personal electronic journals have received more attention and their increased popularity has led to their regular use in many different settings including the news, the political arena, and even in education. This article offers an overview of this relatively new technological tool, which serves as a form of micropublishing, and then discusses its potential uses in language classes. Two projects integrating blogs are highlighted and the steps on how to author a blog are outlined.


DuCharme-Hansen, Barbara A.; Dupin-Bryant, Pamela A. (2005).  Distance Education Plans: Course Planning for Online Adult Learners  TechTrends Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 49, 2. 

The landscape of education was permanently changed with the onset of online (web-based) distance education. As the number of participants in online education increases, providing effective instruction that focuses on the needs of adult learners is paramount. While the idea of taking a standard course curriculum and using a different vehicle to facilitate learning seems like a logical and somewhat uncomplicated initiative, teaching and learning online takes more than a mere shift in modalities. To create effective online learning, curriculum objectives must be solid, course activities must be value laden, and the main focus of the educational experience must be the students. These outcomes are difficult to achieve without proper planning. Distance education plans offer a vehicle for creating, maintaining, and sustaining a successful online learning experience. This artilce provides the 6 components of distance education plans for a 16-week freshman English class. These include assessmnet, guidance, building community, communication, humanizing, and evaluation.


_____. (2002).  Data Analysis Measurement: Having a Solar Blast! NASA Connect: Program 7 in the 2001-2002 Video Series. [Videotape]. 

NASA Connect is an interdisciplinary, instructional distance learning program targeting students in grades 6-8. This videotape explains how engineers and researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) use data analysis and measurement to predict solar storms, anticipate how they will affect the Earth, and improve understanding of the Sun-Earth system. Mathematics standards addressed in the video include data analysis, measurement science standards, science as inquiry, Earth and space science, science and technology, history and nature of science.


_____. (2002).  Data Exploration: A Journey to Better Teaching and Learning. Activity Booklet [with Videotape]. 

This 20-minute videotape features 2 schools that have maintained a school culture based on using myriad data sources and processes to fuel their school-improvement activities. In the video the voices of teachers and administrators in each school articulate the ways they have used data to improve student achievement. They highlight numerous data sources, analysis strategies, and actions taken as a result of examining data. A companion booklet is intended to support and extend the utility of the video. Following an introductory section, the next section of the booklet contains descriptions of the schools featured in the video. These two brief summaries provide information helpful in understanding the unique contexts of both schools. The next section contains three group activities intended for use by educators before or after viewing the video. The final section of the booklet contains numerous data resources: books, articles, and websites on data use in schools. In addition, an annotated listing of data tools and services is provided.  | [FULL TEXT]


_____. (2005).  Data-Driven Decision Making: Vision to Know and Do. Backgrounder Brief. CoSN Essential Leadership Skills Series  [Consortium for School Networking] 

This Backgrounder Brief is an executive summary of "Data-Driven Decision Making: Vision to Know and Do," a component of CoSN's Essential Leadership Skills Series. Collecting student achievement data is nothing new in schools. But for all of the data gathered, many schools remain information poor. Educators are challenged to understand how to best use data as a tool to accelerate student learning, and school leaders today seek data far beyond that of tests alone. Data-driven decision making--or as it is often called, DDDM or D3M--is referenced in nearly all educational reform and accountability discussions. This drive to gather meaningful, usable data has been compounded by accountability requirements set forth under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), which calls for increased accountability, data collection and analysis and more rigorous reporting requirements. | [FULL TEXT]


_____. (2005).  Developing Professionals: Preparing Technology Teachers. Addenda to Technological Literacy Standards Series. Advancing Technological Literacy: ITEA Professional Series  [International Technology Education Association (ITEA)] 

Just as K-12 technology programs should be based upon technological literacy standards, so should professional development programs be based upon the same standards. This ensures that both teacher candidates and practicing teachers are prepared to deliver the content that their students will be expected to know, be able to do, and understand. Section 1 of this book provides an overview of standards-based professional development, both in-service and pre-service, and introduces five questions of standards-based planning for use in judging the current state of professional development programs. Section 2 offers a "snap-shot" view of what standards-based professional development programs look like. Section 3 presents an approach for achieving comprehensive professional development for teachers of technology. Section 4 describes approaches and venues for teacher learning. Section 5 provides direction to educators as they evaluate and revise professional development programs. And finally, Section 6 is a call to action with messages for teacher candidates, teacher educators, teachers, and administrators. Several appendices provide helpful information and forms to help users achieve standards-based professional development programs. Appended are: (1) Acknowledgments; (2) Listing of "STL" Content Standards; (3) Listing of "AETL" Student Assessment Standards; (4) Listing of "AETL" Professional Development Standards with Guidelines; (5) Listing of "AETL" Program Standards; (6) The Current State of Professional Development: "Where Are We Now?"; (7) References and Resources; and (8) Glossary. ["Developing Professionals" was developed by the International Technology Education Association's Technology for All Americans Project | [FULL TEXT]


De Vos, Eric; Goeman, Katie; Blocry, Nathalie (2002).  There Is Still Hope for ICT in Flanders Fields. ICT in Education: The Use, Benefits, Barriers and Expectations as Perceived by Educators at Flemish Universities. 

This paper presents the main research findings of a large scale investigation about the state of the art in information and communications technology (ICT) use for educational purposes in Belgium, and specifically the current situation in Flemish universities. The main focus is on user characteristics and the attitudes of educators. Questions asked include: How do educators use ICT in their teaching practices? How do they perceive the support given by faculties within the framework of overall university policy? Which problems and barriers do they encounter? By means of an online survey, opinions were collected in order to reveal which factors play a role in the decision to adopt ICT. This investigation reveals how ICT is used in a non-innovative way in Flemish universities. | [FULL TEXT]


de Vries, Bregje; van der Meig, Hans; Boersma, Kerst TH.; Pieters, Jules M. (2005).  Embedding E-Mail in Primary Schools: Developing a Tool for Collective Reflection  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 32, 2. 

Reflection is an important aspect of learning in groups. In collective moments of reflection, learners can share and compare their ideas with others, and by doing so can reach an articulated and personal understanding of a learning task and domain. In the research presented here, e-mail is examined as a means for reflection in the context of group learning. In two design experiments, an e-mail tool is developed that seeks to (1) support collective reflection, and (2) overcome practical problems related to e-mail use in primary classrooms. Two prototypes of the tool are presented and tested in five primary classrooms. We conclude that e-mail supports collective reflection on a learning task after adding the following supportive measures to the regular e-mail program: (1) a fixed partnership, (2) fixed timing, (3) an exercise of individual freewriting, and (4) collective use of a paper worksheet.


de Vries, Bregje; van der Meij, Hans (2003).  Using E-Mail to Support Reflective Narration  International Journal of Educational Research, 39, 8. 

This article presents an exploratory study of e-mail use for reflective narration. Narration is viewed from three perspectives: the narrating act, the narrative statement, and the story. These perspectives are used to characterize the 69 e-mails that were exchanged between 13 groups of children from three primary schools. The findings show that e-mail narration has monologic and dialogic qualities, and leads to cognitive and personal reflections on the learning task. We conclude that e-mail can serve a meaningful function in a narrative curriculum aimed at experiential inquiry. In addition, we suggest a need for future research that adopts a broad view of learning that includes different kinds of dialogues and values affective as well as cognitive aspects of these dialogues.


de Vries, Erica; Lund, Kristine; Baker, Michael (2002).  Computer-Mediated Epistemic Dialogue: Explanation and Argumentation as Vehicles for Understanding Scientific Notions  Journal of the Learning Sciences, 11, 1. 

Epistemic dialogues, involving explanation and argumentation, have been recognized as potential vehicles for conceptual understanding. Although the role of dialogue in learning has received much attention, the problem of creating situations in which students engage in epistemic dialogue has only begun to be addressed. This article highlights the set of factors that must be taken into account in designing a computer-supported collaborative learning situation that encourages students to discuss scientific notions. These factors include the choice of the domain issue, the activities proposed to students, and the role of technology. We describe the design of CONNECT, an integrated environment and task sequence for the collaborative confrontation, negotiation, and construction of text. Results are then presented from a study in which students individually wrote an interpretation of a sound phenomenon, were matched in dyads so as to maximize semantic differences between their texts, and then collaboratively discussed and wrote common texts across the network using CONNECT. We show how careful engineering of the CONNECT environment favors the occurrence of epistemic dialogue and creates opportunities for conceptual understanding. The discussion centers on why these opportunities might be missed, as well as on the conditions required for students to exploit them.


Dysthe, Olga; Engelsen, KnutSteinar (2004).  Portfolios and Assessment in Teacher Education in Norway: A Theory-Based Discussion of Different Models in Two Sites  Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 29, 2. 

Two teacher institutions in Norway involved in a new ICT-supported portfolio project provide data for our study. In this paper we present a model of analysis for portfolio processes based on sociocultural perspectives of learning and assessment and describe and discuss differences and similarities of the portfolio models in these institutions in relation to our model of analysis. We also highlight areas for improvement; among them the importance of building reflection, self-assessment and feedback into portfolio assignments and processes in such a way that it becomes part of what is documented. This will strengthen the formative assessment aspect of portfolios. The summative assessment practices are strongly influenced by exam traditions in both institutions. Digital portfolios provide new learning opportunities that are not yet fully utilized. By way of conclusion we explore some critical aspects of portfolios in teacher education in light of Wenger's social theory of learning, focusing on the concepts participation, reification and identity formation.


Dzakiria, Hisham; Razak, Asmahan Abdul; Mohamed, Abdul Halim (2004).  Improving Distance Courses: Understanding Teacher Trainees and Their Learning Styles for the Design of Teacher Training Courses and Materials at a Distance  [Online Submission] 

Literature on distance education and teacher education seems to show that what we do not know about Distance Teacher Trainees (DTT) and their learning process involved exceeds what we know about it. As more DTT enroll in distance education programmes globally, distance education providers and institutions will witness trainees coming with different backgrounds and experiences begin to take advantage of this learning opportunities. One important variable in the effectiveness of distance learning is the preference of the distance learner for a particular learning mode. A key to maintaining distance learners participation in learning lies in understanding the Learning Styles Preferences (LSP) and the processes involved. This is also true for teacher training. There is much greater variation in the range of LSP and how to address them when preparing distance training materials and courses. The primary purpose of this paper is to propose ways in which individual learning differences should be accommodated when designing instructional learning materials in print for DTTs. Kolb's (1984) model on learning cycle and styles are discussed to provide instructional design guidelines which accommodate each stage of the learning cycles and individual differences between DTT in processing and presenting information and knowledge. In addition, issues on teacher education, distance learning, individual differences, and ways in which the "differences" can be accommodated when designing learning materials for DTT are also discussed. This paper resonates the idea and belief that if attempts are made to match learning styles of DTTs and andragogy with content to be learned, distance teacher educators (DTEs) and instructors can develop better instructional materials with greater prospects of success. Getting to know and understand the teacher trainees and their learning process involved must first be addressed to facilitate the diverse needs of the Malaysian teacher trainees.  | [FULL TEXT]


Doppen, Frans H. (2004).  Beginning Social Studies Teachers' Integration of Technology in the History Classroom  Theory and Research in Social Education, 32, 2. 

This study examined the actual use of computer technology by four beginning social studies teachers in their history courses during their first year in the classroom. Specifically, it involved an assessment of their efforts to use computer technology to teach their students about historical thinking and historical inquiry, in particular the concepts of perspective taking and historical empathy. The findings suggest that the beliefs the beginning social studies teachers in this study brought to the classroom profoundly impacted their students' appreciation of history. During their induction into the profession, these teachers focused on professional concerns, including the lack of effective support for the successful integration of technology in their classroom. Regardless of the resources that were available, each teacher's sense of self-efficacy and their students' dispositions created unique personal responses to the challenges posed by their particular school's technology infrastructure and culture. These teachers also often had difficulty using computers to engage their students in historical inquiry, especially when they tried to help their students grasp the concepts of historical thinking and historical empathy. The experiences they had in their teacher preparation program profoundly impacted these teachers' beliefs about using technology in the classroom as well as their efforts to integrate technology into their curriculum. As they attempted to integrate technology into their curriculum, they developed their own pedagogical content knowledge about teaching with computers.


Dlaska, Andrea (2002).  Sites of Construction: Language Learning, Multimedia, and the International Engineer  Computers & Education, 39, 2. 

This article discusses the role of a multimedia learning environment in teaching foreign languages to engineering students. Arguing for a subject-specific and skills-oriented approach in teaching Languages for Specific Purposes (LSP) in the university, it outlines possible targets and skills for a language course for engineers. The paper goes on to discuss the advantages of using new language learning technologies in the LSP-classroom. It is argued that multimedia technology has a particular role to play in integrating complex subject matter and language learning, and that it facilitates the creation of authentic learning situations in an LSP-context. The discussion stresses the importance of combining technical aspects with pedagogical considerations, particularly with a view to promoting learner autonomy and a constructivist approach to language learning. Particular attention is given to the potential of computer technology in encouraging collaborative learning processes and in involving learners in the production of exercises and materials. The paper also considers the tutor-learner relationship in a technology-enhanced learning environment. Practical suggestions for language and skills training in a multimedia setting include a discussion of tutorial CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning), multimedia authoring tools, and the Internet. In conjunction with the Internet as a learning resource, the aspect of culture learning for engineering students is touched upon briefly.


Da, Jun (2003).  The Use of Online Courseware in Foreign Country Instruction and Its Implication for Classroom Pedagogy. 

This presentation analyzes learners' online learning behavior based on statistics collected from an ESL (English as a Second Language) learning system and demonstrates the need and feasibility of focusing classroom instruction more on productive skills, such as speaking that cannot be handled satisfactorily by current technologies. The NHCE (New Horizon College English) online learning system, an EFL (English as a Foreign Language) course management and learning system developed for non-English major postsecondary students in China, is described. Topics covered include system design, pedagogical design, and EFL learning objects; three figures present the organization of online instruction at NHCE, student online learning activities, and instructional activities performed by course instructors. User online behavior is then addressed, including: visits, page views, and hits; visit duration; and most frequently viewed pages. | [FULL TEXT]


de Guzman, Allan B.; Vizconde, Camilla J. (2004).  IT Entry Knowledge and Skills of University Teachers vis-a-vis their Interest Levels: The Case of the Oldest University in Asia  Asia Pacific Education Review, 5, 2. 

Technology, considered as the new language of teaching and learning, is an irrevocable reality. Any institution of higher learning is expected to look into the future without losing sight of its core capabilities--the malleability of its faculty members. Today, more than ever, teachers are expected to operate in an environment where "hiteach", "hi-touch" and "hi-tech" govern their instructional behaviors. It is in this light that this study was conducted to situate teachers coming from a time-tested institution, such as the University of Santo Tomas, the oldest university in Asia, in terms of their IT knowledge, skills, and interests with a view to identifying implications on how faculty development programs may be made more responsive to the present-day educational structure. | [FULL TEXT]


Druger, Marvin; Crow, Linda (2004).  Teaching Tips Innovations in Undergraduate Science Instruction  [National Science Teachers Association] 

Like a spirited idea exchange among experienced professors, "Teaching Tips: Innovations in Undergraduate Science Instruction" brings the best thinking from campuses nationwide about how to engage undergraduate science students. Published to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the founding of the Society for College Science Teachers (SCST), "Tips" is a quick-read compilation of more than 50 innovative approaches that SCST members have found especially effective. The book is organized into three parts: (1) Pedagogical Practices includes using instant messaging as an involvement tool, encouraging active learning in large classes, and using "peer coercion" to stimulate teamwork; (2) Assessment Activities covers pretests and post-tests to encourage more effective learning, Web-based warm-up exercises to assess student misconceptions, and poetry-writing exercises to encourage creative thinking in the sciences: and (3) Content Challenges offers approaches to teaching specific topics from calculations and conversions to conceptual physics, and ways to encourage active learning (using a portfolio approach, games like bingo and Jeopardy, substances like Jell-O, and even student-drawn comic strips). Most of the ideas in the book are applicable across the sciences. Because the tips are only 500 to 700 words each, all contributors have provided contact information so teachers can learn more by e-mailing them directly.


Druin, Allison (2003).  Children, Technology, and Flowers.  Our Children, 28, 4. 

Suggests that as technology becomes more pervasive, it is important to ask why it can be important for children, discussing: how today's technologies offer new ways for children to socialize, how technology can empower children, and how new technologies create learning opportunities that support the "messiness" of being a child, the interactive nature of questioning, and the need for children to express and construct their own paths to knowledge.


Dvorak, James D.; Buchanan, Karen (2002).  Using Technology To Create and Enhance Collaborative Learning. 

Oklahoma Christian University has implemented a ubiquitous computing program where every student and faculty member are equipped with IBM ThinkPad laptops that are connected to a wireless network. The technological enhancements provided by this program helped to create an environment where collaboration between students and faculty could be increased. During the first full year of implementation, one course typically taught in a lecture-based format was re-designed to foster more collaboration and active learning. The instructor enhanced the course with collaborative technology, delivered most of the first exposure to the materials online, and created collaborative assignments to be done during the classroom time. A survey and several interviews were conducted to glean student feedback. Students found the course challenging and they rose to meet that challenge. | [FULL TEXT]


Dwight, Jim (2001).  Looking for the Hype in Hypertext: An Essay Deconstructing Pedagogical Assumptions Associated with Online Learning and Instructional Design. 

This paper aims to debunk the metaphysics of presence informing modernist pedagogical assumptions. Systematic instructional design, predicated on teleological and eschatological modern metaphysics, superordinates designers' goals at the expense of learners. Tracing structuralist pedagogical theory to Bobbitt (1997) and Tyler (1949), one can readily see the roots of popular instructional design models, such as Smith and Ragan (1993), Mager (1997), and Dick and Carey (1996). If, however, we look to pragmatism and post structuralism, we can find alternatives to reductive and straight-line pedagogical theories and thereby construct emergent and transactional learning spaces in which learner input is valued. Pragmatist and postmodernist pedagogies, moreover, place an emphasis on mediation.   | [FULL TEXT]


Duquette, Cheryll (2003).  Perceptions of Learning and Stages of Concern among Graduates of a Native Teacher Education Program  Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 49, 4. 

The purpose of this study was to examine the learning outcomes of students who had recently completed a two-year community-based Native Teacher Education Program (NTEP). The participants were 22 graduates of an NTEP who responded to open-ended items in a questionnaire on what they had learned throughout the program. Four women also participated in a focus group. The learning of the graduates was grouped according to the categories found in a previously developed framework: curriculum planning and evaluation, discipline and classroom management, pupils and pupil-teacher interactions, and the profession of teaching (Duquette & Cook, 1999). It was found that the NTEP graduates learned the most in the first three areas of the framework. As well, those with more than five years of experience working in the schools learned more in the pupils and pupil-teacher interactions category than their less experienced peers. The learning as stated by all the graduates showed that they addressed self-survival and impact concerns as described by Fuller (1969). The major source of their learning was through observation of their supervising teachers.


Duval, Erik (2001).  Standardized Metadata for Education: A Status Report. 

This paper starts with a brief background to worldwide standardization activities in the field of educational technologies, and identifies three important accredited standardization organizations in the domain of education and training: the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Learning Technology Standardization Committee (LTSC), the European Committee for Standardization, Information Society Standardization System (CEN ISSS) Learning Technologies Workshop (LTWS), and the ISO/IEC (International Organization for Standardization / International Electrotechnical Commission) JTC1 Joint Technical Committee. It then focuses on the specific area of metadata, and introduces the two most relevant approaches there: IEEE LTSC Learning Object Metadata (LOM) and DC (Dublin Core)-Education. The next section briefly reviews some recent developments in a number of the more relevant search consortia, followed by a review of adoption in smaller scale projects and use in research. The paper concludes that at present, there is little activity on interoperability between independently developed systems for metadata management, and that it is now time to start this interoperability development, as the specifications and implementations are maturing. | [FULL TEXT]


Dykes, Mary E.; Schwier, Richard A. (2002).  Interplay of Content and Community Redux: Online Communication in a Graduate Seminar on Theory in Educational Technology. 

This paper summarizes the experiences of an instructor and teaching assistant who introduced online communication strategies in a graduate seminar. This paper drew on the findings of a previous paper (Schwier & Balbar, 2002), and examined how to construct structured discussions of content using synchronous and asynchronous communication in graduate learning environments. Several observations and principles are offered, and they are organized into categories that emphasize the source, message,channel and receiver in the communication system. | [FULL TEXT]


Dockterman, David A. (2002).  Designing "Placemark."  Educational Technology, 42, 5. 

Describes "Placemark," an online tool for creating and managing Web pages within a school or district Web site. Topics include interviews with teachers to determine their needs, which centered around creating instructional materials and activities; online newsletters for parents; feedback to test the interface; formative evaluation; and design trends in prototypes and software.


Day, C. William (2001).  Hiring a Consultant.  American School & University, 73, 6. 

Provides tips for hiring a consultant for educational technology projects, developing the request for proposal for a consultant, and evaluating proposals for awarding contracts. Some questions to ask when educational leaders are looking for expert help are listed.


Day, Scott L. (2002).  Real Kids, Real Risks: Effective Instruction of Students at Risk of Failure.  NASSP Bulletin, 86, 632. 

Case study of grade 8 at-risk students' perceptions about learning in a nonstandard classroom, a "technology lab" designed around three research-based approaches to the educational environment: cooperative group work, authentic tasks and assessments, and appropriate use of technology. Finds that students feel more motivated to learn, receive better grades, and accept more responsibility of their work in lab environment. 


Duderstadt, James J.; Atkins, Daniel E.; Van Houweling, Douglas (2002).  Higher Education in the Digital Age: Technology Issues and Strategies for American Colleges and Universities. ACE/Praeger Series on Higher Education. 

This book is designed to help colleges and universities and their various stakeholders in responding to the challenges and opportunities presented by digital technology in a way that strengthens and enhances the traditional roles of higher education. The chapters of part 1, "Introduction," are: (1) "Higher Education Faces a Brave New World"; and (2) "The Evolution of Information Technology." Part 2, "Issues, Trends, and Themes," contains: (3) "The Impact of Information Technology on the Activities of the University"; (4) "The Impact of Information Technology in the Form, Function, and Financing of the University"; (5) "The Impact of Information Technology on the Higher Education Enterprise"; and (6) "Visions for the Future of the University." Part 3, "Strategies and Recommendations," contains: (7) "Institutional Strategies"; (8) "Responding to Market Forces"; (9) "Addressing the Needs of the Nation"; and (10) "The Future of the University in the Digital Age."


Doherty, William J.; Ayers, Catherine (2002).  Integrating Instructional Technology in the California Community Colleges. 

The @ONE project at De Anza College, California, funded by the California Community College Chancellors Office, was intended to assist faculty in enhancing instruction through the effective use of technology. In spite of the millions of dollars spent by the California Community Colleges to implement information technology in the campus environment, little is known about the impact of instructional technology on student learning, or about how best to train faculty to use technology. In 2001-02, the @ONE project commissioned a research project that would inform future faculty development efforts throughout the state. The Center for Student Success (CSS) examined the literature, made an ethnographic study, and conducted a survey. For literature review, CSS screened over 100 potential titles focused on effective practice in faculty development. Thirty citations from 1995 or later were reviewed, abstracted, and synthesized. The ethnographic study included site visits, interviews, and observations conducted at two colleges chosen for use of technology in instruction and active @ONE participation. Ninety-three respondents completed the survey, which focused on evaluating @ONE services, the application to instruction, and the perceived benefits to teaching and learning. The findings indicate that the relationship between faculty development efforts and resulting technology integration in the classroom is a complex one depending on external factors. | [FULL TEXT]


Dibb, Mary; Barnes, Jennifer; Cavanaugh, Betty (2000).  E-Classroom Extra. Bulletin Boards, Class Newsletters, and Greeting Cards.  Instructor, 109, 6. 

Presents elementary level, standards-based, technology-supported learning activities for the classroom, including: creating a virtual reality bulletin board that lets students become familiar with their computers; developing a weekly newsletter on the computer; and generating personalized greeting cards using SuperPrint 2.0.


DiBella, Cecilia M.; Anderson, Jim (2000).  With Apologies to Maria Shriver: 10 Things You Must Know before Starting a School Construction or Renovation Project.  School Business Affairs, 66, 12. 

Before undertaking a school construction or renovation project, administrators should plan carefully, collect adequate data, involve the school board, form a building committee, understand legalities, select the right architect, consult with technology director, monitor the construction site, enjoy short-lived trouble-free times; and document expenditures.


Dylak, Stanislaw; Kaczmarska, Danuta (2001).  Media and Children: Foreign Language, Technology, and Science.  TechTrends, 45, 6. 

Examines how children learn to play with multimedia written in a foreign language. Two Polish sisters (aged six and eight) were observed using software containing English science vocabulary on an elementary level. Discusses second language learning by children; the experimental design; learning process and social relations between the sisters; cognitive and social effects; and conclusions.


Dimitriadi, Yota (2001).  Evaluating the Use of Multimedia Authoring with Dyslexic Learners: A Case Study.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 32, 3. 

Reports findings of a case study that explored the possible benefits that dyslexic children might have when engaging in the creation of their own multimedia project. Concludes that the open-ended character of a multimedia authoring package can encourage creative thinking and interest for content and style of presentation.


Doan, Scott (2001).  netLibrary: eBooks for the Academic Community.  Community & Junior College Libraries, 10, 1. 

Describes netLibrary, Inc., as one of the major suppliers of eBooks, with over two hundred community college customers. States that netLibrary's goal is to work with librarians, rather than in competition with them; thus, they see themselves as no threat to the existence of the printed book. Reports that netLibrary expects to digitize around 20,000 titles annually.


de Kock, D. M. (2000).  Innovative Teacher Education and Interactive Technology Support.  South African Journal of Higher Education, 14, 3. 

Evaluated the usefulness of interactive television and computer-supported learning for in-service teacher education at rural community centers in South Africa. Findings supported the usefulness of this model of technological use for teacher education.


Dekkers, John; de Laeter, John (2001).  Enrolment Trends in School Science Education in Australia.  International Journal of Science Education, 23, 5. 

Describes the Australian education system and changes that have occurred in the provision of primary and secondary science education in recent years. Discusses the introduction of science and technology as two of eight Key Learning Areas at the primary level, noteworthy in that it was the result of a national initiative in the education system, which is State and Territory based. 


Daeid, Niamh Nic (2001).  The Development of Interactive World Wide Web Based Teaching Material in Forensic Science.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 32, 1. 

Describes the development of a Web-based tutorial in the forensic science teaching program at the University of Strathclyde (Scotland). Highlights include the theoretical basis for course development; objectives; Web site design; student feedback; and staff feedback.