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Educational Technology | B

Bak

Baker, Colin, Ed.; Hornberger, Nancy H., Ed. (2001).  An Introductory Reader to the Writings of Jim Cummins. Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. 

This book contains 19 readings covering three decades of the work of academic Jim Cummins. Section 1, "The 1970s," includes: "A Theoretical Perspective on the Relationship between Bilingualism and Thought"; "The Influence of Bilingualism on Cognitive Growth: An Synthesis of Research Findings and Explanatory Hypotheses"; "Immersion Programs: The Irish Experience"; "Linguistic Interdependence and the Educational Development of Bilingual Children"; and "Research Findings from French Immersion Programs across Canada: A Parent's Guide." Section 2, "The 1980s," includes: "The Entry and Exit Fallacy in Bilingual Education"; "Tests, Achievement, and Bilingual Students"; "Learning Difficulties in 'Immersion' Programmes"; "Empowering Minority Students: A Framework for Intervention";"Psychological Assessment of Minority Students: Out of Context, Out of Focus, Out of Control?"; "From the Inner City to the Global Village: The Microcomputer as a Catalyst for Collaborative Learning and Cultural Interchange"; "From Multicultural to Anti-Racist Education: An Analysis of Programmes and Policies in Ontario"; and "The Role and Use of Educational Theory in Formulating Language Policy." Section 3, "The 1990s," includes: "Heritage Language Teaching in Canadian Schools"; "Empowerment through Biliteracy"; "Multicultural Education and Technology: Promise and Pitfalls"; "Babel Babble: Reframing the Discourse of Diversity"; "Cultural and Linguistic Diversity in Education: A Mainstream Issue?"; and "Alternative Paradigms in Bilingual Education Research: Does Theory Have a Place?"

Baker, Elizabeth (2005).  Can Preservice Teacher Education Really Help Grow a Literacy Teacher?: Examining Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Multimedia Case-Based Instruction  Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 13, 3. 

Since the 1980s, when studies indicated that inservice teachers perceived that their preservice preparation was inadequate (Feiman-Nemser & Buchmann, 1985; Lyon, Vaasen, & Toomey, 1989), teacher education programs have made significant efforts to provide meaningful preparation (Imig & Switzer, 1996). One such effort includes the use of multimedia case-based instruction (M-CBI). The purpose of this report is three-fold: (a) to describe findings from studies that examine various issues related to using M-CBI to improve teacher education for literacy teachers, (b) describe CHildren as Literacy Kases (CHALK) which is an example of M-CBI being used in teacher education for literacy teachers, and (c) describe a study which examined preservice teachers' perceptions of their growth as literacy teachers after participating in a M-CBI/CHALK course. Findings indicate that preservice literacy teachers can perceive that teacher education helps them grow professionally, that M-CBI may be a useful tool in providing meaningful experiences to preservice teachers, and that M-CBI may enhance the meaningfulness of field experiences.

Baker, Elizabeth A. (2007).  Elementary Classroom Web Sites  Journal of Literacy Research, 39, 1. 

The purpose of this study was to understand how elementary classroom Web sites support children's literacy. From a sociocultural perspective of literacy and a transformative stance toward the integration of literacy and technology, and building on explorations of new literacies, I discuss opportunities provided by the Internet that can support literacy within and beyond classrooms. Using open and axial coding as well as typological analyses, I found 3 basic Web site features and consider how they support common instructional approaches, parental involvement, and notions of the invisible classroom. I conclude with a discussion of how these findings are encouraging and revealing. I offer a variety of suggestions to expand features that are currently available on elementary classroom Web sites.

Baker, Eva L.; O'Neil, Harold F., Jr. (2003).  Evaluation and Research for Technology: Not Just Playing Around.  Evaluation and Program Planning, 26, 2. 

Discusses some of the challenges of technology-based training and education, the role of quality verification and evaluation, and strategies to integrate evaluation into the everyday design of technology-based systems for education and training.

Baker, J. Howard (2004).  Spreadsheet Applications: Prototyping an Innovative Blended Course  [Online Submission] 

After teaching the advanced spreadsheet course at a major university in Louisiana as a traditional classroom course for a number of years, it was decided to create a prototype-blended course, with a considerable portion offered via distance education. This research, which uses a prototyping methodology, is exploratory in nature. Prototyping can show that a design works, as well as where the design can be improved or enhanced. The traditional spreadsheet course had been taught in a highly structured fashion, with all students working on the same material at the same time. Students took exams at a specific time. With the change to a blended format, new teaching options and technologies opened up. This paper describes ongoing research for a new blended course using prototyping as the research methodology. Expected results from the new course include student skill level at the advanced level, improved student evaluations, and a decline in student withdrawals.  | [FULL TEXT]

Baker, Keith D. (2006).  Learning Objects and Process Interoperability  International Journal on E-Learning, 5, 1. 

There has been considerable emphasis on the availability and reuse of learning content in recent years. Since 2000, the ADL initiative has refined the recommendations contained in the SCORM documents through progressive stages represented in the SCORM 1.0, 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3 documents. Fundamental to SCORM is the notion of the Shareable Content Object (SCO) and the Learning Object Metadata (LOM). There is an expectation that the Learning Experience can be designed using a set of Learning Objects or SCOs drawn from repositories of learning materials. The use of eLearning technology has been hampered by the lack of appropriate tools to support the many processes of learning. There is also an incomplete understanding of the knowledge acquisition processes in learning and as a consequence there is an inadequate representational framework to support tool design. To realize the full potential of ICT support of learning and knowledge acquisition one needs to achieve two objectives. First, a richer description of learning content is required, and second, a framework in which to structure the description of supporting processes for all stakeholders is needed. Achieving the first will help to relate the learning content to the knowledge structure of the domain of discourse. Achieving the second will provide the opportunity for vendors to create new tools and services to stimulate innovation in all aspects of the learning lifecycle.

Baker, Patricia; Baker, Paul (2004).  Teacher Adjustment to Technology: Overcoming Cultural Mindsets  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 33, 2. 

Historically, educational environments have been strongholds of incorporating new technologies into their classrooms. Over the years, classroom technology has become more complex and sophisticated as learning environments have moved from the use of slates to multimedia classrooms. Additionally, classroom technology has been viewed as the panacea for poor teaching practice as well as the cause of poor teaching practice. The failure of classroom technology occurs because of specific predetermined responses or interpretation of why the technology should be used. Classroom technology is the tool for delivering instruction. It is not the instruction. Yet, emphasis is usually placed on finding a purpose for the tool rather than understanding why the tool should be used. Raising the learning bar with computer technology within the classroom will not necessarily result in improved learning outcomes if good clinical practices are not observed.

Baker, Ryan; Walonoski, Jason; Heffernan, Neil; Roll, Ido; Corbett, Albert; Koedinger, Kenneth (2008).  Why Students Engage in "Gaming the System" Behavior in Interactive Learning Environments  Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 19, 2. 

In recent years there has been increasing interest in the phenomena of "gaming the system," where a learner attempts to succeed in an educational environment by exploiting properties of the system's help and feedback rather than by attempting to learn the material. Developing environments that respond constructively and effectively to gaming depends upon understanding why students choose to game. In this article, we present three studies, conducted with two different learning environments, which present evidence on which student behaviors, motivations, and emotions are associated with the choice to game the system.We also present a fourth study to determine how teachers' perspectives on gaming behavior are similar to, and different from, researchers' perspectives and the data from our studies. We discuss what motivational and attitudinal patterns are associated with gaming behavior across studies, and what the implications are for the design of interactive learning environment.

Baker, Terry L.; Gilmour, Kara  CDA Leadership Program Final Report: Emerging Themes. CCT Reports

 

Baker, Thomas R.; Case, Steven B. (2000).  Let GIS Be Your Guide.  Science Teacher, 67, 7. 

Discusses the possible uses of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as an educational technology for developing contextually rich student learning, which extends students' ability to do scientific inquiry.

Baker, Thomas R.; White, Steven H. (2003).  The Effects of G.I.S. on Students' Attitudes, Self-Efficacy, and Achievement in Middle School Science Classrooms  Journal of Geography, 102, 6. 

This paper examines a non-equivalent quasi-experimental research effort, wherein two versions of a two week Project Based Learning unit were developed, implemented, and assessed. Students used a collaborative GIS or paper maps to support data analysis activities in this eighth grade Earth science unit. Attitude and self-efficacy in science as technology as well as student achievement in science process skills were measured. The study found significant improvement in attitudes toward technology, self-efficacy toward science, and modest, yet significant, improvements for geographic data analysis for students who used GIS.

Baki, A.; Guveli, E. (2008).  Evaluation of a Web Based Mathematics Teaching Material on the Subject of Functions  Computers & Education, 51, 2. 

The aim of the study is to develop a web-based mathematics teaching (WBMT) material and to evaluate the effectiveness of the WBMT material for 9th grade students learning the concept of mathematical function. Firstly, a WBMT material was designed and piloted. As a result of this pilot study the site was revised as a final form. The study was conducted during the fall term of 2004-2005 academic years and was carried out in two different classes taught by the same teacher. Through mixed methods study the qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the sample, consisting of eighteen teachers and eighty 9th grade students. One of these teachers taught the control and experimental groups at the high school where the main study was conducted. This examination included comparing the results of students experiencing learning with WBMT with those do not, and interpreting the teachers' responses to the use of WBMT materials. The analysis of the data suggests positive effect of WBMT on student learning of mathematical function and on attitudes towards WBMT. However, the teachers all represented and shared some common ideas that because of the technical problems and readiness of teachers and students there would be some problems in terms of successful implementation of WBMT in schools. Nevertheless, the results provide support for the use of this WBMT material as a complement to traditional classes.

Bakia, Marianne; Mitchell, Karen; Yang, Edith (2007).  State Strategies and Practices for Educational Technology: Volume I--Examining the Enhancing Education through Technology Program  [US Department of Education] 

This volume describes state-level educational technology policies, focusing on the implementation of state-level Enhancing Education Through Technology (EETT) programs in the first years of operation. The report draws on survey data from both state educational technology directors and district-based educational technology coordinators that were collected by the National Educational Technology Trends Study (NETTS). This report discusses the role of the EETT program, the state priorities and programs that EETT supports, and the relationship between state educational technology program activities and the overarching goals and purposes of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Chapter 1 of this report describes state educational technology policies and related programs, including the role of the EETT program in state efforts. Chapter 2 presents individual state profiles that present data summarized in Chapter 1. These data describe the EETT program in its first and second years of operation. It should be recognized that some states were still completing their educational technology plans and getting their EETT implementation procedures in place during this time. In addition, these data and other NETTS data sources do not address the relationships between educational technology use and student academic achievement. Evaluation of the impact of educational technology on academic achievement is beyond the scope of this study. The report methodology is appended.  [This report was produced by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development, Policy and Program Studies Service.] | [FULL TEXT]

Bakken, Jeffrey P.; Obiakor, Festus E. (2008).  Transition Planning for Students with Disabilities: What Educators and Service Providers Can Do  [Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, Ltd] 

The need for transition services for students with exceptionalities is apparent and critical for their success after high school. It is essential for school professionals, parents, and students to work collaboratively and consultively to determine each student's future goals and develop an effective plan to meet those goals successively. This book focuses on all aspects of that transition planning from school to post-school levels. The text provides the reader with a foundation of transition services and a historical overview of models and practices and offers a critical look at transition with students from culturally and ethnically diverse backgrounds. In addition, it presents an in-depth look at assistive technology to assist students in fully participating in the planning for their future and also describes the process for planning and the importance of family collaboration. It offers an extensive discussion of career development and the importance of work experiences and also reviews key social skills and leisure options. Finally, the text looks at independent living options and reviews available successful postsecondary education programs. The text is written in a style that all readers can comprehend and understand; the information can be easily applied to classroom and transition programs. This book will be a resource for researchers, scholars, educators, and service providers and will serve as either a required or supplementary text for undergraduate and graduate transition courses in special education. Following a foreword (Laura Owens) and preface, the book includes 12 chapters: (1) Transitioning Students with Disabilities: Preparing for Life; (2) Transition Models and Practices; (3) Transition and Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners; (4) Selecting Appropriate Assistive Technology for Student Transition; (5) Planning and Developing Student-focused Individualized Transition Plans; (6) Collaborating with Families in the Transition Process; (7) Job and Career Development: Understanding the Nature and Types of Jobs; (8) Employment Training, Support, and Vocational/Technical Education; (9) Social Outcomes and Community Resources; (10) Transportation Education and Leisure/Recreation Outcomes; (11) Independent Living Outcomes, Residential Opportunities, Group Homes, and Intermediate Care; and (12) Postsecondary Education Outcomes. A list of references; name index; and subject index are included.

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Burch, Patricia Ellen (2006).  The New Educational Privatization: Educational Contracting and High Stakes Accountability  Teachers College Record, 108, 12. 

The institutional landscape of K-12 educational contracting is fundamentally changing. Based on industry and district data, this study identifies three distinct shifts in the content and structure of interactions between suppliers of instructional goods and local school systems. These shifts include 1) elevation of test-related services and products, 2) increasing emphases on technology-based solutions. and 3) an expanding role for the state in spurring market activity. Drawing on a case study of district practice, the study provides evidence of how broader changes are influencing local contracting activities, and the dilemmas and responses generated by these pressures. The study suggests the need for new conceptual approaches to studying educational privatization that draw on the institutional analysis of organizations and also identifies critical questions for future research.

Burden, Cathy (2003).  Putting the Power of Technology into the Hands of the Education Community.  School Business Affairs, 69, 2. 

Describes how the Union Public Schools in Tulsa, Oklahoma, installed a technology-based system to meet the information needs of administrators, teachers, parents, and students.

Burdett, Anna E. (2003).  Organizations and Associations in North America.  Educational Media and Technology Yearbook, 28

Contains annotated entries for associations and organizations, most of which are headquartered in North America, whose interests are significant to the fields of instructional technology and educational media. Entries are separated into sections for the United States and Canada/International. The U.S. section includes a classified list to facilitate location of organizations by their specialized interests or services.

Burdett, Anna E. (2003).  Graduate Programs.  Educational Media and Technology Yearbook, 28

Describes graduate programs in instructional technology, educational media and communications, school library media, and closely allied programs in the United States. Entries provide name and address, chairperson, types of degrees offered, special features of the program, admission requirements, degree requirements, number of faculty, number of students, types of financial assistance, and number of degrees awarded in 2001.

Burdett, Anna E. (2003).  Mediagraphy: Print and Nonprint Resources.  Educational Media and Technology Yearbook, 28

Lists media-related journals, books, ERIC documents, journal articles, and nonprint resources published in 2001-2002. The annotated entries are classified under the following headings: artificial intelligence; computer assisted instruction; distance education; educational research; educational technology; information science and technology; instructional design and development; libraries and media centers; media technologies; professional development; simulation; special education; and telecommunications.

Burg, Jennifer; Cleland, Beth (2001).  Computer-Enhanced or Computer-Enchanted? The Magic and Mischief of Learning with Computers. 

This paper reports on recent research in human-computer interactions, gives examples of some of the most promising uses of educational technology, and categorizes the effective and ineffective applications. The purpose of this paper is to provoke discussion about the problems and the potential benefits of computer use among young people. With a focus on the elements of audience, interactivity, and creative integration, the paper discusses the educational possibilities offered uniquely by the computer, arguing that the computer's greatest potential--its ability to draw out students' creativity--is being neglected. The discussion begins by acknowledging the down-side to computer-enhanced learning. The purpose is not to argue for the abandonment of educational technology, but to encourage a more tempered view. The next section proposes types of computer activities that may be particularly valuable for college-level students. Examples of promising educational technology applications are given, and the development of some original material relating to this topic is described. The paper concludes with some personal reflections from a parent's perspective. | [FULL TEXT]

Burge, Elizabeth J. (2000).  Synthesis: Learner and Learning Are the Issues.  New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education

Highlights key issues from the chapters in this volume. Presents 11 themes for strategic thinking about learning technologies: ownership, reality checks, self-assessment, legitimation, responsibilities, development of people before technology, access, advisers, diversity, critical questioning, and elegance.

Burge, Elizabeth J., Ed.; Haughey, Margaret, Ed. (2001).  Using Learning Technologies: International Perspectives on Practice. Routledge/Falmer Studies in Distance Education. 

This collection of 14 first-hand accounts from experienced and accomplished learning technology practitioners highlights issues in using learning technologies for flexible, distance, and open learning. The papers are as follows: "Using Learning Technologies: An Introduction" (Margaret Haughey); "Naming the Learning Technology Issues in Developing Countries" (Barbara Spronk); "Public and Institutional Policy Interplay" (Judith M. Roberts, Erin M. Keough, and Lucille Pacey); "Getting the Systems Right" (Christine Marrett and Claudia Harvey); "Developing Course Materials" (Judith Kamau); "Lessons from Our Cyberclassroom" (Catherine Cavanaugh, Evelyn Ellermon, Lori Oddson, and Arlene Young); "Teacher or Avatar? Identity Issues in Computer-Mediated Contexts" (Gill Kirkup); "Web-Based Research Assistance" (Suzanne Sexty); "'No One Will Listen to Us': Rural Fulbe Women Learning by Radio in Nigeria" (Lantana Usman); "Confronting Barriers to Distance Study in Tanzania" (Edith Mhehe); "Reflections on Evaluating Online Learning and Teaching" (Charlotte Gunawardena); "Evaluating the Use of Learning Technologies" (Mary Thorpe); "Gender-Sensitive Evaluation Research" (Christine von Prummer and Ute Rossie); and "Using Learning Technologies: A Synthesis of Challenges and Guidelines" (Elizabeth J. Burge), which draws together themes and ideas from all the authors to provide a synthesis of their stated challenges in using learning technologies and a concise summary of their guidelines for informed practice. An index is provided.

Burge, Kimberly Bisbee (2001).  UCI Computer Arts: Building Gender Equity while Meeting ISTE NETS. 

Multimedia computer learning activities, when designed according to what is known about children's preferences, may help close the gender gap in attitudes about computer usage in schools. This paper includes: a brief overview of gender-gap research; a description of one response--the UCI (University of California Irvine) Computer Arts program, aligned with ISTE (International Society for Technology in Education) NETS (National Educational Technology Standards for Students); and dissertation research--410 coded observations of 76 4th and 5th grade students over six weeks while they worked in same and mixed sex pairs on multimedia learning activities. The study revealed that females were as active, if not more so than males, when they were involved in constructivist, cooperative, curriculum based, multimedia learning activities, and both groups were more active in same-sex pairings.   | [FULL TEXT]

Burge, Kimberly Bisbee; Marshall, Sue; Beck, Rob (2002).  Interactive Learning Exhibits: Designs for Building Teacher and Student Capacity. 

The planning, design, production and presentation of interactive learning exhibits (ILEs) by students in elementary and secondary teaching credential programs provided authentic learning experiences in the integration of computers in teaching and learning settings. This paper includes a rationale and brief overview of the theoretical underpinnings of this approach to technology training, a description of the program, some initial findings, and reflections on successes and challenges. To date this ongoing research and development effort has revealed that engagement in the instructional design and enactment of an ILE can be a rich context for preservice teachers' increased learning about planning, pedagogy, content standards, and assessment in the context of a multimedia learning environment. This work has implications for the preparation of teachers to use computers in classrooms. | [FULL TEXT]

Burgess, Amy (2008).  The Literacy Practices of Recording Achievement: How a Text Mediates between the Local and the Global  Journal of Education Policy, 23, 1. 

The aim of this article is to show the importance of literacy practices in the implementation of education policy, using as an example the system of student assessment in adult literacy education. The author reports on an ethnographic study of the practice of planning learning and recording progress through the use of individual learning plans (ILPs) in one classroom in order to show how teachers and students are co-opted as active agents into the processes of Skills for Life policy. She aims to show how some concepts from literacy studies, in particular the relationship between literacy practices and literacy events, can fruitfully be brought together with ideas about the temporal dimensions of the local and the global to uncover how policy is instantiated in classroom practice and how the ILP mediates power and control. She argues that by sanctioning some definitions of literacy and learning whilst excluding others, ILPs construct the identities of teachers and learners by specifying desirable abilities. She suggests that discussion of the nature of ILPs and of their function within systems of performance measurement should become part of the explicit content of literacy education.

Burgess, Kimberly R. (2007).  Mentoring as Holistic Online Instruction  New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 2007, 113. 

This chapter focuses on the role of online educators as mentors and addresses the potential impact of a mentoring relationship on the development and persistence of adult learners in the online medium.

Burghardt, M. David; Hacker, Michael (2002).  Large-Scale Teacher Enhancement Projects Focusing on Technology Education  Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 39, 3. 

The co-authors have been co-Principal Investigators on two large-scale National Science Foundation-funded teacher enhancement projects for the past eight years. One of the projects focused on middle and high schools and the second focused on the elementary school. The design of each was different, reflecting the differing natures of the educational programs at each level, but the importance of including technology education was common to both. In both projects, instructional strategies characteristic of technology education (which the authors define as the study of the human-made world), established links with mathematics and science education (MST) and were made explicit through teacher practice. There was an interconnected MST thrust to the instructional strategies that were employed and the activities that were created or refined. In this article, the authors discuss the New York State Technology Education Network (NYSTEN) Project and the five-year "MSTe Project: Integrating Mathematics, Science, and Technology in the Elementary Schools." This article also offers some perspectives the authors have gained from the study and specific implications for technology education. | [FULL TEXT]

Burghardt, M. David; Hacker, Michael (2004).  Informed Design: A Contemporary Approach to Design Pedagogy as the Core Process in Technology  Technology Teacher, 64, 1. 

In classroom settings, most problems are usually well defined, so students have little experience with open-ended problems. Technological design problems, however, are seldom well defined. The design process begins with broad ideas and concepts and continues in the direction of ever-increasing detail, resulting in an acceptable solution. So using design in the classroom can be challenging, as students are not familiar, or initially not comfortable, with the open-ended nature of design. This can also pose problems for teachers, who must relinquish directive control. However, it also provides opportunity to use constructivist pedagogical practice to engage students in their own learning. The informed design process discussed in this article, and the underlying pedagogical support methodology, provide a way to optimize the use of design as a pedagogical strategy.

Burghes, David; Hindle, Mike (2004).  Response to Key Issues Raised in the Post-14 Mathematics Inquiry  International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 35, 5. 

This article is a detailed response to the issues raised by the Post-14 Mathematics Inquiry in the UK. It aims to debate some of the central issues in mathematics teaching in the UK, including recruitment and retention of mathematics teachers, the curriculum content, national assessment, teaching resources (including ICT) and national strategies and policy (including inspection). Throughout, we have tried to base our recommendations on evidence and experience from the many teachers and tutors we work with as well as on our own experience. We have not hesitated to make what could be seen as controversial recommendations, but we believe a fundamental rethink of education policy and practice is needed if mathematics teaching and learning is to improve. We have also considered the impact that a proposed 'National Centre for Excellence in Mathematics Education' might have on the situation, although we doubt that it can have a marked long-term impact in the current UK situation.

Burgon, Holli; Williams, David D. (2003).  Case 3: Bringing Off-Campus Students on Campus: An Evaluation of a Blended Course.  Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 4, 3. 

Describes an undergraduate religion course at Brigham Young University (Utah) in which seven learners pursuing an online baccalaureate degree were invited to join 49 on-campus students. This case study presents an evaluation of the course based on interviews with distant learners, on-campus students, and instructors.

Burgstahler, Sheryl (2002).  Distance Learning: Universal Design, Universal Access.  Educational Technology Review, 10, 1. 

Discussion of distance learning focuses on access, legal, and policy issues for people with disabilities and presents an overview of design considerations for assuring that a distance learning course is accessible to potential instructors and students with a wide range of abilities and disabilities. Uses universal design as a framework.

Burgstahler, Sheryl (2002).  Bridging the Digital Divide in Postsecondary Education: Technology Access for Youth with Disabilities. Information Brief. 

This issue brief discusses the barriers to technological access for students with disabilities. Challenges for bridging the digital divide are discussed and the following recommendations are provided: (1) stakeholders should have access to training so they can design and select accessible facilities, utilize computers and software, purchase appropriate assistive technology, and ensure that students with disabilities use technology for their maximum benefit; (2) policies and procedures should be established at all academic levels to ensure that universal accessibility is considered when electronic and information technology is procured; (3) policies, procedures, training, and support should be established at all educational levels to ensure that Web page, library resource, and distance learning program developers make their electronic resources accessible to everyone; (4) interagency collaboration planning, funding, selecting, and supporting assistive technology should be fostered; (5) students with disabilities should be included at all stages of technology selection, support, and use, so that they learn to self-advocate; (6) students with disabilities at high school and college levels should participate in internships where they can practice using technology in work settings; and (7) policy makers should disseminate information about current laws, policies, and resources that are universally designed to meet the needs of various stakeholders. | [FULL TEXT]

Burke, Barry N. (2005).  Seven Secrets for Teachers to Survive in an Age of School Reform  Technology Teacher, 65, 3. 

As much as 20 years ago, it was commonplace for technology teachers to find a comfortable niche in the school building because they were the "go-to person." Yes, anytime something was in need of fixing or repair, they called on the technology teacher. With the advent of Y2K and computers, that niche slowly eroded to the teachers who could not only fix computers, but configure them, and by the way, can they monitor the network and the school Web site? The importance of the technology teacher went from being able to fix broken tables and chairs to one of high-tech computer maintenance. The first question to ask is whether the technology education teachers in one's school made this transition. Along came standards, state assessments, and No Child Left Behind. One can almost see the smoke coming out of every door in the school--"how," "what," "where," "when," and the list goes on. In addition, a new generation of principals replaced the traditional retiring baby boomers. A new superintendent means new directions. Research shows what it takes for students to be successful. Now, all of a sudden, what one thought was important is no longer appropriate in an environment where accountability is the first level of review. Here seven secrets for technology education teachers to survive in an age of school reform are presented. The seven secrets explained in this article include the following: (1) Smaller Schools and School Reform IS Better--Understand the Concept; (2) Get to Know Your Principal and Your Community; (3) Commit to a Standards-Based Model--Engineering by Design[TM]; (4) Embrace Design Through TIDE (Technology, Innovation, Design, and Engineering) as the Organizer for Your Teaching; (5) Organizing Around Career-Themed Academies is Your "Ticket to Ride"; (6) Form a Collaboration Committee for Technological Literacy; and (7) Get Involved--Stay Involved.

Burke, Barry N.; Meade, Shelli D. (2007).  The Finest in Professional Development: Engineering byDesign[TM] (EbD[TM]) Curriculum Specialists--Helping Hands for Improving Student Achievement!  Technology Teacher, 66, 6. 

How can the teachers of today raise student achievement and prepare students to become the next generation of technologists, innovators, designers, and engineers? This article introduces new opportunities for professional development: a cadre of education professionals who are trained to deliver professional development for states, districts, and schools. These are trained professionals who have volunteered to work with other teachers, supervisors, and teacher educators to make standards-based curriculum delivery a reality across the U.S. These individuals were also trained in standards-based curriculum development and implementation and well versed in Engineering byDesign[TM] curriculum, instruction, and assessment. Engineering byDesign (EbD[TM]) is a standards-based K-12 solution for technology programs. It is a comprehensive model that integrates science, technology, engineering, and mathematics through comprehensive, articulated coursework. Within each component of the program are course guides with integrated rubrics and assessments. The program is linked to professional development and resources via an electronic delivery platform known as eTIDEonline[TM]. Curricular offerings include courses and units of instruction that have been mapped to Career Clusters and Pathways. EbD[TM] is the only comprehensive standards-based curricular model designed to deliver technological literacy.

Burke, Garfield, Jr. (2001).  Computers and Calculators in Schools: A Status Report. 

A position statement on the use of calculators was published in 1991 in which the NCTM (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics) strongly urged that calculator usage be promoted by school districts, teachers at every level, authors, and educators. In the 2000 publication of Principles and Standards for School Mathematics, NCTM noted that "Technology is essential in teaching and learning mathematics; it influences the mathematics that is taught and enhances students' learning." In view of NCTM's position on computer and calculator use, there is a need to know how available computers and calculators are in schools, how they are being used, and to what extent. Based on a literature review, the paper reveals that the number of computers and calculators in the schools has grown and will continue to grow and the computers that are now in the schools are not being fully utilized. Text processing tools appeared to be the most common use of computers in school. Calculators appeared to be used mostly for checking paper-and-pencil calculations, developing skills at estimation, and problem solving. Several studies found that teacher training was an important factor in computer use and the fear that traditional skills would not be learned was an important factor in calculator use. Results of the literature review strongly suggest that computers and calculators have been forcing curriculum planners to critically examine the content and methods of teaching secondary school mathematics. Too many teachers are not adequately trained in technology integration or in favor of unrestricted use of calculators. | [FULL TEXT]

Burke, Jennifer (2000).  New Directions--Teacher Technology Standards. 

Recently there has been significant emphasis on changing teacher preparation programs to ensure that new teachers are prepared to use technology in the classroom. There are several illustrations of this increased attention across the nation, including: the U.S. Department of Education's "Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers" program; the "Teacher Preparation StaR Chart: A Self Assessment Tool for Colleges of Education," released by the CEO Forum on Education and Technology; and announcement by the national Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education of new performance-based standards to be used in evaluating teacher preparation programs for accreditation. Previously, technology training in most southern states has been targeted as professional development efforts for current (inservice) teachers. The focus is now on the technology competency of new teachers in state-approved teacher education programs. Georgia, Kentucky, Texas and Virginia have taken new directions to address technology skills of new teachers. The "A Plus Education Reform Act of 2000," enacted by the Georgia legislature effective July 2000, requires students in postsecondary teacher preparation programs to be "proficient in computer and other instructional technology applications and skills." In Kentucky, accredited teacher education institutions are required to prepare teachers to meet new standards, including those for technology, set by the Kentucky Professional Standards Board. The State Board for Educator Certification in Texas has developed standards for all new teachers regardless of teaching field or subject certification. In Virginia, the State Board of Education has adopted a requirement that all teachers will have to demonstrate proficiency in technology for license renewal starting in 2003. Other states across the region have taken different approaches toward implementing technology standards for teachers. Includes Teacher Technology Standards and Licensing Requirements (August 2000) for 16 southern states. | [FULL TEXT]

Burke, Jennifer (2001).  Technology Standards for Students. 

In many states technology standards for students have focused on basic computer skills, but more standards are beginning to focus on identifying technology skills that students need for school and the workplace. In most states in the Southern Region, technology standards for students are based on the National Educational Technology Standards for Students (NETS-S) Technology Foundations for Students, a broad conceptual framework of technology knowledge developed by the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE). These standards given teachers and schools a framework for planning technology-based activities that not only support instruction but also improve students' technology skills. The standards cover six categories: basic operations and concepts; social, ethical and human issues of technology; common productivity tools; technology communications tools; technology research tools; and problem-solving and decision-making skills aided by technology. Each category describes what students should know and be able to do at each grade level. Even though most of them are based on the NETS-S standards, student technology standards in Southern states vary somewhat. This publication identifies what the following states are doing to set standards: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia. States across the region recognize the importance of curriculum standards to ensure that students have the necessary academic and technological skills to continue to learn and succeed, whether in higher education or careers. | [FULL TEXT]

Burke, Ken (2005).  Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images--Part II  International Journal of Instructional Media, 32, 3. 

In Part I of this study (Burke, 2005), the author presented the essentials of Image Presentation Theory--IPT--and its application to the analytical explication of various spatial designs in and psychological responses to images, from the illusions of depth in what is referred to as "windows" in cinema theory to the more patterned abstractions of "frames," with extensions of this basic model into not only other forms of visual media but also metaphorical explorations into various communication situations such as the novel of Lolita which he has elaborated in his concept of a Special Case Frame. In this current further extension of the foundational theory he explores how these IPT concepts apply to the adaptations of the novel into the Classic Window interpretations of the two films by Stanley Kubrick and Andrian Lyne.

Burke, Lisa A., Ed. (2001).  High-Impact Training Solutions: Top Issues Troubling Trainers. 

Designed for front-line training professionals, this book addresses the most pressing issues in the training and development field (T&D). "Introduction" (Lisa A. Burke) discusses the importance of viewing training as a subsystem of human resources, training as a systematic process, and indicators of high impact training. "Strategic Training: Creating Advantage and Adding Value" (Joseph V. Wilson III) defines strategic training and examines how cutting-edge T&D professionals are using T&D as a solution to business and performance problems. "Needs Assessment: Analyzing Performance Issues and Determining Solutions" (Jennifer W. Guidry, Janice L. Simmons) examines how trainers can determine when training is really needed, when it is not the answer, and how to tell the difference."Technological Advancements in Training Design, Delivery, Support, and Administration" (Larry A. Pace) discusses the distinct characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of emerging delivery and support technologies and the situations in which they make the most sense to exploit. "Training Transfer: Ensuring Training Gets Used on the Job" (Lisa A. Burke) discusses factors that influence transfer and advances a simplified framework for tackling the transfer dilemma, one that identifies specific and practical actions that trainers, trainees, and managers can invoke to effectively increase the extent of training transfer. "Holistic Training and Development: Beyond Classroom Solutions" (L. Michael Wykes) examines the growing trend of focusing on performance solutions versus training programs instead of being program developers and instructors, training professionals are becoming performance engineers. "Raising the Bar: High-Impact Trainer Roles in the New Workplace" (Jennifer W. Guidry) discusses traditional trainer roles and how to execute them for maximum impact and introduces three new roles for trainers: change ambassador, internal marketer, and spiritual guide. "Final Observations" (Lisa A. Burke) elaborates upon practical applications. Appendixes include 73 print resources, 19 Internet sites, and index.

Burkett, Ruth S., Ed.; Macy, Michelle, Ed.; White, James A., Ed.; Feyten, Carine M., Ed. (2001).  Preservice Teacher Education. [SITE 2001 Section]. 

This document contains the papers on preservice teacher education from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference. Topics covered include: preparing tomorrow's teachers; insights for pre-service teachers about computer use; geographic information systems in teacher education; digital cameras in education; integrating technology in research courses for preservice teachers; a computer-assisted coeducational and transdisciplinary experience; technology integration in reading and science; preservice teachers' experiences in a technology-rich urban K-12 school setting; unique collaborations in preservice teacher programs; the evolution of a curriculum in technology and pedagogy; multiple delivery systems; a Holocaust World Wide Web site; creating collegial networks; cooperative teaching and learning in information technology (IT) and modern foreign languages; analyzing bilingual education preservice teachers' learning outcomes in a computer literacy course; the next generation of professional development; the role of IT in the classroom and its implications for preservice teacher education; a planning model for integrating technology and educational methodologies in the preservice teacher education program; curriculum models for computing and IT; economics, information literacy, and teacher education; constructivist use of technology; understanding the leadership role in promoting reading outside the classroom; technological capacities of distance education teachers; standards-based reflection; anchored instruction using WebQuests in post-baccalaureate teacher education courses; virtual learning, Web videos, and elementary mathematics teacher education; teacher education changes, transitions, and substitutions; graphic representations for learning; observations of the computer use of preservice teachers; using Dreamweaver 3 for generating preservice Web-based teaching portfolios; perceptions of preservice teachers' technology competency skills in Arizona; learning with Internet resources; culture clash in the college classroom; using multimedia and technology to teach mathematics and science; preparing teachers to succeed in online professional development courses; empowering teacher through cognitive literacy skills development; teacher preparation and online learning; addressing teacher concerns toward technology; technological tools and mathematical guided discovery; the R.O.A.D. (Read, Own, Apply, Discuss) system for enhancing teacher professional growth; building a professional cyberspace community; Internet use in teacher education; student teacher educational technology use; a collaborative teacher preparation technology project; educational technology at the University of Florida; assessing faculty attitudes toward information technology; a collaborative approach to integrating technology and information literacy in preservice teacher education; PT3 (Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers to use Technology) first year accomplishments; reducing distances between colleges via Web CT; technology and problem-based learning; effectiveness of an exemption exam for an introductory educational technology course; and a computer endorsement program. Most papers contain references. | [FULL TEXT]

Burkhalter, Bettye B.; McLean, James E.; Jones, Melaney A. (2004).  Recipients' Views of the Role of Christa McAuliffe Fellowships in Science Education  Science Educator, 13, 1. 

As early as 1923, Jean Piaget challenged teachers to reevaluate their goals for students and to promote critical thinking rather than conformity. Piaget described two important educational goals. The first "principal goal of education is to create men who are capable of doing new things, not simply of repeating what other generations have done--men who are creative, inventive, and discoverers. The second goal of education is to form minds which can be critical, can verify, and not accept everything they are offered." As people move toward a global and information technology-based society, it is important that the students understand international and cultural diversity and become sensitive to different points of view. The key to this understanding and increased sensitivity is critical thinking: identifying and challenging assumptions and exploring and imagining alternatives (Brookfield, 1987). In essence, critical thinking means a student takes a holistic approach to solving a problem and assuring all dimensions of the problem have been examined. Based on these issues, the purpose of this study was to identify the perceptions of classroom teachers awarded the Christa McAuliffe Fellowship and the impact the Program had on their classroom teaching and on the need of teaching critical thinking skills.  | [FULL TEXT]

Burkhart, Joyce (2001).  How Can the eCampus Be Organized and Run To Address Traditional Concerns, but Maintain an Innovative Approach to Providing Educational Access? Project Eagle Evaluation Question #3. Benchmarking St. Petersburg College: A Report to Leadership. 

This paper discusses the findings of St. Petersburg College's (SPC) (Florida) evaluation question: "How can the eCampus be organized and run to address traditional faculty concerns, but maintain an innovative approach to providing educational access?" In order to evaluate this question, a list was compiled of faculty issues identified by institutions nation- and world-wide. Issues centered on instruction, compensation, intellectual property, and training. Steps were then taken to determine how SPC has addressed these four issues. Staff examined formal college policies related to faculty issues, interviewed all eCampus faculty, staff and administrators, and surveyed via email all SPC online faculty members. Results showed that in every category of faculty concern, SPC administration has dealt with most of the issues raised nationwide, and has, at times, established policies and procedures for which there has been no precedent. Findings indicated that, compared with other schools, SPC has been very proactive in dealing with matters related to its "e-structors." Finally, results and recommendations were broken down into specific performance successes and failures in the areas of instruction, compensation, intellectual property, and training. | [FULL TEXT]

Burkhart, Joyce (2001).  How Can St. Petersburg College Leverage Technology To Increase Access to Courses and Programs for an Expanded Pool of Learners? Project Eagle Evaluation Question #4. Benchmarking St. Petersburg College: A Report to Leadership. 

This report discusses St. Petersburg College's (SPC) (Florida) evaluation question, "How can St. Petersburg College leverage technology to increase access to courses and programs for an expanded pool of learners?" The report summarizes both nationwide/worldwide best practices and current SPC efforts related to four strategies: (1) an E-learning expansion; (2) individual initiatives; (3) collaborative efforts; and (4) retention. With respect to planning an e-learning expansion, national models were drawn from the business community and institutional assessment literature. Current SPC initiatives include the creation and distribution of the Technology Plan, the Electronic Campus Plan, and the Distance Education Master Plan. The Individual Initiatives section of the report identifies five unique strategies for increasing e-learning access that can serve as national models, along with 10 SPC recent e-learning innovations. The Collaborative Efforts section describes seven potential sources of partnerships (e.g., governmental agencies, schools of all levels, and the military) and current SPC collaborative projects. The discussion of retention initiatives outlines national models for the retention of e-learners and notes SPC's lack of a formal retention improvement plan. The report concludes with recommendations specific to SPC for each of the e-learning strategies addressed in the report. | [FULL TEXT]

Burmeister, Marsha L. (2001).  Conference Calendar.  Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 2, 4. 

Lists upcoming conferences (taking place during the months of March through July 2002): Florida Educational Technology Conference; Mid-South Instructional Technology Conference Teaching, Learning, and Technology; Georgia Educational Technology Conference; e-Learning Conference and Expo; International Conference on Software Engineering; National Educational Computing Conference; Collaborate! Conference & Expo; Association for Telecommunications Professionals in Higher Education; Technology + Learning Conference.

Burnaford, Gail, Ed.; Fischer, Joseph, Ed.; Hobson, David, Ed. (2001).  Teachers Doing Research: The Power of Action through Inquiry. Second Edition. 

This collection of papers describes the processes of doing teacher action research. There are nine chapters in three parts. Part 1, "Ways of Doing Teacher Action Research," includes (1) "Action and Reflection: Narrative and Journaling in Teacher Research" (David Hobson); (2) "Action Research Rationale and Planning: Developing a Framework for Teacher Inquiry" (Joseph C. Fischer); (3) "Teachers' Work: Methods for Researching Teaching" (Gail Burnaford); and (4) "Teacher Researchers Go Online" (David Hobson and Louanne Smolin); "Discovering the Real Learner Within: Journal Keeping with Second-Grade Children" (Nancy Brankis); "Overcoming Paradigm Paralysis: A High School Teacher Revisits Foreign Language Education" (Emmerich Koller); "Racing to Research: Inquiry in Middle School Industrial Arts" (Wallace Shilkus); "The Personal and the Professional: Learning about Gender in Middle School Physical Education" (Rick Moon); and "LAPTOPS: Language Arts for Students with Learning Disabilities: An Action Research Curriculum Development Project" (Martha C. Stephens). Part 2, "School and Professional Contexts," includes (5) "Learning with Each Other: Collaboration in Teacher Research" (David Hobson); (6) "School and University Teacher Action Research: Maintaining the Personal in the Public Context" (Gail Burnaford); and (7) "Teacher Action Research and Professional Development: Foundations for Educational Renewal" (Linda S. Tafel and Joseph C. Fischer); "When the Mountain and Mohammed Meet: Teachers and University Projects: A Model for Effective Research Collaboration" (Judith Lachance Whitcomb); "Shifting Gears: An Urban Teacher Rethinks Her Practice" (Vida Schaffel); "Piecing Our Past through Artistic Inquiry: Students and Teachers as Co-Researchers in an Urban Elementary School" (Jackie Samuel and Susan Sheldon); "Leading a School-Based Study Group: My Personal Path to Renewal" (Kelli Visconti); "Three Contexts for Exploring Teacher Research: Lessons about Trust, Power, and Risk" (Nancy Hubbard); and "The Action Research Laboratory as a Vehicle for School Change" (Joseph C. Senese). Part 3, "The Larger Arena," includes (8) "How Does It Matter? Teacher Inquiry in the Traditions of Social Science Research" (Susan Jungck) and (9) "Teacher Research and School Reform: Lessons from Chicago, Curitiba, and Santiago" (Joseph C. Fisher and Norman Weston). An afterword presents "The Three P's in Teacher Research: Reflecting on Action Research from Personal, Professional, and Political Perspectives" (Owen van den Berg). (Chapters contain references.)

Burnett, Cathy; Dickinson, Paul; Myers, Julia; Merchant, Guy (2006).  Digital Connections: Transforming Literacy in the Primary School  Cambridge Journal of Education, 36, 1. 

Much has been written about the transformative influence of new technology on the school curriculum, but only a small number of studies have focused on the practical implications for primary literacy. The dominant paradigm seems less concerned with transformation, instead favouring a view of "technology as enrichment". This case study examines the possibilities of transformation through an electronically mediated partnership between two primary schools in the North of England. Children's digital texts are analysed alongside interview and observational data in order to document what transformation might look like in practice. The study illustrates how technology can be used to promote new literacy practices in the classroom, through the production of new kinds of texts. It also documents the emergence of peer-based learning relationships and changing perceptions of the teacher's role.

Burnett, Greg; Lingam, Govinda Ishwar (2007).  Reflective Teachers and Teacher Educators in the Pacific Region: Conversations with Us Not about Us  International Review of Education, 53, 3. 

This article reports on a study of Pacific primary school teachers' and university lecturers' reflections on their involvement in the in-service Bachelor of Education degree programme offered at the regional University of the South Pacific (USP) in Fiji. Two rich sets of data have emerged from this study. Firstly, there are a number of critical reflections by ourselves as teacher educators concerning levels of equitable student access and participation in our degree as it is reconceptualised for distance and flexible delivery to increase levels of teacher professionalism across the Pacific region. Secondly, there has emerged a set of statements from teachers themselves about: teaching and learning; professional development opportunities; and what it means to be a professional educator in the Pacific region. This later data suggests an alternative set of voices in what has largely been a "conversation between us about them" conducted by Ministries of Education, Curriculum Development Units, USP, other educational bodies and the media in the Pacific, but particularly Fiji, about teachers and teachers' work. Critical reflection upon our own practice as teacher educators and the voices of experienced teachers are particularly pertinent not only as we seek to reshape a degree programme to suit the needs of the region's primary school teachers but also as "rethinking" debates about the purposes of education in the Pacific region are on-going yet exclusive.

Burnett, Ron (2002).  Context, Technology, Communication, and Learning.  Educational Technology, 42, 2. 

Discusses the growth of educational institutions and the need for new paradigms of learning to keep pace with change. Topics include context; communication; the use and adoption of different technologies; shared knowledge; and the personal nature of the learning experience.

Burniske, R. W. (2005).  Sharing the Sacred Fire: Integrating Educational Technology without Annihilating Nature  TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 49, 6. 

The use of networked technology for the explicit purpose of integrating school curricula often carries the implicit aim of introducing students to the concept of globalization. As a result, the conscientious educator confronts a number of troublesome, ethical questions while serving as an agent for integration. For example, is it possible to integrate technology and introduce the process of globalization without annihilating a child's connection with the natural world? By placing emphasis upon this explicit curriculum and reinforcing the implicit concerns that accompany it, might educators neglect their schools' null curricula? Ultimately, how might education help preserve nature while introducing networked technology to the classroom for teaching and learning about globalization? The author recently confronted such ethical concerns while leading a workshop for the secretary of Education in the Brazilian state of Sao Paulo. The workshop involved 21 secondary school students from urban favelas, impoverished communities that offer limited access to computer technology, few extra-curricular educational opportunities and even fewer chances to interact with the natural world. With this in mind, the secretary of Education decided to accommodate these students, who ranged from 13 to 19 years of age, at a conference center in the mountains of the mata atlantica, a rainforest ecosystem bordering the Atlantic Ocean. Through a weeklong series of online and face-to-face learning activities we hoped the students, who had been carefully selected from a wide range of applicants, would acquire a greater understanding and appreciation of nature, while exploring the significance of education in their lives, including the impact of educational technology.

Burniske, R. W.; Monke, Lowell (2001).  Breaking Down the Digital Walls: Learning To Teach in a Post-Modem World. SUNY Series, Education and Culture: Critical Factors in the Formation of Character and Community in American Life. 

This book describes how two teachers, half a world apart, created collaborative Internet projects for high school students worldwide. Projects helped develop critical thinking, genuine dialogue, and global understanding in the classroom. Through the development of curricular projects linking classrooms in Malaysia, Japan, Iowa, South Africa, and England, teachers wrestled not only with technical problems of using the Internet, but also practical and philosophical questions related to serving their higher pedagogical purposes of nurturing genuine communication, dialogue, and argument. Nine chapters include: (1) "The Manabi Hut" (beginning the collaboration inside a hut in the Andes); (2) "The Web and the Plow" (the character of technology, what computers leave out, and what humans must bring); (3) "Don't Start the Evolution without Me" (descriptions of the projects); (4) "Utopian Visions, Dystopian Worries" (two early projects); (5) "Out of the Labyrinth, into the 'Net" (guiding adolescents in telecollaborative activities); (6) "The Global Suburb" (the assumption that projects enabling students to communicate with peers worldwide is beneficial); (7) "The Media Matter" (the genesis and evolution of one project); (8) "In Dreams Begin Responsibilities" (teacher responsibilities to students); and (9) "The Drama of Dialectics" (from which everything in the book springs).

Burns, Amy M. (2006).  Integrating Technology into Your Elementary Music Classroom  General Music Today, 20, 1. 

The article discusses the inclusion of technology in elementary music education. The Technology Institute for Music Educators was an excellent place for learning music technology as they offer summer courses for teachers with novice to advanced skills in technology. Music technology differentiates instruction and challenge the musically gifted students while encouraging those students who felt musically challenged to engage and succeed musically.

Burns, Ann (2007).  Best Audiobooks of 2006  Library Journal, 132, 3. 

Nearly 25 percent of the U.S. population--those with higher incomes and more education and those living in slightly larger households, with children--are listening to audiobooks according to Audio Publishers Association (APA) statistics. No wonder there is continued growth in the industry. This article presents the 2006 "best" list which includes titles by Martha Grimes, Augusten Burroughs, Chris Gardner, and Frances Mayes.

Burns, K.; Polman, J. (2006).  The Impact of Ubiquitous Computing in the Internet Age: How Middle School Teachers Integrated Wireless Laptops in the Initial Stages of Implementation  Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 14, 2. 

This study investigated teacher experiences that emerged as a result of the introduction of wireless technology that placed personal laptops in the hands of every student in their classrooms. Five themes emerged as major factors during the transition to the effective use of ubiquitous technology in the classroom and its positive effects on teachers, including administrative expectations, knowledge acquisition, methods of teaching, teacher/student relationships, and teacher/teacher relationships.

Burns, Mary (2002).  From Compliance to Commitment: Technology as a Catalyst for Communities of Learning.  Phi Delta Kappan, 84, 4. 

Describes Southwest Educational Development Laboratory professional development project to help 160 elementary and secondary school teachers in 6 schools create technology-supported learner-centered learning environments. Finds that three initial project outcome assumptions are not substantiated in practice. The best way to learn technology is to engage meaningfully with content is one such unsubstantiated assumption.

Burns, Mary (2006).  Improving Student Writing through E-Mail Mentoring  Learning and Leading with Technology, 33, 5. 

Computer technology has become an indispensable tool in writing. Those of us who have spent any time in schools can attest to the prevalence of word processing, concept mapping, Web editing, and electronic presentation software, all deployed, to a large extent, in the collective effort to enhance student writing. The degree to which such tools improve student writing is best answered by the teachers and students who use them. In my efforts to help students advance written communication skills, however, the most valuable tool in aiding students to better formulate ideas, revise and refine conceptualizations, and communicate thoughts was one that is often absent from the classroom--e-mail. | [FULL TEXT]

Burns, Mary (2006).  Tools for the Mind  Educational Leadership, 63, 4. 

An overly narrow and specialized focus on technology in schools discourages the use of computers to promote higher-order thinking. Many districts have concentrated on skills training, failed to supply such necessary supports as professional development, conflated technology use with instructional quality, and classified all software applications as being cognitively and instructionally equal. In their classrooms, teachers tend to use lower-order technology tools, such as Word and PowerPoint, at the expense of higher-order tools, such as spreadsheets and databases. Schools and school districts can change such patterns of use and nonuse by teaching critical thinking first and technology later and by focusing on curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

Burns, Mary; Dimock, K. Victoria (2007).  Technology as a Catalyst for School Communities: Beyond Boxes and Bandwidth  [Rowman & Littlefield Education] 

This book tells the story of how three disparate schools handle the many challenges of integrating technology into their classrooms. Teachers and administrators alike will share familiar feelings as they watch the professional learning communities progress toward the change that makes an enormous difference in how they teach and learn from each other and their students. This book provides an attainable approach for educators to create their own communities of practice for the purposes of school improvement. The case studies illustrate how administrators and teachers work together to find solutions to the best ways to integrate technology in the classroom. In the process, through their collaborative work, they discover that they learned much more than the technical skills they first thought would be the focus of their common inquiry. In creating their communities of practice, the isolation of the classroom is removed, new ways of thinking and doing are embraced, and they learn how to learn again. As the teachers reach out to their peers and students, giving and receiving support in a cooperative learning endeavor, a new enthusiasm permeates their schools. This book is organized into the following chapters: (1) Applying Technology to Restructuring Learning; (2) Teacher-Centered Professional Development; (3) Technology: A Catalyst for Change; (4) From Old Guard to Vanguard: Veteran Teachers as Leaders of Communities of Practice; (5) Building a Vision: Toward an Intentional Community of Practice; (6) No Matter What: Leadership and Communities of Practice; and (7) Conclusion: Change and Communities of Practice.

Burridge, Roger, Ed.; Hinett, Karen, Ed.; Paliwala, Abdul, Ed.; Varnava, Tracey, Ed. (2002).  Effective Learning & Teaching in Law. 

This book discusses key issues for the effective teaching of law from a range of experts in the United Kingdom. It includes material on teaching and the support of learning and on using learning materials and information technology in legal education. The chapters are: (1) Revising Legal Education (Tracey Varnava and Roger Burridge); (2) Learning Law and Legal Expertise by Experience (Roger Burridge); (3) Diversifying Assessment and Developing Judgments in Legal Education (Karen Hinett and Alison Bone); (4) Negotiating the Learning Process with Electronic Resources (Paul Maharg and Abdul Paliwala); (5) Responsibility and Ethics in Professional Legal Education (Nigel Duncan); (6) The Human Rights Act and the UK Law School (Andrew Williams); (7) Law Teaching for Other Programmes (Linda Byles and Ruth Soetendorp); (8) The New Advocacy: Implications for Legal Education and Teaching Practice (Julie Macfarlane); and (9) Space, Time, and (E)Motions of Learning (Abdul Paliwala). Each chapter contains references.

Burriss, Larry L. (2003).  Safety in the Cybervillage: Some Guidelines for Teachers and Parents.  Childhood Education, 79, 5. 

Details seven ways adults can ensure children's safety on the Internet: become familiar with the Internet community; learn how the Internet works; identify quality sites; learn what sites to avoid; teach children basic rules for Internet safety; place computers in high traffic areas and monitor use; and respond thoughtfully if a child visits an inappropriate site.

Burrus, C. Sidney (2007).  Connexions: An Open Educational Resource for the 21st Century  Educational Technology Magazine: The Magazine for Managers of Change in Education, 47, 6. 

The technology for information organization, communication, storage, and use today is the book. It has evolved over 3000 years (in its modern form over 500 years) to the mature object we currently enjoy. The book is now the primary technology used in education. But with the development of the computer and the Web, a new electronic information technology is challenging the book and laboratory, and it promises to allow significantly improved learning. The author and colleagues have developed and are using an Open Educational Resource called Connexions where the content is organized in small modules, open to use and reuse in creative ways consistent with modern pedagogy and open to new systems yet to be discovered or invented. This article presents the Connexions Project at Rice University as an example of that new technology and outlines the experience.

Burston, Jack (2003).  Proving IT Works.  CALICO Journal, 20, 2. 

Focuses on the assessment of the effects of instructional technology (IT) on the foreign language curriculum. Offers a general overview of the evaluation of IT and seeks to provide a clearer understanding of the evaluation parameters that need to be taken into consideration when establishing the infrastructure for the on-going assessment of IT. Author/VWL)

Burt, Gordon (2006).  Media Effectiveness Essentiality and Amount of Study: A Mathematical Model  British Journal of Educational Technology, 37, 1. 

An in-depth investigation of the relationship between media effectiveness, essentiality, and amount of study was presented. Overall, effectiveness explains 48% of the variation in the amount of study. Students who found the media more effective studied the media more. Those media that were more effective were studied more. The relationship between effectiveness and amount of study is different for each medium. This is because media differ in their degree of "essentiality-versus-optionality." Thus, the amount of study depends on a combination of effectiveness and essentiality. The relationship between effectiveness, essentiality, and amount of study is different for each student. This is because students differ in their "sensitivities"--their sensitivity to effectiveness and to essentiality. The final equation used effectiveness, essentiality, and sensitivity to explain 74% of the variation in the amount of study. The analysis was informed by a mathematical model.

Burt, R. A. (2002).  Using Technology Mediated Instruction To Support an Introductory Structures Course for Construction Undergraduates.  Journal of Construction Education, 7, 2. 

Presents an incremental approach to developing a website to support an introductory construction structures course. Outlines the structure and content of the web. Provides results of a survey of 135 undergraduates during the Fall 2000 and 2001 semesters that suggest the website is a useful tool in supporting an introductory structures course.

Burton, Dolores T. (2003).  Technology Professional Development: A Case Study.  Academic Exchange Quarterly, 7, 2. 

Examines the outcomes of a technology professional development initiative for elementary teachers. The professional development model used cohort collaboration, multiple strategies, and job embedded experiences to help teachers incorporate technology into their practice. Results included an increase in self-reported frequency of use of technology for research, project-based learning, and instruction.

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Barab, Sasha A.; Hay, Kenneth E.; Barnett, Michael; Squire, Kurt (2001).  Constructing Virtual Worlds: Tracing the Historical Development of Learner Practices.  Cognition and Instruction, 19, 1. 

Explored learning and instruction within a technology-rich, collaborative, participatory learning environment by tracking the emergence of shared understanding and products through student and teacher practices. Found that becoming knowledgeably skillful with respect to a particular practice or concept is a multigenerational process, evolving in terms of contextual demands and available resources.

Barab, Sasha A.; MaKinster, James G.; Moore, Julie A.; Cunningham, Donald J. (2001).  Designing and Building an On-line Community: The Struggle To Support Sociability in the Inquiry Learning Forum.  Educational Technology Research and Development, 49, 4. 

Describes the sociotechnical structures of the Inquiry Learning Forum (ILF), a Web-based professional development tool designed to support a community of inservice and preservice mathematics and science teachers creating, sharing, and improving inquiry-based pedagogical practices. Highlights the change in focus from usability to sociability issues. 

Barab, Sasha; Thomas, Michael; Dodge, Tyler; Carteaux, Robert; Tuzun, Hakan (2005).  Making Learning Fun: Quest Atlantis, A Game Without Guns  Educational Technology Research and Development, 53, 1. 

This article describes the Quest Atlantis (QA) project, a learning and teaching project that employs a multiuser, virtual environment to immerse children, ages 9-12, in educational tasks. QA combines strategies used in commercial gaming environments with lessons from educational research on learning and motivation. It allows users at participating elementary schools and after-school centers to travel through virtual spaces to perform educational activities, talk with other users and mentors, and build virtual personae. Our work has involved an agenda and process that may be called socially-responsive design, which involves building sociotechnical structures that engage with and potentially transform individuals and their contexts of participation. This work sits at the intersection of education, entertainment, and social commitment and suggests an expansive focus for instructional designers. The focus is on engaging classroom culture and relevant aspects of student life to inspire participation consistent with social commitments and educational goals interpreted locally.

Barack, Lauren (2005).  I, Computer  School Library Journal, 51, 4. 

What child hasn't chatted with friends through a computer? But chatting with a computer? Some Danish scientists have literally put a face on their latest software program, bringing to virtual life storyteller Hans Christian Andersen, who engages users in actual conversations. The digitized Andersen resides at the Hans Christian Andersen Museum in Odense, Denmark. There he answers questions about his life and fairy tales and responds in a fairly humanlike manner, complete with facial expressions and gestures. (Tip: Andersen gets a bit testy when asked if his teeth are false.) But Andersen's creators at NICE (www.niceproject.com), a virtual language and computer interaction initiative based at the University of Southern Denmark, are imagining a much larger playing field for their three-year-old project.

Barack, Lauren (2005).  Going the Distance  School Library Journal, 51, 5. 

Sixty years ago, distance education probably involved a pen, paper, and secretarial classes conducted via snail mail. Today, students in ever-increasing numbers are more likely to link to the Internet to learn how to conjugate French verbs or dissect frogs in Advanced Placement courses, according to a new landmark study from the U. S. Department of Education (www.ed.gov). Nearly three-quarters of all public school districts plan to expand their distance-learning classes, says the study, titled "Distance Education Courses for Public Elementary and Secondary Students." Still more distance-learning courses are offered in dual enrollment programs, in which high schools students take classes offered by colleges and universities.

Barack, Lauren (2005).  A Digital Divide  School Library Journal, 51, 6. 

No state should be forced to make a Solomon-like decision between laptops and books for their students. Yet that is what appears to be taking place this year in Texas. The Texas state legislature has proposed a new law to outfit all secondary students with laptops at an estimated cost of $707.7 million over the next two years, according to Craig Tounget, executive director of the Texas Parents and Teachers Association. The problem is, textbooks that should have arrived in Texas classrooms for the 2004-2005 school year have been collecting dust in warehouses because the legislature has deferred paying the $327 million publisher's tab. While lawmakers have now agreed to fund those books, the $378 million that was slotted for textbooks for the 2006-2007 school year is being postponed instead. This article briefly describes the details of this situation in Texas.

Barack, Lauren (2005).  Field Trips, Minus the Smelly Bus Ride  School Library Journal, 51, 6. 

As school boards nationwide are forced to wield the budget ax-extracurricular activities are often the first items to go. Sports, art classes, and even field trips are increasingly rare. Still, children are curious--and so some schools are turning to virtual means to take students out of the classroom. This article briefly discusses virtual excursions through the Interactive Learning and Collaboration (www.cilc.org) Web site.

Barajas, Mario; Gannaway, Gloria J. (2007).  Implementing E-Learning in the Traditional Higher Education Institutions  Higher Education in Europe, 32, 2-3. 

This article takes a close look at a large, well-established traditional European university, the University of Barcelona, as an example of an institution that has a long history of developing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and e-learning. The results of a systematic peer-review analysis illustrate the issues, problems, and solutions currently encountered by many European universities in their institutional plans and implementation efforts for integrating e-learning in face-to-face teaching.

Barak, Miri; Harward, Judson; Kocur, George; Lerman, Steven (2007).  Transforming an Introductory Programming Course: From Lectures to Active Learning via Wireless Laptops  Journal of Science Education and Technology, 16, 4. 

Within the framework of MIT's course 1.00: Introduction to Computers and Engineering Problem Solving, this paper describes an innovative project entitled: "Studio 1.00" that integrates lectures with in-class demonstrations, active learning sessions, and on-task feedback, through the use of wireless laptop computers. This paper also describes a related evaluation study that investigated the effectiveness of different instructional strategies, comparing traditional teaching with two models of the studio format. Students' learning outcomes, specifically, their final grades and conceptual understanding of computational methods and programming, were examined. Findings indicated that Studio-1.00, in both its extensive- and partial-active learning modes, enhanced students' learning outcomes in Java programming. Comparing to the traditional courses, more students in the studio courses received "A" as their final grade and less failed. Moreover, students who regularly attended the active learning sessions were able to conceptualize programming principles better than their peers. We have also found two weaknesses in the teaching format of Studio-1.00 that can guide future versions of the course.

Barak, Miri; Lipson, Alberta; Lerman, Steven (2006).  Wireless Laptops as Means for Promoting Active Learning in Large Lecture Halls  Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38, 3. 

This paper reports on a study that examined the use of wireless laptops for promoting active learning in lecture halls. The study examined students' behavior in class and their perceptions of the new learning environment throughout three consecutive semesters. An online survey revealed that students have highly positive perceptions about the use of wireless laptops, but less positive perceptions about being active in class. Class observations showed that the use of wireless laptops enhances student-centered, hands-on, and exploratory learning, as well as meaningful student-to-student and student-to-instructor interactions. However, findings also show that wireless laptops can become a source of distraction, if used for non-learning purposes.  | [FULL TEXT]

Barak, Moshe (2004).  The Use of Computers in Technological Studies: Significant Learning or Superficial Activity?  Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 23, 4. 

The intent of this study was to investigate the impact of introducing computerized means, mainly simulation and the Internet, on teaching and learning electronics in Israeli high schools. Computers in electronics studies are, at the same time, part of the subject matter learned and a means for teaching and learning. Data were collected through interviews carried out with pupils and teachers and by examining pupils' laboratory experiments and projects. Computerized means only slightly influence teacher-controlled activities, such as class presentations and discussions. Teachers and pupils still prefer conventional lessons as the major framework for learning theoretical concepts. The use of technological means for tasks that are only partially controlled by the pupils, such as standard laboratory experiments, can enrich methods of information gathering, analysis and presentation, but do not change the nature of pupil learning by working on these tasks. The question is how to avoid turning "playing" with computerized means into a pseudo symbol of serious learning and a cover-up for superficial activities. Using computers and communication technologies in learner-controlled tasks, mainly projects, is likely to increase motivation, promote deeper learning, encourage cooperation and knowledge exchange between pupils, and foster a joint development of ideas.

Barak, Moshe (2005).  From Order to Disorder: The Role of Computer-Based Electronics Projects on Fostering of Higher-Order Cognitive Skills  Computers and Education, 45, 2. 

This research explored learning and thinking processes enhanced by integrating computers in secondary schools electronics projects. Electronics studies provide a sophisticated learning environment, where computers are simultaneously part of the subject matter learned (Technology Education), and a means for enhancing teaching and learning (Educational Technology), as seen in any other area of education. The follow-up on fifty students working on their final projects showed that students working on computer-based electronics projects tend to adopt flexible strategies, such as creating new ideas, risk-taking, improvisation, using trial and error methods for problem solving, and rapid transition from one design to another. In contrast, students working on non-computerized electronics projects are more likely to progress along a linear path: planning, construction, and troubleshooting. Computerized projects also promote the transfer of knowledge between students, and joint development of ideas. Students who exercise freedom in their project do not express the same independence in their documentation, and prepare portfolios that show how they, supposedly, developed their system in an orderly manner. It is important to educate students, and teachers, that creative design and problem solving requires a balance between openness, flexibility, and intuition, on the one hand, and systematic investigation, discipline, and hard work, on the other hand.

Baran, Bahar; Cagiltay, Kursat (2006).  Teachers' Experiences in Online Professional Development Environment  [Online Submission] 

This qualitative study aims to explore teachers' opinions on traditional professional development (PD) courses and their experiences from an online course. 10 teachers from a private school participated in an online professional development (PD) course. After completing the course, they evaluated their PD experience. A focus group discussion and individual interviews were performed to collect data. The teachers determined the problems in traditional PD courses and online PD courses. They generally emphasized the lack of practice in both traditional and online PD courses. Further, abundance of theoretical concepts and context independent examples are determined as other problems. They proposed that PD programs should be developed together by both academician and expert teacher.  | [FULL TEXT]

Baran, Bahar; Cagiltay, Kursat (2006).  Knowledge Management and Online Communities of Practice in Teacher Education  [Online Submission] 

Research on teachers' professional development is gaining popularity among educators since changes in society require teachers to improve their skills and knowledge. Rather than transmitting information to teachers, knowledge sharing through emerging tacit knowledge among them has gained more importance. Because of new information and communication technologies, knowledge sharing among educators is becoming easier. This article examines the relationship among three important topics; teachers' professional development, knowledge management and online communities of practice. Furthermore, some online learning communities of practice environments are introduced.  | [FULL TEXT]

Baran, Jit; Currie, Ron; Kennepohl, Dietmar (2004).  Remote Instrumentation for Teaching Laboratory  Journal of Chemical Education, 81, 12. 

The feasibility of using current software, such as PC-Duo, PCAnywhere or LabVIEW, in training students in instrumental analysis from a remote location is investigated. Findings show that creation of online features is crucial to the use and learning by students and the development of a suitable Web site, which provides an easy-to-use interface to the instrumentation is critical.

Barbas, Maria Potes Santa-Clara (2006).  Expanding Knowledge: From the Classroom into Cyberspace  Educational Media International, 43, 1. 

This paper is part of a larger project in the area of research. The main purpose of this mediated discourse was to implement, observe and analyse experiences of teachers in a training project developed for two different settings in the classroom. The first was between international classrooms through cyberspace and the second was a cyberspace forum. We carried out these experiences with beginning teachers in training during semester-long courses on "audiovisual communication techniques". The data analysed in these two projects indicated that the integration of ICT (information and communication technologies) had a great impact on student teachers' abilities to improve their pedagogical, individual, social and technological skills in order to build effective teaching tools and materials through the use of ICT. The positive outcomes of the project were: (1) teachers conceived the information in a multimodal format through the integration of linear and nonlinear formats of information in their pedagogical training; (2) teachers underwent significant learning because they were put in the position of hypermedia product builders; (3) teachers acquired information/tools not only to search but also to build and analyse digital discourses; (4) teachers conducted research emphasizing various points of view.

Barber, Betsy; Ball, Rhonda (2001).  Be Still My Heart. 

This project description is designed to show how graphing calculators and calculator-based laboratories (CBLs) can be used to explore topics in physics and health sciences. The activities address such topics as respiration, heart rate, and the circulatory system. Teaching notes and calculator instructions are included as are blackline masters. | [FULL TEXT]

Barbera, Elena (2004).  Quality in virtual education environments  British Journal of Educational Technology, 35, 1. 

The emergence of the Internet has changed the way we teach and learn. This paper provides a general overview of the state of the quality of virtual education environments. First of all, some problems with the quality criteria applied in this field and the need to develop quality seals are presented. Likewise, the dimensions and subdimensions of an empirical instrument to improve and assess the quality of online education are examined. This tool has already been applied to several educational contexts; though not definitive, it aims to improve not only specific areas, but also the whole educational approach as a system.

Barbetta, Patricia M.; Spears-Bunton, Linda A. (2007).  Learning to Write: Technology for Students with Disabilities in Secondary Inclusive Classrooms  English Journal, 96, 4. 

Patricia M. Barbetta and Linda A. Spears-Bunton describe seven technologies and various products that are available to assist struggling students with the complex mechanical and organizational tasks of writing in a secondary English classroom. These technologies can support students in becoming more effective and more confident writers.

Barbian, Jeff (2001).  The Future Training Room.  Training, 38, 9. 

Looks at some of the electronic learning technology that has already been developed and will become common for training, including robots, lucid dreaming, tele-immersion, human interface technology, among others.

Barbour, Michael K.; Collins, Michael A.J. (2004).  The Act of Online Writing as an Indicator of Student Performance  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

This paper considers student use of a web-based discussion forum in a second year, non-major Biology course. The authors discuss how meaningful participation in the forum is a form of public writing and may be an indicator of overall student success in the course. The authors also discuss how this success in the course is not tied to the students? previous performance at the post-secondary level. | [FULL TEXT]

Bardwell, Genevieve; Mujuru, Priscah; Fitch, Cindy; Seidel, George; Hu, Wen; Sogodogo, Kalifa; Chester, Ann (2007).  Engaging Youth to Examine Lifestyle Behaviors through Authentic Research with University Partnerships  International Electronic Journal of Health Education, 10

University researchers partnered with secondary students in West Virginia and Mali on an international science investigation to strengthen science education and public health practices. WV and Mali students made comparisons of diet, physical activity, BMI, and blood pressure gathered from study participants. Full IRB approval was provided by West Virginia University for this human subjects study. The mean systolic blood pressure for the Mali participants was significantly lower, especially when compared to African-American youth (p=0.0008), as was the mean BMI scores of Mali participants (F [subscript 1, 77]=11.43, p=0.0011). Student investigators analyzed results with guidance by university faculty and showcased their results to peer-audiences at school, for local community events, and at annual Symposia. The University partnership provided opportunities for secondary students and their teachers to discover the role that environment plays in influencing health via authentic research and exposure to international public health strategies. Viable alternatives to unhealthy behavior were shared. Results point to the importance of a nutrition-dense diet (low in fats and sugar) combined with simple walking, as beneficial for all humans. Such comparisons can enhance science education, global health awareness, and empower young adults to alter their unhealthy behavior so as to avoid chronic disease in adulthood.

Bardzell, Shaowen; Bardzell, Jeffrey; So, Hyo-Jeong; Lee, Junghun (2004).  A Model for Integrating Technology and Learning in Public Health Education  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

As computer interfaces emerge as an instructional medium, instructors transitioning from the classroom continue to bear the burden of designing effective instruction. The medium of the computer interface, and the kinds of learning and interactive possibilities it affords, presumably changes the delivery of learner-centered instruction. Strategically, teachers not only need instructional design ability, but they also need competence with humancomputer interaction design. In addition, instructors and instructional designers need to be able to bring these two domains together, if they are to create truly learner-centered instruction using new media. This article focuses on how a team comprising an instructor and multimedia instructional developers collaborated to create a distance learning environment for a graduate course in public health. The authors will describe the workflow that the team used, focusing specifically on the integration between instructional design and human-computer interaction design frameworks as well as how the team approached design issues by incorporating various HCI theories. The authors will also show what insights the team had after a year and some of the strategic changes it made in light of them for the next. | [FULL TEXT]

Bargellini, Maria Laura; Bordoni, Luciana (2001).  The Role of the Library in a New Learning Scenario.  Electronic Library, 19, 3. 

Discussion of distance learning and new information and communication technologies focuses on the role of the library. Highlights include the need for lifelong learning; online courses; adult training needs; new technologies in education and training contexts; digital libraries; acquiring, storing, finding, and filtering information; and user needs.

Barker, Bradley (2004).  Adopting SCORM 1.2 Standards in a Courseware Production Environment  International Journal on E-Learning, 3, 3. 

The Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) is a technology framework for Web-based learning technology. Originated by the Department of Defense and accelerated by the Advanced Distributed Learning initiative SCORM was released in January of 2000 (ADL, 2003). The goals of SCORM are to decrease the cost of training, while increasing the availability, discoverability, and reusability of online content. Adopting the framework in a course production environment is a grueling adventure. Authoring tools are created and abandoned with each version release, gaps in the technical architecture create confusing interfaces, and isolating program anomalies is cumbersome. Adopting SCORM enables the reuse of content, however, the increase in time and resources should be carefully considered.

Barker, Bradley; Brooks, David (2005).  An Evaluation of Short-Term Distributed Online Learning Events  International Journal on E-Learning, 4, 2. 

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of short-term distributed online training events using an adapted version of the compressed evaluation form developed by Wisher and Curnow (1998). Evaluating online distributed training events provides insight into course effectiveness, the contribution of prior knowledge to learning, and participants' reaction to the technology. The adapted compressed survey form was found to be a valid and reliable instrument. Participants in the training events increased their knowledge. Furthermore, no relation between prior knowledge and self-reported learning was found. Lastly, participants reported a favorable rating of the technology. Immediate feedback, course relevance and overall course effectiveness were found to be determinants in the learning variable. In conclusion, short-term distributed online training events are effective methods of training Department of Defense employees and military personnel.

Barker, David (2007).  A Personalized Approach to Analyzing "Cost" and "Benefit" in Vocabulary Selection  System: An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, 35, 4. 

The question of which words students should learn and in what order has traditionally been regarded as a matter for teachers and materials writers rather than the learners themselves. Research has focused on using word-specific criteria such as frequency and range of meaning to help teachers make choices about what items to teach to which students at various levels of study. This article suggests that an over-reliance on such an approach fails to prepare learners for the unstructured vocabulary input that they will inevitably have to deal with in the course of their studies. As an alternative, a framework is proposed for taking learners through the process of analyzing new vocabulary items as they meet them. It is suggested that effective training will enable language learners to make their own decisions about the costs and benefits of learning new words based on a consideration of both word- and learner-specific factors.

Barker, Philip (2001).  Creating and Supporting Online Learning Communities. 

Educational technology and the ways in which it is used have undergone considerable changes of the last three decades. Various technology-driven change agents have been responsible for the ways in which this subject has evolved from "chalk and talk" through multimedia to sophisticated virtual reality training environments. Increasingly, educational technology has to be used to support online communities of learners. This paper discusses some of the issues involved. Three broad types of models are identified, needed in order to understand, design and implement learning systems for online users. The first of these relates to the communities of online users for whom the systems are designed; the second relates to the role of technology in society and the ways in which its ongoing development influences the nature of what people do, how they react and the ways in which their goals and ambitions are influenced; and the third type of model concerns the ways in which technology can be used in order to fabricate new types of educational systems and new approaches to teaching and learning. Several electronic communication tools that support the delivery of online courses are described, including electronic mail, list servers, bulletin board systems, and computer conferencing. The relevance of a model of Web-based teaching and learning is illustrated using a case study describing a dynamic online course that involves no face-to-face contact with students. Some of the implications of such courses for online tutors are briefly discussed.   | [FULL TEXT]

Barker, Philip (2002).  On Being an Online Tutor.  Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 39, 1. 

Introduces and discusses a model of teaching and learning that can be used as a basis for building new types of educational infrastructure based upon the use of Web-based resources, peer group interaction and online tutoring. Discusses the special role that e-tutoring plays within online courses and outlines some of the implications of this activity for staff development.

Barker, Philip (2005).  Knowledge Management for E?Learning  Innovations in Education & Teaching International, 42, 2. 

Compared to our ancestors, we live in an era of unprecedented change. This change brings with it opportunities both for success and for disaster. If individuals, organisations and nations are to court success and avoid disaster, it is imperative that we identify useful mechanisms that will enable us to amplify the possibility of one while nullifying the onset of the other. The fundamental tenet of this paper is that effective knowledge management within the context of ongoing educational processes can lead both to the successful development of "growth economies" and the creation of more stable societies based on the principle of dynamic knowledge sharing.

Barker, Philip, Ed.; Rebelsky, Samuel, Ed. (2002).  ED-MEDIA 2002 World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications. Proceedings (14th, Denver, Colorado, June 24-29, 2002). 

This 14th annual ED-MEDIA conference serves as a multi-disciplinary forum for the discussion and exchange of information on the research, development, and applications on all topics related to multimedia, hypermedia and telecommunications/distance education. ED-MEDIA, the premiere international conference in the field, spans all disciplines and levels of education and attracts more than 1,000 attendees from over 50 countries. This document contains papers from attendees representing researchers in over 60 countries, with 162 Full Papers, 255 Brief Papers, and 220 Posters. The focus of ED-MEDIA is technology in education with many different approaches to using the available technology for the realization of educational aims. Topics of papers include: evaluations of new teaching designs, techniques and tools; case studies on the use of technology in physical or virtual classrooms; discussion of new technologies and applications; applications of educational technology in a variety of disciplines; theoretical considerations of the motivations and impact of technology; partnerships and cooperative programs; and accessibility issues for the disabled. There are 2 poster sessions (with 225 posters), 10 panels, workshops, and an evening of special interest group (SIG) sessions. | [FULL TEXT]

Barker, Philip; Giller, Susan (2002).  Models and Methodologies for Multimedia Courseware Production. 

Many new technologies are now available for delivering and/or providing access to computer-based learning (CBL) materials. These technologies vary in sophistication in many important ways, depending upon the bandwidth that they provide, the interactivity that they offer and the types of end-user connectivity that they support.Invariably, appropriate combinations of the available technologies are needed in order to produce the most effective and efficient learning environment for any given application. Bearing this in mind, it is important to consider how multimedia resources, interactivity and global connectivity can best be used in order to produce a software product that best fulfills the requirements identified in any given courseware requirements specification. This paper discusses the types of models that are needed to create effective interactive, multimedia courseware. It also indicates the nature of the interactions that exist between these models and the ways in which these can be used to optimize the trade-offs that are inherent in the creation of multimedia CBL materials. | [FULL TEXT]

Barkhi, Reza; Brozovsky, John (2000).  An Analysis of the Dynamics of a Distance Course.  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 28, 4. 

Discussion of distance education, developments in communication technology, and communication theory focuses on the results of a study of university students that compared the dynamics of a traditional classroom with a virtual classroom facilitated by two-way audio-video technology. Considers email use, student interaction and collaborative projects, and academic performance.

Barkley, Steve; Bianco, Terri (2001).  Online and Onsite Training: When To Mix, When To Match.  Educational Technology, 41, 4. 

Discussion of ways to blend onsite and online staff development training focuses on teachers' continuing education needs. Considers theory, modeling, and practice, and describes a collaborative program in a rural area in Ohio that offers a combination of online learning and live instruction that allows for peer interaction and practice.

Barkley, Steve; Bianco, Terri (2002).  Part Digital Training, Part Human Touch: Rural District Mixes Its Offering of Staff Development Services.  Journal of Staff Development, 23, 1. 

Describes how one rural school district provides staff development through an on-line program that is followed up with on-site training. Teachers learn key concepts of learning styles via the on-line program, then receive on-site training followed by 8 hours of field practice. A sidebar examines different learning styles.

Barlow, Dudley (2005).  The Teachers' Lounge  Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 70, 8. 

Ann Arbor schools seem to have decided to focus on two goals: embracing computer technology and closing the achievement gap between white and non-white students. These two goals have come together in the "Scarlett Emphasis" program that has placed laptop computers in the hands of all students. Having the lowest scores on standardized tests is one of the distinguishing features of Scarlett Middle School. Ann Arbor schools, and legions of schools across America, seem to have decided that a key component to closing the achievement gap is to immerse all students in digital technology. In this article, the author presents his opinion about the ability of personal computers to fix things. He says that the question which schools need to ask about computer technology, before they decide to spend vast sums of money on it, is this: Is it worth the investment? If the Ann Arbor schools spend $22 million on computer technology, will students be better prepared than they are now to answer the writing and math questions on the new SAT? Too often, schools buy computers while holding the hope that teachers can figure out how to use them effectively. If computers are to be the solution in reducing the achievement gap and improving students' performance across the board, then a clear view of how this will happen should be made first before making the investment.

Barnard, Lucy; Paton, Valerie Osland; Rose, Kristyn (2007).  Perceptions of Online Course Communications and Collaboration  [Online Submission] 

An increasing number of students are choosing online education programs to complete their higher education. Research concludes that student satisfaction and retention are related to program completion. Furthermore, research indicates that physical distance alone does not influence student satisfaction and retention. In this study, we examined those factors associated with student perceptions of online course communications and collaboration at a large, public university located in the southwestern United States. Results indicate that academic program characteristics and whether a student would recommend their program are associated with differences in perception of online course communications and collaboration.  | [FULL TEXT]

Barnetson, Bob; Cutright, Marc (2000).  Peformance Indicators as Conceptual Technologies.  Higher Education, 40, 3. 

Describes performance indicators (PIs) as conceptual technologies that shape the issues academics think about and how they think about these issues. Explores the normative assumptions embedded in the PIs of higher education in Alberta, Canada, to yield an initial typology of assumptions academics can apply to PIs in higher education to refine or challenge their introduction.

Barnett, Harvey (2001).  Successful K-12 Technology Planning: Ten Essential Elements. ERIC Digest. 

Over the last 20 years, K-12 schools have spent millions of dollars equipping their schools with the latest technologies, but often without a thoughtful plan of how their use would impact learning and teaching. What is important is how the technology is integrated with the instructional program. To ensure that technology dollars have an impact on students, staff, and the community, districts and schools must develop a thoughtful technology plan. Technology plans that help districts and schools to use technology effectively include the following steps, which are discussed in detail: (1) Create a Vision; (2) Involve All Stakeholders; (3) Gather Data; (4) Review the Research; (5) Integrate Technology into the Curriculum; (6) Commit to Professional Development; (7) Ensure a Sound Infrastructure; (8) Allocate Appropriate Funding and Budget; (9) Plan for Ongoing Monitoring and Assessment; and (10) Prepare for Tomorrow. A list of suggested online resources is provided. | [FULL TEXT]

Barnett, Harvey (2003).  Investing in Technology: The Payoff in Student Learning. ERIC Digest. 

This digest reviews some significant research on technology use in the classroom that examines how investment in technology will pay off in terms of student learning, and it indicates the conditions under which technology is most likely to have a positive impact on student learning. First presented are two longitudinal studies on how students learn from computers. It then discusses studies examining the effects of learning with computers, when technology is used as a tool rather than a tutor. Whether students learn from computers or with computers, the research cited indicates the following conditions under which computer technology is most likely to have a positive impact on learning.access; integration; broad-based reform; the long term; professional development; teaching style; balance; and vision. | [FULL TEXT]

Barnett, Jerrold E. (2003).  Do Instructor-Provided On-Line Notes Facilitate Student Learning. 

Recent advances in technology have made it easy to provide students an outline or some form of notes prior to lectures and for later review. To test the efficacy of instructor-provided notes, 74 students studied lecture material under one of four conditions, in groups of 4 or 5 students. Some listened and took notes as their normal strategy. Others listened and took notes using an instructor-provided outline with spaces for students to fill in important information. A third group listened with a complete set of notes that included virtually everything the instructor would say, in outline form. A control group studied the complete set of instructor notes without hearing the lecture, which was a 35-minute lecture on the structure and functions of the brain. Experiment 1 tested memory, while the second experiment measured memory and transfer. In both studies, the group taking their own notes and the group with instructor-provided partial notes performed better than the groups with full sets of notes, regardless of whether they heard the lecture or not. While instructor-provided notes have been shown previously to facilitate learning, the straight-forward nature of this lecture and extensive use of Power Point may make providing notes unnecessary.   | [FULL TEXT]

Barnett, Michael (2006).  Using a Web-Based Professional Development System to Support Preservice Teachers in Examining Authentic Classroom Practice  Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 14, 4. 

We have been exploring the potential of a web-supported professional development system, the Inquiry Learning Forum (ILF), that integrates videotaped classrooms and discussion forums for use in preservice science methods classrooms. This article examines pre- and inservice teachers' perceptions about using the ILF and how their participation in the ILF helped to enhance their teaching. Using specific naturalistic research methods, we discovered that preservice teachers placed high values on watching teacher practice through videos. Preservice teachers interacted with inservice teachers through asynchronous forums where they discussed videos of teacher practice. These methods served as a valuable tool to help them understand different learning theories and reform-based teaching practice used in a classroom. This article concludes with a discussion of the challenges encountered, lessons learned, and recommendations for other teacher educators who decide to incorporate a web-based professional development system into their courses.

Barnett, Michael (2008).  Using Authentic Cases through the Use of a Web-Based Professional Development System to Support Preservice Teachers in Examining Classroom Practice  Action in Teacher Education, 29, 4. 

Within the past few years, there have been numerous studies that suggest that preservice teachers need and want opportunities to observe, visit, interact, and collaboratively reflect with teachers who are attempting to implement reform-based teaching strategies. Unfortunately, for many schools of education, it is logistically difficult to locate a sufficient number of teachers who are teaching using such strategies. However, providing opportunities to view and interact with teachers who are teaching in innovative ways is critical for preservice teachers if they are to develop the skills and confidence that they need to teach in similar ways. This article describes how a web-based professional development system, the Inquiry Learning Forum, was implemented in a science methods class. The Inquiry Learning Forum provides beginning teachers with opportunities to reflect on their beliefs, critically examine real classrooms through online videos of teaching practice, and engage in collaborative discussion with peers. This article closes with a discussion of the challenges encountered and with recommendations for teacher educators who wish to implement such technologies in their own courses.

Barnette, J. Jackson (2005).  ScoreRel CI: An Excel Program for Computing Confidence Intervals for Commonly Used Score Reliability Coefficients  Educational and Psychological Measurement, 65, 6. 

An Excel program developed to assist researchers in the determination and presentation of confidence intervals around commonly used score reliability coefficients is described. The software includes programs to determine confidence intervals for Cronbachs alpha, Pearson r-based coefficients such as those used in test-retest and alternate forms situations, split-half, and Cohens 2 x 2 unweighted Kappa. The general basis for the confidence interval computations and the program features are presented. Availability, at no cost, and conditions of use are described.

Barnhill, Robert E.; Stanzione, Dan (2004).  Support of Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Researchers in the Sciences and Engineering: Impact of Related Policies and Practices. Workshop Report  [National Science Foundation] 

On June 17-18th, 2004, the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Council of Graduate Schools (CGS) sponsored a workshop at the Washington, D.C. headquarters of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) to discuss emerging issues, research, and current practices related to financial support for graduate students and postdoctoral researchers. The meeting, which was attended by 101 graduate students, postdocs, faculty from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, graduate deans, labor economists, and representatives from federal agencies was one in a series of events designed to examine and provide recommendations that will enhance our knowledge and improve practices and policies associated with graduate and postdoctoral education and research training. The specific goal of this workshop was to consider the role and impact that student financial support plays in encouraging U.S. citizens to pursue and complete doctoral and postdoctoral studies in STEM fields. The research and resulting discussions highlighted elements of the graduate student and postdoctoral support packages including mode, duration, amount of stipend, health care and other benefits; and indicators of student progress such as completion rate and time to first professional position. The workshop deliberations set the stage for developing best practices and outlining a research agenda on these topics, as well as building a community of researchers, educators, and stakeholders to maintain an ongoing dialogue in this critical area.  | [FULL TEXT]

Barnhouse, Sandie McGill; Smith, Sherylle Petty (2006).  The Evolution of a Learning Community  Teaching English in the Two-Year College, 34, 2. 

This essay traces two teachers' experiences crossing spaces in a combined literature and history seminar where students explore American culture and diversity and engage in service learning. The model has evolved from paired classes with collaborative activities to a student-centered environment promoting active learning. This article offers practical advice for establishing cross-curricular pairings and suggests course content that promotes learning across curricula.

Baron, Julie; Crooks, Steven M. (2005).  Academic Integrity in Web Based Distance Education  TechTrends Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 49, 2. 

This paper reviews the literature relative to academic dishonesty in WBDE settings assuming the average class size to be 30-50 students with the instructor filling the role of facilitator, concept expert, grader and mentor when necessary. It shows that some common stereotypes about academic integrity and WBDE are unsubstantiated. In addition, it presents a number of methods that distance educators can use to further protect against cheating in WBDE settings. While these methods were derived assuming a relatively small class size, such safeguards can be just as easily implemented into larger course section(s) complete with 100 or more students at both the undergraduate and graduate levels.

Barone, Carole A., Ed.; Hagner, Paul R., Ed. (2001).  Technology-Enhanced Teaching and Learning: Leading and Supporting the Transformation on Your Campus. EDUCAUSE Leadership Strategies. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series. 

This book offers academic leaders advice to help their institutions initiate, implement, and manage the transformation to technology-enhanced teaching and learning in order to become Internet-based communication and learning environments. The book contains the following chapters: (1) "Engaging the Faculty" (Paul R. Hagner and Charles A. Schneebeck); (2) "Creating a Context for Consensus" (David G. Brown and Sally Jackson); (3) "Managing Complexity in a Transforming Environment" (Vicki N. Suter); (4) "Transforming Traditional Faculty Roles" (William H. Graves); (5) "The Holy Grail: Developing Scalable and Sustainable Support Solutions" (Joel L. Hartman and Barbara Truman-Davis); (6) "Designing and Delivering Instructional Technology: A Team Approach" (Gerard L. Hanley); (7)"Responding to Intellectual Property and Legal Issues" (James L. Hilton and James G. Neal); (8) "Form Follows Function: Establishing the Necessary Infrastructure" (Bret L. Ingerman); and (9) "Assessing Conditions for Campus Transformation" (Carole A. Barone and Paul R. Hagner).

Barone, Diane M.; Xu, Shelley Hong (2007).  Literacy Instruction for English Language Learners Pre-K-2  [Guilford Publications] 

Summarizing current research and weaving it into practical instructional strategies that teachers can immediately use with young English language learners (ELLs), this book addresses a major priority for today's primary-grade classrooms. All aspects of effective instruction for ELLs are explored: oral language development and instruction, materials, word study, vocabulary, comprehension, writing, and home-school connections. Assessment is discussed throughout, and is also covered in a separate chapter. The volume is packed with realistic examples, lesson planning ideas, book lists, online resources, and reproducibles. Discussion and reflection questions enhance its utility as a professional development tool or course text. The table of contents includes: (1) Creating Classrooms to Engage Learners; (2) Working with Families; (3) Assessment; (4) Oral Language Development and Instruction; (5) Encouraging All Students to Become Writers; (6) Instructional Materials Supportive of Student Learning; (7) Phonics, Spelling and Vocabulary; (8) Engaging English Language Learners in the Comprehension Process; and (9) Visits to Classrooms and Schools.

Barr, Hugh; Gower, Beverly; Clayton, John (2008).  Faculty Response to that Implementation of an Open Source Learning Management System in Three Tertiary Institutions in New Zealand  Computers in the Schools, 24, 3-4. 

In spite of their apparent benefits, learning management systems can be regarded as a hindrance to effective online learning. Their design, functionality, complexity, price, and value are beginning to be questioned by some users. As a new generation of Web-based tools and approaches evolves, Web-based learning management systems are becoming better suited to meet the need for dynamic online learning, interaction, collaboration, and networking. The new tools and collaborative approaches these systems provide allow learners to take proactive control of their own learning. In June 2004 a consortium of New Zealand Tertiary Institutions led by the Waikato Institute of Technology secured a one-year Ministry of Education grant to support the "Open Source Courseware Initiative New Zealand" (OSCINZ). The OSCINZ project focused on the development and implementation of "Moodle" (Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment) to create a uniquely New Zealand learning management system, based on quality open source code developed and tested by leading educational providers. This paper describes the response of faculty in three of the project's partner tertiary institutions to the implementation of Moodle in their institutions.

Barrett, Helen C., Ed. (2002).  Electronic Portfolios. [SITE 2002 Section]. 

This document contains the following papers on electronic portfolios from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: (1) "What Is the Perceived Value of Creating Electronic Portfolios to Teacher Credential Candidates?" (Valerie Amber and Brenda Czech); (2) "Development and Use of Electronic Portfolios in Preservice Education" (Shirley P. Andrews, Adele Ducharme, and Carolyn Cox); (3) "The Integration of the Portfolio-Based Intel'Teach to the Future' Model To Enhance Pre-Service Teacher Education Program" (Maria Bhattacharjee, Irene Chen, and Susan S. Paige); (4) "Creating Meaningful Learning Environment Using ICT" (Madhumita Bhattacharya); (5) "Electronic Portfolios in Pre-Service Education--Distinguishing between Process and Product" (Christine Anne Brown); (6) "The Intimacies of Electronic Portfolios: Confronting Preservice Teachers' Personal Revelation Dilemma" (Joanne M. Carney); (7) "Web-Based Electronic Portfolios: A Systemic Approach" (Paul Clark, Neal Topp, and Bob Goeman); (8) "Using Digital Video Tools To Promote Reflective Practice" (Ann Cunningham and Sandra Benedetto); (9) "Promoting Standards, Assessment, and Technology Competencies through Digital Portfolios" (Harold L. Daniels); (10) "Electronic Portfolios in Evolution" (Roger Olsen, Nancy Wentworth, and David Dimond); (11) "The RIMS/BTSA Electronic Portfolio for Teacher Professional Development" (Zeno Franco, Linda Scott-Hendrick, and Scott Lowder); (12) "Electronic Portfolio: Where Should the Portfolios Be Stored?" (David Hofmeister and Andrew King); (13) "A Large-Scale Web-Based Electronic Portfolio System: Developing the Purdue Electronic Portfolio (PEP) System" (James D. Lehman, David O'Brien, and Joy Seybold); (14) "Reflection as the Foundation for E-Portfolios" (Barbara B. Levin and Jean S. Camp); (15) "Electronic Portfolios in Teacher Education: From Design to Implementation" (Laurie Mullen, Amy Doty, and Richard Rice); (16) "The Model of a Teacher's Electronic Portfolio: Enhancing Instructional Planning" (Ju Park); (17) "Year Two of the Electronic Portfolio Project at the University of Florida" (Gail Ring); (18) "The Good, the Bad, & the Ugly: Lessons Learned from Electronic Portfolio Implementation" (Ann Rose); (19) "Promoting Paperless Portfolios as Assessment in Graduate Level TESOL Programs" (Annis N. Shaver and Mary A. Avalos); and (20) "Electronic Portfolios on a Grand Scale" (Nancy Yost, Dolores Bryzcki, and Lloyd C. Onyett). Several brief summaries of conference presentations are also included. Most papers contain references. | [FULL TEXT]

Barrett, Joanne (2006).  My Space or Yours?  Learning & Leading with Technology, 34 n1 p14-16, 18-19 Sep 2006. 

Social networking is one of the latest trends to evolve out of the growing online community. Social networking sites gather data submitted by members that is then stored as user profiles. The data or profiles can then be shared among the members of the site. Membership can be free or fee-based. A typical social networking site provides members with a Web page or blog where they can post text, photos, and other content for visitors to view. Social networking sites have been expanding rapidly since 2003. Friendster opened to the public in March 2003 and initially expanded membership at a rate of 20% a week. Friendster made a big splash because of its unprecedented access to the coveted 25-35-year-old demographic. Since then, many big Web players have started up social networking sites. With the rapid growth of social networking sites and with millions of K-12 students actively participating in these online social clubs, the author calls on educators to explore how they can continue to educate students about how to use these sites wisely. Educators need to be aware of the issues and concerns being raised.

Barrett, Karinda R.; Bower, Beverly L.; Donovan, Nancy C. (2007).  Teaching Styles of Community College Instructors  American Journal of Distance Education, 21, 1. 

This study examined the teaching styles of online instructors at Florida's 28 community colleges in an effort to determine if the instructors had adopted the learner-centered model touted in the literature. The Principles of Adult Learning Scale was the primary instrument used to collect data from 292 online instructors. The study revealed that nearly half of the participants (n = 135) scored in the middle range, with 84% (n = 244) of the participants' scores falling into the teacher-centered range. Although online distance education does have the potential to transition education from a teacher-centered orientation to a more student-centered orientation, continued efforts are needed to accomplish this shift.

Barrett, Tracy M.; Davis, Evan F.; Needham, Amy (2007).  Learning about Tools in Infancy  Developmental Psychology, 43, 2. 

These experiments explored the role of prior experience in 12- to 18-month-old infants' tool-directed actions. In Experiment 1, infants' use of a familiar tool (spoon) to accomplish a novel task (turning on lights inside a box) was examined. Infants tended to grasp the spoon by its handle even when doing so made solving the task impossible (the bowl did not fit through the hole in the box, but the handle did) and even though the experimenter demonstrated a bowl-grasp. In contrast, infants used a novel tool flexibly and grasped both sides equally often. In Experiment 2, infants received training using the novel tool for a particular function; 3 groups of infants were trained to use the tool differently. Later, infants' performance was facilitated on tasks that required infants to grasp the part of the tool they were trained to grasp. The results suggest that (a) infants' prior experiences with tools are important to understanding subsequent tool use, and (b) rather than learning about tool function (e.g., hammering), infants learn about which part of the tool is meant to be held, at least early in their exposure to a novel tool.

Barrineau, Irene T., Ed. (2005).  Designing Our Destiny: Creative Responses to Change in Continuing Higher Education. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Continuing Higher Education (67th, Madison, Wisconsin, October 29-November 1, 2005)  [Association for Continuing Higher Education, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Continuing Higher Education (67th, Madison, WI, Oct 29-Nov 1, 2005)] 

The 2005 Proceedings of the Association for Continuing Higher Education (ACHE) are presented in this publication. This proceedings records the 67th Annual Meeting of ACHE held in Madison, Wisconsin. This year's annual meeting theme, "Designing Our Destiny: Creating Responses to Change in Continuing Higher Education," articulated the Association's call to develop expertise that will benefit its members, in this case by focusing on the structures, programs, technologies and practices that will be integral for designing effective continuing higher education programs. The program was designed to address the critical trends, practices and research that influence the practice of continuing higher education. In response to members, the committee focused on a variety of themes that impact the work of those who reach out to nontraditional students on behalf of their institutions. Part I, Addresses, includes: (1) Continuing Education: Making a Difference (Philip A. Greasley); (2) Does the Wisconsin Idea Have Legs? (Kevin P. Reilly); (3) Continuing Education for What? (Ronald M. Cervero); and (4) Continuing Higher Education: What Is Working; What Is Needed (Susan Porter Robinson). Part II, Concurrent Sessions, includes: (5) Third Age Learners: Here They Come, Ready or Not! (William C. Hine); (6) Building Codes of Enrollment Architecture for Surviving CE Earthquakes (Sallie C. Dunphy); (7) The Core of Effective Outreach: The Well-Organized Advisory Committee Advisory Boards as Change Agents in Continuing Higher Education (Roxanne Gonzales and Walter Pearson); (8) The Art of Advising Adult Learners: 20 Years of Best Practices (Sharon D. Barnes and Dan Dowdy); (9) Active Adults: The New Students on Campus (Joe Nairn); (10) Continuing Higher Education on the Cutting Edge: New Strategies for Meeting the Needs of Diverse Learners (Nancy Gadbow); (11) Frameworks for Best Practices in Continuing Higher Education: Reports from a Yearlong Project Involving CE Professionals (B. Christopher Dougherty and Patricia A. Lawler); (12) Taking Advantage of the Online Evolution (Richard Bothel); (13) Continuing Education for Boomers--Retiring but Not Shy (Christina Butler and Julie Maurer); (14) Market Research: The Key for Keeping Continuing Education at the Cutting Edge (Carol B. Aslanian); (15) Writing for Publication (Barbara E. Hanniford and Patricia A. Lawler); (16) Saturday Scholars[R]: Connecting the Past, Present and Future in Adult Education (Linda Marion and Jeff Hand); (17) Be a Wildcat Wherever You Live! Marketing Continuing Education Programs in a Changing Culture: A Case Study (A. David Stewart, Melinda Sinn, and Kristin Brighton); (18) Winter Intersessions (Philip A. Greasley); (19) Creating a Multi-Institutional Online Certificate Program (Brad Cahoon, Jan Smith, and Mike Healy); (20) The Eight Cardinal Rules for Continuing Education Department Fiscal Management (Marcelle C. Lovett and Steven J. Borowiec); (21) Leadership and Authority in Continuing Education: A Retrospective Look at Changing Roles and Responsibilities (Patricia Brown, Raymond Campbell, Chris Dougherty, Lynn Penland, and Edna Farace Wilson); (22) Addressing the Issue of Online Course Orientations for Students and Faculty Participating in Online Courses for the First Time at a Higher Education Institution (Reginald L. Oxendine, Jr.); (23) Best Practices in Developing Adult-Centered Online Learning Environments (Mary Rose Grant); (24) Kaizen Blitz as a Tool for Operational Innovation (Susan King and Lorilee Sandmann); and (25) Experts in Nontraditional Students: Helping the Campus Understand Its Changing Student Population (Carol Kasworm and Jovita Ross-Gordon). Part III, contains the minutes of Business Meetings and Appendices. Individual papers contain references. [For the 2004 ACHE conference proceedings, see ED485556.] | [FULL TEXT]

Barrineau, Irene T., Ed. (2006).  Continuing Education: Making a Difference. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Continuing Higher Education (68th, Los Angeles, California, October 27-30, 2006) 

The 68th Annual Meeting of the Association for Continuing Higher Education was themed "Continuing Education: Making a Difference." The conference sessions explored continuing education's ability to transform lives, communities, and institutions while producing a strong return on investment. Speakers reflected on continuing education's power, offered techniques for enhancing program outcomes and impacts, and provided insights into the future of higher education in a global society. Part I summarizes four primary addresses: (1) Refining Our Mission: Continuing Education's Role in Engagement, Outreach, and Public Service (Dennis Parks); (2) Continuing Education--Making a Difference (Brenda White Wright); (3) Swimming with Sharks: Risking a Strategic Future for Continuing Education (Sandy Shugart); and (4) California Higher Education Leadership Panel (Dianne G. Van Hook, Karen S. Haynes, and David Menninger). Part II, Concurrent Sessions, includes: (1) Motivating Your Students from Excuses--10 Key Strategies (Brenda White Wright); (2) Conducting a Feasibility Study: The Lucky 7 Reasons Why It Works (Sallie C. Dunphy); (3) Effective Strategies for Meeting the Learning Needs of Diverse Students (Nancy Gadbow); (4) An Analysis of the Impact of Politics, Policy and Socio-Economic Factors on CHE (Sandria Stephenson); (5) Surgical Technology: Where Demand Exceeds Supply (John Roche); (6) Building Partnerships in Distance Education: Across Campus, Nationally and Beyond (Daniel Butcher); (7) Fragile Partnership to Sustainable Alliance (Dana Reinert); (8) Innovative Strategies to Offer Non-Credit Certificate Programs (Fadia Alvic and Mary Jerger); (9) Marketing to Adult Learners (Steve Blumberg); (10) Continuing Education Leaders: Making a Difference in the US and Canada--A Comparative Look at CE Leadership and Authority (Raymond W. Campbell, Lorraine Carter, B. Christopher Dougherty, and Edna Farace-Wilson); (11) Building an Online Faculty Community through Continuous Faculty Development (Cynthia Trent and Bob Boston); (12) Calling All Partners: One University/Four Community Partnerships (Byron Bond, Scott Sherry, Teresa Gleisner, Terry Gray, and Cindy Peck); (13) Elements of Successful Off-Campus Programs (Barbara Charlton, Amy Johnson, Deborah Joyner, and Tamara Mottern); (14) Meeting Critical Workforce Development Needs with Online Graduate Programs (Barbara J. Hoskins); (15) Sustainability and Continuing Education: Doing Well While Doing Good (Clare Roby); (16) The Ten Most Significant Emerging Trends in CHE--A National Perspective (Thomas W. Fuhr and Carol B. Aslanian); (17) Multifaceted Learning: Making a Difference (Denise M. Hart and Jerry Hickerson); (18) Providing Services for Continual Learners at a Historically Black College or University (Esther Powell); (19) Writing for Publication (Barbara E. Hanniford); (20) Implementing Highly Profitable GRE, GMAT, LSAT, ACT, SAT, PSAT, MCAT, GED, and PRAXIS Preparation Programs Designed to Raise Test Scores, Assess Improvements, and Increase Enrollments (Bradford L. Bruce); (21) The ABCs of Certificate Programs or I Love It When a Plan Comes Together (Jo Lynn Feinstein); (22) Making a Difference by Covering the Distance: Best Practices in Web-Based Learning (Mary Rose Grant); (23) Take the Lead in Faculty Mentorship & Evaluation to Make the Difference in Academic Quality (Roxanne Gonzales, Frank Incalcaterra, and Marthann Schulte); (24) Launching and Sustaining a Degree Program for Adults (Skip Parks and Dan Dowdy); (25) Assessment: The Change Agent in a Distributed-Campus System (Karen R. Graham and Laurie Dodge); and (26) Taking Risk to Win--Both Professionally and Personally (Pamela S. Cutright). The final section of the proceedings includes business meeting information in 21 appendixes. [For the 2005 proceedings, see ED493577.] | [FULL TEXT]

Barron, Ann E.; Harmes, J. Christine (2006).  Authentic Instruction in Laptop Classrooms: Sample Lessons that Integrate Type II Applications  Computers in the Schools, 22, 3/4. 

Laptop computers and Type II applications can provide powerful tools for elementary classrooms, especially if they are combined with authentic instruction. This article provides information and lessons learned from a laptop initiative in an urban elementary school. The goal of the initiative was to develop lesson plans and document techniques that could be used to engage students in higher level thinking skills. Sample lessons are included to provide details related to the teacher's role, hardware, software, and student outcomes.

Barron, Ann E.; Orwig, Gary W.; Ivers, Karen S.; Lilavois, Nick (2002).  Technologies for Education: A Practical Guide. Fourth Edition. 

This book offers an updated look at the technologies that are impacting education. Designed for educators who are interested in the instructional applications of technology, the book provides information about current technology standards for students and teachers, as well as research related to the effectiveness of technology in education. It also presents an overview of: (1) computer graphics, including color, compression, graphic file formats, fonts, and digital cameras; (2) advanced computer graphics, including animation, 3D graphics, and virtual reality; (3) digital audio, including recording, educational applications, compact disc-audio, text-to-speech synthesis, voice recognition, MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface), and audio on the Internet; (4) digital video, including preproduction, production, postproduction, and distribution; (5) local area networks, including cables, repeaters, hubs, Ethernet, network interface cards, bridges, network operating systems, and wireless LANs (Local Area Networks); (6) telecommunications, including the World Wide Web, Internet research in the classroom, communication activities, and access options; (7) distance learning, including audio, video, and computer technologies; and (8) assistive technologies, including input devices and software, and output devices and software. Each chapter includes a scenario to illustrate implementation techniques, a list of educational applications related to the technology, detailed graphics, and glossaries and resources.

Barron, Brigid (2004).  Learning Ecologies for Technological Fluency: Gender and Experience Differences  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 31, 1. 

The concern with a "digital divide" has been transformed from one defined by technological access to technological prowess--employing technologies for more empowered and generative uses such as learning and innovation. Participation in technological fluency-building activities among high school students in a community heavily involved in the technology industry was investigated in a study of 98 high school seniors enrolled in AP-level calculus. Findings indicated substantial variability in history of fluency-building experiences despite similar levels of access. More and less experienced groups were defined based on their breadth of prior experience. Males and females who were classified as more experienced utilized a broader range of learning resources and were more likely to learn from out-of-school classes and distributed resources such as online tutorials and reading material. Gender differences emerged with respect to participation in certain activities such as computer programming, even when controlling for overall breadth of experience and an analysis of course-taking history helped explain why. Four times as many males as females had taken a programming class. Analysis of reasons for taking courses indicated that the majority of females who chose to take programming did so with the encouragement of family members. Both confidence and interest were related to experience, though the relationship differed for males and females. These results are discussed with respect to a multi-context framework for the development of technological fluency.

Barron, Daniel D. (2001).  E-Everything and the School Library Media Specialist: Grist for the Mill (Part 1).  School Library Media Activities Monthly, 17, 5. 

Considers the effects of an electronic environment on students and the role of the school library media specialist in student achievement. Topics include how students learn differently as a result of computer access; interactivity in mass media; political aspects of educational technology; and whether technological changes are good or bad.

Barron, Daniel D. (2001).  School Library Media Facilities Planning: Physical and Philosophical Considerations.  School Library Media Activities Monthly, 18, 1. 

Discusses issues related to planning school library media facilities and suggests appropriate resources. Topics include planning with the school community and considering technology use; curriculum needs; and physical considerations such as air quality, hard wiring versus wireless, and needed space.

Barron, Daniel D. (2003).  Library Media Specialists and Federal Legislation.  School Library Media Activities Monthly, 19, 8. 

Suggests library media specialists have a responsibility to make educational funding laws work for their children and communities. Discusses the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act; NCLB and libraries, and online resources; Reading First Grants; "VISIONS 2020: Transforming Education and Training through Advanced Technologies" and "Technology in Schools: Suggestions, Tools, and Guidelines for Assessing Technology in Elementary and Secondary Education"; and removing "dated" www.ed.gov material.

Barrow, Lloyd H. (2003).  Searching for Educational Technology Faculty.  Journal of Science Education and Technology, 12, 2. 

Identifies the types of positions available at domestic four-year institutions of higher education for faculty whose specialty is educational technology. Analyzes educational job postings listed in the "Chronicle of Higher Education" from August, 2000, through July, 2001.

Barry, Lisa (2001).  News from Online: Criteria for an "Outstanding" High School Chemistry Web Site.  Journal of Chemical Education, 78, 2. 

Describes how to evaluate available web sites in the field of chemistry for use in high school classes. Presents a list of criteria to analyze the effectiveness of the educational web sites.

Barry, Virginia M., Ed.; Cantor, Patricia, Ed. (2001).  Focus on Infants & Toddlers (Ages 0-3): A Quarterly Newsletter for the Education Community, 2000-2001.  [Focus on Infants and Toddlers] 

These four quarterly newsletter issues address various topics of interest to child caregivers. Each issue includes articles on a specific theme, along with regular news or a column by an AECI Executive Board vice president. The Fall 2000 issue focuses on the special features and unique concerns of employer-sponsored child care, with one article discussing the development of the child care center at Brookhaven National Laboratories and another article exploring the administrator's role in building relationships with families in employer-supported programs. The Winter 2000 issue concerns cultural differences in child rearing practices. One article provides a mother's account of her experiences as a first-time mother from New Hampshire living in the Dominican Republic. The second article compares one mother's experiences with toilet training her children in China and the United States. Both articles express appreciation of the challenges and rewards of cultural differences and offer insights into how they negotiated those differences. The Spring 2001 issue offers some perspectives on helping young children learn to regulate their own behavior and get along with others, highlighting the primary importance of respecting young children. Articles focus on promoting prosocial behavior in the classroom and using timeout effectively. The Summer 2001 issue focuses on the use of computers with toddlers and includes articles on parents' beliefs and practices, when to introduce children to computers, and educators' recommendations regarding using computers with very young children.

Barstow, Daniel; Geary, Ed; Yazijian, Harvey (2002).  The Revolution in Earth and Space Science Education.  Hands On!, 25, 1. 

Explains the changing nature of earth and space science education such as using inquiry-based teaching, how technology allows students to use satellite images in inquiry-based investigations, the consideration of earth and space as a whole system rather than a sequence of topics, and increased student participation in learning opportunities.

Bartlett, Andrea (2002).  Preparing Preservice Teachers To Implement Performance Assessment and Technology through Electronic Portfolios.  Action in Teacher Education, 24, 1. 

Considers the use of electronic portfolios in teacher education, evaluating survey responses of preservice teachers who used presentation software and multimedia to recreate instructional units they had taught to elementary students. Respondents rated the assignment positively, noting such advantages as opportunities to learn about educational technology and new ways to organize and present ideas. Complaints included time and equipment problems.

Bartlett, Andrea; Sherry, Annette C. (2006).  Two Views of Electronic Portfolios in Teacher Education: Non-Technology Undergraduates and Technology Graduate Students  International Journal of Instructional Media, 33, 3. 

The purpose of this descriptive study is to provide insights into teacher education students' perceptions of electronic portfolios. Twenty-three non-technology undergraduates and 14 graduate students in educational technology created complex electronic portfolios during the two years or more of their respective programs. Upon completion, participants responded to a 39-item survey of items based on earlier qualitative research with the same undergraduates. On the survey, graduate students reported being more satisfied than undergraduates with their completed portfolios, and they were more satisfied with peer and faculty feedback. While graduates reported experiencing fewer difficulties related to equipment, they were appreciably less likely to agree they had adequate technology support or that the project was collaborative. Graduates also reported needing more direct guidance on the portfolio assignment, leading the researchers to conclude that graduate educational technology students need a great deal of structure and support in spite of their technological expertise.

Bartlett, James E., II; Reynolds, Katherine A.; Alexander, Melody W. (2000).  inQsit[C]: A Tool for Online Learning.  Journal of Online Learning, 11, 3-4. 

Discusses online testing using the inQsit[C] Web-based software system, a system that enables an individual to create an assessment module, administer that module to gather responses, and perform simple analyses with responses. Describes how to create an online test using inQsit[C]; administering the test; grading the tests; concerns/problems associated with online testing; and student feedback.

Barton, Darren (2003).  Using Technology To Teach the "Transformation of Graphs."  Micromath, 19, 2. 

Explores ways in which various technologies can be integrated to teach the transformation of graphs in an interactive and dynamic way. Discusses how the use of graphic calculators, a spreadsheet, graph plotter, presentation package, and an interactive whiteboard can be combined to give students the opportunity to investigate, understand, and have vividly illustrated key concepts of this topic.

Barton, Paul E. (2001).  Facing the Hard Facts in Education Reform: A Policy Information Perspective. 

This paper makes the case that the standards-based reform movement is too limited an approach to rely on in educational reform, and that there is a set of hard facts that must be faced if there is to be any significant improvement in student achievement. These facts are the attitudes, practices, and conditions that are so embedded in culture and personal experience that they escape serious attention. Without an understanding of the preconditions that have an impact on improvement in academic rigor and student achievement, there is little basis for serious consideration of new ways and means of raising educational success. Tests are being used to hold students and schools accountable for standards before much needed teaching capacity is built. In addition, tests are not aligned to the standards, and tests are not aligned to the curriculum. The standards-based reform movement can only succeed if policymakers and educators pay attention to the larger societal context and the environment in which change is to be implemented. Issues that must be considered in this context include student behavior, weak signals that academic achievement is important, the acknowledgement of the importance of sources of learning outside the school, and the appropriate use of educational technology. It is not appropriate to lessen efforts to implement the standards-based reform agenda, but this alone will not be enough for significant improvement. | [FULL TEXT]

Barton, Rhonda, Ed. (2004).  Online Schools: A New Frontier in Public Education. Northwest Education. Volume 10, Number 2, Winter 2004  [Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory NWREL] 

In the print and online stories that appear in this issue of Northwest Education, teachers and students share that the intimacy of one-to-one computing has let them get to know and understand each other better than they ever could in a crowded classroom. In "Long-Distance Relationships," a blind student speaks about the uncommon bond he feels with the online teacher who taught him to design Web pages. Similarly, a teacher featured in "The Online Teacher: When the Wee Hours Are Prime Time" says one of the greatest rewards of teaching online is when students express themselves freely in the personalized environment of her online courses. Other features in this issue include the following: "Crossing the Public School-Homeschool Divide"; "The Search for Funding"; "Moving Ahead With Distance Education in Montana"; "Letterature"; "Family Connections." Northwest Education is a magazine that aims to promote a regional dialogue and to elevate teaching and learning by giving readers information, ideas, and personal stories from practitioners, researchers, and other experts. | [FULL TEXT]

Bartsch, Robert A.; Cobern, Kristi M. (2003).  Effectiveness of PowerPoint Presentations in Lectures  Computers & Education, 41, 1. 

We investigated whether students liked and learned more from PowerPoint presentations than from overhead transparencies. Students were exposed to lectures supported by transparencies and two different types of PowerPoint presentations. At the end of the semester, students preferred PowerPoint presentations but this preference was not found on ratings taken immediately after the lectures. Students performed worse on quizzes when PowerPoint presentations included non-text items such as pictures and sound effects. A second study further examined these findings. In this study participants were shown PowerPoint slides that contained only text, contained text and a relevant picture, and contained text with a picture that was not relevant. Students performed worse on recall and recognition tasks and had greater dislike for slides with pictures that were not relevant. We conclude that PowerPoint can be beneficial, but material that is not pertinent to the presentation can be harmful to students' learning.

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Bote-Lorenzo, Miguel L.; Gomez-Sanchez, Eduardo; Vega-Gorgojo, Guillermo; Dimitriadis, Yannis A.; Asensio-Perez, Juan I.; Jorrin-Abellan, Ivan M. (2008).  Gridcole: A Tailorable Grid Service Based System that Supports Scripted Collaborative Learning  Computers & Education, 51, 1. 

This paper introduces Gridcole, a new system that can be easily tailored by educators in order to support the realization of scripted collaborative learning situations. To do so, educators can provide a script specifying the sequence of activities to be performed by learners as well as the tools and documents required to support them. Gridcole can then search for these tools in a service-oriented grid in order to integrate them so that they are available for users during the realization of the situation. Significantly, Gridcole has two features that are not supported by other tailorable systems. First, it allows the integration of tools that use supercomputing capabilities or specific hardware resources, thus enabling the possibility of supporting many situations in which this type of tools is required. Besides, Gridcole can guide learners during the realization of collaborative learning situations according to the sequences of activities specified in the scripts. This way, learners can benefit from the advantages of scripted collaborative learning. Gridcole has been evaluated using three collaborative learning situations conceived for real courses at university level. The results of the evaluation show that Gridcole does provide the desired properties concerning tool integration and activity guidance as well as that the proposed system can provide adequate support for a wide range of collaborative learning situations.

Bottino, R. M.; Ferlino, L.; Ott, M.; Tavella, M. (2007).  Developing Strategic and Reasoning Abilities with Computer Games at Primary School Level  Computers & Education, 49, 4. 

The paper reports a small-scale, long-term pilot project designed to foster strategic and reasoning abilities in young primary school pupils by engaging them in a number of computer games, mainly those usually called mind games (brainteasers, puzzlers, etc.). In this paper, the objectives, work methodology, experimental setting, and tools used in the project are outlined, together with an analysis of some findings. In particular, we perform a brief analysis of some of the cognitive processes involved in playing with the computer games considered; we then discuss software features that, in our experience, help children tackle different cognitive tasks. The quantitative data collected during the pilot allow us, also, to take account of children's performance according to a number of different parameters, such as their level of achievement, the game's degree of difficulty and the type of data handled. Moreover, we reflect on the general impact of the project on children's reasoning abilities. The extent and duration of the study mean that, whilst the findings are not generalizable, they do offer insights into mechanisms underpinning basic strategic and reasoning skills as well as the educational potentialities offered by some of the existing computer games; they also point to some areas for further research.

Bottino, Rosa Maria (2004).  The Evolution of ICT-Based Learning Environments: Which Perspectives for the School of the Future?  British Journal of Educational Technology, 35, 5. 

This paper briefly outlines the evolution of ICT-based learning environments discussing some of the main aspects that have characterised such evolution (eg, technological evolution, changed cognitive and pedagogical frameworks, changed role assigned to ICT-based systems in education). The objective is to point out how the implementation of innovative learning environments, based on advanced technology, is the result of the strict interrelation between educational and cognitive theories, technological opportunities and teaching and learning needs. In this paper some indications for current and future evolution are evidenced. Reference is made to an ICT-based multi-environment system that supports teaching and learning activities in the domain of arithmetic problem solving at compulsory school level.

Bottino, Rosa Maria; Ott, Michela (2006).  Mind Games, Reasoning Skills, and the Primary School Curriculum  Learning

This paper reports on a pilot research project aimed at helping to develop some strategic and reasoning abilities in primary school pupils by engaging them in educational itineraries based on the use of a number of computer mind games. The paper briefly describes the project's aims and organization, the kind of games used and the working methodology adopted. It then focuses on some of the cognitive abilities activated by the games. Finally, some pedagogical considerations derived from the study are provided which may support teachers and researchers who are interested in this topic and need some practical advice and recommendations on introducing games in classroom activities.

Bottomley, Steven; Chandler, David; Morgan, Eleanor; Helmerhorst, Erik (2006).  jAMVLE, a New Integrated Molecular Visualization Learning Environment  Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 34, 5. 

A new computer-based molecular visualization tool has been developed for teaching, and learning, molecular structure. This java-based jmol Amalgamated Molecular Visualization Learning Environment (jAMVLE) is platform-independent, integrated, and interactive. It has an overall graphical user interface that is intuitive and easy to use. The application can be downloaded free from the internet at wabri.org.au/jamvle. A cohort of 28 third year undergraduate molecular biotechnology degree students evaluated the new application through an essay-style project. These were analyzed to identify themes expressed by students in the content of their evaluations. Most students were positive about the new jAMVLE learning environment, and five major benefits emerged from the analysis. In particular, the students perceived that jAMVLE has an appealing interface, is interactive, provides a useful integrated environment, is user friendly, and is an excellent learning tool. Overall, students found that the jAMVLE application stimulated their interest, was a more active learning environment, provided better guidance, and made learning fun.

Bottoms, Gene; Presson, Alice; Han, Lingling (2006).  Students Can't Wait: High Schools Must Turn Knowledge into Action  [Southern Regional Education Board (SREB)] 

This report reviews 75 high schools in the "High Schools that Work" (HSTW) network that made statistically significant gains in at least two of three areas reading, mathematics and science--between 2002 and 2004 on the "HSTW" Assessments. In these schools, all groups of students improved achievement--regardless of race, ethnicity or socioeconomic background. The successes of these schools can be attributed, in large measure, to their vigorous application of the "HSTW" Goals and Key Practices. These most improved schools created a rigorous and relevant curriculum for all students, and bolstered their high expectations with strong relationships. They engaged teachers, parents and guidance counselors to support students in setting goals, planning programs of study to meet the goals and passing tougher courses. Implementation of "HSTW" Design--Items Included in 10 Aspects of the "HSTW" Design, is appended.  [SREB school improvement and leadership preparation initiatives are supported by state consortia, the Wallace Foundation, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Wachovia Foundation, the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation, the U.S. Department of Education, and contracts with state and local school districts.]

Botturi, Luca (2002).  Knowledge as Relationship and E-Learning. 

The shift to new paradigms in education pushed by new media has initiated a critical rethinking in the conversation about and practice of teaching and learning. This paper proposes a new description of curriculum design based on a traditional conceptual knowledge framework. The goal is to make a theoretical contribution for interpreting the development of educational technologies and integrating them into Western teaching and practice. Discussion includes knowledge as a relationship; basic properties of knowledge; and learning as the activity of establishing a knowledge relationship and new media as powerful tools. An undergraduate course is described, "The Institutional and the Society," in which digital media support was to provide "live" portraits describing the goals and activities of different institutions (for example, Amnesty International), to be matched with the theoretical approach offered during lectures. Discussion then moves to user-centered design in adaptive hypermedia systems; learning as being in dialog; and the role of teaching.

Botturi, Luca (2004).  E[2]ML: A Visual Instructional Design Language  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

The advent of technologies has changed our very idea of what a course is (Bates & Poole, 2003). Instructors in Higher Education are now daily supported by instructional designers or educational technology experts that provide advice for integrating Web-based activities, videoconference sessions, high-quality digital media presentations, etc. in their teaching activities. The process of designing courses has grown a more and more structured and interdisciplinary process (Szabo, 2002), one that is too complex for a lone-ranger professor to cope with (Bates, 1999). In some respects, teaching is thus developing from craftsmanship to a large scale production process (Cantoni & Di Blas, 2002), in which communication has become a critical variable. A fairly recent research trend in the field of educational technology is the development of visual instructional design languages. This paper is a sort of tutorial aiming to introduce one of these new professional tools for designers: E[2]ML-- Educational Environment Modeling Language. In order to explain the relevance of E[2]ML, the first section is devoted to the identification of some features and issues concerning the Instructional Design process through the analysis of the literature. The second section introduces some relevant literature, among which the foundational work by Gibbons, and two other visual design languages. E[2]ML is presented in the third section through a detailed example, while additional references concerning other studies about the language are provided in section four. The conclusion presents a summary along with indications for further work. | [FULL TEXT]

Botturi, Luca (2006).  E[superscript 2]ML: A Visual Language for the Design of Instruction  Educational Technology Research and Development, 54, 3. 

The last decade has brought about a major change in higher education. Course design has developed from a craftsmanship-like process to a structured production, which involves interdisciplinary teams and requires more complex communication skills. This conceptual article introduces E[superscript 2]ML--Educational Environment Modeling Language--a visual language for supporting complex instructional design processes. E[superscript 2]ML can be used for visualizing the intermediate and final results of design, thus providing documentation in a shared language that can enhance team communication, improve design, and contribute to the development of high-quality instruction. The language and its formal features are presented from a conceptual point of view and illustrated by examples. The main results of a first evaluation study are reported, and the exploitation of E[superscript 2]ML in practice as well as its costs and benefits are critically discussed.

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Bugeja, Micheal J. (2007).  Second Thoughts about Second Life  Chronicle of Higher Education, 54, 3. 

Most people have at least secondhand knowledge about Second Life, a virtual-reality world created by Linden Lab, in which avatars (digital characters) lease "islands" for real-life purposes--to sell products, conduct classes, do research, hold conferences, and even recruit for admissions. About nine million avatars reportedly interact on this digital landscape, in which dozens of colleges from around the world have set up islands. In this article, the author highlights potential liability issues inherent in the use of Second Life as an educational tool, and advises educators to use academic principles to explore harassment issues in the for-profit tech world now embedded in academe.

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Blocher, J. M.; de Montes, L. Sujo; Tucker, G.; Willis, E. M. (2000).  Preparing Teachers To Integrate Technology Using Constructionist Methodology: Don't Teach Me How I Know I Should Teach; Teach Me How I Want To Be Taught. 

This paper describes a study conducted by Northern Arizona University's Educational Technology faculty regarding training teachers for the integration of technology and the promotion of learner-centered instruction. Participants included traditional pre-service students enrolled in a required "Technology in the Classroom" course and veteran teachers engaged in professional development designed to provide instruction into the integration of technology into the classroom. Instruction modeled the integration of technology from a constructionist perspective, and provided participants the opportunity to engage in activities that utilized the integration of technology. The learning environment was designed to provide instruction to skills and practice exercises utilizing computer applications that could be later used within their teaching practice. Conclusions drawn from the study suggestion that currently learners may not have enough experience learning with the integration of technology to feel comfortable to take responsibility for this type of learner-centered environment. | [FULL TEXT]

Blocher, J. Michael; Echols, Jennifer; de Montes, Laura Sujo; Willis, Elizabeth; Tucker, Gary (2003).  Shifting from Instruction to Construction: A Personal Meaningful Experience.  Action in Teacher Education, 24, 4. 

Presents a case study of one student's passage through an online M.ED. in Educational Technology degree program and her subsequent experience integrating her newly acquired knowledge, skills, and methods in the real world of her own teaching practice, focusing on her dilemma in assessing her students' learning as she shifted her educational philosophy from instruction to construction.

Block, Cathy Collins, Ed.; Parris, Sheri R., Ed. (2008).  Comprehension Instruction: Research-Based Best Practices. Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy. Second Edition  [Guilford Publications] 

Now in a substantially revised and updated second edition, this comprehensive professional resource and text is based on cutting-edge research. In each chapter, leading scholars provide an overview of a particular aspect of comprehension, offer best-practice instructional guidelines and policy recommendations, present key research questions still to be answered, and conclude with stimulating questions for individual study or discussion. All 25 chapters are new, with coverage of such timely topics as differentiated instruction, technology and reading comprehension, teaching English language learners, and the implications of current neuroscientific findings. Following an introduction (Cathy Collins Block and Sheri R. Parris) and a foreword (Lesley Mandel Morrow), the book is divided into six parts. Part I, Theoretical Directions for the Future: What We Have Learned Since the National Reading Panel Report (2000), presents: (1) Beyond Borders: A Global Perspective on Reading Comprehension (Sheri R. Parris, Linda B. Gambrell, and Andreas Schleicher); (2) Research on Teaching Comprehension: Where We've Been and Where We're Going (Cathy Collins Block and Gerald G. Duffy); (3) Dual Coding Theory: Reading Comprehension and Beyond (Mark Sadoski); (4) Cognitive Flexibility and Reading Comprehension: Relevance to the Future (Kelly B. Cartwright); (5) Metacognition in Comprehension Instruction: What We've Learned Since NRP (Linda Baker); and (6) Constructivist Theory and the Situation Model: Relevance to Future Assessment of Reading Comprehension (Donna Caccamise, Lynn Snyder, and Eileen Kintsch). Part II, Neuroscience: What Brain-Based Research Tells Us about Reading Comprehension, continues with: (7) Looking at Reading Comprehension through the Lens of Neuroscience (Allan Paivio); (8) Using Neuroscience to Inform Reading Comprehension Instruction (Cathy Collins Block and Sheri R. Parris); (9) How Neuroscience Informs Our Teaching of Elementary Students (Renate N. Caine); and (10) How Neuroscience Informs Our Teaching of Adolescent Students (Sheri R. Parris). Part III, Improving Comprehension Instruction, contains: (11) Transforming Classroom Instruction to Improve the Comprehension of Fictional Texts (Mary Helen Thompson); (12) Explicit Instruction Can Help Primary Students Learn to Comprehend Expository Text (Joanna P. Williams); (13) Explanation and Science Text: Overcoming the Comprehension Challenges in Nonfiction Text for Elementary Students (Laura B. Smolkin, Erin M. McTigue, and Carol A. Donovan); (14) Learning to Think Well: Application of Argument Schema Theory to Literacy Instruction (Alina Reznitskaya, Richard C. Anderson, Ting Dong, Yuan Li, Il-Hee Kim, and So-Young Kim); (15) Improving Reading Comprehension through Writing (Kathy Headley); and (16) New Insights on Motivation in the Literacy Classroom (Jacquelynn A. Malloy and Linda B. Gambrell). Part IV, Differentiated Comprehension Instruction continues with: (17) Comprehension Instruction in Action: The Elementary Classroom (Nell K. Duke and Nicole M. Martin); (18) Comprehension Instruction in Action: The Secondary Classroom (Douglas Fisher and Nancy Frey); (19) Comprehension Instruction in Action: The At-Risk Student (Michael F. Hock, Irma F. Brasseur, and Donald D. Deshler); and (20) Comprehension Instruction for English Learners (Robert Rueda, Alejandra Velasco, and Hyo Jin Lim). Part V, Technology and Comprehension Instruction: New Directions, contains: (21) Games and Comprehension: The Importance of Specialist Language (James Paul Gee); (22) Research on Instruction and Assessment in the New Literacies of Online Reading Comprehension (Donald J. Leu, Julie Coiro, Jill Castek, Douglas K. Hartman, Laurie A. Henry, and David Reinking); (23) Scaffolding Digital Comprehension (Bridget Dalton and David Rose); (24) Technologically Based Teacher Resources for Designing Comprehension Lessons (Jan Lacina); Part VI, Conclusion, closes with: (25) Summing Up (Sheri R. Parris and Cathy Collins Block). An epilogue, "What the Future of Reading Research Could Be" (Michael Pressley), is also provided.

Blokhuis, Jason C. (2008).  Channel One: When Private Interests and the Public Interest Collide  American Educational Research Journal, 45, 2. 

If the notion of public and private spheres seems somehow quaint or old-fashioned, the distinction between public and private corporations will be that much more obscure. Yet Channel One broadcasts in a public school classroom are indisputably the result of a contract between a private corporation (Alloy Media + Marketing) and a public corporation (a local school board). Public school administrators operate within a social and institutional context in which there often appears to be no line between private interests and public interests. The author argues that there is such a line and that public school administrators unwittingly cross it when they make Channel One-type deals. This article examines how the regulatory history of private corporations has shaped the social and institutional context in which public school administrators operate.

Blood, Erika; Neel, Richard (2008).  Using Student Response Systems in Lecture-Based Instruction: Does It Change Student Engagement and Learning?  Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 16, 3. 

The effects of using a student response system (SRS) in a graduate lecture class in special education were investigated. Comparisons of content mastery and self-reported engagement between lectures with the SRS and without were made. Students demonstrated more mastery of content on weekly quizzes and reported increased class engagement on those weeks where the SRS was used. Additionally, at the end of the class, they reported high preference for the SRS use, believed it helped them in their learning, and recommended that other classes use a similar system. Implications for teaching and further research are discussed.

Bloomquist, Jane; Musa, Atif (2004).  Secure Your Wireless Network: Going Wireless Comes with Its Own Special Set of Security Concerns  Technology & Learning, 24, 9. 

Imagine a completely wireless school, an open network in which all students and staff can roam around using laptops or handheld computers to browse the Internet, access files and applications on the school server, and communicate with each other and the world via e-mail. It's a great picture--and at some schools the future is already here. But while wireless provides flexible, portable connectivity, with prices dropping rapidly as the technology becomes a commodity, it also brings attendant security challenges for which there are currently no easy answers. For starters, most traditional network security methods schools are used to employing are incompatible with wireless technology unlike wired networks, signals travel through the air like radio waves with no dearly defined boundaries. Complicating this is the fact that Wired Equivalent Privacy, the original industry standard protocol for securing wireless networks, can be easily cracked by malicious users unless additional safeguards are in place. This article outlines some best practice steps for maintaining wireless network security in schools, protecting administrative data, and dealing with other network security concerns.

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Balajthy, Ernest (2000).  The Effects of Teacher Purpose on Achievement Gains.  Reading and Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, 16, 3. 

Addresses the issue of teacher purpose in using technology for reading and literacy instruction. Notes that computers were used mostly for motivation and self-esteem and not for raising achievement. Argues that educators need to critically think through the multiple realities they face as they consider the use of technology with disabled readers.

Baldin, Yuriko Yamamoto (2003).  Analyzing the Limitation of Technology in Teacher Preparation Courses.  International Journal of Computer Algebra in Mathematics Education, 10, 1. 

Discusses whether mathematics teachers are being prepared to realize the limitations of technology in teaching activities and recognize conceptual problems in technology-based activities. Suggests a course to prepare teachers with skills to analyze existing materials as well as create their own activities. Illustrates this with examples from CAS, DGS, and graphic calculators.

Balkin, Richard S.; Buckner, David; Swartz, James; Rao, Shaila (2005).  Issues in Classroom Management in an Interactive Distance Education Course  International Journal of Instructional Media, 32, 4. 

Distance education is a growing phenomenon in education. Primary grades through post-secondary education institutions to businesses incorporating continuing education have utilized technology and distance education to facilitate learning. An obvious benefit from all distance education is that access to specific material and instruction is gained. In this article, the authors present a qualitative case study of the classroom management practices observed in a distance education, Masters level, research/statistics class. The main distance education technology used for the class was compressed video. The course was supported online by the use of WebCT, a computer program that creates a web-based environment on the Internet. EDFD 5013 Research Methods in Education is part of the College of Education and Health Professions required core courses for all Masters students at a land grant university located in the South. Students from a variety of disciplines take the course. The course was taught both at the university (the originating site) and broadcasted to four remotes sites across the state. A first-year doctoral student, who had previous teaching, experience taught the course.

Ball, Barbara (2003).  Teaching and Learning Mathematics with an Interactive Whiteboard.  Micromath, 19, 1. 

Presents findings from observations of two classrooms in which teachers used an interactive whiteboard and projector. Provides ways of using the interactive whiteboard in classroom activities.

Ballantine, Joan A.; McCourt Larres, Patricia; Oyelere, Peter (2007).  Computer Usage and the Validity of Self-Assessed Computer Competence among First-Year Business Students  Computers & Education, 49, 4. 

This study evaluates the reliability of self-assessment as a measure of computer competence. This evaluation is carried out in response to recent research which has employed self-reported ratings as the sole indicator of students' computer competence. To evaluate the reliability of self-assessed computer competence, the scores achieved by students in self-assessed computer competence tests are compared with scores achieved in objective tests. The results reveal a statistically significantly over-estimation of computer competence among the students surveyed. Furthermore, reported pre-university computer experience in terms of home and school use and formal IT education does not affect this result. The findings call into question the validity of using self-assessment as a measure of computer competence. More generally, the study also provides an up-to-date picture of self-reported computer usage and IT experience among pre-university students from New Zealand and South-east Asia and contrasts these findings with those from previous research.

Ballard, Sharon; Stapleton, Joy; Carroll, Elizabeth (2004).  Students' Perceptions of Course Web Sites Used in Face-to-Face Instruction  Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 15, 3. 

The use of technology in university and college classrooms has changed in recent years to include the use of course Web sites as a supplement to face-to-face instruction (Green, 2000). Despite this increase in the use of course Web sites in college courses, limited attention has been given to student perceptions of this pedagogical tool. This study explores students' use and perceived helpfulness of course Web sites (i.e., Web sites used to supplement traditional classroom instruction) in university courses. Four hundred seventeen university students were surveyed over three semesters in 2001-2002. Overall, students had positive attitudes towards course Web sites. The most helpful features listed were course documents, announcements, and gradebooks. Students indicated that the course Web sites increased access to course information that helped keep them organized and on task. In addition, the course Web sites facilitated communication with their instructors and peers outside of regular class time.

Baloglu, Arzu (2007).  A Flexible Mobile Education System Approach  [Online Submission] 

Distance learning is appealing to small business owners, employees, municipalities, state establishments, non-governmental organizations. Distance-learning are ideal for people who have a full-time job or other commitments, who can't take time off to study full time. This might be a professional who needs to update his knowledge or skills, or a mother who wants to refresh her qualifications before re-entering the labor market. Distance learning platforms have become increasingly popular over the last few years. Typically, the cost is low and flexibility is high for distance learning. In addition to the costs of the courses and training materials, there are the expenses of employee travel, meals, lodging, and transit time. Distance learning removes those expenses from the equation, leaving only the costs of the courses and instructional materials. The rising need for inexpensive, just-in-time training in business and computer technologies has not been lost. This distance learning is any learning that takes place with the instructor and student geographically remote from each other. Distance learning system should have new ways or solutions because this solution will support smart alternatives. That is, our distance model is named like as flexible and mobility. In this paper, we propose a large requirements set and some design considerations for distance learning protocols or portal and implementations. Therefore, it is explained that which requirements a useful and easy distance learning should satisfy. Questionnaire is appended.  | [FULL TEXT]

Balram, Shivanand; Dragicevic, Suzana (2008).  Collaborative Spaces for GIS-Based Multimedia Cartography in Blended Environments  Computers & Education, 50, 1. 

The interaction spaces between instructors and learners in the traditional face-to-face classroom environment are being changed by the diffusion and adoption of many forms of computer-based pedagogy. An integrated understanding of these evolving interaction spaces together with how they interconnect and leverage learning are needed to develop meaningful strategies for effective teaching and learning. The "18i" collaborative interaction spaces model was designed based on constructivist principles, and describes 18 mixed instructor-learner spaces contextualized at a finer operational scale that makes explicit a wider range of interactions. The model was implemented during the life cycle of an undergraduate GIS-based multimedia cartography course. One output was the generation of a repository of rule-based trajectory plans for rapid planning and problem solving. The model provides an integrated workflow to manage course contents, products, interactions, individuality, and learning styles in blended environments.

Balta, Sabah (2007).  New Technologies to Assist Training in Hospitality Sector  [Online Submission] 

Hospitality sector needs new technological training tools, which can assist to improve sector employees' skills and services quality. The sector might be more interactive when these technological training tools used on the job-training program. This study addresses to issue of illumination of new technologic tools that enforce training in which hospitality businesses considered. In addition to suggesting alternate explanations for training needs, technologic implications are also required for hospitality businesses.  | [FULL TEXT]

Baltaci-Goktalay, Sehnaz; Ocak, Mehmet Akif (2006).  Faculty Adoption of Online Technology in Higher Education  [Online Submission] 

As technology becomes ubiquitous in classrooms, faculty will be asked to utilize new technologies in their instruction. Some will accept new ways to teach with technology while others resist. This paper aims to explore the factors that influence faculty to adopt online technology and faculty's concern about the adoption. The focus is on adoption and diffusion of online technology related to faculty development efforts that may help them effectively integrate online technology in their instruction.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Ben-Ari, Mordechai (2001).  Theory-Guided Technology in Computer Science.  Science and Education, 10, 5. 

Examines the history of major achievements in computer science as portrayed by winners of the prestigious Turing award and identifies a possibly unique activity called Theory-Guided Technology (TGT). Researchers develop TGT by using theoretical results to create practical technology. Discusses reasons why TGT is practical in computer science and the cool reception that software engineers have given TGT.

Bencze, J. Lawrence; Di Giuseppe, Maurice (2006).  Explorations of a Paradox in Curriculum Control: Resistance to Open-Ended Science Inquiry in a School for Self-Directed Learning  Interchange: A Quarterly Review of Education, 37, 4. 

Despite official government srt (in various jurisdictions around the world) for providing students with opportunities to construct their own knowledge within the context of formal schooling, school science systems continue to place greatest priority on teaching and learning of "products" of science (e.g., laws and theories), while compromising students' opportunities to develop realistic conceptions "about" science and expertise for "doing" science. Based on qualitative data analyzed using constant comparative methods (based on constructivist grounded theory), we found this also to be the case--paradoxically--in a school belonging to the Canadian Coalition for Self-directed Learning (CCSDL). Schools in this coalition espouse, among various goals, enabling students to construct their own knowledge, in ways and directions suiting their individual needs, interests, perspectives, and abilities, in addition to gaining access to knowledge developed by society. The science department within the coalition school in this study experienced considerable difficulty realizing this goal, despite school-level administrative support for a concerted effort to reinvent itself along these lines. Factors that appeared to influence the science department's efforts included those in each of Schwab's (1969) educational "commonplaces;" that is, the "curriculum, teachers, students," and the "milieu" surrounding teaching and learning. Further analysis suggests that results can be explained through reference to a Kuhnian (1962/1996) paradigm conflict--in which the school's administrative and curricular committee and other members of the CCSDL were unsuccessful in convincing members of the science department (who, in turn, appeared to be supported by the provincial government, parents, and students) to make provisions for more student-directed, openended science inquiry. Assuming that student-led scientific inquiry continues to be an important curricular goal, efforts must continue to be made, therefore, to convince members of the mainstream paradigm that it is a worthy goal.

Bendersky, Karen; Isaac, Walter L.; Stover, Jason H.; Zook, Joan M. (2008).  Psychology Students and Online Graduate Programs: A Need to Reexamine Undergraduate Advisement  Teaching of Psychology, 35, 1. 

Few online psychology graduate programs are accredited and thus may not provide students with the same career opportunities as programs from traditional universities. We investigated whether psychology majors are more likely than other majors to consider applying to online graduate programs and whether students considering these programs have identifiable demographic characteristics. Forty-five percent of the surveyed psychology majors considered applying to online graduate programs. The students most interested in these programs were working and had lower GPAs. Results highlight the importance of identifying and then providing appropriate advisement to psychology undergraduates who might consider applying to online graduate programs.

Bendixen, Lisa D.; Hartley, Kendall (2003).  Successful Learning with Hypermedia: The Role of Epistemological Beliefs and Metacognitive Awareness.  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 28, 1. 

Examines the relationship between epistemological beliefs, metacognition, and student achievement in a hypermedia learning environment. Results indicated that reading comprehension, grade point average, and three of the five epistemological beliefs (fixed ability, omniscient authority, and quick learning) significantly predicted posttest performance. Belief in omniscient authority and fixed ability being related to lower achievement supports previous research.

Benedetto, Sandra (2000).  DVD Video: A Primer for Educators.  Syllabus, 14, 1. 

Describes DVD (Digital Videodisc, or Digital Versatile Disk) technology which offers the ability to combine laser disc and CD-ROM programs to create a multimedia platform that can deliver high quality, full-motion video and an on-screen user interface for interactive navigation and branching for providing group or individual instruction.

Benest, Ian D. (2000).  Towards a Seamless Provision of Multimedia Course Material.  Innovations in Education and Training International, 37, 4. 

Describes functionality and user interface issues associated with the design of an automated system that provides a visually based online index to multimedia information for higher education. Topics include online lectures; bibliographic access; and the need for a hypermedia system that presents an integrated view of the materials with graceful navigational dynamics.

Benham-Deal, Tami; Hudson, Nancy (2006).  Are Health Educators in Denial or Facing Reality? Demonstrating Effectiveness within a School Accountability System  American Journal of Health Education, 37, 3. 

Health educators are providing students with the health knowledge and health skills that are prerequisites for becoming health literate and using assessment tools to demonstrate effectiveness. In the school health educators' world, accountability equates to improved student knowledge and skills. To expect them to be held accountable for students' behavior would be professional suicide. In this paper, the authors intend to show how and why educators have adopted a standards-based philosophy of health education and how this philosophy provides the foundation for achieving public health goals. They also demonstrate similarities and differences in the integrated/ecological/behavior philosophy promoted by Governali and colleagues and the standards-based model adopted by many school health educators. Finally, they propose that the field of health education acknowledge the differences that exist between public health and education goals and develop new strategies for meeting today's requirements for school health education programs.

Benjamin, Blair; Lee, Jay (2005).  Enhancing Your Web Site as a Recruitment Tool by Implementing Chat Technology  [Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE)] 

By nearly all accounts, the Web has overwhelmingly become the primary resource for prospective students to research potential college choices. Using this medium, however, prospects are able to do their research independently and privately, without having to contact the institution via phone, mail or email to make a formal inquiry. Consequently, many potential inquiries, applicants and students are nameless, faceless web visitors whom recruitment personnel generally have no way of contacting or pursuing with their typical follow-up process. Using Groopz e-commerce software, recruitment staff can overcome this disadvantage by monitoring usage of their web sites and proactively or reactively contacting web visitors. Using this "instant message"-style communication tool, they are able to take online customer service to new levels. In many cases, it allows a staff member to engage in conversation with a casual passer-by, resulting in new recruitment opportunities. Since implementing Groopz on the Philadelphia Biblical University web site, countless visitors, who otherwise may have remained nameless and faceless, have turned into formal inquiries, applicants and students. [For complete proceedings, see ED490133.] | [FULL TEXT]

Bennett, Deborah E. (2000).  The Assessment and Instructional Management System: An Innovative Approach To Evaluating the Progress of Students with Disabilities.  Educational Technology, 40, 4. 

AIMS, the Assessment and Instructional Management System is a computer-based rating and documentation system designed to include students with disabilities in educational accountability systems. Describes AIMS, illustrates some of the components of the system, and highlights teacher training efforts. Two tables present the AIMS rating rubric and AIMS documentation guidelines.

Bennett, Gregg; Green, Frederick P. (2001).  Student Learning in the Online Environment: No Significant Difference?  Quest, 53, 1. 

Discusses college student learning within the context of online instruction, analyzing issues surrounding online implementation of physical education/kinesiology coursework (whether students learn via online instruction, whether students learn by taking online courses, and advantages of online instruction). The paper offers constructivism as a theoretical framework for enhancing learning in the online environment and proposes a process for implementing courses.

Bennett, John; Bennett, Linda (2003).  A Review of Factors that Influence the Diffusion of Innovation When Structuring a Faculty Training Program.  Internet and Higher Education, 6, 1. 

Identifies characteristics of instructional technology that may influence faculty members' willingness to integrate it into teaching. Presents results of a study on effectiveness of a faculty training program designed to encourage faculty to adopt a course management system in their classroom-based, undergraduate courses. The program was based on an approach that considers factors that influence the adoption rate of technology, specifically the course management system, Blackboard.

Bennett, Kathy; McGee, Patricia (2005).  Transformative Power of the Learning Object Debate  Open Learning, 20, 1. 

This article examines the significance of how learning objects have come to be conceptualized and utilized, particularly in higher education. While many articles critique the term and its origins, an examination of the role metaphor plays in our conceptualization of "data", "information" and "learning objects" helps us move beyond a fixation on the term to its promise and challenges. Although much has been written about how learning objects should be developed, accessed and stored, much less has been written about how they should be designed and used. This quest for understanding of the role learning objects will play in the future of learning leads to new strategies which encompass such issues as a reusability, knowledge management, efficient infrastructure design and innovative course design.

Bennett, Linda (2005).  Guidelines for Using Technology in the Social Studies Classroom  Social Studies, 96, 1. 

When social studies teachers walk into their classrooms, they are expected to be model citizens, showing respect and exemplifying responsibility, fairness, honesty, and compassion. Furthermore, it is also their responsibility to create a safe Internet environment in which technology enhances learning (Berson, Berson, and Ralston 1999). Thus, they must endeavor to guide their students to demonstrate civic competencies when using technology. To develop technology users who are civically competent in the social studies classroom, the author suggests that teachers look to the five performance indicators devised by the National Education Technology Standards (NETS). The indicators are intended as a guide when considering the ethical, legal, and social issues related to technology and are meant to promote responsible use of technology in the classroom. The indicators are the following: (1) Model and teach legal and ethical practices related to technology use; (2) Apply technology resources to enable and empower learners with diverse backgrounds, characteristics, and abilities; (3) Identify and use technology resources that affirm diversity; (4) Promote safe and healthy use of technology resources; and (5) Facilitate equitable access to technology resources for all students. (International Society for Technology in Education) In this article, the author explains the performance indicators for the use of technology in the social studies classroom to help teachers put the principles into practice. She also give examples of rules and resources for how individuals in social studies classrooms can be model citizens when using technology.

Bennett, Randy Elliot (2002).  Using Electronic Assessment To Measure Student Performance: Online Testing.  [State Education Standard] 

This article discusses some of the advantages of computer-based testing and highlights efforts by several states and organizations to introduce electronic assessment. It also describes the challenges policymakers face in planning and implementing such an initiative and details the steps they can take to pursue this type of testing. As electronic learning becomes more widespread, the substance and format of assessment will need to keep pace. Once the infrastructure is in place, electronic processing can help large-scale assessment programs develop and deliver tests and present new types of test materials. Electronic processing can transmit responses to essay and other open-ended questions for human or computer scoring, and it can distribute test results. In the K-12 area, at least six states are moving assessments to Web delivery, and at least four states have initiated large-scale assessment projects that involve multiple subject areas and grades. The ultimate impact of the new technology may be to change fundamentally how educational assessment is thought about and done. Getting there will not be easy, but policymakers can take these steps to reduce the risks of technology-based assessment: (1) review the initiatives of other states; (2) establish cooperative arrangements; (3) develop a comprehensive multi-year plan; (4) build experimentation into the assessment plan; (5) involve people who can think creatively; (6) plan for a single technology infrastructure; (7) use the assessment for the purposes for which it was designed; (8) plan to go beyond delivering conventional tests by computer; and (9) do not forget why electronic assessment is desired. | [FULL TEXT]

Bennett, Roger; Kottasz, Rita (2001).  Marketing Undergraduates' Attitudes towards Query-based Instructional Machines as a Possible Learning Medium.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 32, 4. 

Discusses Query-Based Instructional Machines (QBIM), common in museums, which are menu-driven and use touch-screens. Presents results of an investigation of student responses in a London university to the idea of incorporating QBIM instruction, exploring the influences of personal traits that might affect their attitudes as well as the impact of socio-demographic factors.

Bennett, Sheila K.; Bennett, Dean B. (2004).  Paul F-Brandwein 2004 Lecture: Regarding the Ecology of Science Education: Connections to Environmental and Distance Education  Journal of Science Education and Technology, 13, 2. 

Paul F-Brandwein was a visionary who looked at education broadly. He left us with an insightful view of the ecology of education in which he identified three ecological systems: school-family-community, postsecondary, and cultural. The first part of this lecture, by Dean B. Bennett, examines Brandwein's ideas related to environmental education and explores the relationship of environmental education with science teaching in the K-12 school-family-community ecosystem. Focusing particularly on the middle-secondary level, evidence suggests that the goals of environmental education, since their emergence in the late 1960s, are today strongly evident in science curricula, instructional resources, educational assessment, and teacher education. But the author points out that more must be done and provides some fundamental suggestions. The second part of the lecture, by Sheila K. Bennett, examines the role of distance education in the teaching of science in the postsecondary ecosystem and addresses its value as a viable tool in promoting scientific literacy. The lecture focuses on a successful statewide, interdisciplinary laboratory science course delivered by interactive television, the Internet, and computer network. Now in its ninth year, the course reflects Brandwein's thinking about effective classroom teaching and is based on national standards for scientific literacy.

Bennett, Sue; Harper, Barry; Hedberg, John (2001).  Designing Real-Life Cases To Support Authentic Design Activities. 

Teachers in a range of disciplines are interested in engaging their students in authentic activities that reflect the experiences of real-world practitioners. Adopting this approach requires the design and implementation of learning environments that incorporate and support such activities. This paper describes two real-life cases at the University of Wollongong (Australia) developed as support materials for learners undertaking a major multimedia design project. Highlights include: (1) the theoretical framework, including authentic activities and case-based learning; (2) design decisions, including the setting, design of the subject (e.g., project space, related cases, information resources, cognitive tools, conversation and collaboration tools, and social/contextual support), and design of the cases; and (3) implementation. Their implementation in a graduate education subject forms the basis of a wider study investigating learners' interpretations and use of case materials. 

Bennett, Sue; Harper, Barry; Hedberg, John (2002).  Designing Real Life Cases To Support Authentic Design Activities.  Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 18, 1. 

Discusses authentic activities and case based learning and describes two cases that were developed as support materials for master's degree students undertaking a major multimedia design project at the University of Wollongong (Australia). Examines Jonassen's model for a constructivist learning environment and considers desired outcomes against case analysis and project tasks.

Bennett, Sue; Lockyer, Lori (2004).  Becoming an Online Teacher: Adapting to a Changed Environment for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education  Educational Media International, 41, 3. 

Advancements in online technologies have facilitated a convergence of distance and campus-based learning and, thus, offer new opportunities for all students through better access to resources, increased interaction between staff and students and greater flexibility in place and time. However, the transition to online teaching and learning presents new challenges as the roles and expectations of both staff and students evolve. An online teacher must create a coherent learning experience for students with whom they may not meet face-to-face and, therefore, must develop new support strategies that maintain motivation and encourage interaction. Adapting student-centred approaches to the online environment has required the development of new skills and changes to teaching practices. This paper presents an analysis of the changed environment for teachers and learners in a post-graduate coursework programme based on constructivist principles that has moved from predominately on-campus delivery to online mode. The authors examine the impact of changes to teaching and learning over the past 5 years of the programme's development and reflect on the implications of these for becoming an online teacher.

Bennison, Anne (2002).  Adults Studying Pure Mathematics in Adult Tertiary Preparation.  Literacy & Numeracy Studies, 11, 2. 

Investigated the experiences of a group of adults enrolled in the Pure Mathematics module of the Certificate IV in Adult Tertiary Preparation in 2000 at one of the Institutes of TAFE in Brisbane, Australia. Classroom learning experiences, exposure to technology, and the impact of returning to study on other facets of students' lives were considered.

Benoit-Barne, Chantal (2007).  Socio-Technical Deliberation about Free and Open Source Software: Accounting for the Status of Artifacts in Public Life  Quarterly Journal of Speech, 93, 2. 

This essay investigates the rhetorical practices of socio-technical deliberation about free and open source (F/OS) software, providing support for the idea that a public sphere is a socio-technical ensemble that is discursive and fluid, yet tangible and organized because it is enacted by both humans and non-humans. In keeping with the empirical shift manifest in recent public sphere scholarship and Bruno Latour's idea that socio-technical deliberation is characterized by the inscription of non-humans, I describe the rhetorical manners in which volunteer citizens define and mobilize a mundane artifact--a web site--in a deliberation over the value of F/OS technologies for their government-funded project. Through inscription of the web site as a rhetorical resource and as the embodiment of their disposition toward computer technologies, the volunteers formed and expressed competing understandings of the role of F/OS technologies in sustaining a public sphere. I argue that these competing views are consequential, for they link technical artifacts and political agents in practice, by way of aspirations, obligations, and forms of authority. Furthermore, by claiming a form of agency for technologies in the public sphere, the proponents of F/OS technologies are inviting scholars of the public sphere to question the status assigned to technical artifacts in their investigations and theories of the public sphere.

Bensley, Robert; Brusk, John J.; Rivas, Jason; Anderson, Judith V. (2006).  Impact of Menu Sequencing on Internet-Based Educational Module Selection  International Electronic Journal of Health Education, 9

Patterns of Internet-based menu item selection can occur for a number of reasons, many of which may not be based on interest in topic. It then becomes important to ensure menu order is devised in a way that ensures the greatest accuracy in matching user need with selection. This study examined the impact of menu rotation on the selection of Internet-based parent-child feeding behavior education and behavior change modules by participants in the Women, Infants and Children (WIC) program across seven states. Five modules were rotated over a course of 4 weeks, each having the opportunity to be listed in all positions in the menu sequence, resulting in a significant (p less than 0.01) difference in module access. Modules listed in first and second position observed greater access than the other modules, with the exception of the module "make meals and snacks simple," which retained consistent access trends regardless of position. Overall, modules in the first two positions observed the greatest access, regardless of module title. This study provides evidence of the importance for website developers to consider menu design when developing Internet-based health promotion programming.

Benson, Angela D.; Bothra, Jashoda; Sharma, Priya (2004).  A Performance Support Tool for Cisco Training Program Managers  TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 48, 2. 

Performance support systems can play an important role in corporations by managing and allowing distribution of information more easily. These systems run the gamut from simple paper job aids to sophisticated computer- and web-based software applications that support the entire corporate supply chain. According to Gery (1991), a performance support system improves employee performance by reducing the complexity of a task, providing information the employee needs to perform the task or providing the decision support that enables employees to determine what action to take under a specific set of situations. For trainers and instructional designers, performance support typically has taken the form of computer-based instructional design (ID) tools. Research and development in the field is dominated by authoring tools for the production and development of computer- and web-based instruction (van Merrienboer & Martens, 2002). More recently attention has turned to computer-based ID tools that support analysis and design activities as well as implementation and evaluation activities (van Merrienboer & Martens, 2002). Spector (2002) introduced the notion of Knowledge Management Systems as a type of computer-based ID tool. These tools support the collaborative activity that surrounds most of the design and development process. This article: (1) describes how TPMS supports Training Program Managers (PMs) who guide the development of the new product training; and (2) highlights the impact of the system on the performance of the PMs and the Customer Advocacy Training team of which they are a part.

Benson, Angela D.; Johnson, Scott D.; Taylor, Gail D.; Treat, Tod; Shinkareva, Olga N.; Duncan, John (2004).  Distance Learning in Postsecondary Career and Technical Education: A Comparison of Achievement in Online vs. On-Campus CTE Courses  [National Research Center for Career and Technical Education] 

This study builds on a recent national survey that determined the current status and future trends associated with distance learning in postsecondary career and technical education (Johnson, et al., 2003). The primary goal of this study was to explore, in detail, the effectiveness of distance learning via the Internet as a strategy for providing skill-based education and training to students enrolled in postsecondary career and technical education (CTE). Emphasis in this study was placed on (a) examining the differences between online and campus-based delivery models in terms of student achievement (i.e., assessment of content knowledge gain and the quality of student assignments and projects) and (b) describing the course structure and environment created to help students gain CTE skills. The study also compared variables such as interaction within the course, course structure, and student support across the two different course delivery formats. To accomplish the research goals, a series of quasi-experimental studies were designed using equivalent online and campus-based CTE courses that varied only in their delivery format. The combination of the earlier national survey of distance learning in postsecondary CTE programs and these experimental comparison studies help to establish a baseline for distance and online technology use and practice in postsecondary career and technical education. These studies enable researchers, practitioners, and policy makers to make informed decisions about future trends and uses of distance learning in postsecondary CTE.  | [FULL TEXT]

Benson, Angela; Lawler, Cormac; Whitworth, Andrew (2008).  Rules, Roles and Tools: Activity Theory and the Comparative Study of E-Learning  British Journal of Educational Technology, 39, 3. 

Activity theory (AT) is a powerful tool for investigating "artefacts in use", ie, the ways technologies interrelate with their local context. AT reveals the interfaces between e-learning at the macro- (strategy, policy, "campus-wide" solutions) and the micro-organisational levels (everyday working practice, iterative change, individual adaptation). In AT, contexts are conceived of as activity systems in which human, technological and organisational elements are interrelated and largely inseparable. Both the subjects of the activity system (internal) and the wider community (external) mediate their activities through tools, rules and roles. This paper shows how a course management system (CMS) exerts an influence over all three of these mediators, though the exact nature of this influence depends on the particular configuration of each activity system. This is illustrated with reference to two case study programmes, both of which used Moodle as their CMS, but which had activity systems structured in quite different ways; the programmes also had different relationships with their external organisational environment.

Benson, D. E.; Mekolichick, Jeanne (2007).  Conceptions of Self and the Use of Digital Technologies in a Learning Environment  Education, 127, 4. 

While research has identified various personality and demographic characteristics that appear to be associated with a variety of activities related to the use of digital technologies (e.g., Biner, Dean & Mellinger, 1994; Biner, Summers, Dean, Bink, Anderson & Gelder, 1996; Black, 1992; Clark, 1993; Figueroa, 1992), little is known about how conceptions of self might influence the use of digital technologies in a learning environment. (Benson, Haney, Ore, Persell, Schulte, Steele & Winfield, 2001). This paper is the first empirical attempt to understand this relationship. Using a sample of undergraduate students (N = 447) and faculty (N= 203) from two public universities in the United States, we examine how students' and faculty's conceptions of self affect the desire to use and success in using digital technologies in a university environment. Using Identity theory (e.g., Burke & Reitzes, 1991; Stryker, 1980), to test 4 hypotheses, regression analyses indicate that conceptions of self are correlated with the desire to use and the success in using digital technologies. These findings may help to inform policies concerning the use of digital technologies in learning environments as well as suggest new hypotheses for further exploration of this relationship.

Benson, Kelsey A.; Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.; Martella, Ronald C.; Kolts, Russell L. (2007).  Assessing the Effects of the "Reading Success Level B" Program with Fifth-Grade Students at a Title I Elementary School  Journal of Direct Instruction, 7, 1. 

This investigation examined the comparative effects of "Reading Success Level B" on the reading comprehension skills of 78 fifth graders across three general education classrooms. Three student subgroups were formed based on pretest Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI) reading levels including high (n = 14), average (n = 50), and low (n = 14) performance groups. Pre- and posttest reading comprehension measures were collected using the SRI. Results showed students in the low performance group demonstrated statistically significant gains in comprehension when compared to students in the average and high performing groups. In addition, students in the average performance group demonstrated statistically significant gains when compared to the high performance group. Risk status did not affect comprehension growth. Implications for future research are discussed.

Benson, Linda F.; Farnsworth, Briant J.; Bahr, Damon L.; Lewis, Valerie K.; Shaha, Steven H. (2004).  The Impact of Training in Technology Assisted Instruction on Skills and Attitudes of Pre-Service Teachers  Education, 124, 4. 

The research discussed in this article was supported by a capacity building grant funded by the Department of Education, Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers to use Technology Grant (PT3). The problem was to determine the effects of course work and field experience on perceived technology skills of teacher candidates and the attitudes developed by them toward the use of technology during this experience. Teacher candidates self assessed their technology skills with a pre and posttest skill survey (E-KIT). After completing course work and field experience, a randomly selected group of students took part in an interview to determine the attitudinal impact of using technology as an instructional tool with elementary students. Findings revealed an improvement in perceived technology skills and in the development of a positive attitude regarding the use technology to support instruction.

Benson, Phil (2001).  Teaching and Researching Autonomy in Language Learning. Applied Linguistics in Action Series. 

This volume offers a comprehensive account of autonomy in language learning and the educational practices associated with the concept. The book is divided into 18 chapters: "The History of Autonomy in Language Learning"; "Autonomy beyond the Field of Language Education"; "Defining and Describing Autonomy"; Control as a Natural Attribute of Learning"; "Levels of Control"; "Fostering Autonomy"; "Resource-Based Approaches"; "Technology-Based Approaches"; "Learner-Based Approaches"; "Classroom-Based Approaches"; "Curriculum-Based Approaches"; "Teacher-Based Approaches"; "Research Methods and Key Areas of Research"; "Case Studies"; and "Resources for Research and Practice."

Benson, Robyn; Hardy, Les; Maxfield, Jodie (2001).  The International Classroom: Using Reflective Practice To Improve Teaching and Learning. 

As learning technologies increasingly facilitate the internationalization of subject offerings, it becomes correspondingly important to try and ensure that the needs of diverse student groups are met and to provide for ongoing improvement of their learning experiences. A variety of evaluation procedures are valuable in this respect, particularly those that illuminate these experiences. This kind of information provides a rich source of data for teachers to use as a basis for reflective practice to inform the continuing refinement of teaching and learning approaches, and curriculum development. The nature of reflective practice also allows for its inclusion in the students' learning processes, thus simultaneously providing a means for improving the quality of their learning and contributing to their future professional lives, while offering a further set of perspectives to inform subject development. This paper describes the use of reflective practice as a practical means of converging a range of non-positivist approaches to inform the teaching of a core undergraduate accounting subject at Monash University (Australia) offered to on-campus students, distance education students, and Year 13 school students, as well as to overseas students in Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. It also shows that demands by the accounting profession for universities to improve learning to cope with the ambiguity and uncertainty inherent within professional life can be met, in part, by reflective practice. 

Bental, Diana; Cawsey, Alison; Eddy, Bruce (2004).  Generating User-Tailored Descriptions of Online Educational Resources  International Journal on E-Learning, 3, 4. 

Tailored descriptions of online educational resources can support users searching for educational resources on the World Wide Web (WWW) by helping them to assess for themselves the relevance and suitability of each resource. Suitable descriptions can be derived from the online metadata stored with each resource. The descriptions take into account user profiles to indicate which data are most relevant, and so they may be tailored to the user's needs. Descriptions derived from metadata may simply be presented in the form of tables, or else they may be presented as text using techniques from natural language generation. An evaluation of the effects of tailoring and of the different presentation methods shows that simple tailoring of the descriptions to a user model can be effective in helping users to identify resources. The evaluation also found that the text descriptions produced by natural language generation techniques are no more effective than tabular presentations of the metadata, although the concise text descriptions may still be valuable where space is limited.

Bentley, Joanne P. H.; Tinney, Mari Vawn; Chia, Bing Howe (2004).  Intercultural Internet-Based Learning: Know Your Audience and What They Value  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

As the internet-based learning (IBL) market becomes increasingly global, understanding differing educational values and cultural expectations could provide an important competitive edge for providers (universities, publishing houses, and corporate training entities). How each of person determines "good" or "quality" instruction is to a large degree founded on what educational values that person holds. These values are primarily shaped by (1) cultural norms, (2) the philosophy(s) of learning to which people adhere, and (3) a person's personal preferences for learning. When people's educational values match those embedded in the course, the match-up contributes to their perception of it being a quality educational experience; conversely, when people's educational values do not match those of a course, then dissatisfaction is likely to occur. The designer has the responsibility to make the courses educational values explicit in the course materials and it is the learner's responsibility to understand themselves as learners and find out about the context from which the course originates. This paper recommends a new intercultural standard for expressing the instructional of a course through which designers (producers) and students (consumers) can clearly communicate the educational values to each other. It should be similar to that of food labeling. The authors believe that designers should make the values imbedded in the course visible to the learner in an advance syllabus or course description. Eight educational value differentials or factors can help people make a distinctive difference in how the learner perceives quality in instruction. The paper discusses how designer integrate the eight differentials in preparing instructional materials and apply strategies to match users to suitable courses. It concludes with two handy checklists of recommendations distilled from the research; one for low-context (North American or Western) instructional designers and one for high-context students. | [FULL TEXT]

Bentley, John (2005).  Don't Blow a Fuse! Clever Exercise Tests Current-Measuring Skills  Tech Directions, 65, 5. 

The author has taught beginning, intermediate, and advanced electronics/electricity classes for more than 20 years. During that time--each and every semester--students struggle with measuring current in the laboratory. As all electronics/electricity instructors know, this results in blown fuses, burned parts, and just plain frustration on everyone's part. In this article, the author presents a simple laboratory practical for voltage and current measurement to evaluate a student's knowledge of prototyping/breadboarding part identification, voltage, and current measurement. The key feature in his approach is that when a student incorrectly connects the meter for current measurement, a tone is sounded, no fuse blows, and the circuit is ready for the next student.

Benton, Thomas H. (2007).  What I've Learned from Recorded Lectures  Chronicle of Higher Education, 53, 49. 

In this article, the author describes how recorded lectures can be utilized as powerful educational tools. He relates that recorded lectures had been useful to him particularly when he starting a new course for his students. While there are clearly advantages in using recorded lectures, the author also shares some of the disadvantages in using recorded lectures and the reasons why some lecturers are hesitant about using them.

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Basal, Mine; Kurubacak, Gulsun (2003).  Turkish Preservice Special Education Teachers' Experiences, Perspectives and Expectations on Use of Technology: Integrating Technology in the College Classroom  [Online Submission] 

The use and integration of the new technologies, such as the Internet, World Wide Web, new computer software, etc., in educational milieus have been enormously growing for nearly two decades. Not only do these new technologies make an impact in general education, but also within preservice special education teachers who work with one of the diverse groups in the societies. However, it is observed that there are divergence approaches to use and integrate the new technologies into the Special Education Programs in Turkey. The major concern in this study is to examine and define preservice special education teachers' experiences, perspectives and expectations on the use and integration of the technology. A distance education professor and a professor of Special Education in Turkey have collaborated on the use and integration of technology in the College of Education for studying the dynamics of change in an era of electronic technologies.  [Also presented in Chesapeake, VA, 2003.] | [FULL TEXT]

Basken, Paul (2008).  Electronic Portfolios May Answer Calls for More Accountability  Chronicle of Higher Education, 54, 32. 

A decade ago, the Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology had a few simple goals. It wanted to sharpen its educational mission, broaden students' skills, improve graduates' job-placement rates, and give the institution better ammunition for proving its worth to accreditors. It turned to the "electronic portfolio," becoming one of a small but growing number of institutions using an old idea--the long-term compilation of student classwork--in a new computerized format that lets Rose-Hulman directly score student performance campuswide on a list of specific skills. As the Bush administration and Congress press colleges to do more to prove their worth, the concept is being seized upon by institutions as a way to provide quantitative proof of how they help students learn while keeping the right to define their own missions. Hundreds of colleges use some type of electronic system for assembling and storing student work. But a few dozen, acting without federal direction and with little other outside coordination, have developed more sophisticated versions that guide assessment and curriculum development. They include both small institutions, such as Thomas College in Maine and Kapiolani Community College in Hawaii, and large ones, such as Minnesota's state colleges and the University of Washington. It's not a simple or cost-free decision. Even supporters agree that making full use of electronic portfolios--computerized compilations of written assignments and exams, and even videos or artwork--can often be difficult, time-consuming, expensive, and fraught with frustration for faculty members and students, who may have to enter codes that indicate the portions of their work that satisfy various institutional requirements.

Baskin, Colin; Barker, Michelle; Woods, Peter (2005).  When Group Work Leaves the Classroom Does Group Skills Development also Go Out the Window?  British Journal of Educational Technology, 36, 1. 

In moving towards what Lemke (1996) terms the interactive learning paradigm, higher education has adopted two key principles consistent with group learning technologies: learning is always mediated by and occurs through language ( Falk, 1997; Gee, 1997); and learning is distributed across a range of other people, sites, objects, technologies and time ( Gee, 1997). A third and relatively recent principle to emerge on the higher education scene that seems to contradict accepted views of group learning technologies is that: many universities now choose to offer learning resources online. This paper asks whether Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are robust enough to support, sustain and address industry, employer and government calls for greater attention to group skills development in university graduates. Data features an examination of respondent feedback (n 171) in an ICT-rich group work setting, and the subsequent ratings of group skills development over a 13-week period. This discussion offers an account of learner outcomes by adopting Kirkpatrick's (1996) four levels of evaluation of learning as a classification scheme for determining learner satisfaction (Level One), the effectiveness of learning transfer (Level Two), its impact on practice (Level Three) and the appropriation of learning behaviours by participants (Level Four). The contrasting patterns of ICT use between female and male users in the data are discussed in relation to building social presence and producing social categories online. Differences reported here indicate that ICT group work is moving forward, but opportunities to challenge rather than reproduce existing learning relations and differences, remain largely unresolved.

Baslanti, Ugur (2006).  Challenges in Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers to Use Technology: Lessons to be Learned from Research  [Online Submission] 

Today one of the most challenging factors for teachers and schools of education around the world is technology. With the advent of new technological tools; educators, parents, politicians, and administrators are seeking alternative ways of successfully educating the new generations to use these new technologies in their daily lives and to develop new skills to better compete with others. This task, of course, requires teachers who have the knowledge and skills to integrate these technologies in their curricula. Research shows that colleges of education are not doing their jobs effectively in preparing such teachers. This article focuses on research findings that address this issue and attempts to extract lessons that could be useful for other teacher education programs all around the world. The article concludes that there is a growing need of research studies which reports the currently utilized technologies and their impacts on the education and training of teacher candidates. | [FULL TEXT]

Bass, Kristin M.; Puckett, Cassidy; Rockman, Saul (2008).  Models of Digital Collection Use in a University Community  Educational Technology Magazine: The Magazine for Managers of Change in Education, 48, 1. 

Digital collections enable university students and faculty to share academic scholarship across their campuses and beyond. Based on interviews, the authors present cases of faculty, graduate students, and undergraduates to illustrate some factors that seem to determine why they do or do not use digital collections in their research, teaching, and learning. Findings have implications for the kinds of support structures needed to sustain digital scholarship.

Bass, Randy (2001).  The Web, Sacred and Profane.  Educational Technology, 41, 5. 

Considers the question of locating an epistemology of the World Wide Web in light of paradigms of knowing. Highlights include knowledge as contingent and positional; knowledge on the Web as being dependent on metaknowledge; knowledge structures; and expert learning as a paradigm for a Web-based epistemology.

Bassili, J. N. (2006).  Promotion and Prevention Orientations in the Choice to Attend Lectures or Watch Them Online  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 22, 6. 

When presented with the option to use a new instructional technology, students often face an approach-avoidance conflict. This study explored promotion and prevention orientations, concepts linked to approach and avoidance in Higgins's regulatory focus theory, in the choice to attend lectures or watch them online. Openness, a core disposition in the Big Five Model of personality, and positive attitudes towards the utility of the Internet, reflect promotion orientations that are potentially related to the choice to watch lectures online. By contrast, neuroticism, another core disposition in the Big Five Model, and anxiety about the Internet as a computer technology, reflect a prevention orientation that is potentially related to the choice of attending lectures in class. The results illustrate that both promotion and prevention are at work in the choice to attend lectures or to watch them online. Neuroticism and anxiety about the Internet as a computer technology were related to the choice to attend lectures in class, whereas the perceived utility of the Internet was related to the choice to watch lectures online. Instructional mode choice was not related to examination performance, suggesting that the choice to attend lectures or watch them online has more to do with individual differences in promotion and prevention orientations than with pedagogical characteristics that impact learning.

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Bradburn, Frances Bryant (2004).  Preloading Professional Development to Ensure Potential Success  T.H.E. Journal, 31, 12. 

When a state makes the decision to award a small number of high-dollar grants, the stakes are considerable. For North Carolina's IMPACT Model School Grant applicants, professional development started long before a single dollar was ever awarded. In light of these conditions, the state decided to issue a high-dollar, highly prescriptive grant, the IMPACT Model School Grant. The model itself is based on "The North Carolina Educational Technology Plan" (http://tps.dpi.state.nc. us/Tech2000rev). Based on the research to date, the model outlines the infrastructure, hardware, software, professional development and personnel necessary to implement an effective technology program at the building level. The linchpin of the model's success is personnel--a certified instructional technology facilitator who works in partnership with the school's existing library media specialist, as well as a building-level technician and/or technology assistant. It is a collaborative model, one in which the instructional technology facilitator and school library media specialist plan with teachers in a technology-rich, resource-rich instructional environment. The grant funded the implementation of the model--as outlined in the technology plan--at the optimum level.

Bradburn, Frances Bryant (2004).  Tweaking Common Professional Development Models for Added Value  T.H.E. Journal, 31, 12. 

Many kinds of professional development exist within and across schools, but the IMPACT Model School Grant has provided enough professional development dollars to allow some "best practice" modifications to two common models that have reputations for being less than effective: conference attendance and outside consultants. The principal of Clearmont Elementary School, in Burnsville, N.C. believes wide-ranging experiences, particularly in this fast-paced, technology-rich world, are an important part of a 21st century teacher's education. For this reason, Peterson crafted a large portion of his IMPACT Model School Grant's professional development around attendance at state and national conferences. While a broadening of job-related and personal experiences is a highlight of conference attendance, the perception also exists that conference travel can be little more than a state-subsidized party. To ensure that no one could accuse his staff of this, Peterson created a list of 9 conference requirements that all teachers must adhere to before, during and after the conference. Wells Elementary School Principal, James Davis, on the other hand, believed that the IMPACT Model School Grant requirement of flexible access in both the media center and computer lab would be the key to the school's grant success. Davis acknowledges that flexible access and the collaborative planning process it ensures have made a huge difference in the success of the IMPACT Model at Wells. Much of the credit, however, goes to his decision to hire a consultant whose entire focus was essentially a just-in-time, carefully modeled, job-embedded professional development "course" in its implementation.

Braden, Jeffery P.; Huai, Nan; White, Jennifer L.; Elliott, Stephen N. (2005).  Effective Professional Development to Support Inclusive Large-Scale Assessment Practices for All Children  Assessment for Effective Intervention, 31, 1. 

Despite policy mandates to include students with disabilities in educational assessment and accountability programs, current practices suggest a substantial lack of capacity for effective inclusion. Continuing professional development (CPD) is an essential component of disseminating and implementing effective inclusion practices. Recent reviews of CPD for teachers suggest traditional CPD methods are largely ineffective in changing practices. In this article, we identify features of CPD likely to lead to changes in teachers' practices and discuss how these features interact with the unique content and challenges related to inclusion to identify promising CPD practices. Evidence evaluating one CPD effort, Assessing One & All, is presented to document the effectiveness of such CPD practices and to illustrate the benefits and barriers to effective CPD for inclusion in large-scale assessments. These findings provide a foundation for discussing how research can guide CPD efforts to enhance inclusion of students with disabilities in educational assessment and accountability programs.

Bradford, Melanie (2005).  Motivating Students through Project-Based Service Learning  T.H.E. Journal, 32, 6. 

Project-based service learning emphasizes educational opportunities that are interdisciplinary, student-centered, collaborative, and integrated with real-world issues and practices. Teachers have found that environments which foster academic achievement through hands-on, authentic learning can motivate students by engaging them in their own learning (Brophy 1986; Lumsden 1994). Students apply and integrate the content of different subject areas at authentic moments in the production process, instead of in isolation or in an artificial setting. Thus, learning becomes relevant and useful as students establish connections to life outside of school. Authentic projects also help to address real-world concerns and develop real-world skills. This article provides three examples of student-driven service learning projects integrated with technology that engage and motivate California students, while simultaneously encouraging mastery of the academic content standards.

Bradford, Peter; Porciello, Margaret; Balkon, Nancy; Backus, Debra (2007).  The Blackboard Learning System: The Be All and End All in Educational Instruction?  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 35, 3. 

Blackboard Inc. provides powerful and easy-to-use systems for educational instruction, communication, and assessment. In the last three years, Blackboard Inc. has marketed two major product lines: the Blackboard Commerce Suite and the Blackboard Academic Suite. The core of the Academic suite is the Blackboard Learning System, the course management system for classroom and online educational assistance. Other course management systems and learning management systems exist, including Angel/LMS, eCollege, GNU General Public License/Linux, and LearningSpace, as well as open-source learning systems such as The Sakai Project, Open Source Portfolio Initiative, Moodle, and uPortal. Despite the drive toward new portal commodities, the Blackboard Learning System has become the dominant e-learning software company. Is this necessarily good for higher educational learning? Members of the United University Professions Technology Issues Committee debate the issue as well as present specific applications of the Blackboard Learning System in distance learning, hybrid courses, and as didactic supplements to other electronic environment enhancement systems.

Bradley, Claire; Boyle, Tom (2004).  The Design, Development, and Use of Multimedia Learning Objects  Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 13, 4. 

This paper concerns the development and use of learning objects to address a real and urgent educational problem--the teaching and learning of introductory programming. The paper outlines the design principles and development process involved in creating self-contained learning objects that are pedagogically rich. It describes how the objects were deployed within a blended-learning approach to course delivery and gives examples of objects developed and how they have been used by students and teaching staff. Full evaluation of the project has been undertaken; data is presented that shows an improvement in pass rates, and how the objects have been received. Finally, the paper discusses the contribution to building a model for well-designed learning objects.

Bradshaw, Amy C.; Bishop, Jeanne L.; Gens, Linda S.; Miller, Sharla L.; Rogers, Martha A. (2002).  The Relationship of the World Wide Web to Thinking Skills.  Educational Media International, 39, 3-4. 

Discusses use of the World Wide Web in education and its possibilities for developing higher order critical thinking skills to successfully deal with the demands of the future information society. Suggests that teachers need to provide learning environments that are learner-centered, authentic, problem-based, and collaborative. 

Bradshaw, Amy C.; Johari, Abbas (2003).  Effects of an Online Visual Procedure on Task Completion, Time, and Attitude  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 29, 4. 

Although substantial literature exists regarding learning with visuals, most consider text the primary channel with varying amounts of visuals explored as a secondary channel. This study considered the effectiveness of visuals-only procedural guides versus visuals plus added text, using visuals as the primary channel and using visuals developed from screen shots to eliminate the need to create a visual, stand-in vocabulary. There was no difference in the level of successful task completion between treatment groups. The time required to complete the task was measured and there were significant differences in the amount of time required by treatment group, age, and sex. Both treatment groups responded favorably to the procedures on a follow-up attitude questionnaire. Implications of the study and suggestions for further research are discussed.

Bradshaw, Lynn K. (2002).  Technology for Teaching and Learning: Strategies for Staff Development and Follow-Up Support.  Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 10, 1. 

Discusses the staff development strategies included in the technology plans of 27 school districts. Highlights include teachers' concerns about technology implementation; measures of teacher and student performance; and recommendations for strengthening technology staff development initiatives to increase the likelihood that they will result in improved teaching and learning.

Bradshaw, Pete; Powell, Stephen; Terrell, Ian (2005).  Developing Engagement in Ultralab's Online Communities of Enquiry  Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 42, 3. 

This paper provides an account of the development of online communities at Ultralab for students engaged on masters-level programmes, doctoral research and continuing professional learning. It considers the ways in which the engagement of learners, and their consequent participation, is seen to be dependent on several factors--the learners' perception of purpose, their sense of identity and trust, framing of learning activities, interventions from learning facilitators and tutors, and the information architecture of the learning space. The notion of engagement in this online community in higher education (HE) is explored. The term "community of enquiry" is used to indicate the key purpose of the community--that of practitioner-based enquiry, or research.

Bragaw, Don, Ed. (2001).  Technology and Global Education.  [Issues in Global Education] 

This edition of "Issues in Global Education" is devoted to the topic of technology and global education. This newsletter begins with an article describing the role that global telecommunications projects can play in the classroom. It is followed by a project highlight, describing one teacher's pedagogical use of technology to advance her students' literacy skills and understandings of environmental science. The newsletter includes tips on how to integrate technology into the classroom. Also included are brief descriptions of global tele-collaborative projects in various curriculum areas and a listing of organizations that support teachers engaging in cross-cultural online project work. | [FULL TEXT]

Bragg, Debra D.; Bremer, Christine D.; Castellano, Marisa; Kirby, Catherine; Mavis, Ann; Schaad, Donna; Sunderman, Judith (2007).  A Cross-Case Analysis of Career Pathway Programs That Link Low-Skilled Adults to Family-Sustaining Wage Careers. In Brief  [Office of Community College Research and Leadership] 

Little is known about educational programs referred to as "career pathway programs" that attempt to integrate adult literacy, adult basic education (ABE), General Equivalency Diploma (GED) instruction, English language literacy (ELL), and pre-collegiate developmental education with postsecondary career and technical education (CTE) certificate and associate degree programs, and potentially with the baccalaureate degree. By conducting case study research, the authors sought to provide a detailed description of local curricular, instructional and support programs, policies and practices that seek to engage low-skilled adults in adult education and literacy programs that are linked to postsecondary CTE and ultimately to family-sustaining wage employment. Features common to the three pathways and lessons learned about implementation, transferability and sustainability are discussed. [This document represents the executive summary of a recently published technical report by the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education titled "A Cross-Case Analysis of Career Pathway Programs That Link Low-Skilled Adults to Family-Sustaining Wage Careers" (Debra D. Bragg, Christine D. Bremer, Marisa Castellano, Catherine Kirby, Ann Mavis, Donna Schaad, and Judith Sunderman) supported by the Office of Vocational and Adult Education, United States Department of Education.] | [FULL TEXT]

Bragg, Leicha (2007).  Students' Conflicting Attitudes towards Games as a Vehicle for Learning Mathematics: A Methodological Dilemma  Mathematics Education Research Journal, 19, 1. 

Mathematics games are widely employed in school classrooms for such reasons as a reward for early finishers or to enhance students' attitude towards mathematics. During a four week period, a total of 222 Grade 5 and 6 (9 to 12 years old) children from Melbourne, Australia, were taught multiplication and division of decimal numbers using calculator games or rich mathematical activities. Likert scale surveys of the children's attitudes towards games as a vehicle for learning mathematics revealed unexpectedly high proportions of negative attitudes at the conclusion of the research. In contrast, student interview data revealed positive associations between games and mathematical learning. This paper reports on the methodological dilemma of resultant conflicting attitudinal data related to game-playing. Concerns arising from the divergence in the results are raised in this paper. Implications based on the experience of this study may inform educational researchers about future methodological choices involving attitudinal research.  | [FULL TEXT]

Bragg, Leicha A. (2006).  "Hey, I'm Learning This"  Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom, 11, 4. 

Mathematics games are often used in the classroom as a reward or warm-up activity before the "real" learning takes place. Many teachers have witnessed how useful games are for tuning-in students to the impending mathematics lesson. However, have teachers considered playing games as the central part of the lesson? This article explores the benefits and negative impact of games in the classroom, and recommends a calculator game that encouraged Year 5 and 6 children to challenge their misconceptions of the multiplication and division of decimals.

Braimoh, Dele; Lekoko, Rebecca (2005).  The Need for Policy Framework in Maintaining Quality in Open and Distance Education Programmes in Southern Africa  [Online Submission] 

The ideals of education for all as proposed by UNESCO (2000) cannot be achieved without tapping into all the existing educational delivery systems. Open and distance education system has caught the attention of a number of Southern African Universities as a viable and "Siamese" twin of the conventional education in achieving flexibility, open and greater access for the heterogeneous clientele of the region. Despite the glowing virtues of distance education, this mode is still looked down upon by some people as inferior to the conventional teaching and learning processes. Paradoxically, learning through the distance education mode has a greater potential to provide education for more learners than the conventional education system. In a dynamic society such as the Southern African region, development has made education a phenomenon that transcends the four walls of the formal classrooms. Thus, a policy framework is needed to ensure that quality education is provided for learners of diverse cultures, including economic background and geographical regions. Such a framework is not only a basic requirement for positive development of the newly emerging distance education institutions, but also an essential instrument for the continued success of the long established institutions, both single and dual mode. The proposed policy framework addresses some of the following: (1) academic (e.g. course integrity, transferability and accreditation); (2) governance (e.g. tuition, fiscal regulation); (3) faculty (e.g. training, workload, support and evaluation); (4) legal (e.g. intellectual property, students and institutional liability); (5) technical (e.g. physical delivery networks, systems reliability, setup and infrastructural support); (6) culture; and (7) economics (e.g. direct and indirect costs of distance education). All these aspects can deter or stimulate certain groups of people to develop interest and consequently enrol for learning through the distance education mode. In this paper, our aim is to stimulate dialogue on the significance, scope of coverage and the processes of formulating a policy framework for maintaining academic excellence as opposed to mediocrity. We are, however, mindful of the fact that practices are diverse in the region, but regardless of this diversity, a regional policy framework is possible to regulate the planning, development and implementation of quality distance education programmes across all levels of education, with particular focus on higher institutions of learning.  | [FULL TEXT]

Brainard, Jeffrey (2007).  The Tough Road to Better Science Teaching  Chronicle of Higher Education, 53, 48. 

For decades introductory science courses have relied largely on lectures and tests that reward memorization of facts and formulas, an approach that has driven away many talented students. While new teaching models have shown success in engaging and retaining undergraduates, they have yet to be widely adopted in academe. For one thing, the tenure system rewards good research above good teaching. For another, faculty members have final say over their own courses, and some are resistant to change. Other professors are unaware of the new methods, in part because the federal government has provided only limited financial support for getting the word out. In this article, the author examines why proponents of new methods of science teaching encounter resistance from science educators. The author also discusses ways in which methods in teaching science could be improved into a "student-centered" approach.

Brakels, Jenny; van Daalen, Els; Dik, Wim; Dopper, Sofia; Lohman, Fred; van Peppen, Andre; Peerdeman, Simon; Peet, Dirk Jan; Sjoer, Ellen; van Valkenburg, Willem; van de Ven, Maarten (2002).  Implementing ICT in Education Faculty-Wide.  European Journal of Engineering Education, 27, 1. 

Explains the implementation of an electronic learning environment at the Delft University Of Technology in The Netherlands. Consists of three line activities: first line of the activities is technology oriented, second line is aimed at creating and using a web site for each course, and third line of activities is geared towards developing new learning environments for courses.

Bramald, Tom; Powell, Jonathan (2006).  The Geomatics.org.UK Project  Mathematics Teaching Incorporating Micromath

In this article, the authors describe how pupils can benefit from some unusual and exciting free resources of geomatics.org.uk. Geomatics.org.uk is a project that provides free resources to support teaching and learning in a variety of subjects including maths and geography, often in a cross-curricular way. Via the project website, it is possible, free of charge, to borrow modern, professional surveying equipment, thus putting 21st century technology into the hands of students and providing exciting, kinesthetic learning opportunities.

Branch, Oratile Maribe, Ed. (2001).  Organizations and Associations in North America.  Educational Media and Technology Yearbook, 26

Includes annotated entries for associations and organizations headquartered in the United States and Canada whose interests are in some manner significant to the fields of instructional technology and educational media. The U.S. section begins with a classified list designed to facilitate location of organizations by their specialized interests or services.

Branch, Oratile Maribe, Ed. (2001).  Graduate Programs.  Educational Media and Technology Yearbook, 26

Describes graduate programs in Instructional Technology, Educational Media and Communications, School Library Media, and closely allied programs in the United States. Entries provide name and address, chairperson, types of degrees offered, special features of the program, admission requirements, degree requirements, number of faculty, number of students, types of financial assistance, and number of degrees awarded in 1998.

Branco, Mario; Soletta, Isabella (2005).  Thermal Expansion: Using Calculator-Based Laboratory Technology to Observe the Anomalous Behavior of Water  Journal of Chemical Education, 82, 4. 

An experiment that consists of following the changes in temperature at different depths in a precooled liquid while the liquid slowly warms up to the temperature of the surrounding environment is presented. The experiment might be used in a course on temperature, on heat transmission, and in particular in the study of convection currents.

Brandt, D. Scott; Uden, Lorna (2002).  A Simplified Method of Eliciting Information from Novices.  Educational Technology, 42, 1. 

Discusses the use of applied cognitive task analysis (ACTA) to interview novices and gain insight into their cognitive skills and processes. Focuses particularly on novice Internet searchers at the University of Staffordshire (United Kingdom) and reviews attempts to modify ACTA, which is intended to gather information from experts as part of instructional design.

Brann, Darrell W.; Sloop, Shawnee (2006).  Curriculum Development and Technology Incorporation in Teaching Neuroscience to Graduate Students in a Medical School Environment  Advances in Physiology Education, 30, 1. 

Today's neuroscience faculty member wears multiple hats and requires diverse skills to succeed in the competitive environment in which they find themselves. A common refrain from graduates is that there is a need for better training in the diverse, multiple skills that they will need to succeed in obtaining a faculty position and excelling in that position once it is obtained. Our university recently developed a new neuroscience graduate program that allowed us to create a curriculum and core courses de novo and that could be tailored to provide training in diverse skills used by everyday neuroscience faculty members. The current article details our rationale, design, and implementation of this new curriculum and its two major core courses. The genesis of the new curriculum also provided an opportune time to introduce and test new teaching technology in the two neuroscience core courses. The technology incorporated included on-line WebCT course sites, computer performance system, and the Tegrity system. Herein, we elaborate on our experiences with the use of this technology in the small class graduate course setting and provide insight on student feedback on the perceived effectiveness of the technology. The mechanisms and considerations that are needed for incorporation of such technology are also discussed. While no single curriculum or technology incorporation scheme will be applicable to all programs, it is hoped that our experiences in curriculum design and technology incorporation will be beneficial to other universities as they consider refining existing programs or beginning new ones.

Branoff, Theodore J. (2000).  Spatial Visualization Measurement: A Modification of the Purdue Spatial Visualization Test - Visualization of Rotations.  Engineering Design Graphics Journal, 64, 2. 

Investigates the effectiveness of using trimetric pictorials instead of isometric pictorials on the Purdue Spatial Visualization Test - Visualization of Rotations (Guay, 1977). Records student responses and response times as well as information on gender, current major, and number of previous graphics courses completed. 

Branson, Robert K. (2002).  Critical Policy Alternatives for Educational Technology.  Educational Technology, 42, 5. 

Discusses attempts at educational reform and suggests that solutions to educational problems must be based on solid research. Topics include paradigm shifts for performance improvement; the need for new organizational structures; educational policy; programmatic research and development; performance support systems; and the effective use of technology and scalability.

Brantley-Dias, Laurie; Calandra, Brendan (2007).  A Practical Design Model for Novice Teachers  Educational Technology Magazine: The Magazine for Managers of Change in Education, 47, 4. 

Novice teachers encounter a variety of challenges and uncertainties, not limited to classroom management, cultural diversity, subject matter expertise, integrating technology, and instructional design. The act of planning, both physically and mentally, is a way to diminish these uncertainties. The purpose of this article is to suggest a design model that can be used by instructional designers and teacher educators to foster reflective, systematic instructional planning in novice teachers.

Brantley-Dias, Laurie; Calandra, Brendan; Harmon, Steve W.; Shoffner, Mary B. (2006).  An Analysis of Collaboration between Colleges of Education and Arts & Sciences in PT3  TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 50, 3. 

This paper seeks to examine efforts by PT3 projects over the last several years to increase collaboration among education and arts & sciences faculty. To what extent have PT3 projects sought to address this issue? How successful have they been? What barriers have they faced? What lessons have they learned? In this article, the authors seek to examine these and other questions in order to gain insight that allows to improve teacher education overall. Specifically, the authors discuss the methods they used to analyze the projects, common approaches of the projects, and lessons learned from the projects. They conclude by discussing implications of their findings, particularly with respect to forming partnerships and writing grants.

Branzburg, Jeffrey (2004).  How to Incorporate Multimedia into Documents  Technology & Learning, 25, 2. 

Multimedia is a mixture of text, audio, video, graphics, and images. Research studies have shown that higher levels of learning occur when students are presented information via multimedia rather than a single medium. The actual mechanics of inserting multimedia components into a file varies from application to application. For example, to insert a movie or sound clip into PowerPoint, go to the Insert menu and choose Movies and Sounds. In AppleWorks, go to the File menu and choose Insert. Multimedia is inserted into a document either by "embedding" (actually becoming part of the document) or by "linking" (in which the document and the multimedia clip remain as two separate files). If the files are linked, and the presentation is copied to another computer, one needs to make sure he also copies the video and audio files he has inserted. The author suggests that one keeps his presentation and any inserted files all in the same folder, then copy the whole folder.

Branzburg, Jeffrey (2005).  Compress Your Files  Technology & Learning, 25, 6. 

File compression enables data to be squeezed together, greatly reducing file size. Why would someone want to do this? Reducing file size enables the sending and receiving of files over the Internet more quickly, the ability to store more files on the hard drive, and the ability pack many related files into one archive (for example, all files related to the same project). This article briefly explains how file compression works.

Branzburg, Jeffrey (2005).  How to Use the Moodle Course Management System  Technology & Learning, 26, 1. 

The Moodle course management system is an open source system that educators can use to create online courses. Begun in 1999, the Moodle community has now grown so that by early June 2005 there were about 3,500 Moodle sites in more than 100 countries (and that counts only registered users). To use Moodle, one first needs to install it on a Web server that his teachers and students can access (both at school and at home). After his network specialist installs Moodle on his school or district's Web server, they need to set up his teacher account; then he can create his online course. He begins by specifying course settings, such as the format of the course, its title, when it starts, and so forth. From there, one builds his course!

Branzburg, Jeffrey (2006).  Use an Interactive Whiteboard: Get a Handle on How This Technology Can Spice up the Classroom  Technology & Learning, 26, 6. 

Interactive whiteboards are desirable peripherals these days. When hooked up to a computer, the whiteboard's screen becomes a "live" computer desktop, which can be tapped to pull down menus, highlight, and move or open files. Users can also circle relevant sections on the projected image, draw geometric figures, and underline. Then they can save the screen--complete with annotations--which can then be e-mailed, made available on a shared server, or printed out. This article provides several ideas for the applications of interactive whiteboards.

Branzburg, Jeffrey (2006).  Make Your Voice Heard!  Technology & Learning, 27, 3. 

A podcast is a method of distributing multimedia files, usually (but not limited to) audio in the MP3 format, over the Internet to subscribers. Anybody can be a subscriber--one only needs the proper software to receive the subscription. In this article, the author discusses how to create one's own podcast. Before creating the podcast, one needs a way to record the audio, an appropriate location on the Internet to which one can upload it, and a method for people to find and subscribe to the podcast. Of course, one needs compelling content to record. Two popular software recording programs are the cross-platform program Audacity, a free audio recorder and editor, and Apple's GarageBand (part of the iLife suite). A microphone for your computer--if not already built in--can cost as little as $5 or as much as $150, depending on quality.

Branzburg, Jeffrey (2007).  I, Director  Technology & Learning, 27, 9. 

Look no further than to the popularity of C-SPAN's annual video documentary competition for middle and high schoolers, and it's obvious that video editing, and the technology that comes with it, is important to today's students. In the past it was a complex, involved, and expensive process. Video editing is now within the reach of anybody with a PC or Mac, both of which come with software (Windows Movie Maker and iMovie, respectively) on which students (and teachers as well) can cut their teeth. Even high-end software products (such as Final Cut Pro and Avid) are now affordable. As a 21st-century teacher, what do you need in order to understand video editing? Either a PC or a Mac with video-editing software, as well as a source of video (such as a digital video camera or downloaded video) on which you can work. Optional, but useful, would be a microphone to record additional audio. To illustrate an easy, low-end way to begin and to practice, the author describes how he used the video capability of his cell phone (an LG 8600) and shares his experience in creating a quick, short video using a variety of multimedia elements.

Branzburg, Jeffrey (2007).  Whiteboards at Your Service: Interactive Whiteboards Can Assist Teachers, Students, Trainers, and District Office Personnel  Technology & Learning, 28, 2. 

Interactive whiteboards have made quite a splash in classrooms in recent years. When a computer image is projected on the whiteboard using an LCD projector, users can directly control the computer from the whiteboard. In some systems such as Smart and Mimio, the finger is used in place of a mouse to open and run programs or move windows around. In the Numonics system a multimedia pen is used directly on the board. Teachers (or students) can annotate the whiteboard with notes and drawings, save those files onto the computer, and then record a video of a sequence of events. Whatever one can do at a computer screen, one can do at an interactive whiteboard--and easily include large groups or the whole class in the process. This article presents several ideas for integrating whiteboards into the classroom. These ideas include recording, graphic organizers, presentations, interactive software, Google Earth, interactive mathematics, and quizzes and games. The article includes a list of manufacturers of interactive whiteboards that offer lessons and activities on their websites.

Branzburg, Jeffrey (2007).  You Can Take It with You: How to Integrate Video Segments in Curriculum--Without Worry  Technology & Learning, 28, 3. 

Video-sharing sites such as YouTube and Google Video contain a great deal of education-related content. For example, YouTube's CitizenTube allows students to access presidential candidates' videos and interviews. However, YouTube and Google Video also contain inappropriate material for students, and therefore several schools and districts have blocked access to those sites. So, how does one get hold of the most useful videos and leave the rest? In this article, the author offers tips to teachers on how they can integrate only appropriate video segments into their curriculum.

Branzburg, Jeffrey (2008).  Creating an Interactive PDF  Technology & Learning, 28, 6. 

There are many ways to begin a PDF document using Adobe Acrobat. The easiest and most popular way is to create the document in another application (such as Microsoft Word) and then use the Adobe Acrobat software to convert it to a PDF. In this article, the author describes how he used Acrobat's many tools in his project--an interactive student-handout PDF about the 2008 presidential election.

Brassell, Danny (2007).  News Flash! (1-3): Newspaper Activities to Meet Language-Arts Standards & Differentiate Instruction  [Crystal Springs Books] 

Meeting the standards. Differentiating. Intriguing, involving, and inspiring students. Teachers meet standards; differentiate instruction; and intrigue, involve, and inspire students with these innovative lessons ripped from the headlines--and from the comics, the weather map, and the classified ads. The author offers step-by-step directions for quick newspaper-based activities--many with reproducibles--to teach everything from capitalization and punctuation to alliteration and onomatopoeia. Tips on getting free or reduced-cost newspapers for the classroom are also included. The book contains the following chapters: (1) Why Use Newspapers--and Where to Get Them; (2) Getting to Know Newspapers; (3) Word Analysis & Fluency; (4) Vocabulary Development; (5) Reading Comprehension; (6) Literary Response & Analysis; (7) Writing Strategies; (8) Writing Applications; (9) Writing Conventions; and (10) Listening & Speaking.

Braswell, Ray, Ed. (2001).  Special Needs. [SITE 2001 Section]. 

This document contains the following papers on special needs from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference: (1) "Preparing Teachers To Use Assistive Technology in Inclusive Settings" (Dina Rosen and Arlene Bloom); (2) "Academic Achievement Problems: Developing Curriculum Based Software To Help Low Achievers" (Xavier Bornas and Jordi Llabres); (3) "The Need for Assistive Technology in Educational Technology" (Terence Cavanaugh); (4) "Forming Personnel, Creating Cultures. Participative System for Preparing Content Providers for Homepages Addressed to People with Special Needs" (Ana Loureiro Jurema and others); (5) "Preparation of Educators To Provide Effective Computer-Based Assistive Technology Accommodations for Students with Disabilities" (Suzanne Lamorey and Ivana Bartarelo); (6) "Website 101: Creating Annotated Special Education Bibliotherapy with Children's & Young Adult Books" (Philip Lanasa and others); (7) "Integrating Technology in Classrooms with Learning Disabled Students: Teachers' Needs and Professional Development Implications" (Jean Loiselle and others); (8) "The Integration of Assistive and Adaptive Technologies into the Preservice and Advanced-Level Courses of Instructional Technology and Special Education" (Caroline M. Crawford and Sylvia S. Martin); (9) "Designing Accessible Web Sites for People with Disabilities" (Robert V. Price); (10) "Assistive Learning within a Special Needs Environment" (Randy L. Seevers and others); and (11) "Special Educators' Technology Literacy: Identifying the Void" (Roberta K. Weber and others). Most papers contain references. | [FULL TEXT]

Bratina, Tuiren A.; Hayes, Darrin; Blumsack, Steven L. (2002).  Preparing Teachers To Use Learning Objects.  Technology Source, 2002. 

Describes advantages of using learning objects for technology-supported instruction, with a focus on higher education. Explores why teachers would want to use them, and explains how to facilitate their use. Emphasizes effective implementation of existing learning objects, rather than the separate issue of designing learning objects.

Braun, Joseph A., Jr. (2004).  Technology in the Classroom: Tools for Building Stronger Communities and Better Citizens  Kappa Delta Pi Record, 40, 2. 

Instead of a bane to the future of democratic living in the United States, technology could be a tool to build democratic understanding and ways of living. Using techniques described in this article, which focus on three democratic principles, classroom teachers can incorporate technology as an instructional tool while at the same time furthering goals of the schools' civic mission, the preparation of the next generation of citizens. The first principle considers specific tools, such as search engines and databases, which can play a vital role in helping students become informed citizens. Resources are described in the second principle, which addresses questions of technology and freedoms of speech, privacy, and the right to assemble. The role of moral education and resources for service learning are the focus of the third principle.

Bravo, Crescencio; Redondo, Miguel A.; Ortega, Manuel; Verdejo, M. Felisa (2006).  Collaborative Environments for the Learning of Design: A Model and a Case Study in Domotics  Computers and Education, 46, 2. 

Design plays a central role in a range of subjects at different educational levels. Students have to acquire the knowledge necessary for the execution of tasks that enable them to construct an artefact or model that can be tested by simulation and that satisfies some requirements and verifies some constraints. They achieve this by means of a design process. In some design domains, there is a lack of teaching tools from a learner-centred perspective. Moreover, when these domains are complex, the design problems that the students have to solve during their learning process require the design activity to be carried out in group. In response to this situation, we have developed a design model and a collaborative learning method. Using this conceptual framework, we have built a collaborative environment for the learning of domotical design by means of complex problem solving, with an emphasis on synchronous collaboration for work distribution, discussion, design in shared surfaces and simulation. This environment has already been evaluated and used in real teaching experiences.

Brawner, Catherine E.; Allen, Rodney H. (2006).  Future Teachers' Classroom Applications of Technology  Computers in the Schools, 23, 1-2. 

Student teachers from North Carolina's public teacher preparation institutions were surveyed in 2002 and 2003 to learn about the environment in which they taught and the activities they undertook with respect to using technology. Responses regarding the "most successful" use of technology in the classroom were analyzed to determine if they reflected Type I or Type II applications of technology as defined by Maddux, Johnson, and Willis (1997). Type I, or drill-and-practice applications, were found at all grade levels but were most prevalent in K-2 classrooms. The most common of the Type II applications, those that require active intellectual involvement by the learner, was using the Internet for research. Examples of integrated Type II activities are provided.

Bray, Marty; Pugalee, David; Flowers, Claudia P.; Algozzine, Bob (2007).  Accessibility of Middle Schools' Web Sites for Students with Disabilities  Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies

Many middle schools use the Web to disseminate and gather information. Online barriers often limit the accessibility of the Web for students with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accessibility of home pages of a sample of middle schools. The authors located 165 Web sites using a popular online directory and evaluated the sites for accessibility. A software program quantified the number of accessibility errors at each site. Most middle school home pages had accessibility problems, and the majority of them represented severe concerns that should be given a high priority for improvement. The good news is that the majority of the errors can easily be corrected. The work reflects a need for middle schools to continuously examine the accessibility of their home pages. Direction for improving accessibility is provided.

Bray, Nathaniel J.; Del Favero, Marietta (2004).  Sociological Explanations for Faculty and Student Classroom Incivilities  New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2004, 99. 

To understand the current apparent upsurge in classroom incivility, the authors turn to the literature for possible causes and solutions.

Bray, Nathaniel J.; Harris, Michael S.; Major, Claire (2007).  New Verse or the Same Old Chorus?: Looking Holistically at Distance Education Research  Research in Higher Education, 48, 7. 

While there continues to be a proliferation in the number of studies conducted on various aspects of distance education, we are often left with little understanding of the holistic planning and effects of it. This paper draws lessons learned from the literature on distance education over the past five years. This review did not seek to be exhaustive in presenting the findings of every study, but instead focuses on specific instruction we can take from past research at the institutional, faculty, and student levels.

Brazburg, Jeffrey (2007).  Ready for Your Close up? Create and Post a Video Blog with Ease  Technology & Learning, 27, 6. 

Blogs, which began as a way to easily post one's thoughts online in print, have evolved to include multimedia capabilities. A blog is not limited to text--audio and video can be incorporated. A video blog (commonly called a vlog) is a blog that uses video in its posts. People who create vlogs are vloggers, and the worldwide community of vlogs and vloggers is the vlogosphere. Many vlogs are student-created projects. It's a great learning experience. In this article, the author offers tips on how to create and post videos on blogs.

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Belanger, Yvonne (2000).  Laptop Computers in the K-12 Classroom. ERIC Digest. 

Improvements in portable computing technology and examples of successful pilot programs using laptop computers and other portables have inspired many K-12 schools to consider laptops for their students. In a study of Anytime Anywhere Learning, commissioned by Microsoft (published as the Rockman Report), five models were identified of laptop use currently in place at the K-12 level: concentrated, where each student has his/her own laptop for use at home or in school; class set, where a school-purchased classroom set is shared among teachers; dispersed, where in any given classroom there are students with and without laptops; desktop, where each classroom is permanently assigned a few laptops for students to share; and mixed, which is some combination of these models. While the future of mobile computing in K-12 education is still uncertain, and though solutions of cost, technical support needs, security, and equitable access remain challenges for many schools, many with laptop programs remain positive and enthusiastic about the changes observed and benefits their students derive from access to portable computers. Although many laptop programs are new and studies are still in progress, research has shown educational benefits from the use of laptops, particularly with respect to increasing student motivation and creating more student-centered classrooms. | [FULL TEXT]

Belanich, James; Wisher, Robert A.; Orvis, Kara L. (2004).  A Question-Collaboration Approach to Web-Based Learning  American Journal of Distance Education, 18, 3. 

A Web-based tool that allows students to generate multiple-choice questions in a collaborative, distributed setting was evaluated through several comparisons. Students first completed a Web-based tutorial on writing effective multiple-choice questions and then authored questions on a given topic. Next, using the Web-based tool, groups of students reviewed and critiqued questions written by others within their group on the same topic. Based on these critiques, students were permitted to modify their original questions. They then were tested on questions prepared by other groups, either on the same or on other topics. Students who collaborated within a topic scored approximately 7% higher on the test within that topic than students who either collaborated on other topics or did not use the collaboration tool. Of the 336 questions developed, 77% were considered acceptable by instructors, indicating that the questions could be repurposed for inclusion in future tests. A majority of the critiques were constructive, indicating that the collaborative process was supportive of learning.

Belawati, Tian; Zuhairi, Amin (2007).  The Practice of a Quality Assurance System in Open and Distance Learning: A Case Study at Universitas Terbuka Indonesia (The Indonesia Open University)  [Online Submission] 

Quality assurance for distance higher education is one of the main concerns among institutions and stakeholders today. This paper examines the experiences of Universitas Terbuka (UT), which has initiated and implemented an innovative strategy of quality assurance (QA) for continuous improvement. The credo of the UT quality assurance system is "We write what we do. We do what we write. We check. We improve continuously!" Implementing a quality management system at the UT, a mega-university with a student body of more than a quarter of a million and which involved a network of participating institutions and regional centers, was a formidable task to accomplish. To achieve its lofty goal, UT adopted and contextualized the draft of the Asian Association of Open Universities (AAOU) QA Framework to launch its own quality assurance program. This has taken a great deal of commitment and participation of all staff involved. QA at the UT required systematic and step-by-step processes, including development of the QA framework and job manuals, raising awareness and commitment amongst all staff involved, internal assessment, and integration of QA programs into the university's annual action plans, external assessment and benchmarking. This paper concludes that quality assurance must be developed as institutional policy and strategy for continuous improvement. [This article was published in the Regional Focus Issue: Changing Faces of Open and Distance Education in Asia.] | [FULL TEXT]

Belcastro, Frank P. (2002).  Electronic Technology and Its Use with Rural Gifted Students.  Roeper Review, 25, 1. 

Electronic technology can be used to overcome many of the barriers to delivering services to rural schools and it can expand the world of rural gifted students. On-line college and high school sites offering courses are listed. Also listed is a site for tutoring and one offering help for teachers. 

Belcastro, Frank P. (2004).  Rural Gifted Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: How Electronic Technology Can Help  American Annals of the Deaf, 149, 4. 

Electronic technology can be used to overcome many of the barriers and other factors that restrict delivery of services to rural schools; it can also expand the world of rural gifted students who are deaf or hard of hearing. Online college and high school Web sites that offer courses are listed, as well as a Web site for tutoring and one offering help for teachers of rural gifted students who are deaf or hard of hearing. Recommendations are made for ways that legislatures and rural school districts can make Internet resources and assistive technology more widely available in rural educational settings.

Belcastro, Frank P. (2006).  Computers and Students and Adults Who Are Impaired  [Online Submission] 

Assistive devices and assistive software make it possible for the impaired to use computers with all of its processing programs and to access the Internet. Assistive software and assistive devices are described that are specifically intended for students and adults who are blind or visually impaired, students and adults who are deaf or hard of hearing, and students and adults who are motor impaired. Recommendations and conclusions are drawn. | [FULL TEXT]

Beldarrain, Yoany (2006).  Distance Education Trends: Integrating New Technologies to Foster Student Interaction and Collaboration  Distance Education, 27, 2. 

Current trends in the field of distance education indicate a shift in pedagogical perspectives and theoretical frameworks, with student interaction at the heart of learner-centered constructivist environments. The purpose of this article is to explore the benefits of using emerging technology tools such as wikis, blogs, and podcasts to foster student interaction in online learning. It also reviews social software applications such as Writeboard[TM], InstaColl[TM], and Imeem[TM]. Although emerging technologies offer a vast range of opportunities for promoting collaboration in both synchronous and asynchronous learning environments, distance education programs around the globe face challenges that may limit or deter implementation of these technologies. This article probes the influence of technology on theory and the possible implications this influence affords.

Bell McKenzie, Kathryn; Joseph Scheurich, James (2004).  The Corporatizing and Privatizing of Schooling: A Call for Grounded Critical Praxis  Educational Theory, 54, 4. 

Our review of Henry Giroux's Stealing Innocence, Alex Molnar's Giving Kids the Business, and Kenneth Saltman's Collateral Damage describes how these authors assess the problems posed by contemporary corporate influences on public schools and considers the solutions they offer to counter those influences. We also examine Henry Levin's edited collection Privatizing Education, in which various authors address research on privatization in schooling. In our analysis of this book, we highlight the underlying themes of the wide-ranging chapters. Next, we critique all four books, focusing primarily on the books by Giroux, Molnar, and Saltman. We suggest that these three authors provide a somewhat totalized and ahistorical portrait of contemporary corporate influences on schooling and offer a solution that depends on teachers acting as democratic revolutionaries, though there is no realistic possibility that teachers today would take on this role. In contrast, we call for a critical theory and practice that is grounded both in a more complex understanding of the current historical context and also in a dialogical engagement with students, teachers, parents, and other community members.

Bell, Ann (2005).  Creating Digital Video in Your School  Library Media Connection, 24, 2. 

Creating digital videos provides students with practice in critical 21st century communication skills, as the video production involves critical thinking, general observation, and analysis and perspective-making skills. Producing video helps students appreciate literature and other expressions of information and students creating digital video contribute positively to the learning community and society and recognize the importance of information in a democratic society.

Bell, Edwin D.; Ireh, Madu (2002).  Planned Change in Teacher Education: Unfreezing the Status Quo through the Integration of Technology. 

This study examined planned change in Winston-Salem State University's teacher education program. An external review of the School of Education indicated a weakness in program planning and curriculum design. This review stimulated planned change initiative to strengthen teacher education. Factors influencing the internal environment of teacher education were noted, including uneven student performance on Praxis II examinations. In examining this uneven performance, researchers determined that instruction was a function of the preferences of whichever faculty member taught each course. In many cases, faculty did not utilize recommended standards or principles. Researchers worked to re-design the special education curriculum and seek pilot-test status for NCATE 2000 standards with their scheduled accreditation visit. Neither initiative generated the necessary change, so a PT3 grant, Technology Infusion Project, was secured. The project emphasized professional development for faculty and cooperating teachers, providing workshops on curriculum alignment, computer skills, and multimedia technology use. Over time, training became more sophisticated. Two years of evaluation data suggest that teachers found the workshops useful. The workshops resulted in enhanced student performance. Teachers felt more competent in curriculum design, assessment, and computer utilization. They appreciated the opportunity to network. Quality and accessibility of technical support were significant factors in participants' skills and knowledge acquisition. | [FULL TEXT]

Bell, Lee; Jones, David; King, Julia; Nicholson, Claire; Pinks, Andrew (2007).  May the Force Be Whiteboard!  Mathematics Teaching Incorporating Micromath

As final year BA and Qulified Teacher Status students, the authors thought they had already realised the power of using an interactive whiteboard (IWB). The use of information and communications technology is something they have to consider in the planning in every one of their lessons, including PE. However, the challenge of planning a maths lesson that exploits the power of the IWB forced them to think about just what is possible. When they had to deliver a year 6 mathematics lesson on an area of their choosing that fully demonstrated their knowledge of the tools available for use on an IWB for a class that they knew very little about, they decided to plan a lesson exploring the properties of 2D shapes and how these properties can be used to classify them. In this article, the authors describe this themed lesson, which made maximum use of an IWB, and the lessons they learned about integrating technology in the classroom. They conclude that using an IWB enhances lessons, not only in maths but across the curriculum.

Bell, Lori; Peters, Thomas A. (2004).  Online Programming Can Be a Library Oasis on the Internet  Computers in Libraries, 24 n10 p18-20, 22-24 Nov-Dec 2004. 

The Internet is many things to many people. Some see the Internet as the Wild West, a yawning wilderness waiting to be tamed and cultivated. For companies like eBay, the Internet is a steady, transaction-based revenue stream. For the dot-com companies, the Internet was perceived as a California gold rush. In terms of online library programming for patrons, the Internet currently is a desert. Online Programming for All Libraries, aka OPAL (http://www.opal-online.org), is an outpost of progress, a library oasis amid the shifting sands of the Internet. This article describes a wonderful, versatile technology from Talking Communities (http://www.talkingcommunities.com) called iVocalize, which provides Internet conferencing and programming software.

Bell, Malcolm; Bell, Wendy (2005).  It's Installed...Now Get on with It! Looking beyond the Software to the Cultural Change  British Journal of Educational Technology, 36, 4. 

This case study looks at the lessons learned from the ultimately successful implementation of the Blackboard Managed Learning Environment at Northumbria University and explores how these are now being applied to the matching implementation at a local further education college, which we are supporting. The study identifies key aspects that emerged from Northumbria's experience -- the application of models of innovation from both educational and business worlds, the need to take account of the impact of cultural change, the need for effective staff development for all stakeholders, the need for a "road map" for the development, and the need for ongoing dialogue with clients (staff) and customers (students). It reflects upon how Northumbria's approach has led to the emergence of a learning organisation that is adaptive and responsive and how a business approach can be applied to higher and further education innovations.

Bell, Mary Ann (2005).  State-Funded Informational Databases: You May Lose Them Even if You Use Them!  Teacher Librarian, 32, 3. 

State-funded informational databases are a boon to students, teachers, and teacher-librarians, but as states struggle with budgets, funding for these resources is endangered survey results on the status of databases in all fifty states along with suggestions for keeping the databases or dealing with their absence follow. Today's students and teachers need authoritative, current sources of information for research and learning. Informational databases are invaluable resources and must be made available to all students regardless of the size or affluence of their schools and districts. Prior to the 2003-2004 school year, Texas teacher-librarians were proud to be part of an initiative that provided K-12 students such access. In exchange for uploading library collections to a state union catalog and agreeing to participate in interlibrary loan, Texas teacher-librarians could join a consortium called Texas Library Connection, or TLC, and thus have access to databases including the Gale offerings, Encyclopedia Britannica, and others. Students could log on at home as well as at school.

Bell, Mary Ann (2005).  Encouraging Image-Savvy Imagination: Creative and Ethical Use of Graphics  Library Media Connection, 23, 6. 

The increasing use of graphics by students and teachers starting with clip art on worksheets and handouts is discussed. A few tips to the students regarding the use of graphics are provided.

Bell, Paul D. (2007).  Predictors of College Student Achievement in Undergraduate Asynchronous Web-Based Courses  Education, 127, 4. 

This study examined the effects of self-regulated learning (SRL) and epistemological beliefs (EB) on individual learner levels of academic achievement in Web-based learning environments while holding constant the effect of computer self-efficacy, reason for taking an online course, prior college academic achievement, and parental level of education. The study constituents included 201 undergraduate students enrolled in a variety of asynchronous Web-based courses at a university in the southeastern United States. Data was collected via a Web-based questionnaire and subjected to the following analyses: separate exploratory factor analyses of the self-regulated learning and the epistemological beliefs question items, correlations between the independent variables and the dependent variable, and linear regression of final course grades with all the variables in the model. Analysis of the data revealed that three independent variables (prior academic achievement (GPA), expectancy for learning, and an interaction term based on the cross product of these two variables were significant predictors in the model of learning achievement in asynchronous online courses. Discussion of the study's predictive model follows.

Bell, Randy L.; Lederman, Norman G. (2003).  Understandings of the Nature of Science and Decision Making on Science and Technology Based Issues.  Science Education, 87, 3. 

Investigates the role of the nature of science in decision making on science- and technology-based issues. Delineates factors and reasoning associated with types of decisions. Compares decision influence factors and decision-making strategies. Indicates that participants based their decisions primarily on personal values, morals/ethics, and social concerns and the nature of science did not figure prominently in decisions.

Bell, Randy L.; Park, John C.; Toti, Doug (2004).  Digital Images in the Science Classroom. In the Curriculum--Science  Learning and Leading with Technology, 31, 8. 

In many ways, the role of visualization in science is distinct from other disciplines. Many natural processes--and even some objects--are too small, too fast, too slow, or too far away to view without highly specialized equipment. Of course, students at every grade level can understand a phenomenon better when they can see it. That is why textbooks attempt to illustrate scientific concepts with photographs and diagrams, and science teachers stock their classrooms with microscopes. Teachers have also taken advantage of videotapes and laserdiscs to present a wider variety of visual images to students. The World Wide Web opened access to even more up-to-the-minute, state-of-the-art scientific images. In all these examples, however, the control of the content remains solely with the teacher. The new generation of imaging sensors (such as charge coupled displays, or CCDs) have made digital cameras and other technologies possible that can put the control of image making in the hands of students. This article discusses the following functionality of imaging sensors for students: acquiring; analyzing; creating; and communicating. The article concludes that digital images offer a means of extending and building upon traditional methods of inquiry in science class. The role of the student can shift from passive observer to engaged participant. Benefits include the ability to capture events that would not otherwise be observable, and to share conclusions about such events through images incorporated into science journals and Web sites. | [FULL TEXT]

Bell, Randy L.; Trundle, Kathy Cabe (2008).  The Use of a Computer Simulation to Promote Scientific Conceptions of Moon Phases  Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 45, 3. 

This study described the conceptual understandings of 50 early childhood (Pre-K-3) preservice teachers about standards-based lunar concepts before and after inquiry-based instruction utilizing educational technology. The instructional intervention integrated the planetarium software "Starry Night Backyard[TM]" with instruction on moon phases from "Physics by Inquiry" by McDermott (1996). Data sources included drawings, interviews, and a lunar shapes card sort. Videotapes of participants' interviews were used along with the drawings and card sorting responses during data analysis. The various data were analyzed via a constant comparative method in order to produce profiles of each participant's pre- and postinstruction conceptual understandings of moon phases. Results indicated that before instruction none of the participants understood the cause of moon phases, and none were able to draw both scientific moon shapes and sequences. After the instruction with technology integration, most participants (82%) held a scientific understanding of the cause of moon phases and were able to draw scientific shapes and sequences (80%). The results of this study demonstrate that a well-designed computer simulation used within a conceptual change model of instruction can be very effective in promoting scientific understandings.

Bell, Reginald L.; Quazi, Rahim (2005).  Student Perceptions of Effective Visual Aid Usage  [Online Submission, Journal of Business and Leadership: Research, Practice and Teaching v1 n1 p234-244] 

This study investigates whether significant differences exist across college undergraduates' grade levels, majors, gender, age levels, and income levels regarding their perceptions of visual aid usage in effective presentations. These differences were measured by subjecting 226 college undergraduates at a medium sized state university to a Visual Aid Usage Presentation Survey (VAUPS). Principal component factor analysis was performed on collected data, which revealed significant differences in students' perceptions across declared majors and college grade levels on all factors. These results suggest that business professors should present visual information according to differing perceptions of effectiveness across majors and grade levels. The Visual Aid Usage Presentation Survey (VAUPS) is appended.  | [FULL TEXT]

Bell, Tim; Cockburn, Andy; McKenzie, Bruce; Vargo, John (2001).  Flexible Delivery Damaging to Learning? Lessons from the Canterbury Digital Lectures Project. 

Preparing courses for flexible delivery and distance education is normally a time-consuming and expensive process. This paper describes the design and evaluation of a system that automatically captures and indexes audio and video streams of traditional university lectures without demanding any changes in the style or tools used by teachers. Using a "Wizard-of-Oz" technique to simulate the automatic indexing, a 4-month trial of the system in a large (746 students) first year Computer Studies course was run. The results reveal some surprising social implications of making flexible delivery available to students at a residential university. Early in the trial, many students expressed an intention to use the system, but few used it. Late in the course, many students stated that they urgently needed the system for revision, but even fewer used it. At the same time, lecture attendance appeared to be lower than normal. It is hypothesized that the availability of a flexible alternative to lectures removed the necessity of attending lectures, and that students deceived themselves about their intentions to catch up using the digital medium.   | [FULL TEXT]

Bellard, Eloise M. (2005).  Information Literacy Needs of Nontraditional Graduate Students in Social Work  Research Strategies, 20, 4. 

The increased use of technology in academia combined with the challenges posed by growing enrollments of nontraditional graduate students have forced institutions to adapt educational programs to insure student retention and academic success. This case study examines student perceptions and responses to a required information literacy workshop, developed for a Masters in Social Work, herein referred to as an MSW program. A review of the literature on information literacy needs of graduate students (specifically nontraditional students entering MSW programs) is presented below. Also included are the results of a pre/post-questionnaire that was developed and administered in the fall of 2003/2004 along with classroom observations to determine if additional information literacy instruction was necessary. The findings suggested that there was significant need for additional instruction and that graduate students recognize the need for information literacy instruction throughout their MSW track.

Beller, Caroline; Griffith, Priscilla; Williams, Samella; Orr, Betsy; Hunt, Sharon (2001).  Who Will Teach for Arkansas? 

This paper describes the Teach for Arkansas program, a partnership which addresses the problem of recruiting student teachers who reflect the state's diverse cultures and who will be successful teaching diverse students. Partners include: the University of Arkansas; Phillips Community College and the Delta public schools; the SBC Foundation; and the Walton Family Foundation. The program recruits students to a teacher education program administered by the University of Arkansas which is delivered via technology at Phillips Community College. A full-time University of Arkansas faculty member was hired from the Delta to work with the program, teach courses, and supervise student teaching. This faculty member's salary is paid by the Walton Family Foundation, as are minority students' tuitions. As part of their internship during the program's fifth year, students teach in Delta schools, which provides faculty development for inservice teachers. The SBC Foundation has provided a grant for fifth year students to attend the Arkansas Reading Association conference in Little Rock so that distance education students have a chance to leave their campus and meet traditional students from the University of Arkansas campus. | [FULL TEXT]

Belson, Sarah Irvine (2002).  Colloquium: Serendipity and the Teachable Moment.  TECHNOS, 11, 1. 

Discusses how collaborative technologies and computer-based communication have influenced preservice teacher education. Considers the professor's relationship with online students; preparing teachers to interact with students through the new technologies; and the professor as role model for good teaching and facilitator of learning.

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Bement, Arden L. (2007).  Cyberinfrastructure: The Second Revolution  Chronicle of Higher Education, 53, 18. 

The engine of change for the next revolution is cyberinfrastructure, a comprehensive phenomenon that involves the creation, dissemination, preservation, and application of knowledge. It adds new dimensions that greatly increase transformational potential. Cyberinfrastructure combines complex elements to create a dynamic system. It eclipses its many hardware and software components to enable people and their interactions with technology to become the central focus. At the heart of the cyberinfrastructure vision are cultural communities that support peer-to-peer collaboration and new modes of education. They are distributed-knowledge communities in an institutional context, not of bricks and mortar like the traditional university, but rather virtual organizations that work across institutional boundaries--and ultimately around the globe.

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Bayat, Nihat (2007).  The Effectiveness of Advance Organizers on the Signification of Poetic Images  Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 7, 3. 

Advance organizers activate the most suitable schema to learn new material. Poetic images are signified in schemata and the elements which are not expressed may be called by advance organizers. The purpose of this investigation is to discern the effectiveness of advance organizers on the signification of poetic images. Pretest-posttest experimental design with a control group was used in the study. The two sophomore groups from the Social Sciences Teaching department at Dokuz Eylul University formed the sample for the study. 74 students (36 in the experimental group, 38 in the control group) participated in the study. The experimental group was given advance organizers. Data were collected by the Achievement Test, measuring the signification of poetic images. There was a statistically significant difference (p less than 0.01) between the groups in the signification of poetic images after the treatment. The difference was in favor of the experimental group.

Bayerl, Katie (2007).  Rigor Plus Support: How Science Teachers Use Literacy Techniques to Get Students Ready for College  [Jobs for the Future] 

Schoolwide literacy--the teaching of reading, writing, speaking, and thinking practices in all content areas--is generally considered an effective, even necessary, approach to addressing the learning needs of adolescents. In early college high schools, which blend high school and college for students who are underserved in higher education, the need to identify and implement effective schoolwide literacy practices is perhaps most urgent. With seed funding from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, 14 early college high schools have led the Early College High School (ECHS) Literacy Network by piloting schoolwide literacy action plans since 2004. The three science teachers highlighted in this document teach in ECHS Literacy Network schools. Each of them, through a mix of individual research, innovation, and the support of colleagues, has crafted an approach to addressing literacy in a science classroom. Each classroom practice featured has been honed to a point where it is ripe for sharing, and is easily transferable to other content areas. The author encourages readers to use these strategies in their own classrooms and pass them along to colleagues.  | [FULL TEXT]

Baylor, Amy L. (2002).  Expanding Preservice Teachers' Metacognitive Awareness of Instructional Planning through Pedagogical Agents.  Educational Technology Research and Development, 50, 2. 

Describes an experimental study of preservice teachers who developed an instructional plan for a case study within the Multiple Intelligent Mentors Instructing Collaboratively (MIMIC) computer-based environment. Discusses systematic instructional planning (instructivist agent); constructivist agent; metacognitive awareness; attitude; and implications for teaching instructional planning to preservice teachers. 

Baylor, Amy L.; Ritchie, Donn (2002).  What Factors Facilitate Teacher Skill, Teacher Morale, and Perceived Student Learning in Technology-Using Classrooms?  Computers & Education, 39, 4. 

Investigated the impact of seven factors related to school technology (technology planning, leadership, curriculum alignment, professional development, technology use, teacher openness to change, and teacher non-school computer use) on five dependent measures (teacher's technology competency, technology integration, teacher morale, impact on student content acquisition, and higher order thinking skills).

Baylor, Amy L.; Ryu, Jeeheon (2003).  The Effects of Image and Animation in Enhancing Pedagogical Agent Persona  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 28, 4. 

The purpose of this experimental study was to test the role of image and animation on: a) learners' perceptions of pedagogical agent persona characteristics (i.e., extent to which agent was person-like, engaging, credible, and instructor-like); b) agent value; and c) performance. The primary analysis consisted of two contrast comparisons: 1) comparing the presence/absence of agent image; and 2) comparing static versus animated agent images. In the study, 75 preservice teachers developed an instructional plan for a case study involving designing economics instruction for the concepts of supply and demand within the MIMIC (Multiple Intelligent Mentors Instructing Collaboratively) agent-based environment. Overall, animation was found to be beneficial for all four persona characteristics, but not always as the single best implementation. For the agent to be perceived as instructor-like, a strong positive effect was found for the presence of agent animation. Agent credibility was facilitated by either a static or animated image, with the presence of an image being critical. Perceptions of the agent as engaging and person-like were also improved by animation, although person-like was not affected by presence/absence of image. Results are discussed in terms of implementing anthropomorphic pedagogical agents to support computer-based instruction.

Baylor, Amy; Kitsantas, Anastasia; Chung, Hyunmi (2001).  The Instructional Planning Self-Reflective Tool: A Method for Promoting Effective Lesson Planning.  Educational Technology, 41, 2. 

Explains the instructional planning self-reflective tool (IPSRT) that can be used to facilitate self-regulatory strategies, specifically self-monitoring and self-evaluation, in instructional planning for pre-service teachers. Discusses traditional instructional systems design, the importance of lesson planning, instructional goals and objectives, and instructional effectiveness.

Bayrak, Bekir; Kanli, Uygar; Ingec, Sebnem Kandil (2007).  To Compare the Effects of Computer Based Learning and the Laboratory Based Learning on Students' Achievement Regarding Electric Circuits  [Online Submission] 

In this study, the research problem was: "Is the computer based physics instruction as effective as laboratory intensive physics instruction with regards to academic success on electric circuits 9th grade students?" For this research of experimental quality the design of pre-test and post-test are applied with an experiment and a control group. The data are collected by "Computer Laboratory Interest Survey (CLIS)", "Physics Laboratory Interest Survey (PLIS)", "Electrical Circuits Success Test (ECST)". For the analyses of the data, the arithmetic mean, the standard deviation, dependent and independent t-tests are used. At the end of the study it is seen that there does not exist a significant difference between the instruction in laboratory and the instruction with computer to influence the success of the students. Thereby, it can be concluded that the computer based learning is as effective as the laboratory based learning on students' achievement.  [Abstract is provided in both English and Turkish.] | [FULL TEXT]

Bayrak, Beyza Karadeniz; Erkoc, Mehmet Fatih; Gul, Mustafa Onur (2007).  Integration Application in Interdisciplinary Teaching: Case of Science and Technology Areas  [Online Submission] 

Interdisciplinary teaching usually starts with question or subject and it continues as answering complicated questions. The basic objective in interdisciplinary teaching is not to transfer knowledge of a specific discipline but more to use knowledge of various disciplines for a specific aim. Interdisciplinary programs are composed of collaboration activities which are performed between two or more teachers/instructors. Rapid development of information and communication technologies increases the need of using technology in learning-teaching process. Using technology in learning medium provides enhance learning skills for students, attracts students' interests, focuses on student and helps to increase their motivation. In this study, it is aimed to examine interdisciplinary approach with details and to present applications of science and technology integration. It can be also counted a literature research. | [FULL TEXT]

Bayram, Servet (2005).  A Conceptual Framework for the Electronic Performance Support Systems within IBM Lotus Notes 6 (LN6) Example  [Online Submission] 

The concept of Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS) is containing multimedia or computer based instruction components that improves human performance by providing process simplification, performance information and decision support system. EPSS has become a hot topic for organizational development, human resources, performance technology, training, and educational development professionals. A conceptual framework of EPSS is constructed under five interrelated and interdependent domains for educational implications. The domains of the framework are online collaboration, cost-effectiveness, motivation, service management, and performance empowering. IBM Lotus Notes 6 (LN6) is used as an example application tool to illustrate the power of this framework. The framework describes a set of relevant events based upon deductive analyses for improving our understanding of the EPSS and its implications on education and training. The article is also pointed out that there are some similarities between the EPSS' and the LN6's specific features within this conceptual framework. It can provide some guidelines and benefits to researchers, educators, and designers as well.  | [FULL TEXT]

Bayram, Servet; Deniz, Levent; Erdogan, Yavuz (2008).  The Role of Personality Traits in Web Based Education  [Online Submission] 

This study aims to investigate the relationships among personality traits and learners' academic achievement in a web based environment and attitudes towards web based education. 127 students enrolled in the e-MBA Masters Degree of Bilgi University constituted the study group of the research. A survey method was used for the study and the data were collected by Web Based Education Attitudes Scale and The Adjective Check List (ACL). At the end of the study, it was revealed that the students were successful in the web based education environment with the average of 3.091 out of 4.00. The average of students' attitudes towards web based education was 97.212 out of 135. The arithmetical average of the items in the attitudes scale was 3.738 out of 5.00. Also, significant relationships were found between learners' personality traits, academic achievement and attitudes towards web based education. The findings revealed that personality traits explain about 53.2% of the academic achievement, and 52.7% of the attitudes towards web based education.  | [FULL TEXT]

Baytekin, Cetin (2006).  Developing Teaching Environment Using "Ant Technique" in Teacher Training. (From the Point of Educational Technology)  [Online Submission] 

Introduction: Countries dwell upon the quality in teacher training when raising the young generations. The teacher is the one who trains the young generations as good consumers, good producers and as the acquirers of the self-interest of their country in both the borders of their country and the globe. In international teacher training, all countries from the USA to Taiwan, have designated their standards and needs for the quality of teacher training. It is an obvious fact that, many research and studies are being done in teacher training in Turkey. Many methods and techniques have been used in teacher training. The Ant Technique is a new technique used in teacher training and developing instructional environment. Making teacher trainees orientated to cooperation and make use of innovations and making them apply these things to their teaching speed up the change and development. Problem: Is it possible to provide better teaching and learning environments using the present opportunities in training schools and teacher schools in the process of training teachers? Aim: To train teachers as individuals who are more sensitive toward their environments and to teach them to use the opportunities in their surroundings in the best way; To make them grasp the importance of carrying innovations into schools is only possible with the use of educational tools and material development and to make them apply this knowledge; To make them aware of the fact that the lack of educational tools and materials can be filled by using the opportunities in the environment in the best way. Method: This research was conducted with the students of the Technical Education Faculty who were the participants of the teacher training program. Video recordings of the teacher trainees in their training schools, teacher reports, student dossiers were evaluated and interpreted. Findings: (1) Teacher trainees applied the knowledge that they gained in the theoretic lessons into their teaching practice; (2) They got the zeal of providing new educational tools to the schools; (3) Guide teachers saw teacher trainees as real teachers and developed materials with them; (4) Teacher trainees showed the possibility of preparing the best teaching-learning environment with the limited opportunities and materials; and (5) Students prepared their training dossiers during the practice. Conclusion: Teacher candidates can adapt more to teaching when they are guided and when they see that the things that they say "we cannot do" become real. As a result of the use of the self-developed educational materials and the use of recent instructional methods, teacher trainees perform better ways of teaching which are observed and exemplified by the students of the Vocational High Schools as well. Recommendations: To make the Ant Technique widespread all over the country; To develop the creative thinking of the students and develop a new method of training teachers with the existing opportunities; To apply the Ant Technique in a coordinated way by the Ministry of Education and by the universities and to increase the instructional standards one step further.  [Abstract modified to meet ERIC guidelines.] | [FULL TEXT]

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Beck, Ann R.; Parette, Phil; Bailey, Rita L. (2005).  Multimedia Effectiveness in an AAC Preservice Setting  Journal of Special Education Technology, 20, 4. 

This study investigated the effectiveness of the CD, Families, Culture and AAC, as a culturally sensitive teaching tool for students enrolled in a speech-language pathology AAC course. Students enrolled in the course were divided into three learning format groups that (a) viewed the CD and engaged in learning challenges independently, (b) viewed the CD in class, and (c) had lecture only. Students took objective pre-post tests and also answered essay questions over the material after it was presented. Results indicated that the independent group made significantly smaller gains in pretest-posttest scores related to cultural content than did either the in-class viewing or the lecture group. No significant differences were found by learning group to answers to essay questions. Results are discussed and suggestions are given for appropriate classroom use of the CD. Appendix A contains Evaluation Questions.

Beck, Dennis; Ferdig, Richard E. (2008).  Evolving Roles of Online and Face-to-Face Instructors in a Lecture/Lab Hybrid Course  [Online Submission] 

Although lecture and lab courses are commonly used in higher education, there are potential problems with this format. However, technology is presenting new opportunities for teaching such a type of a course. This study explores the changes in the role of the instructors when a lecture and lab course evolved into a hybrid course, with the lecture portion of a course online and the labs kept face-to-face. As revealed through the use of discourse analysis, the roles of the instructors were transformed from teacher-centered to student-centered, low-interactor to high-interactor, and low-initiator to high-initiator. There was also an obvious merging or synthesis of the roles of the lecture and lab instructors, particularly in the areas of course administration, subject matter expertise, and face of the course.  | [FULL TEXT]

Beck, Jennifer (2002).  Emerging Literacy through Assistive Technology.  TEACHING Exceptional Children, 35, 2. 

This article discuses how assistive technology affected the emergent literacy of 10 preschoolers (age 3) with multiple disabilities. The children used picture communication symbols, adapted books, a BIGmack, and a computer with Intellikeys, Intellipics, and Overlay Maker, alternative keyboard, and software. The benefits to the children are described.

Beck, Jules K.; Biggs, Bobbie T. (2008).  What Is It Like to Be a Member of Cohort Ten, a Blended Technology HRD Program Serving Undergraduate Students in Rural Communities in Arkansas, U.S.A.?  [Online Submission, Paper presented at the Academy of Human Resource Development International Research Conference in the Americas (Panama City, FL, Feb 20-24, 2008)] 

This research investigates the life, work, and education of students in Human Resource Development (HRD) Cohort Ten, a distance learning program for non-traditional undergraduate students in Arkansas. The study has identified commonalties in perceptions regarding accessibility, sense of achievement, and other themes related to the program. The blended technology approach included compressed interactive video (CIV); Blackboard, a web-based classroom management system; and a face-to-face weekend gathering each semester of students and faculty from current cohorts. | [FULL TEXT]

Beck, Klaus (2000).  Alternative Research Approaches: Development Strategies in Educational Technology. 

It is not advisable to discuss Instructional Design (ID) problems without having previously clarified the paradigm issue. After a reconstruction of the "objectivist" and "constructivist" points of view, reasons for preferring a realistic position are outlined. On that basis the theoretical status of ID statements is elaborated as either theoretical or technological. Both statement types are shown to be the results of different research strategies, logically as well as pragmatically. Whether there are reasons to follow preferably one of these approaches is considered, but it turns out that it is not possible to make a rational choice. The growth of knowledge in the ID field will be enhanced if both strategies are followed under the condition that they keep connected to each other systematically.   | [FULL TEXT]

Beck, Robert J.; King, Alison; Marshall, Sue K. (2002).  Effects of Videocase Construction on Preservice Teachers' Observations of Teaching.  Journal of Experimental Education, 70, 4. 

Studied the effects of videocase construction on pre-service teachers' observations of teaching with 31 students in the technology-supported condition and 31 in traditional classroom observation conditions. Results show that technology-supported students outperformed comparisons on video tests of ability to identify, interpret, and analyze evidence of exemplary teaching.

Becker, Henry Jay (2000).  Findings from the Teaching, Learning, and Computing Survey: Is Larry Cuban Right?  Education Policy Analysis Archives, 8, 51. 

Used data from a nationally representative survey of more than 4,000 teachers of grades 4 through 12 to demonstrate that although L. Cuban (1986; 2000) has correctly characterized frequent computer use in academic subjects as the teaching practice of a small and distinct minority, certain conditions make a big difference to the likelihood of students having students use computers often.

Becker, Henry Jay (2000).  Who's Wired and Who's Not: Children's Access to and Use of Computer Technology.  Future of Children, 10, 2. 

Analyzes national survey data on children's differential access to computers at home and school, noting varying conditions that affect how children experience computers. In 1998, over 75 percent of children had access to computers at school, though computer experiences differed by socioeconomic status. Poorer students had significantly less access to home computers than did wealthier students.

Becker, Katrin (2007).  Digital Game-Based Learning Once Removed: Teaching Teachers  British Journal of Educational Technology, 38, 3. 

In the spring of 2005, the author designed and taught a graduate-level course on digital game-based learning primarily for teachers. Teachers cannot be expected to embrace digital games as a tool for learning unless they have a sound understanding of the potential as well as the limitations, and are confident in their ability to use games effectively to enhance learning. The course was designed as an introduction to digital games and gaming for instruction and learning. In it, students explored the theories, the possibilities, considerations and constraints related to the design of instructional games, and the use of learning and commercial entertainment games in classroom and out-of-class settings. The design of the course, along with the rationales, will be outlined and participant reaction will be profiled. Suggestions for future course designs are described, as well as key elements crucial for teacher preparation. Ultimately, the success of digital games as a medium for learning depends to a large extent on the abilities of new and practicing teachers to take full advantage of this medium.

Beckers, Jozef L. (2004).  The Determination of Caffeine in Coffee: Sense or Nonsense?  Journal of Chemical Education, 81, 1. 

The presence of caffeine in coffee is determined by the use of separation devices and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The results indicate that the use of various analytical tools helps to perceive the higher concentration values obtained through UV-vis spectrophotometry than with separation methods.

Beckett, E. Carol; Wetzel, Keith; Chisholm, Ines Marquez; Zambo, Ron; Buss, Ray; Padgett, Helen; Williams, Mia Kim; Odom, Mary (2003).  Supporting Technology Integration in K-8 Multicultural Classrooms through Professional Development.  TechTrends, 47, 5. 

This study examined: the effectiveness of Practicum Plus professional development classes in preparing mentor teachers and their university practicum students to create a curriculum unit of practice in their K-8 classrooms; and how mentor teachers and practicum students used the cohort electronic mailing list to support the community of learners.

Beckett, E. Carol; Wetzel, Keith; Chisholm, Ines Marquez; Zambo, Ron; Buss, Ray; Padgett, Helen; Williams, Mia Kim; Odom, Mary (2007).  Staff Development to Provide Intentional Language Teaching Technology-Rich K-8 Multicultural Classrooms  Computers in the Schools, 23, 3-4. 

Teams of pre-service and in-service elementary teachers attended workshops, learned technology applications, and designed curricular units that incorporated technology during staff development accomplished through a Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers to Use Technology (PT3) U.S. Department of Education grant. Training focused on development of Units of Practice (UOP) with integration of technology, academic standards, and the ESL Standards for Pre-K-I2 Students (TESOL, 1997). Teacher teams infused strategies for culturally and linguistically diverse students to provide intentional language teaching for English language learners. Although the Practicum Plus Program was found to be effective, the authors noted difficulties encountered in recruiting participants.

Beckett, Kelly L.; Shaffer, David Williamson (2005).  Augmented by Reality: The Pedagogical Praxis of Urban Planning as a Pathway to Ecological Thinking  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 33, 1. 

In this article, we present a study focused on developing students' understanding of the ecology through participation in a technology-supported urban planning simulation--specifically, 11 high school students in Madison, Wisconsin acted as urban planners to redesign a local shopping street using a Geographic Information System (GIS) model. This experimental design was situated within the theory of pedagogical praxis, which suggests that modeling learning environments on authentic professional practices enables youth to develop a deeper understanding of important domains of inquiry (Shaffer, 2004). Results presented here suggest that through participation in the project students: a) developed an understanding of ecology; and b) developed this understanding through the urban planning practices and the features of the GIS model used during the project. Thus, we propose that this "augmented by reality" learning environment modeled on the professional practices of urban planners extends the theory of pedagogical praxis into the domain of ecology and offers a useful method for developing ecological understanding through participation in simulations that incorporate the authentic tools and practices of urban planning.

Beckham, James; Maiden, Jeffrey (2003).  The Effects of Technology Inclusion on School Bond Election Success in Oklahoma.  Journal of Education Finance, 28, 4. 

Examines the effects of including technology funding in Oklahoma school district bond issues on their voting percentages and pass/fail rates during fiscal years 1995-96 through 1999-2000. Finds that percent of technology funding included in bond issue dollar amount was significantly related to positive voting percentages and predictive of issue passage or failure.

Beckstrand, Scott; Barker, Philip; van Schaik, Paul (2001).  Towards More Independent Learning: A Southern Nevada Perspective. 

This paper discusses the use of tools that allow the development and presentation of time- and place-independent courseware. Such tools make the Internet another valuable delivery method for distance education courses. The use of the tools is discussed in relationship to a course currently being offered at the Community College of Southern Nevada that prepares students to take and pass an industry recognized certification test. Lessons learned and emerging guidelines are outlined. The development of the model required a large number of new software packages and hardware. Development of this project confirmed that there are disadvantages associated with distance education modules. There was not one specific software package available to create the required media offerings. The learning curve of instructors can be alleviated using mentoring, so that instructors who have developed modules can help novices to understand and use the hardware and software tools available for distance education development. | [FULL TEXT]

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Borba, Marcelo C. (2005).  The Transformation of Mathematics in On-Line Courses  [International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Paper presented at the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (29th, Melbourne, Australia, Jul 10-15, 2005), v2 p169-176] 

This paper presents some research findings regarding the changes in the mathematics produced by mathematics teachers in on-line distance courses. Predicated on the belief that knowledge is generated by collectives of humans-with-media, and that different technologies modify the nature of the knowledge generated, we have sought to understand how the Internet modifies interactions and knowledge production in the context of distance courses. The research was conducted over a period of several years, during distance courses proffered annually from the mathematics department at UNESP, Sao Paulo State University, to teachers throughout Brazil, conducted mainly via weekly chat sessions. Findings presented contrast teachers' knowledge production when using the Internet with production of knowledge when using regular dynamic geometry software or plotters.  [For complete proceedings, see ED496859.] | [FULL TEXT]

Borba, Marcelo C.; Scheffer, Nilce Fatima (2001).  The Mathematics of Motion, Sensors, and the Introduction of Function to Eight Graders in Brazil. 

This paper describes how 8th grade students are using CBR, a motion detector linked to a graphing calculator, as a way of generating mathematical ideas regarding the motions concepts that surround their action. Students were previously introduced to the calculators in the classroom and teaching experiments were then carried out afterwards with a few pairs of students as a means of studying students' narratives as they faced the designed tasks. Students connected their body expressions to the Cartesian graphs generated by the motion detector. Discussion related to geometry, kinesthetic action, and functions emerged in student narratives. Data are presented based on the video-taping conducted throughout the teaching experiments and analysis developed with the help of GPIMEM, the research group. Results suggest that the use of the sensor can expand what has been labeled the epistemology of multiple representations. A theoretical view based on the notion of humans-with-media is sketched.   | [FULL TEXT]

Borden, Rebecca (2004).  Taking School Design to Students  [National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities] 

From an educational perspective, involving students in school design provides a rich learning experience. Students must reflect on the world around them and develop practical solutions to everyday problems. Design-based activities make them think about the learning environment, prompting them to consider where and why they learn best. Such activities go beyond traditional lesson plans because students work on real problems in a real context. There are as many "teachable moments" in the school design process as there are student ideas about how schools should be designed. No single method exists for effectively involving students in school design, but this document describes seven strategies, based on interviews with architects, planners, educators, and administrators from across the country, that have proved successful for productively involving students in the school design process and making it a positive learning experience: (1) Use student artwork; (2) Use disposable cameras; (3) Host student forums; (4) Involve students in planning committees; (5) Organize a student design competition; (6) Provide design programs during out-of-school hours; and (7) Integrate design activities into class work. | [FULL TEXT]

Boring, Christine Alison (2000).  A Comparison of Old Computers to New Computers Using First Letter Fun[TM] and Bailey's Book House[TM]. 

A group of 20 students in a self-contained kindergarten classroom was selected to receive enrichment using computer software. Of those 20, 10 were randomly selected to use "Bailey's Book House" on a Macintosh computer. "Bailey's Book House" and the Macintosh computer were considered to be the newer models. The other 10 students used "First Letter Fun" on a Laser 128 EX computer, both considered to be the older models. Students were given a pretest before beginning each enrichment. The same test was given as a posttest after eight weeks of enrichment. Every student received 10 minutes of letter instruction every day, along with 15 minutes of computer enrichment. All of the students showed progress after receiving instruction and enrichment as shown by an increase in posttest scores. The Macintosh group did not show a significant different from the Laser 128 EX group when statistical comparisons were made. Results of the research indicate that the older computers and software are just as effective as newer computers and software. | [FULL TEXT]

Borisenkov, V. P. (2007).  The Development of Fundamental Pedagogical Research in the Russian Academy of Education  Russian Education & Society, 49, 1. 

Improving the quality of life of the people of Russia--a paramount national priority--requires optimizing scientific activity and substantially increasing its technological success rate and social effectiveness, and reforming the administrative structure, in short, the fundamentalization of present-day science. The connection between fundamental science and people's quality of life, emphasized in the draft of the Long-Range Plan of Fundamental Research in Priority Areas of the Development of Science and Technology for the Period to 2025, is greatly changing the conception of the character and importance of pedagogy. Present-day science, which creates fundamental knowledge and the foundation of up-to-date technologies, exerts a direct influence on the content, level, and quality of education. Science is inseparable from universal human culture, and its role is to deal with complex economic, social, and ecological problems. Accordingly, fundamental pedagogical science is very closely linked to finding effective and timely solutions to problems of education and the development of the individual through the means of culture, providing new generations with pedagogical support in the processes of socialization, cultural identity, and the shaping of spiritual and moral steadfastness under globalization. This article discusses the substantial changes in planning, organization, motivation, and evaluation required in the development of fundamental pedagogical research in the Russian Academy of Education.

Borja, Rhea R. (2005).  Districts Add Web Courses for Summer  Education Week, 24 n40 p1, 15 Jun 2005. 

More and more school districts, as well as for-profit companies and nonprofit organizations, are offering Internet-based summer classes in core subjects, such as algebra and reading, and electives such as creative writing. In this article, the author discusses the growth of enrollment in online education for summer. The logistical ease of "anytime, anywhere" learning, the courses' relatively low cost to parents, and the increased need for students to meet state academic standards are some of the reasons online summer enrollment is continuing to rise, school and company officials say. The Orlando-based Florida Virtual School is on track to triple its student enrollment from 4,000 in 2004 to 12,000 in the following year, said Julie E. Young, the president of the state-sponsored public online school. Another 12,000 students remain on a waiting list.

Borja, Rhea R. (2006).  Researchers Weigh Benefits of One Computer per Lap: Studies Aim to Determine the Impact the Technology Has on Student Learning  Education Week, 25, 36. 

Almost one-quarter of school districts nationwide and nine states have invested millions of dollars in "one-to-one" laptop programs, hoping the availability of a computer for every student will improve achievement and other skills. They made those investments despite the fact that research on the impact of such technology on student achievement is largely mixed and preliminary. Experts report that districts employing such initiatives must train teachers on how best to use the computers in their classrooms. Students must learn how to amplify the academic applications of the computing devices--not just use them to pass electronic notes to each other or to play video games.

Borja, Rhea R. (2006).  Where Big-City Schools Meet "Microsoft Smarts"  Education Week, 26, 4. 

This article talks about a new school built, which is called "School of the Future," which was born of a partnership between the Philadelphia public schools and the world's leading software-maker, Microsoft Corp. A gleaming white building on the edge of a blighted West Philadelphia neighborhood, the $62 million school garnered wide attention when it opened this month, in part because of its technological bells and whistles. Those futuristic features include a tablet personal computer for each student, interactive digital whiteboards, a supercharged wireless network, customized educational software, and digital "smart cards" to open lockers and pay for meals--all making possible a virtually paperless environment. Aside from Microsoft Corp., the school has other corporate partners, such as the: (1) Blackburn, England-based Promethean Group Technologies Ltd., which provides the school's whiteboards; (2) Sunnyvale, California-based Meru Networks, which installs the wireless computer network; (3) and Gateway Inc., based in Irvine, California, which provides laptop computers to the students and staff.

Borko, Hilda; Jacobs, Jennifer; Eiteljorg, Eric; Pittman, Mary Ellen (2008).  Video as a Tool for Fostering Productive Discussions in Mathematics Professional Development  Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, 24, 2. 

This article explores the use of classroom video as a tool for fostering productive discussions about teaching and learning. The setting for our research is a 2-year mathematics professional development program, based on the Problem-Solving Cycle model. This model relies on video from the teachers' own classrooms and emphasizes creating a community in which members feel comfortable learning from video. We describe our experiences carrying out the Problem-Solving Cycle model, focusing on our use of video, our efforts to promote a supportive and analytical environment, and the ways in which teachers' conversations around video developed over a 2-year period.

Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.; Cahill, Spencer E., Ed.; Cotner, Bridget A., Ed. (2007).  The Praeger Handbook of American High Schools. Volume 1 

Written by an interdisciplinary group of experts in education, psychology, sociology, and other fields, this landmark handbook provides a thorough examination of U.S. secondary education from the private academies of Colonial America to the comprehensive high schools and alternative schools of today. This accessible compendium is a treasure trove of reliable and authoritative information for educators, parents, and students. It includes original entries on assessment, architecture, bullying, campus life, censorship, college preparation, desegregation, disabilities, ethnic identity, family and community involvement, finance inequality, gangs, home schooling, homework, immigrants, intelligence, learning styles, magnet schools, mentoring, peer groups and peer culture, prom, reunions, rural schools, school boards, school to work programs, sex education, sports, standardized tests, student rights, teacher certification, teacher shortage, test preparation, violence, vouchers, and yearbooks, just to name a few. The text includes primary documents, each with scene and context-setting introductions, such as reports, legislation, and US Supreme Court cases will be found as well. Thorough cross-referencing enables the user to follow a topic from an entry to a primary document or another related entry. This wide-ranging, accessible and user-friendly source is an authoritative reference for anyone concerned with high schools and high school students in the United States. This first volume is divided into the following sections: (1) Preface; (2) Introduction; (3) List of Entries; (4) Guide to Related Entries; and (5) Entries A-H. [For Volume 2, see ED495109. For Volume 3, see ED495104. For Volume 4, see ED495100.]

Borsheim, Carlin (2004).  Email Partnerships: Conversations that Changed the Way My Students Read  English Journal, 93, 5. 

Through email partnerships or email exchanges with university, students increase confidence in reading and discussing literature. The act of composing email messages helps the student to articulate their thoughts.

Borthwick, Arlene; Lobo, Irina (2005).  Lessons from Costa Rica  Learning and Leading with Technology, 33, 2. 

Costa Rica has one of the highest concentrations of computers in the Americas and is regarded as a Central American pioneer in technology development. The authors of this article describe their trip to Costa Rica, which included visits to several schools as well as to the Foundation Omar Dengo (FOD) and the Ministry of Public Education (MEP), whose individual and collaborative efforts have been instrumental in introducing computers in education. Their model shows evidence of narrowing the digital divide while emphasizing the use of computers to develop teamwork and higher-order thinking skills. This trip provided a firsthand view of successful dissemination and creative use of instructional technology throughout Costa Rica. | [FULL TEXT]

Borwein, Jonathan M. (2005).  The Experimental Mathematician: The Pleasure of Discovery and the Role of Proof  International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning, 10, 2. 

The emergence of powerful mathematical computing environments, the growing availability of correspondingly powerful (multi-processor) computers and the pervasive presence of the Internet allow for mathematicians, students and teachers, to proceed heuristically and "quasi-inductively." We may increasingly use symbolic and numeric computation, visualization tools, simulation and data mining. The unique features of our discipline make this both more problematic and more challenging. For example, there is still no truly satisfactory way of displaying mathematical notation on the web; and we care more about the reliability of our literature than does any other science. The traditional role of proof in mathematics is arguably under siege--for reasons both good and bad.

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Beeghly, Dena G. (2005).  It's About Time: Using Electronic Literature Discussion Groups with Adult Learners  Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 49, 1. 

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect that participating in online literature discussions would have on the discourse and learning of adult students. Would electronic literature (e-lit) discussions promote grand conversations? Would students feel that e-lit discussions enhanced their understanding of what they read, and, if so, in what ways did they believe the electronic discussions enhanced their learning? Could the electronic discussions meet individual student needs, and, if so, how? Would electronic discussions foster community? Finally, what would teachers learn about instruction from these conversations? This article relates one teacher's experience using online discussions in a graduate literature course at a university in the eastern United States.

Beekes, Wendy (2006).  The "Millionaire" Method for Encouraging Participation  Active Learning in Higher Education: The Journal of the Institute for Learning and Teaching, 7, 1. 

Encouraging students to participate during class time is important to facilitate the learning process and encourage deep learning to take place. However, students with certain cultural and education backgrounds are often reluctant to participate in class discussion. This article provides some initial insight into the use of the Personal Response System (PRS) to encourage class participation at the postgraduate level. I found that students' participation levels were increased when using the PRS, and further class discussion and debate was stimulated as a result.

Beem, Edgar Allen (2006).  To Each His Own  Teacher Magazine, 17, 4. 

In this article, the author reports how Maine has started to put laptops in the hands of all its middle school students. Today, more than half of Yarmouth, Maine's 435 students and all of its teachers have their own Apple iBooks as part of a statewide effort that has put laptops into the hands of every 7th and 8th grader in Maine. As computers were moved from labs to classrooms, Yarmouth introduced a new professional development program intended to bring educators up to speed without forcing a set of curriculum down their throats. Introduced two years ago, the more formal program counts toward professional development requirements and pay-scale calculations.

Beem, Kate (2002).  Tech Support.  School Administrator, 59, 6. 

Discusses technology-support issues, including staff training, cost, and outsourcing. Describes how various school districts manage technology-support services. Features the Technology Support Index, developed by the International Society for Technology in Education, to gauge the operation of school district technology-support programs.

Beers, Pieter J.; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.; Kirschner, Paul A.; Gijselaers, Wim H. (2007).  The Analysis of Negotiation of Common Ground in CSCL  Learning and Instruction, 17, 4. 

CSCL research has given rise to a plethora of analysis methods, all with specific analysis goals, units of analysis, and for specific types of data (chat, threaded discussions, etc.). This article describes some challenges of CSCL-analysis. The development of an analysis method for negotiation processes in multidisciplinary teams serves as an example of how these challenges occur in practice. Results reveal a number of tensions with regard to establishing reliable coding procedures without compromising validity, such as how to define codes, and rules for applying codes. The discussion offers some guidelines for content analysis of CSCL-data.

Beers, Pieter J.; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.; Kirschner, Paul A.; Gijselaers, Wim; Westendorp, Jochem (2008).  Cognitive Load Measurements and Stimulated Recall Interviews for Studying the Effects of Information and Communications Technology  Educational Technology Research and Development, 56, 3. 

Many researchers use information and communications technology (ICT)-tools to augment learning in a great variety of tasks. Their effects are generally measured in terms of intended outcomes. This article argues for the use of additional, more general measures to obtain a more complete impression of the effects of ICT-tools. The first study presented in this article shows why tools should not only be studied in terms of their specific intended outcomes, but also in terms of their effects on working memory, and the cognitive mechanisms needed to achieve the intended outcomes. The second study uses cognitive load measurements and stimulated recall interviews to obtain a more comprehensive view of the effects of learning tools. Results suggest that traditional outcome measures need to be complemented with quantitative and qualitative measures of cognitive processes to substantiate conclusions about intended effects of ICT-tools.

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Breck, Judy (2007).  Education's Intertwingled Future  Educational Technology Magazine: The Magazine for Managers of Change in Education, 47, 3. 

The author provides a look at the transformation the open Internet venue causes for knowledge resources from which students are expected to learn in their education. Knowledge content richly interacts within itself in the Internet venue. Mobiles will amplify this interconnectivity of cognitive content in powerful new ways. Changes are coming, and education should prepare for them.

Breck, Judy (2007).  When Educational Resources Are Open  Educational Technology Magazine: The Magazine for Managers of Change in Education, 47, 6. 

This article is a partial look at what the future of education might be if educational resources become open online. Intertwingularity is discussed as a general term for what OER will do online. Predictions about an open education future are based on nine quotations from books by popular writers about our networked age. When the network mechanisms described become a reality for education, "intertwingularity will enable knowledge," as David Weinberger writes in Everything Is Miscellaneous. OER will allow knowledge to be formed, ideas to emerge, and understanding to be shared.

Breeding, Marshall (2005).  Looking Toward the Future of Library Technology. The Systems Librarian  Computers in Libraries, 25, 5. 

This article discusses trends in five areas relating to software developed for libraries, and based on these trends, the author's predictions for developments that might play out in the next few years. The author's predictions, based on his own empirical observations, include: (1) the integrated library system (ILS) will be reintegrated; (2) the business landscape will change; (3) players in broader industries will become involved; (4) libraries will consolidate automation efforts; and (5) commercial systems will continue to dominate. Each prediction is discussed in-depth in the article.

Breeding, Marshall (2005).  The Systems Librarian: Reflecting on 20 Years of Library Technology  Computers in Libraries, 25, 4. 

In this column, the author relates his experiences in the use of library technology over his 20-year career at Vanderbilt University. He describes how computers in libraries have transformed almost every aspect of how the library provides its services and performs its work behind the scenes. In addition, the author shares a few successful strategies that might be useful to others, for example: (1) See the big picture; (2) Understand the details; (3) Develop a specialty; (4) Practice hands-on management; (5) Know what you don't know; (6) Seek broad experiences; (7) Understand the importance of context; and (8) Research constantly.

Breeding, Marshall (2006).  Comprehensive Cost Planning Yields Successful Tech Projects  Computers in Libraries, 26, 6. 

In this article, the author calls for librarians to find ways to implement technology projects with very limited budgets and to consider all the cost components of a technology project amidst the economic pressures. The author offers some perspective on what is involved in trying to accomplish important work with limited resources while recognizing the full impact of taking on a project upfront. Here, he presents a complete picture of the direct and indirect costs of a tech project. He also considers the total cost of ownership model of adopting a new technology. With this broad and long-term cost model in mind, the cost components of a typical library technology project can be laid out.

Breen, Paum (2006).  Coming out of the Darkness of the Past  [Online Submission] 

Technology is helping to reduce the education gap between developed countries and those that are still developing. The following article gives one example of an innovative teacher training project where a western university, in Rome, Italy, is selflessly showing their African counterparts, in rural Rwanda, how to become fully autonomous in training their future generations. Schrum and Hong (2002) state that "learners throughout the world are demanding educational opportunities in an 'anytime and anywhere' format and institutions are responding by devoting substantial resources to develop online distance learning." This assertion is fast becoming the reality in every corner of the globe where the teaching profession is using technology to bring education to people and places that might never have imagined receiving its benefits little more than a decade ago. Such examples include teachers working with blind children in Chile on "a project called Hyperstories which exposes blind children to a learning methodology that uses 3D sound interactive software to help them construct cognitive structures that represents their surrounding space" and "aims to move these disadvantaged blind children from darkness to what they call "aural" vision" (Gourley, 2004). This metaphor of technology bringing people from darkness into the light can be applied to many other contexts where professionals in the field of education are giving rather than taking from the developing world and offering hope that we can indeed create a world of shared resources and international unity, rather than division, in the future. The benefits of technology are now helping to rebuild Rwanda, the beautiful "Land of a Thousand Hills" and "Gorilla's In The Mist". Unfortunately, just over a decade ago, this densely populated, tropical nation became synonymous with less beautiful things such as ethnic cleansing, genocide and refuge bloody and divisive and further hindered an already impoverished nation's progress. Yet, slowly this beautiful country, in the highlands of east Africa, is successfully emerging from centuries of colonial oppression and internecine fighting to take its first steps towards becoming part of the 24/7 digital age of education. | [FULL TEXT]

Breithaupt, David L. (2000).  Educational Technology Plans: Keys for Successful Implementation and Accountability. 

This paper reviews the efforts of the Idaho Council for Technology in Learning to provide consistent and thorough standards for planning for educational technology, presents keys for meeting those standards, and offers suggestions for using these keys to successfully implement and account for planned technology use in the curriculum. The planning process for educational technology is described, including: vision/mission statement and needs assessment; goal definition; instructional objectives; development and delivery of instruction; and evaluation of the instruction and student achievement. The following requirements for planning the evaluation of technology integration in the curriculum are addressed: describes quantitative and qualitative assessments to evaluate the effects of technology integration; details the relationship between local and state goals and instructional objectives, and measurement and assessment procedures; outlines plans to correlate results to the amount, quality, and length of integration into the curriculum; includes the details of gathering longitudinal and pretest-posttest data; details collection, organization, analysis, and reporting of measurement and assessment data; and includes schedules, funding sources, and budgets for evaluation. | [FULL TEXT]

Breland, Hunter; Lee, Yong-Won (2007).  Investigating Uniform and Non-Uniform Gender DIF in Computer-Based ESL Writing Assessment  Applied Measurement in Education, 20, 4. 

The objective of the present investigation was to examine the comparability of writing prompts for different gender groups in the context of the computer-based Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]-CBT). A total of 87 prompts administered from July 1998 through March 2000 were analyzed. An extended version of logistic regression for polytomous items was used to investigate both uniform and non-uniform gender effects. An English Language Ability variable was developed from the multiple-choice components of the TOEFL[R]-CBT examination and used as a matching variable. Initially, most of the prompts were flagged because of statistically significant uniform gender effects, with some prompts displaying non-uniform effects as well. Nevertheless, the effect sizes were too small for any of those flagged prompts to be classified as having an important group effect. These findings are discussed in relation to prompt content review, gender format differences, and second language learning theories.

Bremer, Janet; Stocker, Donald (2004).  Layout and Design in "Real Life"  Library Media Connection, 23, 3. 

Educators are required to combine their expertise and allow students to explore the different areas by using the method of collaboration in which teachers from different disciplines will create an environment where each will use their expert skills. The collaboration of a computer teacher with an art teacher resulted in the creation of Layout and Design class, where students become proficient using Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator, Macromedia Fireworks, and Macromedia Flash.

Brennan, Linda L.; Miller, John R.; Moniotte, Susan M. (2001).  Herding Cats to Water: Benchmarking the Use of Computers in Business Education.  Journal of Education for Business, 76, 6. 

A benchmarking study of business school faculty (80 of 250 responded) identified technology uses for course preparation and delivery. Extrinsic factors (institutional characteristics and faculty demographics) were not consistently related to technology use, whereas intrinsic factors were influential.

Brennan, Thomas H.; Rowe, Cathy (2004).  Information Literacy and Technology Across the Curriculum  [Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE)] 

Responding to an initiative in the university's revised core curriculum to address life-long learning skills, a collaborative effort involving parties from the Library and Information Technologies was formed resulting in a program for faculty entitled "Information Literacy and Technology Across the Curriculum." The purpose of the program, which consists of a semester-long series of workshops, is to assist faculty in the development of class assignments and projects for their students that utilize both information literacy and technology skills. After a successful pilot run involving volunteer faculty members, the program is now designed to accommodate approximately fifteen faculty members for the semester sessions. This paper will describe the format of the program, the resources made available, the exercises employed and some surprising results. [For complete proceedings, see ED490093.] | [FULL TEXT]

Brenner, Devon (2007).  Strategies for Becoming Involved in Policy: What Was Learned When Faculty Opposed a Stand-Alone Course in Phonics  Journal of Literacy Research, 39, 2. 

Recent involvement in teacher education policy around a proposed stand-alone phonics course in Mississippi revealed important guidelines for researchers aiming to influence policy, including (a) build relationships with policy makers; (b) help to define problems by framing issues and proactively put forth solutions rather than waiting to respond to proposals; (c) avoid dichotomization, but instead work to build common ground; and (d) use a strategy of small wins to achieve small successes, thereby learning to negotiate the policy environment.

Brenton, Harry; Hernandez, Juan; Bello, Fernando; Strutton, Paul; Purkayastha, Sanjay; Firth, Tony; Darzi, Ara (2007).  Using Multimedia and Web3D to Enhance Anatomy Teaching  Computers and Education, 49, 1. 

Anatomy teaching is undergoing significant changes due to time constraints, limited availability of cadavers and technological developments in the areas of three-dimensional modelling and computer-assisted learning. This paper gives an overview of methods used to teach anatomy to undergraduate medical students and discusses the educational advantages and disadvantages of using three-dimensional computer models. A "work in progress" account is then given of a project to develop two Web3D resources to enhance undergraduate tuition of the nervous system. Our approach is to support existing curricula using advanced modelling tools and a variety of delivery mechanisms. The first resource is a three-dimensional model of the adult "brachial plexus": a network of nerves extending from the neck down to the shoulder, arm, hand, and fingers. This will be incorporated into existing didactic classroom teaching under the supervision of an anatomy teacher. The second resource is a piece of online courseware which will teach the embryological development of the brachial plexus. The delivery method will be the WebSET framework, a collaborative environment that allows a teacher to manipulate 3D models over the Web in real time whilst providing explanation and help to students. In this way the courseware can be used for both self-directed study and "virtual anatomy demonstrations" within an online peer group.

Bresciani, Marilee J. (2005).  Electronic Co-Curricular Student Portfolios--Putting Them into Practice  New Directions for Student Services, 2005, 112.

 

Breslar, Zoey L. (2000).  Harnessing the Potential of Information Technologies in Education: Finding Innovation and Adaptability in Mali and Ghana. 

This study is based on the premises that information technologies (IT) are essential to African development and that education systems are responsible for developing a countries' human capacity to maximize those technologies. The study examines the ability of education systems in Mali and Ghana to develop the capacity to harness the potential of information technologies for African-empowered development. The condition of education and telecommunications in each country is examined in light of five conditions that indicate the existing and potential resources and intent of the systems: awareness, access, applicability, African adaptability, and importance of advocates. Evidence of these indicators is synthesized and analyzed to draw conclusions about why Malian and Ghanaian education systems can or cannot build the stipulated capacity under current conditions. A model is then recommended for how to proceed, based on the information and analysis. Areas for future research are suggested. Includes 26 notes. Contains an information sheet on acronyms, abbreviations, and definitions.   | [FULL TEXT]

Breslin, Caroline; Nicol, David; Grierson, Hilary; Wodehouse, Andrew; Juster, Neal; Ion, William (2007).  Embedding an Integrated Learning Environment and Digital Repository in Design Engineering Education: Lessons Learned for Sustainability  British Journal of Educational Technology, 38, 5. 

This paper describes how a system comprising a learning environment and digital repository is being embedded into the teaching and learning of Design Engineering at the University of Strathclyde. It then maps out the issues that have been encountered, how these have been overcome and how other departments or institutions would be affected if they were to roll out and scale up the use of such tools. These issues are categorised as "technological," "pedagogical" and "cultural," and include the adequate provision of support, creating a critical mass of resources, ensuring quality and integration with other technologies. Successful embedding and sustainability requires that senior managers reflect on these key issues at a departmental and/or institutional level before implementation.

Breslow, Lori (2007).  Lessons Learned: Findings from MIT Initiatives in Educational Technology (2000-2005)  Journal of Science Education and Technology, 16, 4. 

Since 1999, MIT has undertaken an extensive effort in creating and implementing educational technology. Broadly speaking, there have been two kinds of efforts: developing web-based services for higher education and creating educational technology applications for use in the classroom. This article reviews a group of projects that produced educational technology applications for use in the classroom or for classroom-based activities and were assessed by educational researchers in the Teaching and Learning Laboratory (TLL). From those in depth studies, as well as less extensive involvement with a half dozen more initiatives, we draw three major findings on the role and impact of educational technologies as they were developed and used at MIT over 6 years: (1) the most successful educational technologies meet a specific instructional need that has been unmet or poorly met by traditional media; (2) too much technology or technology that does not work well can be detrimental; and (3) there are important relationships between the technologies and the learning environments in which they operate.

Bressoud, David M. (2001).  What's Been Happening to Undergraduate Mathematics.  Journal of Chemical Education, 78, 5. 

Presents an overview of some of the changes that have been occurring in undergraduate mathematics education. Aims to increase awareness among chemists of what is happening within mathematics and foster greater communication among educators in these disciplines.

Breton, Rob; Doak, Steve; Foster, Wendy; Lundstrom, Desiree; McMaster, Lindsey; Miller, Jeff; Rauch, Ulrich; Reid, Morgan; Scott, Warran; Wang, Tim; Wisenthal, Jonathan (2005).  Online Learning and Intellectual Liberty: A Mixed-Mode Experiment in the Humanities  College Teaching, 53, 3. 

A mixed-mode university course, combining online learning and face-to-face meetings, can encourage students to formulate and express their own ideas more than would be the case in traditional classrooms. This article describes an experimental project at the University of British Columbia and explores connections between online learning and aspects of liberal humanism.

Brett, Paul; Nagra, Jas (2005).  An Investigation into Students Use of a Computer-Based Social Learning Space: Lessons for Facilitating Collaborative Approaches to Learning  British Journal of Educational Technology, 36, 2. 

Provision of computers in universities for self-study is taken for granted and is seen as a must have educational resource, yet it is very expensive to fund. Students report that they use the Internet as their first stop in approaching research tasks. Learning theorists posit the important role of social interaction in contributing to learning. The use of collaborative methodologies such as group work also illustrate the importance, and perceived beneficial role of, learning with others. However, in general, student access to computers for self-study in UK Higher Education is provided through large rooms furnished with serried ranks of computers, which do not allow or encourage computer-based collaborative working. This study addresses this mismatch between approaches to learning and the way universities make computers available to learners. The University of Wolverhampton provides a social learning space with 24 computers on four fishbone-shaped tables, in a room without any restrictions on talking, eating, or drinking. It was provided so as to encourage learners to work collaboratively and to be able to integrate the use of a computer whilst doing so. This paper reports the initial findings of a study into its use, through questionnaires, observational data, and interviews. Has the provision of a computer-based collaborative learning space positively affected approaches to computer-based self-study? The results of this study inform how best Higher Education institutions might provide computer access to learners so as to encourage collaborative working and positively affect student approaches to their learning.

Brettschneider, Allison; Mather, Mary Anne (2005).  Improving Online Collaborative Learning for Teachers: How Changes to Design Features of the Adolescent Literacy Collaboratory Influenced Participant Retention, Overall Satisfaction, and Engagement  [Education Alliance at Brown University] 

Key elements of effective teacher development include a focus on curriculum and job-situated problems, hands-on opportunities to apply learning, and collaboration among teachers (Garet, Porter, Desimone, Birman, & Yoon, 2001; Hiebert, Gallimore, & Stigler, 2002; National Staff Development Council, 2001). Program developers at The Education Alliance at Brown University drew upon these principles to create the Adolescent Literacy Collaboratory, a year long professional development initiative for secondary school teachers. The goal is to help science, mathematics, social studies, and English/language arts teachers integrate effective adolescent literacy instruction into their content-area classes. The Collaboratory is designed to provide opportunities for collaboration among teachers, a literacy expert, and content-area coaches through a blend of online and face-to-face activities. In this paper, we describe the Collaboratory design, discuss key design changes between the first and second years of implementation, and examine the levels of participant retention; overall satisfaction with the Collaboratory as a learning experience; and engagement with content, literacy experts, and peers. The purpose of this study was to generate useful preliminary evidence about whether the design adjustments were headed in the right direction and thus guide further refinements to the Collaboratory.

Brewer, Erin; Eastmond, Nick; Geertsen, Reed; Johnson, Doug; Lewandowski, Judith; Yeaman, Andrew R. J. (2003).  Ethics and Privacy.  Educational Media and Technology Yearbook, 28

Contains four articles covering trends and issues on ethics and privacy in instructional technology, including: considerations for assessing ethical issues; what schools must do to develop ethical behaviors in students; a privacy primer for educators; and manufacturing technophopia. Each article contains references.

Brewer, Peggy D. (2004).  An Examination of Alternative Instructional Methods  Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 46, 2. 

Demographic shifts, advances in technology, and changing student perceptions and expectations have influenced the development of alternative means and methods for offering and delivering traditional college courses. This study reports student perceptions of four alternatives at one university where students were asked to rate course offerings based upon their personal experiences and to express their preferences for future opportunities for enrolling in alternative format courses. In addition to "traditional" on-campus, in-class instructional courses, course offerings via interactive television, public broadcasting television, correspondence, and the Internet were assessed. An analysis of student responses indicated varying levels of student satisfaction with alternative course formats and revealed the desire of students to have the option of taking courses using alternative formats in the future.

Brewer, Susan A.; Klein, James D. (2004).  Small Group Learning in an Online Asynchronous Environment  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

This article reports the results of a study conducted to examine the use of small group learning strategies in an online college course. The study examined the effect of four types of positive interdependence and the affiliation motive on learning and attitude in an asynchronous, collaborative learning environment. Results indicated no significant differences in achievement by type of interdependence, or by affiliation motive. Correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation, indicating that participants with higher numbers of interactions attained higher posttest scores. Participants in reward groups had significantly higher agreement with several attitude statements that reflected benefit from working with others and being able to generate better ideas in groups. Furthermore, participants in all three types of structured interdependence, compared to groups with no interdependence, had significantly higher agreement with being able to learn more because team members knew it was their job to contribute to the group work. In addition, participants with high affiliation motive had significantly higher agreement with several attitude statements. Groups with no structured interdependence had the most cognitive interactions, role groups had the most group processing, and reward groups were most off task. Implications for integrating small groups in computer-mediated learning environments are discussed. | [FULL TEXT]

Brewer, Susan; Klein, James D. (2006).  Type of Positive Interdependence and Affiliation Motive in an Asynchronous, Collaborative Learning Environment  Educational Technology Research and Development, 54, 4. 

In this study, we investigated the effect of type of positive interdependence (roles, rewards, roles-plus-rewards, or no structure) and affiliation motives (high vs. low) in an asynchronous, collaborative learning environment. College reentry students worked together in small, fully online discussion groups that lasted for seven days. Results indicated that participants in groups given roles plus rewards interacted with their teammates significantly more than those given rewards only or no-structured-interdependence conditions. A significant positive correlation suggested that participants with higher numbers of interactions attained higher posttest scores. However, no significant differences were found in achievement by type of interdependence or by affiliation motive. Results also revealed that type of interdependence and affiliation motive had a significant impact on student attitudes. Implications for integrating small group work in online higher education settings are discussed.

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Bera, Stephan J.; Robinson, Daniel H. (2004).  Exploring the Boundary Conditions of the Delay Hypothesis With Adjunct Displays  Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 2. 

Previously, D. H. Robinson and G. Schraw (see record 1995-11458-001) found that advantages of graphic organizers (GOs) over outlines disappeared when testing was delayed. However, D. H. Robinson and K. A. Kiewra (see record 1996-12932-001), using a longer text and several displays, found that delayed testing was detrimental for outlines. In 2 experiments, the authors explored the boundary conditions of the delay hypothesis (T. Andre; see record 1990-20995-001) with adjunct displays. In Experiment 1, the authors replicated the findings of Robinson and Schraw using a longer text (1,000 vs. 200 words) and a shorter delay (5 vs. 25 min). In Experiment 2. the authors replicated the findings of Robinson and Kiewra using a 6.500-word text with multiple displays and a shorter delay (5 min vs. 1 days). With short text and 1 display, outlines may encourage more distinctive encoding (L. L. Jacoby. F. I. M. Craik, & I. Begg; see record 1981-00462-001) because of computational inefficiency. However, with long text and several displays, computationally efficient GOs may allow for optimal decision difficulty.

Beran, Tanya; Li, Qing (2005).  Cyber-Harassment: A Study of a New Method for an Old Behavior  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 32, 3. 

A total of 432 students from grades 7-9 in Canadian schools reported their experiences of cyber-harassment, which is a form of harassment that occurs through the use of electronic communications such as e-mail and cell phones. More than two-thirds of students (69%) have heard of incidents of cyber-harassment, about one quarter (21%) have been harassed several times, and a few students (3%) admitted engaging in this form of harassment. In addition, victims of cyber-harassment reported a variety of negative consequences, especially anger and sadness, and had experienced other forms of harassment. These results suggest several avenues of research needed to explain how and why adolescents use technological advances to harass their peers.

Berber, Brian; Brovey, Andrew (2001).  Integrating Technology and Inquiry Pedagogy: Needs-Based Professional Development. 

Valdosta State University (VSU), fulfills the academic needs of the South Georgia area. Student performance on the state mandated science assessment was well below achievement levels compared to other subject areas. VSU must reach out to science teachers in the area to improve teaching skills if their students are to become productive, contributing members of local communities. It was with these needs in mind that the inquiry learning and technology utilization project for middle grades and high school teachers was developed. The educational significance of this study was to advance the existing body of knowledge and improve science classroom instruction by assisting middle and high school teachers to become knowledgeable and proficient with inquiry-based teaching consistent with both state and national educational reform efforts, and to obtain necessary experience and skills to incorporate instructional technologies into the inquiry-based teaching format. Due to the one-year length of the project, teachers were supported through concerns identified with three distinct stages of change implementation: preparation, acceptance, and commitment, allowing discipline-wide adoption and considerable change in practice to be achieved. Participants of the research project included 50 public school teachers from four countries in South Georgia, certified to teach either middle grades or high school science. A Florida group included 20 teachers certified to teach grades 4-12. Student pre- and posttest data indicated adequate to high levels of science achievement. More importantly, teachers noted, via reflective writings, an increase in student enthusiasm. Teacher response was overwhelmingly positive. Worthwhile educational change requires new knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. The inquiry-technology integration project seemed to effectively supply these key requirements to science educators in South Georgia. | [FULL TEXT]

Berentsen, Lowell W. (2006).  Team Teaching with Academic Core Curricula Teachers: Using Aviation Concepts  Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 43, 2. 

Technology education teachers today have at their disposal the skills, opportunity, experience, ingenuity, expertise, equipment, and environment to greatly improve students' ability to learn and apply the knowledge they have gained in their academic programs. When a technology education teacher joins forces with an academic core teacher, the students reap the benefit of gaining empirical knowledge and skills not usually acquired within the confines of the traditional teacher-centered classroom. Uniting a technology education teacher with an academic core mathematics teacher and using aviation as a theme seems a logical place to start a complimentary team teaching partnership. This article discusses why aviation is one of the most feasible subject to teach technology education in a team teaching environment. | [FULL TEXT]

Berg, Joanne; Berquam, Lori; Christoph, Kathy (2007).  Social Networking Technologies: A "Poke" for Campus Services  EDUCAUSE Review, 42 n2 p32, 34. 

Handwritten notes, meeting for coffee, eye contact, a handshake, a smile--are these social practices of yesteryear, soon to be replaced by the "wall posts" and "pokes" of today's social networking technologies? Although advances in social networking technologies allow for new and perhaps more efficient means of learning and communicating, they also pose some significant challenges in higher education. For example, how can campus professionals, especially those in student and academic services, learn to use these technologies to think differently about communicating with students and about facilitating learning? What aspects of Facebook, YouTube, wikis, LiveJournal, Flickr, and MySpace.com might translate into new ways for creating better and more effective student and academic services? Should campus professionals capitalize on these technologies to gain the attention of students? From class lists and class schedules to placement services, judicial affairs, and e-learning, campus activities and services offer a host of possible areas in which the features of social networking technologies could play a key role. This article focuses on making connections--on the networking feature of these technologies. It describes how the University of Wisconsin-Madison uses these technologies as a way to build better relationships with its students and with personnel from disparate parts of the campus.

Berg, Steven, L. (2003).  Two Sides of the Same Coin: Engaging Students beyond the Traditional Classroom.  Community College Enterprise, 9, 1. 

Presents interviews with faculty members at several institutions of higher education. Discusses moving beyond the traditional classroom by using innovative teaching techniques and creative technology. Describes the benefits of the hybrid classroom, an interdisciplinary, technologically enhanced learning environment.

Berge, O.; Fjuk, A. (2006).  Understanding the Roles of Online Meetings in a Net-Based Course  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 22, 1. 

It is argued elsewhere that online learning environments constitute new conditions for carrying out collaborative learning activities. This article explores the roles of a series of online meetings in such an environment. The online meetings are arranged as part of a net-based course on object-oriented programming, and constitute a recurring shared experience for the participants throughout the semester. Through an activity theoretical analysis, we find that the meetings mediate the learners' actions towards the construction and maintenance of a community of practice. Our finding has implications for the standardization of digital learning resources. This is an issue that will challenge designers of research-oriented learning environments, should they attempt to move their systems into wider adoption. We suggest that an awareness of the internal systemic connections among the components of the course design we studied is of importance when considering redesign, with respect to the reuse and standardization of learning resources.

Berge, Zane L., Ed. (2008).  Multi-User Virtual Environments for Education and Training? A Critical Review of "Second Life"  Educational Technology Magazine: The Magazine for Managers of Change in Education, 48, 3. 

"Second Life" is a popular example of an immersive, three-dimensional, virtual world. Inhabitants of "Second Life" often describe their experiences in-world as having great social presence. Certainly there is a good deal of potential for education and training to occur in multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs), if designed properly, especially when the goals involve role playing, simulation, and peer interaction. On the other hand, the author notes, the state-of-the-art of these virtual worlds is such that instructors should use caution, if for no other reason than the steep learning curve for students and teachers alike, in using MUVEs for education and training, when an easier to use alternative delivery system can be effective.

Bergen, Doris (2000).  Linking Technology and Teaching Practice. Technology in the Classroom.  Childhood Education, 76, 4. 

Uses a "good practice" example from a Reggio Emilia-inspired university program for 4.5- to 6-year-olds to show how the director and teachers used educational technology to enrich the depth and meaning of the children's long-term projects, which are an integral part of the teaching practice. Includes print, Internet, and software resources for teaching with technology.

Bergen, Doris (2001).  Education or Edu-tainment? Technology in the Classroom.  Childhood Education, 77, 2. 

Maintains that computer software and Internet exploration introduce playful elements into learning. Discusses the implications of "edutainment," a technologically mediated learning/enjoyment combination of experiences. Suggests that school may no longer be the primary site for learning but that teachers may need to reevaluate their educational approach. Includes computer software resources for children 6 to 12 years.

Bergen, Doris (2002).  Differentiating Curriculum with Technology-Enhanced Class Projects. Technology in the Classroom.  Childhood Education, 78, 2. 

Describes how one teacher found that children of every ability level are very motivated to create technology-enhanced projects using the Internet, online databases, scanned pictures and drawings, and video clips or hyperlinks. Notes that such projects can help teachers differentiate curriculum for all children, and lists resources for teaching with technology including software, Web sites, articles, and books.

Bergen, Doris (2002).  Using Technology in Inclusive Classrooms. Technology in the Classroom.  Childhood Education, 78, 4. 

Discusses advantages of technology such as handheld computers in classrooms that include children with disabilities. Asks how technological devices affect very young children with or without disabilities and reviews criteria for selecting software, Web sites, and resources for teaching with technology.

Bergin, Rolf; Youngblood, Patricia; Ayers, Mary K.; Boberg, Jonas; Bolander, Klara; Courteille, Olivier; Dev, Parvati; Hindbeck, Hans; Edward, Leonard E., II; Stringer, Jennifer R.; Thalme, Anders; Fors, Uno G. H. (2003).  Interactive Simulated Patient: Experiences with Collaborative E-Learning in Medicine  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 29, 3. 

Interactive Simulated Patient (ISP) is a computer-based simulation tool designed to provide medical students with the opportunity to practice their clinical problem solving skills. The ISP system allows students to perform most clinical decision-making procedures in a simulated environment, including history taking in natural language, many hundreds of laboratory tests (e.g., images and endoscopy), and physical examination procedures. The system has been evaluated in a number of courses at three universities, Karolinska Institutet and Uppsala University in Sweden, and Stanford University in the United States. This article describes a study conducted in 2002, with an emphasis on results that pertain to collaboration between students. Results indicate that ISP is engaging and stimulates more active student involvement than traditional paper-based case presentation methods and that students seem to collaborate more easily when using ISP compared to traditional paper-based methods.

Bergland, Mark; Lundeberg, Mary; Klyczek, Karen; Sweet, Jennifer; Emmons, Jean; Martin, Christine; Marsh, Katherine; Werner, Joy; Jarvis-Uetz, Michelle (2006).  Exploring Biotechnology Using Case-Based Multimedia  American Biology Teacher, 68, 2. 

Today, teachers face more challenges than ever, and biology teachers face a special challenge. As technology continues to expand, biology teachers have a responsibility to keep students informed of technological and scientific advances. Biology teachers must also address ethical issues associated with these advances. In this paper, the authors describe their experiences using "Case It!," a case-based multimedia project for high school and introductory college biology students studying genetic diseases, DNA, gel electrophoresis and related procedures, and ethical issues raised by genetic testing. This software enables teachers to meet several national science standards, such as connecting science to real-life situations and encouraging students to think about the relationships among science, technology and society. The realistic simulation also encourages students to explore careers in molecular biology and genetics, and gives students experience both in building Web pages and Internet conferencing. The effectiveness of this case-based multimedia Internet project has been evaluated over the past five years in both high school and college classrooms. It was found that "Case It!" fit well with science standards and promoted the positive use of technology in schools. Students developed an awareness of ethical issues associated with genetic testing, thus increasing interest by connecting science to real life situations.

Berkeihiser, Mike (2008).  Model Program: Unionville High School, Kennett Square, PA  Technology Teacher, 67, 7. 

After attending a conference session about marketing, the author and his colleagues were inspired to start their own marketing program for the technology education program at Unionville High School in Kennett Square, Pennsylvania. When they started, they had no idea how much that simple marketing program would pay off. Over the past seven years, they have increased their student enrollment by about 30%, raised $130,000 for their department, started a TV studio, written and started teaching three new courses, and made a tremendous amount of capitol investment in the form of a CNC router, 30 computers, a vinyl sign cutter, and much more. They attribute all of this success to their marketing program. In this article, the author discusses this marketing program, which focuses on the following five major groups: (1) students; (2) guidance counselors; (3) parents; (4) fellow teachers; and (5) administrators.

Bernard, Robert M.; Abrami, Philip C.; Lou, Yiping; Borokhovsk, Evgueni; Wade, Anne; Wozney, Lori; Wallet, Peter Andrew; Fiset, Manon; Huang, Binru (2004).  How Does Distance Education Compare with Classroom Instruction? A Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Literature  Review of Educational Research, 74, 3. 

A meta-analysis of the comparative distance education (DE) literature between 1985 and 2002 was conducted. In total, 232 studies containing 688 independent achievement, attitude, and retention outcomes were analyzed. Overall results indicated effect sizes of essentially zero on all three measures and wide variability. This suggests that many applications of DE outperform their classroom counterparts and that many perform more poorly. Dividing achievement outcomes into synchronous and asynchronous forms of DE produced a somewhat different impression. In general, mean achievement effect sizes for synchronous applications favored classroom instruction, while effect sizes for asynchronous applications favored DE. However, significant heterogeneity remained in each subset.

Bernard, Robert M.; Abrami, Philip C.; Lou, Yiping; Borokhovski, Evgueni (2004).  A Methodological Morass? How We Can Improve Quantitative Research in Distance Education  Distance Education, 25, 2. 

This article is about the quantitative research practices and methodologies that are used in distance education (DE). It begins with an analysis and assessment of a segment of the DE research literature, DE/classroom comparison studies, based on a recently completed meta-analysis of that literature from 1985 to 2002. Overall, the 232 studies reviewed were judged to be of poor methodological quality and severely lacking in critical information about research practices. Studies of synchronous and asynchronous DE are discussed separately and recommendations are made for improving designs and measures within these patterns. Suggestions for future quantitative research areas are provided. In discussing these findings, we recognize that high-quality research is being conducted in the field and that qualitative forms of research contribute greatly to the mosaic of evidence that is the base of available knowledge about DE. Finally, three organizations, the What Works Clearinghouse (USA), EPPI-Centre (UK), and the Campbell Collaboration (international), all devoted to improving the quality of research and research synthesis in education, are described briefly; suggestions are made as to how their philosophies and approaches for judging the worthiness of research evidence can be used to improve DE research.

Bernard, Robert M.; Brauer, Aaron; Abrami, Philip C.; Surkes, Mike (2004).  The Development of a Questionnaire for Predicting Online Learning Achievement  Distance Education, 25, 1. 

The study reported here concerns the development and predictive validation of an instrument to assess the achievement outcomes of DE/online learning success. A 38-item questionnaire was developed and administered to 167 students who were about to embark on an online course. Factor analysis indicated a four-factor solution, interpreted as "general beliefs about DE," "confidence in prerequisite skills," "self-direction and initiative" and "desire for interaction." Using multiple regression we found that two of these factors predicted achievement performance (i.e., Cumulative Course Grade). Comparisons of pretest and posttest administrations of the questionnaire revealed that some changes in opinion occurred between the beginning and the end of the course. Also, categories of demographic characteristics were compared on the four factors. The overall results suggest that this instrument has some predictive validity in terms of achievement, but that Cumulative Grade Point Average (i.e., the university's record of overall achievement) is a much better predictor.

Bernard, Robert M.; Lundgren-Cayrol, Karin (2001).  Computer Conferencing: An Environment for Collaborative Project-based Learning in Distance Education.  Educational Research and Evaluation: An International Journal on Theory and Practice, 7, 2-3. 

Studied the effects of group formation strategy and levels of tutor intervention on online collaborative learning in a distance education class. Results with 45 undergraduates favor the random assignment of students to collaborative groups and the introduction of tutor intervention during the course of project work.

Bernardez, Mariano (2003).  From E-Training to E-Performance: Putting Online Learning To Work.  Educational Technology, 43, 1. 

Discusses corporate electronic learning and describes three different operative and business paradigms: electronic training, that replaces face-to-face interaction and reduces costs; electronic learning, that measures learning outcomes and considers technological barriers, learning to learn online, and installing an online culture; and electronic performance, including measurable performance improvement.

Bernhardt, William; Kress, Michael; Lewental, Mark; Miller, Peter (2004).  Digital Ink for Online Teaching  [Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE)] 

Reading with a pencil in hand to mark-up a book or article, scribbling questions and notes (along with rude drawings in some cases) in the margins of a committee meeting agenda, marking a student's essay with a red pen--all of these are everyday activities for most faculty. It is hard to say exactly how much of what we do can be defined as reading or writing because we are always engaging in both, simultaneously and seamlessly. But our behavior suddenly changes when we sit down in front of a PC. Suddenly, reading and writing become discrete activities, separated from one another both mentally and technologically. The screen is for reading. The keyboard is for writing. But what if there were a way to integrate reading and writing on the computer. What kinds of hardware and software would be needed? This article analyzes this possible teaching method, discussing two software programs for graphic annotation of documents using graphic tablets: Adobe Acrobat and Meander's Annotator. [For complete proceedings, see ED490093.] | [FULL TEXT]

Bernier, Roxane (2003).  Usability of Interactive Computers in Exhibitions: Designing Knowledgeable Information for Visitors  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 28, 3. 

This article investigates three types of content presentation (video documentary, computerized dictionary, and games) within interactive computer use at the Quebec Museum of Civilization. The visitors' viewpoint is particularly relevant for interface designing outcomes, since they argued that terminals require specific content display for disseminating information in the museum. We have identified five factors: 1) effortless knowledge; 2) sorted navigational paths; 3) exhaustiveness of topics; 4) combined audio and video media as first means; and 5) the quiz as a primary source of presentation. As first insight, terminals in exhibitions are perceived as multipurpose tools giving direct access to a wider selection of content, although it was shown that computer literate individuals have experienced problems to gain information, because of the content presentation and ergonomics. In addition, the commands provided did not properly assist visitors. Exhibit interface designers should build a "generic model interface" that best corresponds to the know-how of casual users, in order to avoid an arbitrary perusal of contents.

Berry, J.; Graham, E.; Smith, A. (2006).  Observing Student Working Styles when Using Graphic Calculators to Solve Mathematics Problems  International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science & Technology, 37, 3. 

Some research studies, many of which used quantitative methods, have suggested that graphics calculators can be used to effectively enhance the learning of mathematics. More recently research studies have started to explore students' styles of working as they solve problems with technology. This paper describes the use of a software application that records the keystrokes made by students as they use calculators, in order to enable researchers to gain better insights into students' working styles. The recordings obtained from this software can be replayed to observe how students have actually used their calculator in tackling a problem. The paper describes three pilot studies from quite different contexts, in which the software reveals how the calculators have been used by the students. In all of these studies the software provides insights into the working that would have been very difficult to obtain without the record of the keystrokes provided by the software.

Berry, John S.; Lapp, Douglas A.; Nyman, Melvin A. (2008).  Using Technology to Facilitate Reasoning: Lifting the Fog from Linear Algebra  Teaching Mathematics and Its Applications: An International Journal of the IMA, 27, 2. 

This article discusses student difficulties in grasping concepts from linear algebra. Using an example from an interview with a student, we propose changes that might positively impact student understanding of concepts within a problem-solving context. In particular, we illustrate barriers to student understanding and suggest technological interventions to address these barriers.

Berry, Robert Q., III; Ritz, John M. (2004).  Technology Education--A Resource for Teaching Mathematics  Technology Teacher, 63, 8. 

Standards-based testing is a major issue impacting public education around the world. Educational publications and daily newspapers cite instances where schools are accredited, or other instances where teams of educators are being assigned to failing schools, to suggest changes for improving student learning and subsequent test scores. In some instances, the state government has taken control of poorly performing schools. While articles could be written about the contribution that technology education has made to all school subjects, the authors have chosen to analyze mathematics in this writing. One reason for this choice is that when schools are reviewed for their accreditation, they are often found not performing well in mathematics at the middle school level. Why would technology teachers want to begin to build a database of their students? The answer is informed decision making. With data in hand, teachers have tools available to prove the value of studies in technology education. Teachers can use it to get technology education as a required subject in school systems or states. Teachers can position themselves as members of the education team at their school. They can also use it as leverage to get more resources to support programs. What school board would deny additional resources if educators can show that teaching in technology education can improve the test scores of students in school systems?

Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J. (2006).  Privileges, Privacy, and Protection of Youth Bloggers in the Social Studies Classroom  Social Education, 70, 3. 

Internet users continue to develop new ways of communicating online and disseminating information; one of these methods, the blog, also known as web log, has become a significant cultural phenomenon. Blogs offer an interactive medium for internet users to create and contribute content to the web. In some social studies classrooms, teachers are using blogs to supplement classroom instruction and facilitate discussion among students. Through classroom blogging, students can grow accustomed to sharing creative ideas, chronicling experiences, and articulating points of view. They can reflect on current events or interact with other students in distant schools to share views on a range of topics, such as racism, citizenship, poverty, and politics. Although blogging can be an enjoyable way to express oneself, the posting of stories, videos, and photos online can place individuals at risk for identity theft, stalking, harassment, and other privacy infringements. In this article, the authors present the Electronic Frontier Foundation guidelines for avoiding situations that could result in disciplinary action. They also discuss guidelines that provide a framework for managing the challenges associated with young people and blogging.

Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J. (2007).  Exploring Complex Social Phenomena with Computer Simulations  Social Education, 71, 3. 

In social studies classes, there is a longstanding interest in how societies evolve and change over time. However, as stories of the past unfold, it is often difficult to identify a direct link between causes and effects, so students are forced to accept at face value the interpretations of economists, political scientists, historians, geographers, and other social scientists. Now, new technological tools are available that can help students explore how individual actions can collectively contribute to the emergence of social patterns--patterns that at times are predictable, but in many cases yield surprising results. Agent-based modeling and simulations are tools that have been adapted to acquire a deeper understanding of complex events in the social sciences. Computers are used to imitate real life phenomena by creating virtual interactions inside artificial societies that help explain how "social structures and group behaviors emerge from the interaction of individual agents operating on artificial environments." The use of agent-based models offers a visual method for imitating and examining global patterns. The models are not intended to provide an exact replica of the real world, such as would be found in simulations for flight training, but they can introduce students to methods that may transform how people reflect on the past and foresee the potential of the future.

Berson, Michael J. (2000).  Rethinking Research and Pedagogy in the Social Studies: The Creation of Caring Connections through Technology and Advocacy.  Theory and Research in Social Education, 28, 1. 

Determines there is a continuing need to move research and information from those who generate it to the user and service provider in a form that has direct and immediate application. Explores the three challenges involved in developing a vision of pedagogy.

Berthold, Kirsten; Nuckles, Matthias; Renkl, Alexander (2007).  Do Learning Protocols Support Learning Strategies and Outcomes? The Role of Cognitive and Metacognitive Prompts  Learning and Instruction, 17, 5. 

Although writing learning protocols is an effective follow-up course work activity, many learners tend to do it in a rather suboptimal way. Hence, we analyzed the effects of instructional support in the form of prompts. The effects of different types of prompts were investigated in an experiment with four conditions: cognitive prompts, metacognitive prompts, a combination of cognitive and metacognitive prompts, or no prompts (N=84 undergraduate psychology students). We found that the prompts stimulated the elicitation of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies. The provision of purely metacognitive prompts did not, however, improve learning outcomes. Only the groups who had received cognitive, or a combination of cognitive and metacognitive, prompts learned more than the control group. This effect was mediated by cognitive learning strategies. The learners in the successful groups did not perceive the prompted learning strategies as more helpful than the learners of the group without prompts. It can be concluded that cognitive prompts--alone or in combination with metacognitive prompts--are an effective means to foster learning. However, additional means should be employed in order to convince the learner of the usefulness of such prompts.

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Bonanno, Philip; Kommers, P. A. M. (2008).  Exploring the Influence of Gender and Gaming Competence on Attitudes towards Using Instructional Games  British Journal of Educational Technology, 39, 1. 

Digital games are evolving beyond the solitary context into a ubiquitous, social and collaborative experience. Addressing beliefs about technology and attitudes towards technology-mediated processes is fundamental to the successful implementation of any innovation. In collaborative gaming, attitude towards gaming influences learners' interactions along the domain, technology and community dimensions. Building on various seminal works, an instrument was developed for measuring four components of attitude towards gaming--affective components, perceived control, perceived usefulness and behavioural components. The survey, including 21 statements each scored on a 5-point Likert scale, was used with a sample of college students to investigate the influence of gender and gaming competence on attitude towards gaming. The pedagogical implications of the different attitude components are discussed in relation to game design and to the different interactions triggered by the gaming context.

Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M. (2006).  Students' Attitudes toward the Introduction of a Course Website  Journal of Instructional Psychology, 33, 4. 

The purpose of the current experiment was to determine how students at a university with no course management system (and very little use of technology in general) would respond to the introduction of a course website. Participants (67) in the current experiment were students enrolled in an Introductory Psychology course at a small, Midwestern university term I of 2005. During the first week of classes, participants were given instructions on how to use the course website and what tools were available via the course website. At the end of the term, participants were given a questionnaire to assess their general attitudes toward the course website and to asses how often they used certain tools of the course website. At the end of the questionnaire, participants were given an opportunity to provide suggestions or comments. Results indicated that general attitudes toward the course website were positive and participants regularly used certain tools of the course website. Final course grades and performance on specific exam questions to a sample of students not using a course website is also made.

Bongalos, Yuri Q.; Bulaon, Dan Dave R.; Celedonio, Lanie P.; de Guzman, Allan B.; Ogarte, Cronica Josette F. (2006).  University Teachers' Experiences in Courseware Development  British Journal of Educational Technology, 37, 5. 

The professoriate is increasingly expected to infuse computer technology in teaching. However, there is dearth of qualitative data to either support or disprove this belief. This study thus aims to describe the experiences of a select group of college teachers as they develop, implement and evaluate their courseware materials. Ten tenured faculty members who have developed, deployed and evaluated their courseware materials were the participants of this qualitative inquiry. Initially, the teachers were made to fill out "robotfotos" (in Dutch, a cartographic sketch) for purposes of profiling their baseline characteristics. Data gathered were carefully analysed and thematised on the basis of internal and external homogeneity. Guided by a semistructured audio-taped interview, this study captured the experiences of the teachers whose instructional paradigms were facilitated and revolutionised by a learning management system (LMS), specifically the Blackboard (Bb) system. Findings show that generally, the professoriate considers the courseware materials developed as instructional adjuncts that complement their time-tested teaching modalities. Having identified an LMS such as Bb as a user-friendly system, issues relative to system's accessibility, technical difficulties, systemic training programmes for teachers, attractive system of incentives and user readiness are key areas that ensure overall programme success and viability.

Bonham, Scott W.; Beichner, Robert J.; Titus, Aaron; Martin, Larry (2000).  Educational Research Using Web-based Assessment Systems.  Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 33, 1. 

Web-based assessment and testing systems provide a valuable new tool to the education research community: a tool that combines the ability of multiple choice diagnostic tests to handle large numbers of subjects with some of the greater flexibility and additional information that other methods offer. This article discusses the strengths and weaknesses for education research and presents some strategies for the tool's use. 

Bonham, Scott W.; Deardorff, Duane L.; Beichner, Robert J. (2003).  Comparison of Student Performance using Web and Paper-Based Homework in College-Level Physics  Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 40, 10. 

Homework gives students an opportunity to practice important college-level physics skills. A switch to Web-based homework alters the nature of feedback received, potentially changing the pedagogical benefit. Calculus- and algebra-based introductory physics students enrolled in large paired lecture sections at a public university completed homework of standard end-of-the-chapter exercises using either the Web or paper. Comparison of their performances on regular exams, conceptual exams, quizzes, laboratory, and homework showed no significant differences between groups; other measures were found to be strong predictors of performance. This indicates that the change in medium itself has limited effect on student learning. Ways in which Web-based homework could enable exercises with greater pedagogical value are discussed.

Bonifaz, Alejandra; Zucker, Andrew (2004).  Lessons Learned About Providing Laptops for All Students  [Education Development Center] 

As a way of helping states and districts interested in laptop initiatives, the Northeast and the Islands Regional Technology in Education Consortium (NEIRTEC) has reviewed lessons learned to date from many laptop initiatives around the country and has prepared this guide. Drawn from articles and reports about current and past programs (see references at the end of the paper), as well as conversations with policymakers, this guide can be of practical help to emerging initiatives. But it is important that this information not be perceived as a "recipe." What is necessary or appropriate for a particular laptop initiative will depend on its specific goals, circumstances, and needs. Nonetheless, these lessons are intended to increase information sharing across laptop programs and help leaders and stakeholders build on existing knowledge. Because large-scale laptop initiatives are so new, there is still much to be learned. The lessons are presented in five main categories: Planning, Training & Professional Development, Managing Change, and Monitoring & Evaluation.

Bonk, Curtis J.; Zhang, Ke (2006).  Introducing the R2D2 Model: Online Learning for the Diverse Learners of This World  Distance Education, 27, 2. 

The R2D2 method--read, reflect, display, and do--is a new model for designing and delivering distance education, and in particular, online learning. Such a model is especially important to address the diverse preferences of online learners of varied generations and varied Internet familiarity. Four quadrants can be utilized separately or as part of a problem-solving process: the first component primarily relates to methods to help learners acquire knowledge through online readings, virtual explorations, and listening to online lectures and podcasts. As such, it addresses verbal and auditory learners. The second component of the model focuses on reflective activities such as online blogs, reflective writing tasks, self-check examinations, and electronic portfolios. In the third quadrant, visual representations of the content are highlighted with techniques such as virtual tours, timelines, animations, and concept maps. Fourth, the model emphasizes what learners can do with the content in hands-on activities including simulations, scenarios, and real-time cases. In effect, the R2D2 model is one means to organize and make sense of the diverse array of instructional possibilities currently available in distance education. It provides new ways of learning for diverse online students, and demonstrates easy-to-apply learning activities for instructors to integrate various technologies in online learning. When thoughtfully designed, content delivered from this perspective should be more enriching for learners. The R2D2 model provides a framework for more engaging, dynamic, and responsive teaching and learning in online environments.

Bonnett, Cara; Wildemuth, Barbara M.; Sonnenwald, Diane H. (2006).  Interactivity Between Proteges and Scientists in an Electronic Mentoring Program  Instructional Science: An International Journal of Learning and Cognition, 34, 1. 

Interactivity is defined by Henri (1992) as a three-step process involving communication of information, a response to this information, and a reply to that first response. It is a key dimension of computer-mediated communication, particularly in the one-on-one communication involved in an electronic mentoring program. This report analyzes the interactivity between pairs of corporate research scientists (mentors) and university biology students (proteges) during two consecutive implementations of an electronic mentoring program. The frequency and structure of the interactions within each pair were examined to provide context: 542 messages were posted among the 20 mentors and 20 proteges. These messages were formed into 5-10 threads per pair, with 3-4 messages per thread, indicating a high level of interactivity (there were more responses posted than independent messages). Mentor-protege pairs rated as effective by both mentors and proteges posted more messages overall, had well-structured threads, had protege and mentor postings that were similar in topic coverage and message length, and had little overt "management" behavior by mentors. However, there appears to be no clear recipe for successful interaction. Not only are there a variety of factors at play in developing an online relationship in this context, but mentor-protege pairs can falter at various stages in the process and in various ways.

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Bhalalusesa, Eustella Peter (2006).  The Dynamics of Teaching at a Distance in Tanzania: Reflections from the Field  Open Learning, 21, 1. 

In this paper, pedagogical issues drawn from a study to examine the nature and quality of correspondence tuition are analysed. The paper observes that effective correspondence tuition depends on a number of factors ranging from the tutors' academic competence to their professional experience, values and assumptions about distance learning. Given the novelty of the distance mode of delivery at university level in Tanzania, there is a need for an induction programme for newly recruited tutors to provide them with the core skills and techniques of distance teaching. Recruitment of additional tutors, as well as continued professional development, is crucial for the enhancement of student feedback and quality of correspondence tuition.

Bhattacharya, Bani (2008).  Engineering Education in India--The Role of ICT  Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 45, 2. 

Engineering education in India has witnessed a major change over the past few years. Substantial increase in the demand for high-quality education has led to the adoption of Information and Communication Technologies for extending the outreach of education. This paper presents a review of some of these technology-enhanced initiatives already taken up by the government of India, as well as by some of the leading institutions in the country. Important developments include the National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL), the use of an educational satellite called the EDUSAT and various other approaches such as the use of "virtual classrooms" and "virtual laboratories." The paper goes on to discuss some of the problem areas in the present mode of dissemination and deployment; some possible future trends and modalities are also outlined. These include blending collaborative learning with interactive technology-enhanced learning initiatives and finding ways of providing support for learners' queries.

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Black, Erik W.; Beck, Dennis; Dawson, Kara; Jinks, Susan; DiPietro, Meredith (2007).  The Other Side of the LMS: Considering Implementation and Use in the Adoption of an LMS in Online and Blended Learning Environments  TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 51 n2 p35-39, 53 Mar 2007. 

There are more similarities than differences among learning management system (LMS) software products. In a recent study, Carriere, Challborn, and Moore compared a variety of LMSs and went as far as to suggest that the only real differences between systems lie in marketing approaches. In addition, because LMSs have interchangeable parts, those wishing to introduce and integrate LMSs to their educational institution must focus less on which LMS to use and more on LMS adoption and implementation, or what the authors refer to as the "other side of the LMS." In this paper, the authors: (1) briefly differentiate between LMSs and content management systems (CMSs); (2) define the "other side of the LMS" in terms of adoption and implementation considerations; (3) discuss several factors that promote adoption and implementation of an LMS; and (4) suggest ways for change agents to navigate the often troubled waters of LMS adoption and implementation.

Black, Erik W.; Ferdig, Richard E.; DiPietro, Meredith (2008).  An Overview of Evaluative Instrumentation for Virtual High Schools  American Journal of Distance Education, 22, 1. 

With an increasing prevalence of virtual high school programs in the United States, a better understanding of evaluative tools available for distance educators and administrators is needed. These evaluative tools would provide opportunities for assessment and a determination of success within virtual schools. This article seeks to provide an analysis and classification of instrumentation currently available. It addresses issues regarding the limited arsenal of assessments and evaluation instrumentation for virtual schools.

Black, Narda; Brill, Ann; Eber, Debra; Suomala, Lisa (2005).  Using Technology to Compare the Instructional Effectiveness of Read Aloud and Read Along Materials in an Elementary Classroom  [Online Submission] 

Background: The options for technology in an educational setting is growing exponentially. But the question remains, how can technology be used to improve reading instruction in an elementary classroom? It has been proposed that using an LCD projector to enable all students to see the text and pictures could increase reading comprehension. Purpose: To evaluate if students can increase reading comprehension using an LCD projector in the classroom, to measure attention and interest of students using instructional technology in the classroom, and to assess the accuracy of a narrative retelling using instructional technology compared to a traditional read aloud format. Setting: Four 3rd and 4th grade classrooms in Southeastern Michigan during the 2004/2005 school year. Study Sample: 200 third and fourth grade students in the general student population; a random cross section of reading abilities and educational achievement. Intervention: Four elementary classrooms received identical instructional models over two lessons. One day, the teacher read aloud a picture book. The next day the class read along with the teacher using an LCD projector. Research Design: Correlational;Cross-Sectional; Statistical Survey; Qualitative; Control or Comparison Condition: Data Collection and Analysis: Data were collected in several ways: through numerical, quantitative scores on a retelling rubric completed by the students after the read aloud and the read along; through observational data during read aloud and read along instruction by a trained observer; through reflective data from the instructor immediately following both of the read along and read aloud lessons, and through student interview responses and feedback after completing the retelling response for both the read aloud and read along. Findings: Students can retell a narrative text with three times more accuracy when the instructor uses an LCD projector to show text and illustrations compared to a whole class read aloud. More than 70% of the students surveyed used the visual cues from the enlarged illustrations to help them understand the text. Self-Evaluative student scores also revealed the read along was significantly easier to pay attention to using the LCD projector. Conclusion: Reading comprehension skills of 3rd and 4th graders can be significantly improved through utilization of LCD projector instructional technology in the elementary classroom. Citation: Black, N., Brill, A., Eber, D., Suomala, L., April, 2005 "Using Technology To Compare The Instructional Effectiveness of Read Aloud and Read Along Materials In An Elementary Classroom" Walden University.  [M.E. Collaborative Action Research Project, Walden University.] | [FULL TEXT]

Black, Sharon (2004).  Designing and Teaming on the Outside: Extending PT3 Efforts across Campus, across Five Districts, and across the State  Computers in the Schools, 21, 1-2. 

Brigham Young University and its collaborative partners throughout Utah recognize that effectively "integrating technology" into pre-service programs and ultimately into K-12 classrooms requires rethinking both the potentials of technology and the programs themselves. And this rethinking needs to be done together. BYU (both School of Education and cross-campus faculty), five surrounding school districts, and the State Office of Education have a history of partnershipping, much but not all of which has been positive and productive. With receipt of a PT3 grant, these groups have undertaken a series of activities and projects to promote collaborative re-searching, rethinking and re-creating. This article traces some of the highlights of this experience and examines results. The author describes a memorable meeting that revealed closeness in goals and distance in understanding of these so-called partners, along with a pivotal series of workshops that revealed what can be accomplished when understanding is achieved. A 44-person trip to a technology conference in Las Vegas was a culminating activity for the renewed and rededicated partners; the author describes both personal and organizational aspects of this undertaking, along with its far-reaching results. A final section presents a series of benefits and accomplishments that have resulted from these collaborative rethinking activities.

Blackhurst, A. Edward (2005).  Perspectives on Applications of Technology in the Field of Learning Disabilities  Learning Disability Quarterly, 28, 2. 

This article describes how concepts related to the use of technology in education have evolved with particular emphasis on their implications for people with learning disabilities (LD). The article reflects the personal perceptions of the author as a "participant observer" in a variety of activities related to technology applications in special education beginning in the early 1960s (Blackhurst, 1965, 1967). At that time, educators were focused on the potential that audio-visual aids, such as 16mm film projectors and tape recorders, had for instruction. Researchers and instructional designers also were engaged in developing programmed instruction materials that had their foundation in Pressey's 1926 invention of the first teaching machine (Blackhurst & Edyburn, 2000). As mainframe computers and their applications became more prevalent, technology gradually emerged as the terminology of choice. Appended is list of web site resources related to technology and LD.

Blackney, Kenneth S.; Papadakis, Constantine N. (2004).  Leveraging Industry Relationships in the Academic Enterprise  Industry and Higher Education, 18, 2. 

Drexel University has maintained a leadership role in academic technology by choosing technology initiatives wisely, timing them effectively and ensuring that they have the greatest value to the community at large while being affordable. Drexel has leveraged vendor relationships to help accomplish these initiatives, and has shared its expertise and extended vendor partnerships with smaller schools by acting as an application service provider for them, enabling them to access services without owning assets.

Blaga, Otilia M.; Colombo, John (2006).  Visual Processing and Infant Ocular Latencies in the Overlap Paradigm  Developmental Psychology, 42, 6. 

Young infants have repeatedly been shown to be slower than older infants to shift fixation from a midline stimulus to a peripheral stimulus. This is generally thought to reflect maturation of the neural substrates that mediate the disengagement of attention, but this developmental difference may also be attributable to young infants' slower processing of the midline stimulus. This possibility was tested with 3- and 7-month-old infants in 2 experiments in which the degree of familiarity of the midline stimulus was manipulated across repeated trials. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the processing of midline content does affect infants' ocular latencies to a peripheral stimulus but that developmental differences in such processing do not account for developmental differences in disengagement seen across the 1st year.

Blagojevic, Bonnie (2003).  Funding Technology: Does It Make Cents?  Young Children, 58, 6. 

What is the role of early education programs in bridging the digital divide-helping all children become skilled technology users? Blagojevic addresses three issues: access, literacy/learning, and content. She discusses finding or funding computers for the classroom (access) and professional development to support teachers' computer skills (literacy and learning) so they can create developmentally appropriate ways for children to use technology (content). The article lists informative Web sites and is available online in Beyond the Journal, November 2003.

Blair, Martin E.; Goldmann, Hilary; Relton, Joy (2004).  Accessibility of Electronically Mediated Education: Policy Issues  Assistive Technology, 16, 2. 

Electronic technology has transformed education systems over the past 30 years. Generally speaking, technology has been an incredible benefit for individuals with disabilities. However, the use of technology, particularly in education, has been sometimes discriminatory toward those who are unable to interact with it in the standard ways anticipated by its inventors. Disability policies have attempted to address issues of equality of opportunity for all citizens, but application of these policies to rapidly evolving technology has been difficult. In this article we provide a brief review of disability policy as it pertains to education. We also review several current policy initiatives related to higher education information technology--all of which pertain to public kindergarten through 12th-grade education. We raise questions that arise when careful thought is given to ways in which disability, education, and technology policies overlap. We anticipate that these next few pages will generate dialogue among researchers, policy makers, educators, technology engineers, and others interested in how electronically mediated education affects individuals with disabilities and how it can be used to ensure equal access to the educational benefits available in schools protected by U.S. civil rights legislation.

Blaisdell, Mikael (2006).  In iPod We Trust  T.H.E. Journal, 33, 8. 

Beloved by students worldwide, iPod is becoming a presence in the classroom as teachers discover its many educational uses. At heart, the iPod's appeal is about its easily accessible audio and visual content in an attractive and conveniently sized package. Mechanically, the product is mostly a hard disk drive (although some models use only flash memory) with a small display screen. The iPod's many capabilities and associated technologies each present distinct learning opportunities, inside and outside the classroom. So where should a school or district start in building an effective plan for using iPods in their curriculum? According to veteran iPod integrators like Robert Craven and Katherine Hallissy Ayala, commitment, resources, and training are all key elements. Also crucial are a piloting faculty core and an instructional technology staff to support the group through initial training in use and troubleshooting, and in an iterative exploration of content. Additionally, anyone at all involved in program development initiatives inevitably emphasizes the importance of hands-on training. The debate continues over the educational usage of iPods. In some districts, as in Orange County, the iPod is coming to be regarded as a classroom essential. In other schools, it's considered a distraction, and along with other MP3 players is officially banned from campus. One thing is certain: For the foreseeable future, students will continue to acquire and use iPods. One thing that's less certain: Will educators choose to swim with the tide, or against it?

Blaisdell, Mikael (2006).  Educational Gaming: All the Right MUVEs  T.H.E. Journal, 33, 14. 

It is the universal cry of parents the world over, driven mad by the persistent sight of their children investing hours and hours in mastering the many layers of a video game. To the parent, video games are the enemy, the nemesis of homework and learning. But the child sees something of value, something engaging enough to fill a weekend, to the exclusion of all other activities. Some innovative educators think they know the answer: reduced absenteeism, increased concentration, enhanced learning, faster development of the skills that are needed in today's high-tech society--and students eager for more. On the internet and in school classrooms, students, teachers, and administrators are beginning to discover that what looks like a video game--a "MUVE" (multi-user virtual environment)--can offer much more than just entertainment. A MUVE is an interactive computer simulation of a geographical area, perhaps a town, where features of the environment-- buildings, rivers, stairways, people--are represented by computer graphics. In an educational MUVE, these characters are used to answer questions or give information about a location. Therein is the critical difference between video games and MUVEs: Both take their avatars on explorations, but they have different notions of success. With MUVEs, instead of warding off opponents, searching for gold, or racking up points, players have only one goal: learning.

Blake, Debra Miriam (2007).  Adapting Counseling to Changing Learner Demographics via a School-Wide System of Support  System: An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, 35, 1. 

The School of Language Studies at the Foreign Service Institute (FSI) offers full-time, intensive language training in more than 70 languages to US diplomats and other government employees preparing to serve at US Embassies abroad. Students at FSI, the primary training institution of the US foreign affairs community, have access to a fully independent, school-wide, language-learning counseling program, the Learning Consultation Service (LCS). LCS principles and protocol have remained intact from its inception, but changes in student demographics have demanded new approaches and practices. Specifically, multiple meetings with Learning Counselors and Learning Consultants, coaching, and more student accountability have gained priority. During the 2004/2005 training year, the LCS conducted a Learning Strategies Pilot Project with a limited number of student volunteers; feedback and observations appeared to justify the evolution of LCS protocol and counseling approaches.

Blake, Robert (2001).  What Language Professionals Need To Know About Technology.  ADFL Bulletin, 32, 3. 

Provides an extensive review of the potential of the World Wide Web, CD-Roms, and computer-mediated-communication (CMC), which offer exposure to authentic language and culture and many opportunities for language practice and interactivity.

Blanchard, Jay; McLain, Jared; Bartsche, Patrick (2005).  The Web and Reading Instruction  Computers in the Schools, 21, 3-4. 

This paper briefly chronicles the marriage of technology and reading instruction and then turns to focus on Web-based reading instruction. Issues are discussed that relate to reading effectiveness research, the U.S. No Child Left Behind legislation, the U.S. National Educational Technology Effectiveness Study, and the state of Web-based reading instruction, including the lack of a research base.

Blank, Rolf K.; Kim, Jason J.; Smithson, John (2000).  Survey Results of Urban School Classroom Practices in Mathematics and Science: 1999 Report. Using the Survey of Enacted Curriculum Conducted during Four USI Site Visits. How Reform Works: An Evaluative Study of National Science Foundation's Urban Systemic Initiatives. Study Monograph No. 2. 

This report presents results from four 1999 Urban Systemic Initiative (USI) school district surveys. The Survey of Enacted Curriculum is the study component of a grant from the National Science Foundation to examine how reform works in USI districts. The study explores the impact of USI programs on student achievement and the learning infrastructure in urban school districts and will develop an inferential causal model linking USI drivers and other key elements. This survey analyzes urban school mathematics and science practices, focusing on enacted curriculum contents and teaching practices. It provides a means of validating reform changes in the four sites by analyzing responses from intervention and control group teachers. In each site, 80 teachers were selected from 20 elementary and middle schools. The initial report on enacted curriculum in USI sites demonstrates that: the survey approach tried at the four USI sites can be used to analyze curriculum and teaching in classrooms; the analysis can be used across different classes, schools, and districts; and a purposeful sample of schools and teachers can be used to compare curriculum and instruction in schools that have high implementation of systemic reform with USI schools that have less implementation. Appendixes include the USI evaluative study abstract and year one progress summary, a brief description of four USI school districts, class descriptions, and content maps. | [FULL TEXT]

Blankenship, Tracy L.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Langone, John (2005).  Effects of Computer-Based Cognitive Mapping on Reading Comprehension for Students with Emotional Behavior Disorders  Journal of Special Education Technology, 20, 2. 

Three students with behavior disorders who exhibited difficulty with reading in content area courses learned to use a computer program to create cognitive maps of the reading material required for class. Using a modified multiple-probe design across behaviors or stimulus sets, replicated across students, allowed for the evaluation of student performance on written and oral quizzes covering content area information. All students improved reading comprehension of content material with this intervention, and were able to read their textbooks independent of teacher assistance or tutelage. These findings are significant because students who previously struggled with learning class material from text-based presentation can successfully accomplish these tasks given cognitive mapping reading strategy and access to a computer to create the cognitive maps.

Blanton, Dorothy (2004).  Character Education: Students Develop "The Kindness Company" to Benefit Local Charities  Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 96, 1. 

One can develop a family and consumer sciences (FCS) course that teaches character education, and allows students to experience the good feelings that come from helping others through The Kindness Company. The Kindness Company is a simulated company that produces items for donation to local charitable organizations. Students get management experience by working in two divisions of the company (product development and production) and six departments (human resources, planning, design, finance/public relations, engineering, and materials management). They take pride in the products they produce to help others, and they experience success by dealing with promotions within the company (supervisors, department heads, vice-presidents), choosing an employee of the month, winning a Students Service Challenge Award from the President of the U.S., and being named most outstanding employee by the company president (the teacher). The company has donated projects to more than 35 community organizations, giving positive exposure to the students and the school.

Blanton, Karen Kniep; Barbuto, John E., Jr. (2005).  Cultural Constraints in the Workplace: An Experiential Exercise Utilizing Hofstede's Dimensions  Journal of Management Education, 29, 4. 

This article describes an original exercise developed to apply Hofstede's cultural dimensions. The exercise creates simulated subcultures within a multinational organization. Managers are required to function in various subcultures as they work to develop an incentive plan with salespeople. Hofstede's dimensions are reviewed, followed by the exercise. We provide purpose, preparation requirements, instructions for facilitating and processing the exercise, student reactions, and strategies for understanding and applying the concepts. The authors also assessed content retention derived from participating in the exercise. In preliminary tests, three independent studies demonstrate significant improvements in content knowledge.

Blanton, William E.; Wood, Karen D.; Taylor, D. Bruce (2007).  Rethinking Middle School Reading Instruction: A Basic Literacy Activity  Reading Psychology, 28, 1. 

Research on subject matter instruction across the 20th century (e.g., Stevens, 1912; Bellack, 1966; Hoetker & Ahlbrand; 1969; Gall, 1970; Langer, 1999; Mehan, 1979; Nystrand, 1997;) reveals a preponderance of teacher-directed lecture, recitation, and round-robin reading of text in place of instruction that focuses on reading-to-learn, thinking, and transforming information into meaning and understanding (Durkin, 1978-79; Langer, 1999; Blanton & Moorman, 1990; Wood & Muth, 1991). This kind of instruction persists despite the fact that observations of higher performing schools indicated the tendency to organize instruction around meaningful learning communities with extensive interactive discussion of material read (Langer, 1999; Myers, 1996; Wenglinsky, 2000; 2004). The purpose of this essay is twofold: (a) to argue that a great deal of reading instruction fails to meet the multiple and complex literacy needs of most middle school students, and (b) to propose a new orientation for thinking about middle school reading instruction. We begin with a discussion of research findings on classroom reading instruction, followed by an exploration of issues central to the problem. Then we propose what we have titled the basic literacy activity, a conceptual tool for thinking about and arranging middle school reading instruction. We end with an overview of selected instructional strategies that exemplify the characteristics of basic literacy activity.

Blasi, Laura; Lee, John K. (2001).  From the Quill to the Keyboard: Technology and Literacy as Seen through the Declaration of Independence (Part II).  English Journal, 90, 6. 

Considers how new technologies might serve to help educators to teach in ways that were not possible without them. Considers "the unspoken responsibilities English teachers are asked to assume" as students pursue their desire to become "technologically literate." Describes an activity in which the World Wide Web is used to analyze and discuss the Declaration of Independence.

Blasi, MaryJane (2003).  A Burger and Fries: The Dilemma of Childhood Obesity. For Parents Particularly.  Childhood Education, 79, 5. 

Discusses reasons childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions and the numerous health problems that can result. Suggests parents incorporate physical activity into their family's lifestyle; advocate for daily outdoor recess at school; provide healthful meals; respect their child's appetite; not use food for comfort or as reward; and limit television viewing.

Blasik, Katherine; Williams, Richard G.; Johnson, Jeanette; Boegli, D. Robert (2004).  The Marriage of Rigorous Academics and Technical Instruction with State-of-the-Art Technology: A Success Story of the William T. McFatter Technical High School  High School Journal, 87, 2. 

The search for high school reform leads to William T. McFatter Technical High School in Broward County Public Schools, Florida. The purpose of this article is to highlight key information about the school and to demonstrate the success of its rigorous academic and technical instruction with state-of-the-art technology. By sharing this information, districts across the nation can replicate a program that ensures high school completion while readying students for college education, postsecondary technical study and mid- and high-level employment.

Blaylock, Jenny L. (2005).  Teacher's Guide to the Internet  [Online Submission] 

This paper is designed for teachers of students in grades Pre-K through 12 and will introduce them to the numerous curriculum resources on the Internet. More often today supplements to course curriculum can be found on any text book company web site. Even more important is the amount of curriculum resources available for free on the Internet. Search engines can provide links to innumerable web sites that maintain information on any subject. E-mail, bulletin boards, blogs, chat groups and instant messaging helps educators keep in touch with colleagues around the globe. A brief introduction to Internet use is included and will inform the reader of evaluation techniques. Information about domain names and their use is also discussed. In addition to resources for the regular education class, this paper will provide many web sites to use for students with exceptionalities. This paper is organized by subject type and will provide the current Internet address. | [FULL TEXT]

Blaylock, T. Hendon; Newman, Joseph W. (2005).  The Impact of Computer-Based Secondary Education  Education, 125, 3. 

Computer-based instruction is becoming more prevalent in secondary education in the United States. Using computers to deliver instruction can help to correct inequities in educational opportunities that exist due to race/ethnicity, budget constraints, geographical location, income, school size, and substandard teaching. Some knowledgeable experts predict most secondary students will receive all or part of their education from Internet-connected computers. This article specifically examines the impact of computer-based instruction in Illinois and Florida. Questions dealing with equitable access, course quality and rigor, learning and teaching experiences, and student success are addressed. Computer-based instruction in secondary education has the potential to solve some of the problems facing our schools.

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Broadfoot, Patricia M. (2005).  Dark Alleys and Blind Bends: Testing the Language of Learning  Language Testing, 22, 2. 

This article presents a revised version of the author's Samuel Messick Memorial lecture in 2003. Messick's emphasis on consequential validity is used to identify some of the negative effects of current practices as they affect the quality of students' learning and motivation. It suggests that there have been many 'dark alleys' in which poorly understood assessment technologies have been used thoughtlessly or have been located on 'blind bends' in which a lack of sufficient preparation and knowledge has resulted in assessment practices that are dangerous and, potentially, very damaging to learners. In the light of these problems the article argues for a more constructive approach to assessment. Taking the particular context of language learning, the article describes a new assessment tool, The Effective Lifelong Learning Inventory (ELLI), which has a very different purpose: the identification of an individual's power to learn. It argues the need to replace the conventional lexicon of testing with a focus on key learning dimensions such as confidence, collaboration, critical curiosity and creativity -- the feelings and dispositions that are argued to be central to learning.

Brockmeier, Lantry L.; Sermon, Janet M.; Hope, Warren C. (2005).  Principals' Relationship with Computer Technology  NASSP Bulletin, 89, 643. 

This investigation sought information about principals and their relationship with computer technology. Several questions were fundamental to the inquiry. Are principals prepared to facilitate the attainment of technology's promise through the integration of computer technology into the teaching and learning process? Are principals prepared to use computer technology to accomplish administrative and managerial tasks? What can be stated about principals' current expertise to use computer technology? Principals' responses to items on the Computer Technology Survey enabled an examination of their (a) role in facilitating and participating in the integration of computer technology into teaching and learning, (b) perceptions about computer technology for managerial and administrative tasks, (c) expertise acquired to use computer technology, and (d) professional development needs to enhance computer technology skills.

Broda, Herbert W.; Baxter, Ryan E. (2003).  Using GIS and GPS Technology as an Instructional Tool  Social Studies, 94, 4. 

Passive students staring blankly at computer screens has been a worrisome image for many educators. Often they fear that technology can remove students from contact with the real world. Two technologies that have been in general use for many years, but are more recently appearing in the educational sector, provide the opportunity to reap the benefits of technology while engaging young adolescents in an interactive environment. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS) have been used by industry, governmental agencies, and the military for many years. The decreasing cost of technology and the concurrent increasing availability of powerful computers in schools has made GIS technology a viable tool for many teachers. In addition, the lower cost and recent policy to permit unscrambled satellite signals have made GPS receivers very useful tools for the general population. The terms GIS and GPS are frequently confused by the general public. They are not the same, although both can be used effectively together. In this article, the authors discuss the difference between GIS and GPS and the use of these technologies as instructional tools in middle and high schools.

Brode, A. (2005).  Ways in Which Technology Enhances Teaching and Learning  [Online Submission] 

Canada is an information-rich society where the amount of information and knowledge is doubling at a significant rate (Thornburg, 1997). Technology, a product of this information, has an enormous impact on how educators teach and on how the students learn. Among the questions educators must now address are: How do students learn best in school? How will the use of technology increase the student's learning in a given subject area? The Research Question to be examined in this paper is, "How should use of technology enhance teaching and learning?" | [FULL TEXT]

Broekkamp, Hein; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette (2007).  The Gap between Educational Research and Practice: A Literature Review, Symposium, and Questionnaire  Educational Research and Evaluation, 13, 3. 

In the heated debate on the gap between educational research and practice, participants often defend single solutions based on monocausal problem analyses. This article aims to improve the quality of the debate by encouraging participants to take a many-sided perspective. To this purpose, we first reviewed the literature and developed an inventory of the problems, causes, and solutions that have been determined in relation to the gap. The literature review constituted a basis for a symposium and questionnaire, which was completed by participants of the symposium in advance. Different groups took part in the symposium, including researchers, teachers, teacher trainers, and policy-makers. The questionnaire indicated that, on average, these groups showed remarkable consensus about the existence and causes of a gap between educational research and practice. At the symposium, participants took a multisided perspective and considered various solution strategies to close the gap as complementary. Article includes appendix: Inventory of Problems and Causes Identified in the Literature as Constituting a Gap between Educational Research and Practice.

Broere, I.; Geyser, H. C.; Kruger, M. (2002).  Technology Development: Imperatives for Higher Education.  South African Journal of Higher Education, 16, 3. 

Discusses the enhancement of higher education in South Africa through technology, exploring some relevant aspects through learner-centered and managerial perspectives. Outlines some critical conditions to integrate technologies into teaching and learning.

Broersma, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne (2008).  Phantom Word Activation in L2  System: An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, 36, 1. 

L2 listening can involve the phantom activation of words which are not actually in the input. All spoken-word recognition involves multiple concurrent activation of word candidates, with selection of the correct words achieved by a process of competition between them. L2 listening involves more such activation than L1 listening, and we report two studies illustrating this. First, in a lexical decision study, L2 listeners accepted (but L1 listeners did not accept) spoken non-words such as "groof" or "flide" as real English words. Second, a priming study demonstrated that the same spoken non-words made recognition of the real words "groove," "flight" easier for L2 (but not L1) listeners, suggesting that, for the L2 listeners only, these real words had been activated by the spoken non-word input. We propose that further understanding of the activation and competition process in L2 lexical processing could lead to new understanding of L2 listening difficulty.

Brogan, Patricia (2001).  The Good, the Bad, and the Useless: Recognizing the Signs of Quality in Educational Software.  American School Board Journal, 188, 3. 

The best learning potential lies in adapting educational software to students' needs and learning styles. Few programs provide an adaptive learning environment. Educators should realize that information is not instruction, simplicity matters, graphics should enhance content, navigational designs should work intuitively, and interactions should engage students.

Bromme, Rainer; Stahl, Elmar (2005).  Is a Hypertext a Book or a Space? The Impact of Different Introductory Metaphors on Hypertext Construction  Computers and Education, 44, 2. 

This study examines the impact of different metaphors on the process of hypertext construction. Two groups of 20 college students with no experience in hypertext construction received introductory explanations on the text format "hypertext" based on either a book or a space metaphor. Then they had to construct hypertexts by linking prepared nodes on the topic of the "Internet." The different metaphors had significant effects on the constructed hypertexts, the construction process, and knowledge acquisition. The book metaphor encouraged a more linear way of viewing hypertexts that conflicted with the complexity of the contents to be processed. The space metaphor permitted a correspondence between complex semantic structures and complex hypertext structures. Hence, the space metaphor seems to be more appropriate for explaining the text format hypertext to students.

Brooker, Liz (2003).  Integrating New Technologies in UK Classrooms: Lessons for Teachers from Early Years Practitioners.  Childhood Education, 79, 5. 

Notes that rapid introduction of information and communication technologies in United Kingdom schools, along with government-mandated curriculum requirements, has not been matched by growth in practitioners' understanding of appropriate ways to use the technology. Examines the successful implementation of technology in early childhood settings where less pressure to meet strict guidelines allows more opportunity to experiment with child-centered practice.

Brooks, Catherine K.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.; Forrester, Jami (2005).  Partnerships in On-Line Learning: Development of an On-Line Curriculum for Application in a for Profit Firm and an Undergraduate Human Resource Degree Program  [Online Submission, Paper presented at the Academy of Human Resource Development International Conference (AHRD) (Estes Park, CO, Feb 24-27, 2005) p912-917 (Symp. 39-3)] 

This study describes the process of developing a partnership among a business firm and two separate departments within a public university. This research examines the multiple rationales for developing this partnership and the anticipated outcomes. Not only is the process of successful partnership development identified, the impact of the project outcomes is discussed, as are lessons learned.  [For complete proceedings, see ED491486.] | [FULL TEXT]

Brooks, David W.; Crippen, Kent J. (2001).  Learning Difficult Content Using the Web: Strategies Make a Difference.  Journal of Science Education and Technology, 10, 4. 

Introduces a web site designed to teach descriptive chemistry through testing.

Brooks, Douglas (2004).  How to Write Grants: The Best Kept Secret in the School Business  T.H.E. Journal, 31, 10. 

Technology is expensive--making innovation beyond the reach of most school budgets. And since constant improvement requires continuous funding, how do school districts, buildings or classroom teachers fund the products they need to improve student learning? The answer is through external grants. But grants require applications, and few, if any, colleges or graduate programs have courses or workshops that teach educators how to write grants; consequently, few professors can write them successfully. While rural schools have too few people doing too many jobs, urban and suburban schools are often shrouded in frustrating bureaucracy. Despite these challenges, well-written external grant funding can make a big difference in technology access, updates and instructional innovation. This article includes some tips on writing an grants application.

Brooks, G.; Miles, J. N. V.; Torgerson, C. J.; Torgerson, D. J. (2006).  Is an Intervention Using Computer Software Effective in Literacy Learning? A Randomised Controlled Trial  Educational Studies, 32, 2. 

Background: Computer software is widely used to support literacy learning. There are few randomised trials to support its effectiveness. Therefore, there is an urgent need to rigorously evaluate computer software that supports literacy learning. Methods: We undertook a pragmatic randomised controlled trial among pupils aged 11-12 within a single state comprehensive school in the North of England. The pupils were randomised to receive 10 hours of literacy learning delivered via laptop computers or to act as controls. Both groups received normal literacy learning. A pre-test and two post-tests were given in spelling and literacy. The main pre-defined outcome was improvements in spelling scores. Results: 155 pupils were randomly allocated, 77 to the ICT group and 78 to control. Four pupils left the school before post-testing and 25 pupils did not have both pre- and post-test data. Therefore, 63 and 67 pupils were included in the main analysis for the ICT and control groups respectively. After adjusting for pre-test scores there was a slight increase in spelling scores, associated with the ICT intervention, but this was not statistically significant (0.954, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.83 to 3.74, p = 0.50). For reading scores there was a statistically significant decrease associated with the ICT intervention (-2.33, 95% CI -0.96 to -3.71, p = 0.001). Conclusions: We found no evidence of a statistically significant benefit on spelling outcomes using a computer program for literacy learning. For reading there seemed to be a reduction in reading scores associated with the use of the program. All new literacy software needs to be tested in a rigorous trial before it is used routinely in schools.

Brooks, Gordon P.; Raffle, Holly (2005).  Fish: A New Computer Program for Friendly Introductory Statistics Help  Teaching Statistics: An International Journal for Teachers, 27, 3. 

All introductory statistics students must master certain basic descriptive statistics, including means, standard deviations and correlations. Students must also gain insight into such complex concepts as the central limit theorem and standard error. This article introduces and describes the Friendly Introductory Statistics Help (FISH) computer program, which is free and easy-to-use software designed to help students learn such introductory statistical concepts.

Brooks, Marilyn (2006).  Building the Foundation  Learning and Leading with Technology, 33, 4. 

In this column, the author shares some of the processes involved with the restructuring of the elementary curriculum and the role of technology in the classroom. When Plano ISD committed time, talent, and technology to a new educational vision, the Elementary Integrated Curriculum project was born. The goal: to integrate subject matter and technology into a student-centered classroom with meaningful content, enriched environment, choices for learning, multiple activities, and varied assessment strategies. | [FULL TEXT]

Brooks, Valerie, Ed.; Abbott, Ian, Ed.; Bills, Liz, Ed. (2004).  Preparing to Teach in Secondary Schools  [Open University Press] 

This book is key reading for all trainee secondary school teachers. It covers the range of core professional skills that student teachers need to acquire irrespective of their subject specialism or their training route. It also considers recent developments in teaching, exploring the opportunities and challenges they present for those about to enter the profession. This book is also suitable for use by newly qualified teachers to support their early professional development. Topics covered include: (1) Relationships with paraprofessionals and other adults in the classroom; (2) New opportunities created by technological advances; (3) New thinking on teachers' professionalism and teacher leadership; (4) Data-rich approaches to managing school and pupil performance; (5) Assessment for learning; and (6) Government reforms and initiatives. The book encourages readers to engage with ideas presented in the book, and offers students: (1) An interactive approach: Chapters start with a set of objectives and contain a mix of tasks and activities, case studies and scenarios to which readers are invited to respond. Practical examples and illustrations make abstract or unfamiliar ideas easier to grasp; and (2) Self-contained tasks: Most tasks can be completed there and then. For instance, if a task requires readers to analyze pupil performance data, a suitable example is provided. After an introduction, this book is divided into four sections. Section 1, Becoming a Teacher, begins the book with the following chapters: (1) Learning to Teach and Learning about Teaching (Val Brooks); (2) The Professional Framework and Professional Values and Practice (Susan Orlik); and (3) Key Issues, Opportunities and Challenges for New Teachers (Emma Westcott and Alma Harris). Section 2, Core Professional Competences, continues with chapters: (4) Understanding How Pupils Learn (Daniel Muijs); (5) Planning for Learning (Paul Elliott); (6) Using Differentiation to Support Learning (Liz Bills and Val Brooks); (7) Working with Parents and Other Adults (Liz Bills); (8) Communicating in the Classroom (Paul Elliott); (9) Using Assessment for Formative Purposes (Val Brooks); (10) Using Assessment Data to Support Pupil Achievement (Chris Husbands); (11) Positive Approaches to Supporting Pupil Behaviour (Jo Crozier); and (12) Using ICT to Support Learning (Mick Hammond). Section 3, Secondary Schools and the Curriculum, presents the next chapters: (13) Models of the Curriculum (Chris Husbands); (14) Spiritual, Moral and Cultural Development (Judith Everington); (15) The National Strategy for Key Stage 3 (Alison Kitson); (16) The National Literacy Strategy (Kate Shilvock); (17) The National Numeracy Strategy (Chris Bills and Liz Bills); (18) Citizenship (Alison Kitson); and (19) The Curriculum: 14-19 (Ian Abbott and Prue Huddleston). Finally, Section 4, Making Schooling Work for All: Aspects of the Inclusion Agenda, offers the concluding chapters of the book: (20) Special Educational Needs and Inclusive Schooling (Dimitra Hartas); (21) Schooling, Ethnicity and English as an Additional Language (Sandra Howard); (22) Schooling and Gender (Kate Shilvock); (23) Pastoral Care and the Role of the Tutor (Peter Lang); (24) Personal, Social and Health Education (Peter Lang and Chris Husbands); and (25) Government Initiatives: Excellence in Cities and Gifted and Talented (Ian Abbott). A list of references and an index are also included.

Brooks-Young, Susan (2005).  Standardization: Hardware and Software Standardization Can Reduce Costs and Save Time  Technology & Learning, 26, 3. 

Sadly, technical support doesn't come cheap. One money-saving strategy that's gained popularity among school technicians is equipment and software standardization. When it works, standardization can be very effective. However, standardization has its drawbacks. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of standardization.

Brooks-Young, Susan (2005).  Dear Administrator: Leader's Edge Columnist Susan Brooks-Young Answers Your Questions about Grants, Fundraising, and Budgeting  Technology & Learning, 25, 11. 

In this article, the author provides answers to several questions about grants, fundraising, and budgeting. In one particular question, the author explains why verification is required for administrative support in technology programs. She also suggests several qualities to seek when undergoing a contract with a grant writer.

Brooks-Young, Susan (2007).  Tips from the Bottom Line: A T&L Columnist Shares Dollarwise Highlights from the Past Year  Technology & Learning, 27, 12. 

Stymied by how to manage anticipated funding decreases and spiraling costs? Bleak funding projections can result in significant reductions or elimination of programs, regardless of their impact on student achievement. Why? One culprit is the tendency to use past practices to define future spending. Because educators often use previous years' budgets as a starting point, many budget items become entrenched with limited discussion about whether or not these are funds well spent. This approach is particularly detrimental for innovations that are initially supported through special funding sources. Unless successful new initiatives are institutionalized through reallocation of more secure funds to sustain these new programs, they often fall by the wayside when the special funds dry up. In this article, the author shares strategies from the funding frontier.

Brose, Friedrich (2002).  Implementing the "Information Competency" Graduation Requirement in California Community Colleges: A Chronology of Sources, and Lists. 

This document offers a chronology of sources regarding the implementation of an information competency graduation requirement in California community colleges. The Academic Senate for the California Community Colleges defines information competency as the ability to find, evaluate, use, and communicate information in various formats. The definition also involves the use of critical thinking, technology, and various research methods. The definition for information competency in some California community colleges is similar to the definition for information literacy used by community colleges in other states. The report states that society and industry are becoming more information or knowledge-based, so the ability to acquire and communicate information in various formats is fast becoming a requirement for any profession. The report provides a chronological history for the term "information competency," including applicable legislation, definition changes, national guidelines, and various community college committee recommendations. The report highlights events that are significant and relevant to California community colleges, and it looks at the current state of the information competency graduation requirement as it is defined and utilized by some California community colleges. Appendices include listings with hundreds of Web sites and references on information competency. | [FULL TEXT]

Broskoske, Stephen L.; Harvey, Francis A. (2000).  Challenges Faced by Institutions of Higher Education in Migrating to Distance Learning. 

This paper presents the results of a research study conducted in fall 1999 to examine the challenges facing higher educational institutions in migrating to distance learning. The study consisted of five case studies conducted at higher educational institutions in Pennsylvania. At each institution the researchers interviewed the president and other senior administrators and conducted a focus group with administrators and key faculty involved in distance education. Participants in the study reviewed and analyzed a comprehensive model developed by the researchers for applying principles of organizational agility to distance learning. Researchers investigated how institutions of higher education could strategically coordinate human resources, organizational dynamics, and distance learning technologies in a systematic way in order to gain and maintain a competitive edge in the educational marketplace, and in order to be more responsive to students. The study found that issues related to faculty and other personnel, marketing, competition, budget, and planning were more significant for the success of distance education than technological issues. Implications for planning and implementing successful distance programs are presented.  | [FULL TEXT]

Broughton, Elizabeth (2000).  Information Communication Technology (ICT) Shaping Student Affairs. 

This paper opens with the following questions: "How prepared are you as a student affairs professional for information communication technology (ICT)? Do you understand such concepts as portals, e-business, Napster, computer use policies, and wireless communication? Will student affairs be shaped by ICT or will student affairs help shape ICT on our campuses?" After noting that some student affairs professionals are threatened by ICT, the paper lists 10 guidelines, developed by Komives and Petersen (1997), to consider when utilizing ICT. It then describes Web sites for student affairs professionals on using ICT. The sites are listed under the following categories: Professional Resource Information; Student Learning; Assessment; and Service Delivery. | [FULL TEXT]

Brouse, Corey H.; Basch, Charles E.; LeBlanc, Michael (2008).  Computer Use in Undergraduate Health Education Programs  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 36, 1. 

There is a paucity of research concerning the opinions and roles of Department Chairs pertaining to computer use, yet these individuals are in a key position to influence the curricula. The purpose of this survey was to improve understandings about Department Chairs' opinions and reported practices concerning computer applications in their undergraduate professional preparation programs. The target population for the study was all of the Department Chairs of undergraduate health education or related programs in the United States. The sampling frame was conducted by using the list maintained by the American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD). The design for this study was cross sectional. All data represent chairpersons' reports on a single survey instrument.

Brouwer, Niels; Muller, Gert; Rietdijk, Henk (2007).  Educational Designing with MicroWorlds  Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 15, 4. 

"Computer Images for Lesson Support" (CILS) is a module for primary teacher education that aims at educating prospective teachers in designing multimedia-learning environments, with the aid of the Logo program MicroWorlds, and using it with children. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected among 44 student teachers during their designing and teaching activities. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive and correlative statistics as well as content analysis. The following influences on students' learning were found: prior learning in computer use; students' learning orientation; the nature of their cooperation in groups; the module itself and how it was embedded in the teacher education curriculum; the technical infrastructure and staff cooperation available in the schools where the students did their student teaching; and the students' learning experiences in those schools. Conclusions about the CILS module and the underlying approach to developing prospective teachers' competence in educational computer use are presented and implications for teacher education and further research are discussed.

Brown, Abbie H.; Campbell, Anne (2002).  Welcoming the Culture of Computing into the K-12 Classroom: Technological Fluency and Lessons Learned from Second Language Acquisition and Cross Cultural Studies.  Multicultural Education, 10, 2. 

Discusses the integration of innovative technologies into the K-12 curriculum and its impact on instructional programs for linguistically and culturally diverse students. Describes the debate over whether the culture of computing is inclusive or exclusive, examining: educational technology standards; information technology and fluency; speech registers; postulating registers of information technology fluency; and the role of automaticity in developing fluency.

Brown, Abbie; Green, Timothy D. (2008).  Video Podcasting in Perspective: The History, Technology, Aesthetics, and Instructional Uses of a New Medium  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 36, 1. 

An examination of the current state of the art of podcasting, with a focus on video podcasting. Included are a review of the history and technical aspects of podcasting and an overview of current educational applications of podcasting. A detailed description of an experiment conducted in creating and distributing video podcast episodes is provided. Issues related to the development and distribution of podcasts are discussed.

Brown, Abbie; Miller, Darcy (2002).  Classroom Teachers Working with Software Designers: The Wazzu Widgets Project. 

This paper presents results of a year-long project involving K-12 teachers working with student software designers to create "learning objects"--small, computer-based tools (known as "widgets") for concepts identified by the teachers as "difficult to learn." This educational software development project was facilitated by members of Washington State University's Department of Teaching and Learning, and funded by The Arc of Washington Trust Fund. The project is part of the "Wazzu Widgets" (learning object development) project underway at Washington State University. Graduate students of education and instructional design (along with one advanced undergraduate student) were matched with local K-12 teachers to develop instructional software designed to meet the teachers' needs. A specific criterion for participation was that the teachers had at least one student with mild mental retardation in their class during the course of the project. Each of the three teachers chose a concept that they found challenging to explain to their students and worked with the software production team to develop a small, interactive software solution known as a Learning Object. The three learning objects developed for this project were designed to accommodate their students with mild mental retardation. The creation of the learning objects yielded a great deal of information about students' and teachers' perceptions of the processes of instructional design and instructional media development as well as the usefulness and usability of the specific learning objects developed.  | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, Abbie; Sugar, William (2004).  Integrating HCI into IDT: Charting the Human Computer Interaction Competencies Necessary for Instructional Media Production Coursework  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

A report on the efforts made to describe the range of human-computer interaction skills necessary to complete a program of study in Instructional Design Technology. Educators responsible for instructional media production courses have not yet articulated which among the wide range of possible interactions students must master for instructional media production purposes. A hierarchy of human-computer interactions is introduced. The method and results of a preliminary study of 12 student projects are described. | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, Angela Humphrey; Benson, Barbara; Uhde, Anna P. (2004).  You're Doing What with Technology? An Expose on "Jane Doe" College Professor  College Teaching, 52, 3. 

In this article, the authors discuss the professional development of three college professors as they actively seek to improve their technological skills. The expose uncovers faculty development issues regarding learning and using technology at the postsecondary level. Moreover, key questions that higher education faculty and administrators need to explore regarding faculty's technology development are disclosed. Revelations about how institutions can provide a systematic support framework for their faculty's technological professional development are explored.

Brown, Bettina Lankard (2000).  Web-Based Training. ERIC Digest No. 218. 

Reduced training costs, worldwide accessibility, and improved technological capabilities have made Web-based training (WBT) a viable alternative to classroom instruction. WBT enables businesses to cut their training costs. Efficiency of operation is another major advantage of WBT. The flexibility of time, place, and programs offered via WBT appeals to learners who must balance school with work and home responsibilities. Task- and detail-oriented people who are focused in their study habits and engaged in learning tasks requiring creative thinking and analysis are most successful in using computer-based, online programs. Virtual classrooms can be asynchronous and synchronous. Asynchronous classrooms allow students and instructors to engage in collaborative learning activities without being online at the same time. Synchronous classrooms are more reflective of traditional classrooms because they allow instructors and students to be online simultaneously. WBT programs must be designed to accommodate learners' needs, allow learners the freedom to follow unique paths to learning in their own cognitive styles, and require students to construct meaning. Studies of the advantages and disadvantages of WBT training have identified tips to help instructors use the Web's technological capabilities to advance their teaching and learning goals with the same quality achievable through the best classroom instruction. | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, Bettina Lankard (2001).  Women and Minorities in High-Tech Careers. ERIC Digest No. 226. 

Women and minorities are underrepresented in technology-related careers for many reasons, including lack of access, level of math and science achievement, and emotional and social attitudes about computer capabilities. Schools and teachers can use the following strategies to attract women and minorities to high-tech careers and prepare them for work: (1) connect technology to female and minority students' interests; (2) work to change social attitudes; (3) involve business in developing the skills needed for high-tech occupations; and (4) provide career information. Collaborative and cooperative learning environments are additional effective teaching strategies for technology learning because they promote learning through social interaction with others. Additional strategies for increasing female and minority students' interest in technology are to introduce technology in the middle grades and provide mentors and role models. Schools can facilitate gender equity and leadership development by employing the following policies: (1) select software free of gender and ethnic bias; (2) ensure that computer laboratories are accessible to each gender, ethnic group, and income level, as well as to students with disabilities; (3) encourage the incorporation of technology strategies within all sectors of the curriculum; (4) provide staff training in technology; and (5) periodically review and revise equity policies as necessary. | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, Bettina Lankard (2002).  New Wine in New Bottles: Transforming Vocational Education into Career and Technical Education. Practice Application Brief No. 21. 

Teachers responsible for transforming their vocational education programs into career and technical education (CTE) programs need to concentrate on ensuring programs' technical and academic rigor, engaging in collaboration in school and in the community, keeping current through professional development experiences, and extending learning beyond classroom walls. The following are among the ways teachers can transform their vocational programs into successful CTE programs: (1) include clearly articulated course outcomes and align content with national or state occupational skill standards; (2) use the context of the workplace and the community to teach academic and technical skills; (3) assume the role of coach or mentor and encourage students to create their own knowledge from experiences beyond the classroom; (4) collaborate with the community in creating learning experiences that engage students in real-life, hands-on active learning; (5) engage in a variety of professional development experiences, including staff development, work-based experiences, internships, externships, industry tours, Web-based courses, and professional associations; and (6) provide students with opportunities to work with adults other than teachers in community and work settings. Effecting change requires that teachers be open minded about adopting new ways to teach, ensure that their programs are current, and direct students' academic and skill development to workplace requirements. | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, Betty J., Ed. (2001).  Management of the Business Classroom. National Business Education Association Yearbook, No. 39. 

This document contains 15 papers devoted to the theme of management of business education. "Management of Business Education: A Perspective" (Betty J. Brown) discusses business education as education about business and education for business. The following papers explore the theme of managing the curriculum: "The Basic Business and Economic Education Curriculum" (John E. Crow); "Managing the Technology-Related Curriculum in Business Education" (Michael L. McDonald, Lonnie Echternacht); "Integrating Business Education Programs with Other Disciplines" (Sandra R. Williams, Billie J. Herrin, Robyn J. Taylor); "School-to-Career Initiatives: Integrating Business Education with the Core Curriculum" (Joan Whittemore Loock, Michael James Tokheim); "Program Management in Changing Times" (Sharon Lund O'Neil); and "Managing Curriculum Change" (Linda G. McGrew). The following papers deal with managing the learning process: "Diversity Today: Challenges and Strategies" (Tena B. Crews, Alexa Bryans North, Sandra L. Thompson); "Shaping the Elementary and Middle School Business Education Curriculum" (Sharon A. Andelora); "Managing the Learning Process for Postsecondary and Collegiate Business Education Students" (Betty A. Kleen); "Student-Related Management Concerns" (Gay Davis Bryant); "Setting the Stage for Successful Learning" (Donna J. Cochrane); "Classroom Management Theory and Practice" (Cora Lytle); "Facilities Management" (Dawn E. Woodland, Linda F. Szul); and "Eye on the Future: Research Directions for Business Educators" (James E. Bartlett, II; Jim B. Mansfield). Most papers include substantial bibliographies.

Brown, Carol A. (2001).  Utilization, Knowledge Levels, and Instructional Application of Technology for Teacher Education Faculty. 

This study measured the level of implementation of computers and other technologies within teacher education method courses and noted how much computers were being utilized for developing problem solving abilities that could be used in the K-12 classroom curriculum. Surveys of Arkansas teacher educators from colleges affiliated with the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) examined: demographics; personal use of computers and related devices; compliance with NCATE and International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) recommendations for teacher educators to be knowledgeable about current practice related to the use of computers and technology and integrate them into their teaching and scholarship; and use of technology for realistic problem solving experiences. Results indicated that four respondent characteristics showed significant relationships with knowledge level and use (familiarity with ISTE competencies, age, rank, and tenured position). Survey responses suggested that methods instructors were using the Internet and World Wide Web for student assignments involving information access, email for communication, and word processed documents for class assignments. They were not using databased or spreadsheet applications for class assignments that would require higher order thinking and problem solving skills. | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, Carol A. (2001).  The Use of Technology by Teacher Education Faculty for Problem Solving and Higher Order Thinking. 

This study investigated college teachers' reported uses of instructional strategies that include realistic problem-solving based on technology competencies recommended by the International Society for Technology in Education and adopted by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE). Data were collected from Arkansas faculty who taught methods courses at colleges of education accredited by the NCATE. Data from 125 faculty members (56% response rate) show that reporting faculty from Arkansas are integrating computers into their instruction in three main areas: (1) use of e-mail and the Internet; (2) use of the World Wide Web for problem solving; and (3) use of word processing to generate booklets, reports, and newsletters. The reported use of databases or spreadsheets was just above the median score of 2.0. Simulation software and spreadsheets for authentic problem solving were seldom or never used.   | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, Carol A. (2004).  Design, Development, and Evaluation of Electronic Portfolios for Advanced Degree Programs in Technology and School Media  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

Across the various programs of study, portfolios serve many functions and purposes. Electronic portfolios have been used as a culminating product for students in our Master of Library Science and Master of Education in Instructional Technology at East Carolina University. Two conclusions were drawn from this study - (1) authentic assessment using portfolios is useful for facilitating reflective thinking that results in selfregulated learning, and (2) student products in the form of electronic files can be archived, indexed and used as evidences in program evaluation. | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, Carol A. (2005).  Computer Software Genres That Help Students Think! Electronic Classroom  Kappa Delta Pi Record, 42, 1. 

To effectively integrate computers into teaching, students' thinking skills must be a priority. The goal is to align thinking processes appropriately with the software's function. By categorizing software by genre and matching it to the desired thinking skills, teachers can plan lesson activities that teach discrete skills as well as complex processes that will prepare students for a lifetime of problem solving | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, Carol J.; Fouts, Jeffrey T.; Rojan, Amy (2001).  Teacher Leadership Project 2001: Evaluation Report. 

The Teacher Leadership Project (TLP), funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, is a program developed to assist teachers in their efforts to integrate technology into the school curriculum. The program also encourages and facilitates teachers in assuming leadership roles to help schools and districts develop and implement technology plans, and to provide training in using technology. During the 2000-2001 school year, approximately 1,400 teachers participated in the TLP. Of these, 1,000 were new to the program, while the others participated for a second, third, or fourth year. This evaluation of the TLP focused on the following six research questions: (1) Are the teachers integrating and using the technology as intended? (2) How have teachers technical skills developed over the year? (3) What effect has the training had on teaching, the classroom, and the school? (4) What percentage of the teachers can be categorized as "technology integrated?"(5) What leadership activities have the teachers performed during the year? and (6) What is the appropriate use of the technology for K-2 students? Data were gathered from several different sources: teacher journals from both new and experienced participants; interviews and observations of K-2 teachers and their students; and survey data from the TAGLIT (Taking a Good Look at Instructional Technology), an online instrument designed to measure teacher and student use of and attitudes about technology. | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, Cary A.; Dickson, Rumona; Humphreys, Anne-Louise; McQuillan, Vicky; Smears, Elizabeth (2008).  Promoting Academic Writing/Referencing Skills: Outcome of an Undergraduate E-Learning Pilot Project  British Journal of Educational Technology, 39, 1. 

Future health care professionals will require self-directed learning skills. e-Learning is a tool to assist in this process and therefore there is a need to develop the capacity and readiness to utilise e-learning within educational programmes. The aim of this study was to determine if extra-curricular online referencing and anti-plagiarism lectures would be utilised and would ultimately improve 1st-year undergraduate health sciences students' performance in written assessments. A series of six online archived multimedia lectures (asynchronous) were offered. Adult learning theory principles guided the resource design. Pre- and post-testing of knowledge, attitudes and computer skills was carried out. In-person tutorials and online email support were also offered. Less than 36% (self-report) of students accessed the online resources. The poor uptake revealed in this study is consistent with a number of other studies. These findings indicate the need for more careful scrutiny of the learning theory applied in e-learning design. Prochaska's transtheoretical model is suggested as a framework with strong potential for e-learning initiatives.

Brown, Cindy; Zellner, Luana (2001).  Leadership, Technology, and Student Learning. 

A Technology in Education III (TIE-3) grant was awarded to the C-SMART Consortium Project for the 1999-2000 school year by the Texas Education Agency (TEA). The consortium consisted of seven public and private schools in Texas. The goal of this grant was to accomplish four main objectives: electronic activities for development of student problem-solving skills; video conferencing of Spanish I to rural school districts who were unable to provide a Spanish course to their students; a variety of professional development experiences designed to enhance teacher technological literacy as well as teacher ability to incorporate technology with course content; and opportunity for adult literacy training through the use of computer-based programs to parents, open access labs to parents, and technology training to parents. The purpose of the C-SMART TIE-3 grant evaluation written for TEA was to: determine the degree and quality of the implementation of the project using both qualitative and quantitative research methods; provide formative and summative evaluation of the project in order to facilitate concurrent and future decision making for the TIE-3 grant; and meet the requirements of the TEA for evaluation of the project. Participants included nearly 10,500 students, 750 teachers and 17 district technology facilitators who comprised C-SMART's Leadership Team. From the data gathered in the evaluation, the following assumptions about C-SMART's impact on its participants are construed: computer usage in the integration of content with instruction was greatly enhanced by the C-SMART program; time spent on daily managerial, research, and planning tasks is perceived by participants to be reduced with the use of the computer; students use the computer as a tool for seeking information for their class work with more frequency and confidence; and teachers are more comfortable with using the computer for classroom instruction. The Technology Questionnaire and pre- and post-Technology Questionnaire results are appended. | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, David G. (2005).  Concluding Comments: Laptop Learning Communities  New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2005, 101. 

A pioneering administrator of a campus laptop mandate, the author explains how increasingly sophisticated computer enhancements of the curriculum create more and more learning possibilities and potential, with universal laptop ownership in a wireless environment approaching the fullest use of the available technology.

Brown, David G., Ed. (2003).  Developing Faculty To Use Technology: Programs and Strategies To Enhance Teaching. 

The chapters in this collection tell how a wide range of universities implemented successful faculty development programs to help faculty use technology in their teaching. In more than 70 brief chapters divided into 7 sections, the book provides practical advice on how to integrate technology into teaching and learning activities. The sections are: (1) "Philosophy" (9 chapters); (2) "Communication" (11 chapters); (3) "Staffing and Support Strategies" (14 chapters); (4) "Teaching Environments" (6 chapters); (5) "Model Programs" (20 chapters); (6) "Assessment of Student Programs" (5 chapters); and (7) "Assessing the Effect of Technology on Learning" (6 chapters).

Brown, Deborah; Kalman, Judith; Gomez, Macrina; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Stinson, Anne D'Antonio; Whiting, Melissa E. (2001).  Annotated Bibliography of Research in the Teaching of English.  Research in the Teaching of English, 36, 2. 

Presents 36 annotations of journal articles (published between January and June, 2001) dealing with assessment, bilingual/foreign language education, literacy, professional development, reading, teaching and learning of literature, teaching and learning of writing, and technology and literacy.

Brown, Dina; Warschauer, Mark (2006).  From the University to the Elementary Classroom: Students' Experiences in Learning to Integrate Technology in Instruction  Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 14, 3. 

This study employed qualitative and quantitative methodologies to investigate effective approaches to technology integration in teacher-preparation curriculum, incorporating credential coursework and field placements. The study emphasized collaborative efforts among colleges of education and K-12 districts, implementation of technological innovations within the context of the school reform, and the role of technology in cultivating students' higher-order learning faculties. The findings of the study revealed a peripheral role of technology in teacher preparation experience, insufficient students' exposure to technology integration, positive shift in student attitudes toward technology use, and the pivotal role of mentor teachers in technology integration at the field placement sites.

Brown, Douglas L. (2004).  Network Patch Cables Demystified: A Super Activity for Computer Networking Technology  Tech Directions, 63, 10. 

This article de-mystifies network patch cable secrets so that people can connect their computers and transfer those pesky files--without screaming at the cables. It describes a network cabling activity that can offer students a great hands-on opportunity for working with the tools, techniques, and media used in computer networking. Since the cables used in computer networking can seem a little overwhelming at first, this article starts by examining three commonly used types of networking cable today: (1) coaxial cable; (2) fiber optic cable; and (3) twisted-pair cable.

Brown, Elinor L. (2004).  Overcoming the Challenges of Stand-Alone Multicultural Courses: The Possibilities of Technology Integration  Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 12, 4. 

The enclosed manuscript discusses the challenges (student resistance, institutional time constraints, course isolation) of a successful conventional stand-alone multicultural course and describes how these challenges were overcome with the incorporation of technology into the instruction and assessment process. The article describes how technology: extended student/student and student/instructor interaction, sustained post-class peer support, augmented student/expert dialogue, and linked content and foundations curricula with multicultural pedagogy. The infusion of technology also created a paperless system for future research, a productive tool to monitor student preclass preparation and comprehension, a vehicle for individual and small group debriefings, and an efficient method to evaluate, modify, and manage instruction.

Brown, Fredda; Michaels, Craig A. (2006).  School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Initiatives and Students with Severe Disabilities: A Time for Reflection  Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities (RPSD), 31, 1. 

As people see a powerful technology and philosophical value system originally developed to promote the self-determination and inclusion of individuals students with severe disabilities applied to and having impact on the broader school population, they wonder what the outcomes will be. In this article, the authors reflect on two issues: (1) the sequence with which schools implement school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) (or the "assumption of verticality"); and (2) the potential for SWPBS to legitimize a new continuum and new labels for students. The authors stress that one must be sure that in SWPBS, no child is left behind. There is a need to analyze the function of one's own behavior as one acts and reacts to new applications of a technology that started out with students with severe disabilities and that may now be in danger of omitting students with severe disabilities from the dialogue. The success of SWPBS may also be tied directly to how good people are at applying their knowledge and skills (i.e., understanding the communicative function of behavior) to their school leaders, their researchers, and their colleagues in related fields.

Brown, Gillian (2008).  Selective Listening  System: An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, 36, 1. 

In this paper, I describe research findings showing that young L1 listeners adopt various different strategies in differently structured situations. In particular, I show that nouns, particularly argument nouns, appear to be preferentially selected for attention when subjects are asked to listen under stressful conditions. Less academically successful listeners continue to prefer information contained in argument nouns even when this conflicts with more extended information in prepositional phrases. They also tend to select a positive interpretation, even when the speaker has marked the content with a modal intended to convey uncertainty. The implications for second language listeners are discussed.

Brown, Ian; Hedberg, John (2001).  Recognition of Cross-Cultural Meaning When Developing Online Web Displays. 

The perceptions and practical experiences are important influences when creating and developing online learning experiences in cross cultural contexts. In this study, 15 educational designers studying for their Master's Degree were asked to contribute their interpretations to an ongoing study of what meaning and interpretations were generated from a series of different learning environments offered via the Web. Course materials were designed in Australia and delivered into Hong Kong, Special Administration Region, China. Students did not always interpret the visual information in the manner expected by the original designers. This paper discusses the outcomes of the investigation in relation to students' perceptions of the appropriateness of the interface design guidelines when applied to a number of exemplary Web sites, highlighting the cultural differences encountered.  | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, Jennifer Diane; Duke, Thomas Scott (2005).  Librarian and Faculty Collaborative Instruction: A Phenomenological Self-Study  Research Strategies, 20, 3. 

Several models of librarian and faculty collaboration are found in the professional librarian literature. The literature on collaborative self-study research in university settings suggests collaborative self-study research can improve interdisciplinary and collaborative approaches to teaching and research and facilitate the transfer of knowledge. A research librarian and professor of education conducted a phenomenological self-study to examine their multiple roles as researchers and instructors who collaborated to develop, implement, and evaluate distance-delivered instructional services for public school teachers who live and work in remote, rural, and Alaska Native communities throughout the state of Alaska. Several themes emerged from this phenomenological self-study: (a) our interdisciplinary and collaborative efforts resulted in increased opportunities to team teach and conduct future collaborative research; (b) we struggled to communicate effectively with our students via audio-conference; and (c) our beliefs and practices were transformed by our participation in this phenomenological self-study. We believe our collaborative approach to phenomenological self-study research can promote intense self-reflection, stimulate creativity, and facilitate open and honest communication between academic librarians and teaching faculty who engage in collaborative instruction and collaborative research; furthermore, we believe our collaborative approach to phenomenological self-study research can increase the instructional effectiveness of academic librarians and teaching faculty collaborating to teach in distance-delivered higher education.

Brown, Jessie C., Ed.; Adams, Arlene, Ed. (2001).  Constructivist Teaching Strategies: Projects in Teacher Education. 

This book provides information from experienced teachers on constructivist teaching, offering examples of preservice teachers' projects, lesson plans, and real-life advice. The 11 chapters are: (1) "Writing Case Studies: Constructing an Understanding of Student and Classroom" (Bettejim Cates); (2) "Educating Children Who are Racial and Ethnic Minorities" (Jessie Brown); (3) "Using Preventive Classroom Management Strategies To Create a Productive Environment for Learning" (John Laut); (4) "Integrated Instructional Units: Teaching for the Real World" (Arlene Adams); (5) "The Learning Center: A Place for Child-Centered Instruction" (Jessie Brown); (6) "Literature Sets: A Tool for Literature-Based Instruction" (Arlene Adams); (7) "The Internet and Children: An Exercise in Using Technology in the Elementary School Classroom" (Doug Smith); (8) "Building Successful Partnerships with Families: The Parent Involvement Project" (Jim Rogers); (9) "Service Learning: Meeting the Needs of Children and Community" (Sharon Thompson and Karen Carpenter); (10) "The Portfolio: Demonstrating What You Know and What You Can Do" (Jessie Brown and Arlene Adams); and (11) "Showing and Telling about What You Know and Can Do: The Senior Festival" (Arlene Adams and Jessie Brown). (Each chapter contains references.)

Brown, Jill (2004).  A Difficult Function  Australian Mathematics Teacher, 60, 2. 

Technology is evolving and now some secondary classrooms see students using computer algebra systems (CAS), however, Zbiek (2003) points out that "graphical representations seem to abound in CAS-using classrooms" and "many [research] studies of the use of CAS depend highly on the graphing component of the tool". Kissane (2001) suggests that with the personal experience afforded by a graphing calculator the nature of learning "if carefully structured by the teacher, can provide pupils with important insights about functions and their graphical representations". Burrill et al. in their 2002 review note that the core research finding is that the type and extent of gains in student learning in the presence of handheld graphing technology "are a function, not simply of the presence of the graphing technology, but of how the technology is used in the teaching of mathematics". They concluded that "specific issues regarding the effective use of handheld graphing technology in the classroom have not yet been adequately addressed". This paper describes approaches used by senior secondary students using a Texas Instrument (TI) 83 graphing calculator during a small research study to determine a global view of a difficult function. Implications of these approaches for teaching in a graphing calculator environment are presented and discussed.  | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, Jill P. (2005).  Identification of Affordances of a Technology-Rich Teaching and Learning Environment (TRTLE)  [International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Paper presented at the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (29th, Melbourne, Australia, Jul 10-15, 2005), v2 p185-192] 

This paper describes how a researcher developed task and four different data collection instruments provide evidence for the identification of various affordances of a technology-rich teaching and learning environment (TRTLE) that were perceived and/or enacted by Year 9 students in their solution of a linear function task utilising a graphing calculator. Each instrument proved valuable in the identification process, with post task interviews being particularly useful in identifying rejected affordances and others that had not been perceived until post task questioning and reflection.  [For complete proceedings, see ED496859.] | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, John Seely (2006).  New Learning Environments for the 21st Century: Exploring the Edge   Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 38, 5. 

Today's students are comfortable satisfying their immense curiosity on their own. This capacity for independent learning is essential to their future well-being, since they are likely to have multiple careers and will need to continually learn new skills they were not taught in college. Students will need to feel comfortable working in cross-disciplinary teams that encompass multiple ways of knowing. These challenges require re-conceptualizing some parts of the educational system and at the same time finding ways to reinforce learning outside of formal schooling. In this article, the author presents and discusses some of the new learning environments for the 21st century, like: (1) the architecture studio; and (2) the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT's) studio for 8.02 electricity and magnetism. It is evident in these environments that students move from "learning about" something to "learning to be" something, which is a crucial distinction. Furthermore, in today's Internet environment, learning to be literate in multiple media is an important tool in learning to be. Thus, faculty must understand how to foster this new literacy to understand the new vernacular of students who grew up digital.

Brown, John Seely; Adler, Richard P. (2008).  Minds on Fire: Open Education, the Long Tail, and Learning 2.0  EDUCAUSE Review, 43 n1 p16-20, 22. 

The building blocks provided by the Open Educational Resources movement, along with e-Science and e-Humanities and the resources of the Web 2.0, are creating the conditions for the emergence of new kinds of open participatory learning ecosystems that will support active, passion-based learning: Learning 2.0. This new form of learning begins with the knowledge and practices acquired in school but is equally suited for continuous, lifelong learning that extends beyond formal schooling. A new approach to learning is needed---one characterized by a "demand-pull" rather than the traditional "supply-push" mode of building up an inventory of knowledge in students' heads. Demand-pull learning shifts the focus to enabling participation in flows of action, where the focus is both on "learning to be" through enculturation into a practice as well as on collateral learning.

Brown, Justine (2006).  Lone Star Literacy  T.H.E. Journal, 33, 9. 

Texas has combined innovative uses of technology, an effective communications strategy, and a multitiered approach, and enjoyed great success in its execution of Reading First. In fact, some education leaders now view Texas as a model for other states to adhere to in their own implementation of the program. In this article, the author describes how Texas successfully implements Reading First throughout the state. As it moves forward with Reading First, Texas is likely to run into plenty of challenges along the way. By sticking to a few key guiding principles, the state hopes to keep matters running smoothly between itself and the school districts.

Brown, Justine (2006).  Mobile Assessment: Working Smarter, Not Harder  T.H.E. Journal, 33, 13. 

When mobile assessment tools was first introduced to teachers at Kyffin Elementary School in Jefferson Country, Colorado, teachers were not comfortable with the technology. According to Blanche Kapushion, principal at Kyffin, teachers were not used to using technology in class, and it did not look like that was going to change. Nonetheless, teachers at Kyffin now use Mobile Classroom Assessment (mCLASS) Reading and Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) software, both from Wireless Generation, to conduct mobile assessments and progress checks in all of their K-3 classrooms. They regularly use the mCLASS Reading program to check reading comprehension and fluency, and to target or track areas where students are lagging. With new assessment technology providing instant feedback on their students, once-skeptical teachers now have no desire to return to the way things were. This article presents words of advice from school officials who have already experienced the benefits of mobile assessment tool in meeting their needs and making their jobs easier. As mobile assessment grows, teachers will have more and more data to manage. Accordingly, educational technology companies are developing products to convert data into information that can easily be translated into meaningful change.

Brown, Justine (2007).  Targeted Instruction: On Target  T.H.E. Journal, 34, 1. 

Mary Rooney, an eighth-grade English and language arts teacher at the K-8 John Welsh School in Philadelphia, spotted a problem. On one of the recent "mini" tests the school administers every six weeks to help students prepare for the state assessments, her classes averaged scores in the 80s, but in evaluating the results, Rooney noticed there were two questions in particular that gave her students difficulty. "The questions dealt with the roots of words, which students are supposed to have some familiarity with by the eighth grade," she says. "Only two or three students got the questions right." In response, Rooney chose to focus on Latin and Greek pre- fixes and suffixes and trying to incorporate elements of these concepts in all of her lessons, pulling words apart and evaluating what their different components mean and where the roots of words come from. When the next test rolls around, she hopes to see substantial improvement. "We are shooting to have 50 percent of the students get the questions right on the next test, and then to hit 85 to 100 percent by the end of the year." What made it possible for Rooney to extract such precise data and focus squarely on a specific area such as word roots is the instructional management system that John Welsh teachers use. The ISM, from SchoolNet, helps them break down student scores, pinpoint soft spots, and then make the necessary adjustments in advance of the next assessment. "Now I can make accommodations and familiarize [my students] with those areas," Rooney says. "By the next time they take the test, we'll know whether this targeted instruction has worked." In this article, the author points out that Rooney's use of the ISM is indicative of the way much of educational technology is being used today: as a way to target and meet individual educational challenges, whether the challenge is poor writing skills or simply a student's difficulty grasping certain subject areas on par with his peers. The author discusses how to teach writing through the National Writing Project, and creating IT pros through the Cisco Networking Academy Program.

Brown, Justine (2007).  Tag! You're It!  T.H.E. Journal, 34, 11. 

This article describes the latest skirmish in the war between security and privacy concerns that is escalating as technological advances open up all sorts of new possibilities for school districts, both for better and, if misused, for worse. Brittan Elementary School in Sutter, California, had the best intentions when it implemented a radio frequency identification (RFID) program nearly three years ago. More efficient attendance-keeping and better security were the promise of InClass, a software program from InCom. The system creates unique 15-digit ID numbers that are written on individual tags and associated with the name of the student to whom each tag is issued. At Brittan, the tags were included with the badges that students were required to wear around their necks, which provided the student's name, grade, and picture. As they passed by scanners mounted above the doorways of seventh- and eighth-grade classrooms and the cafeteria bathroom, their ID numbers would be read, recorded, and sent to a central server. The system would collect the tag data, convert the numbers into names, upload a list of present, absent, and tardy students to teachers' PDAs. Teachers could then check their attendance lists to reconcile what the lists said with what they saw in their classrooms. Once confirmed, the lists were submitted wirelessly via the PDAs to school administrators, who were required to file attendance records with the state board of education. Well meaning as the effort may have been, parents were outraged to find out that RFID technology was being used to allow the school to monitor the whereabouts of their children on campus. A group of them lodged a formal complaint with the board; subsequently, the project was halted.

Brown, Kathy (2004).  Technology: Building Interaction  TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 48, 5. 

Working together and exchanging ideas is inherent in interactive learning. The focus of interactive learning is on what learners believe is important to learn, the various processes learners use to learn and how learners use learning in other settings and situations. Active learning processes that promote reflection, writing, demonstrations, practice with feedback and group problem solving, promote deep understanding. For deep understanding, adult learning activities must be broader than demonstrations or training to use a new tool; activities must engage teachers in experiential enactments and supportive groups to help them see themselves in new ways. Because of the continuous stream of new knowledge that learners are expected to synthesize and apply, passive learning is no longer an acceptable learning approach. This study compared the effects of traditional and interactive technology use in college classrooms for building student relationships, increasing technology use and increasing group problem-based learning. Current literature was reviewed to determine the effects of courseware when used for building effective student interaction.

Brown, Ken (2007).  Get Your Ducks in a Row: Key Factors to Keep in Mind when Building Your Technology Plan  Technology & Learning, 27, 12. 

You have great ideas for your programs to grow and expand them, but how? Your budget is the same as last year and most of it is already committed. So where are the incremental dollars and how do you and your team go for them? The number one priority is to organize and prepare your information. Fast-released grants, RFPs with unrealistic turnarounds, and proposals to funders of great ideas--all of them require the most up-to-date information that reflects the profile of your district or school. How do you "get your ducks in a row" so that you can respond quickly, effectively, and with accurate information? In this article, the author gives a few tips to address these requirements.

Brown, Ken (2007).  Technology Funding: A How-To Guide--Key Factors to Keep in Mind When Building Your Technology Plan  Technology & Learning, 27, 12. 

No funding organization wants to give away money to an institution with no vision. The only way to successfully and deservingly secure outside funding for technology is through a clear vision of how those educational technologies will be used within one's classrooms and schools, and how those funds will jump start and support multiple school improvement initiatives within one's district. This article presents a list of general guidelines for seeking sources of technology funds and designing local solutions and strategies for addressing critical areas within funding technology-based projects.

Brown, Laura (2004).  Streaming Video--The Wave of the Video Future!  Library Media Connection, 23, 3. 

Videos and DVDs give the teachers more flexibility than slide projectors, filmstrips, and 16mm films but teachers and students are excited about a new technology called streaming. Streaming allows the educators to view videos on demand via the Internet, which works through the transfer of digital media like video, and voice data that is received in a continuous real-time stream.

Brown, Margaret; Askew, Mike; Millett, Alison; Rhodes, Valerie (2003).  The Key Role of Educational Research in the Development and Evaluation of the National Numeracy Strategy  British Educational Research Journal, 29, 5. 

The authors contest a politician's claim that the National Numeracy Strategy (NNS) in English primary schools has been an undisputed success with no contribution from educational researchers. First, the key role of researchers and research in the development of the NNS is outlined. Then there is a description of the Leverhulme Numeracy Research Programme, a linked set of research studies combining a large-scale longitudinal survey and qualitative case studies. Results suggest that the NNS had a positive but small effect on numeracy standards, but that there are many schools, children and areas of mathematics for whom the effect has been negligible or negative. The discussion of reasons for this relates to evidence from the Leverhulme Programme and elsewhere about the effects of different factors on attainment. Finally, there is some question of whether government and government agencies are being completely open about the evidence of effectiveness of the NNS.

Brown, Mike (2006).  Streamlining Science: Three New Science Tools Make Data Collection a Snap  Technology & Learning, 26, 6. 

Today, collecting, evaluating, and analyzing data--the basic concepts of scientific study--usually involves electronic probeware. Probeware combines sensors that collect data with software that analyzes it once it has been sent to a computer or calculator. Science inquiry has benefited greatly from the use of electronic probeware, providing students with expanded opportunities to collect more precise data and in larger amounts. Students have much more information available to them to make inferences and draw conclusions. New advances in probeware from Vernier, PASCO/ImagiWorks, and Fourier Systems continue to streamline the data-collection process. This article describes the features of three new probewares--ImagiProbe Wireless System/PASCO PASPORT AirLink from ImagiWorks/PASCO, Easylink from Vernier Software, and Trilink from Fourier Systems.

Brown, Monica (2002).  Multicultural Education and Technology: Perspectives To Consider.  Journal of Special Education Technology, 17, 3. 

This article discusses multicultural education and educational technology and the digital divide created by lack of access to and use of technology by members of various social identity groups. Educators are urged to re-think technology integration using a multicultural education framework. Useful online multicultural resources are listed.

Brown, Monica R.; Higgins, Kyle; Hartley, Kendall (2001).  Teachers and Technology Equity.  TEACHING Exceptional Children, 33, 4. 

This article discusses three important issues that educators must address as they integrate technology into their classrooms: increasing access to technology, appropriate instruction in and use of technology, and barriers to institutional technology. Tips for creating technology-rich schools and classrooms and for improving technology integration and instruction are provided.

Brown, Nicole E.; Bussert, Kaila (2007).  Information Literacy 2.0: Empowering Students through Personal Engagement  [Online Submission] 

Web 2.0 technologies such as blogs, wikis, and social networking sites have impacted the Information Literacy (IL) curriculum at The American University in Cairo, where librarians teach LALT 101, a required, semester-long IL course. During fall 2005 and spring 2006, librarians used a Web 2.0 photo sharing tool, Flickr (www.flickr.com), to teach database concepts in several experimental sections of LALT 101. Observations show that the experimental sections were more engaging and enjoyable for the students than the control sections. Pretest and Posttest data show that learning occurred in both the experimental and the control groups with no statistically significant difference between them.  | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, Pam; Delk, Fay L.; Petty, Steve; Wynn, Debbie; O'Neal, Linda (2001).  Tennessee and Its Children: Unmet Needs, 2001. 

Based on the view that the tax structure in Tennessee is inadequate and produces chronic problems, especially for the state's children, this Kids Count report identifies unmet education, health care, and resource needs of the children in Tennessee. Following introductory remarks discussing the current tax structure and state spending, Section 1 of the report presents Tennessee rates and ranks nationwide for the following indicators of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) child deaths; (4) teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (5) teen births; (6) children with parents lacking full-time, year-round employment; (7) high school dropout rates; and (8) children living in poverty. For selected indicators, the reduction required for the state as a whole and each county to reach the highest ranked state and to reach the national average is listed in tables. Section 2 details unmet education and training needs, including needs related to early childhood education, elementary and secondary education, and higher education, as well as an industrial recruiter's view regarding education, and information on Tennessee households owning a computer and the use of educational technology. Section 3 delineates unmet health needs, focusing on the impact of the state's child health insurance program and the physical health of Tennessee's children. Section 4 addresses unmet resource needs, highlighting the problem of income and poverty in the state, Tennessee's economic deficit, and the statewide debate regarding tax reform. Section 5 compares selected indicators in Tennessee with those for other states nationwide, asserts that insufficient revenue makes it difficult to provide even a basic level of adequate services for the state's children, and concludes that the state's economic well-being and the future of its children depend on Tennessee doing better. | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, Patrick; Friedrichsen, Patricia; Mongler, Lou (2008).  2-Liter Bottles and Botanical Gardens: Using Inquiry to Learn Ecology  Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 44, 4. 

In the project presented in this article, high school students create and observe miniecosystems in an ecology unit designed around a 5E (engagement, exploration, explanation, elaboration, and evaluation) instructional model. Students choose a wide variety of organisms and use creativity to design miniecosystems.

Brown, Peter (2001).  Objective and Subjective Evaluation of Computer-based Tutorial Teaching in Veterinary Pathology.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 32, 2. 

Describes the results of the use of computer-based tutorials to teach the pathology of the cardiovascular system in a veterinary school in the United Kingdom. Concludes that the combined worksheet and computer based learning format is suitable for teaching veterinary pathology.

Brown, R.; Davies, E. W. (2002).  The Introduction of Graphic Calculators into Assessment in Mathematics at the International Baccalaureate Organization: Opportunities and Challenges.  Teaching Mathematics and Its Applications, 21, 2. 

Considers the impact of the introduction of graphic calculators into assessment within the International Baccalaureate Diploma. Discusses difficulties that arise in the development of practice questions, how these difficulties were resolved in the questions that appeared on the examinations, and problems of different calculator syntax.

Brown, Randall; Murti, Gene (2003).  Student Partners in Instruction: Third Level Student Participation in Advanced Business Courses  Journal of Education for Business, 79, 2. 

In this article, the authors describe a unique approach to gaining high student involvement in advanced and MBA level business courses. Most participation occurs at the discussion and activity levels, with the instructor as the "director" who plans, implements, monitors, and evaluates activities. In a student-partner approach, students are brought into the planning process and asked to participate in the design and implementation of course components. Their participation draws on their experience and expertise as "learners" in the education process. This article provides a framework for implementing such an approach and includes a model case experience.

Brown, S.M.; Kieffaber, P.D.; Carroll, C.A.; Vohs, J.L.; Tracy, J.A.; Shekhar, A.; O'Donnell, B.F.; Steinmetz, J.E.; Hetrick, W.P. (2005).  Eyeblink Conditioning Deficits Indicate Timing and Cerebellar Abnormalities in Schizophrenia  Brain and Cognition, 58, 1. 

Accumulating evidence indicates that individuals with schizophrenia manifest abnormalities in structures (cerebellum and basal ganglia) and neurotransmitter systems (dopamine) linked to internal-timing processes. A single-cue tone delay eyeblink conditioning paradigm comprised of 100 learning and 50 extinction trials was used to examine cerebellar timing circuits in 13 medicated patients with schizophrenia and 13 age- and sex-matched controls. Patients with schizophrenia showed impaired learning of the conditioned response compared to controls and also greater within-subject variability in the timing of their responses. These findings are consistent with models of schizophrenia in which timing deficits underlie information-processing abnormalities and clinical features of the disorder.

Brown, Scott (2005).  How to Keep Your Campus Safe from Infection  T.H.E. Journal, 33, 1. 

In this article, the author explains how antivirus programs work. He also explains how performances of various antivirus programs vary from one to another. He also takes a look at 13 antivirus programs and explains which of these will keep computers protected. These programs include: (1) Sophos Anti-Virus Version 3.86.2; (2) McAfee VirusScan 9.0; (3) eTrust Antivirus Version 7.1; (4) Kaspersky Anti-Virus Personal 5.0; (5) PC-cillin Internet Security 2005; (6) Panda Titanium Antivirus 2004; (7) F-Prot Antivirus for Windows Version 3.15b; (8) Norton AntiVirus 2005; (9) F-Secure Anti-Virus 2005; (10) BitDefender 8 Standard; (11) NOD32 Version 2; (12) Norman Virus Control Version 5; and (13) RAV AntiVirus Desktop Version 8.6.

Brown, Scott W.; Boyer, Mark A.; Mayall, Hayley J.; Johnson, Paula R.; Meng, Lin; Butler, Michael J.; Weir, Kimberly; Florea, Natalie; Hernandez, Magnolia; Reis, Sally (2003).  The GlobalEd Project: Gender Differences in a Problem-Based Learning Environment of International Negotiations.  Instructional Science, 31, 4-5. 

Describes the GlobalEd project, which employs a technology-rich environment for high school students to participate in a simulation of international relations and negotiation via the Internet. Reports participants' changes in academic and technology self-efficacy skills and the use of educational technology and discusses results in terms of self-efficacy and gender differences in cognitive process. 

Brown, Scott W.; Kulikowich, Jonna M. (2004).  Teaching Statistics from a Distance: What Have We Learned?  International Journal of Instructional Media, 31, 1. 

The current study was designed to examine the delivery of a graduate course in statistics via distance education compared to the same course offered in its standard lecture format. The sample for this study consisted of two separate groups of graduate students: The Group T (the traditional group) consisted of 80 students and the Group D (the distance education group) consisting of 41 students. A survey instrument was administered that collected self-reported attitudinal data from the participants, as well as behaviors that may have been related to success in the course (i.e., forming study group, completing the homework assignments). Results clearly indicate that a DE course can be judged equivalent to the traditional format in both knowledge gained and attitudes about the course. Additionally, successful experiences with DE courses may dramatically increase student acceptance of DE, as indicated in the dramatic difference in the response to taking future DE courses between the two groups, while maintaining instructional effectiveness as measured by final grades and student attitudes as measured by the self-efficacy and attitudinal scales.

Brown, Stephen I.; Walter, Marion I. (2005).  The Art of Problem Posing. 3rd Edition  [Lawrence Erlbaum Associates] 

The new edition of this classic book describes and provides a myriad of examples of the relationships between problem posing and problem solving, and explores the educational potential of integrating these two activities in classrooms at all levels. "The Art of Problem Posing, Third Edition" encourages readers to shift their thinking about problem posing (such as where problems come from, what to do with them, and the like) from the "other" to themselves and offers a broader conception of what can be done with problems. Special features include: an exploration of the logical relationship between problem posing and problem solving; sketches, drawings, and diagrams that illustrate the schemes proposed; and a special section on writing in mathematics. In the updated third edition, the authors specifically: (1) address the role of problem posing in the NCTM Standards; (2) elaborate on the concept of student as author and critic; (3) include discussion of computer applications to illustrate the potential of technology to enhance problem posing in the classroom; (4) expand the section on diversity/multiculturalism; and (5) broaden discussion of writing as a classroom enterprise. This book offers present and future teachers at the middle school, secondary school, and higher education levels ideas to enrich their teaching and suggestions for how to incorporate problem posing into a standard mathematics curriculum. Following an introduction, this book presents: (1) Two Problem Posing Perspectives: Accepting and Challenging; (2) The First Phase of Problem Posing: Accepting; (3) The Second Phase of Problem Posing: "What-If-Not"; (4) The "What-If-Not" Strategy in Action; (5) Some Natural Links between Problem Posing and Problem Solving; (6) Writing for Journals of Editorial Boards: Student as Author and Critic; and (7) Conclusion. [For the 1983 edition of "The Art of Problem Posing," see ED251290.]

Brown, Thomas J. (2004).  A Survey of Distance Education Programs Offered by Post-Secondary Schools within a 150 Mile Radius of Chattanooga, Tennessee  [Online Submission] 

Long distance education has been a part of instructional delivery for more than one hundred years. Beginning as correspondence study accompanying the establishment of national postal systems, distance education has undergone dramatic change fueled by the rapid and recent explosion of technology. This exponential growth in technology has provided educators with new delivery methods for instruction, allowing post-secondary schools to reach greater numbers of students through the enrollment of individuals who would ordinarily be unable to attend traditional on-site classes. The purpose of this research was to obtain data on the numbers of courses and programs and delivery methods for distance education within a 150 mile radius of Chattanooga, TN. Data were obtained from 99 of the 104 post-secondary institutions within the survey area. Data collection was accomplished using surveys completed through telephone interviews, email inquiries, and information available at web site hosted by institutions in the target population. Initial information about the post-secondary institutions in the survey area was first obtained through state education department sources or Internet sources. This information included the type of school (two-year private colleges, four-year private colleges and universities, two-year community and technical colleges, two-year public senior colleges and universities, or four-year public colleges and universities), address, telephone number, email address, etc. Next the post-secondary institutions were contacted via email or telephone and the survey was administered. The results of this study can be used to evaluate the long distance learning programs that are currently offered by post-secondary schools within a 150-mile radius of Chattanooga, Tennessee. Distance education is relatively young in the history of education and has experienced rapid growth during the past several decades, particularly with regard to the online delivery of instruction. Distance education provides educational opportunities to individuals that are separated by distance and/or time, allowing instruction in remote locations. Appended are: (1) Long Distance Learning Survey; (2) Numbers of Post-Secondary Institutions by Data Collection Method; and (3) Types of Degree Programs Offered through Distance Education in the Survey Area.  | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, Victoria (2007).  The Power of Powerpoint: Is It in the User or the Program?  Childhood Education, 83, 4. 

PowerPoint is widely used for a variety of purposes in today's university and public school classrooms. Many children in the elementary grades quickly learn to prepare PowerPoint presentations with ease. Sometimes, however, we believe that PowerPoint presentations are overused and ineffective, especially when one is subjected to viewing several of them in succession. We feel brain dead and bored. Yet, are we fully understanding PowerPoint's possibilities, or are we unjustly blaming the software? Are we sure about how software and educational technology impacts learning, or are we making unfounded conclusions? This article addresses both the advantages and disadvantages of PowerPoint.

Brown, William; Corkill, Philip M. (2004).  The Practice of Virtual Teaching: School Leaders Who Want to Teach an Online College Course Need to Be Mindful of Effective Tricks  School Administrator, 61, 4. 

Teaching online courses presents new and unique experiences--especially for those of us who started as educators more than a quarter century ago. Teaching a course where there is no face-to-face contact with the learner eliminates the unspoken language of nonverbal clues that teachers use to get a feel for their classrooms. The instructor of a virtual class must be cognizant of the interactions with each learner and the wording of each message sent to those learners. Because the students are not sitting in the classroom, a simple joke that is shared may be interpreted in a completely different and unintended way by a learner working from home many states or even continents away. Instructors cannot see a raised hand asking a question that provides clarification of a topic. As instructors of online university-level courses in the K-12 educational leadership program at Capella University, the have identified a variety of best-practice teaching techniques that are unique to the online classroom. Those techniques are described in this article.

Browne, Elizabeth (2003).  Conversations in Cyberspace: A Study of Online Learning  Open Learning, 18, 3. 

This article provides a summary of research that examines interaction between lecturers and learners engaged on a Masters Degree in Education delivered online. Using traditional quantitative and qualitative research methods, the research moves into the relatively new realms of researching online. By applying a methodology known as "cyber-ethnography" insight is gained into the experience of staff and students. The course specific research findings are discussed and the process of researching in virtual space is evaluated. The findings identify advantages to the learner when asynchronous communication provides time for reflection and considered response. Further advantages are identified in the opportunity to consult across the globe on issues of practice. The creation of communities of personal support networks that reach beyond the considerations of the course are identified and assessed. Disadvantages are identified with the technology itself and associated issues of access, equity and support. Recommendations arising from the research are for greater focus on the role of the tutor in virtual learning situations with consideration given to the time commitment required of lecturing staff. Evaluation of the research methodology highlights the need for a clearer definition of cyber-ethnography, greater understanding of the social worlds inhabited in cyberspace and a code of practice for those researching on the net.

Browne, Ron (2005).  It's a Snap! Selecting the Right Digital Camera  Childhood Education, 82, 2. 

Digital cameras can be wonderful teaching/learning tools in the preschool classroom. They can record and document student development, make text-free cues for pre-reading children, and develop learning prompts for discussion. In this article, the author discusses tips on selecting the right digital camera. Above all, it is important to consider how it will be used. Some helpful links are also provided for a teacher considering a digital camera purchase.

Browne, Tom; Jenkins, Martin; Walker, Richard (2006).  A Longitudinal Perspective Regarding the Use of VLEs by Higher Education Institutions in the United Kingdom  Interactive Learning Environments, 14, 2. 

Between 2001 and 2005 the Universities and Colleges Information Systems Association (UCISA) and the Joint Information Systems Council (JISC) conducted surveys into issues relating to the acquisition, use, management, and support of Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs). A number of other studies provide information on these issues during this period. Together they provide a substantial body of evidence that allows an analysis of the factors that enhance or inhibit institutional take-up and support provision for VLEs within the UK higher education sector. There is clear evidence of increasing use of VLEs but not of widespread change in pedagogic practice. VLE management is increasingly centralized in all matters considered strategic, with dedicated devolvement occurring for a range of support activities. Differences in practice exist between old and new universities. There is in general negligible interest in standards or in institutional collaboration.

Brownell, Jeanine O'Nan (2001).  Ani[SM]'s Rocket Ride: Internet Coach[R] for Early Learning. Teacher's Guide [with CD-ROM]. 

Inspired by the Reggio Emilia approach to early learning, this CD-ROM and Teacher's Guide invite young children on a journey with Ani, a friendly alien from another planet, to collect and learn about natural objects in seven different "learning centers." The CD-ROM program is designed to encourage creativity in science, art, and dramatic play and to teach children about using the Internet in a developmentally appropriate manner. The Teacher's Guide is presented in 9 chapters. Chapter 1 discusses how to use the CD-ROM, provides a philosophical overview of the Reggio Emilia Approach, and details how the CD-ROM experiences fit into High/Scope preschool key experiences. Chapters 2 through 8 provide 21 lesson plans for integrating the CD-ROM into everyday classroom routines and leading to classroom projects matching student interest related to the following learning centers: (1) water table; (2) Internet browser table; (3) light table; (4) drama center; (5) art center; (6) balance scale; and (7) e-mail center. Each lesson plan lists the learning objectives corresponding to the High/Scope preschool key experiences, and delineates instructions and materials necessary for a teacher-guided activity, a learning center activity, and extended activities for further exploration. Chapter 9 provides additional resources.

Browning, Christine A.; Garza-Kling, Gina; Sundling, Elizabeth Hill (2007).  What's Your Angle on Angles?  Teaching Children Mathematics, 14, 5. 

Although the nature of the research varies, as do concepts of angle, research in general supports the supposition that angle is a complex idea, best understood from a variety of perspectives. In fact, the concept of angle tends to be threefold, consisting of: (1) the traditional, static notion of two rays meeting at a common vertex; (2) the idea of an angle as the space between these two rays (angle as wedge); and (3) a more dynamic idea of angle as a representation of a turn. Trying to make sense of a more dynamic concept of angle requires a move beyond paper-and-pencil tasks, leading to technology as a useful aid. Thus, in an attempt to provide students with such opportunities, the authors of this paper developed activities that focus on angle and angle measure and that incorporate hands-on activities, graphing calculator applications, and computer software. For several years, these activities were implemented in a college geometry course designed for preservice elementary and middle school teachers, and have recently been implemented in a sixth-grade classroom. This article focuses on the outcomes of the research with the sixth-grade students, concentrating on what transpired as the students engaged in these activities and what concepts of angle evolved during and after their experiences.

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Baek, Yeongtae; Wang, Changjong; Lee, Sehoon (2002).  Adaptive Hypermedia Educational System Based on XML Technologies. 

This paper proposes an adaptive hypermedia educational system using XML technologies, such as XML, XSL, XSLT, and XLink. Adaptive systems are capable of altering the presentation of the content of the hypermedia on the basis of a dynamic understanding of the individual user. The user profile can be collected in a user model, while the knowledge about the domain can be represented in the form of a concept based domain model. Two different markup languages were defined using XML. For adaptivity of the system, adaptive presentation of the data comes using XSL and adaptive navigation of link comes using XLink. | [FULL TEXT]

Baek, Youngkyun; Jung, Jaeyeob; Kim, Bokyeong (2008).  What Makes Teachers Use Technology in the Classroom? Exploring the Factors Affecting Facilitation of Technology with a Korean Sample  Computers & Education, 50, 1. 

The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing teachers' decisions about using technology in the classroom setting and examine the degree to which teaching experience affects these decisions. Specifically, the items employed in this study were derived from the teachers' perceptions of technology use. We discovered six factors which influenced teachers use technology in their classroom: adapting to external requests and others' expectations, deriving attention, using the basic functions of technology, relieving physical fatigue, class preparation and management, and using the enhanced functions of technology. Interestingly, these factors do not correspond to the common sense theory of instructional technology. Additionally, we analyzed the patterns of factors' scores by teachers' level of teaching experience. From this study we deduced that although the majority of teachers intend to use technology to support teaching and leaning, experienced teachers generally decide to use technology involuntarily in response to external forces while teachers with little experience are more likely to use it on their own will.

Baer, Allison L. (2008).  Creating a Shared Definition of Good and Bad Writing through Revision Strategies  Middle School Journal, 39, 4. 

This article describes how the author, in an effort to build some common language about "good writing" and to teach effective revision strategies, involved her students in an action research project using the Worse/Better Writing Strategy developed by Andrews-Beck. In her dissertation, Andrews-Beck described a worse/better writing strategy that she used as the basis of her research. This strategy was beneficial in creating a shared definition of good and bad writing as a revision strategy and provided a window into how these students revised their work. After a review of the literature on how revising is often taught, a description of using the worse/better writing strategy to create a shared definition of good writing is presented. The article continues with a discussion of how this led the author's class to see the importance of revision. Some revision strategies they found to be effective are described.

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Bolick, Cheryl Mason; Berson, Michael J.; Friedman, Adam M.; Porfeli, Erik J. (2007).  Diffusion of Technology Innovation in the Preservice Social Studies Experience: Results of a National Survey  Theory and Research in Social Education, 35, 2. 

This article presents and discusses in detail the results from a longitudinal study of social studies teacher educators about the diffusion of technology in social studies teacher education. Data were obtained from the third distribution of a national survey that explores the beliefs, practices, and efficacy of social studies teacher education faculty members in the preservice experience. The results of the study provide valuable findings that inform the field on the diffusion of technology in social studies teacher education from 1999-2006.

Boling, Erica C. (2003).  The Transformation of Instruction through Technology: Promoting Inclusive Learning Communities in Teacher Education Courses.  Action in Teacher Education, 24, 4. 

Investigated how experienced teacher educators and doctoral students used the Reading Classroom Explorer (RCE) program in literacy methodology courses and how RCE impacted instructors. While the instructors found ways to integrate RCE into their courses to solve teaching dilemmas, doctoral students faced the unique challenges of meaningful integration. RCE challenged all instructors to think about teaching, learning, and learners in new ways and to use more learner centered approaches.

Boling, Erica; Castek, Jill; Zawilinski, Lisa; Barton, Karen; Nierlich, Theresa (2008).  Collaborative Literacy: Blogs and Internet Projects  Reading Teacher, 61, 6. 

Popular technologies offer new and exciting ways to capitalize on the strengths of authentic writing, the power of the writing process, and the engagement of collaborative writing. Blogs are one of those technologies. Blogs are websites that allow individuals to create personal webpages of text, pictures, graphics, videos, and other multimedia with the same ease as creating a word processing document. Unlike traditional websites, however, they provide a space where people can post comments and engage in online conversations. Collaborative Internet projects are another way to use technology in the classroom. Such activities can result in increased motivation and literacy engagement as students read, write, create, and produce for meaningful and authentic purposes.

Bolkan, J. V.; Roland, Jennifer; Smith, Davis N. (2006).  Designing the New School  Learning & Leading with Technology, 33, 7. 

Lots of things have changed since the baby boomers began overfilling postwar schoolhouses in the 1950s. The sparkling new buildings erected across the United States to handle the population surge have lost their luster, and in many cases, their functionality. This is not new information; in a 1995 General Accounting Office report, nearly half of U.S. schools lacked the basic wiring to support computers, modems, and other modern communication technology. In the decade since that report, infrastructure needs have expanded dramatically. Replacing these buildings has become a priority for school districts. Eugene, Oregon's 4J district is fairly typical. It plans to open its fourth replacement school in as many years when the 2006-2007 school year begins. This article describes the two newest buildings in the district--Madison Middle School, which opened in fall 2005, and the new Cal Young Middle School, which is taking shape in the shadow of the current building. The lessons and insights the district and site-based staff shared with the authors should be of interest to personnel in other districts embarking on similar building projects. [This article was produced by International Society for Technology in Education, Eugene, OR.]

Bolkan, J.V. (2004).  A Snapshot of Photo Editing Options  Learning and Leading with Technology, 31, 8. 

Plenty of digital imaging professionals claim that Adobe's Photoshop CS is the best photo editing application money can buy. This document reviews Adobe's Photoshop CS and its worthy competitors. In addition to Adobe, the following programs are reviewed in this document: (1) Adobe Photoshop Elements 2.0; (2) Arcsoft PhotoImpression; (3) Jasc Paint Shop Pro; and (4) Unlead PhotoImpact XL. | [FULL TEXT]

Bolkan, J.V. (2005).  Facing the Future  Learning and Leading with Technology, 33, 3. 

The "standard" PC desktop is and always has been a moving target. Although the fear of obsolescence has diminished considerably from the early days of personal computing, it is still true that today's state-of-the-art system will eventually be too slow, too underpowered, and probably too archaic to warrant repair, or even use. To extend the life of aging computers, most schools, nonprofit organizations, and small businesses have relied on hardware upgrades to gain a few more years of usefulness from their equipment.  | [FULL TEXT]

Bolliger, Doris U. (2004).  Investigating Student Learning in a Constructivist Multimedia-Rich Learning Environment  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

It has been suggested in the existing literature that the use of constructivist approaches in the educational setting contributes to active learning and knowledge transfer for students. This paper provides an overview of constructivist approaches used in a graduate-level instructional media production course at a midwestern comprehensive university. Qualitative data collection techniques were used to investigate the perceptions and learning of students in an environment in which both students and content were the center of the learning experience. The findings suggest the use of active learning approaches, in which students have the opportunity to interact with peers and the instructor, discussion and reflection on learning experiences, and encouragement of knowledge sharing, contribute to student learning. | [FULL TEXT]

Bolliger, Doris; Martindale, Trey (2001).  Student Satisfaction in an Online Master's Degree Program in Instructional Technology. 

In 1999, the University of West Florida launched an online Instructional Technology master's program. Students enrolled in this online program can be divided into two groups: (1) "local" students who, for various reasons, prefer the online courses, and (2) students at a geographical distance. The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing the satisfaction of these students with the online courses. A second purpose was to ascertain any difference in satisfaction levels between the two groups. The Biner instrument (1993) was modified to accommodate questions relating to online courses. Fifty-two respondents from a sample of 200 participants completed the online survey. The results indicated student satisfaction in online courses is influenced by three constructs: instructor variables, course management, and technical issues. The statistical analysis did not reveal significant differences in satisfaction between the two groups. However, when the researchers compared the differences in distribution of responses between the two groups, some interesting differences were found.   | [FULL TEXT]

Bolman, Catherine; Tattersall, C.; Waterink, W.; Janssen, J.; van den Berg, B.; van Es, R.; Koper, R. (2007).  Learners' Evaluation of a Navigation Support Tool in Distance Education  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 23, 5. 

This article investigates the usability of a navigation support tool, which guides learners by generating advice on the next best step to take in a self-study e-learning course. The article draws on log data and responses from online questionnaires to provide insights into learners' evaluation of the tool, their adherence to the advice and their expectations of self-efficacy. The theoretical underpinnings of the work are described together with the experimental set-up. Results show that more than half of the learners in the experimental group adhered to the advice and held the opinion that the advice stimulated them to proceed with the course. Learners expressed a need to know what the advice was based on which can be seen as an essential element in future development of the tool.

Bolton, Denny G. (2001).  Total Cost of Ownership: Key Infrastructure Management Tool.  School Business Affairs, 67 n2 p4-6, 8-10. 

Many school districts have planned only for upfront software and hardware costs (one-quarter of "real" costs). This article examines major cost components of client-server computing, discusses TCO (total cost of ownership) as a tool for managing investment in technology, and considers how to leverage cost-reduction strategies.

Bolton, Roger E. (2005).  Computer Simulation of the Alonso Household Location Model in the Microeconomics Course  Journal of Economic Education, 36, 1. 

Computer simulation of the Alonso household location model can enrich the intermediate microeconomics course. The model includes decisions on location, land space, and other goods and is a valuable complement to the usual textbook model of household consumption. It has three decision variables, one of which is a "bad," and one good's price is a nonlinear function of another decision variable. These instructive complications are easily within the grasp of students. The simulation illustrates algebraic utility functions that are important in later courses. The author describes ways to simulate various versions of the model, from relatively simple to advanced, including a version that incorporates time-allocation decisions, thus giving the instructor flexibility in teaching students of varying ability.

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Bowen, Trish (2006).  Designing Curricula to Ensure Student Completions. DETC Occasional Paper Number 25  [Distance Education and Training Council] 

Curriculum is the educational blueprint for institutions. Without it, they would not exist. Curriculum is their product; it provides the concepts, skills, and motivation that students need to shape their futures. From book-driven curriculum to the highest, technologically driven curriculum, an institution's main goal is to ensure that students accomplish the objectives and graduate. Students' completion of curricula is the ultimate measure of institutional success--not only do educators send successful, skilled graduates into the workplace, but student completion affects the bottom line in a positive way. While no magic solution exists to ensure student completions, instructional designers can incorporate some tried-and-true strategies that will entice, encourage, and ultimately, provide students with the skills they need to move forward in their education and careers. This paper discusses seven such strategies: (1) Gear curricula to a target audience; (2) Identify and teach specific competencies; (3) Take it one step at a time; (4) Relate to various learning styles; (5) Student-centered interaction; (6) Draw real-world connections; and (7) Foster motivation, the key to student success. | [FULL TEXT]

Bower, Beverly L.; Hardy, Kimberly P. (2004).  From Correspondence to Cyberspace: Changes and Challenges in Distance Education  New Directions for Community Colleges, 2004, 128. 

Higher education has provided students with distance learning opportunities for over 150 years. This chapter traces the evolution of distance learning and provides an overview of some of the challenges inherent in learning in an online environment.

Bower, Jon (2005).  Why We're Better off without EETT  Technology & Learning, 32, 10. 

The proposed 2006 federal budget has been criticized by many in the education and technology communities for zeroing out the primary federal funding source for education technology: the Enhancing Education Through Technology (EETT) state block-grant program. The author believes schools are better off without it. and gives reasons why. For many years, those who work in the education technology field have been aware that much of the money from EETT and state programs is misspent. The largest problem has been the overemphasis on hardware. In industry, the rule of thumb for technology investments is a third for hardware, a third for software, and a third for training and support. A good 80-85% of education technology funding has been spent on hardware and wiring over the years, leaving only 15-20% for software, training, and the vital support of hardware and applications. The result has been school labs full of machines that cannot run software on their networks, and children learning Microsoft Paint as an educational activity. EETT and state technology funding programs ensure that administrators will continue to buy hardware and networks for their schools. But it doesn't do the education technology industry, or the students, any good if those resources are poorly utilized. It's time to let educators choose the best tools for their students--whether they run on silicon or use petrochemical ink dots on mashed tree pulp as an information-delivery medium. Only then will education technology find its proper place in our schools.

Bower, Matt (2008).  Affordance Analysis--Matching Learning Tasks with Learning Technologies  Educational Media International, 45, 1. 

This article presents a design methodology for matching learning tasks with learning technologies. First a working definition of "affordances" is provided based on the need to describe the action potentials of the technologies (utility). Categories of affordances are then proposed to provide a framework for analysis. Following this, a methodology for designing e-learning experiences by matching the affordance requirements of tasks with the affordances offered by the available technologies is described. Rather than being prescriptive, the methodology is designed to be adjustable, expandable, and applied to various degrees of rigor depending on the context. An example application of the methodology is provided for illustrative purposes.

Bowerman, Margaret (2005).  Technology for All: Successful Strategies for Meeting the Needs of Diverse Learners  T.H.E. Journal, 32, 10. 

One of the greatest challenges teachers face is effectively reaching a roomful of students with varying abilities and learning styles on a daily basis. When the author completed her special-education certification 27 years ago, she knew that she would be constantly working to develop a curriculum rich enough for all students. Fortunately, she has found that technology is the perfect tool for providing learners of all abilities the opportunity to achieve. In this article, the author shares strategies for meeting the needs of diverse learners in the classroom.

Bowers, Janet; Doerr, Helen M. (2001).  An Analysis of Prospective Teachers' Dual Roles in Understanding the Mathematics of Change: Eliciting Growth with Technology.  Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 4, 2. 

Analyzes the interrelations between prospective and practicing teachers' learning of the mathematics of change and the development of their emerging understanding of effective mathematics teaching. Develops novel computer-based activities to challenge participants' mathematical understandings and requires them to use technology during short teaching episodes they conduct with younger students. 

Bowers, Judy (2002).  Using Technology To Support Comprehensive Guidance Program Operations: A Variety of Strategies. 

The Tucson Unified School District made a goal for 2000-2001 for all counselors to have their own computer at school. This article looks at how these computers are used to enhance the counselors' jobs. At the district level, the staff communicates with counselors through e-mail. Meeting reminders, general information, and upcoming events are quickly updated. Counselors are able to obtain lesson plans, books, and other resources from the Internet and from associations such as the American School Counselor Association. Counselors also directly use computers with their students. Career and college software programs are used with both middle and high school students. Corresponding with neighboring or national districts is possible via the Internet. Support for the program is provided through the district home page. This information is used to evaluate student performance and to suggest solutions for raising achievement. Future plans include updating the guidance and counseling home page to provide direct links to resources, and arranging for free instructions for counselors in computer and Internet use. | [FULL TEXT]

Bowman, Joseph, Jr., Ed. (2001).  Adoption and Diffusion of Educational Technology in Urban Areas.  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 25, 1. 

This special edition provides research themes and illustrations that look at specific areas in the adoption and diffusion of educational technology in urban centers. Presents finding and research from several researchers in the field. Includes gender, culture, and content development; using technology to empower communities; adoption of technology; and diffusion of technology: a retrospective view.

Bowman, Joseph, Jr.; Newman, Dianna L.; Masterson, JoAnn (2001).  Adopting Educational Technology: Implications for Designing Interventions.  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 25, 1. 

This in-depth case study tracks the development of an urban school district's adoption of an educational technology plan over the course of a three-year time span. Highlights include technology planning, professional development training, technology supported curriculum development, technology implementation, and a cyclical model of intervention.

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Banathy, Bela H. (2003).  Dialogue: The Method of Choice in Collective Communication.  Educational Technology, 43, 2. 

Defines dialogue as a disciplined, consensus-building process of collective communication based on shared values and beliefs. Highlights include the evolutionary history of dialogue; the role of dialogue in building a civil society and in the design of social systems; and the need to develop learning resources in evolutionary inquiry and in the use of dialogue.

Banerjee, Manju; Brinckerhoff, Loring C. (2002).  Assessing Student Performance in Distance Education Courses: Implications for Testing Accommodations for Students with Learning Disabilities.  Assessment for Effective Intervention, 27, 3. 

This article highlights some of the defining characteristics of distance education courses and their impact on traditional assessment practices for instructors and students, including those with learning disabilities. Factors that instructors need to consider for dealing with test accommodations for students with learning disabilities are discussed. 

Banerji, Shilpa (2006).  Pens, Papers and Passports  Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 23, 7. 

India has seen its economic fortunes take off in recent years. Last year, its gross domestic product rose 8 percent over 2004 in response to an expanded manufacturing sector. The country's large English-speaking population is leading India's transition into a world leader in the software services industry. American universities have taken notice, especially of the movement on the technology front. American students are not new to India. It has long been a popular destination for nonprofit work and students of public policy, but now American business schools are realizing the opportunities available in Southeast Asia. As international experience becomes an increasingly vital component of business success, more schools are telling their students to come to class with pen, paper and a passport. It is not just a one-way street. American students are learning first-person about one of the world's fastest growing business powers, and in doing so are becoming more attractive potential employees for those same corporations.

Bangert-Drowns, Robert L.; Pyke, Curtis (2001).  A Taxonomy of Student Engagement with Educational Software: An Exploration of Literate Thinking with Electronic Text.  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 24, 3. 

Examines instances of "high" literacy, literate thinking, among elementary school students working with common computer software during their normal school day. Seven forms of engagement emerged to categorize students' work, and these were arranged in order of complexity: disengagement, unsystematic engagement, frustrated engagement, structure-dependent engagement, self-regulated interest, critical engagement, and literate thinking.

Bangert-Drowns, Robert L.; Pyke, Curtis (2002).  Teacher Ratings of Student Engagement with Educational Software: An Exploratory Study.  Educational Technology Research and Development, 50, 2. 

Discusses students' learning engagement and describes a study that investigated whether teachers could accurately judge elementary school students' learning engagement with educational software. Explains teacher's use of a seven-level taxonomy to rate the frequency of different forms of engagement among 42 students interacting with different types of educational software.

Banister, Savilla (2000).  Technology and Curriculum: (Dis)Connections. 

This paper presents an overview of expectations educators have for computer use in the classroom, followed by a discussion of how technology and curriculum agendas relate (or do not relate) in schools. The paper examines the following questions: Does the introduction of computers into American classrooms affect the curriculum in these settings? What are the dynamics to be considered when technologies and curricula are elements of an educational environment? Do these two phenomena merely coexist within schools, or do they complement or destroy the other? Three possible models which explore the relationships of technology and curriculum are proposed and discussed in detail: (1) Technology as the Curriculum; (2) Curriculum as Technology; and (3) Alternative Vision. Contains 19 references. | [FULL TEXT]

Banister, Savilla; Vannatta, Rachel (2006).  Beginning with a Baseline: Insuring Productive Technology Integration in Teacher Education  Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 14, 1. 

If colleges of education are going to successfully prepare teacher candidates to meet NETS-T standards (Kelly, 2002), then teacher education programs must begin developing strategies to assess technology competencies of beginning college students. Colleges must then move beyond these assessments to providing student support for achieving technological competencies. With this type of foundation, teacher preparation programs will then be able to provide students with experiences that nurture powerful technology integration in P-12 settings. This article presents one college's efforts in developing and implementing a mandatory technology skills assessment for beginning teacher education students. A sample of the assessment is provided, as well as scoring checklists, a description of the resources that support student mastery of these skills, and the procedures for administering the assessment, and recording results. The context of continued technology integration in coursework and field experiences is emphasized.

Banister, Savilla; Vannatta, Rachel A.; Ross, Cynthia (2006).  Testing Electronic Portfolio Systems in a Teacher Education: Finding the Right Fit  Action in Teacher Education, 27, 4. 

This article presents the results of an action research study that sought to determine the most effective e-portfolio system for our teacher education programs. Three e-portfolio systems (LiveText, TaskStream, and a university-developed system called Epsilen) were implemented throughout a semester course in which students and faculty evaluated usability, functionality, and applicability within our teacher education programs. Although student and faculty experienced high levels of frustration with each system, student survey results indicate that TaskStream users reported the highest level of ease for nearly every system application. However, participants saw Epsilen as having the greatest applicability to their future use for either documenting one's college career in an assessment portfolio or showcasing one's work for a future employer. Recommendations for identifying an appropriate electronic portfolio system that authentically meets the unique teacher education program needs are presented.

Banjerdsakul, Natee; Lindsey, Jimmy D. (2002).  Building Administrators' Knowledge, Disposition, and Performance Competencies for Technology Integration for Students with Mild/Moderate Disabilities. 

The purpose of this study was to investigate building administrators knowledge, disposition, and performance competencies for technology integration for students with mild/moderate (M/M) disabilities. A total of 106 administrators participated in the study, completing a four-section questionnaire. One-way between-subjects designs were used, and the factors were professional and school characteristics, technology integrations, practice activities, and special-education experience. The dependent variables were the subjects assessment of their technology-integration knowledge, disposition, and performance competencies. SPSS 7.5 descriptive, parametric, and nonparametric modules were used to analyze the data. Results indicated that subjects agreed that the 10 knowledge, 10 disposition, and 10 performance competencies were essential for promoting technology integration for students with M/M disabilities. Results also suggested that school type and number of students with M/M disabilities affected the administrators knowledge and performance competencies. Additionally, subjects recommended that professional development, software, technology budget, collaboration, and community involvement are the major areas that need to be addressed if schools are to promote technology integration for students with M/M disabilities. | [FULL TEXT]

Banks, Aaron; Reed, Julian (2004).  Creative Media Ideas for the Gym  Strategies: A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators, 17, 3. 

This article offers readers ideas for using mass media to enhance their physical education program. Generally, media is the term used to define the way in communicating with a large number of people. Technically, media is divided into two categories: print and film (electronic). Print (journals, newspapers, books, etc.) is "put to paper" to create images and transmit information. Film (movies, television, Internet, etc) incorporates visual and audio cues to impact the senses. Here, the authors discuss the use of media and the strategies of incorporating media in teaching to enhance the physical education environment and to positively influence the future health of young Americans. | [FULL TEXT]

Banks, Claretha H. (2005).  A Descriptive Analysis of the Perceived Effectiveness of Virginia Tech's Faculty Development Institute  [Online Submission, Paper presented at the Academy of Human Resource Development International Conference (AHRD) (Estes Park, CO, Feb 24-27, 2005) p300-306 (Symp. 13-1)] 

The Faculty Development Institute (FDI), a large scale, formal faculty training program, was implemented to help faculty acquire skills necessary to incorporate computer technology into their instruction. This study uses a mixed methodology to identify and compare the goals, expectations, and perceived outcomes stakeholders held for FDI. The stakeholders had similar expectations for the outcomes during and/or immediately following the initial FDI workshop, but differed in their expectations of the long-term outcomes. [For complete proceedings, see ED491486.] | [FULL TEXT]

Banks, Sheena; Goodyear, Peter; Hodgson, Vivian; McConnell, David (2003).  Introduction to the Special Issue on "Advances in Research on Networked Learning."  Instructional Science, 31, 1-2. 

Taken together, the articles in this special issue contribute to the collective sense of recent progress in research on networked learning in higher education. In combination, they help explain some of the key relationships between teachers' and learners' intentions and experiences, the affordances of text-based communications technologies and processes of informed and intelligent educational change.

Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer (2004).  Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education  British Journal of Educational Technology, 35, 5. 

This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources, access to and availability of EIS resources, and the third leg of staff skills and their, development. The research was conducted within the third cycle of the JISC (Joint Information Services Committee) User Behaviour Monitoring and Evaluation Framework, in 2001-2002. Evidence was gathered from library and information service web sites and various stakeholders, including library and information service staff, academic staff and students to generate insights into the provision of access to EIS in further education. Sector-wide funding initiatives have had a significant impact on ICT infrastructures, and these attract a positive response from students. EIS are represented on some library web sites but both web site development and EIS availability is very much less advanced than in higher education. Staff, however, lack sufficient dedicated access to ICT to be able to develop their own skills and use. There remains a low level of access to electronic information resources, with only limited access to these resources through library web sites. LIS managers face a number of challenges in enhancing this provision, including licensing arrangements, tight budgets that need to be spread across many discipline areas, and the absence of EIS designed specifically for the further education student. The other key challenge lies in the provision of time and opportunity for academic and LIS staff to develop their ICT and EIS skills, and, more generally in the further development of the role of Information and Learning Technology (ILT) Champions.

Banyard, Philip; Underwood, Jean; Twiner, Alison (2006).  Do Enhanced Communication Technologies Inhibit or Facilitate Self-Regulated Learning?  European Journal of Education, 41, 3-4. 

The assumption tested here is whether the introduction of enhanced communication technologies in the form of high-speed broadband connectivity has removed or ameliorated any of the barriers to efficient and effective teaching and learning. Evidence is presented of how enhanced communication technologies have facilitated self-regulated learning. The examples are drawn from a range of subject areas in secondary (11-18 years) and primary (5-11 years) schools in the UK. Evidence is also presented of the new challenges to self-regulated learning that are created by enhanced communication technologies, for example, non-selective searching, plagiarism and issues of filtering. Case studies were developed in 37 schools in the public sector, from rural and urban areas. Field workers conducted interviews with teachers and made classroom observations. Further interviews were also conducted with headteachers and ICT coordinators. These studies showed some outstanding examples of students taking ownership of the learning process. However, these enhanced communication technologies raised concerns for school management, for teacher workloads and for the parents. These findings are not parochial. International comparisons indicate that we are studying a trans-national phenomenon. Similarly, costs and benefits of such technologies are not sector specific; the outcomes of this research can inform debate in higher education.

Banza, Nsomwe-a- Nfunkwa (2006).  Are the Rural Schools of the Democratic Republic of Congo Ready for the $100 Laptop?  [Online Submission] 

The situation of schools in the Democratic Republic of Congo in matters concerning new information and communication technologies remains alarming. Given the primary role of these technologies in teaching and learning, as well as the concern of giving Congolese rural schools access to these tools, considering the problems of lack of electricity, telephones, ventilation, the cost of computer equipment, etc. we propose the following strategies which may facilitate the introduction, access and effective use of such educational tools. Addressing these problems and through a commitment to the use of ICT in rural schools, the new $100 Laptop, proposed by MIT, appears to be the answer to many of the issues. The cost of the laptop seems to be affordable and it can solve the issue of the lack of ICT equipment and overcome the problem of the lack of electricity, but it is not so straightforward. It is true that these laptops can help to solve the ICT problems being faced in the educational sector. However, even at the seemingly affordable cost of $100, this is still expensive in some local economies. In a country such as Congo, where teachers receive less than $100 for a monthly salary, it becomes improbable that the people or the Department of Education can afford this financial outlay. | [FULL TEXT]

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Bai, Hua; Ertmer, Peggy (2008).  Teacher Educators' Beliefs and Technology Uses as Predictors of Preservice Teachers' Beliefs and Technology Attitudes  Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 16, 1. 

This study examined preservice teachers' pedagogical beliefs and attitudes toward technology in relation to teacher educators' pedagogical beliefs and technology uses. Regression analyses were conducted to answer the research questions. The findings of this study revealed that teacher educators' learner-centered beliefs and nonlearner-centered beliefs about learning and teaching explained a small amount of variance in preservice teachers' learner-centered beliefs and nonlearner-centered beliefs about learning and teaching. Findings indicated that the development of preservice teachers' nonlearner-centered beliefs was uneven: At the end of the semester, preservice teachers' nonlearner-centered beliefs about learning and teaching decreased, however, their nonlearner-centered beliefs about learners increased. Although no significant relationship was found between teacher educators' technology uses and preservice teachers' technology attitudes, taking an introductory educational technology course was found to be helpful in improving preservice teachers' technology attitudes related to educational benefits.

Bailey, Gahan; Shaw, Edward L., Jr.; Hollifield, Donna (2006).  The Devaluation of Social Studies in the Elementary Grades  Journal of Social Studies Research, 30, 2. 

The purposes of this study were to determine the actual amount of instructional time spent on social studies, to determine the variety of instructional strategies used during social studies instruction, and to assess the frequency and types of technology usage during social studies instruction. As part of addressing the No Child Left Behind Act, a university in the southeast partnered with the local school system and placed 39 university pre-service teachers in Title I schools to serve as paraprofessionals. A simple data collecting instrument was designed to record data in three areas: (a) the number of actual minutes a day spent on teaching social studies, (b) the instructional strategies used, and (c) the inclusion of technology in the classroom. The data were collected over a two semester period. The data analyses revealed that the amount of time spent on social studies on average was far less than the amount of time allocated by the county and represented only a small percentage of the state mandated instructional time. When technology was used in the classroom, it was developed and utilized by the university paraprofessionals rather than the classroom teacher. The data also revealed that the variety of teaching strategies was limited primarily to "read the book and answer questions" or "define vocabulary words." Concerns were raised about meeting state and national content standards, students not having the background knowledge to be successful in middle and high school grades, and the ability to pass the state high school exit examination.

Bailey, James; Sass, Mary; Swiercz, Paul M.; Seal, Craig; Kayes, D. Christopher (2005).  Teaching with and through Teams: Student-Written, Instructor-Facilitated Case Writing and the Signatory Code  Journal of Management Education, 29, 1. 

Modern organizations prize teamwork. Management schools have responded to this reality by integrating teamwork into the curriculum. Two important challenges associated with integrating teams in the management classroom include (a) designing teamwork assignments that achieve multiple, sophisticated learning outcomes and (b) instruction in, and management of, the classic social loafing problem. This article addresses these two challenges. First, it provides a method for designing teamwork assignments using Student Written-Instructor Facilitated (SWIF) case learning. SWIF provides the ideal vehicle for achieving all six of Bloom's (1956) Educational Objectives--knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Second, it demonstrates the use of the Signatory Code, a team-contracting device that helps teams minimize social loafing. Survey results from 112 students speak to the efficacy of this tandem teaching methodology for blending complex management concepts with genuine team experience.

Bailey, John (2004).  Making the Case: Research Efforts on Educational Technology--A Closer Look at Scientifically Based Research  T.H.E. Journal, 31, 10. 

Historically, very little, if any, research that meets the scientifically based standards as defined by the No Child Left Behind Act has been conducted on the effectiveness of educational technology. Clearly, the educational technology community most invest in research and evaluation studies to better guide the effective use of the investment, as well as to demonstrate to policy-makers the impact on teaching and learning. In an effort to address the need, the U.S. Department of Education is investing more than $56 million to study the conditions and practices under which technology is used to document its impact on student performance. The results of these efforts should enable the educational technology community to be in the forefront of evidence-based research on educational practices involving technology. Some of the federal funds are supporting studies at the national and state levels. In addition, the Education Department's Institute for Education Sciences (IES) is funding technology research at independent research and development organizations and at institutions of higher learning nationwide. This article provides brief descriptions of the various federally funded research efforts that are examining the impact of technology on student achievement, professional development and other educational outcomes.

Bailey, Rita L.; Stoner, Julie B.; Parette, Howard P., Jr.; Angell, Maureen E. (2006).  AAC Team Perceptions: Augmentative and Alternative Communication Device Use  Education & Training in Developmental Disabilities, 41, 2. 

This study provided an in-depth view of augmentative and alternative (AAC) team member's perceptions of AAC device use with older students. Six special education teachers and one speech-language pathologist (SLP) who worked as members of an AAC team were interviewed to determine their perceptions of AAC use in junior high and high school settings. Results of qualitative analysis yielded a variety of common themes which were classified into four primary response categories: Student Communicative Competence, Barriers of AAC Use, Instructional Benefits of AAC Use, and Facilitators of AAC Use. Results may help professionals establish effective AAC teaming practices.

Bain, Alan; Parkes, Robert John (2006).  Curriculum Authoring Tools and Inclusive Classroom Teaching Practice: A Longitudinal Study  British Journal of Educational Technology, 37, 2. 

The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal application of a suite of curriculum authoring tools (CATs) to inclusive classroom teaching practice in a secondary school setting. The study sought to establish whether the incorporation of the CATs into the teachers curriculum development and implementation covaried with improved implementation integrity of classroom teaching practice over time. A repeated measures design was used to establish whether those teachers with high levels of tool use also recorded higher levels of implementation integrity in their use of specific inclusive teaching practices. The effects of the tools were measured using 578 50-minute classroom observations gathered over a 2.5-year period. The results indicated that higher levels of implementation integrity in classroom practice covaried with the extent to which the tools were used for the design and implementation of curriculum.

Bain, Connie D.; Rice, Margaret L. (2006).  The Influence of Gender on Attitudes, Perceptions, and Uses of Technology  Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 39, 2. 

This study investigates whether gender has an effect on students' attitudes toward, and their uses of, technology. Data were collected from 59 sixth grade students to examine their attitudes toward and uses of technology by means of The Computer Survey (TCS), computer logs, interviews, classroom observations, field notes, and student work. One of the major findings of the study was that gender differences in attitudes, perceptions, and uses of computers were not found to be significant. The results of this study indicate that gender does affect students' attitudes toward technology for the participants of this study. The majority of females do not perceive computers as being difficult for themselves, other females, or males. However, several males indicated they were better at using the computer than females.  | [FULL TEXT]

Bain, J. D.; McNaught, C. (2006).  How Academics Use Technology in Teaching and Learning: Understanding the Relationship between Beliefs and Practice  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 22, 2. 

This paper reports on a detailed investigation into the beliefs and practices of teachers in 22 computer-assisted learning projects in Australia in the mid-1990s. Detailed interview data were obtained, supported by the project software and other curriculum materials. The interview transcripts and documentary material were collated and condensed into rich descriptions; these were then coded on a number of belief and practice dimensions. The resulting profiles were clustered into five belief-practice categories: thoughtful instructors, pre-emptive professionals, conversational constructivists, learning facilitators and situated knowledge negotiators. These complex, yet interpretable, patterns of relationships between beliefs and practices are useful in understanding teachers' reluctance to change their teaching, one instance of which is the relatively limited uptake of technology in higher education.

Bain, John D.; Mavor, Ken (2002).  Collaborative Teachback with a Statistical Cognitive Tool: A Formative Evaluation. 

A learning environment is described in which students collaborate in small groups to develop screen movies in which they use a statistical cognitive tool to interpret published research and to demonstrate their understanding of least squares statistical concepts. Evaluation data are reported, which indicate that, although some groups thrive in this environment, others struggle to cope. Enhancements are proposed based on the outcome of the evaluation. Highlights include: the computer program; the course context; the learning process; the intended learning outcomes; the evaluation; and future development.   | [FULL TEXT]

Bainbridge, Marc (2005).  Miracle Workers: When Appropriately Prescribed and Supported by Solid Instruction, Alternative and Augmentative Communication Devices Can Give Voices to Students Otherwise "Trapped" by Their Disabilities  Technology & Learning, 25, 9. 

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA-PL 101-478) of 1990 assures the right to assistive technology for individuals with disabilities. Later versions of the law increased spending, support, and consumer decision making and encouraged research and development for a range of assistive instructional technologies. As a result, the number of technological products and solutions for communication-impaired clients has grown exponentially. Technological devices are not necessarily a panacea, however. The number one complaint about them is that they often go on the shelf and never come down after being prescribed in a student's IEP. It is essential that the device be supported by solid instruction. This article provides a brief guide to the latest and best classroom resources for communication-impaired students. A list of additional related resources is also included.

Baines, Lawrence (2006).  Does Horace Mann Still Matter?  Educational Horizons, 84, 4. 

In this article, the author comments on a new book entitled Horace Mann's Vision of the Public Schools: Is It Still Relevant? According to him, the book does succinctly summarize current controversies in education including technology, school finance, and No Child Left Behind, and the writing is informed. However, aside from the first twenty-seven pages, the book has little to do with Horace Mann or his vision. Instead, the focus on educational hot topics leaves only a sentence or two of conjecture per chapter about what Horace Mann "might have thought" tacked on. Among other things, he profiles Horace Mann and discusses why his ideas are so relevant.  | [FULL TEXT]

Baines, Lawrence (2007).  Learning from the World: Achieving More by Doing Less  Phi Delta Kappan, 89, 2. 

At this moment, in school districts throughout the United States, initiatives are being launched to extend the school day, increase homework, integrate technology, and require more high-stakes testing. The assumption underlying these initiatives is that more and more--more time in school, more homework, more technology, and more high-stakes testing--will produce smarter, better-prepared students who, in turn, will help guide the nation through the tumultuous and uncertain 21st century. To realize the ideal of an educated, productive citizenry, however, many countries around the world are employing radically different approaches. Instead of executing a strategy of more and more, some countries have decided to educate their young people by doing less. In this article, the author discusses four areas where the policy and practice in high-achieving countries run counter to current practice and policy in the U.S., namely: (1) time spent at school; (2) homework; (3) technology; and (4) schools as agents of social change. Instead of spending much efforts at reform, the author argues that perhaps it is time for the U.S. to learn from the world, to stop thinking in terms of more and more, and consider what might be achieved by doing less.

Baird, Derek E.; Fisher, Mercedes (2006).  Neomillennial User Experience Design Strategies: Utilizing Social Networking Media to Support "Always On" Learning Styles  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 34, 1. 

Raised in the "always on" world of interactive media, the Internet, and digital messaging technologies, today's student has different expectations and learning styles than previous generations. This net-centric generation values their ability to use the Web to create a self-paced, customized, on-demand learning path that includes multiple forms of interactive, social, and self-publishing media tools. First, we investigate the formation of a burgeoning digital pedagogy that roots itself in current adult and social learning theories, while integrating social networking, user experience design strategies, and other emerging technologies into the curriculum to support student learning. Next, we explore how current and emerging social networking media (such as Weblogs, iPod, RSS/XML, podcasting/audioblogs, wiki, "Flickr," and other self-publishing media) can support neomillennial learning styles, facilitate the formation of learning communities, foster student engagement and reflection, and enhance the overall user experience for students in synchronous and asynchronous learning environments. The data included in this article are intended as directional means to help instructors and course designers identify social networking resources and other emerging technologies that will enhance the delivery of instruction while meeting the needs of today's neomillennial learning styles.

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Bingolbali, Erhan; Monaghan, John (2008).  Concept Image Revisited  Educational Studies in Mathematics, 68, 1. 

Concept image and concept definition is an important construct in mathematics education. Its use, however, has been limited to cognitive studies. This article revisits concept image in the context of research on undergraduate students' understanding of the derivative which regards the context of learning as paramount. The literature, mainly on concept image and concept definition, is considered before outlining the research study, the calculus courses and results which inform considerations of concept image. Section 6 addresses three themes: students' developing concept images of the derivative; the relationship between teaching and students' developing concept images; students' developing concept images and their departmental affiliation. The conclusion states that studies of undergraduates' concept images should not ignore their departmental affiliations.

Binkiewicz, Donna M. (2006).  Tunes of the Times: Historical Songs as Pedagogy for Recent US History  History Teacher, 39, 4. 

Songs are powerful pedagogical tools that enliven a classroom and enhance student learning in an enjoyable manner. Historical songs are valuable primary sources that provide listeners with direct commentary, attitudes, and emotions expressed by real people in particular historical periods. When utilizing primary documentation, music should be included. This article suggests some of the ways songs may be used effectively to enhance the teaching and learning of history. It also offers suggestions on where to locate audio resources and how to use new technologies to offer students the tunes of the times most relevant to history classes.

Binkley, Marilyn; Hudson, Lisa; Knepper, Paula; Kolstad, Andy; Stowe, Peter; Wirt, John (2000).  Lifelong Learning NCES Task Force: Final Report, Volume I. Working Paper Series. 

In September 1998, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) established a 1-year task force to review the NCES's role concerning lifelong learning. The eight-member task force established a working definition of lifelong learning ("a process or system through which individuals are able and willing to learn at all stages of life, from preschool through old age") and conducted the following activities: (1) summarized and prioritized policy issues concerning lifelong learning; (2) synthesized exiting data to address monitoring and policy needs; (3) identified and prioritized gaps in existing data; and (4) developed recommendations on data collection strategies. The recommendations focused on the following lifelong learning issue areas: the adult population; learning attitudes and skills of adults; labor market demand for adult learning; participation levels and patterns; goals, incentives, and disincentives; investments in adult learning; adult learning providers; instructional delivery and new technologies; informal learning; services and accommodations for adults; outcomes and effectiveness; and the government's role in adult learning. The task force concluded that adult learning is an important area of education that should have a coherent data collection and reporting system within NCES and that NCES should take the following steps to develop such a system: (1) develop a compendium report summarizing existing information on lifelong learning; and (2) modify existing survey instruments that collect relevant information. | [FULL TEXT]

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Bos, Beth (2007).  The Effect of the Texas Instrument Interactive Instructional Environment on the Mathematical Achievement of Eleventh Grade Low Achieving Students  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 37, 4. 

Teaching and learning mathematics with technology poses a unique dilemma. If technology is to enhance mathematical achievement (NCTM, 2000), why do documented studies indicate that this may not be the case (Waxman, Connell, & Gray, 2002)? This study looks at the learning environment used when teaching with technology. What in the instructional environment actually maximizes technology's ability to increase mathematical achievement? The instructional environment used with Texas Instrument InterActive software is examined to determine its affect on the mathematical achievement of eleventh grade at-risk students when studying quadratic functions. The Texas Instrument instructional environment uses technology to manipulate mathematical objects to observe patterns, make generalizations, and test conjectures. Technology is used as a tool to perform action on objects and to problem solve.

Bos, Nathan; Shami, N. Sadat (2006).  Adapting a Face-to-Face Role-Playing Simulation for Online Play  Educational Technology Research and Development, 54, 5. 

The rapid acceleration of online course offerings presents a design challenge for instructors who want to take materials developed for face-to-face settings and adapt them for asynchronous online usage. Broadcast lectures are relatively easy to transfer, but adapting content is harder when classes use small-group discussions, as in role-playing or negotiation games. To be successful, such environments should address three interrelated design challenges: (a) sustaining engagement, (b) promoting content-focused discussion, and (c) promoting reflection-on-action. This article is a case study of how one interactive role-playing game, Island Telecom, was adapted for online play. We describe eight design features, including automated player roles and a structured team decision-making process, and show how they match with design challenges. Feedback from a recent run of this game shows that, although students still prefer to play face-to-face, they now also give favorable ratings to the online version. Feedback on specific adaptations is also presented.

Bosco, Jim; Baca, Marguerite (2001).  School Library Media Specialists and School Administrators as Allies!; TSSA: One Principal's View.  MultiMedia Schools, 8, 4. 

Discusses the role of administrators and media specialists in the successful use of technology in schools and explains the TSSA (Technology Standards for School Administrators) project. Topics include hardware needs; applications, including software and Internet connectivity; teachers' technology use; and professional development for staff, including administrators, that media specialists can give.

Bose, Kabita (2005).  Computers in Reception Schools--A Case of Gaborone, Botswana  Early Childhood Education Journal, 33, 1. 

Computers are changing young children's world in profound ways. Research shows that when computer technology is used appropriately in early years of life, it enhances virtually every aspect of development, i.e., cognitive, social, emotional, language and fine motor skills. Thus a very critical issue in today's technologically advanced world is whether we in Botswana use computer technology for young children, and if so how do we use it. Hence the present study was conducted in the reception schools of Gaborone, Capital of Botswana. Out of 12 reception schools of Gaborone, data could be collected from nine schools only. The outcome of the study led to a few recommendations.

Boshier, Roger; Kolpakova, Yulia; Klinkhamer, Sooz (2004).  For Internet Knowledge, Should You Ask Ol' Blue Eyes or the Brown-Eyed Girl?  Educational Media International, 41, 2. 

The digital divide is generally thought to arise from socio-economic disparities. However, there is more to it. Eye colour is a factor. In this study, the 16 multiple-choice item Internet Quiz was administered to 3,208 respondents in the Lower Mainland (Vancouver) of British Columbia, Canada. Blue and hazel-eyed people knew significantly more about the Internet than green, grey or brown/black-eyed people. However, when the effects of language-spoken-at-home and socio-economic status were controlled, brown/black-eyed people scored about the same as people with green, hazel, blue or grey eyes. There are significant relationships between eye colour and Internet knowledge and further research is warranted. Work that suggests dark-eyed people respond to colour and light-eyed people to form appears relevant to the acquisition of Internet knowledge.

Boss, Suzie; Krauss, Jane (2007).  Power of the Mashup: Combining Essential Learning with New Technology Tools  Learning & Leading with Technology, 35, 1. 

Jerome Burg, after 34 years of teaching, left his own classroom last year and now helps other teachers integrate technology into the curriculum at Granada High School in Livermore, California. One new project he designed is heightening global interest in literary road trips by creating a resource that combines a new technology with a time-tested instructional approach. Google Lit Trips harnesses Google Earth as a powerhouse teaching tool for literature studies. The interactive Web-based application allows users to literally search the globe, using satellite imagery, maps, terrain, and other three-dimensional images. Burg has designed custom files so that literature students virtually travel along with a literary character, using Google Earth to explore the key locations of a story. Burg's experience shows what can happen when a teacher understands the power of the mashup--a hybrid application that draws from multiple sources to create something new. Today's technologies--and the emerging mashups--help teachers to perform eight essential learning functions: (1) Ubiquity; (2) Deep Learning; (3) Making Things Visible and Discussable; (4) Expressing Ourselves, Sharing Ideas, Building Community; (5) Collaboration; (6) Research; (7) Project Management; and (8) Reflection and Iteration. Although technologies continually evolve, these learning functions remain fairly stable.

Boss, Suzie; Krauss, Jane (2007).  Reinventing Project-Based Learning: Your Field Guide to Real-World Projects in the Digital Age  [International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE)] 

"Reinventing Project-Based Learning" offers educators an accessible guide for maximizing the benefits of project-based learning in today's technology-rich learning environment. This reader-friendly book speaks directly to educators, administrators, and professional development specialists who want to transform learning into a more active, student-driven experience, using technology tools for inquiry, collaboration, and connection to the world beyond the classroom. Examples from educators in many different countries showcase this new vision of instructional design. Features of the book include: (1) a guided process for designing and implementing effective projects; (2) collaborative activities in each chapter, appropriate for shared reading, lesson study, and other professional development activities; and (3) A focus on the essential learning functions of digital tools, the Internet, and Web 2.0.

Boster, Franklin J.; Meyer, Gary S.; Roberto, Anthony J.; Inge, Carol; Strom, Renee (2006).  Some Effects of Video Streaming on Educational Achievement  Communication Education, 55, 1. 

Although much contemporary thinking leads to the expectation that communication technology, such as video streaming, enhances educational performance on the average, a dearth of strong evidence consistent or inconsistent with this claim precludes a thoughtful evaluation of it. A series of experiments designed to examine this proposition contributes to filling this lacuna. Third- and eighth-grade students either received or did not receive exposure to one such application, unitedstreaming (TM), in either their science or social studies classes (or both). Results indicated that this video-streaming application resulted in higher mean examination performance in third-grade science, third-grade social studies, and eighth-grade social studies. No differences between those exposed to this communication technology and those not exposed to it emerged in the eighth-grade science experiment.

Bostic, Nicole (2000).  Integrating Appropriate Software in the Pre-School Curriculum. 

Many educators have concerns about integrating appropriate software in the pre-school curriculum and about what to consider when selecting this technology. This paper presents a criteria for selecting appropriate software for early childhood education. The software that is selected should allow children to explore it and the programs should be child-initiated. Educators should consider the software's age appropriateness, whether it allows independence, its content, and whether it can hold a child's interest. The software should not be isolated but should support all areas of interest--such as blocks, sand, science, dramatic play--and activities that go on in the classroom. Educators should decide on a theme, select appropriate theme-related software, and then develop the activities that will follow. The computer should be seen as another positive tool that can be used to enhance learning and development, and educators should continue to learn about the benefits of this technology for education. | [FULL TEXT]

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Bulbul, Halil Ibrahim; Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Yildiz, Turker Turan; Ercan, Tuncay (2007).  Web Based Profession Orientation in Elementary Education  [Online Submission] 

In Turkey, the profession orientation programs for elementary education students have a critical importance. In the aspect of profession orientation application, the least dealt population is unfortunately the elementary school students. In this study, the problems caused by insufficient orientation and guidance of profession for those students are investigated and a web based software is developed to reduce these problems as much as possible. Mentality fields are determined in accordance with Multi-Intelligence theory and recommendations are presented to students in order to get more achievement for profession selection using a software developed for this purpose.  | [FULL TEXT]

Bulger, Monica E.; Mayer, Richard E.; Almeroth, Kevin C.; Blau, Sheridan D. (2008).  Measuring Learner Engagement in Computer-Equipped College Classrooms  Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 17, 2. 

Although engagement and learning appear linked, quantitatively measuring this relationship is challenging. New technologies offer a window into studying the interactions among classroom activity, student engagement, and positive learning outcomes in computer-equipped classrooms. A Classroom Behavioral Analysis System (CBAS) was developed to measure student engagement in a college writing class, and to test the hypothesis that an interactive lesson would increase student engagement levels in a computer-equipped classroom. Student computer-based behaviors (off-task and on-task internet visits) were compared during a traditional, lecture-based lesson (no-simulation condition) and an interactive simulation-based lesson (simulation condition). The dependent variable was student engagement as measured by the number of off-task and on-task internet activities during the lesson. Off-task internet activities were operationalized as website visits that were not part of the classroom activity; on-task internet activities included websites that related to the assigned class activity. CBAS recorded all student computer actions during the observed instructional periods. Students attending a simulation-based lesson performed more on-task internet actions, and significantly fewer off-task internet actions than did students attending a lecture-based lesson. These findings support the hypothesis that interactive lessons increase student engagement levels in computer-equipped classrooms, and demonstrate that CBAS is a promising tool for studying student engagement.

Bull, Glen (2005).  Cultivating Whole-Class Inquiry  Learning and Leading with Technology, 32 n8 p42, 44 2005. 

The following three articles in the Learning Connections section (pp. 45?55) consider how technology might be used to facilitate whole-class inquiry in science, mathematics, and social studies classrooms. These illustrative examples are intended tol stimulate thought and discussion among teachers, technology coordinators, and school leaders about how best to employ these technologies in classrooms that are equipped with these capabilities. | [FULL TEXT]

Bull, Glen (2005).  Podcasting and the Long Tail  Learning and Leading with Technology, 33, 3. 

Podcasting allows distribution of audio files through an RSS feed. This permits users to subscribe to a series of podcasts that are automatically sent to their computer or MP3 player. The capability to receive podcasts is built into freely distributed software such as iPodder as well as the most recent version of iTunes, a free download. In this article, the author discusses the potential uses of podcasts to classrooms. | [FULL TEXT]

Bull, Glen; Bull, Gina (2004).  The Digital Disconnect: A Recent Pew Study  Learning and Leading with Technology, 31, 4. 

The study concludes that leadership by school administrators is a crucial factor in distinguishing schools that are using the Internet effectively for instruction, and schools that are not. This report is one of a series of Pew foundation reports on ways in which the Internet is affecting American life and society. The study reports that nearly four-fifths of students in the United States between the ages of 12 and 17 now use the Internet. The in-depth survey found that these students routinely use the Internet as a virtual: textbook and reference library; tutor and study shortcut; study group; guidance counselor; and locker, backpack, and notebook. | [FULL TEXT]

Bull, Glen; Bull, Gina (2005).  Looking At Display Technologies  Learning and Leading with Technology, 32, 6. 

A projection system in a classroom with an Internet connection provides a window on the world. Until recently, projectors were expensive and difficult to maintain. Technological advances have resulted in solid-state projectors that require little maintenance and cost no more than a computer. Adding a second or third computer to a classroom allows a few more students access. Addition of a projection system allows the entire class to view the screen. Now that effective classroom projectors cost less than $1,000, it may be time to consider equipping your classroom with one. Background information on the characteristics of the different projection technologies may be helpful before considering selecting one. Current classroom projectors employ either liquid crystal display (LCD) or digital light projection (DLP) technology. LCD and DLP projectors are available in similar price ranges. Each has its own strengths and limitations. Some characteristics are primarily of interest to videophiles who wish to build home theater systems, and others affect classroom use. The current generation of projectors has crossed the threshold of affordability and usability for classroom use. Because LCD and DLP technologies offer roughly equivalent capabilities, there is an incentive to continue to increase brightness and lower the price, leading to continuing price-performance advances. The consumer is the ultimate bene- ficiary of this technological arms race. | [FULL TEXT]

Bull, Glen; Bull, Gina; Kajder, Sara (2004).  Tapped In The New Incarnation Of This Valuable Resource Is Now Available. Mining the Internet  Learning and Leading with Technology, 31, 5. 

In the early 1980s, we were struck by the way the Internet permeated university instruction and research and adopted the goal of extending this capability to K-12 schools. By the end of the decade, we succeeded in linking all 2,000 of Virginia's schools to the Internet, through establishment of Virginia?s Public Education Network. | [FULL TEXT]

Bull, Glen; Ferster, Bill (2006).  Ubiquitous Complete in a Web 2.0 World  Learning and Leading with Technology, 33, 4. 

In the third wave of computing, people will interact with multiple computers in multiple ways in every setting. The value of ubiquitous computing is enhanced and reinforced by another trend: the transition to a Web 2.0 world. In a Web 2.0 world, applications and data reside on the Web itself. Schools are not yet approaching a ratio of one computer per student, much less the multiple computers per person envisioned in Weiser's third wave of ubiquitous computing. However, students are increasingly gaining access to computers outside of school. In this article, the author discusses how schools can be enhanced in the era of Web 2.0 ubiquitous computing. | [FULL TEXT]

Bull, Glen; Garofalo, Joe (2004).  Internet Access: The Last Mile  Learning and Leading with Technology, 32 n1 p16-18, 21 Sep 2004. 

Imagine a business that with great ingenuity and expenditure of resources placed a telephone line in every worker's office, but failed to provide phone receivers for them. A new CEO of the firm would immediately recognize the need to place a phone receiver in every office with a phone line to make those lines usable. This scenario is absurd because it would not be sensible to deliver phone lines to offices without phone receivers. In fact, it is inconceivable that the business market would create such a system. Yet this is precisely the current state of affairs in schools. For a number of years, Henry Jay Becker and his colleagues have conducted a series of studies monitoring use of computers in schools. In their 1999 report, Teacher and Teacher Directed Use of Computers & Software, they noted that, "Regular use of computers with students is highly dependent on access to computers ... most teachers have relatively few computers compared to the number of students in their classroom." This article discusses the following related topics: The Last Mile Problem; Next Steps; Strategies for Technological Access; A Tale of Two Technologies; and Need for Recognition. It concludes that during the past decade, American taxpayers have provided billions to ensure that the Internet reaches every school and almost every classroom. This is the largest single discretionary investment that has been made in schools. We have a responsibility to make effective use of this investment to yield a commensurate educational return. If we are successful in meeting this challenge and providing the necessary leadership, the last mile technologically will become the first mile in educational advances for our students. | [FULL TEXT]

Bull, Glen; Garofalo, Joe (2006).  The 20-Foot View  Learning and Leading with Technology, 33, 5. 

In higher education, the number of computer projectors in classrooms has doubled every year for the past five years. A similar trend in K?12 education is occurring now that capable classroom projectors have become available for less than $1,000. At the same time, large-screen displays are becoming common in society; a trend being acceleration by a transition to high definition television and rapid progress in the evolution of display technologies. This article discusses the growing trend of using computer projectors and large-screen displays in the classroom, and the need for a compatible educational application software to match it for whole classroom use. | [FULL TEXT]

Bull, Glen; Thompson, Ann (2004).  Establishing A Framework For Digital Images In The School Curriculum  Learning and Leading with Technology, 31, 8. 

This year, we crossed a watershed--for the first time, more digital cameras than film cameras were sold in the United States. Soon the majority of American families will own a digital camera. The spread of a ubiquitous technology throughout society offers an opportunity for schools. In some instances, digital cameras facilitate instructional uses of images in the curriculum that previously could be accomplished only with great difficulty or expense. In other instances, digital cameras make it practical to address instructional objectives that were heretofore not possible. | [FULL TEXT]

Bullock, Cheryl D.; Schomberg, Steve (2000).  Disseminating Learning Technologies across the Faculty.  International Journal of Educational Technology, 2, 1. 

Discusses the need for faculty training to integrate learning technologies into their classrooms and describes a collaborative three-year evaluation of the Inter-Institutional Faculty Summer Institute on Learning Technologies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Describes results of surveys and interviews and considers the impacts of the institute on attendees.

Bullock, Cheryl Davis (2003).  Online Collection of Midterm Student Feedback  New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2003, 96. 

The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC)'s Evaluation Online (EON) offers a variety of options to faculty who want to solicit formative feedback electronically. Researchers interviewed faculty who have used this system for midterm student evaluation to examine their perceptions of it. In general, instructors reported that collecting midterm feedback online with the EON system was convenient. They requested more specific completion notifications for various steps in the process. In addition, they wanted access to items specifically designed for midterm evaluations. In comparing paper-pencil and online evaluation, instructors reported writing more questions and summarizing more quickly the student responses using the online system. They also reported that their students probably wrote more on their online evaluation forms than they did on paper-pencil forms. There was no consensus in regard to whether student responses submitted online were more or less negative than those submitted on paper-pencil forms.

Bullock, Cheryl; Ory, John (2000).  Evaluating Instructional Technology Implementation in a Higher Education Environment.  American Journal of Evaluation, 21, 3. 

Reviews the literature on the evaluation of instructional technology and describes the evaluation of a campus-wide learning technology effort at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. This evaluation used multiple means over 3 years, including surveys of 7,140 students. Discusses insights from this project for future efforts to evaluate large-scale implementations of instructional technology.

Bullock, David (2004).  Moving from Theory to Practice: An Examination of the Factors that Preservice Teachers Encounter as They Attempt to Gain Experience Teaching with Technology During Field Placement Experiences  Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 12

This case study describes the experiences of two preservice teachers as they attempt to integrate the use of technology into instruction during their field placement experiences. What factors influence the decisions they made about how and when to teach with technology? How do these factors enable or disable their abilities to gain experience teaching with technology during their field placement experiences? This case is part of a larger study of six preservice teachers, engaged in a program designed to prepare new teachers to teach with technology. This program received $1,3000,000 from the U.S. Department of Education, which was 50% of the total cost. The remaining funding came from a university, school, and business match. Data collected from surveys, interviews, and written reflections was examined to help identify enabling and disabling factors, and gain an understanding of how those factors influence practice.

Bulmer, M.; Rodd, M. (2005).  Technology for Nurture in Large Undergraduate Statistics Classes  International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science & Technology, 36, 7. 

This paper reports on a practitioner study of a first-year undergraduate service course that aligns a web-based, student-lecturer communication system with the mathematical curriculum. The report presents and analyses data from students' and from the lecturer and outlines the nature of the technical interface. The paper indicates how communication of the students affective learning needs had a positive influence on the professional development of the lecturer himself. Furthermore, it is claimed that the success of mathematics/statistics teaching that integrates emotional responses from learners is intimately related to the knowledge, skills, beliefs and values of the lecturer.

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Bauder, Deborah Y., Ed.; Mullick, Rosemary, Ed.; Sarner, Ronald, Ed. (2001).  Concepts & Procedures. [SITE 2001 Section]. 

This document contains the following papers on concepts and procedures from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference: "Using School District Standards To Develop Thematic Lessons for Electronic Portfolios" (Cindy L. Anderson and others); "Using Adobe Acrobat for Electronic Portfolio Development" (Helen C. Barrett); "Discetech: Advanced Training on Technologies and Didactic for Italian Teachers" (Mario A. Bochicchio and others); "Online Portfolios vs. Traditional Portfolios (Renee L. Cambiano and others); "Instructional Strategies for Adobe Photoshop: Developing Teacher Training that Works" (Barbara Chamberlin); "Teaching & Technology: A Natural Integration" (Carole A. Cobb and others); "An N-Dimensional Model for Digital Resources" (Charles Dickens); "Cyber Spaces and Learning Places: The Role of Technology in Inquiry" (Juli K. Dixon and Judith Johnson); "Audio on the Web: Enhance On-line Instruction with Digital Audio" (Brenda J. Gerth); "Tres Faciunt Collegium--Paderborn's Collaboration Centred Approach for New Forms of Learning" (Thorsten Hampel); "Using Student Projects To Meet the Information Needs of Teachers on the Internet" (Danielle Heyns); "Developing and Teaching a Computer-Mediated Second Language Course in Academic Reading" (Esther Klein-Wohl and Gila Haimovic); "Lessons Learned: School Based Reform and Its Impact on the Restructuring of a Teacher Preparation Program" (Jan Mastin and others); "Putting the Instructor in Charge: Component Architecture and the Design of a Course Web Site" (Punyashloke Mishra and Matthew J. Koehler); "Troubleshooting Windows" (Sharon Reynolds); "Dancing with Technology To Teach Technology" (Tweed Ross); "Development of English Department of Computer Information Systems as a Way of Worldwide Educational Integration" (Anatoly Sachenko and others); "Applying Social Learning Theory to the Teaching of Technology Skills: An Interactive Approach" (Eric A. Seemann and others); "Applying Rogerian Theory to Technology Resistant Students" (Eric Seemann and others); "Remote-Control Computing" (Mark Smith); "The Use of Instructional Technology To Enhance Teaching Outcomes on the Site and at a Distance" (Armand St-Pierre); "How On-line Collaborative Study Improve Human Cognition: A Perspective on the Evolution of Modern Education" (James T.J. Wang and others); and"Impact of Technology on Student Socialization in the Classroom" (Lamar Wilkinson and others). An abstract of the following paper is included: "The Role of Assessment in Online Instruction" (Robert J. Hall and others). Most papers contain references. | [FULL TEXT]

Bauer, Anne M.; Ulrich, Mary E. (2002).  "I've Got a Palm in My Pocket": Using Handheld Computers in an Inclusive Classroom.  TEACHING Exceptional Children, 35, 2. 

This article describes what happened when Palm Pilots were given to 28 sixth-graders, 6 with special needs. Students preferred using the Palm Pilot to a traditional notebook for recording assignments and used the Palm Pilots to access spelling lists and to check math and spelling.

Bauer, Audra L. (2002).  Using Computers in the Classroom To Support the English Language Arts Standards. 

This paper discusses the development of effective staff development programs to support use of computer technology in the elementary school classroom. Elements discussed include strategies to reach reluctant technology users, and suggestions for getting started with such a program. The paper also presents the findings of a survey study exploring fourth-grade teachers' knowledge in using computer technology in general as well as using computers in the classroom to support the English Language Arts standards. Participating in the study were 11 fourth-grade teachers in a public school in Orange County, New York. Teachers completed a 10-item survey assessing their use of technology, the availability of technology, and knowledge of the English Language Arts standards. Responses suggested that teachers with the most experience teaching were the least likely to use computers regularly and were more likely to feel unprepared to use computers. Relatively new teachers had more confidence in their ability to use technology to support the curriculum as well as to support the English Language Arts standards. Both experienced and less experienced teachers agreed that their district provided inadequate technology training. All teachers were familiar with the English Language Arts standards, and their examples illustrated the use of computers to support these standards. Most teachers recommended ongoing support in the use of computers in the classroom and thought that they were expected to donate too much of their own free time to learning the new tools. | [FULL TEXT]

Bauer, David G. (2001).  Finding the Money.  Principal Leadership, 1, 9. 

Few principals realize that 750,000 nonprofit organizations are eligible to receive gifts and grants; $190 billion of corporate and private money was donated in 1999; and 75 percent was attributable to individual giving. Principals should go after federal and state grants (giant sources) to fund technology before pursuing private sources.

Bauer, John F. (2000).  A Technology Gender Divide: Perceived Skill and Frustration Levels among Female Preservice Teachers. 

This study examined female preservice teachers' perceptions of gender differences in the learning and use of computer technology, examining: how they compared themselves to males with regard to computer technology; at what skill levels they rated themselves with regard to various educational technology applications; how levels of self-esteem equated with frustration when they worked with technology; and how they rated the effectiveness of their technology training with their teacher education program. Data from surveys of 45 student teachers and an interview with 1 student teacher related to the survey indicated that there were four overlapping themes: gender bias on the part of females (most thought that men knew more about and were more enthusiastic about computer technology); low self-esteem with computer technology and evidence of frustration; medium enthusiasm and competency levels in various educational technology programs; and an opinion expressing weakness in the technology training received from teacher education classes. The findings suggest that female teachers would be reluctant to embrace computer technology in the classroom and that teacher education programs do not do enough to encourage computer literacy among female students. | [FULL TEXT]

Bauer, John; Kenton, Jeffrey (2005).  Toward Technology Integration in the Schools: Why it isn't Happening  Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 13, 4. 

Research in the past decade has shown that computer technology is an effective means for widening educational opportunities, but most teachers neither use technology as an instructional delivery system nor integrate technology into their curriculum. This qualitative study examined the classroom practice of 30 "tech-savvy" teachers who used computer technology in their instruction, how much they used it, the obstacles they had to overcome to succeed in its use, and their general issues and concerns regarding technology. Participants were volunteers from two elementary schools, one middle school, and one high school. All identified by their schools as being proficient with technology. The study found that the teachers were highly educated and skilled with technology, were innovative and adept at overcoming obstacles, but that they did not integrate technology on a consistent basis as both a teaching and learning tool. Two key issues were that their students did not have enough time at computers, and that teachers needed extra planning time for technology lessons. Other concerns were outdated hardware, lack of appropriate software, technical difficulties, and student skill levels. Results suggest that schools have not yet achieved true technology integration. There are implications for teachers, administrators, and teacher educators.

Bauer, Korinna; Fischer, Frank (2007).  The Educational Research-Practice Interface Revisited: A Scripting Perspective  Educational Research and Evaluation, 13, 3. 

The question of how the realms of research and practice might successfully relate to one another is a persisting one, and especially so in education. The article takes a fresh look at this issue by using the terminology of collaboration scripts to reflect upon various forms of this relationship. Under this perspective, several approaches towards bridging the gap between research and practice are being described with regard to the type and closeness of interaction between the two realms. As different focuses and blind spots become discernible, the issue is raised concerning which "script" might be appropriate depending upon the starting conditions of research interacting with practice.

Baule, Steven (2004).  PC Utilities: Small Programs with a Big Impact  Library Media Connection, 23, 3. 

The three utility commercial programs available on the Internet are like software packages purchased through a vendor or the Internet, shareware programs are developed by individuals and distributed via the Internet for a small fee to obtain the complete version of the product, and freeware programs are distributed via the Internet free of cost. The names of the different utilities and the programs they support are discussed.

Baule, Steven M.; Kriha, Darcy L. (2008).  Free Speech in a MySpace World  Library Media Connection, 26, 5. 

In the potential shadow of a "Bong Hits for Jesus" banner, complicated student speech and discipline issues arise almost daily on the Internet. Whether it is a mock MySpace page set up to make fun of a teacher or a direct threat to an assistant principal, it is often unclear exactly where school ground discipline ends and student free speech rights begin. Ever since "Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District" (393 U.S. 503) was decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1969--with its seminal holding that students do not leave their constitutional rights at the "school house gate"--administrators, teachers, parents, and students have continued to explore the scope of student free speech rights on school grounds and at school events. The Internet and advances in technology have dramatically changed the variables of student speech issues. In this article, the authors argue that in making decisions about student speech via the Internet, it is important to ensure that the necessary technology is in place to audit and secure the school's computer systems.

Baum, Janna J. (2005).  CyberEthics: The New Frontier  TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 49, 6. 

Do students know what they can or cannot do with intellectual property on the internet? Many computer-savvy kids as well as educators, administrators and parents are unclear about what is and what is not ethical when dealing with the World Wide Web. The ethical issues that accompany educational technology have become more apparent as more educators have integrated technology into the classroom. However, despite the creation of acceptable use policies in K-12 schools, many students demonstrate poor judgment when using information and communication technology. Is this because students don't know what's acceptable on the internet or is it because they don't care? Has the internet brought about a change in core values regarding cheating or is it simply easier for students who would have cheated anyway? Educators need to address these important issues as well as some basic questions, including a fundamental one: how, when and where do to teach CyberEthics within the curricula and is there a single answer to this ethical dilemma? This document describes five things educators can do to teach the youth of today to be responsible members of the cyber world.

Baumgartner, Eric; Hsi, Sherry (2002).  CILT2000: Synergy, Technology, and Teacher Professional Development.  Journal of Science Education and Technology, 11, 3. 

Introduces the concept of synergy and synergy research conducted in the context of a water quality project and CILT2000, a meeting of the Center for Innovative Learning Technologies (CILT). Shares ways in which synergy research addresses methodological questions, promotes collaborative partnerships, and contributes to equity. 

Baumgartner, Erin (2004).  Student Poster Sessions  Science Teacher, 71, 3. 

Poster presentations are one way scientists present their latest research findings at professional meetings. This format also works well in the classroom and gives students the opportunity to communicate the results of their experiments (perhaps the most critical portion of their studies). In a performance-based task such as a poster session, assessment becomes an integral part of the learning experience (PRSD 15, 1996). This article presents an example of how poster presentation technique helps students present scientific results in an authentic manner. The author further states that by developing a poster to present their research, students gain ownership and pride in their product.

Bausch, Margaret E.; Hasselbring, Ted S. (2004).  Assistive Technology: Are the Necessary Skills and Knowledge Being Developed at the Preservice and Inservice Levels?  Teacher Education and Special Education, 27, 2. 

Assistive Technology (AT) devices and services have been legally mandated for several years. However, the passage of the Individuals with Disabilities Act Amendments P.L. 105-17 (IDEA1997), which states that every student with an Individualized Education Program (IEP) must be considered for AT, had enormous implications impacting approximately six million school-aged students identified with a disability. As a result, states have written assistive technology policies, procedures, guidelines, and technical assistance manuals to reflect the change in federal laws. In order to comply with state policies, school districts are in need of qualified personnel to plan, develop, and implement assistive devices and services. However, because of the lack of AT degree and certification programs at the preservice level, it is often problematic for districts to find AT trained personnel, thus, directly impacting the services that can be provided for students with disabilities.

Bauserman, Kathryn L.; Cassady, Jerrell C.; Smith, Lawrence L.; Stroud, James C. (2005).  Kindergarten Literacy Achievement: The Effects of the PLATO Integrated Learning System  Reading Research and Instruction, 44, 4. 

This study examined the efficacy of using an integrated learning system (ILS) to augment kindergarten emergent reading skills. This quasi-experimental design used repeated measures. Change scores were calculated to run analyses. Effect sizes were calculated using Cohen, with large effect sizes noted for phonological awareness and knowledge of print concepts and a moderate effect size for listening comprehension. Conclusions from this study indicate that an ILS can positively impact kindergarten emergent reading skills.

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Bozkaya, Mujgan; Erdem Aydin, Irem (2007).  The Relationship between Teacher Immediacy Behaviors and Learners' Perceptions of Social Presence and Satisfaction in Open and Distance Education: The Case of Anadolu University Open Education Faculty  [Online Submission] 

A significant number of studies in the literature stress the important role of teacher immediacy behaviors on learners' perceptions of social presence and satisfaction in open and distance learning environments. Yet, those studies were conducted in different open and distance education institutions than the current example of which unique characteristics and applications are commonly recognized in the field. Unlike others, the current study examined the effects of both verbal and nonverbal instructor immediacy behaviors on learners' perceptions of social presence and satisfaction in face-to-face academic tutoring services provided in open and distance learning environments. Results indicated a moderate and positive relationship between the control variable and outcome variables.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Bruce, Heather E.; Brown, Shirley; McCracken, Nancy Mellin; Bell-Nolan, Mary (2008).  Feminist Pedagogy Is for Everybody: Troubling Gender in Reading and Writing  English Journal, 97, 3. 

Four teachers share their lessons for drawing students into a critical examination of race, class, gender, and sexual identity. They strive to heighten students' awareness of ways literature "and gendered patterns in the world foreground or silence groups of people or issues," and they offer students and teachers tools for change.

Bruening, Thomas H.; Scanlon, Dennis C.; Hoover, Tracy S.; Hodes, Carol; Shao, Xiaorong; Dhital, Purandhar; Zolotov, Alexandre; Harmon, Hobart (2002).  Attributes and Characteristics of Exemplary, Leading, and Innovative Career and Technical Education Teacher Preparation Programs. 

A study determined critical attributes of the nation's exemplary, leading, or innovative (ELI) career-technical education teacher preparation programs. National experts identified 13 critical attributes of an ELI teacher preparation program. Researchers conducted site visits to 5 institutions--University of Georgia, University of Minnesota, The Ohio State University, The Pennsylvania State University, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and used critical attributes as bases for structured interview protocols. The ELI institutions were often among those mentioned as the "most wired colleges". Institutional policies regarding computer support played a critical role in technology integration; faculty's willingness to adopt technology was an important factor. Students and faculty mentioned the rigor of field experiences and their important role in professional development. Teacher preparation and classroom practice were connected, and coursework had a congruent, well-planned sequence. Faculty members were active, high profile local and national researchers and authors. Exemplary faculty had a holistic view of students. Faculty shared a vision and purpose for their programs. Academic standards were integrated into methods courses; students were familiar with their state standards before they entered the classroom. Programs were responsive to standards of professional organizations. (Appendixes include 35 references, Delphi technique methodology, and attributes of ELI programs.) | [FULL TEXT]

Brugia, Mara; Gerard, Francoise; Tetart, Michel; Battezzati, Luciano; Mallet, Jeanne; Pellerey, Michele; Walker, Simon (2001).  Open and Distance Learning and the Professionalisation of Trainers. TTnet Dossier No. 4. CEDEFOP Reference. 

This document contains five papers from a 1999 workshop in Rome on enhancing the professional skills and qualifications of trainers in open and distance learning organized by the TTnet network (Training of Trainers network). "The Different Types of Open and Distance Training and Their Impact on Trainers' Skills" (Michel Tetart) examines the following topics: the principles and realities of open and distance learning today; assisted self-training; and requirements related to professionalization. "Open and Distance Learning and the Professionalization of Trainers: Types of Distance Learning and Impact on Trainers' Skills" (Luciano Battezzati) reviews prospects and trends in the demand for training, proposes an initial classification of technologies, and examines the applications of various educational technologies. "Changes to the Roles and Competences of In-Company Trainers within Training Systems Using Multimedia: Future Prospects Based on the Practice of Two High-Tech Companies" (Jeanne Mallet) explores how new educational technologies have changed the functions of trainers and simultaneously facilitated the professionalization of trainers. "Distance Learning Schemes for Trainers: Features of Teaching and Education" (Michele Pellerey) discusses the mission of training programs and selection of training models. "Mentor in Cyberspace: Developing Interactive On-Line Training and Support" (Simon Walker) reports on a study of the effectiveness of using interactive multimedia to supplement the training of mentors in the vocational education and training sector. Two papers contain substantial bibliographies. | [FULL TEXT]

Bruhn, Mark; Gettes, Michael; West, Ann (2003).  Identity and Access Management and Security in Higher Education.  Educause Quarterly, 26, 4. 

Discusses the drivers for an identity management system (IdM), components of this system, and its role within a school security strategy, focusing on: basic access management; requirements for access management; middleware support for an access management system; IdM implementation considerations (e.g., access eligibilities, authentication strength, and logging strategies); and deployment suggestions and resources (e.g., develop a person registry and implement enterprise directory and authentication services).

Brumbaugh, Douglas K.; Rock, David (2001).  Teaching Secondary Mathematics. Second Edition. 

This book for future mathematics teachers emphasizes technology as a teaching tool; development of teachers who are self-motivated, lifelong learners; and pedagogical features that engage and motivate students. It includes examples and activities to enhance learning. Part 1, "General Fundamentals," includes (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Learning, Theory, Curriculum, and Assessment"; (3) "Planning"; and (4) "Skills in Teaching Mathematics." This part assumes some formal background in courses designed to provide a broad overview of education, curriculum, learning theory, discipline, planning, and adolescent behavior. Part 2, "Mathematics Education Fundamentals," includes (5) "Technology"; (6) "Problem Solving"; (7) "Discovery"; and (8) "Proof." This part examines topics out of the general education environment, focusing on subjects that will permeate instruction. Part 3, "Content and Strategies," looks at (9) "General Mathematics," (10) "Algebra I"; (11) "Geometry"; (12) Algebra II and Trigonometry"; (13) "Pre-Calculus"; (14) "Calculus"; and (15) "Probability and Statistics." This part is designed to capitalize on issues discussed in class and on the expertise and preferences of the teacher, providing models of how concepts typically found in secondary mathematics curriculum can be delivered so all students develop positive attitudes about learning and using mathematics. (Chapters contain references.)

Bruning, Roger, Ed.; Horn, Christy A., Ed.; PytlikZillig, Lisa M., Ed. (2003).  Web-Based Learning: What Do We Know? Where Do We Go? Nebraska Symposium on Information Technology in Education (1st, Lincoln, Nebraska, May 15-17, 2002). 

This volume contains the proceedings from the 2002 Nebraska Symposium on Information Technology in Education. The book includes the following chapters: (1) "Research on Web-Based Learning: A Half-Full Glass" (Richard E. Clark); (2) "Nine Ways To Reduce Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning" (Richard E. Mayer, Roxana Moreno); (3) "Technology: The Great Equalizer?" (Eric J. Jolly, Christy A. Horn); (4) "InfoGather: A Tool for Gathering and Organizing Information from the Web" (L. Brent Igo, Roger Bruning, Matthew McCrudden, Douglas F. Kauffman); (5) "ThinkAboutIt! A Web-Based Tool for Improving Critical Thinking" (Steve Lehman, Roger Bruning, Christy A. Horn); (6) "Teachers, Technology, and Students at Risk" (Lisa M. PytlikZillig, Christy A. Horn, Mary Jane White); (7) "At Risk in Cyberspace: Responding to At-Risk Students in Online Courses" (Christy A. Horn, Lisa M. PytlikZillig, Roger Bruning, Douglas F. Kauffman); (8) "Engineering Issues and Perspectives in Developing Online Courses" (Arthur I. Zygielbaum); (9) "The Pedagogical Impact of Course Management Systems on Faculty, Students, and Institution" (Charles J. Ansorge, Oksana Bendus); (10) "Technological Indicators of Impact of Course Management Systems" (Ashok Samal, Bhuvaneswari Gopal); (11) "Intellectual Property Considerations for Online Educational Multimedia Projects: What You Don't Know Could Byte You" (Turan P. Odabasi); (12) "Lessons Learned on the Line: Working with Web-Based Courses" (Patricia B. Campbell, Lesley K. Perlman, Earl N. Hadley). Each chapter contains references. Includes author and subject indexes.

Brunken, Roland; Plass, Jan L.; Leutner, Detlev (2004).  Assessment of Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning with Dual-Task Methodology: Auditory Load and Modality Effects  Instructional Science: An International Journal of Learning and Cognition, 32, 1-2. 

Using cognitive load theory and cognitive theory of multimedia learning as a framework, we conducted two within-subject experiments with 10 participants each in order to investigate (1) if the audiovisual presentation of verbal and pictorial learning materials would lead to a higher demand on phonological cognitive capacities than the visual-only presentation of the same material, and (2) if adding seductive background music to an audiovisual information presentation would increase the phonological cognitive load. We employed the dual-task methodology in order to achieve a direct measurement of cognitive load in the phonological system. In both experiments, the modality effect could be confirmed in the patterns of secondary task performance and in the primary learning task.

Brunold, Andreas Otto (2005).  Global Learning and Education for Sustainable Development  Higher Education in Europe, 30, 3-4. 

Globalization is a fundamental factor affecting higher education in this century. More than ever before, the processes of globalization are being integrated into a set of social, technological, economic, cultural and ecological factors, so that we are now beginning to accept that we are facing a completely irreversible world-wide phenomenon. The concept of sustainable development integrates these factors and leads, beside environmental education, to a demand for global learning and education for sustainable development. To get a better understanding of the subject, the decision-game "Prisoner's Dilemma" focuses on the aspect of the public good.

Brunvand, Stein; Fishman, Barry (2007).  Investigating the Impact of the Availability of Scaffolds on Preservice Teacher Noticing and Learning from Video  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 35, 2. 

The study investigated how the availability of different types of scaffolds impacted what preservice teachers were able to learn and notice from video. The sample (n = 41) was drawn from three randomly distributed sections of a science methods course. Data were collected through interviews, observations, and pre/post-treatment lesson plan artifacts. Results indicated that the impact of the availability of scaffolds is dependent on their alignment with the stated learning objectives of the video they are designed to support. Scaffolds such as onscreen text and teacher commentary can be used effectively to draw attention to specific content and prompt preservice teachers to notice pre-identified classroom interactions. Recommendations for the creation and use of video-based materials with teachers are presented.

Brush, Thomas, ED. (2003).  Introduction to the Special Issue on Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers To Use Technology (PT3).  Educational Technology Research and Development, 51, 1. 

Introduces the evaluative reports of projects funded by the U.S. Department of Education's Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers to Use Technology (PT3) initiative, one of the largest federally supported programs for preservice teacher education. Focus is on implementation and evaluation of programs designed to systemically improve the preparation of preservice teachers to effectively integrate technology into their teaching.

Brush, Thomas; Glazewski, Krista; Rutkowski, Kathy; Berg, Kimberly; Stromfors, Charlotte; Van-Nest, Maria Hernandez; Stock, Laura; Sutton, Jean (2003).  Integrating Technology in a Field-Based Teacher Training Program: The PT3@ASU Project.  Educational Technology Research and Development, 51, 1. 

Describes a program at Arizona State University that uses the PT3 (Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers to Use Technology) initiative to provide preservice teachers with opportunities to develop, implement, and evaluate their own instructional activities that use technology effectively and appropriately in authentic situations and to integrate it in to elementary education programs.

Brusilovsky, Peter (2003).  Adaptive Navigation Support in Educational Hypermedia: The Role of Student Knowledge Level and the Case for Meta-Adaptation.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 34, 4. 

Explains adaptive hypermedia, provides a brief overview of adaptive navigation support techniques in educational hypermedia systems, and analyzes the results of most representative empirical studies. Demonstrates the importance of context and knowledge levels of the users and suggests that meta-adaptive hypermedia systems should be the next step.

Brusilovsky, Peter; Nijhavan, Hemanta (2002).  A Framework for Adaptive E-Learning Based on Distributed Re-Usable Learning Activities. 

This paper suggests that a way to the new generation of powerful E-learning systems starts on the crossroads of two emerging fields: courseware re-use and adaptive educational systems. The paper presents the KnowledgeTree, a framework for adaptive E-learning based on distributed re-usable learning activities currently under development. The goal of KnowledgeTree is to bridge the gap between the information power of modern educational material repositories and the just-in-time delivery and personalization power of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) and adaptive hypermedia (AH) technologies.

Bruton, Anthony (2007).  Vocabulary Learning from Dictionary Reference in Collaborative EFL Translational Writing  System: An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, 35, 3. 

This study was conducted in the FL English class of a typical Spanish secondary school. The students translated a short L1 Spanish text into FL English orally as a class, with accompanying dictionary glosses, before writing it down individually. This collaborative translation was supported by the teacher, and any lexical items that were not known by anyone in the class were looked up by everyone. These referenced items were then included in the evolving communal L2 text. A week later, the students were asked to translate the same text as a delayed test, without any support. On the delayed translation test, the results show that the students recalled an average of 5.4 of the words looked up. The analysis also demonstrates that accuracy scores based on errors may conceal gain scores of new vocabulary items. Finally, some pedagogical variations for FL writing, which include translation, are exemplified.

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Bieber, Amy E.; Marchese, Paul; Engelberg, Don (2005).  The Laser Academy: An After-School Program to Promote Interest in Technology Careers  Journal of Science Education and Technology, 14, 1. 

We present a review of an after-school program that has been running at Queensborough Community College of the City University of New York for the past 5 years. The program is unique among after-school activities for high school students in several ways. First, it deliberately focuses on students who do not excel in science and math courses and students who are unsure about a college career. Second, it targets typically underrepresented minorities in the technology fields, namely blacks, Hispanics, and women. Third, it introduces these students to high-tech career options which do not require 4 years of college. The goal of the program is to make the students aware of technician-level careers and to give them a chance to learn the skills needed for such careers in order to help them make an informed decision about their future.

Biedebach, Anke; Bomsdorf, Birgit; Schlageter, Gunter (2002).  The Changing Role of Instructors in Distance Education: Impact on Tool Support. 

At the university of Hagen a lot of experience exists in performing Web-based teaching and in implementing tools supporting e-learning. To share this knowledge, (inexperienced) instructors more and more ask for tool-based assistance in designing and administrating e-learning courses. Considering experience from other universities, it becomes obvious that there is in general a lack of a broad system support of tasks to be fulfilled while performing e-learning. This paper proposes an adaptable course assistant that provides the required tool support. It helps in selecting and utilizing Internet and Web technology, respectively. The knowledge of how to run a virtual course is modeled by means of course templates, which may be adopted to special needs. Before introducing the assistant, the changing role of instructors in distance education is discussed, as well as the impact on the requirements of tool support with respect to designing and administrating a course.

Bielaczyc, Katerine (2006).  Designing Social Infrastructure: Critical Issues in Creating Learning Environments with Technology  Journal of the Learning Sciences, 15, 3. 

If design research involving technology-based tools is going to impact educational settings, the design process must be extended beyond the tool itself to encompass a broader range of factors such as the classroom social structures (e.g., beliefs about learning and knowledge, learning activities and participant structures, configurations of both physical space and cyberspace). Although prior research has underscored the importance of classroom social structures in technology integration, it has failed to specify the critical design variables that must be taken into account. Only by understanding the critical variables involved is it possible to develop a deep understanding of how and why things work. The Social Infrastructure Framework systematically frames the critical design elements in terms of 4 dimensions: (a) cultural beliefs, (b) practices, (c) socio-techno-spatial relations, and (d) interaction with the "outside world." This article details the design issues associated with each dimension based on examples drawn from a range of educational technologies. This article also describes how the framework can serve to advance the methodology of design research by serving as a tool for both design and analysis.

Bielefeldt, Talbot (2005).  Computers and Student Learning: Interpreting the Multivariate Analysis of PISA 2000  Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 37, 4. 

In November 2004, economists Thomas Fuchs and Ludger Woessmann published a statistical analysis of the relationship between technology and student achievement using year 2000 data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). The 2000 PISA was the first in a series of triennial assessments of 15-year-olds conducted by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The assessment included problems in reading, math, and science, as well as questions about student background, school characteristics, and information on the use of computers and the Internet at home and at school. Fuchs and Woessmann analyzed data from 31 countries: 96,855 students tested in math and 174,227 students tested in reading. The contention of this paper is that, even if the regression model were more complex, the sampling issues resolved, and the reliability established for all items, no more than the following still remain: (1) the presence of technology is not, by itself, related to student achievement; and (2) the use of technology may help or hinder academic learning, depending on the nature of the use. The quality of data in a survey such as PISA 2000 simply does not permit much more elaboration. | [FULL TEXT]

Bielman, Virginia A.; Putney, Leann G.; Strudler, Neal (2003).  Constructing Community in a Postsecondary Virtual Classroom  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 29, 1. 

Interactional ethnography with a social constructionist perspective was used as an orienting theoretical framework to investigate how a community of learners was constructed in a postsecondary distance education class. The question guiding this research was: How do the interactions of the participants in an on-line classroom construct the social culture of a distance education classroom? Three analytical components of this larger study are expanded upon in this article: a) how the on-line conversational topic was changed to the on-task analysis of the weekly readings; b) how the use of an object became part of the class's repertoire; and c) how members compensated for the lack of face-to-face verbal and non-verbal conversational cues. Benefits of the study include providing insights into how the on-line communications resulted in student perception of being part of the classroom culture and providing practical examples of on-line application of student-centered pedagogical techniques.

Biesinger, Kevin; Crippen, Kent (2008).  The Impact of a State-Funded Online Remediation Site on Performance Related to High School Mathematics Proficiency  Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 27, 1. 

The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) effectively shifted the K-12 educational paradigm to a system that places a high premium on performance and accountability. The impact of the NCLB legislation and the adoption of the Nevada High School Mathematics Proficiency Examination (NHSPEM) have created the need for instructional materials that directly target areas of deficiency. This paper presents an analysis of two studies conducted on a Web-based supplemental instructional tool designed to assist students in preparing for the NHSPEM. In the first of two studies, the performance of 64 students from ten high schools who completed the tutorial was compared with 3,502 students who had no exposure to the program. A repeated measures ANOVA comparing pre and post NHSPEM scores was found to be nearly significant (p=0.051). In a follow up implementation study, students who had used the online tutorial and taken the NHSPEM for the first time significantly outperformed those who did not use the program (p=0.024). Further, a higher percentage of students using the program passed the NHSPEM than those in the comparison group. Performance gaps for minority students were virtually eliminated for those completing the tutorial in the first study, although these results were not replicated in the follow-up implementation study. Recommendations for possible additions to the software and methods for enhancing the internal validity of future studies are discussed.  [Funding for this article was provided by the Nevada Department of Education.]

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Beabout, Brian; Foley, Shawn; Rickard, Marjorie; Wriddle, Janise Venia; MacDonald, Laurie; Smith, Stephen; Campbell, Rob; Strobel, Johannes (2006).  What You Can Do  TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 50, 2. 

This article presents seven vignettes that focus on what technology specialists, instructional designers, teacher trainers, teachers, parents, corporate trainers and performance technologists can do to create positive and systemic change in education. These include: (1) "What Technology Specialists Can Do," by Brian Beabout; (2) "What Instructional Designers Can Do," by Shawn Foley; (3) "What Teacher Trainers Can Do," by Marjorie Rickard; (4) "What Teachers Can Do," by Janise Venia Wriddle; (5) "What Parents Can Do," by Laurie MacDonald; (6) "What Corporate Trainers and Performance Technologists Can Do," by Stephen Smith and Rob Campbell; and (7) "What Professors of IDT Can Do," by Johannes Strobel.

Beach, Richard; Bigelow, Martha; Dillon, Deborah; Galda, Lee; Helman, Lori; Kalnin, Julie Shalhope; Lewis, Cynthia; O'Brien, David; Jorgensen, Karen; Liang, Lauren; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Janssen, Tanja (2006).  Annotated Bibliography of Research in the Teaching of English  Research in the Teaching of English, 41, 2. 

This annotated bibliography of Research in the Teaching of English addresses the following topics: (1) Discourse/Narrative Analysis/Cultural Difference; (2) Literacy; (3) Literary Response/Literature; (4) Reading; (5) Professional Development/Teacher Education; (6) Second Language Literacy; (7) Technology/Media; and (8) Writing.

Beacham, N. A.; Elliott, A. C.; Alty, J. L.; Al-Sharrah, A. (2002).  Media Combinations and Learning Styles: A Dual Coding Approach. 

This paper reports initial results from a study which investigated whether different media combinations could be shown to improve students' understanding of computer-based learning materials and to determine whether student learning style affected student understanding for different media combinations. Three groups of participants were given a presentation, each using different media combinations to present a topic. Dual coding theory was used as the basis for designing the presentation. Results indicate that participants' understanding was enhanced when the computer-based learning materials were presented using sound and diagrams. Understanding was worse when materials were presented using text and diagrams. The result supports the predictions of dual coding theory. Furthermore, the results indicate that the sound and diagram combination can improve participants' understanding regardless of their preferred learning style, and that intuitive learners seem to be exceptionally volatile to different media combinations. | [FULL TEXT]

Beacham, Nigel A.; Alty, James L. (2006).  An Investigation into the Effects that Digital Media Can Have on the Learning Outcomes of Individuals Who Have Dyslexia  Computers and Education, 47, 1. 

The effects that media can have on task performance have been greatly debated over the years. Whilst agreement has begun to emerge on the effects media have on cognitive performance, little is understood about the relationship between such media effects and individual differences such as individuals who have dyslexia. This paper presents findings from a study that investigated the effects computer-based media can have on the learning outcomes of individuals who have dyslexia. The purpose of the study was to obtain data that informed the development and design of e-learning and distance learning materials for universal use. The research process was based on Dual Coding Theory and refined by current theories on dyslexia. Findings from the research are intended to help academics and providers of e-learning materials to improve the design and delivery of their learning contents.

Beagle, Donald (2002).  Extending the Information Commons: From Instructional Testbed to Internet2  Journal of Academic Librarianship, 28, 5. 

The author's conceptualization of an Information Commons (IC) is revisited and elaborated in reaction to Bailey and Tierney's article. The IC's role as testbed for instructional support and knowledge discovery is explored, and progress on pertinent research is reviewed. Prospects for media-rich learning environments relate the IC to the implementation of Internet2.

Beal, Candy; Cuper, Pru; Dalton, Pat (2005).  The Russia Project: Building Digital Bridges and Meeting Adolescent Needs  International Journal of Social Education, 19, 2. 

The intent of good education is to meet the needs of learners. How educators go about meeting those needs varies from one context to the next, and has lately been affected by the advent of technology-enhanced learning tools. Today, computer technology applications enable teachers to accelerate the pace of learning, increase the depth of in-school research, and tear down their classroom walls as they connect local learning environments to multiple, distanced sources of information. Technology can add an exciting new component to classroom learning. As modern educators explore ways to engage students in technology-enhanced classroom experiences, they must not lose sight of what is at the heart of good education--meeting basic learner needs. Marlene Asselin wisely asserts that using technology for technology's sake is not enough. She contends that educators must establish a strong purpose for using technology in the classroom and must keep in mind that technology is simply a tool that can be used to enhance, not replace, good instructional practice. A unique challenge for classroom teachers today involves discovering meaningful ways to integrate new classroom technologies while simultaneously meeting the established learning needs of students. This article shares findings from a year-long, technology-enhanced learning experience called the Russia Project. The Russia Project involved a group of university researchers, pre-service teachers, sixth grade teachers and their students from four countries and three continents; who, through Web connections, worked together to develop a deeper understanding of and appreciation for Russian history, geography, education, and current culture. They built what might be best described as a cultural-technological bridge that spanned both time and place. Most important of all, the educators involved in this technology-enhanced curriculum integration project kept the needs of adolescent learners as their decided focus. | [FULL TEXT]

Beale, Ivan L.; Marin-Bowling, Veronica M.; Guthrie, Nicole: Kato, Pamela M. (2006).  Young Cancer Patients' Perceptions of a Video Game Used to Promote Self Care  International Electronic Journal of Health Education, 9

A video game called "Re-Mission" has recently been investigated with adolescent and young adult cancer patients enrolled in a multi-site randomized controlled evaluation of the game as a psycho-educational intervention. The main focus of the trial was to determine effects of the game on self-care and other health-related outcomes. It was also considered valuable to evaluate participants' perceptions of the game as (1) acceptable as a treatment-related activity for young cancer patients, and (2) credible as an intervention designed to change patients' knowledge, attitudes and self-care behaviors relating to treatment. Although the cancer-related content of the game is informed by surveys of cancer professionals and patients themselves, acceptability and credibility with end-users have been important factors influencing the usability and efficacy of a range of psychological interventions. As part of the multi-site trial, 197 patients with cancer, between the ages of 13 and 29, were assigned to the treatment group. Most patients (148) completed a 9-item acceptability/credibility rating scale following 3-months' access to Re-Mission. These "completers" played Re-Mission more than the other patients, but did not differ from them on gender, age, or prior game experience. Responses to the questionnaire were analyzed as two factors representing acceptability and credibility. A mean rating for acceptability (4.1 on scale of 5) indicated a good level of acceptability, and mean rating for credibility (3.7 on scale of 5) indicated a moderate level of belief in the game as an effective intervention. Correlation analyses showed that whereas acceptability and credibility ratings were not significantly associated with educational level, both were significantly (p less than 0.01) and positively correlated with amount of time spent playing the video game during treatment (acceptability: r=0.26, credibility: r=0.25 ). The findings indicate that the self-care intervention video game would be a useful addition to the psycho-educational resources available to treatment teams.

Beall, Kathleen R., Ed. (2002).  ESL Magazine, 2002. 

These six issues contain the following articles: "The Bright Side of the U.S. Teacher Shortage" (Thomas Nixon); "Sharing Power in the Classroom" (Patricia Richard-Amato); "Content for Conversation Partners" (Kathleen Olson); "English Language Teaching in Indonesia" (Bachrudin Musthafa); "Working to Make a Difference: Interview with Dr. James Alatis" (Marilyn Rosenthal); "From Lessons to Life: Authentic Materials Bridge the Gap" (Maria Spelleri); "TESOL's P-12 Teacher Education Standards are Here!" (Candace Harper); "Who am I? Issues of Language, Culture and Identity for Native Americans" (William Demmert); "Evaluating and Choosing ESL Software" (Joy Egbert and Gina Petrie); "Teaching Writing using Peer Feedback Checklists" (Clare Furneaux); "New Ways of Using Video Technology in English Language Teaching" (Naomi Migliacci); "English Teaching in Mexico" (Denise Salazar); "Kagan Structures for English Language Learners" (Spencer Kagan and Julie High); "NCELA Spells RESOURCE!" (Patricia Anne DiCerbo); "Teaching Vocabulary for Peace Education" (Francisco Gomes de Matos); "English Teaching in Argentina" (Blanca Arazi); "Steps to Success for Academic Readers" (Jean Zukowski/Faust); "Creating Cross-Cultural Connections" (Shelley Fairbairn); "Combining ESL and Job Training" (Stephaney Jones-Vo); "English Teaching in Taiwan" (Johanna Katchen); "Language, Culture and the Feature Film" (Hans Straub); "Teaching English in Francophone Senegal" (Kay Davis); "Creating Placement Tests" (Joel Murray); and "Evolution: It's Not Just for Biology" (Richard Firsten). The journals also contain letters to the editor, news briefs, conference calendars, reviews, catalogs, and columns. | [FULL TEXT]

Beam, Mary (2002).  Education Network of Ontario: Content/Curriculum Models for the Internet-Connected Classroom. 

The Education Network of Ontario (ENO) is a telecommunications corporation creating an access and applications network for and by Ontario's 130,000-member education community. When educators register with ENO, they receive full industry-standard Internet and Intranet services in English and French. ENO/REO works from school or home. Statistics such as 100,000 teacher members, over 23,000 logins a day, 250,000,000 minutes a month of online time, and over 100,000 mail or news messages per day are commonplace. Self-nominating teachers lead projects that deal with content creation, classroom projects and technology exploration. Results are as varied as a database of parent letters to go with report cards, solutions to keep small children exercised and content in ultra-cold winter months, an Internet radio station and investigation of video and voice technologies as well as pedagogical practices to support professional development. ENO trains teachers who now understand the need for, and use of, a sophisticated variety of applications and content to support and motivate students in the online environment. The result of this support is a classroom project model that is firmly based in curriculum but created in a way that the students and teachers use access to the Internet and other technologies to enhance learning of subject matter and processes, and not the technology itself. The ENO project model is supported by an automated application so teachers need not become involved in Web functions and software operations themselves. They do not need to understand Web site creation or even negotiate Web hosting with their school or District School Board. In this way, they work from the outset with the skills and experience they already have and they add knowledge of online processes and course management only as they need them in practice. Many project leaders graduate from this initial template to major Web site creation. Because ENO is its own Internet and Intranet Service Provider, it has enabled teachers to create and use a continuously evolving "bootstrap" model to support diverse, creative activities--projects, group work, lessons and student-to-student exchanges at every level of instruction.

Beam, Walter R. (2001).  Information Literacy: Requirements of the 21st Century Workplace.  Journal of Instruction Delivery Systems, 15, 2. 

Discusses business and technology trends that affect the need for employees to have more information skills. Highlights include the globalization of commerce; competition; lower-cost digital technology; employment trends; the role of digital systems; the impact of technology; advanced information-related literacy skills; and future education technology.

Beard, Lawrence A.; Harper, Cynthia; Riley, Gena (2004).  Online Versus On-Campus Instruction: Student Attitudes & Perceptions  TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 48, 6. 

Online instruction is quickly becoming a trend in university classroom instruction. Many of these classes are established without proper input from students. The purpose of this study was to compare student attitudes and perceptions toward in class and/or online course instruction. This study took place in a university setting in the southeastern United States. The two classes involved in the study were conducted using a traditional method of lecture for the first half of the class, and using online ("Blackboard") for the instructor to post lecture notes and supplemental materials for the students during the second half. During the course of the semester, written student comments regarding course presentation were collected. Comments typically provided support for internet instruction. Several students continued to favor and participate in both modes of instruction.

Beare, Richard; Bowdley, David; Newsam, Andrew; Roche, Paul (2003).  Remote Access Astronomy  Physics Education, 38, 3. 

There is still nothing to beat the excitement and fulfilment that you can get from observing celestial bodies on a clear dark night, in a remote location away from the seemingly ever increasing light pollution from cities. However, it is also the specific requirements for good observing that can sometimes prevent teachers from offering this opportunity to their students. Compromises for a town-based school or college might be to view only bright objects such as planets, or stars of magnitude 4 or brighter because of light pollution, but you would still require a knowledgeable teacher or astronomer and equipment to take outside with the students. Remote access astronomy using robotic telescopes can partly provide a solution to these problems and also opens up the doors to exciting projects that may otherwise be inaccessible to schools and colleges.

Beasley, Robert E.; Chuang, Yuangshan (2006).  The Effects of Web-Based American Music, Lyrics, Definitions, and Explanations on Taiwanese ESL Learners  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 34, 4. 

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of American music, lyrics, vocabulary definitions, and song explanations during online music study on listening comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, and lifestyle literacy in Taiwanese ESL learners. One-hundred-eight ESL learners from 2 large comprehensive universities in Taiwan participated. The results of this study suggest that online music study (as carried out in this particular investigation) does not improve listening comprehension skills in ESL learners. In addition, the results suggest that simply listening to online music does not increase vocabulary level in ESL learners. Instead, the addition of written lyrics "and" hypertext links to definitions of key terms is required to improve vocabulary level significantly. Finally, the results suggest that simply listening to online music does not improve lifestyle literacy in ESL learners. Instead, the addition of written lyrics is required to improve lifestyle literacy significantly.

Beasley, Robert; Chuang, Yuangshan; Liao, Chao-chih (2008).  American Music Immersion: Influencing Factors and Its Impact on Taiwanese EFL Learners Engaged in Web-Based, Multimedia Music Study  Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 17, 1. 

The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that influence American music immersion (AMI) in Taiwanese English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners and to determine if AMI is a predictor of vocabulary acquisition and American lifestyle literacy improvement during online, multimedia music study. The results of this study suggest that those subjects 29 years old and under are more immersed in American music than their 30 years old and over counterparts and that freshmen are significantly less immersed in American music than sophomores, juniors, and seniors. It was also found that those who never or occasionally watch programs in English or speak in English are significantly less immersed in American music than those who somewhat often or frequently watch programs in English or speak in English. In addition, the findings suggest that AMI alone is not a good predictor of vocabulary acquisition or lifestyle literacy improvement during online, multimedia music study. Finally, the study found that some minimal level of English competency is required to benefit from this type of multimedia learning environment.

Beasley, William; Dobda, Kathyanne W.; Wang, Lih-Ching Chen (2005).  Reflections on Teaching in a Wireless Laptop Lab  International Journal of Instructional Media, 32, 4. 

In recent years laptop computers have become increasingly popular in educational settings; wireless connectivity is a more recent development which is only now being fully explored, and which has led to the creation of the "wireless laptop lab." In this article, the authors share some of the experiences and concerns that they have encountered while teaching a variety of classes in wireless laptop lab settings. Among other things, they discovered that the practical daily use of wireless laptops brought with it a host of specific details they had not previously encountered: battery life, storage & transport (including the concept of the mothership); security (in the context of mobility); check-out and turn-in procedures; properly equipped instructor stations; and printing in a mobile network environment.

Beasley, William; Wang, Lih-Ching Chen (2001).  Implementing ISTE/NCATE Technology Standards in Teacher Preparation: One College's Experience.  Information Technology in Childhood Education Annual, 2001. 

Describes one teacher education college's experiences with designing and implementing technology standards for teachers, as required by the International Society for Technology in Education. Addresses program rationale, initial implementation, division of content, feedback from faculty and students, and effects on instruction.

Beastall, Liz (2006).  Enchanting a Disenchanted Child: Revolutionising the Means of Education Using Information and Communication Technology and e-Learning  British Journal of Sociology of Education, 27, 1. 

The Department for Education and Skills currently shows a high regard for the potential of technology transforming the British education system. Government White papers demonstrate e-learning based unification strategies that reinforce the message that introducing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) will raise standards in schools. This paper examines the effect of these developments on teachers and pupils, and questions the government's motivation for change. The introduction of ICT has not been complemented by increased levels of effective professional development for teaching staff in the pedagogy of ICT across the curriculum and may have merely served to reinforce the generational digital divide. In attempting to enchant the pupils, the government may have alienated the teachers. This paper suggests that the Department for Education and Skills should place more emphasis on developing strategies and providing funding for solutions to gaps in the professional development of teachers in their pedagogical understanding of ICT across the curriculum.

Beatty, Brian; Ulasewicz, Connie (2006).  Faculty Perspectives on Moving from Blackboard to the Moodle Learning Management System  TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 50, 4. 

Online teaching and learning has been in transition for its entire existence. The number of courses offered at a distance has grown rapidly. According to the National Center for Education Statistics (Waits & Lewis, 2003), in 2000-2001 more than 56% of four-year colleges and universities in the United States offered distance education degree programs. Many classroom based higher education programs, which meet in person regularly throughout a semester, use online technologies as well. In San Francisco State University (SFSU), 70% of all courses use online technologies; some of these courses are taught in a traditional face to face delivery mode. Approximately 90% of SFSU faculty who use online technologies use the Blackboard Learning Management System (LMS) and the rest are engaged in a scalability test of an alternative to Blackboard, using a local installation of the open source Moodle LMS which SFSU calls "ilearn." This paper presents selections of the authors' experiences using the Moodle LMS for the first time in a recent semester at SFSU. The purpose of this paper is to provide a glimpse into some of the factors that may be important considerations as more universities transition from commercial LMSs to open-source systems such as Moodle.

Beatty, Ian D. (2000).  ConMap: Investigating New Computer-Based Approaches to Assessing Conceptual Knowledge Structure in Physics. 

There is a growing consensus among educational researchers that traditional problem-based assessments are not effective tools for diagnosing a student's knowledge state and for guiding pedagogical intervention, and that new tools grounded in the results of cognitive science research are needed. The ConMap ("Conceptual Mapping") project, described in this dissertation, proposed and investigated some novel methods for assessing the conceptual knowledge structure of physics students. A set of brief computer-administered tasks for eliciting students' conceptual associations was designed. The basic approach of the tasks was to elicit spontaneous term associations from subjects by presenting them with a prompt term, or problem, or topic area, and having them type a set of response terms. Each response was recorded along with the time spent thinking of and typing it. Several studies were conducted in which data were collected on introductory physics students' performance on the tasks. A detailed statistical description of the data was compiled. Phenomenological characterization of the data (description and statistical summary of observed patterns) provided insight into the way students respond to the task and revealed some notable features to guide modeling efforts. Possible correlations were investigated, some among different aspects of the ConMap data, others between aspects of the data and students' in-course exam scores. Several correlations were found which suggest that the ConMap tasks can successfully reveal information about students' knowledge structuring and level of expertise. Similarity was observed between data from one of the tasks and results from a traditional concept map task. Two rudimentary quantitative models for the temporal aspects of student performance on one of the tasks were constructed--one based on random probability distributions and the other on a detailed deterministic representation of conceptual knowledge structure. Both models were reasonably successful at approximating the statistical behavior of a typical student's data. | [FULL TEXT]

Beaudoin, Martin (2004).  Educational Use of Databases in CALL  Computer Assisted Language Learning, 17, 5. 

This article presents the idea that databases are very useful tools for teaching languages over the Internet. Databases in Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) are commonly used in three ways: for reference sources such as dictionaries, in the management of large websites, and for data processing such as language tests and learners' profiling. Such types of use are illustrated by a number of databases that are described in detail in this article. A basic description of the construction of an interactive database is also provided.

Beaver, Robin; Moore, Jean (2004).  Curriculum Design And Technology Integration A Model To Use Technology In Support Of Knowledge Generation And Higher-Order Thinking Skills  Learning and Leading with Technology, 32, 1. 

Over the past few years, we have worked with teachers to help them better integrate technology into their classrooms, and we have come to realize that more attention needs to be paid to this during the planning process if it is to be the result of good curriculum design. As we designed professional development workshops to address this need, we realized that a brief review of educational hierarchies and methodologies was often helpful. | [FULL TEXT]

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Boo

_____. (2002).  Book of Readings. Delta Pi Epsilon National Conference (Cleveland, OH, November 21-23, 2002). 

This document contains 17 papers from a national conference on promoting excellence in research and teaching for business. The following papers are included: "The Development of Innovative Learning Models for Modern Information Technology Professional Education" (Stephen C. Shih); "Entry-Level Information Services and Support Personnel: Needed Workplace and Technology Skills" (Faridah Awang, Marcia A. Anderson, Clora Mae Baker); "An Examination of Disciplinary Web Pages: A Study of Business Education's Presence on the Web" (Lisa E. Gueldenzoph); "Factors Related to Business Education Teachers' Integration of Technology into the Teaching-Learning Process" (Donna H. Redmann, Joe W. Kotrlik, Bruce Douglas); "Fields of Employment Longevity: A Study of Business Graduates" (Nancy Buddy Penner, Victoria Falconer, Harry Nowka); "Impact of Information Technologies on Faculty and Students in Online Distance Education" (Jensen Zhao, Melody Alexander, Heidi Perreault, Lila Waldman); "The Impact of Instruction on the Use of On-line Help on Computer Novices' Ability Tasks" (Joel A. Whitesel); "Perceptions about Three Indigenous English-Language Accents from Prospective and Practicing Argentine Providers of Business-Related Language Services" (Diana J. Green, James Calvert Scott, David D. Rosewarne); "Students' Perceptions of Cyber-Cheating" (Ronald F. Fulkert, Konnie G. Kustron); "A Survey of Exporting Activities with Implications for International Business Instruction" (Les R. Dlabay); "Developing a WebQuest" (Margaret J. Erthal); "Enhancing Education/Workplace Instructional Methods" (Carol Blaszczynski, Diana J. Green); "Innovative Activities for Business Communication" (Sandy Braathen, Lila Prigge); "Teaching Communications Online Using the Master Teacher Model" (William J. Wilhelm); "Conducting Longitudinal Research" (Michael Bronner); "E-Commerce Education: A Comparison of Employers' and Business Educators' Perceptions" (Lisa E. Gueldenzoph); and "Master Teachers Helping Future Teachers" (Margaret J. Erthal, Randall E. Smith). Most papers contain substantial bibliographies. | [FULL TEXT]

Boon, Richard T.; Burke, Mack D.; Fore, Cecil, III; Hagan-Burke, Shanna (2006).  Improving Student Content Knowledge in Inclusive Social Studies Classrooms Using Technology-Based Cognitive Organizers: A Systematic Replication  Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 4, 1. 

The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic replication of a previous study (Boon, Burke, Fore, & Spencer, 2006) on the effects of computer-generated cognitive organizers using Inspiration 6 software versus a traditional textbook instruction format on students' ability to comprehend social studies content information in high school inclusive social studies classes. A major goal was to strengthen the results of the previous study by using its control group as the treatment group and its treatment group as the control group in the current study. After ensuring that no carry-over effects from the previous study existed, the groups were "flipped," and using a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest group design, 26 tenth-grade students in general education and 18 students with mild disabilities received instruction using a computerized cognitive organizer or traditional textbook instruction format. Dependent measures included a 45- item open-ended production pre-/posttest of declarative social studies knowledge to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Results showed that students in the computerized cognitive organizer condition significantly outperformed students in the traditional textbook instruction condition.

Boon, Richard T.; Burke, Mack D.; Fore, Cecil, III; Spencer, Vicky G. (2006).  The Impact of Cognitive Organizers and Technology-Based Practices on Student Success in Secondary Social Studies Classrooms  Journal of Special Education Technology, 21, 1. 

This study investigated the impact of cognitive organizers, with the integration of technology, Inspiration 6 software, compared to a traditional textbook instruction format on content-area learning in high school inclusive social studies classes. Twenty-nine tenth-grade students in general education and 20 students with mild disabilities were randomly assigned to receive instruction using a cognitive organizer or traditional textbook instruction format. A pretest/posttest treatment control group design was used to examine the effectiveness of cognitive organizers. Dependent measures included a 35-item open-ended production pre/posttest of declarative social studies knowledge to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Students in the cognitive organizer condition significantly outperformed students in the traditional textbook instruction condition. Limitations of the study, implications for practice for both general and special education teachers, and future research are discussed. The following are appended: (1) Sample Pretest; (2) Sample Cognitive Organizer; and (3) Sample Guided Notes.

Boon, Richard T.; Fore, Cecil, III; Rasheed, Saleem (2007).  Students' Attitudes and Perceptions toward Technology-Based Applications and Guided Notes Instruction in High School World History Classrooms  Reading Improvement, 44, 1. 

The purpose of this study was to examine students' attitudes and perceptions toward the use of technology-based instruction (i.e., Inspiration 6.0 software) and a guided notes format as an instructional strategy in inclusive world history classrooms. Students' completed a six item 3 choice student satisfaction survey (agree, undecided, disagree) related to the use of the Inspiration software, as a graphic organizing tool, and guided notes instruction to increase content-area learning of the world history information. Results revealed that both students with and without disabilities were positive toward the use of the software and the guided notes format. However, students with disabilities appeared to have a more positive attitude toward the technology-based instruction than the guided notes, while students without disabilities indicated they preferred the use of the guided notes instructional format. Finally, outcomes and benefits of the software, implications for teachers, and future research questions are discussed.

Boon, Richard T.; Fore, Cecil, III; Spencer, Vicky G. (2007).  Teachers' Attitudes and Perceptions toward the Use of Inspiration 6 Software in Inclusive World History Classes at the Secondary Level  Journal of Instructional Psychology, 34, 3. 

The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward the use of technology-based instruction (i.e., "Inspiration 6 software") as an effective instructional strategy in inclusive social studies classes. Three high school social studies teachers, one general education and two special education teachers, completed a 6-item open-ended survey on the effects of "Inspiration 6 software", a computerized graphic organizing software tool, to increase content-area learning in inclusive social studies classes compared to a traditional textbook instruction condition from a previous study (Boon, Burke, Fore, & Spencer, 2006). Responses indicated that teachers were positive toward the use of the software and reported the software had the potential to (a) improve student learning, (b) increase student engagement, (c) provide important study skills, and (d) improve student motivation through the novelty of using computers in social studies instruction.

Boone, Randall; Higgins, Kyle (2003).  Reading, Writing, and Publishing Digital Text.  Remedial and Special Education, 24, 3. 

This article explores current state-of-the-art technologies available for reading, writing, and publishing, including electronic books (ebooks), electronic libraries, and electronic journals. Instructional design, best practices for improving reading skills using ebooks, and copyright issues are discussed. Vignettes offer a positive scenario for educational use of digital text. 

Boone, Randall; Higgins, Kyle (2007).  New Directions in Research: The Role of Instructional Design in Assistive Technology Research and Development  Reading Research Quarterly, 42, 1. 

The term "assistive technology" (AT) elicits widely varying responses from educators, service providers, and consumers of AT even within the relatively small disability, special education, and related services community. For the most part, AT advocates for the low-incidence disability populations (i.e., blind or low vision, deaf or hard hearing) mostly focusing on providing an alternate format or alternate medium of the original material, in which, the format is in a form that is as nearly identical to the original material as possible. This view is typified in the final report on the National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard (NIMAS, 2003), which focused almost completely on developing an alternate-medium solution for disability access to content in a digital format. This article forwards the idea of instructional design as a key element of AT, providing a focus on the access-to-learning side of AT, and on the group of individuals with high-incidence disabilities referred to in the NIMAS document as the "more comprehensive group." This is the group for whom "access to the medium of print" does not necessarily translate into "access to comprehending print." The authors focus on the need to incorporate effective instructional design in creating useful and effective ATs and describe criticisms of the instructional design of conventional textbooks and educational software. Arguments are detailed within three areas: (a) difficulties inherent in traditional print materials; (b) adapting digital content for persons with disabilities; and (c) design for current computer-based commercial educational products.

Boora, Raj (2002).  The New Paideia. 

To travel is one of the greatest ways to learn about the world. It is the "getting there" that provides the learning experience, not so much as the destination itself. Education is also a journey, one that should last a lifetime, but for many students today, it is one that lasts only as long as they are in the classroom. In such short trips, many students do not see themselves going anywhere. The new paideia offers a means to allow students to once again find their way. Blending the successful elements of active learning and constructivism, the new paideia uses communication, empathy and community to overcome the issues that currently plague the educational system. Online and offline, the new paideia may be the solution to the problem of what is missing in education today. It brings to the classroom a learner community that uses leisure and technology to integrate course material into the lives of students. 

Boot, Eddy W.; Nelson, Jon; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.; Gibbons, Andrew S. (2007).  Stratification, Elaboration and Formalisation of Design Documents: Effects on the Production of Instructional Materials  British Journal of Educational Technology, 38, 5. 

Designers and producers of instructional materials lack a common design language. As a result, producers have difficulties translating design documents into technical specifications. The 3D-model is introduced to improve the stratification, elaboration and formalisation of design documents. It is hypothesised that producers working with improved documents (n = 8) show a more efficient translation process and more satisfaction with the design documents than producers working with traditional documents (n = 8). As expected, in the improved documents group, a higher agreement was found between the design documents and the technical specifications, which also required less time and less perceived cognitive load for their production. There were no differences in satisfaction with the design documents. The study shows that designers, working with the 3D-model, are able to improve design documents, resulting in a better translation process.

Boot, Eddy W.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.; Veerman, Arja L. (2007).  Novice and Experienced Instructional Software Developers: Effects on Materials Created with Instructional Software Templates  Educational Technology Research and Development, 55, 6. 

The development of instructional software is a complex process, posing high demands to the technical and didactical expertise of developers. Domain specialists rather than professional developers are often responsible for it, but authoring tools with pre-structured templates claim to compensate for this limited experience. This study compares instructional software products made by developers with low production experience (n = 6) and high production experience (n = 8), working with a template-based authoring tool. It is hypothesized that those with high production experience will be more productive and create software with a higher didactical quality than those with low production experience, whereas no differences with regard to technical and authoring quality are expected. The results show that the didactical quality was unsatisfactory and did not differ between groups. Nevertheless the templates compensated for differences in experience because the technical and authoring quality was equal for both groups, indicating that templates enable domain specialists to participate successfully in the production process.

Booth, Amy E.; Waxman, Sandra R. (2006).  Deja Vu All over Again: Re-Revisiting the Conceptual Status of Early Word Learning: Comment on Smith and Samuelson (2006)  Developmental Psychology, 42, 6. 

The authors assert that L. B. Smith and L. Samuelson's (2006; see record EJ750228) most recent critique of A. E. Booth, S. R. Waxman, and Y. T. Huang's (2005; see record EJ684979) work missed its mark, deflecting attention from the important theoretical difference between the two sets of authors' positions and focusing instead on imagined differences and minor expositional complaints. The authors' goal in this response is twofold. First, they aim to redirect attention to the 1 clear difference between the 2 theoretical positions regarding word learning, a difference that is focused on the role of conceptual (in conjunction with perceptual) information in word learning. Second, they place L. B. Smith and L. Samuelson's (2006) current critique in the context of previous exchanges.

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Boyd, Barbara Foulks (2008).  Assistive Technology for Every Child  Montessori Life: A Publication of the American Montessori Society, 20, 1. 

The Montessori philosophy advocates that the classroom be a reflection of the home, the community, and the world. Now, a century after Maria Montessori founded her Casa dei Bambini, the world is becoming a high-technology society, with computers a part of everyday American lives. Computers are almost a household necessity, and basic word-processing programs are now easier for young children to use. It is important that early childhood teachers use technology in their classrooms, and Montessori teachers integrate technology into the Montessori environment and curriculum areas. The technology requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act include resources and best practices on technology literacy and effective teaching using technology. The National Education Technology Plan (U.S. Department of Education, 2003) promotes universal access to technology for all children. Finally, the Council for Exceptional Children/Division of Early Childhood (2001) recommends that children use assistive technology to enhance their learning. Ongoing research and continued development of new and emerging technologies and assistive technologies are critical to supporting children's learning. Assistive technology--according to the Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act, Public Law 100-407 (the "Tech Act")--is defined as an item, piece of equipment, or product system that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities. Assistive technology also includes "low-tech" items that are enhanced and refined by present-day advances in technology. While the term "assistive technology" is new, the idea of adapting technology to fit the needs of children with and without disabilities is not. Thus, the author states that the Montessori curriculum, literacy, children's thinking, and computer literacy can be greatly enhanced using assistive technology with all children in the classroom--not just those with special needs. Social skills can also be developed if two children work together on the same technology. Assistive technology is designed to be durable and washable, to support academic and technological learning, and to facilitate each child's computer literacy skills at developmentally appropriate levels.

Boyd-Batstone, Paul (2004).  Focused Anecdotal Records Assessment: A Tool for Standards-Based, Authentic Assessment  Reading Teacher, 58, 3. 

This article describes the tension between standards-based assessment on a macro level and authentic assessment on a micro level. Content standards arguably supply systematic criteria for quantitative measures to report trends and establish policy. Qualitative measures, such as rubrics, student profiles, and observational records, fill in the gaps to give teachers immediate feedback for instructional planning. The purpose of the article is to describe an observational tool for standards-based authentic assessment. Focused anecdotal records assessment (ARA) is a collection of techniques for recording, maintaining, and analyzing observational records. Five components are described: (1) observing children in instructional settings, (2) maintaining a standards-based focus, (3) recording anecdotal records, (4) managing anecdotal records, and (5) using anecdotal records for assessment. The article includes formats for recording specific standards, observational data, summaries of strengths and needs, and instructional recommendations. Focused ARAs help organize assessment data and facilitate communication with students, parents, and other members of the educational community.

Boyer, Naomi R. (2004).  Using Social, Self-Directed Learning Frameworks to Engage and Transform Aspiring School Leaders  Scholar-Practitioner Quarterly, 2, 4. 

Life-long learning, reflection, and teamwork are all attributes that enhance leadership capacity and school reform efforts. Yet, the skills and the process to build these skills are not traditionally integrated into university coursework in teacher education or aspiring leader programs. A framework has been developed that incorporates social experiences, self-direction, metacognition and learning engagement into a technology integration course. This framework includes a series of scaffolds that were instituted in five successive semesters of the identical web-based course. A global model of social, self-direction has been developed to provide a theoretical foundation to support the process of this framework and is being studied through the lens of design-based research methods. Narrative accounts, surveys, and reflective instruments were used to garner data about student satisfaction and learning progress in investigating the question: What is the impact of social, self-direction scaffolds on aspiring school leaders' ability to plan, manage, sustain and complete personal/group learning experiences? These scaffolds have been found to have a tremendous impact on aspiring leaders' ability to self-manage. Students report a transformation in perspective and ability and report large scale impact upon authentic school environments. Further investigation would need to be conducted to evaluate long-term influence and additional model iteration.

Boyer, Naomi R. (2004).  Who's in Charge? A System of Scaffolds That Encourages Online Learners to Take Control  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

The teaching and learning "dance" is one that traditionally has been led by the instructor with the student following passively. Faculty members in higher education are entering the realm of online learning, many with the previous experience and hopes of facilitating student-centered, active learning experiences. However, due to factors that are integral to this environment, many are returning to their "comfort zones" by providing greater clarity and specificity, stricter accountability measures, and less student flexibility/personalization. To address best teaching practices in adult education within the online environment, a systems model of social, self-direction is presented that allows the student to "lead" and yet learn how to facilitate the self-direction process. This model was used as an instructional intervention in this study, which sought to answer the question: "What are the self-perceived learning gains of students engaged in a social, self-directed learning experience?" A self-rated pre-test/post-test design was utilized with the 8 course sections and 112 subjects that received this instructional intervention. Other data sources were also utilized as triangulation for validating the self-reported learning gains on both the breadth and depth of course material. The model was found to facilitate significant learning gains, while attending to university guidelines and course requirements. Further implications and questions that are resulting from this research are also explored. | [FULL TEXT]

Boyle, Bill; Bragg, Joanna (2008).  Making Primary Connections: The Cross-Curriculum Story  Curriculum Journal, 19, 1. 

Using longitudinal curriculum data which they have collected over a ten year period from a nationally representative sample of primary schools (funded by grants from the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority), the authors report on evidence of changing models of subject provision within the primary curriculum. The period 1997-2007 has evidenced a range of government interventions with implications for subject teaching and data enable the analysis and discussion of the impact of these interventions on the ways in which sample schools have organised and planned their curriculum.

Boyle, Tom; Cook, John (2001).  Towards a Pedagogically Sound Basis for Learning Object Portability and Re-Use. 

The issues of portability and re-use are key challenges for learning technology. A major effort has been directed toward the development of standards that will enable interoperability and the re-use of learning objects. This paper provides a critique of this work from a pedagogical perspective. It argues that true portability and re-use cannot be achieved based solely on a technically inspired drive towards standardization. A theoretical framework is required that will guide the process of analysis and synthesis. The paper proposes the basis for such a theoretical approach based on the concepts of layering and learning contexts. A formal approach to capturing the essential features of these learning contexts is outlined, based on the idea of design action potential networks. The choice pathways in these networks represent a formal description that may be fed into the standardization process. The ensuing descriptive data, attached as metadata to learning objects, would provide a pedagogically informed basis for interoperability and re-use. 

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Brickman, Alan; Braun, Linda W.; Stockford, Marge (2000).  An Evaluation of the Use of Technology in Support of Adult Basic Education in Massachusetts. 

An evaluation (involving questionnaires, telephone interviews, focus groups, site visits, e-mail questions, and lab observation) assessed the success in implementing a statewide technology plan for adult literacy programs in Massachusetts that grew out of a set of recommendations developed by the Massachusetts Adult Literacy Technology Team (MALTT), an ad hoc group of practitioners. The evaluation generated lessons about use of technology in adult literacy programs. Findings indicated: a well-developed technology infrastructure throughout the adult basic education (ABE) system; a significant level of access to and use of computer technology and a wide variety of related software by adult learners and program staff; a significant level of Internet access among ABE programs; a great deal of interest among staff and learners to expand their use of technology; two significant barriers (time and cost) to effective use of technology for learners, teachers, and administrative staff; a need for best practice models and technical assistance; a significant level of training and staff development among adult literacy staff; development, refinement, and implementation of SMARTT, a statewide student data and outcome tracking system; and a need to explore opportunities for technology-related funding. Among recommendations were: less focus on hardware acquisition and more of a strategic approach to training, curriculum integration, and maximizing use of existing infrastructure. | [FULL TEXT]

Brickman, Peggy (2006).  The Case of the Druid Dracula: A Directed "Clicker" Case Study on DNA Fingerprinting  Journal of College Science Teaching, 36, 2. 

This article describes how case studies have been successfully implemented in an introductory biology course of 300+ students using available technologies ranging from WebCT, used to assign students to permanent small groups (as well as assign groups to regions of a large lecture hall), to hand-held response systems (aka "clickers"), which students use to collaboratively solve cases during class.

Bridge, P.; Appleyard, R. M.; Ward, J. W.; Philips, R.; Beavis, A. W. (2007).  The Development and Evaluation of a Virtual Radiotherapy Treatment Machine Using an Immersive Visualisation Environment  Computers & Education, 49, 2. 

Due to the lengthy learning process associated with complicated clinical techniques, undergraduate radiotherapy students can struggle to access sufficient time or patients to gain the level of expertise they require. By developing a hybrid virtual environment with real controls, it was hoped that group learning of these techniques could take place away from the clinical departments. This paper presents initial evaluation of the use of a three-dimensional immersive visualisation environment (IVE) to simulate a working radiotherapy treatment machine. A virtual patient complete with a range of different treatment sites was used to enhance learning and teaching of beam alignment in 3D. Pre- and post-questionnaires were used to evaluate the perceptions of 42-year 1 pre-registration students with regards to the learning that had taken place. 93% of students perceived an improvement in their understanding and confidence in their technical skills as a result of using the IVE. The mean overall improvement was 21.2% (p less than 0.00001), and this was positively correlated to perceived realism of the application. The application was reported to be both realistic and enjoyable. Feedback suggested it has a role to play in development of technical skills and also pre-clinical induction. More work with the application is ongoing to clarify that role and the potential benefits of this technology.

Bridge, Pete; Appleyard, Rob; Wilson, Rob (2007).  Automated Multiple-Choice Testing for Summative Assessment: What Do Students Think?  [Online Submission] 

This paper reports undergraduate student feedback contrasting conventional "Long-answer" examinations with automated multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment. Feedback was gathered after students had undertaken formative MCQ assessments as a revision aid. Feedback was generally supportive of MCQ summative tests, with 74% expressing a preference for the new format. The examination conditions were preferred by 69% of students. Results indicate that students are in favour of the use of automated MCQ assessment. All topics can be reliably and validly assessed with an associated time saving of over 16 hours. The need for rigorous question and answer construction has been highlighted, but so long as sufficient care is taken at that preliminary stage, the overall benefits of the format outweigh the problems.  | [FULL TEXT]

Bridges, Kath (2002).  Quality Science in South Australia: Enhanced through Technology.  Investigating, 18, 3. 

Introduces the project Technology Enhanced Elementary and Middle School Science (TEEMSS) which implements technology into numeracy, literacy, and scientific working. Uses a hands-on science approach.

Briegel, Toni (2005).  From Sand to Silicon: The Progress of Educational Technology in the United Arab Emirates  [Online Submission] 

The development history of an E-learning project in United Arab Emirates has been discussed in this paper. Much advice is taken into consideration when launching its own broad-based IT systems. Though the future is bright to develop the instructional technology efficiently in this area, there are still some challenges to overcome. | [FULL TEXT]

Brill, Jennifer M.; Bishop, M. J.; Walker, Andrew E. (2006).  The Competencies and Characteristics Required of an Effective Project Manager: A Web-Based Delphi Study  Educational Technology Research and Development, 54, 2. 

In this study, we explore the competencies required for a project manager to be effective in the workplace. We used a Web-based Delphi method to lead experienced project managers through an anonymous consensus-building process consisting of two rounds of surveys. The Round I analysis of 147 respondents, all with 20 or more years of project management experience, yielded 117 project management success factors, 78 of which were identified as trainable competencies. The Round II analysis confirmed 42 of the 78 competencies (53.8%) as very important to extremely important to project manager success. Important contributions of this study include: (a) reporting on project manager competencies that can inform the literature and guide the development of educational programs for instructional designers and other professionals, and (b) demonstrating the Web-based Delphi technique to be an efficient methodology for conducting a front-end analysis, a core process of instructional design (ID) work.

Brill, Jennifer M.; Galloway, Chad (2007).  Perils and Promises: University Instructors Integration of Technology in Classroom-Based Practices  British Journal of Educational Technology, 38, 1. 

Modern technologies such as the Internet present new opportunities for teaching and learning at all educational levels. Today, many universities strive to integrate appropriate technologies into campus classrooms. Despite sizeable investments in hardware, software and supporting infrastructures, little is known about implementation. The purpose of this study was to examine college-level instructors' use of and attitudes towards classroom-based teaching technologies. The methodological design relied on qualitative measures through the use of two data collection methods, survey and interview. The research site was a large, public university in the United States. Findings revealed trends in current and future technology use, the positive influence of technology on teaching and learning, and significant barriers to technology use that resulted in practical recommendations for leveraging available resources towards the support of classroom-based technologies. This study not only advances the knowledge base regarding the use of classroom-based technologies in higher education but also serves as a practical resource for guiding future instructional technology practices on college campuses.

Brimblecombe, Trish (2000).  Responding to the Challenges of Internet Technologies and New Media: Issues for Polytechnics and Institutes of Technology. 

Although all New Zealand polytechnics and institutes of technology are making some use of new information technology and Internet-related technologies, developments incorporating effective use of these new technologies and media remain somewhat uneven. Educators seeking to embrace the Internet as a delivery medium face numerous critical design issues. To address these issues, managers and educators should take the following actions: (1) recognize the overall strategic importance of new technology developments to their institution and plan accordingly; (2) analyze staff needs and arrange access to required training and resources; (3) adopt a cooperative, collaborative approach; (4) choose technologies appropriately, giving more weight to those with human-like features and using them in ways that can become more transparent and less intrusive; (5) use a prototyping approach and the interactive, cybernetic quality embedded at the heart of Internet technologies to build and maintain effective learning environments; and (6) closely involve students in development of their own education. (The bibliography lists 24 references. Appended is a report on the results of a survey administered when this report was first presented to determine audience members' existing levels of knowledge about and use of the technologies described at their own institutions.) | [FULL TEXT]

Bringslid, Odd (2002).  Mathematical E-Learning Using Interactive Mathematics on the Web.  European Journal of Engineering Education, 27, 3. 

Explains the use of the Web as an advanced calculator using numeric, graphic, and symbolic mathematics interactively with the development of XML-standard MathML. Suggests that the problem of decreasing achievement in mathematics courses can be solved using interactive and personalized documents on the Web and improve the understanding of mathematics.

Brinkerhoff, Jonathan (2006).  Effects of a Long-Duration, Professional Development Academy on Technology Skills, Computer Self-Efficacy, and Technology Integration Beliefs and Practices  Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 39, 1. 

A variety of barriers relating to resources, institutional and administrative policies, skills development and attitudes can hinder the effectiveness of technology professional development resulting in underutilized technology resources and lack of integration of those resources within instruction. Multiple methods were used to evaluate the effectiveness of a long-term professional development academy intended to address those barriers and promote increased use of technology in the academy participants' instruction. Results revealed significant gains in participants' self-assessed technology skills and computer self-efficacy, with little or no change to self-assessed technology integration beliefs and practices despite interview data indicating participants felt their teaching had changed as a result of their academy participation. This article suggests the design of the academy was successful in addressing some but not all of its intended objectives. Suggestions for the design of long-term technology professional development are discussed.  | [FULL TEXT]

Brinkerhoff, Jonathan D.; Klein, James D.; Brush, Thomas; Saye, John W. (2005).  The Effects of Advisement and Small Groups on Learning from a Multimedia Database  International Journal of Instructional Media, 32, 4. 

The present study is designed to investigate the effects of advisement and informal cooperative learning when students used a multimedia database. Participants were 159 undergraduate students (54 males; 105 females) enrolled in a computer literacy course at a large university in the southwestern United States. The majority of participants were either sophomores or juniors and represented a broad spectrum of majors. The materials used in this study are: (1) multimedia database; (2) task sheet; (3) study guide/notes; and informal cooperative learning guidelines. This study included four treatment groups: (1) Individual--Advisement; (2) Individual--No Advisement; (3) Informal Cooperative Dyad--Advisement; and (4) Informal Cooperative Dyad--No Advisement. A 15-item, short answer paper and pencil posttest worth a total of 20 points was used to measure performance. Results of this study indicated that participants provided with advisement performed significantly better on the posttest than those receiving no advisement. The results of this study have implications for the design and implementation of instruction using multimedia databases. Providing advisement to support students as they identify and interpret relevant resources contained in multimedia databases will enhance the effectiveness of these tools for learning.

Brinkerhoff, Jonathan; Koroghlanian, Carol M. (2005).  Student Computer Skills and Attitudes toward Internet-Delivered Instruction: An Assessment of Stability over Time and Place  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 32, 1. 

With the expansion of Internet-based instruction, research-based guidelines are needed to support faculty decision making during course design to ensure student success and satisfaction with instruction incorporating new delivery technologies. This investigation consisted of two phases. In Phase One, computer skills and attitudes toward Internet-delivered instruction of geographically dispersed students were assessed and those components of an Internet course considered important based on students' demographics including computer experience, computer skills, and prior Internet-delivered course experience were identified. Results revealed shallow levels of computer skills with significant differences by geographic location. Additionally, while students overall were generally neutral toward Internet-based instruction, those with prior Internet-based experience regarded such instruction more positively. Phase Two of this research concerned the rate of change in students' computer skills and attitudes toward Internet-based instruction over time. Results indicated that within a four-year timeframe, student skills and attitudes remained relatively stable with some positive shifts. Implications and suggestions for Internet course design are presented.

Brinkerhoff, Jonathan; Koroghlanian, Carol M. (2007).  Online Students' Expectations: Enhancing the Fit between Online Students and Course Design  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 36, 4. 

Learner analysis and needs assessments are basic elements of all instructional design models and are of concern to those designing distance education courses. Mismatches between students' expectations and actual course features may impact learning. This investigation surveyed 249 geographically dispersed online students for the course features they valued and the course features included in their distance education courses. Results revealed general agreement between course features desired by students and those included in their current courses, however, there were mismatches; particularly concerning the use of instant messaging, team assignments, and creating biography pages. Implications for online course design are presented.

Briton, Derek; Taylor, Jeff (2001).  Online Workers' Education: How do We Tame the Technology?  International Journal of Instructional Media, 28, 2. 

Reports the preliminary findings of a research project designed to explore the relevance of computer-mediated communication technologies for labor education. Tested conferencing systems, computer-based collaborative learning spaces, and online course materials for the Canadian Union of Public Employees' Solidarity Network (SoliNet). SoliNet Labour Education Conferences 1996-97 and Experience with Computer Communications are appended.

Britt, Judy; Brasher, Joe P.; Davenport, Lydia D. (2007).  Balancing Books & Bytes  Kappa Delta Pi Record, 43, 3. 

Computers do not replace the need for students to read good books. However, sharing a book can employ contemporary strategies, such as project-based learning, that provide an exciting balance between traditional teaching and technology tools. Heritage teachers ensure that they do not abandon aspects of traditional skill development as they embrace contemporary tools. Educators should continue to learn from the strategies that schools are developing to integrate contemporary resources in traditional classroom environments. The techniques presented here suggest ways to balance the demands of traditional teaching with contemporary tools.  | [FULL TEXT]

Britten, Jody S.; Cassady, Jerrel C. (2006).  The Technology Integration Assessment Instrument: Understanding Planned Use of Technology by Classroom Teachers  Computers in the Schools, 22, 3-4. 

Cognizant of the difficulty teachers face in attempting to integrate computers into instructional settings, the authors propose a new technology integration assessment strategy that can guide individual development or be used to track programmatic change. The Technology Integration Assessment Instrument (TIAI) explores seven dimensions of planning with specific attention to levels of technology integration. Repeated use of the TIAI is anticipated to promote individuals' abilities to track their own growth, as well as provide a standard method for documenting the application of Type II uses of educational computing. This paper presents the TIAI, identifying the method of analyzing lesson plans employed in this system, as well as addressing likely uses of the instrument by teachers, administrators, and program evaluators.

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Boechler, Patricia M.; Foth, Dennis; Watchorn, Rebecca (2007).  Educational Technology Research with Older Adults: Adjustments in Protocol, Materials, and Procedures  Educational Gerontology, 33, 3. 

To determine the optimal uses of educational hypermedia for older adult learners, it is prudent to conduct research focusing on this particular participant group. However, the value of research findings, especially in cross-sectional studies, may depend on attentiveness towards the specific needs of older adults. Ignoring these needs may lead to an underestimation of the capacity of older adults to use hypermedia applications for learning and communication. This paper describes the necessary changes in sampling, procedures, and protocols adopted to accommodate a sample of older adults in the testing of educational technology.

Boehm, Steven S., Ed. (2006).  Children's Voice. Volume 15, Number 1, January/February 2006  [Child Welfare League of America] 

The Child Welfare League of America is the nation's oldest and largest membership-based child welfare organization committed to engaging people everywhere in promoting the well-being of children, youth, and their families and protecting every child from harm. By publishing a diverse range of views on a wide array of topics, "Children's Voice" seeks to encourage public discussion and debate among those who are committed to helping children and families. The following are included in this issue of "Children's Voice": (1) Growing Up with Meth: Meth Addiction is Spreading among American Families, Leaving Thousands of Children Vulnerable and Child Welfare Systems Stretched (Jennifer Micheal); (2) Facility Facelifts: How Courthouses Are Accommodating Children and Youth (Manka Ngwa-Suh); (3) Video Game Violence (Mark Hoerrner and Keisha Hoerrner); (4) The Down to Earth Dad: Make No Mistake about It Dads "Are" Necessary (Patrick Mitchell); (5) Exceptional Children: Navigating Learning Disabilities and Special Education (Ellen Notbohm); (6) Management Matters: Technology Growth in Youth-Serving Organizations (Alexandra Krasne); (7) Executive Directions; (8) Agency Briefs; (9) Other Voices: Grandparents Raising Grandchildren (Donna Butts and Brigitte Castellano); (10) National News Roundup; (11) Eye on CWLA; and (12) Bulletin Board. | [FULL TEXT]

Boettcher, Judith (2000).  Designing for Learning: What Is Meaningful Learning?  Syllabus, 14, 1. 

Examines the concept of meaningful learning in light of new information technology. Highlights include learning processes; types of learning; the computational theory of mind; the value of animations and simulations; and the importance of well-designed and well-written instructional materials.

Boettcher, Judith V. (2003).  Designing for Learning: The Pursuit of Well-Structured Content.  Syllabus, 16, 6. 

Discusses characteristics of well-structured content as it relates to the design of instructional technology resources. Topics include online course design; online learning; principles of designing for learning; multimedia learning resources; knowledge structures; digital learning resources; and differences in digital content.

Boezerooy, Petra; Cordewener, Bas; Liebrand, Wim (2007).  Collaboration on ICT in Dutch Higher Education: The SURF Approach  EDUCAUSE Review, 42 n3 p66, 68. 

In "Thinking Ahead: A Vision of the Role of ICT in Education and Research in the Future, 2007-2010," the higher education institutions in the Netherlands agreed on future strategy. Under the direction of SURF, the Dutch national organization, a collaborative strategy for the application of information and communications technology (ICT) was formulated. The starting point for the strategy was the needs of individual users: how can higher education best organize and support the individual's workflow with fast, secure, and relevant services? Since 1985, SURF has served as the primary Dutch national cooperative organization for higher education and research partnership for network services and for ICT. The mission of SURF is to operate and innovate a joint advanced ICT infrastructure, fully utilizing the possibilities of ICT. SURF is responsible for one of the world's leading national network infrastructures and cost-effective application providers. Within SURF, higher institutions cooperate to improve the quality of higher education and research, especially in situations where collaborative efforts exceed the possibilities of individual approaches. Of the Dutch higher education institutions and academic, science, and research institutions, 99 percent are members of SURF. Government grants, membership fees, and payment for network services allow SURF to conduct a range of programs to support the instit