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Educational Technology | A

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Adair-Hauck, Bonnie; Glisan, Eileen W.; Koda, Keiko; Swender, Elvira B.; Sandrock, Paul (2006).  The Integrated Performance Assessment (IPA): Connecting Assessment to Instruction and Learning  Foreign Language Annals, 39, 3. 

This article reports on "Beyond the OPI: Integrated Performance Assessment (IPA) Design Project," a three-year (1997-2000) research initiative sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education International Research and Studies Program. The primary goal of the project was to develop an integrated skills assessment prototype that would measure students' progress towards the Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century (National Standards, 1999, 2006). A second goal of the project was to use the assessment prototype as a catalyst for curricular and pedagogical reform. This paper presents the Integrated Performance Assessment (IPA) prototype, illustrates a sample IPA, and discusses how classroom-based research on the IPA demonstrated the washback effect of integrated performance-based assessment on teachers' perceptions regarding their instructional practices.

Adair-Hauck, Bonnie; Willingham-McLain, Laurel; Youngs, Bonnie Earnest (2000).  Evaluating the Integration of Technology and Second Language Learning.  CALICO Journal, 17, 2. 

Reports the findings of a program evaluation project that assessed the integration of technology-enhanced language learning (TELL) into a second semester, college-level French course. Thirty-three French II students participated in the study. The results suggest that it is both feasible and desirable to integrate TELL activities into the language learning curriculum.

Adam, Anna; Mowers, Helen (2007).  Got the World on a Screen  School Library Journal, 53, 4. 

In this article, the authors discuss how Google Earth provides more than a geography lesson. For starters, Google Earth is perfect for teaching geography. Subscribe to Where in the World, for example, and have their students listen to podcast clues in a find-the-location game created by students worldwide. Clues relate to math (the population of this city is half that of the population of New York City), history (Ben Franklin was born in this city), even science (the average temperature of this location is 82 degrees in summer and 45 degrees in winter). Kids research the answers to help them determine the correct locations, which they can placemark in Google Earth. But there's a lot more to Google Earth. Educators at every grade level and in every subject area can use the program to enhance learning in fun and engaging ways. While teachers can certainly create their own engaging lessons based on the needs of their students, there are plenty of existing resources for harvesting the educational bounty offered by Google Earth. At the Google Earth Community Forum, teachers can download teacher-created projects such as Math in Las Vegas, in which students can solve word problems, such as determining the perimeter of a parking lot given it's length and width. Furthermore, Google Earth can also enhance language arts and can also be a great tool for understanding current events.

Adam, Anna; Mowers, Helen (2007).  Listen Up! The Best in Educational Audio  School Library Journal, 53, 12. 

Podcasts are a great way to expand learning beyond the four walls of the classroom or library. Just imagine taking the students on a tour of the great halls of the Louvre one day and the high-altitude plains of the Peruvian altiplano the next. This and more can be done with podcasts, episodic digital files that are the 21st-century equivalent of an old-time radio show. Available in audio only, enhanced (with images), or video formats, podcasts are available for free online, where one can download individual episodes or subscribe to a feed. In this article, the authors present a selection of choice podcasts--some of their favorites--to help introduce concepts, review lessons, and supplement the curriculum.

Adamo-Villani, Nicoletta; Beni, Gerardo (2004).  Automated Finger Spelling by Highly Realistic 3D Animation  British Journal of Educational Technology, 35, 3. 

We present the design of a new 3D animation tool for self-teaching (signing and reading) finger spelling the first basic component in learning any sign language. We have designed a highly realistic hand with natural animation of the finger motions. Smoothness of motion (in real time) is achieved via programmable blending of animation segments. The hand is utilised by a programme that automatically converts text to finger spelling with controllable playback speed and playback views. The programme can be operated in two modes for two basic applications: learning to read (finger spelling) and learning to sign. For both modes, multi-sided views are provided. In addition, for the signing mode, a mirror view is provided for the common technique of using a mirror for feedback in practising finger spelling. An additional view revealing the joint structure of the hand allows the signer to practise the subjective view without having to guess the position of the fingers. This is the first example of highly realistic 3D animation that can be used practically to teach a basic aspect of sign language. The method is applicable more generally to sign language, and this finger-spelling application should be regarded as a first step toward the extension of highly realistic 3D animation to sign language in general.

Adamo-Villani, Nicoletta; Doublestein, John; Martin, Zachary (2005).  Sign Language for K-8 Mathematics by 3D Interactive Animation  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 33, 3. 

We present a new highly interactive computer animation tool to increase the mathematical skills of deaf children. We aim at increasing the effectiveness of (hearing) parents in teaching arithmetic to their deaf children, and the opportunity of deaf children to learn arithmetic via interactive media. Using state-of-the-art computer animation technology we have designed and modeled three 3-dimensional virtual signers. The signs for mathematical terminology, performed by a non-hearing signer, have been captured with an electro-mechanical motion capture system and have been applied to the 3D characters. Macromedia Director MX Shockwave Studio has provided the platform for the design of interactive learning activities and for Web delivery. Smoothness of motion (in real time) and interactivity have been achieved via a new method of programmable blending of animation segments. Our program is the first attempt at using interactive 3D animation to improve the mathematical abilities of deaf pupils. Though our research follows the general trend of systems of 3D animated sign language (none of which has been geared specifically toward mathematics), we have made progress of a nature qualitatively different from previous work. Focusing on the need to represent the signs with clarity, realism, and emotional appeal for deaf children, we have invested our research efforts in developing a very natural, nonmechanical animated representation of the signs. The realization of this natural gesture language by interactive computer animation has been the main challenge that this research has met and solved.

Adamo-Villani, Nicolleta; Beni, Gerardo (2007).  Sign Language Subtitling by Highly Comprehensible "Semantroids"  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 35, 1. 

We introduce a new method of sign language subtitling aimed at young deaf children who have not acquired reading skills yet, and can communicate only via signs. The method is based on: 1) the recently developed concept of "semantroid[TM]" (an animated 3D avatar limited to head and hands); 2) the design, development, and psychophysical evaluation of a highly comprehensible model of the semantroid; and 3) the implementation of a new multi-window, scrolling captioning technique. Based on "semantic intensity" estimates, we have enhanced the comprehensibility of the semantroid by: i) the use of non-photorealistic rendering (NPR); and ii) the creation of a 3D face model with distinctive features. We have then validated the comprehensibility of the semantroid through a series of tests on human subjects which assessed accuracy and speed of recognition of facial stimuli and hand gestures as a function of mode of representation and facial geometry. Test results show that, in the context of sign language subtitling (i.e., in limited space), the most comprehensible semantroid model is a toon-rendered model with distinctive facial features. Because of its enhanced comprehensibility, this type of semantroid can be scaled to fit in a very small area, and thus it is possible to display multiple captioning windows simultaneously. The concurrent display of several progressive animated signed sentences allows for review of information, a feature not present in any sign language subtitling method presented so far. As an example of application, we have applied the multi-window, scrolling captioning technique to a children's video of a chemistry experiment.

Adams, Catherine (2006).  PowerPoint, Habits of Mind, and Classroom Culture  Journal of Curriculum Studies, 38, 4. 

In lecture halls, in secondary school classrooms, during training workshops, and at research conferences, PowerPoint is becoming a preferred method of communicating, presenting, and sharing knowledge. Questions have been raised about the implications of the use of this new medium for knowledge dissemination. It is suggested PowerPoint supports a cognitive and pedagogical style inconsistent with both the development of higher analytical thinking skills and the acquisition of rich narrative and interpretive understanding. This paper examines how PowerPoint invites and seduces educators to reshape knowledge in particular ways, and subsequently how this knowledge is presented to students in the classroom. The particular forms of knowing, relating, and presenting with PowerPoint are decided in part by teacher habituation to the software tool's default patterns, but also by the very nature of the presentation medium itself.

Adams, Catherine (2007).  On the "Informed Use" of Powerpoint: Rejoining Vallance and Towndrow  Journal of Curriculum Studies, 39, 2. 

As teachers become more informed about the affordances of information and communication technologies and take up the new tools in their classrooms, these same technologies are always already informing and reshaping their perceptions and actions in the world. In seizing hold of PowerPoint, a teacher is not only aided, enmeshed, and constrained by the designs of its software script, the teacher is also surrendered to the language, imagery, framing, at-handedness, sensuality, and mediation of its symbolism and materiality. We should not underestimate how new media and educational technologies affect the concrete, subjective, and pre-reflective dimensions of teachers' and students' lifeworlds.

Adams, Dennis (2002).  Paper, Digits, and Bytes: Putting Our Culture's Memory at Risk.  Educational Technology, 42, 5. 

Discusses information storage techniques and problems that libraries face with deteriorating paper materials as well as previous storage techniques, such as microfilm. Considers the loss of information when original paper sources are destroyed and newer techniques become obsolete and suggests approaches to minimize the loss of critical information, including digital data.

Adams, Dennis; Angeles, Rebecca (2008).  Mobile Devices at School: Possibilities, Problems, and Tough Choices  Educational Technology Magazine: The Magazine for Managers of Change in Education, 48, 1. 

This article takes a "point/counterpoint" approach to considering the educational use of mobile devices. It views the possibilities and problems surrounding the use of small laptops, cellphones, iPhones, etc. Although clear answers to questions regarding the classroom use of digital devices are hard to come by, the authors believe that educators at the local school district level may be in the best position to develop the technological rules of the road in a way that helps them meet curriculum standards.

Adams, Dennis; Hamm, Mary (2008).  Helping Students Who Struggle with Math and Science: A Collaborative Approach for Elementary and Middle Schools  [Rowman & Littlefield Education] 

This book builds on the social nature of learning to provide useful suggestions for reaching reluctant learners. It is based on the assumption that instruction that focuses on students' interests and builds on collaborative and differentiated learning will allow students to move from believing they "can't do mathematics or science" to a feeling of genuine achievement and confidence. It contains the following chapters: (1) Helping Struggling Students Learn Math and Science; (2) Student Inquiry in Math and Science; (3) Collaborative Learning: The Advantage of Small Learning Groups; (4) Differentiated Instruction: Multiple Paths to Learning and Assessment; (5) Reaching Reluctant Math Learners: Mathematical Reasoning and Collaborative Problem Solving; (6) Science for All Students: Collaborative Inquiry, Active Involvement, and Struggling Students; (7) Technology and Reluctant Learners: The Motivating and Collaborative Possibilities of Powerful Tools; and (8) A Project-Based Approach: Projects, Thematic Units, Collaboration, and Struggling Students.

Adams, J.; Rogers, B.; Hayne, S.; Mark, G.; Nash, J.; Leifer, L. (2005).  The Effect of a Telepointer on Student Performance and Preference  Computers and Education, 44, 1. 

While the telepointer has been widely accepted in the Computer Supported Collaborative Work community, little work has been done to quantify its effect on performance and perception. We present preliminary results quantifying the telepointer's effect on knowledge retention and satisfaction in an online collaboration. In experiments, a remote expert communicated with small student groups to explain an online scanning probe microscope (SPM) interface. The expert used two-way audio-video plus a telepointer to describe the interface to half of the participants, and only two-way audio-video (no telepointer) with the other half. The data show that use of a telepointer improved task completion time tenfold and long-term knowledge test performance by 30-40% on specific concepts. The telepointer group was also more likely to rate the online SPM as a substitute for a local SPM and felt the expert was significantly less distant than did the non-telepointer group.

Adams, Jonathan; DeFleur, Margaret H. (2005).  The Acceptability of a Doctoral Degree Earned Online as a Credential for Obtaining a Faculty Position  American Journal of Distance Education, 19, 2. 

A national survey was used to assess the acceptability of a job applicant's qualifications that included online coursework. The questionnaire, sent to hiring committee chairpersons, described three hypothetical applicants who earned degrees through a "traditional" institution, a "virtual" institution, and "mixed" coursework. The respondents were asked to select one applicant for the position and provide written explanations. The applicant with a traditional degree was preferred in two different hiring scenarios. The respondents' comments revealed five categories of importance: experiences, institutional quality, face-to-face interaction, socialization, and mentoring.

Adams, Jonathan; DeFleur, Margaret H. (2006).  The Acceptability of Online Degrees Earned as a Credential for Obtaining Employment  Communication Education, 55, 1. 

A national survey of hiring executives was conducted to assess the acceptability of a job applicant's qualifications for employment that included a degree earned solely online or one that included a significant amount of online coursework. The questionnaire was sent in response to job advertisements posted in newspapers in eight major metropolitan areas throughout the United States. It described three hypothetical applicants: One earned a degree through a "traditional" institution; a second obtained a degree solely online from a "virtual" institution; and a third obtained a degree by "mixed" online and traditional coursework. The question addressed by this study is whether a job applicant who has earned a bachelor's degree entirely or partially online has the same chance of being hired as one whose degree was completed through traditional coursework. The findings appear to indicate rather clearly that they are not.

Adams, Mary; Dority, Kim (2005).  Part-Time Faculty: Building a Quality Team. DETC Occasional Paper Number 24  [Distance Education and Training Council] 

Part-time faculty, once a rare breed among teachers, are stepping into an increasingly critical role in higher education. Just as traditional colleges are relying on adjunct faculty to a degree unheard of just a decade ago, non-traditional programs are coming to rely on the flexibility, broader skills sets, and "real-world" knowledge that that these new "unbundled" instructors can deliver. Like every new opportunity, however, using contract or contingent faculty brings with it some interesting new challenges, especially for distance learning institutions. This paper explores several issues surrounding the use of adjunct faculty in distance education: (1) common characteristics of "free-agent" teachers; (2) what administrators need from part-time faculty and vice versa; (3) how to structure an effective working relationship; and (4) how adjuncts can add value to students' education. A list of recommended resources is included. The following are appended: (1) Interview with Two Online Adjunct Faculty; and (2) Four Sample Faculty Contracts.  | [FULL TEXT]

Adams, Nan B. (2002).  Educational Computing Concerns of Postsecondary Faculty.  Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 34, 3. 

This study examined teachers' concerns related to the integration of technology into teaching practices and compares these concerns with professional and ancillary demographic variables. Discusses a correlation among attendance of faculty development activities, integration level, and higher-order concerns; and correlations among gender, age, and teaching experience.

Adams, Paula W.; Swicegood, Philip R.; Lynch, Sharon A. (2004).  The Diagnostician's Portfolio: A Tool for Evaluation and Reflection  Assessment for Effective Intervention, 29, 2. 

This article discusses the benefits of professional portfolios for educational diagnosticians throughout their careers as a means of documenting proficiency and experience in communication, assessment, time management, organization, community resources, and educational planning. Various purposes of the portfolio are considered; for gaining employment, as a tool for informing performance evaluations, for supporting professional growth and development throughout the career, along with differences in the nature of the portfolio according to its purpose. The article also addresses the possible contents, organization, and format of the educational diagnostician's portfolio.

Adams, Roger E.; Lindbloom, Trent (2006).  Understanding the Design, Function and Testing of Relays  Tech Directions, 65, 8. 

The increased use of electronics in today's automobiles has complicated the control of circuits and actuators. Manufacturers use relays to control a variety of complex circuits--for example, those involving actuators and other components like the A/C clutch, electronic cooling fans, and blower motors. Relays allow a switch or processor to control a circuit that requires a higher amperage flow. In essence, a relay is nothing more than a small electromagnet that allows the processor or remote switch to connect or disconnect electrical current to a component. Over the past few years, the authors have served as judges in regional SkillsUSA competitions in Missouri and Kansas and at the national SkillsUSA championships. In the course of those activities, they have noticed that many students have problems with stations that involve the operation of relays. Most students seem to have a limited understanding of how a relay works, as well as how to diagnose and troubleshoot this electrical device. This article provides information on the operation and testing of automotive relays, along with related activities that teachers can use with their students.

Adams, Stephen T. (2005).  A Strategy for Technology Training as Part of a Master's Program Conducted at a School Site  Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 13, 3. 

This case study evaluates a field-based strategy for training in-service elementary teachers to use technology. The strategy, which was incorporated into the Long Beach Professional Development School for Educators (LBPDSE), involved a technology course taken by a cohort of students in an on-site M.A. program in Curriculum and Instruction. Participating teachers identified topics of interest and, in teams, taught one another both computer and technology integration skills. Data were collected including beginning-of-course and end-of-course professional development plans and self-assessments, plus post-course focus group meetings. Prior to the course, teachers' predominant uses of computers were largely peripheral to their subject matter instruction, and their beginning-of-course self-assessments of their technological skills were mostly at introductory proficiency levels. By the end of the course (a) teachers began applying many of the introduced technology integration skills to their teaching, (b) most teachers' technology self-assessments reached intermediate to advanced proficiency levels, (c) the most frequently mentioned means for further professional development in technology was learning from fellow teachers, (d) over one-half of the teachers reported increased confidence or comfort with computers, and (e) about one-third of the teachers reported a substantial shift in their stance towards computers.

Adams, Thomas Q. (2002).  Visit to a Virtual Training Program: Professional Development Leader Spins His Foundation on a Web.  Journal of Staff Development, 23, 1. 

Describes how one teacher used an instructional Web site to encourage student learning, explaining how such Web sites can create teacher development opportunities. The paper explains how to get teachers to build and use instructional sites and how to empower teachers to participate and innovate. Sidebars describe the school, explain what makes a good instructional Web site, and present resources.

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Ash, Stephanie B.; Sun, Feng; Sundin, Robert (2002).  How Are Alabama's Teachers Integrating the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) Standards in the Classroom: Measuring Technology Integration's IMPACT--Roberts Middle School. 

Alabama's Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers To Use Technology program developed an assessment instrument to measure the level of technology integration into Alabama's classrooms. The instrument asked questions related to five factors: (1) general instruction integration; (2) teaching students to use technology; (3) managing technology resources; (4) general technology skills; and (5) essential conditions (for technology use). The survey was posted on the World Wide Web, and all classroom teachers in the state were issued a login name and password to access the survey. Responses were received from 329 teachers from 10 schools in 2002. This study analyzed responses of teachers from one middle school. Responses indicate that teachers at the middle school are still at the beginning level of technology integration in the classroom, and that the school does not provide enough essential conditions for technology support. The school is still at the beginning stages of technology integration, although teachers appear to have the general technology skills to integrate technology at a higher level. | [FULL TEXT]

Ashburn, Sarah J.; Eichinger, David C.; Witham, Shelly A.; Cross, Vanessa D.; Krockover, Gerald H.; Pae, Tae-Il; Islam, Samantha; Robinson, J. Paul (2002).  The BioScope Initiative: Integrating Technology into the Biology Classroom.  American Biology Teacher, 64, 7. 

Reports on the quantitative and qualitative assessment of the CD-ROM "Cell Structure and Function" which includes five sections: (1) Basics; (2) Simple Cell; (3) Cell Viewer; (4) Cellular Changes; and (5) Handles. Evaluates the effectiveness of the CD-ROM with the participation of (n=65) students. Applies both qualitative and statistical methods. Includes assessment samples.

Ashby, Cornelia M. (2006).  Higher Education: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Trends and the Role of Federal Programs. Testimony before the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives. GAO-06-702T  [Government Accountability Office] 

The United States is a world leader in scientific and technological innovation. To help maintain this advantage, the federal government has spent billions of dollars on education programs in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields for many years. However, concerns have been raised about the nation's ability to maintain its global technological competitive advantage in the future. The testimony in this report is based on the October 2005 report and presents information on: (1) trends in degree attainment in STEM- and non-STEM-related fields and factors that may influence these trends; (2) trends in the levels of employment in STEM- and non-STEM-related fields and factors that may influence these trends; and (3) federal education programs intended to support the study of and employment in STEM-related fields. For this report, the researchers analyzed survey responses from 13 civilian federal departments and agencies; analyzed data from the Departments of Education and Labor; interviewed educators, federal agency officials, and representatives from education associations and organizations; and interviewed students. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) found that while postsecondary enrollment has increased over the past decade, the proportion of students obtaining degrees in STEM fields has fallen. In academic year 1994-1995, about 519,000 students (32 percent) obtained STEM degrees. About 578,000 students obtained STEM degrees in academic year 2003-2004, accounting for 27 percent of degrees awarded. Despite increases in enrollment and degree attainment by women and minorities at the graduate level, the number of graduate degrees conferred fell in several STEM-related fields from academic year 1994-1995 to academic year 2003-2004. College and university officials and students most often cited subpar teacher quality and poor high school preparation as factors that discouraged the pursuit of STEM degrees. Suggestions to encourage more enrollment in STEM fields include increased outreach and mentoring.  [This report was published by the United States Government Accountability Office.] | [FULL TEXT]

Ashby, Nicole, Ed. (2005).  The Achiever. Volume 4, Number 3  [US Department of Education] 

This issue includes the following Articles: (1) "Spellings Says Nation's Academic Progress Due to "New Equation." On Jan. 31, 2005, Margaret Spellings was sworn in as the eighth secretary of education. Across the nation, test scores in Reading and Math are rising, with disadvantaged and minority students leading the way. After long decades, the pernicious 'achievement gap' is beginning to close; (2) "French, Spanish, and... Computers." discusses how foreign language and technology broaden horizons for a Philadelphia Urban School. At the Laboratory Charter School of Communication and Languages, there's no telling what language will be heard in the classroom. Because students at this 2004 No Child Left Behind Blue Ribbon School in Philadelphia study both French and Spanish from kindergarten through eighth grade; (3) "No Child Left behind: High School Initiatives." Summarizes President George W. Bush's education plan for reforming America's high schools, pledging $1.5 billion in funding for a new High School Initiative that would help states better assess and address students' skills; (4) "Help for Teachers." Describes how Math, Science, and Special education teachers who have taught in Title I (economically disadvantaged) schools for up to five years may be eligible for higher loan forgiveness amounts under a new law. The Taxpayer-Teacher Protection Act (P.L. 108-409), signed by President Bush in October 2004, authorizes up to $17,500 in loan forgiveness to individuals who have been employed full time for 5 consecutive years as highly qualified Math, Science, and Special Education teachers; and (5) "Education Department Web Site Helps Combat Problem of Diploma Mills." Announces that the U.S. Department of Education recently unveiled a new Web site where students and employers may access a master list of accredited colleges, universities, and career and trade schools. | [FULL TEXT]

Ashby, Nicole, Ed. (2005).  The Achiever. Volume 4, Number 5  [US Department of Education] 

"The Achiever" is published semi-monthly during the school year for parents and community leaders. Each issue contains news and information about school improvement in the United States. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) "Study Yields First-Ever Data on K-12 Distance Education"; (2) "Putting Its Mark on the Community: North Carolina School Uses Assessments to Bridge Achievement, Communication Gaps"; and (3) "Close-Up: No Child Left Behind--Mathematics and Science Partnership Program." | [FULL TEXT]

Ashby, Nicole, Ed. (2005).  The Achiever. Volume 4, Number 7  [US Department of Education] 

"The Achiever" is published semi-monthly during the school year for parents and community leaders. Each issue contains news and information about school improvement in the United States. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) "Spellings: New 'Commonsense' Approach to Implementing 'NCLB'"; (2) "The Variable That Makes the Difference California Math and Science School Factors in Small Groups for Successful Equation" and (3) "Close-Up: 'No Child Left Behind'--A New Path for Raising Achievement." | [FULL TEXT]

Ashby, Nicole, Ed. (2005).  The Achiever. Volume 4, Number 9  [US Department of Education] 

"The Achiever" is published semi-monthly during the school year for parents and community leaders. Each issue contains news and information about school improvement in the United States. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) "New Policy that Helps States Better Assist Students with Disabilities"; (2) "The Challenge of Professional Development" (Michele Satchwell); and (3) "Close-Up: No Child Left Behind--State Flexibility for Students with Disabilities." | [FULL TEXT]

Ashby, Nicole, Ed. (2006).  The Achiever. Volume 5, Number 9  [US Department of Education] 

"The Achiever" is a monthly newsletter designed expressly for parents and community leaders. Each issue contains news and information about school improvement in the United States. The highlights of this issue include: (1) Report Finds U.S. Higher Education in Need of Change; (2) Meeting a Critical Need: Foreign Languages, Academic Rigor Help Prepare Virginia Students for Global Marketplace; (3) Spellings Introduces Higher Education Plan; (4) Q&A: Academically Rigorous Courses; (5) Education News Parents Can Use; (6) Around the Country: Pennsylvania and Texas; and (7) Funding Education Beyond High School. | [FULL TEXT]

Ashby, Nicole, Ed. (2007).  The Achiever. Volume 6, Number 5  [US Department of Education] 

"The Achiever" is a monthly newsletter designed expressly for parents and community leaders. Each issue contains news and information about and from public and private organizations about school improvement in the United States. Highlights of this issue include: (1) New Online Tool Simplifies Financial Aid Process; (2) Rigor in K-6: Interdisciplinary Curriculum, Strong Leadership Account for 100-Percent Proficiency at New York School; (3) Virginia Tech University Condolences; (4) Around the Country: Georgia and Texas; (5) Q&A: Improving Math and Science Achievement; (6) Education News Parents Can Use; and (7) Making Ed.gov More User-Friendly. | [FULL TEXT]

Ashby, Nicole, Ed. (2007).  The Achiever. Volume 6, Number 3  [US Department of Education] 

"The Achiever" is a monthly newsletter designed expressly for parents and community leaders. Each issue contains news and information about school improvement in the United States. Highlights of this issue include: (1) Proposed Budget Invests More Into NCLB, Neediest Students; (2) Making History: L.A. County School With Disadvantaged Ethnic Populations Scores Record Achievement; (3) A Healthy Approach: Pandemic Flu Guidance; (4) Q&A: Free Application for Federal Student Aid; (5) Education News Parents Can Use; and (6) Frequently Asked Questions About Education. | [FULL TEXT]

Ashton, Helen S.; Beevers, Cliff E.; Bull, Joanna (2004).  Piloting E-Assessment in Scottish Schools--Building on Past Experience  International Journal on E-Learning, 3, 2. 

Assessment and learning are two sides of the same coin (Ramsden, 1992, Biggs, 1999) and their relationship has also been likened to the participants in a three-legged race (Harding & Craven, 2001). The aim of this article is to explore the potential of e-assessment to provide solutions to some of the challenges for e-learning. Drawing on decades of development in the United Kingdom higher education sector, this article addresses key issues for e-learning, in particular the support of learners through formative assessment and detailed feedback and the benefits of, and barriers to, summative e-assessment for both learners and organisations. Various groups have pioneered the delivery of e-assessment in the United Kingdom since the mid-1980s. Early projects and tools include: the Computer-aided Learning in Mathematics (CALM) Project team at Heriot-Watt University (Beevers, Foster & McGuire, 1989), Coursemaster computer science programming software at Nottingham University (Benford, Burke, & Foxley, 1992; Foxley, Higgins, Tsintsifas, & Symoniedes, 1999) and various language tools, such as LUISA at Leeds University, among others (Bull, 1993). The tools of e-assessment have advanced dramatically. Systems are now capable of supplying a range of question types well beyond the multiple-choice format, incorporating images, multimedia, and animation. In many universities e-assessment is used for both formative and summative assessment in a variety of disciplines (Stephens & Mascia, 1995, Bull & McKenna, 2000, 2003; Mackenzie, 1999). Internationally, there have been similar developments in Australia (Robinson, 1999; Morgan & O'Reilly, 1999; Daziel, 2001), Europe (Deemeersseman, Bert & Jos, 2001, Van Rentergem, Cosemans, Verburgh, & Wils, 2002; Geurts, 2001; Guildford Educational Services [GES], 1999) and especially in the United States where the use of large-scale e-assessment is widespread across a range of sectors (Bennett, 1998; Drasgow & Olsen-Buchanan, 1999; Burstein, Lacock, & Swartz, 2001; Leacock & Chodorow, 2000). Practitioners and developers frequently debate the effective pedagogical use of e-assessment. Themes include the potential to support and enhance learning through structured and directive formative assessment and feedback and the capabilities of e-assessment to test different types of skills effectively and reliably. It is generally accepted that Bloom (Bloom & Krathwohl, 1956/1964) provided a sensible taxonomy of educational objectives that apply to most academic subjects. Currently in practice, e-assessment can be applied to test the minimum competencies (knowledge, comprehension, and application), and attempts are already appearing to provide automatic testing for the extended competencies of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. In Scottish secondary education, National Assessment Bank (NAB) tests measure the minimum competencies. The recently funded project, PASS-IT, is working to achieve the automatic delivery of National Assessment Bank items in a range of subjects directly into schools and colleges. PASS-IT (http://www.pass-it.org.uk) brings together major Scottish interests with a common goal to investigate how best to exploit e-assessment to enhance flexibility, improve attainment, and support teaching and learning. PASS-IT combines the key players of the Scottish Qualifications Authority, Learning and Teaching Scotland, the BBC, the Scottish Further Education Unit, and the Scottish Centre for Research into On-Line Learning and Assessment. PASS-IT is creating e-assessment for a range of National and Higher National provision and tests for one area of the 5-14 curriculum, supporting the first National Priority in school education--Achievement and Attainment. The project has a keen awareness of related issues, such as interoperability (http://www.impsproject.org), evaluations of the use of steps for partial credit (Beevers, Youngson, McGuire, Wild, & Fiddes, 1999), the significance of the medium in test delivery (Fiddes, Korabinski, McGuire, Youngson, & McMillan, 2002) and the emerging guidelines concerning security of computer examinations (UK BS7988 Code of Practice). PASS-IT is experimenting with novel approaches to question design and structure, the role of feedback to support learning, invigilation leading to more secure examinations on demand and the concept of anywhere, anytime testing. While no prior assumptions are being made about either the feasibility or desirability of e-assessment this project is seeking to develop a model for national summative assessment, which can be adapted for use with a number of assessment approaches, and can illustrate the relationship between formative and summative assessment.

Ashton, Helen S.; Beevers, Cliff E.; Korabinski, Athol A.; Youngson, Martin A. (2005).  Investigating the Medium Effect in Computer-Aided Assessment of School Chemistry and College Computing National Examinations  British Journal of Educational Technology, 36, 5. 

This article presents results of a comparison between paper and computer tests of ability in Chemistry and Computing. A statistical model is employed to analyse the experimental data from almost 200 candidates. It is shown that there is no medium effect when specific traditional paper examinations in Chemistry and Computing are transferred into electronic format. The effect of rewording for computer-delivered test questions is also investigated and again the conclusion is that no evidence of a difference could be found. These results were obtained as part of the Project for Assessments in Scotland using Information Technology

Ashton, Helen S.; Beevers, Cliff E.; Korabinski, Athol A.; Youngson, Martin A. (2006).  Incorporating Partial Credit in Computer-Aided Assessment of Mathematics in Secondary Education  British Journal of Educational Technology, 37, 1. 

In a mathematical examination on paper, partial credit is normally awarded for an answer that is not correct, but, nevertheless, contains some of the correct working. Assessment on computer normally marks an incorrect answer wrong and awards no marks. This can lead to discrepancies between marks awarded for the same examination given in the two different media. The current paper presents possible solutions to this problem and the results of experiments designed to test how successful these solutions are in practice. In light of the findings, developments to the assessment engine have been made and some questions redesigned for use in real automated examinations. The results were obtained as part of the Project for Assessments in Scotland using Information Technology (PASS-IT): a major collaborative programme involving the leading educational agencies in Scotland (see http://www.pass-it.org.uk for more details). PASS-IT has demonstrated that the computer can help measure lower order student skill profiles provided the computer assessment package is sophisticated enough. Optional steps are required to mimic partial credit; randomisation of parameters is needed for practice and the avoidance of copying; the ability to capture and mark automatically mathematical expressions and short free text responses; and the delivery in a number of feedback modes are all vital ingredients of an automatic assessment system. PASS-IT has shown how to ensure that education drives technology and not vice versa. Finally, collaboration has been paramount within PASS-IT and should continue. No single group has all the keys to unlock the future of computer-aided assessment. Scotland is well placed to move forward and e-assess where its students e-learn in a large range of subjects such as those delivered via the SCHOLAR Programme (see http://scholar.hw.ac.uk). It should be done too by ensuring that teachers remain central to the learning cycle by supporting the demanding work they do through the supply of suitably filtered data on student performance. Special educational needs can also be addressed more effectively by the use of technology.

Ashton, Helen; Wood, Christine (2006).  Use of Online Assessment to Enhance Teaching and Learning: The PASS-IT Project  European Educational Research Journal, 5, 2. 

This article describes a recent collaborative project (PASS-IT) which investigated the use of online assessment in secondary education in Scotland. The aim of PASS-IT was to explore the potential of formative and summative assessment in secondary education, and to build on previous research into the applicability and validity of online assessments. An overview of the project is given. Examples of online questions are provided in section 2 with a discussion of some of the issues and benefits. Section 3 outlines the main research findings of the project, which provide evidence for the validity of online assessments.

Ashton, Jean; Newman, Linda (2006).  An Unfinished Symphony: 21st Century Teacher Education Using Knowledge Creating Heutagogies  British Journal of Educational Technology, 37, 6. 

Globalisation has changed the way most people live, work and study in the 21st century. Teachers and teacher educators, like other professionals, must embrace these changes to be effective in their jobs and one ongoing change is the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) for lifelong learning. In this paper we describe how one group of academics in a university programme preparing new teachers has embraced change to introduce innovative programmes using ICTs and heutagogy rather than pedagogy. Heutagogy prepares students for the self-determined lifelong learning which is essential for survival in a 21st century world.

Ashton, Tamarah M. (2001).  The Field of Assistive Technology: Part 1 in the Series.  Journal of Special Education Technology, 16, 4. 

This article presents an interview with Kirk Behnke, the Coordinator of Training Grants and Contracts for the Center on Disabilities at California State University, Northridge. He discusses his experiences with the Assistive Technology Application Certification Program and provides recommendations for those interested in pursuing such a certificate.

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Aly

Aly, Mahsoub Abdul-Sadeq (2008).  An Evaluative Study of Some Online Websites for Learning and Teaching English as a Foreign Language  [Online Submission] 

Although there are many websites designed and published on the Internet for learning and teaching English, little use of them is done by both Egyptian EFL teachers and students. The textbook is usually their main concern and focus. That is why the present study draws more light on the importance of language teaching and learning websites and evaluates some of them so as to introduce them to both for use. This problem was tackled through answering the following questions: (1) What are the websites available online for learning and teaching English as a foreign language?; (2) What are the points of strength and weakness of some of these sites?; and (3) How can these sites be utilized by the Egyptian teachers and students for teaching and learning English as a foreign language? A 63-item evaluation criteria checklist was used to assess the six selected websites. It covered eight dimensions as follows: Authority, Purpose, Coverage, Currency, Objectivity, Accuracy, Technical Aspects (navigation, design and structure, and access), and Usefulness for TEFL Teachers and Students. The participants (n=17 - post-graduate students at Benha University) visited them and responded to the evaluation criteria checklist for identifying the points of strength and weakness of each website. The six websites, as a whole, were reported by the participants very useful for learning and teaching English. Based on the findings of evaluation, educational implications and recommendations for the utilization of these sites for teaching and learning English in Egypt were suggested.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Aca

Acat, M. Bahaddin; Kilic, Abdurrahman; Girmen, Pinar; Anagun, Senegul S. (2007).  The Necessity and Applicability Levels of the Courses that are Offered in the Departments of Computer Education and Instructional Technologies (CEIT)  [Online Submission]

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Akh

Akhter, Zobaida (2008).  Get a Second Chance to Make a First Impression: Eradicate the Poverty Level of the Women Farmer in Bangladesh  [Online Submission] 

In the socio-economic context of Bangladesh, involvement of women in agriculture is very important. It would be easier to control rural-urban migration by engaging women in agricultural activities to a greater extent. Women play a vital role in agricultural production throughout the Bangladesh, making a significant contribution to the basic productivity of their communities. The paper argues that efforts to promote women in farming are confronted by challenges including poverty, misconception regarding education, training, farming etc. The paper also states that the utilization and development of distance education would effectively address the problem of education and training aimed at rural women.  | [FULL TEXT]

Akhter, Zobaida (2008).  Quality Assurance in Secondary Education Program of Bangladesh Open University: Present Status and Challenges  [Online Submission] 

In the present day in national and international perspectives, quality is the top of most agendas. Quality of education has significant impact and invaluable contribution to the area of development. Recently, the SSC & HSC program of BOU [Open School of Bangladesh Open University] have earned recognition of equivalency with the formal education sector, which has naturally raised the question of quality assurance of these programs. By applying the quantitative method, the study has assessed the present status of the quality of SSC & HSC program of BOU and also put some recommendations to meet the challenges for further development.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Ayd

Aydin, Selami (2006).  The Effect of Computers on the Test and Inter-Rater Reliability of Writing Tests of ESL Learners  [Online Submission] 

This research aimed to investigate the effect of computers on the test and inter-rater reliability of writing test scores of ESL learners. Writing samples of 20 pen-paper and 20 computer group students were scored in analytic scoring method by two scorers, and then the scores were analyzed in Alpha (Cronbach) model. The results showed that the test and inter-rater reliability of the writing samples of the computer group students were significantly higher than the ones of the pen-paper group participants. (Writing Topics and Writing Proficiency Scoring Table are appended. Contains 1 figure and 5 tables.) | [FULL TEXT]

Aydin, Selami (2007).  Attitudes of EFL Learners towards the Internet  [Online Submission] 

Related literature indicates that the Internet has an important role and great potential in foreign language learning. It is also obvious that attitudes of learners affect learning process significantly. This study aimed to investigate the attitudes of foreign language learners and to find the relationship between attitudes and subject variables. A background questionnaire, a test on Internet information and a survey were administered to 115 foreign language learners. Data gathered were analyzed statistically. The results showed that EFL learners had positive attitudes towards the Internet except some items such as addiction, socialization and shopping. It was implicated that positive attitudes would contribute to foreign language learning via the Internet after overcoming some potential problems and disadvantages. Includes appendix: The Scale of Attitudes towards the Internet.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Akb

Akbari, Ramin (2007).  Reflections on Reflection: A Critical Appraisal of Reflective Practices in L2 Teacher Education  System: An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, 35, 2. 

In the literature dealing with L2 teacher training and education numerous references are made to the concept of reflective teaching and teachers and teacher educators are encouraged to engage in reflective practices. The present paper, however, argues that in our attempt to empower teachers to become more efficient practitioners, we have lost sight of some important practical as well as theoretical considerations. Historically and theoretically, reflection has been influenced by many trends and philosophies which make the term reflection open to different interpretations. In addition, current reflective views lack a critical dimension since the emphasis has mostly been on rational aspects of the term. From a practical viewpoint, most of the stress has been on retrospective accounts of reflection, not on the prospective, creative aspects of the concept. Moreover, there is no evidence to show improved teacher or student performance resulting from reflective techniques and almost no acknowledgement of teachers' personality in such discussions. Finally, too much emphasis on reflective practices and teachers' practical knowledge might result in isolation from the language teaching discourse community.

Akbari, Ramin; Hosseini, Kobra (2008).  Multiple Intelligences and Language Learning Strategies: Investigating Possible Relations  System: An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, 36, 2. 

The present study was conducted to investigate the existence of any possible relationship between the use of language learning strategies and multiple intelligences' scores of foreign language learners of English. Ninety subjects participated in the study. To measure the participants' multiple intelligence scores, MIDAS, a commercially designed instrument, was used. Learners' strategy use was checked through SILL, Strategy use Inventory for Language Learning. The correlational analysis of the results indicated significant relations between the use of language learning strategies and IQ scores of the learners. Musical intelligence, however, did not correlate with any aspect of strategy use, and kinesthetic intelligence correlated only with memory learning strategies.

Akbulut, Yavuz (2007).  Implications of Two Well-Known Models for Instructional Designers in Distance Education: Dick-Carey versus Morrison-Ross-Kemp  [Online Submission] 

This paper first summarizes, and then compares and contrasts two well-known instructional design models: Dick and Carey Model (DC) and Morrison, Ross and Kemp model (MRK). The target audiences of both models are basically instructional designers. Both models have applications for different instructional design settings. They both see the instructional design as a means to problem-solving. However, there are also differences between the two models. Applications of each model for instructional design and technology are discussed, and a reference to instructional designers in distance education was made. | [FULL TEXT]

Akbulut, Yavuz (2007).  Variables Predicting Foreign Language Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition in a Linear Hypermedia Environment  [Online Submission] 

Factors predicting vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of advanced language learners of English in a linear multimedia text were investigated in the current study. Predictor variables of interest were multimedia type, reading proficiency, learning styles, topic interest and background knowledge about the topic. The outcome variables of interest were vocabulary and reading comprehension scores. Participants were 69 undergraduates enrolled at the foreign language teaching department of a Turkish university. Participants were randomly assigned to three different forms of an authentic electronic text, which differed from each other based on the type of multimedia: (a) definition of words, (b) definitions coupled with pictures, and (c) definitions coupled with short movies. The participants were given the text to read for general comprehension and were given an unannounced vocabulary test along with a reading comprehension test. Multiple regression analyses with vocabulary scores and reading scores as the criterion variables and the independent variables as the predictors served to reveal whether a relationship existed between the independent and dependent variables. Findings suggest that annotation type, reading ability and prior topical knowledge are important variables contributing to vocabulary learning whilst reading ability and learning styles (visual score) are important variables contributing to reading comprehension in a hypermedia environment. | [FULL TEXT]

Akbulut, Yavuz (2008).  Exploration of the Attitudes of Freshman Foreign Language Students toward Using Computers at a Turkish State University  [Online Submission] 

The present study expands the design of Warschauer (1996) surveying freshman foreign language students at a Turkish university. Motivating aspects of computer assisted instruction in terms of writing and e-mailing are explored through an exploratory factor analysis conducted on the survey developed by Warschauer (1996). Findings suggest that learners have positive attitudes towards CALL because of computers' potential to sustain independence, learning, collaboration, instrumental benefits, empowerment, comfort and communication. Influence of several background variables on attitudes towards CALL is also explored through relevant parametric tests. Analyses revealed that gender and age did not have an effect on attitude scores whereas having a PC at home, PC experience and hours of Internet use were related to attitudes towards CALL. Implications of the present study and suggestions for further research are provided.  | [FULL TEXT]

Akbulut, Yavuz; Kiyici, Mubin (2007).  Instructional Use of Weblogs  [Online Submission] 

Web 2.0 can provide learners with increased interaction and online collaboration. Among its applications, weblogs have gained an increasing popularity as they allow bloggers to voice their own perspectives which can be delivered to a large audience through the Web. Weblogs can be integrated into teaching-learning process as they encourage learners to collaborate and freely voice their ideas. However, innovative technologies might not always lead to innovative distance education practices if timely adaptation lags behind. This study presents a review on instructional use of weblogs along with implications for open and distance learning.  | [FULL TEXT]

Akbulut, Yavuz; Kuzu, Abdullah; Latchem, Colin; Odabasi, Ferhan (2007).  Change Readiness among Teaching Staff at Anadolu University, Turkey  Distance Education, 28, 3. 

Turkey's Anadolu University is one of the world's largest mega-universities. It is engaged in strategic planning in response to changes in the expectations of the Turkish Higher Education Council and the community at large. In re-examining its vision and strategic directions, Anadolu University needs to be informed on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of its teaching staff, and the systems and support needed to assure their change readiness. This article examines the literature of organizational and educational change and its implications for the university. It reports on a study based on the relevant constructs from the literature and is designed to gauge the extent and nature of teaching staff knowledge, skills, practice, and research in educational and technological change, motivating and de-motivating factors, change adopter types, and perceptions of the organizational climate for change. It considers the implications of these findings and draws conclusions about what would be needed to improve staff readiness for change.

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Abd

Abdal-Haqq, Ismat, Ed. (2002).  Connecting Schools and Communities through Technology: A School Leader's Guide. Technology Leadership Network Special Report. 

Families and communities can be valuable allies for professional educators and policymakers working to ensure high levels of student achievement. This publication emphasizes the use of technology to develop sustainable approaches and strategies that fit into a coordinated, comprehensive, and coherent family and community engagement program. It presents concepts and issues, and supplements discussions with practical guidelines; sample tools, such as checklists and surveys; and examples of technology-based outreach activities from actual schools and districts. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the body of research that supports the positive linkage between family and community involvement and high-achieving students and schools. Chapter 2 reports the results of a pilot project developed and managed by the National School Boards Foundation: Xchange: Strengthening Schools through Board Discussions. Chapter 3 looks at the potential for computer-mediated communications to create broad-based learning communities that bring parents, schools, and community members together to advance the interests of students. Chapter 4 consists of an annotated collection of electronic and print resources. The appendices feature a sample parent-involvement policy, lessons in Web site building learned by one district, and guidelines on how to avoid school and district liability for illegal or inappropriate Web site activities.

Abdal-Haqq, Ismat, Ed. (2002).  Virtual Realities: A School Leader's Guide to Online Education. A Technology Leadership Network Special Report. 

This book is designed to provide practical information about planning and operating virtual, or online, schools. It discusses and illustrates promising practices and successful models and approaches; provides planning resources for implementation; presents costs and benefits of launching virtual schools; offers preventive strategies that help districts anticipate and avoid common pitfalls; and features profiles of successful virtual-school programs. Chapter 1 looks at basic issues and concerns. Chapter 2 considers differences between face-to-face and online teaching and learning and discusses course design and professional development for the online environment. Chapter 3 presents profiles of seven online schools active in 2002 and includes sample online education policies in force at the time the profiles were drawn. Chapter 4 features print and electronic resources related to virtual schools. Included are appendices that include sample student and teacher evaluation forms, excerpts from an online school handbook, and an online course standards document.

Abdallah, Mahmoud Mohammad Sayed (2007).  Exploring the Process of Integrating the Internet into English Language Teaching  [Online Submission, Paper presented at the Academic Conference for Young Researchers (1st, Asyut, Egypt, Apr 24, 2007)] 

The present paper explores the process of integrating the Internet into the field of English language teaching in the light of the following points: the general importance of the Internet in our everyday lives shedding some light on the increasing importance of the Internet as a new innovation in our modern life; benefits of using the Internet in the field of education in general and how it may help teachers improve students' academic performance and develop their academic skills; reasons for, and benefits of, using the Internet in English language teaching in particular; how the Internet (with the many facilities that it provides) can be useful for developing language skills, with special focus on reading which has become a very important language skill in the context of the great masses of information we are having now. The paper details examples of many studies conducted in the field of using the Internet in English teaching in general and reading instruction in particular. | [FULL TEXT]

Abdel-Salam, Tarek M.; Kauffmann, Paul J.; Crossman, Gary R. (2007).  Are Distance Laboratories Effective Tools for Technology Education?  American Journal of Distance Education, 21, 2. 

The ability to perform a laboratory experiment as a nonhands-on observer, such as in a distance education context, has been questioned by some educators who ponder whether distance education lab courses are as effective as those held in a physical laboratory environment. This article examines this issue and compares the performance of distance education students with their on-campus counterparts in a junior laboratory course. Data from six semesters are examined and presented. A regression model is developed to predict the performance of both distance education and on-campus students. Results of the model show that only report grades and location (whether distance education or on-campus) are statistically significant. In addition, statistical analysis of the six semesters of data shows equal performance of the two groups.

Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed Gad (2008).  Modeling Students' Intention to Adopt E-Learning: A Case from Egypt  [Online Submission] 

E-learning is becoming increasingly prominent in higher education, with universities increasing provision and more students signing up. This paper examines factors that predict students' intention to adopt e-learning at the Egyptian University of Mansourra. Understanding the nature of these factors may assist Egyptian universities in promoting the use of information and communication technology in teaching and learning. The main focus of the paper is on the university students, whose decision supports effective implementation of e-learning. Data was collected through a survey of 258 first year business students at the University of Mansoura in Egypt. The technology adoption model put forward by Davis is utilized in this study. Two more independent variables are added to the original model, namely, the pressure to act and resources availability. The results show that there are five factors that can be used in modeling students' intentions to adopt e-learning. These factors are attitudes toward e-learning, perceived usefulness of e-learning, perceived ease of e-learning use, pressure to use e-learning, and the availability of resources needed to use e-learning.  | [FULL TEXT]

Abdelraheem, Ahmed Yousif (2005).  Integrating Instructional Technology with Information Technology and Its Implications for Designing Electronic Learning Systems.  International Journal of Instructional Media, 32, 2. 

In this paper the concepts of technology, instructional technology, and information technology are presented. The integration of instructional technology, and information technology is established and its implications for electronic learning systems design are discussed. One can say that: information and instructional designers can design instruction and learning successfully if they choose the right resources, tools and processes accompanied with well designed softwares. This will be achieved only by collaboration among instructional technologists and information technologists. Thus electronic learning systems of high quality could be designed for the benefit of the learner.

Abdon, Buenafe R.; Ninomiya, Seishi; Raab, Robert T. (2007).  e-Learning in Higher Education Makes Its Debut in Cambodia: Implications of the Provincial Business Education Project  [Online Submission] 

Developing countries face a number of challenges in their efforts to compete successfully in the new global economy. Perhaps the most critical resource needed to achieve these goals is trained human capital. While many developing countries are trying to address this need through traditional means, this may not be the most effective or efficient response. e-Learning has been suggested as an alternative approach that can overcome many of the challenges involved in reaching underserved students. But most educational institutions in developing countries are unfamiliar with e-Learning, have low levels of computer availability, access, familiarity and Internet penetration which leads to skepticism about the feasibility of this approach. In an effort to assess the potential of e-Learning in meeting the needs for developing human capital in Cambodia, this paper reports on the experience and achievements of the "Provincial Business Education through the Community Information Centers" (CICs) project. Key findings are that e-Learning was able to successfully deliver tertiary educational opportunities to underserved provincial students, Cambodian students were able to overcome serious challenges and that female Cambodian students demonstrated superior performance in online classes. These results suggest that e-Learning is an effective alternative for delivering tertiary education in Cambodia.  [This article was published in the Regional Focus Issue: Changing Faces of Open and Distance Education in Asia.] | [FULL TEXT]

Abdon, Buenafe, Comp.; Henly, John, Comp.; Jeffrey, Marilyn, Comp. (2006).  Directory of ICT Resources for Teaching and Learning of Science, Mathematics and Language  [Online Submission] 

The UNESCO SchoolNet project, "Strengthening ICT in Schools and SchoolNet Project in ASEAN Setting", was initiated to assist teachers to integrate ICT into teaching and to facilitate participation of teachers and students in the Asia-Pacific region in SchoolNet telecollaboration activities. The project was launched in July 2003 and focuses on three subject areas, languages, mathematics and science. SchoolNet activities have been piloted in 24 schools in eight participating countries of the ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) region: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Viet Nam. The directory, in table format, describes the contents of the UNESCO SchoolNet project and provides readily available and quality resources (both teaching materials and lesson plans) for teaching and learning English, Mathematics, and the Sciences. The directory contains a total of 367 lessons with 47 on English learning, covering grammar, reading, spelling, vocabulary, and writing. There are 152 lessons on Mathematics covering algebra, geometry, numbers, probability, statistics, time and trigonometry. The sciences subject is further divided into 18 lessons on earth science, 17 on biology, 23 on chemistry, and 110 on physics. Complete set of teaching materials and lessons plans are available only in CD-ROM format. Selected materials are also accessible via http://www.unescobkk.org/index.php?id=1230. [This document was published by the UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education. The accompanying CD-ROM is not available from ERIC.] | [FULL TEXT]

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Ami

Amiel, Tel; McClendon, V. J.; Orey, Michael (2007).  A Model for International Collaborative Development Work in Schools  Educational Media International, 44, 2. 

This paper discusses the establishment of an international collaborative program focused on school improvement in Brazil and the United States. Two qualitative research studies were conducted on the development work conducted by faculty, students, and local K-12 school stakeholders. The design and implementation of collaborative student projects focused on multicultural education and the use of educational technologies. A model for international collaborative projects is presented that can serve as a framework for future projects following similar principles.

Amiel, Tel; Orey, Michael (2007).  Do You Have the Time? Investigating Online Classroom Workload  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 35, 1. 

The time it takes to teach and take classes has been the subject of much speculation, but no accurate standard exists to measure the amount of time instructors and students dedicate to courses. The most common measure of workload has been the credit system. As administrators push faculty toward teaching online or adding online components to their existing classes, time commitment remains one of the strongest objections to teaching online. Characteristics of online environments (such as added flexibility) appeal to a growing number of students, elevating time management to an even more critical level. This study discusses a Web-based time log system used to measure during-course workload. The system was used in five masters-level classes over a 2-year period. It is contended that by using systems such as the one outlined herein, administrators, faculty, and students can better examine and determine the important but often neglected factor of workload.

Amirian, Susan (2004).  Putting Tablet PCs to the Test  T.H.E. Journal, 32, 4. 

Like many educators, the author and her colleagues (five faculty members and two IT techs) in the department of Media Communications and Technology at East Stroudsburg University in Pennsylvania were interested to find out the status of tablet PCs in education. Microsoft listed 10 manufacturers of tablet PCs following two forms: the slate and the convertible. The tablet PC operating system was the same full Windows XP system found on standard computers with the addition of tablet features such as handwriting recognition and notation. This was common to all tablets. The difference between tablets was their hardware, configurations and accessories. They would consider the hardware and software, but their first interest was to see what applications of tablet computing were taking place in today's classrooms.

Amirian, Susan (2007).  Digital Backpacks: Facilitating Faculty Implementation of Technologies for Teaching and Learning  Computers in the Schools, 24, 1-2. 

The purpose of this paper is to present the Digital Backpacks program, to discuss its design, development, and implementation. Digital Backpacks was created to give university faculty and partner K-12 teachers access to hardware and software to facilitate their own learning, to design learning activities for their classrooms, and then to bring the hardware and software into their classrooms to implement their learning designs. The program delivered training and modeled uses of technologies for learning in a collegial, supportive, and social environment. The focus of this article is on the structure of the program, lessons learned, and recommendations for designing similar programs.

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Axt

Axtell, Kulwadee; Chaffin, Amy J.; Aberasturi, Suzanne; Paone, Tina; Maddux, Cleborne (2007).  Writing for Publication: An Analysis of 591 Articles in Five Journals Dealing with Information Technology in Education  Computers in the Schools, 24, 1-2. 

This article presents information about all articles published over three years in five different journals dealing with information technology in education. The researchers collected all 591 articles from these well-known journals. All articles were analyzed using a researcher-made matrix. Information gathered included descriptive information about each journal such as the editor's name, address, format, style required for submission, and data on types of published articles. The purpose of this study is to provide information for prospective authors.

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Aki

Akinsola, M. K.; Animasahun, I. A. (2007).  The Effect of Simulation-Games Environment on Students Achievement in and Attitudes to Mathematics in Secondary Schools  [Online Submission] 

This study sought to determine the effect of simulation-games environment on students' achievement in attitudes to mathematics in secondary school. Data was collected from a sample of 147 students in senior secondary school in Osun-State, Nigeria. t-test and analysis of variance was used to analyze the data collected for the study. The finding reveals that students' poor academic achievement in mathematics is partly due to the method of teaching used. Also, the findings revealed that, the use of simulation-games environment led to improve achievement and positive attitude towards mathematics. The study conclude that teachers' use of stimulating teaching methods would go a long way in sustaining and motivating students interest in learning mathematics.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Al-Jarf, Reima S. (2004).  The Effects of Web-Based Learning on Struggling EFL College Writers  Foreign Language Annals, 37, 1. 

This study aimed at finding out whether there were significant differences in achievement between English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) freshman students exposed to traditional in class writing instruction depending on the textbook only, and those exposed to a combination of traditional in-class instruction and Web-based instruction in writing. All students were pretested before instruction and studied the same writing textbook for 12 weeks. In addition, the experimental group of students received online instruction in which they posted their own threads, short paragraphs, stories, or poems on a discussion board. They located information related to themes covered in the book from Internet sites such as ?Yahoo! Movies? and ?WebMD.? They word processed their paragraphs and checked their own spelling using Microsoft Word. At the end of the treatment, both groups were posttested. Results of the paired and independent t tests and Analysis of Covariance are reported.

Al-Jarf, Reima Sado (2004).  Differential Effects of Online Instruction on a Variety of EFL Courses  [Online Submission, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Asia Association of Computer Assisted Language Learning (AsiaCALL) (3rd, Penang, Malaysia, Nov 22-24, 2004)] 

I taught 4 types of EFL courses to undergraduate students online: Grammar, writing, culture and study skills using Blackboard and Nicenet. Online instruction was used as a supplement to traditional in-class instruction. Significant differences were found between pre- and post-test scores in writing, grammar and culture but not in study skills. The achievement level was higher among active participants who posted threads and shared in the discussion than passive participants who were just browsers and did not write anything, and between members of the latter group and those who were not registered in the online courses at all. The effect of online instruction on students' attitudes is also reported.  | [FULL TEXT]

Al-Jarf, Reima Sado (2005).  Using Three Online Course Management Systems in EFL Instruction  [Online Submission, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Asia Association of Computer Assisted Language Learning (AsiaCALL) (4th, Geongju, South Korea, Nov 10-12, 2005)] 

Nicenet, WebCT and Moodle were used to teach grammar to freshman students at the College of Languages and Translation, King Saud University in Saudi Arabia. The subjects were divided into three groups and were randomly assigned to the three online courses. The same questions, discussion threads, grammar websites, daily grammar lesson, exercises and quizzes were posted in the three online courses. Daily observations of student reactions, questions and discussions as well as responses to post-treatment questionnaires showed that Nicenet was the most popular. The effective and ineffective use of Online Course Management Systems in EFL instruction by female freshman students in Saudi Arabia are discussed. | [FULL TEXT]

Al-Jarf, Reima Sado (2005).  Connecting Students across Universities in Saudi Arabia  [Online Submission, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Asia Association of Computer Assisted Language Learning (4th, Geongju, South Korea, Nov 10-12, 2005)] 

The present study reports results of an experiment in which the author and her students at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia shared an online grammar course with a professor and his students at Umm Al-Qura University (UQU) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia using www.makkahelearning.net. The experiment proved to be a total failure. Factors contributing to students' inadequate participation in the online course, and hesitation to register and interact are discussed. | [FULL TEXT]

Al-Jarf, Reima Sado (2006).  Impact of Online Instruction on EFL Students' Cultural Awareness  [Online Submission, Paper presented at the APETAU Conference (3rd, Amman, Jordan, Aug 23-25, 2006)] 

The present study reports results of an experiment with two groups of sophomore students majoring in translation. The control group was taught British culture using in-class instruction only, and the experimental group was taught using a combination of online and in-class instruction. Experimental students used the online course from home as the internet was inaccessible from campus. Both groups were pre and post-tested. The impact of online instruction on cultural awareness, the relationship between the online course frequency usage and cultural awareness, and the impact of online instruction on students' attitudes are reported.  | [FULL TEXT]

Al-jasser, Faisal (2008).  The Effect of Teaching English Phonotactics on the Lexical Segmentation of English as a Foreign Language  System: An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, 36, 1. 

This paper reports on an intervention study which investigated the effect of teaching English phonotactics upon Arabic speakers' lexical segmentation of running speech in English. The study involved a native English-speaking group (N = 12), a non-native control group (N = 20); and a non-native experimental group (N = 20). Each group was pre-tested using a Word Spotting Task which investigated the extent to which illegal consonant clusters in English and Arabic supported the lexical segmentation of English. The non-native groups were post-tested with the same task after 8 weeks, during which the experimental group was given a treatment consisting of explicit teaching of relevant English phonotactic constraints. Post-test results showed significant gains in the segmentation ability of the experimental group.

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Ambe-Uva, Terhemba Nom (2006).  Interactivity in Distance Education: The National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) Experience  [Online Submission] 

The paper represents a study of students' experience of interactivity in distance education programmes at the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN). Through surveys and focus groups with students, facilitators, and administrative support staff, we found out that interactivity is a key determinant of student success rate. Majority of the students are workers in the urban areas who combine "work and learn" which is the motto of NOUN. The survey showed that majority of the students depended on their facilitators as key resource persons and on their peers or study groups both for required and voluntary interactivity to reinforce their learning. This was able to reduce loneliness, boredom and loss of community experienced in distance education. Because NOUN has not completed its Repository, Production, Distribution, and Administration Headquarters (REPRODAhq) and equipped the study centers with up-to-date technological facilities, this frustrated accessibility that is dialectically linked to interactivity.  | [FULL TEXT]

Amburgey, Valeria (2007).  One Model of Professional Development for Higher Education Faculty  Computers in the Schools, 23, 3-4. 

Northern Kentucky University's College of Education's faculty realizes that the infusion of technology into the teacher education program is important. Support for the infusion of technology was evident when the faculty adopted the ISTE Recommended Foundations for Teachers and a five-year technology plan in 1998. Interviews with the faculty during the 1999-2000 academic year identified three primary barriers for infusion of technology into the curriculum: (a) access to technology, (b) training on how to use the technology, and (c) time to redesign curriculum. If increased access to technology is provided to higher education faculty, how should the training and time issues be addressed?

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Ajiboye, Josiah O.; Tella, Adeyinka (2007).  University Undergraduate Students' Information Seeking Behaviour: Implications for Quality in Higher Education in Africa  [Online Submission] 

The major purpose of the study was to examine the information seeking behaviour of undergraduate students in the University of Botswana. Specifically, the study made effort to determine the sources consulted and the general pattern of information gathering system by the students: the impact of students' gender, level of study and course of study on the students' information seeking behaviour. The study adopted a descriptive survey design and data was collected using a questionnaire administered to two thousand respondents randomly selected from six faculties in the University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana. Major findings from the study include are: first, academic information was rated as the predominant information required by the students, while the Internet was rated the most crucial source of most of the academic information required. It was also found that gender, level of study and course of study significantly influence students' information seeking behaviour (F = 511.8, level of signification is 0.05). However, among the factors, the students' level of study contributed more to the observed variation in information seeking pattern, followed by course of study, while gender had the least influence. The sample was taken in two departments from each of the faculty in the University. This is a typical representation of the population of the undergraduate students of the University of Botswana hence; the findings could be generalized for the whole undergraduate students of the University. The paper is a product of recent survey carried out by the authors; hence the findings reported here are original and reflect the current views and practices of information seeking behaviour of University of Botswana Undergraduates.  | [FULL TEXT]

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_____. (2006).  Arthur. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report 

"Arthur," a book-based educational television program designed for children ages 4-8, is popular among preschool and kindergarten students. The program is based on the storybooks, by Marc Brown, about Arthur, an 8-year-old aardvark. Each show is 30 minutes in length and includes two stories involving characters dealing with moral issues. The show has been used as a listening comprehension and language development intervention for English language learning students. One study of "Arthur" met the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) evidence standards. This study, which included 108 kindergarten Spanish-speaking English language learners from six schools in a large urban school district on the East Coast, assessed students based on narrative skill in English--the ability to talk about events in a coherent fashion. The kindergarteners were randomly assigned to either the intervention group or a comparison group. Intervention group students were assigned to watch three episodes of "Arthur" a week from October to May (a total of 54 episodes), while comparison group students were assigned to watch an alternative educational program, "Between the Lions." "Between the Lions" is a 30-minute, book-based program aired by PBS that focuses on phonics and reading skills but does not have the listening comprehension or language development emphasis of "Arthur." The WWC rated "Arthur" as having potentially positive effects on English language development. Appended are: (1) Study characteristics: Uchikoshi, 2005 (randomized controlled trial); (2) Outcome measures in the English language development domain; (3) Summary of study findings included in the rating for the English language development domain; and (4) Rating for the English language development domain.  [This publication was produced by the What Works Clearinghouse. The following study is reviewed in this intervention report: Uchikoshi, Y. (2005). Narrative development in bilingual kindergarteners: Can "Arthur" help? "Developmental Psychology," 41(3), 464-478).] | [FULL TEXT]

Artigue, Michele (2002).  Learning Mathematics in a CAS Environment: The Genesis of a Reflection about Instrumentation and the Dialectics between Technical and Conceptual Work.  International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning, 7, 3. 

Presents an anthropological approach used in French research and the theory of instrumentation developed in cognitive ergonomics. Shows how these frameworks allow an approach to the educational use of CAS technology, focusing on the unexpected complexity of instrumental genesis, mathematical needs of instrumentation, status of instrumented techniques, problems arising from their connection with paper and pencil techniques, and institutional management.

Artino, A. R. (2008).  Motivational Beliefs and Perceptions of Instructional Quality: Predicting Satisfaction with Online Training  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24, 3. 

Many would agree that learning on the Web--a highly autonomous learning environment--may be difficult for individuals who lack motivation and self-regulated learning skills. Using a social cognitive view of academic motivation and self-regulation, the objective of the present study was to investigate the relations between students' motivational beliefs, their perceptions of the learning environment and their satisfaction with a self-paced, online course. Service academy undergraduates (n = 646) completed a questionnaire following online training. Pearson correlations indicate that task value, self-efficacy and perceived instructional quality were significantly positively related to each other and to students' overall satisfaction with the self-paced, online course. Additionally, results from a three-step hierarchical regression reveal that task value, self-efficacy and instructional quality were significant positive predictors of students' satisfaction; the final regression model accounted for approximately 54% of the variance in the outcome measure. These findings support and extend prior research in traditional classrooms and online education in university settings, indicating that military students' motivational beliefs about a learning task and their perceptions of instructional quality are related, in important ways, to their overall satisfaction with online instruction. Educational implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Artino, Anthony R., Jr.; McCoach, D. Betsy (2008).  Development and Initial Validation of the Online Learning Value and Self-Efficacy Scale  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 38, 3. 

Recently, several scholars have suggested that academic self-regulation may be particularly important for students participating in online learning. The purpose of the present study was to develop a quantitative self-report measure of perceived task value and self-efficacy for learning within the context of self-paced, online training, and to investigate reliability and validity evidence for the instrument. Investigations of this kind are essential because task value and self-efficacy have been shown to be important predictors of students' self-regulated learning competence and academic achievement in both traditional and online contexts. In Study 1 (n = 204), 28 survey items were created for the Online Learning Value and Self-Efficacy Scale (OLVSES) and an exploratory factor analysis was conducted. Results suggested two interpretable factors: task value and self-efficacy. In Study 2 (n = 646), confirmatory factor analysis suggested several survey modifications that resulted in a refined, more parsimonious version of the OLVSES. The resulting 11-item, two-factor scale appears to be psychometrically sound, with reasonable factor structure and good internal reliability. In Study 3 (n = 481), a third sample was collected, and scores from the OLVSES appeared to demonstrate evidence of adequate criterion-related validity. Instrument applications and suggestions for future research are discussed.  [An earlier version of this manuscript was presented at the 2007 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, Illinois.]

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Abell, Michael M.; Bauder, Debra K.; Simmons, Thomas J. (2005).  Access to the General Curriculum: A Curriculum and Instruction Perspective for Educators  Intervention in School & Clinic, 41, 2. 

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act places more emphasis than ever on providing students with new ways to fully access the general curriculum. This places a great deal of importance on the areas of curriculum and instruction. It also recognizes the need for special and general education staff to work together to offer high-quality support and instruction. The role of the digital curriculum and accompanying technology is beginning to bring new perspectives to how students can be engaged and have more control over their own learning.

Abelson, Hal (2008).  The Creation of OpenCourseWare at MIT  Journal of Science Education and Technology, 17, 2. 

This paper traces the genesis of the MIT OpenCourseWare project from its initial strategic precursors in 1999 and 2000, through its launch in 2001 and its subsequent evolution. The story told here illuminates the interplay among institutional leadership, and strategic planning, and with university culture in launching major educational technology enterprises. It also shows how initiatives can evolve in unexpected ways, and can even surpass their initial goals. The paper concludes with an overview of challenges facing OpenCourseWare in moving from the end of its production ramp-up and towards sustainability.

Aberson, Christopher L.; Berger, Dale E.; Healy, Michael R.; Romero, Victoria L. (2003).  Evaluation of an Interactive Tutorial for Teaching Hypothesis Testing Concepts  Teaching of Psychology, 30, 1. 

In this article, we describe and evaluate a Web-based interactive tutorial used to present hypothesis testing concepts. The tutorial includes multiple-choice questions with feedback, an interactive applet that allows students to draw samples and evaluate null hypotheses, and follow-up questions suitable for grading. Students either used the interactive tutorial (n = 15) or completed a standard laboratory assignment (n = 10) covering the same topics. Students who used the tutorial performed better (p = 0.06) on a quiz than students who completed the standard laboratory, supporting the effectiveness of this freely available online tutorial. A second group of students (n = 112) who did not participate in the assessment overwhelmingly rated the tutorial as easy to use, clear, and useful.

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Alparslan, N. Ceren; Cagiltay, Nergiz Ercil; Ozen, Mustafa; Aydin, Elif Uray (2008).  Teaching Usage of Equipments in a Remote Laboratory  [Online Submission] 

Remote laboratories are technologies that aim to increase the effectiveness of educational programs. European Remote Radio Laboratory (ERRL) is an e-learning project for students, teachers and technicians who will use very important devices of a radio frequency laboratory remotely. As a solution we have developed an e-learning system which aims to support the ERRL learners while studying on how to use equipments in the system. The system is developed according to the electronic performance support system (EPSS) approach. An EPSS is a computer-based, well-structured system which improves the performance of individuals. It is an electronic infrastructure that contains, stores and distributes personal (individual) or corporate knowledge to enable people to reach necessary levels of performance in the fastest possible time and with minimum teaching support of other people. This paper discusses how the content for such a system is developed and how this content is interactively used in the EPSS platform. The technical details of the developed EPSS are also discussed in this study. We believe that this paper will help instructional system designers for designing different alternatives to improve learners' performance.  | [FULL TEXT]

Alper, Sandra; Raharinirina, Sahoby (2006).  Assistive Technology for Individuals with Disabilities: A Review and Synthesis of the Literature  Journal of Special Education Technology, 21, 2. 

Despite the emphasis on technology and the rapid proliferation of assistive technology devices, little is known about the specific uses of assistive technology with persons who vary in disability type, severity, and age. The present study conducted a comprehensive review and a systematic analysis of published reports of assistive technology and skill acquisition of persons with disabilities. Uses of assistive technology, its benefits and obstacles, are reviewed. The results provide indications why technology is often abandoned. Implications for practitioners and researchers are discussed.

Alpert, Sherman R. (2003).  Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representation.  Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 14, 1. 

Describes a computer-based concept mapping tool that provides rich representational capabilities, including dynamic imagery (video, animated images, sound) and multiple levels of abstraction. The tool can automatically translate a concept map into an alternative representation-an outline-that contains all of the knowledge contained in a multi-level concept map. The tool is accessible through any standard Web browser.

Alpert, Sherman R.; Grueneberg, Keith (2001).  Multimedia in Concept Maps: A Design Rationale and Web-Based Application. 

A concept map is a graphical representation of a person's (student's) knowledge of a domain. Concept maps have been used in educational settings for some time and many computer-based implementations of interactive concept map building tools exist. These concept mapping tools often provide for a solely prepositional, primarily textual, knowledge representation scheme and do not fully capitalize on the functionality offered by the computational medium. This paper offers psychological and pedagogical design rationales for inclusion of multimedia in computer-based concept maps. It also describes a concept mapping application named Webster whose goals include more comprehensively representing students' knowledge of a domain, providing facilities that make concept maps more pedagogically effective for students using them to learn new concepts, and in doing both, capitalizing more fully on the capabilities of the computational medium. There are a number of characteristics of Webster that attempt to achieve these desiderata but this paper focuses in particular on Webster's use of multimedia to realize these goals.   | [FULL TEXT]

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Al-Musawi, Ali S. (2007).  Current Status of Educational Technologies at Omani Higher Education Institutions and Their Future Prospective  Educational Technology Research and Development, 55, 4. 

The purpose of this research was to address the current and prospective views on educational technology (ET) in order to discover the difficulties and develop its utilization in Omani higher education. The main instruments used to carry out this research were two questionnaires: the faculty members' questionnaire, and the technical/administrative staff questionnaire. One hundred and fifty-nine participants were involved in the study. They represented all educational technologists who have been with the public and private Omani higher education institutions. The findings show a tendency for future expansion with less expensive technologies and the need for training. Some impediments of ET use were also found. Important recommendations from this study include: the need to support Omani higher education institutions with technical and human resources to increase and activate the use/number of new instructional media and equipment.

Almazroui, Karima M. (2007).  Learning Together through Retrospective Miscue Analysis: Salem's Case Study  Reading Improvement, 44, 3. 

At school, Salem, (pseudonym) was below his reading level but above his writing level according to his teacher. At home, his father perceived Salem as a proficient reader capable of working independently. From the author's point-of-view, Salem needed to revalue himself as a reader through understanding that his miscues are an attempt to construct meaning from the text rather than a sign of failure; and, therefore, to view reading as a meaning-making rather than a decoding process. Using methods based on the interpretation of Miscue Analysis (MA) and Retrospective Miscue Analysis (RMA), the author conducted a case study of Salem to determine his problems in reading and to acquire a better view of him as a reader. In addition to the author's tutoring work, she used several assessment tools, including parent interviews and school documentation. Regardless of the amount of time it took to transcribe RMA discussions and retellings, the author found out that she developed a treasure of information about Salem by reviewing his responses. Discussions helped him rediscover himself as a reader, value his strengths, and find ways to overcome his weaknesses. He learned that it is acceptable to make miscues; rather than indicating failure, they reveal understanding. Here, the author shares what she learned from her experience with Salem.

Almekhlafi, Abdurrahman Ghaleb (2005).  Preservice Teachers' Attitudes and Perceptions of the Utility of Web-Based Instruction in the United Arab Emirates  International Journal of Instructional Media, 32, 3. 

Teachers' clear perceptions of technology use and competence in planning and implementation affect their attitudes towards using technology in general and in the classroom in particular (Almekhlafi, 1999). However, the number of research studies to inform implementation of Web-based instruction (WBI) has been low and the interest in student perceptions of these technologies has been an even lower priority for researchers (Angulo & Bruce, 1999). This is particularly true in the case of the United Arab Emirates in which the effect of WBI and the attitude of teachers towards it have not been investigated. This study focuses on preservice teachers' attitudes and perceptions of the utility of WBI. A survey was administered to preservice teachers at the College of Education, United Arab Emirates University in the spring of the academic year 2001-2002. In addition to the questionnaire, students' grades, particularly in the assignments submitted via WebCT, and communication via Bulletin board and e-mail, were used as other sources of data.

Almekhlafi, Abdurrahman Ghaleb (2006).  Effectiveness of Interactive Multimedia Environment on Language Acquisition Skills of 6th Grade Students in the United Arab Emirates  International Journal of Instructional Media, 33, 4. 

This study investigated the effect of interactive multimedia (IMM) program on students' acquisition of some English as a second language (ESL) skills. An interactive multimedia CD-ROM was used with ninety 6th grade ESL students in Al-Ain Model School 2, United Arab Emirates. Students were selected and divided into experimental and control groups (46 and 44 participants respectively). Pre and post tests were administered to examine the effect of the IMM program on developing students' ESL skills. In addition, using Witken's test, participants were classified according to their cognitive styles into field-dependent (FD) and field-independent (FI) learners. Results showed that there is no significant difference between IMM users and non-users in the overall ESL skills. However, when the participants were investigated in terms of their cognitive learning styles, results showed a significant difference between field dependent learners and field independent learners in the experimental group in favor of field-independent learners. Implications of the effect of IMM on students' learning with different cognitive learning styles are discussed and recommendations for future research are presented.

Almeqdadi, Farouq (2000).  The Effect of Using the Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) on Jordanian Students' Understanding of Geometrical Concepts. 

Technology has become a part of most of our activities in the everyday life. It entered to the educational field as well as the other fields. The use of technology in school is growing in both technological equipments like computers and the structure for them, besides the training programs for the teachers and other users. The new technological tools, such as computers and their software, provide people with more opportunities to teach in new ways. This environment of using technology is growing in the general reform in mathematics education. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of using the Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) on students' understanding of some of the geometrical concepts. The sample consisted of 52 students from the Model School, Yarmouk University, Jordan. The students in the control group used only the book. Both groups took the same pretest and posttest, which was designed by the researcher. The results of the study indicated that there was a significant difference between the means of the students' scores on the posttest with favor to the experimental group. The results also indicated that there were more gain in the scores from the pretest to the posttest in the case of the experimental group. The researcher suggested more use of the GSP software and more investigations in the area of using computers in education. | [FULL TEXT]

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_____. (2001).  A Legal Odyssey, 2001. Preconference Seminar Outlines [of the] Education Law Association Annual Conference (47th, Albuquerque, New Mexico, November 15-17, 2001). 

This document contains preconference seminar outlines for the 47th Annual Education Law Association (ELA) Conference. The first of four sections, "Americans with Disabilities Act Update--Higher Education and Employees," by Christopher P. Borreca, presents legal issues related to the Americans with Disabilities Act, an adequate definition of "disability," medical and fitness-for-duty exams, among other subjects. The second section, "Technology and Teaching School Law," by Gregory A. Boris and others, comments on the use of technology such as the Internet, audio and visual media, interactive media, and graphics for classroom and long-distance law instruction. The third section, "Issues Faced by Schools in the Digital Age," by Dana T. Buckman and R. Craig Wood, covers topics involving school district liability for electronic communications, equal access for individuals with disabilities, and physical security of technological equipment. The fourth section, "Special Education K-12," contains material relating to the impact of IDEA procedural violations on special-education appeals, student discipline, and an IDEA update.

Aleahmad, Turadg; Slotta, Jim (2002).  Integrating Handheld Technology and Web-Based Science Activities: New Educational Opportunities. 

This paper describes the integration of handheld computer technology into an existing web-based educational platform, the Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE) and the synergy it produces. This solution facilitated a research program that explores how handheld computers (PDAs, palmtops, etc.) can expand the scope and functionality of inquiry activities in K-12 science and mathematics curriculum. The paper presents the WISE software and curriculum and explains how combining it with handheld technology creates unique educational opportunities. It then goes on to describe the system that was developed, and its future. | [FULL TEXT]

Alegre, Mary Kay; Mansoor, Inaam; Moss, Donna; Phillips, Vanessa (2001).  Integrating Technology into the ESL Classroom. Winter 2001. Facilitator's Guide [and] Participant's Materials [and] Participant's Reference Materials. 

This document consists of three parts to help teachers and students to integrate technology into the English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classroom--the facilitator's guide, participant's materials, and the participant's reference materials. The facilitator's guide is divided into three parts. Part one is a presentation guide providing step-by-step, activity-by-activity handouts that assist the teacher with program management, materials management (overheads, participant handouts, equipment, and back-up plan ideas) as well as talking points. Part two provides master copies of all overheads. Part three provides back-up presentation materials. The participant's materials are designed to help participants effectively use technology such as audiovisual materials, computer software, and the Internet in the classroom. The bulk of these materials consists of overhead projector forms, handouts for students and workshop participants, and feedback inquiry forms. The participant's reference materials include the following:"Some Thoughts about Web Quests"; "Building Blocks of a Web Quest"; "ESL Internet Bookmarks"; "Compass Points: Refugees and the Internet"; "EFF Content Standards for Adult Literacy and Lifelong Learning"; "Role Maps for EFF: Parent/Family, Citizen/Community, Worker"; "Five ESL Web Sites from the Arlington Education and Employment Program"; and "Web Quest Dos and Don'ts." Several Web links are provided, in some cases where forms can be downloaded or printed right from the Internet. | [FULL TEXT]

Aleven, Vincent; Stahl, Elmar; Schworm, Silke; Fischer, Frank; Wallace, Raven (2003).  Help Seeking and Help Design in Interactive Learning Environments  Review of Educational Research, 73, 3. 

Many interactive learning environments (ILEs) offer on-demand help, intended to positively influence learning. Recent studies report evidence that although effective help-seeking behavior in ILEs is related to better learning outcomes, learners are not using help facilities effectively. This selective review (a) examines theoretical perspectives on the role of on-demand help in ILEs, (b) reviews literature on the relations between help seeking and learning in ILEs, and (c) identifies reasons for the lack of effective help use. We review the effect of system-related factors, of student-related factors, and of interactions between these factors. The interaction between metacognitive skills and cognitive factors is important for appropriate help seeking, as are a potentially large space of system-related factors as well as interactions among learner- and system-related factors. We suggest directions for future research.

Alexander, Bryan (2004).  Going Nomadic: Moblile Learning in Higher Education  EDUCAUSE Review, 39 n5 p28, 30-32. 

The combination of wireless technology and mobile computing is resulting in escalating transformations of the educational world. The question is, how are the wireless, mobile technologies affecting the learning environment, pedagogy, and campus life? To answer this question, the current state of affairs was assessed and the surveying of cyberculture globally and historically. The United States must be considered only peripherally, since it lags behind other parts of the world in several key trends. The wireless, mobile learning experience must be carefully examined as it rapidly develops, doing our best to grasp emergent trends.

Alexander, Bryan (2006).  Web 2.0: A New Wave of Innovation for Teaching and Learning?  EDUCAUSE Review, 41 n2 p33-34, 36. 

Web 1.0 has demonstrated immense powers for connecting learners, teachers, and materials. How much more broadly will this connective matrix grow under the impact of the openness, ease of entry, and social nature of Web 2.0? This article examines openness, microcontent, social software, and social bookmarking (blogs, wikis, trackback, podcasting, videoblogs, and other networking tools) as being the emergent concepts defining the new Web 2.0 movement. The article states that the rich search possibilities that these tools open up can further enhance the pedagogy of current events.

Alexander, Bryan (2008).  Web 2.0 and Emergent Multiliteracies  Theory Into Practice, 47, 2. 

Students are, increasingly, digital content producers, and participate extensively in evolving online social networks. The emergence of the former represents subtle changes in students' experience of images, audience, copyright, ownership of learning, and technology. Experiencing the latter places students in an awkward position in terms of pre-Web conceptions of social space, and especially concerning privacy and expression in a highly visual environment. This article considers how pedagogies confront emergent Web 2.0 habits, and situates them in the context of other architectures to represent very different models for information architecture, intellectual property, software development, gaming, and learning.

Alexander, Joy; Walsh, Patrick; Jarman, Ruth; McClune, Billy (2008).  From Rhetoric to Reality: Advancing Literacy by Cross-Curricular Means  Curriculum Journal, 19, 1. 

Cross-curricularity, literacy and critical literacy are currently promoted as components of a curriculum appropriate for the twenty-first century. The first two, in particular, are prescribed elements of classroom experience in Northern Ireland, which is the immediate context of this article, but also more widely in the UK. Teachers are implementing cross-curricular and interdisciplinary initiatives, but rhetorical imperatives can translate into superficial realities. The reasons for this are explored, as are the reasons why interdisciplinary studies, literacy across the curriculum and critical literacy are deemed to be of significance for education at the present time. The "Making Science: Making News" project is described, in which Key Stage 3 science and English classes worked together, with input from a research scientist and a journalist, to produce articles on space science which were published in local newspapers. The outcomes of the project are discussed from the perspectives of both teachers and learners. It is argued that this project is an example of genuine interdisciplinary activity; that it went beyond literacy skills to a deeper development of scientific discourse; and that, through its media connection, there was potential for building an ongoing awareness in pupils of critical literacy and scientific literacy.

Alexandersson, Mikael; Runesson, Ulla (2006).  The Tyranny of the Temporal Dimension: Learning about Fundamental Values through the Internet  Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 50, 4. 

In this article we report on one of four schools involved in a research project aiming to develop knowledge about the way in which teaching knowledge is conveyed with the help of information and communication technology. A particular interest was issues of fundamental values. Two classes in Grade 9 of Swedish compulsory school were studied, by observations and interviews, when seeking information about international conflicts on the Internet. The results show that most students searched for and collected information with a focus on mainly one dimension: the temporal dimension of the conflict in question. How this focus on chronologically ordered historical events affected the students' ability to develop the capacity for individual standpoints on questions concerning ethics, morals, equality, and democracy by way of studying conflicts is discussed.

Alexiou, Antonios; Bouras, Christos; Giannaka, Eri; Kapoulas, Vaggelis; Nani, Maria; Tsiatsos, Thrasivoulos (2004).  The Virtual Radiopharmacy Laboratory: A 3-D Simulation for Distance Learning  Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 13, 3. 

This article presents Virtual Radiopharmacy Laboratory (VR LAB), a virtual laboratory accessible through the Internet. VR LAB is designed and implemented in the framework of the VirRAD European project. This laboratory represents a 3D simulation of a radio-pharmacy laboratory, where learners, represented by 3D avatars, can experiment on radiopharmacy equipment by carrying out specific learning scenarios. This article describes the functionality provided by this laboratory, the motivation factors which led to its formation, the technological decisions that were made for the optimization of the system, as well as the envisioned steps to be carried out.

Alexy, Eileen M.; Burgess, Ann W.; Baker, Timothy (2005).  Internet Offenders: Traders, Travelers, and Combination Trader-Travelers  Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20, 7. 

The Internet opens a vast array of communication, entertainment, and educational resources for children; however, it also opens a gateway to home and school for offenders who wish to exploit children. A convenience sample of 225 cases published in the news media was examined. The cases were classified using law enforcement terminology to describe Internet offenders as traders, travelers, or combination trader-travelers. The media is seen as a critical source of information for the public to be aware of how the Internet is being used to commit sexual exploitation and sex crimes against children.

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Ang

Ang, Chee Siang; Rao, G. S. V. Radha Krishna (2008).  Computer Game Theories for Designing Motivating Educational Software: A Survey Study  International Journal on E-Learning, 7, 2. 

The purpose of this study is to evaluate computer game theories for educational software. We propose a framework for designing engaging educational games based on contemporary game studies which includes ludology and narratology. Ludology focuses on the study of computer games as play and game activities, while narratology revolves around the study of computer games as narratives. The proposed framework incorporates the arguments from both principles of game studies. We maintain that the enjoyment of playing games comes from two perspectives, the game play activity as well as the narrative experience. It is furthered argued that the views of both ludologists and narratologists provide an insight into how to design immersive and experiential educational software. To evaluate the theoretical framework, a survey study was conducted on a group of 100 students. The findings indicate that both theories contribute to the enjoyment factor of an educational game. Our results also suggest that the students are more motivated to learn in a game. They are aware of their learning of the subject matter, which is embedded in the game.

Angeli, C.; Valanides, N. (2005).  Preservice Elementary Teachers as Information and Communication Technology Designers: An Instructional Systems Design Model Based on an Expanded View of Pedagogical Content Knowledge  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 21, 4. 

This study discusses the evolution of an instructional systems design (ISD) model that is based on an expanded view of Shulman's concept of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). An initial model was evaluated in the first iteration of a design experiment, and then it was changed and assessed in two other iterations that followed. The proposed ISD model can be used in educational technology courses, elementary teacher education method courses, and teacher professional development courses to develop information and communication technology (ICT)-related PCK. ICT-related PCK comprises a body of knowledge that educators need to be able to teach with ICT. Evidence from the present study, with preservice elementary teachers, indicates that the evolved model was effective in developing some aspects of ICT-related PCK. Based on the results of the study, more systematic efforts are needed to engage preservice teachers in technology-rich design activities, so that they can adequately develop all aspects of ICT-related PCK. Finally, this study provides baseline data that can be used for comparison purposes in future studies that may be conducted to further validate or modify the suggested ISD model.

Angeli, Celestino; Borini, Stefano; Cimiraglia, Renzo (2005).  Kmonodium, a Program for the Numerical Solution of the One-Dimensional Schrodinger Equation  Journal of Chemical Education, 82, 5. 

A very simple strategy for the solution of the Schrodinger equation of a particle moving in one dimension subjected to a generic potential is presented. This strategy is implemented in a computer program called Kmonodium, which is free and distributed under the General Public License

Angeli, Charoula (2005).  Transforming a Teacher Education Method Course through Technology: Effects on Preservice Teachers' Technology Competency  Computers and Education, 45, 4. 

In this study, an instructional design model was employed for restructuring a teacher education course with technology. The model was applied in a science education method course, which was offered in two different but consecutive semesters with a total enrollment of 111 students in the fall semester and 116 students in the spring semester. Using tools, such as multimedia authoring tools in the fall semester and modeling software in the spring semester, teacher educators designed high quality technology-infused lessons for science and, thereafter, modeled them in classroom for preservice teachers. An assessment instrument was constructed to assess preservice teachers' technology competency, which was measured in terms of four aspects, namely, (a) selection of appropriate science topics to be taught with technology, (b) use of appropriate technology-supported representations and transformations for science content, (c) use of technology to support teaching strategies, and (d) integration of computer activities with appropriate inquiry-based pedagogy in the science classroom. The results of a MANOVA showed that preservice teachers in the Modeling group outperformed preservice teachers' overall performance in the Multimedia group, F=21.534, p=0.000. More specifically, the Modeling group outperformed the Multimedia group on only two of the four aspects of technology competency, namely, use of technology to support teaching strategies and integration of computer activities with appropriate pedagogy in the classroom, F=59.893, p=0.000, and F=10.943, p=0.001 respectively. The results indicate that the task of preparing preservice teachers to become technology competent is difficult and requires many efforts for providing them with ample of opportunities during their education to develop the competencies needed to be able to teach with technology.

Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos (2004).  The Effect of Electronic Scaffolding for Technology Integration on Perceived Task Effort and Confidence of Primary Student Teachers  Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 37, 1. 

Forty-one primary student teachers were divided into two groups and were instructed how to integrate certain Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools in learning activities. Only one group was guided to use Filamentality, a fill-in-the-blank interactive Web site, and to organize Internet information in a Hotlist and a Scrapbook. Questionnaires were administered to collect data related to students' perceived task effort (PTE) as a result of integrating ICT in the learning environment, and their confidence levels in using ICT tools, while their initial attitudes toward ICT and its integration in the classroom were taken into consideration. The results indicated that Filamentality effectively scaffolded particular aspects of ICT integration in learning and instruction, and significantly reduced learners' amount of PTE, but there was not always a significant effect on learners' self-reported confidence levels. | [FULL TEXT]

Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos (2004).  Examining the Effects of Text-Only and Text-and-Visual Instructional Materials on the Achievement of Field-Dependent and Field-Independent Learner During Problem-Solving with Modeling Software  Educational Technology Research and Development, 52, 4. 

Sixty-five undergraduates were classified into field-dependent, field-mixed, and field-independent learners, and were randomly assigned to two groups: text-only and text-and-visual. Participants in the text-only group received a description of a model in textual format, whereas participants in the other group received the same description in textual-and-visual format. Participants were then asked to individually explore a computer model, test hypotheses, and solve a problem related to immigration policies. Their problem-solving performance was analyzed using a 3 * 2 analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that the text-and-visual group outperformed the text-only group, that performance was significantly related to field-dependence-independence, and that there was a significant interaction effect. Specifically, field-independent learners in the text-and-visual group outperformed field-dependent and field-mixed learners in both groups, and field-independent learners in the text-only group. The findings indicate that adding visuals to textual explanations can enhance understanding, and that the functional role of visuals depends on cognitive differences.

Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos; Bonk, Curtis J. (2003).  Communication in a Web-Based Conferencing System: The Quality of Computer-Mediated Interactions.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 34, 1. 

Describes a study of undergraduates that investigated the extent to which an electronic conferencing system, COW (Conferencing on the Web) facilitated preservice teachers' communication outside their classroom when discussing teaching cases from their field experiences, and the potential of COW and case-based instruction to foster quality discourse and promote students' critical thinking skills.

Anger, W. Kent; Tamulinas, Alys; Uribe, Andrea; Ayala, Cesar (2004).  Computer-Based Training for Immigrant Latinos with Limited Formal Education  Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 26, 3. 

Mexican immigrants working at a wholesale nursery were involved in developing user instructions for a computer-based instruction system. Sixty-one Latinos with 0 to 16 years of education completed user instructions delivered on the computer, and all but 3 completed training content about the nursery. Based on objective criteria, program use was rated as "somewhat easy" to "easy" for most participants with more than 3 years of education, whereas 50% of those with 0 to 2 years of education completed content with "difficulty" or "struggled." Participants who completed the computer-based posttest (n =22) had a mean performance of 96%, which was significantly better than the performance of 87% (n = 18) on an oral pretest (p = .003, d = 1.02). Thus, computer-based instruction can effectively train immigrant Latinos who have very limited formal education.

Anglin, Gary J. (2001).  Notes on the Special Issue: Distance Education and E-Learning.  Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 2, 1. 

Provides an introduction to this special issue on distance education and e-learning. Several questions related to these topics are presented, and the articles contained in the issue are summarized.

Anglin, Gary J.; Morrison, Gary R. (2000).  An Analysis of Distance Education Research: Implications for the Instructional Technologist.  Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 1, 3. 

Presents results of an analysis of distance education research as reflected in "The American Journal of Distance Education" and "Distance Education." Examines the types of research published in the two journals using the categories: primary research, conceptual-theoretical articles, literature reviews, evaluation, how to, and other. Discusses implications of analysis of past research for future research completed by instructional technologists and other investigators.

Angulo, Martha; Feldman, Sandra (2001).  Leveraging Learning for Generation I [and] The Haves and Have Nots of the Digital Divide.  School Administrator, 58, 3. 

The Internet's effects are spreading. Schools are purchasing computer programs, assisted by state, federal, and corporate grants. K-12 schools spent nearly $7 billion on instructional technology in 2000. The digital divide is narrowing; Generation I kids have greater computer access at home and at school. In a sidebar, Sandra Feldman urges teachers to integrate technology.

Angus, Lawrence; Snyder, Ilana; Sutherland-Smith, Wendy (2004).  ICT and Educational (Dis)advantage: Families, Computers and Contemporary Social and Educational Inequalities  British Journal of Sociology of Education, 25, 1. 

Because access to new technologies is unequally distributed, there has been considerable debate about the growing gap between the so-called information-rich and information-poor. Such concerns have led to high-profile information technology policy initiatives in many countries. In Australia, in an attempt to 'redress the balance between the information rich and poor' by providing 'equal access to the World Wide Web' ( Virtual Communities, 2002 ), the Australian Council of Trade Unions, Virtual Communities (a computer/software distributor) and Primus (an Internet provider) in late 1999 formed an alliance to offer relatively inexpensive computer and Internet access to union members in order to make 'technology affordable for all Australians' ( Virtual Communities, 2002 ). In this paper, we examine four families, one of which had long-term Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) access, and three of which took advantage of the Virtual Communities offer to get home computer and Internet access for the first time. We examine their engagement with ICT and suggest that previously disadvantaged family members are not particularly advantaged by their access to ICT.

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Aze

Azeta, A. A.; Oyelami M. O. (2008).  Development of an E-Learning Web Portal: The Foss Approach  [Online Submission] 

With the vast development of various technologies, learning today is no longer confined to classrooms with lecture delivery as the only method of conveying knowledge, rather, an electronic means of learning has continued to evolve. Electronic learning (e-Learning), which facilitates education using communications networks, has made learning possible from anywhere at anytime using the Internet, wide area networks or local area networks. Notably, e-Learning applications which have now become central to the learning process may be developed using proprietary programming tools and the process of acquiring and using them to develop large software application is not only complex but require a huge sum of money. A viable alternative is to utilize the open source software platform that allows software engineers and institutions the right to reuse, study, distribute and localize to satisfy user's requirements. This paper provides an overview of e-Learning and the open source domain as well as discusses how open source can be used to speedily realizes the development of an e-Learning application in a web environment using an adaptive process. Specifically, the authors described their preliminary experiment of implementing an open source e-Learning platform by adapting free PHP source code and MySQL database to suit an electronic class bulletin board.  | [FULL TEXT]

Azevedo, Flavio S. (2006).  Personal Excursions: Investigating the Dynamics of Student Engagement  International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning, 11, 1. 

We investigate the dynamics of student engagement as it is manifest in self-directed, self-motivated, relatively long-term, computer-based scientific image processing activities. The raw data for the study are video records of 19 students, grades 7 to 11, who participated in intensive 6-week, extension summer courses. From this raw data we select episodes in which students appear to be highly engaged with the subject matter. We then attend to the fine-grained texture of students' actions, identifying a core set of phenomena that cut across engagement episodes. Analyzed as a whole, these phenomena suggest that when working in self-directed, self-motivated mode, students pursue proposed activities but sporadically and spontaneously venture into self-initiated activities. Students' recurring self-initiated activities--which we call personal excursions--are detours from proposed activities, but which align to a greater or lesser extent with the goals of such activities. Because of the deeply personal nature of excursions, they often result in students collecting resources that feed back into both subsequent excursions and framed activities. Having developed an understanding of students' patterns of self-directed, self-motivated engagement, we then identify four factors that seem to bear most strongly on such patterns: (1) students' competence (broadly construed); (2) features of the software-based activities, and how such features allowed students to express their competence; (3) the time allotted for students to pursue proposed activities, as well as self-initiated ones; and (4) the flexibility of the computational environment within which the activities were implemented.

Azevedo, Roger (2005).  Using Hypermedia as a Metacognitive Tool for Enhancing Student Learning? The Role of Self-Regulated Learning  Educational Psychologist, 40, 4. 

Research shows that learners of all ages have difficulties deploying key cognitive and metacognitive self-regulatory skills during learning about complex and challenging topics when using open-ended learning environments such as hypermedia. This article provides an overview of the research my students and I have conducted on how the use of self-regulated learning can foster and enhance students' learning about complex science topics using hypermedia. In this article, the term metacognitive tool is used deliberately to highlight (a) the role of metacognitive and self-regulatory processes used by learners during learning and (b) the role of computer environments in prompting, supporting, and modeling students' self-regulatory processes during learning in specific learning contexts (see Azevedo, 2005). I provide an overview of research regarding the use of hypermedia to learn about complex science topics and learning more generally, illustrate how self-regulated learning can be used as a guiding theoretical framework to examine learning with hypermedia, and provide a synthesis of the laboratory and classroom research conducted by our group. Last, I propose several methods for using our findings to facilitate students' self-regulated learning of complex and challenging science topics.

Azevedo, Roger; Cromley, Jennifer G. (2004).  Does Training on Self-Regulated Learning Facilitate Students' Learning with Hypermedia?  Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 3. 

The authors examined the effectiveness of self-regulated learning (SRL) training in facilitating college students' learning with hypermedia. Undergraduate students (N = 131) were randomly assigned to either a training condition or a control condition and used a hypermedia environment to learn about the circulatory system. Students in the SRL group were given a 30-min training session on the use of specific, empirically based SRL variables designed to foster their conceptual understanding; control students received no training. Pretest, posttest, and verbal protocol data were collected from both groups. The SRL condition facilitated the shift in learners' mental models significantly more than did the control condition; verbal protocol data indicated that this was associated with the use of the SRL variables taught during training.

Azevedo, Roger; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Seibert, Diane (2004).  Does Adaptive Scaffolding Facilitate Students' Ability to Regulate their Learning with Hypermedia?  Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29, 3. 

Is adaptive scaffolding effective in facilitating students' ability to regulate their learning of complex science topics with hypermedia? We examined the role of different scaffolding instructional interventions in facilitating students' shift to more sophisticated mental models as indicated by both performance and process data. Undergraduate students (N=51) were randomly assigned to one of three scaffolding conditions (adaptive scaffolding [AS], fixed scaffolding [FS], and no scaffolding [NS]) and were trained to use a hypermedia environment to learn about the circulatory system. Pretest, posttest, and verbal protocol data were collected. Findings revealed that the AS condition facilitated the shift in learners' mental models significantly more than did the other comparison conditions. Participants in the AS condition regulated their learning by activating prior knowledge, monitoring their emerging understanding by using several strategies, and engaging in adaptive help-seeking. Learners in the FS and NS conditions were less effective at regulating their learning and exhibited great variability in self-regulation of their learning during the knowledge construction activity. We discuss how the findings can be used to inform the design of MetaCognitive tools--adaptive hypermedia environments designed to foster students' self-regulated learning of complex topics.

Azevedo, Roger; Moos, Daniel C.; Greene, Jeffrey A.; Winters, Fielding I.; Cromley, Jennifer G. (2008).  Why Is Externally-Facilitated Regulated Learning More Effective than Self-Regulated Learning with Hypermedia?  Educational Technology Research and Development, 56, 1. 

We examined how self-regulated learning (SRL) and externally-facilitated self-regulated learning (ERL) differentially affected adolescents' learning about the circulatory system while using hypermedia. A total of 128 middle-school and high school students with little prior knowledge of the topic were randomly assigned to either the SRL or ERL condition. Learners in the SRL condition regulated their own learning, while learners in the ERL condition had access to a human tutor who facilitated their self-regulated learning. We converged "product" (pretest-posttest shifts in students' mental models and declarative knowledge measures) with "process" (think-aloud protocols) data to examine the effectiveness of self- versus externally-facilitated regulated learning. Findings revealed that learners in the ERL condition gained statistically significantly more declarative knowledge and that a greater number of participants in this condition displayed a more advanced mental model on the posttest. Verbal protocol data indicated that learners in the ERL condition regulated their learning by activating prior knowledge, engaging in several monitoring activities, deploying several effective strategies, and engaging in adaptive help-seeking. By contrast, learners in the SRL condition used ineffective strategies and engaged in fewer monitoring activities. Based on these findings, we present design principles for adaptive hypermedia learning environments, engineered to foster students' self-regulated learning about complex and challenging science topics.

Azevedo, Roger; Winters, Fielding I.; Moos, Daniel C. (2004).  Can Students Collaboratively Use Hypermedia to Learn Science? The Dynamics of Self-And Other-Regulatory Processes in an Ecology Classroom  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 31, 3. 

This classroom study examined the role of low-achieving students' self-regulated learning (SRL) behaviors and their teacher's scaffolding of SRL while using a Web-based water quality simulation environment to learn about ecological systems. Forty-nine 11th and 12th grade students learned about ecology and the effects of land use on water quality by collaboratively using the RiverWeb SM water quality simulation (WQS) during a two-week curriculum on environmental science. The students' emerging understanding was assessed using pretest and posttest scores. Students' self-regulatory behaviors and teacher's scaffolding of SRL were assessed through an analysis of their discourse during several collaborative problem-solving episodes. Findings indicate that students learned significantly more about ecology after working collaboratively with the WQS. However, these learning gains were quite small and were related to the self-regulatory behaviors observed in the dyads and their teacher's scaffolding and instruction. Analyses of video data indicate that a large amount of time was spent by the dyads and teacher in using only a few strategies, while very little time was spent on planning, monitoring, and handling task difficulties and demands. Further analysis revealed that both the dyads and teacher were using low-level strategies (e.g., following procedural tasks, evaluating the content, searching, and selecting informational sources in the WQS) to learn about the topic. Our results provide a valuable initial characterization of the complexity of self-and other-regulated learning in a complex, dynamic, technology-enhanced, student-centered science classroom. We discuss how the results will be used to inform the design of computers as MetaCognitive tools designed to foster students' learning of conceptually challenging science topics.

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Akd

Akdemir, Omur (2008).  Teaching in Online Courses: Experiences of Instructional Technology Faculty Members  [Online Submission] 

The Internet and computer technology have altered the education landscape. Online courses are offered throughout the world. Learning about the experiences of faculty members is important to guide practitioners and administrators. Using qualitative research methodology, this study investigated the experiences of faculty members teaching online courses. A convenience sampling was used to select the instructional technology faculty members to investigate their experiences in online courses. Semistructured interviews with faculty members teaching online courses were used as the primary source to collect data about the experiences of faculty members in online courses. Results of the study showed that faculty members' interest in using technology and the amount of time available to them for online course design affected the quality of online courses. The findings of this study also indicated that design quality of online courses is affected by the interest of faculty members to use the technology and the time that they can devote to planning, designing, and developing online courses. The poor design of existing online courses, high learning expectations of individuals from these courses, and the future of online courses are the concerns of faculty members. Higher education institutions should support workshops and trainings to increase the skills and interests of non-instructional design faculty members to design and develop online courses. | [FULL TEXT]

Akdemir, Omur; Koszalka, Tiffany A. (2008).  Investigating the Relationships among Instructional Strategies and Learning Styles in Online Environments  Computers & Education, 50, 4. 

This exploratory study tests the assertion that instructional strategies that match field-dependence status of students are most effective. The study conducted with 12 graduate students registered in a graduate level online course. An online version of the Psychological Differentiation Inventory was used to measure the field-dependence status of students. Students' perceived learning outcomes, their effort and involvement, and level of interaction that they perceived in online course module were measured through an online questionnaire. Results suggested that matches between students' learning styles and instructional strategies did not affect learner perception of their own learning outcomes, level of effort and involvement, and level of interactions in the course. Data also indicated that no single instructional strategy, among three instructional strategies tested, emerged as superior for high and low field-dependent online students.

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Acz

Aczel, J. C.; Peake, S. R.; Hardy, P. (2008).  Designing Capacity-Building in E-Learning Expertise: Challenges and Strategies  Computers & Education, 50, 2. 

This research study looks at how organizations in developing countries perceive the challenge of building capacity in e-learning expertise. Data was collected on six such organizations, and a range of perceived rationales and constraints were identified. The paper hypothesizes a four-part framework to define the e-learning capacity gaps that these circumstances appear to represent: the "instructional design capacity gap", the "production capacity gap", the "tutorial capacity gap" and the "community building gap". The framework is used to re-examine the data to explore the ways in which the organizations' e-learning activities might constitute strategic responses to the hypothesized capacity gaps.

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Ark

_____. (2000).  Arkansas Education Technology Plan, July 2000. 

The revised Arkansas Educational Technology Plan, of the year 2000, is an updated and more detailed plan that is necessary for providing specific help to all levels of the state educational system. The primary focus of the plan is to enhance instruction for higher student achievement through technology and provide a framework to allow this to occur. The revised plan focuses on K-12 education and requires details on high priority needs and implementation of solutions. The planning committee revised the plan recognizing such factors as: technological progress made over the last several years, increased activities in distance learning, more computers accessing the Internet, increase demand for more bandwidth, and changes in local district and state priorities. Contents include: Introduction; Vision; Mission; Goals; Student Standards for Technology; School Improvement; Local School District Planning; Professional Development; Infrastructure; Funding; and Glossary. Appendices include: State Plan Development Timeline; Committee Membership; Arkansas Department of Education: Information and Technology Section; Arkansas Educational Service Cooperative Technology Coordinators; Arkansas Public School Computer Network; Internet Filtering; Accessibility Issues and Policies for the Visually-Impaired; Status Report on Technology in Arkansas K-12 Schools; Computer in Arkansas Public School Districts Grades K-12; and Contributors to Various Technology Related Efforts. A short list of resources for training and technical assistance for educators is provided. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (2008).  Arkansas Department of Education Technology Plan, 2008-2012 

The Arkansas Department of Education Technology Plan provides policy makers, school districts, education service cooperatives and institutes of higher education with a blueprint that guides and facilitates future state and local technology planning, funding, implementation, and evaluation. The 2008 Plan builds on the progress of the last five-year plan. It continues to promote technology access, use, professional development, and partnerships. It also addresses technology and digital age literacy, problem solving, creativity, collaboration, and high productivity skills essential for Arkansas school districts in a rapidly changing global economy. Technology is the foundation on which many of the educational applications will be built in the future. It is imperative that educators and students see technology as another tool for providing the best educational opportunities possible for all students. It is therefore necessary for education systems in Arkansas to review their technology plans with a vision to the emerging technologies that will be used to prepare students and educators to thrive in a digital age and be proficient in the skills of the 21st Century. The primary focus of the plan is to enhance instruction that promotes higher student achievement through technology and to provide a framework for this to occur. Appendixes, bibliogrpahy and glossary are included.  [For previous plan, see ED471135.] | [FULL TEXT]

Arkin, Marian; Eisenberg, Nora; Peters, Ann (2001).  Developing a Hybrid Tutoring Model in an Urban Community College. 

This paper addresses the problem of how a community college writing center can maintain its personalized character as it moves toward online resources and approaches. The authors describe a writing resource developed by the Writing Center at LaGuardia Community College of the City University of New York (CUNY) by LaGuardia and CUNY faculty and students for use by other faculty and students. The CUNY WriteSite was developed through group consultation with the goal of creating a writing place that combined activity, interactivity, and discovery. Group consultation work was widened with grant support from CUNY's Office of Academic Affairs. The group held interdisciplinary roundtables in order to elucidate commonalities, special applications in curricular areas, and common assignments across the disciplines. Five campus centers (Brooklyn, Queens, LaGuardia, Staten Island, and Borough of Manhattan) volunteered to work with the CUNY WriteSite to pilot emerging materials and develop electronic tutoring formats ranging from campus enhancement to distance tutoring. The authors stress the importance of building in access to personalized interventions in order to adhere to the LaGuardia tradition of individualized tutoring. The WriteSite is not meant to replace tutors, but rather to facilitate their function as coaches. | [FULL TEXT]

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App

_____. (2006).  Appeal Resource and Training Consortium (ARTC) 2005-2006  [Online Submission] 

APPEAL (Asia Pacific Programme of Education for All) Resource and Training Consortium (ARTC) was initiated in May 1997 at the Technical Working Group Meeting organized by APPEAL in cooperation with the Indian Institute of Education (IIE) to provide technical support and assistance to the work of APPEAL among the Member States. This booklet is a directory of ATRC member institutions with a snapshot on their history, goals and missions, programs and projects, and partnership network. Institutions mentioned in the directory include: Charles Darwin University from Australia, Dhaka Ahsania Mission from Bangladesh, Indian Institute of Education from India, Center for Development of Non-Formal Education and Youth Regional II Jayagiri from Indonesia, Asia/Pacific Cultural Center for UNESCO from Japan, National Observatory of Kazakhstan from Kazakhstan, Institute for Rural Advancement from Malaysia, National Resource Centre for Non-Formal Education from Nepal, Bunyad Literacy Community Council from Pakistan, SEAMEO Regional Centre for Education Innovation and Technology from Philippines, International Research and Training Centre for Rural Education from China, Korean Educational Development Institute from Korea, and Sirindhorn Institute for Continuing Education and Development from Thailand. [This document was published by the UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education.] | [FULL TEXT]

Appana, Subhashni (2008).  A Review of Benefits and Limitations of Online Learning in the Context of the Student, the Instructor, and the Tenured Faculty  International Journal on E-Learning, 7, 1. 

Distance education is a formal learning activity, which occurs when students and instructors are separated by geographic distance or by time. Learning is supported by communications technology such as television, videotape, computers, e-mail, and mail. Online learning is any learning experience or environment that relies upon the Internet/World Wide Web (WWW or Web) as the primary delivery mode of communication and presentation. There are potential benefits of investing in online learning for example, increased access, improved quality of learning, better preparation of students for a knowledge-based society, "lifelong" learning opportunity, profit making, and many more. Limitations are also evident in this popular learning environment. Among them are: (a) online learning start-up funding, (b) organizational preparedness, and (c) student readiness. This article will review the benefits and limitations of online learning from three perspectives namely, (a) the student, (b) the instructor, and (c) the tenured faculty (faculty offering the programme).

Appelman, Robert (2005).  Designing Experiential Modes: A Key Focus for Immersive Learning Environments  TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 49, 3. 

A student sitting in a class and listening to an instructor talk is experiencing a particular mode of instruction sensed through visual and audio channels. She is aware that she is in the center of a classroom and also in close proximity to other students. Occasionally they gesture to the instructor at the front of the room, who stops talking when they speak. She is somewhat familiar with the content being discussed, would like to know more and is interested in the comments from the other students. Her experience is similar to most of the other students in the class. This is called Experiential Mode, which in learning consists of both observable attributes (the physical surroundings, sentient beings, objects, systems and events that occur) and the non-observable perceptions of the learners (the engagement, cognition and affective responses). Experiential Modes (EMs) may also be considered the smallest component of a Learning Environment (LE), and in most cases any LE will consist of a mix of different EMs. Experimential Mode is described in this article.

Apperson, Jennifer M.; Laws, Eric L.; Scepansky, James A. (2006).  The Impact of Presentation Graphics on Students' Experience in the Classroom  Computers and Education, 47, 1. 

To investigate the benefits and perceived effectiveness of instructional technology, students enrolled in several courses were compared on student evaluations of instruction, grades and an attitudinal questionnaire. The instructors of the courses taught the same course across two successive semesters, using traditional "chalk-and-talk" methods the first semester, and PowerPoint the next; all other techniques (e.g., exams, lecture material) were held constant. Results suggest that organization and clarity, entertainment and interest, professor likeability, and good professor behaviors were enhanced with PowerPoint although final grades were not.

Apperson, Jennifer M.; Laws, Eric L.; Scepansky, James A. (2008).  An Assessment of Student Preferences for PowerPoint Presentation Structure in Undergraduate Courses  Computers & Education, 50, 1. 

Studies have demonstrated that students prefer PowerPoint and respond favorably to classes when it is used. Few studies have addressed the physical structure of PowerPoint. In this study, students enrolled in several psychology classes on two campuses completed a 36 item questionnaire regarding their preferences for the use of PowerPoint in the classroom. Students preferred the use of key phrase outlines, pictures and graphs, slides to be built line by line, sounds from popular media or that support the pictures or graphics on the slide, color backgrounds, and to have the lights dimmed. It is recommended that professors pay attention to the physical aspects of PowerPoint slides and handouts to further enhance students' educational experience.

Apple, Michael W. (2007).  Who Needs Teacher Education? Gender, Technology, and the Work of Home Schooling  Teacher Education Quarterly, 34, 2. 

In this article, the author examines the ways in which the claim to subaltern status has led to a partial withdrawal from state-run institutions and to a practice of schooling that is meant to equip the children of authoritarian populist parents both with an armor to defend what these groups believe is their threatened culture and with a set of skills and values that will change the world so that it reflects the conservative religious commitments that are so central to their lives. He focuses on the ways in which new technologies such as the Internet have become essential resources--in essence "the" model of teacher education--in what authoritarian populists see as a counter-hegemonic struggle against secular humanism and a world that no longer "listens to God's word" (Apple, 2006). He argues that only by placing these technologies back into the social and ideological context of their use by specific communities (and by specific people within these communities) can people understand the meaning and function of new technologies in society and in education. In order to accomplish this, the author also focuses on the labor of home schooling, on how it is organized, on new definitions of legitimate knowledge and legitimate teaching, and on how all this has been partly transformed by the ways in which technological markets are being created. Much of the author's discussion centers around the place of gender in social movements, since conservative women have multiple identities within them, simultaneously able to claim subaltern status based on the history of dominant gender regimes, and having dominant status given their positioning in relationship to other oppressed groups.

Appling, Jeffrey R.; Peake, Lisa C. (2004).  Instructional Technology and Molecular Visualization  Journal of Science Education and Technology, 13, 3. 

The effect of intervening use of molecular visualization software was tested on 73 first-year general chemistry students. Pretests and posttests included both traditional multiple-choice questions and model-building activities. Overall students improved after working with the software, although students performed less well on the model-building portion of the evaluations. First semester and second semester students exhibit differences in abilities consistent with their different exposure to molecular geometry.

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  Abstract: The National Computing Centre (NCC) has developed an interactive video training system for the Scottish Police College to help train police supervisory officers in crowd control at major spectator events, such as football matches. This approach involves technology-enhanced training in a group-learning environment, and may have significant impact on management training methods. [This case study was originally published in "Interactive Learning International," Vol. 8, no. 2, 1992, 105-107, by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

 

  Abstract: Is it possible to educate a fire officer to deal intelligently with the command and control of a major fire event he will never have experienced? The authors of this paper believe there is, and present here just one solution to this training challenge. It involves the development of an intelligent simulation based upon computer managed interactive media. The expertise and content underpinning this educational development was provided by the West Midlands Fire Service. Their brief for this training programme was unambiguous and to the point: (1) Do not present the trainee with a model answer, because there are no generic fires. Each incident is novel, complex, and often "wicked" in that it changes obstructively as it progresses. Thus firefighting demands that Commanders impose their individual intelligence on each problem to solve it; (2) A suitable Educational Simulator should stand alone; operate in real time; emulate as nearly as possible the "feel" of the fireground; present realistic fire progress; incorporate the vast majority of those resources normally present at a real incident; bombard the trainee with information from those sources; provide as few system-prompts as possible; (3) There should also be an interrogable visual debrief which can be used after the exercise to give the trainees a firm understanding of the effects of their actions. This allows them to draw their own conclusions of their command effectiveness. Additionally, such a record of command and control will be an ideal initiator of tutorial discussion; (4) The simulation should be realisable on a hardware/software platform of 10 000 British Pounds; and (5) The overriding importance is that the simulation should "emulate as nearly as possible the feelings and stresses of the command role". [This paper was first published in "Interactive Learning International," Vol. 8, no. 2, 1992, 109-126, by John Wiley & Sons Ltd..

 

  Abstract: The CACTUS project was concerned with command and control training of large incidents where public order may be at risk, such as large demonstrations and marches. The training requirements and objectives of the project are first summarized justifying the use of knowledge-based computer methods to support and extend conventional training techniques. The software designs are based on a world model in which crowd groups and police units are placed on a digitized map and have probabilistic rules that govern their interactive behaviour. The simulation runs as a decision-making exercise that can include pre-event logistic planning, incident management, and debriefing evaluation. A key feature is the flexibility of the software, for it provides not only a working simulation but also a methodology and software tools for customizing programs to suit particular circumstances and training needs. [The case study was first published in "Interactive Learning International," Vol. 8, no. 2, 1992, 127-136, by John Wiley & Sons Ltd..

 

  Abstract: Enterprise resource planning (ERP) software does what school leaders have always wanted their computer systems to do: It sees all. By integrating every IT application an organization has--from purchasing and inventory control to payroll--ERPs create a single unified system. Not only does this give IT managers a holistic view to what is happening in the enterprise, it also lets them track in one place the purchase, installation, and maintenance of every item the district owns. Like any software product, ERPs come with a lot of baggage attached, particularly when it comes to time and resources needed for deployment and maintenance. To assess the pros and cons, this article presents a list of essential considerations: (1) Does a centralized ERP solution make sense for your district?; (2) How much do ERPs cost?; (3) What are some of the implementation challenges?; and (4) What is the bottom line? [This article originally appeared in "Technology & Learning's" February 2007 issue.

 

Absalom, Matthew; Vadura, Katharine (2006).  Student Perceptions of Internationalization of the Curriculum: An Australian Case Study  Arts and Humanities in Higher Education: An International Journal of Theory

One of the recent imperatives in higher education worldwide has been internationalization of the curriculum. The object of this article is to explore student perceptions of internationalization across diverse course offerings within one school of the University of South Australia (UniSA). UniSA is notable in the Australian context as a university which from very early in its development enshrined internationalization among its seven "graduate qualities". In this preliminary study, we explore the notions of internationalization of the curriculum as represented in the literature, describing the context for internationalization at UniSA before exploring student perceptions. Our data reveal that on the whole students appear to have a deep and integrated sense of internationalization of the curriculum which at times clashes with a less developed conceptualization defined by their course of study. From our study we are able to begin to define certain principles which foster internationalization of the curriculum and draw some challenging conclusions about its future in higher education.

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Ardac, Dilek; Sezen, Ali Hasan (2002).  Effectiveness of Computer-Based Chemistry Instruction in Enhancing the Learning of Content and Variable Control Under Guided versus Unguided Conditions.  Journal of Science Education and Technology, 11, 1. 

Examines the relative effectiveness of guided versus unguided computer-based instruction with regard to regular instruction in improving content knowledge and process skills among students with low and high chemistry achievement levels. The effectiveness of computer-based instruction increases when learning is supported by teacher-directed guidance. 

Ardalan, Ali; Ardalan, Roya; Coppage, Samuel; Crouch, William (2007).  A Comparison of Student Feedback Obtained through Paper-Based and Web-Based Surveys of Faculty Teaching  British Journal of Educational Technology, 38, 6. 

Many colleges have either begun or are contemplating using the web-based survey to gather student feedback on faculty teaching. Unlike the paper-based method, the web-based approach gives every student in the class the opportunity to provide feedback. Hence, the populations that participate in the web-based and paper-based methods may be quite different, and so may be the feedback. This paper compares the results of student feedback gathered through paper-based and web-based approaches. The results provide information to faculty and administrators on any differences they may expect as they make the transition from a paper-based to a web-based survey of faculty teaching.

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(2005).  AskTheStudents.com: 4 Views from the Front Line  Chronicle of Higher Education, 52, 16. 

An excerpt from a round-table discussion with students of several colleges in Florida on whether to support electronic media integration to their learning and campus experiences is presented. Mirella Avesani, one of the four student participants claims that it is important to have open access to computers and related software to complement class work.

Askov, Eunice N.; Johnston, Jerome; Petty, Leslie I.; Young, Shannon J. (2003).  Expanding Access to Adult Literacy with Online Distance Education. 

This monograph examines benefits, challenges, and methods of expanding access to adult literacy with online distance education (ODE). The following are among the topics discussed: (1) reasons for considering ODE (new technologies and delivery systems in education; ODE in higher education, business training, and adult basic education; state-level efforts to try ODE with adult learners; Project IDEAL [Improving Distance Education for Adult Learners]); (2) challenges of using the World Wide Web in adult education (LiteracyLink and results of field tests of its Workplace Essential Skills component); (3) the Pennsylvania experiment in building system capacity for ODE (the program's support structure; distance enrollments; implementation issues); (4) the Australian experience with ODE (federal efforts; state efforts); and (5) implementation issues in implementing ODE for adult learners (models of implementation; planning for implementation; teaching at a distance; models for teaching and learning); (6) policy issues in implementing ODE for adult learners (professional development; emerging technologies; experimentation and accountability; control and distribution of ODE); and (7) research issues in implementing ODE for adult learners. (The bibliography lists 64 references. The following items are appended: an overview of ODE products for adult education; an interview guide for programs implementing ODE; and an outline of the Project IDEAL planning process.) | [FULL TEXT]

Askov, Eunice; Simpson, Mary (2001).  Researching Distance Education: Penn State's Online Adult Education MEd Degree on the World Campus. 

The possibility of creating an appropriate online learning environment for distance adult students was examined in a study of 22 Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) students' attitudes regarding the online version of a course offered as part of Penn State's masters of education program. The students completed surveys before, during, and after the course. The survey questions focused on technology use, the learning process, the course's structure and content, and students' opinions regarding how well they had met the course objectives. In addition, 16 paired responses from the precourse and postcourse surveys were analyzed using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed ranks test. Most students rated their mastery of course objectives very highly. Eighty percent of the students interacted with other students between four and five times each week. Sixty percent stated that they interacted with the instructor "very often or always." As the course progressed, students reported significantly more expertise in computer use and less apprehension about using the Internet for the class. Students stated that the course's greatest strengths were the course instructors and the guidance and support provided. The surveys also established that the learning environment created made good matches to the learning principles that had guided the delivery design. | [FULL TEXT]

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Arafeh, Sousan (2004).  The Implications of Information and Communications Technologies for Distance Education: Looking toward the Future. Final Report  [Online Submission] 

One salient factor of increasing interest in distance education is advancement in information and communications technologies (ICTs). In particular, digital and networked technologies have had a wide range of effects on the educational materials, practices, and institutions involved in education, notably by improving time-and cost-efficient delivery. Although correspondence, telephone, television, and teleconferencing have all been effective delivery methods for distance education, the Internet has been a particularly important development in making it possible for teachers and students to access a wealth of information and each other quickly, easily, and interactively in both face-to-face and remote education settings. Thus, it is crucial that interested stakeholders continue to track new technological, educational, and cultural developments in order to actively plan for their integrated use and management in distance education now and in the future. Such tracking requires that we keep our minds open and that we do not assume that the ICTs and distance education technologies of today are the ones that will sustain us in the future. As this report will argue, the future will be an increasingly complex space in which success will consist of embodying and addressing such complexity gracefully. As of now, we are still not sure what kinds of technical, conceptual, institutional, and organizational configurations will be needed as we move into the next generation. However, by exploring the implications of ICTs for distance education with an open mind, we can begin to learn. The purpose of this report is to identify and review current literature to explore the implications of information, communications, and computer technologies (ICCTs) for distance education. The review is not intended to be exhaustive but, rather, a point of departure for discussion. The information and implications outlined within are intended for all readers with interest in the topic including, but not limited to, researchers, analysts, and the public.  | [FULL TEXT]

Aragon, Steven R. (2003).  Creating Social Presence in Online Environments  New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 2003, 100. 

During the last decade, the Internet has significantly changed the way learning is delivered and facilitated in both educational and noneducational settings. Advocates of Internet-based instruction are largely positive and optimistic about its potential. Before it can be fully accepted by the mainstream public and educational community, however, many challenges must be addressed. Primary among these challenges is how to meet "the expectations and needs of both the instructor and the student and how to design online courses so they provide a satisfying and effective learning environment" (Johnson, Aragon, Shaik, and Palma-Rivas, 2000, p. 31). According to Bibeau (2001), teaching and learning functions are inherently social endeavors; therefore, it is beneficial to understand the various effects of the geographic, temporal, and psychological distance between instructors and participants. The lens through which these distances are examined is that of social presence theory. This chapter examines definitions of social presence, the benefits of social presence on learning, and strategies for increasing social presence within online environments.

Aragon, Steven R.; Johnson, Scott D.; Shaik, Najmuddin (2000).  The Influence of Learning Style Preferences on Student Success in Online vs. Face-to-Face Environments. 

This study compared the relationship between learning style preferences and learner success of students in an online graduate level instructional design course with an equivalent face-to-face course. Comparisons included motivation maintenance, task engagement, and cognitive controls. Results revealed significant relationships between preferences and course success on five constructs for the face-to-face students and no significant relationships for the online students. Overall, the findings suggest that students can be equally successful in face-to-face and online environments regardless of learning style preferences.   | [FULL TEXT]

Arasasingham, Ramesh D.; Taagepera, Mare; Potter, Frank; Martorell, Ingrid; Lonjers, Stacy (2005).  Assessing the Effect of Web-Based Learning Tools on Student Understanding of Stoichiometry Using Knowledge Space Theory  Journal of Chemical Education, 82, 8. 

Student achievement in web-based learning tools is assessed by using in-class examination, pretests, and posttests. The study reveals that using mastering chemistry web software in large-scale instruction provides an overall benefit to introductory chemistry students.

Araujo, Ives Solano; Veit, Eliane Angela; Moreira, Marco Antonio (2008).  Physics Students' Performance Using Computational Modelling Activities to Improve Kinematics Graphs Interpretation  Computers & Education, 50, 4. 

The purpose of this study was to investigate undergraduate students' performance while exposed to complementary computational modelling activities to improve physics learning, using the software "Modellus." Interpretation of kinematics graphs was the physics topic chosen for investigation. The theoretical framework adopted was based on Halloun's schematic modelling approach and on Ausubel's meaningful learning theory. The results of this work show that there was a statistically significant improvement in the experimental group students' performance when compared to the control group, submitted just to a conventional teaching method. Students' perception with respect to the concepts and mathematical relations, as well as the motivation to learn, originated by the activities, have played a fundamental role in these findings.

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_____. (2002).  Analysis of the First Year of Operation of the Federal Alternative Financing Program for Individuals with Disabilities: Providing Low Cost Loans for the Purchase of Assistive Technology. 

This report analyzes the first year of the Federal Alternative Financing Program (AFP), a program designed to help individuals with disabilities who need to purchase assistive technology (AT) find a way to pay for the equipment. The program receives funding under Title III of the Assistive Technology Act of 1998 and provides low-cost financing for AT devices and services for adults and children with disabilities. In October 2000, six states (Kansas, Maryland, Missouri, Pennsylvania, Utah, and Virginia) began offering AFP loans to individuals with disabilities through $3.8 million in federal grants. This federal money was matched dollar for dollar by the states. The states that received funding used different loan models, including revolving loan programs, loan guarantee programs, and interest buy-down models. Information on the individual loan applications was reported by five states. Analysis of this first year data (n= 312) indicates the majority of those requesting loans for AT were the consumers themselves, while the remaining 26.4% were representatives of the persons who were seeking loans to purchase AT. Overall, 45.8% of loan requests were for transportation or vehicle modifications and 35.6% were for computer equipment or computer access. | [FULL TEXT]

Anastasiades, Panagiotes S.; Retalis, Simos (2001).  The Educational Process in the Emerging Information Society: Conditions for the Reversal of the Linear Model of Education and the Development of an Open Type Hybrid Learning Environment. 

The introduction of communications and information technologies in the area of education tends to create a totally different environment, which is marked by a change of the teacher's role and a transformation of the basic components that make up the meaning and content of the learning procedure as a whole. It could be said that, despite any changes, this training process is subject to a "tayloristic" linear model of production that takes the student at childhood and gives him back to society and the dynamics of the market with the hope that he will be able to respond creatively to the constantly increasing demands. As the student moves down the school assembly line, teachers at various levels give him the knowledge that has been worked out for each level in a predefined and uniform way. This paper asks the question: is the introduction of training technology going to help reverse this closed model of training process or is it just going to modernize the ways and methods, keeping the main body of the training assembly line unchanged? Discussion includes characteristics of the conventional-linear model of education; the new hybrid type learning environment; and requirements for the development of an open learning environment.   | [FULL TEXT]

Anastasiades, Panagiotes S.; Vitalaki, Elena; Gertzakis, Nikos (2008).  Collaborative Learning Activities at a Distance via Interactive Videoconferencing in Elementary Schools: Parents' Attitudes  Computers & Education, 50, 4. 

As schools are increasingly encouraging students to use the Internet and web-based technology at home and in the classroom, concerns among some parents have increased. Today's parents have learned about computers as adults and did not receive guided participation as children either from their parents or from their teachers. The essence of this paper is twofold: (a) to investigate how parents view their children's opportunity to acquire new educational and interpersonal experiences from the introduction of collaborative learning activities by distance via videoconferencing in school settings and (b) to examine the differences in parents' attitudes to the use of the Internet and web based technologies by elementary students in the family home as an acknowledgment of their importance in their children's day-to-day social and educational activities, in two developing but still traditional European countries. Using data from two groups of parents (N = 98)--one from an urban province of Crete (Rethymno) and the other from a rural province of Cyprus (Avgorou), the present paper showed that parents respond to the "newness" of digital collaborative learning and interpersonal activities of their children according to their level of use and perceived compatibility of the information and communication technologies.

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Abasi, Ali R.; Taylor, Maurice C. (2007).  Tackling the Issues and Challenges of Using Video Data in Adult Literacy Research  Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 47, 2. 

Although video has long been used as a teaching aid in adult literacy and basic education, literacy researchers seem to have ignored the potential benefits of using video as a tool that could add rigour to research. Reporting on their field experiences of an adult literacy learning study in Canada, the authors provide a narrative account of their use of video as a data collection tool. The article describes the methodological challenges associated with the use of video data and the procedures that were used to analyse video records in their adult literacy research. | [FULL TEXT]

Abate, Ronald J.; Bagaka's, Joshua Gisemba (2002).  Middle School Technology Use--Design Impediments versus Classroom Needs. 

This paper reports on the relationships among classroom teaching, learning activities and technology integration in the middle school classroom. The results are based on a comparison of three studies conducted across diverse middle school settings. The studies considered three primary questions: (1) Are specific learning activities identifiable across middle school classrooms? (2) Are the technologies available to the schools supportive of the classroom goals of teachers and students? and (3) What reasons influence the use of current technology in classroom learning activities? A learning activity-oriented viewpoint guided the research focus. Documented within the study are the typical learning activities and potential role for technology within the classroom learning environment of middle schools. Includes four tables and two figures. | [FULL TEXT]

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Armatas, Christine; Holt, Dale; Rice, Mary (2003).  Impacts of an Online-Supported, Resource-Based Learning Environment: Does One Size Fit All?  Distance Education, 24, 2. 

This paper reports on the use of an online, resource-based learning (RBL) approach in first year psychology at Deakin University. Differences between on- and off-campus students that emerged are examined in the context of the learning goals and study approaches of the two student groups and their attitudes to using computers. Unlike the on-campus students who were less positive about working with computers and reported confusion about how and what to study for the unit, the off-campus students reported feeling confident they had a good study strategy and were more positive about computers. The off-campus students also reported that they spent more time working with electronic resources and attached greater value to them. While all students valued the prescribed resources, the off-campus students found some of the optional, electronic resources valuable because they added to the learning experience. These students also reported greater use of the computer-mediated communication available as part of the online learning environment, and valued this functionality more highly than did the on-campus students. These findings highlight the need to take into account learner characteristics when designing learning environments that cater for individual differences and preferences. While online-supported RBL approaches have the potential to cater to the diverse needs of students, learning environments need to be designed, structured and delivered so the learning experience can be customized to the needs of different student cohorts, while preserving the overarching, pedagogical goals.

Armatas, Christine; Holt, Dale; Rice, Mary (2004).  Designing Distributed Learning Environments in Support of Professional Development in the Field of Psychology  Educational Media International, 41, 4. 

This paper argues that the key to enhancing professional excellence in psychology education lies with ensuring strong alignments between curricular, pedagogical and media/technology mix concerns, delivered within an inter-linked suite of distributed learning environments designed for the professional preparation of students. An overarching design is necessary because there are recognizable developmental stages of professional competence in psychology, with each stage characterized by specific curricular and pedagogical concerns, which in turn must be supported by different types of distributed learning environments. To equip students for the demands of the profession, deliberate design of distributed learning environments that support all stages of students' professional development in an integrated and purposeful way is essential.

Armitage, Nicholas; Bowerman, Chris (2005).  The Lom Approach--a Call for Concern?  Computer Assisted Language Learning, 18, 1-2. 

The LOM (Learning Object Model) approach to courseware design seems to be driven by a desire to increase access to education as well as use technology to enable a higher staff?student ratio than is currently possible. The LOM standard involves the use of standard metadata descriptions of content and adaptive content engines to deliver the conglomerate learning objects to the learner. Whilst there are clear issues of both intellectual property rights as well as appropriate business models (DfES, 2001; HEFCE, 2003), it would also appear that there are a number of other disadvantages. These included the loss of teacher input, the need for a large number of learning objects and different end-user interfaces Our proposed solution, Syntactics , enables teachers to create content and customise materials with only basic IT skills in an environment which offers a common user interface. We argue that such systems, driven by technology, offer many benefits to language teachers and present the CALL community with an opportunity to rethink its strategies.

Armitage, Nicholas; Bowerman, Chris (2005).  The LOM Approach -- A CALL for Concern?  Computer Assisted Language Learning, 18, 1-2. 

The LOM (Learning Object Model) approach to courseware design seems to be driven by a desire to increase access to education as well as use technology to enable a higher staff-student ratio than is currently possible. The LOM standard involves the use of standard metadata descriptions of content and adaptive content engines to deliver the conglomerate learning objects to the learner. Whilst there are clear issues of both intellectual property rights as well as appropriate business models (DfES, 2001; HEFCE, 2003), it would also appear that there are a number of other disadvantages. These included the loss of teacher input, the need for a large number of learning objects and different end-user interfaces Our proposed solution, "Syntactics", enables teachers to create content and customise materials with only basic IT skills in an environment which offers a common user interface. We argue that such systems, driven by technology, offer many benefits to language teachers and present the CALL community with an opportunity to rethink its strategies.

Armon, Joan; Morris, Linda J. (2008).  Integrated Assessments for ELL  Science and Children, 45, 8. 

Despite the challenges posed by increased time, specialized vocabularies, and balance, integrating writing and drawing with science investigations is beneficial for teachers and students. This month's column explains why this integrated approach is beneficial, and illustrates how teachers can use it to meet the needs of students learning English and guide teaching. It concludes by noting some of the difficulties posed by integration and offers some recommendations.

Armoni, Michal; Gal-Ezer, Judith (2006).  Introducing Nondeterminism  Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 25, 4. 

Nondeterminism is an essential concept in mathematics and one of the important concepts in computer science. It is also among the most abstract ones. Thus, many students find it difficult to cope with. In this article, we describe some didactic considerations, which guided the development of a "Computational Models" course for high school students, a course in which the concept of nondeterminism is introduced. Some of these considerations are relevant to college and university students as well. We also discuss students' perceptions of nondeterminism and their achievements in this area. Our findings show that many students prefer to avoid nondeterminism, even when it can significantly simplify the solution's design process. We analyze and categorize the students' solutions, thus shedding light on their perceptions of the abstract concept of nondeterminism.

Armstrong, Lloyd (2000).  Distance Learning: An Academic Leader's Perspective on a Disruptive Product.  Change, 32, 6. 

Defines Internet Mediated Distance Learning (IMDL), describing it as a sustaining educational force; considering ways in which it can act as a disruptive technology (especially to today's markets and market shares); examining how aspects of IMDL may change campus programs and governance and affect brand value; and noting the role of for-profits in this new environment.

Armstrong, Sara; Warlick, David (2004).  The New Literacy: The 3 Rs Evolve into the 4 Es  Technology & Learning, 25, 2. 

This article focuses on the challenge of educators in keeping up with an information environment that has changed dramatically in the past 10 years. Thus, it is crucial that when teaching literacy to students, educators emphasize skills that reflect the information environment of the present, not the past. With the information age comes a whole new set of basic skills. The authors describe how the traditional 3 Rs evolve into 4 Es to define literacy in an increasingly, and soon to be exclusively, digital and networked world. The authors suggest that while teaching students those prevailing information skills, it is also essential to teach them the ethical use of that information. The tips for how school and district leadership can play a key role in driving and supporting new literacy are enumerated.

Armstrong, Victoria; Barnes, Sally; Sutherland, Rosamund; Curran, Sarah; Mills, Simon; Thompson, Ian (2005).  Collaborative Research Methodology for Investigating Teaching and Learning: The Use of Interactive Whiteboard Technology  Educational Review, 57, 4. 

This paper discusses the results of a research project which aimed to capture, analyse and communicate the complex interactions between students, teachers and technology that occur in the classroom. Teachers and researchers used an innovative research design developed through the InterActive Education Project (Sutherland et al., 2003). Video case studies were carried out in four classrooms, focusing on the use of interactive whiteboard technology for teaching and learning. The case studies were analysed using StudioCode, an analytic tool which allows researchers to mark and code segments of video data into categories and themes. Teachers developed coding systems drawing on the learning aims and objectives of their particular lessons. The case studies illustrate that the introduction of interactive whiteboards (IWBs) into the classroom involves much more than the physical installation of the board and software. Teachers are the critical agents in mediating the software, the integration of the software into the subject aims of the lesson and appropriate use of the IWB to promote quality interactions and interactivity.

Armstrong, Victoria; Curran, Sarah (2006).  Developing a Collaborative Model of Research Using Digital Video  Computers and Education, 46, 3. 

Digital video can play an important role in reconfiguring educational research methodology that challenges the perceived distinction between teachers and academics--the former normally positioned as "users" of research that has been designed, interpreted and theorised by the latter, usually the "producers" or academics [Triggs, P., & John, P. (2004). From transaction to transformation: ICT, professional development and the formation of communities of practice "Journal of Computer Assisted Learning Special Issue" 20(6) 426-439]. In this paper, we report on a collaborative project between university researchers and four teachers within the Primary and Secondary Sectors that has sought to develop new ways of asking questions about the classroom experience through the use of digital video. By each contributing their expertise and experience, teacher practitioners and researchers work in partnership to interpret and jointly construct new knowledge, understanding and classroom practice. The first part of this paper reports on the methodology, examining the role of digital video in facilitating research collaborations, while the second part provides an account of one of the participating teacher's experiences of the process.

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Arroyo-Vazquez, Monica; van der Sijde, Peter (2008).  Entrepreneurship Encouragement and Business Development Support at Universities and Science Parks: Proposal for a New Conceptualization  Industry and Higher Education, 22, 1. 

New stakeholders and new roles for old stakeholders have emerged with the development of entrepreneurial universities. A new systemic framework is therefore required which includes these various stakeholders and their goals and thus gives a clear picture of the process of entrepreneurship encouragement and business development support (EE&BDS). The authors propose a model for knowledge transfer and company growth in the context of entrepreneurial universities and science parks. This integrative approach to the roles of the different stakeholders, activities, tools, goals and needs facilitates the arrangement and management of the EE&BDS process. The authors describe and assess their EE&BDS model, presenting the case of the Polytechnic University of Valencia (UPV) and the science park linked to it, the Polytechnic City of Innovation (CPI). The analysis identifies the roles of and relationships among the UPV-CPI stakeholders and shows how this integrative approach can enhance the EE&BDS process for the institution.

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Arn, Susan Kyle (2006).  Simple Games . . . or Are They?  Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers, 81, 8. 

Students today begin using computers and playing video games as early as two years old. The technology behind these games is more complicated than most people can imagine. In this article, the author presents some simple number games which seem easy at the beginning, but as the games are repeated, mathematical content becomes more of the focus than the rules. Furthermore, the author hopes that these simple games will help other career and technical educators in improving the math skills of their students in a fun and exciting way.

Arnold, Joanna C.; Keller, Jill L. (2002).  Cultures of Medicine: A Technology Based Learning Environment To Enhance Critical Thinking Skills. 

Med-Start is a 5-week program that encourages rural, minority, and economically disadvantaged high school seniors throughout Arizona to pursue careers in the health professions. In order to assist these students in making the transition from high school to college and then to professional school, Med-Start provides academic coursework and seeks to help students enhance critical thinking skills. In past years, one course, a Cultures of Medicine class, has required students to complete technology-based assignments. After several years, instructors had been unable to document any change in students' critical thinking as a result of the course, and student discontent with the course was obvious. The redesign of the course was undertaken to achieve enhanced critical thinking through the use of technology. Using the framework of pragmatic constructivism (Cobb, 2002) to guide the instructional design process, course developers created a 7.5 hour course. This framework supported an instructional design approach that considered the technological environment, the student learning process, and the teacher's role within this environment while allowing for ongoing evaluation and revision of the course. Within this framework, using results for 2 classes of 60 students each, it was determined that a learning environment can be created in which technology enhances students' critical thinking skills in a relatively short time.  | [FULL TEXT]

Arnold, Nike (2007).  Technology-Mediated Learning 10 Years Later: Emphasizing Pedagogical or Utilitarian Applications?  Foreign Language Annals, 40, 1. 

In recent years, educational technology has come a long way. Technological advancements and significant investments in computer equipment and training have opened new opportunities for foreign language teachers. In addition, instructional technology (IT) is now an accepted component of teacher training and foreign language teaching. This study addresses the question how IT actually is being used for foreign language learning in higher education. It reports the findings of an online survey, which was completed by 173 college foreign language teachers. Results suggest that the vast majority of participants do use computer technology for their teaching, but at a very basic level. Teachers' IT use seems to be motivated largely by utilitarian reasons, followed by a variety of pedagogical benefits. A Survey is appended.

Arnold, Nike (2007).  Reducing Foreign Language Communication Apprehension with Computer-Mediated Communication: A Preliminary Study  System: An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, 35, 4. 

Many studies (e.g., [Beauvois, M.H., 1998. "E-talk: Computer-assisted classroom discussion--attitudes and motivation." In: Swaffar, J., Romano, S., Markley, P., Arens, K. (Eds.), "Language learning online: Theory and practice in the ESL and L2 computer classroom." Labyrinth Publications, Austin, TX, pp. 99-120; Bump, J., 1990. "Radical changes in class discussion using networked computers." "Computers and the Humanities" 24, 49-65; Kern, R.G., 1995. "Restructuring classroom interaction with networked computers: Effects on quantity and characteristics of language production." "Modern Language Journal" 79 (4), 457-476; Lee, L., 2002. "Enhancing learners' communication skills through synchronous electronic interaction and task-based instruction." "Foreign Language Annals" 35 (1), 16-23; Perez, L.C., 2003. "Foreign language productivity in synchronous versus asynchronous computer-mediated communication." "CALICO Journal" 21 (1), 89-104; Roed, J., 2003. "Language learner behaviour in a virtual environment." "Computer Assisted Language Learning" 16 (2-3), 155-172; Warschauer, M., 1996. "Comparing face-to-face and electronic discussion in the second language classroom." "CALICO Journal" 13 (2), 7-26]) indicate that computer-mediated communication (CMC) can lower foreign language learners' anxiety levels. This study investigates the relationship between CMC and communication apprehension by using the established definitions and instruments of foreign language anxiety research. During one semester, 56 students enrolled in third semester German participated in six group discussions. The control group (n = 12) completed the discussions face-to-face while the two experimental groups used synchronous (n = 21) or asynchronous CMC (n = 23). Data from pretest and posttest questionnaires show no significant difference in reduction of communication apprehension between the control and experimental groups.

Arnold, Stephen (2004).  Classroom Computer Algebra: Some Issues and Approaches  Australian Mathematics Teacher, 60, 2. 

Not so long ago, the common response of teachers to high school use of computer algebra systems (CAS) was invariably along the lines of, "What will be left to teach if our students have access to devices which solve, factorise, do calculus and more?" and "If students use such tools, then they will never learn how to do their mathematics, and their algebra skills will deteriorate" and the classic cry, "What will be left for us to put into our examinations?". This article presents questions that offer ideal illustrations of the power of computer algebra as a classroom learning tool. These tools support students, not in mindlessly producing results, but in purposeful and strategic investigation of problems. | [FULL TEXT]

Arnold, Stephen (2004).  Integrating Technology in the Middle School: Years 5-9   Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom, 9, 3. 

In the past, graphic calculators have been sophisticated and exciting tools for higher mathematics, but few would have considered using them more than occasionally with younger students. All this has now changed with the growing range of software Apps now available for Texas Instruments TI-83 Plus calculators. These Apps are more like computer software than calculator programs and, in many ways, make the device more like a laptop than a calculator, especially when combined with the new keyboard, which supports the free "Microsoft Word"-compatible word processor, along with the spreadsheet, dynamic geometry and much more. In this article, the author presents a number of lesson outlines which he has used with upper primary through to secondary students in the past twelve months. The lessons described here explore applications to space, data and number.

Arnon, Ilana; Nesher, Pearla; Nirenburg, Renata (2001).  Where Do Fractions Encounter Their Equivalents?: Can This Encounter Take Place in Elementary-School?  International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning, 6, 2. 

Describes computer software called Shemesh designed for learning equivalence-classes of fractions. Describes interviews with fifth-grade students who used the software in their learning activities. Evidence indicates initial actual development of desired mathematical concepts.

Arnone, Marilyn P.; Small, Ruth V. (2001).  S.O.S. for Information Literacy: A Tool for Improving Research and Information Skills Instruction. 

At no time in history has the ability to locate, organize, evaluate, manage and use information, skills collectively referred to as information literacy, been more important to today's learners. Classroom and technology teachers and library media specialists are challenged to find effective, innovative techniques for teaching research and information skills, especially to young children. This paper summarizes the research conducted for a United States Department of Education Phase I SBIR award. The project utilized digital video, database, and information technologies, to design a proof-of-concept prototype for a comprehensive Web-based tool, S.O.S, for improving instruction in this critical area. Educators identify relevant situation-specific variables (S.) and desired instructional outcomes (O.). Suggested instructional strategies (S.) are subsequently generated. These strategies are linked to a database of real-world video and multimedia examples. S.O.S. will be responsive to advancing technology and include system feedback mechanisms as well as direct user input for continuous formative evaluation and improvement. By integrating sound pedagogical principles with real-world practice presented in video and multimedia demonstrations, the project will make a valuable contribution to the quality of information literacy skills instruction. | [FULL TEXT]

Arnseth, H. C.; Saljo, R. (2007).  Making Sense of Epistemic Categories: Analysing Students' Use of Categories of Progressive Inquiry in Computer Mediated Collaborative Activities  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 23, 5. 

The topic of this article concerns how students make sense of categories of progressive inquiry made available to them through a discussion and inquiry type of software called Future Learning Environments 2 (FLE2). The idea behind tools of this kind is to induce approaches to school-work that build on the metaphor of learning as research. By pursuing a socio-cultural perspective on the topic of categories and categorization, we analyse in detail how students make sense of these categories, including how their sense-making relates to other concerns they have to manage when engaged in the institutional practices of studying. We demonstrate that students encounter significant challenges when engaged in the categorization work required by FLE2 and its underlying pedagogical model of progressive inquiry. Therefore, we conclude that to develop educational practices similar to the scientific practices on which such tools rely is more complex than merely following a step-by-step model of inquiry. To be able to evaluate truth claims and factuality involves the mastery of a whole range of historically developed skills and knowledge, and it is therefore not surprising that the students find it difficult to make adequate interpretations of what the categories entail, and how they should be used.

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Argys, Richard (2008).  One More Thing: Can We Teach Process Writing "and" Formulaic Response?  English Journal, 97, 3. 

Teachers across the country consider the best methods to teach writing in the middle school and high school. They aspire for students to produce writing aimed at real audiences and purposes, writing that follows the author's thinking and leads readers to discoveries about the topic. Many teachers believe that a formula in writing could offer students enough scaffolding to move them closer to a passing or proficient grade on high-stakes, mandated state examinations. Fortunately, data are emerging that might shed some light on the degree to which formulaic structure may or may not improve students' writing. In this article, the author presents a study that offers some insights into how five-paragraph themes and other-than-formulaic writing methods serve students on state-mandated, high school graduation exit examinations. The study, conducted by Bonnie R. Albertson of the University of Delaware, analyzed over one thousand essays written by eighth- and tenth-grade students in response to Delaware's state direct-writing assessment.

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Arias, J. (2008).  Multilingual Students and Language Acquisition: Engaging Activities for Diversity Training  English Journal, 97, 3. 

High school teacher J. Arias recommends valuable activities that teachers can use to "build communities of respect, tolerance, and acceptance" for language diversity in schools. Many of the activities are directed toward helping native English speakers empathize with and better understand English language learners' experiences with language acquisition.

Arias, Sonia; Clark, Kevin A. (2004).  Instructional Technologies in Developing Countries: A Contextual Analysis Approach  TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 48 n4 p52-55, 70 2004. 

Many developing countries are moving forward and implementing information communication technology (ICT) initiatives to improve their citizens' access to education, increase the quality of education, and implement educational reform. Because of the increasingly scarce supporting resources, it is imperative that effective and meaningful instructional systems design principles continue to be included in the design of new technology-based learning environments. In response to this particular need, Tessmer and Richey had developed a context-based analysis model. In this article, the authors examine the applicability of this model in ICT applications.

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Ahadiat, Nas (2008).  Technologies Used in Accounting Education: A Study of Frequency of Use among Faculty  Journal of Education for Business, 83, 3. 

Given the wide range of technologies available for use in education, the author tried to determine which technologies have widespread applications for accounting educators. This information can provide a basis on which faculty can determine which media are more appropriate or have practical applications in accounting curricula. In addition, the author investigated whether differences exist among educators in their choices of technology and the extent to which technology is used.

Ahamer, Gilbert (2008).  Virtual Structures for Mutual Review Promote Understanding of Opposed Standpoints  [Online Submission] 

Web based training (WBT) is able to reshape human interaction. Peer review processes, such as adhered to by journals and in the context of political processes such as accession to the EU, have aided in safeguarding quality in the academic field since long. University curricula, however, have not yet fully taken into account training for such mutual evaluation activities. One of the key approaches of the recently designed negotiation game "Surfing Global Change" (SGC) is to complement traditional roles of "teacher versus students". Therefore, in level 2 of SGC students write, review, assess and update standpoints while making use of a web based discussion forum. A statistical analysis of student activities is provided alongside conclusions regarding motivations of different clusters of students. Independent sets of skills might be discerned in the final academic result. Taking the example of SGC's collaborative process design and teaching methodology, the present paper discusses the influence of various concepts and methodologies of education and training while focussing on student-teacher interactions.  | [FULL TEXT]

Aharony, Noa (2006).  The Use of Deep and Surface Learning Strategies among Students Learning English as a Foreign Language in an Internet Environment  British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 4. 

Background: The learning context is learning English in an Internet environment. The examination of this learning process was based on the Biggs and Moore's teaching-learning model (Biggs & Moore, 1993). Aim: The research aims to explore the use of the deep and surface strategies in an Internet environment among EFL students who come from different socio-economic backgrounds. The results of the research may add an additional level to the understanding of students' functioning in the Internet environment. Sample: One hundred forty-eight Israeli junior and high school students participated in this research. Methods: The methodology was based on special computer software: Screen Cam, which recorded the students' learning process. In addition, expert judges completed a questionnaire which examined and categorized the students' learning strategies. Results: The research findings show a clear preference of participants from all socio-economic backgrounds towards the surface learning strategy. The findings also showed that students from the medium to high socio-economic background used both learning strategies more frequently than low socio-economic students. Conclusions: The results reflect the habits that students acquire during their adjustment process throughout their education careers. A brief encounter with the Internet learning environment apparently cannot change norms or habits, which were acquired in the non-Internet learning environment.

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(2007).  Advancing the Profession: Facilitating Critical Research  Learning & Leading with Technology, 34, 8. 

The field of educational technology is under external pressure to provide evidence of identifiable learning outcomes that can be attributed to technology. Leaders within the educational technology research community agree about the importance of such evidence. Each year, ISTE and the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education (SITE) cosponsor a National Technology Leadership Summit (NTLS) to consider such issues. One goal is to proactively facilitate needed research that will advance the profession. In this article, the authors share their collective perspective regarding current research needs with ISTE members.

_____. (2000).  Advances in Distance Learning. Symposium 38. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.] 

Three presentations are provided from Symposium 38, Advances in Distance Learning, of the Academy of Human Resource Development 2000 Conference Proceedings. "Teaching Strategies in a Synchronous Learning Environment for Adult Students" (Luis A. C. Lima, Kathryn S. Hoff) reports the responses of intact cohort groups enrolled in spring semester 1999 to two learning style instruments and results that indicate preference for use of discussion, peer teaching, independent study, and lecture. "The Influence of Learning Style Preferences on Student Success in Online vs. Face-to-Face Environments" (Steven R. Aragon, Scott D. Johnson, Najmuddin Shaik) reports significant relationships between preferences and course success on five constructs for the face-to-face students and no significant relationships for the online students. Findings suggest students can be equally successful in both environments regardless of learning style preferences. "The Impact of a Distance Training System (DTS) with Two Distance Training Delivery Processes (DTDPs) on Trainee Satisfaction and Individual Job Performance: A Case Study" (Maria Hruby Moore) focuses on multiple regression output that suggests DTDP was not a significant contributor to trainee satisfaction or placements; work experience and manager involvement were statistically significant in predicting trainee satisfaction; and sales experience, manager involvement, and work environment were statistically significant in predicting the number of placements. The papers contain reference sections. | [FULL TEXT]

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Atamturk, Nurdan (2007).  The Attitudes of ELT Students towards the Internet in Doing Their Homework  [Online Submission] 

Educational technology has been gaining importance in English language teaching since with the help of technological tools teaching and learning became more effective. This study which is descriptive in nature, is designed to investigate the present attitudes of ELT students towards the Internet in doing homework, their technological literacy and the level their instructors use technological tools in their classes. The participants of this study are prospective teachers who are studying in ELT department at the Near East University. Investigation shows that they resort to the Internet mostly whilst doing homework, they have good computer skills and they have positive attitudes towards technology.  | [FULL TEXT]

Atan, Hanafi; Rahman, Zuraidah; Idrus, Rozhan M. (2004).  Characteristics of the Web-Based Learning Environment in Distance Education: Students' Perceptions of Their Learning Needs  Educational Media International, 41, 2. 

A study was conducted regarding students' perceptions on the characteristics of the learning requirements in a web-based learning environment. Various aspects of on-line learning were studied including the general web-based support system for the students, the learning materials, instructional strategies of the learning materials and the learning resources. The results revealed a high degree of necessity for a web-based general support system to be provided to the students; the students were also very receptive towards the need for on-line supplementary course articles, as well as materials related to course tests and examinations. Where the on-line web-based learning materials were concerned, the students perceived that these should only be supplementary and supportive to the existing modular print-based format of the course delivery. The instructional strategies that integrate various forms of interaction, the access to a plethora of resources and the media-rich environment fitted well with their learning requirements via distance education.

Atan, Hanafi; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Rahman, Zuraidah Abd; Idrus, Rozhan Mohammed (2002).  Gender Differences in Availability, Internet Access and Rate of Usage of Computers among Distance Education Learners.  Educational Media International, 39, 3-4. 

Explores the level of availability of computers, Internet accessibility, and the rate of usage of computers both at home and at the workplace between distance education learners according to gender. Results of questionnaires completed at the Universiti Sains Malaysia indicate that distance education reduces the gender gap.

Atar, Hakan Yavuz (2002).  Chemistry Students' Challenges in Using MBL's in Science Laboratories. 

Understanding students' challenges about using microcomputer based laboratories (MBLs) would provide important data in understanding the appropriateness of using MBLs in high school chemistry laboratories. Identifying students' concerns about this technology will in part help educators identify the obstacles to science learning when using this technology. This study seeks to answer these two questions: (1) What advantages and challenges do students encounter during MBL activities? and (2) What are the views of high school chemistry students regarding the use of MBLs as a learning tool? The findings of the study included: (1) MBLs do not necessarily promote learning for all students; (2) special attention should be given to slow paced learners; (3) students feel challenged by MBL generated graphs; and (4) teachers should constantly be on the look out for graph anomalies that may simply be the result of misplugging of probes in the interface which may cause further graph interpretation confusion. | [FULL TEXT]

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Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S. (2006).  Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology  Journal of Geography, 105, 6. 

Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses. Students in introductory-level classes benefited from the novel presentation of material. Advanced undergraduates and graduate students appreciated the opportunity to analyze the advantages, limitations, and potential applications of the new technology. 3-D visualization technology, which is more affordable and convenient than ever before, may offer an untapped potential in geography instruction at many levels.

Anthony, Taiwanna D.; Kritsonis, William Allan (2006).  National Implications: An Analysis of E-Mentoring Induction Year Programs for Novice Alternatively Certified Teachers  [Online Submission] 

The purpose of this article is to determine how urban school districts, urban schools and urban educational leaders have planned for and implemented into practice induction programs for alternatively certified novice teachers, which will include a E-Mentor, E-Mentoring, and mentoring in response to state policy on new teacher training. The topic is of grave concern as on a national level, Dariling-Hammond (2000) established that "teacher quality characteristics...are significantly and positively correlated with students outcomes". As NCLB mandates that every classroom have a highly qualified teacher, research such as this will provide, urban school districts, urban schools, and urban educational leaders with substantial information needed to effectively meet the goals of this challenge. | [FULL TEXT]

Antonenko, Pavlo; Toy, Serkan; Niederhauser, Dale (2004).  Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment: What Open Source Has to Offer  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

Open source online learning environments have emerged and developed over the past 10 years. In this paper we will analyze the underlying philosophy and features of MOODLE based on the theoretical framework developed by Hannafin and Land (2000). Psychological, pedagogical, technological, cultural, and pragmatic foundations comprise the framework and represent the major points of our analysis. This paper is intended for instructional designers, distance education specialists, K-12 and college instructors who may want to add an online component to their courses. | [FULL TEXT]

Antonijevic, Radovan (2007).  Usage of Computers and Calculators and Students' Achievement: Results from TIMSS 2003  [Online Submission, Paper presented at the International Conference on Informatics, Educational Technology and New Media in Education (4th, Sombor, Serbia, Mar 31-Apr 1, 2007)] 

The paper deals with the facts obtained from TIMSS 2003 (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study). This international comparative study, which includes 47 participant countries worldwide, explores dependence between eighth grade students' achievement in the areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and geography, and basic characteristics of context for teaching and learning in school and at home. In the sense, different options of using modern technology equipment and its influence to students' achievement are explored in the TIMSS 2003 assessment. The main topic of the paper is using computers and calculators in teaching and its implications to students' overall achievement at the end of primary school education. The TIMSS 2003 international overall results in this area show that using computers in teaching doesn't significantly contribute to better students' achievement in the field of mathematics and also show some level of significant influence on students' achievement in the field of science. Moreover, the results show that using calculators in mathematics teaching improve overall students' achievement. Connectedness between using computers/calculators and students' achievement is especially explored and presented in the frame of students' sample in four countries, the United States, the Netherlands, Bulgaria and Serbia.  [This article is a result of the project "Education for Knowledge-Based Society" No. 149001 (2006-2010), financially supported by the Ministry for Science and Environmental Protection, Republic of Serbia. This article was also published in: The Fourth International Conference on Informatics, Educational Technology and New Media in Education: Proceedings (253-263). Sombor (Serbia): Faculty of Education.] | [FULL TEXT]

Antonucci, Robert V. (2001).  Seven Myths about Online Colleges: A View from Inside.  Connection: New England's Journal of Higher Education and Economic Development, 15, 3. 

Presents seven myths about online learning that discourage its expansion. These myths revolve around the purported inadequacies of online learning, the limits imposed by for-profit ventures, and the damage that virtual colleges will do to their traditional counterparts.

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Abimbade, Alade (2002).  A Computer Package for Continuous Assessment Practice in Primary Classrooms.  Educational Media International, 39, 2. 

Reports on a study of the National Policy on Computer Education in Nigeria to introduce computers into primary education curriculum. Focuses on the adoption of microcomputers in classrooms as a medium of continuous assessment and describes a computer package for continuous assessment that was field tested in private primary schools.

Abisdris, Gil; Phaneuf, Alain (2007).  Using a Digital Video Camera to Study Motion  Science Teacher, 74, 9. 

To illustrate how a digital video camera can be used to analyze various types of motion, this simple activity analyzes the motion and measures the acceleration due to gravity of a basketball in free fall. Although many excellent commercially available data loggers and software can accomplish this task, this activity requires almost no financial resources. It makes use of a standard digital video recorder that most students have as an option on their cell phones or digital cameras. Software that is freely available online and very basic computers to aid in the motion analysis are also used.

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Alukonis, J. T.; Settar, Scott (2008).  Model Program: West Springfield High School, Virginia  Technology Teacher, 67, 6. 

West Springfield High School sits on the outskirts of Washington, D.C., in Fairfax County, Virginia. WSHS is home to a thriving and growing technology education program. In recent years, the program has exploded from less than 175 students to well over 425. These numbers are expected to continue to grow in the foreseeable future. In 2002, the program offered seven courses. For the 2007-08 school year, there are 12 full-year technology education courses being offered in four branches, with more to come in the near future. The teachers are working to incorporate a course in biorelated and medical technology in the 2008-09 school year. This article discusses the technology education program and how the WSHS technology education engineering courses have seen a significant increase in enrollment and a higher level of learning achieved by the students.

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Abbas, Abderrahim; Al-Bastaki, Nader (2002).  The Use of Software Tools for ChE Education: Students' Evaluations.  Chemical Engineering Education, 36, 3. 

Describes three computer software programs implemented in the chemical engineering curriculum at the University of Bahrain and explains students' evaluations of the usefulness and effectiveness of the software packages. Programs include Control Station (CS), HYSYS, and MATHCAD.

Abbiss, Jane (2008).  Rethinking the "Problem" of Gender and IT Schooling: Discourses in Literature  Gender and Education, 20, 2. 

A review of the international research literature pertaining to gender and information technology (IT) schooling reveals changing ideas about what constitutes a gender problem. Much of the literature is concerned with gender differences in computer uses and interests and perceived disadvantages accruing to females as a result of these differences. This reflects and contributes to a dominant liberal equity discourse. Growing awareness of the limitations of earlier research, the changing nature of IT schooling, contradictions in students' computer interests and dissatisfaction with simplistic explanations has led, however, to post-structural rethinking and the emergence of a critical discourse. Assumptions of essential differences and deficit ways of thinking are challenged. Persistent gender differences in IT use are explored in their social complexity and the very notion that there is a gender problem is problematised. This presents a different and ultimately more satisfying way of thinking about the problem of gender and IT schooling.

Abbott, Chris; Cribb, Alan (2001).  Special Schools, Inclusion and the World Wide Web--The Emerging Research Agenda.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 32, 3. 

A comprehensive survey of United Kingdom special schools and Pupil Referral Units (PRUs) has shown that the rapid increase in Internet use on the part of mainstream schools has not been mirrored in special education. Discusses reasons for the creation of special school home pages; and issues of separation and inclusion.

Abbott, Mary; Greenwood, Charles R.; Buzhardt, Jay; Tapia, Yolanda (2006).  Using Technology-Based Teacher Support Tools to Scale Up the Classwide Peer Tutoring Program  Reading & Writing Quarterly, 22, 1. 

The purpose of this paper is to describe the role of computer and information technology in scaling up research-validated instructional strategies like ClassWide Peer Tutoring (CWPT). Recently, implementation software, the CWPT Learning Management System, web and e-mail communications, and interactive multimedia resources have been developed to support teachers' and schools' use of CWPT. Preliminary findings suggest that this technology improves access and use of CWPT, and that when local school factors of implementation are in place, improvement in student academic scores replicate past CWPT results. Results suggest that the initial and ongoing professional development, the strength of local school leadership, and a building faculty's ability to work with information technology are key elements to widespread implementation and accelerated student learning. The implications of such are discussed.

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Alfonseca, Enrique; Rodriguez, Pilar; Perez, Diana (2007).  An Approach for Automatic Generation of Adaptive Hypermedia in Education with Multilingual Knowledge Discovery Techniques  Computers & Education, 49, 2. 

This work describes a framework that combines techniques from Adaptive Hypermedia and Natural Language processing in order to create, in a fully automated way, on-line information systems from linear texts in electronic format, such as textbooks. The process is divided into two steps: an "off-line" processing step, which analyses the source text, and an "on-line" step, which executes when a user connects to the system with a web browser, moment at which the contents and hyperlinks are generated. The framework has been implemented as the Welkin system, which has been used to build three adaptive on-line information sites in a quick and easy way. Some controlled experiments have been performed with real users aimed to provide positive feedback on the implementation of the system.

Alfonso, Zully; Long, Vena (2005).  Graphing Calculators and Learning Styles in Rural and Non-Rural High Schools. Working Paper No. 23  [Appalachian Collaborative Center for Learning, Assessment, and Instruction in Mathematics (ACCLAIM)] 

The purpose of this study was to examine rural and non-rural students in order to understand similarities and differences between their learning styles and the ease with which they learned Algebra with a graphic calculator. Two samples of students, one from a rural high school and one from a non-rural one, answered a survey asking about their use of graphic calculators. The students also were administered a Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a popular instrument for analyzing personality types, including learning styles. No significant differences were found between the two samples, either in their comfort with using graphic calculators to learn Algebra or in their Myers-Briggs learning-style types. For the non-rural students, the predominant Myers-Briggs type was ENFP (extroverts, intuitive, feelers and perceivers), accounting for 52.7% of the sample. Among the rural students, ENFP was also the most frequently identified Myers-Briggs type, 33.3% of the sample, followed by ESFP (extroverts, sensing, feelers and perceivers ), with 20%. The modal type was ENF. Study findings did not show any evidence that students in the rural sample achieved less academically than those in the non-rural sample.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Allahyar, Maryam; Hunt, Earl (2003).  The Assessment of Spatial Orientation Using Virtual Reality Techniques  International Journal of Testing, 3, 3. 

Visual-spatial ability has been identified as one of the primary factors of intelligence. Numerous tests, including paper-and-pencil tasks and laboratory experiments, have attempted to provide an accurate measure of this ability. However, the majority of these tests serve only as surrogate measures of visual-spatial ability and may not provide a precise prediction of the individuals' performance in a real environment. We propose a new approach for evaluating spatial ability. In this article, we introduce the use of virtual reality (VR) or virtual environments (VEs) as a new method to measure human spatial orientation. We then discuss the advantages of using VR or VE over traditional measures. We also comment on their limitations and their future direction.

Allan, Barbara; Lewis, Dina (2006).  The Impact of Membership of a Virtual Learning Community on Individual Learning Careers and Professional Identity  British Journal of Educational Technology, 37, 6. 

This study takes a relatively new direction in researching virtual learning communities (VLCs) as it explores the ways in which VLC membership can support lifelong learning and impact on individual learning careers and professional identities beyond the life of the community. The case study spans 4 years. The findings suggest that through the process of engaging in a VLC, individuals may change their "horizons of action" leading to new learning and career trajectories. In particular, the study demonstrates how membership of a VLC supported and enabled some individuals to transform their learning careers and to make significant life changes. Other members developed their learning careers in an incremental manner that led to increased innovation and professional expertise. The findings suggest that VLCs are successful in supporting individual change and career development when they provide the "comfort zone" of a secure and supportive virtual environment.

Allan, Jo; Street, Mark (2007).  The Quest for Deeper Learning: An Investigation into the Impact of a Knowledge-Pooling WebQuest in Primary Initial Teacher Training  British Journal of Educational Technology, 38, 6. 

This paper explores the impact on learning in higher education of the integration of a knowledge-pooling stage into a WebQuest. We explain the concept of WebQuests, consider recent literature regarding the effects and difficulties of this approach to learning, and examine students' perceptions of the impact of this tool on high-order learning. The level of learning achieved by respondents is analysed using Biggs' Structure of the Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO) taxonomy. With judicious use of a "pooling knowledge stage", and provided that students are fully aware of the desired learning outcomes, the findings suggest that WebQuests do have the potential to promote high-order learning. The paper concludes by suggesting the need for further research into the potential of WebQuests to promote high-order learning within different disciplines in higher education.

Allchin, Douglas (2005).  "Hands-Off" Dissection?  American Biology Teacher, 67, 6. 

Computer programs and models are used to express respect for life by not sacrificing any animal but these alternatives might be deeply flawed. Alternatives to dissection are perverse alternatives that tend to preserve the features of inappropriate dissections like destructiveness, reductionism and objectification.

Allegra, M.; Chifari, A.; Ottaviano, S. (2001).  ICT To Train Students towards Creative Thinking.  Educational Technology & Society, 4, 2. 

Describes a three-year study at an Italian secondary school that examined the role played by information and communication technologies (ICT) as cognitive tools. Discusses the theoretical context of creativity; integrating ICT into the curriculum; and scaffolding.

Allen, Bradford D. (2004).  Spiral Growth in Plants: Models and Simulations  Teaching Mathematics and Its Applications: An International Journal of the IMA, 23, 1. 

The analysis and simulation of spiral growth in plants integrates algebra and trigonometry in a botanical setting. When the ideas presented here are used in a mathematics classroom/computer lab, students can better understand how basic assumptions about plant growth lead to the golden ratio and how the use of circular functions leads to accurate spiral growth simulations. Using Mathematica, students can experiment, explore and discover how varying a small number of parameters leads to a wide variety of simulated plant forms. The Mathematica code presented here can be easily modified for experimentation and easily rewritten for use with other maths software packages such as Maple and Matlab.

Allen, James A. (2005).  St. Louis Educational Museum: A Centennial Commemoration  TechTrends Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 49, 2. 

The St. Louis, Missouri Educational Museum has its roots in the 1904 Centennial Exposition, held at Forest Park on the edge of the city. The theme of the exposition was education and technology. Seventy thousand local school children visited the exposition, and at its conclusion an initiative was launched to purchase some of the exhibitions as the beginnings of an educational museum. F. Louis Soldan, Superintendent; Carl Rothmann, Assistant Superintendent; and Amelia Meissner, elementary teacher, spearheaded the planning and development of the Museum. Key to the museum collection philosophy was the inclusion of realia, still photos, drawings, charts and stereographs, and eventually projected images, motion pictures and recordings. Another innovation was the distribution of museum materials to local schools, where teachers and students could use them as part of the daily curriculum. The concepts of visual literacy and educational technology were linked and became an integral component of modern education.

Allen, Ken (2005).  Online Learning: Constructivism and Conversation as an Approach to Learning  Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 42, 3. 

Traditionally our UK higher education establishments have majored on a lecturer instructing a group of students. The focus has been very much on transferring a body of knowledge to a set of learners using a variety of teaching methods. The target in many establishments has been on the individual learner and their performance. Conversation, when used was a means of clarifying the learning that had been set by the teacher. With the advent of online teaching and learning this mould might be challenged. Can we develop another approach? This article looks at some of the ways in which the design and practices of Talk 2 Learn, an online community, may reflect the thinking of Wenger and Vygotsky. It also begins to explore through the Talk 2 Learn example why it can be a useful addition to the traditional UK higher education models of learning.

Allen, Michael W. (2003).  I Had No Idea: How To Build Creative E-Learning Experiences.  Educational Technology, 43, 6. 

Discusses the lack of progress in creating valuable electronic learning (e-leaning) experiences and considers reasons for it, including the lack of incorporating appropriate media. Explains the need to focus on learner-centric instructional design rather than content-centric design and considers good interactions, challenging the learner, and intrinsic feedback.

Allen, Robert B.; Murray, G. Craig; Yang, Hedong (2002).  WQ: An Environment for Teaching Information Access Skills. 

WQ is a Web-based system that reflects some of the ideas found in WebQuests. This paper analyzes the characteristics that make the WebQuests so popular and determines which of their components give them the greatest educational value. The WQ system, which the authors have implemented, presents sites to be browsed and searched. It allows students to make notes on those sites, and it lets the student manage those notes to respond to the Quest. Ultimately, the WQ system is intended to incorporate collaboration, integrate digital libraries, be scalable, and support a wide variety of content areas. | [FULL TEXT]

Allen, Susan M.; Dutt-Doner, Karen M.; Eini, Karen; Frederick, Rona; Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Thompson, Ann (2006).  Four Takes on Technology  Educational Leadership, 63, 4. 

See how several educators are exploring the potential of technology in their classrooms. Citing several Web sites that provide and catalog primary source documents, two teachers show how classrooms can use digitized documents as historians and scholars do. An English teacher in Israel uses technology to engage students as foreign ambassadors. One educator shows how teachers, in spite of limited and outdated resources, can use computers to meet their diverse students' personal and cultural needs. Two professors provide insights into the GenYes program, in which students serve as technology mentors to teachers.

Allert, Heidrun; Richter, Christoph; Nejdl, Wolfgang (2004).  Lifelong Learning and Second-order Learning Objects  British Journal of Educational Technology, 35, 6. 

Current cultural, social, and economic trends challenge traditional concepts of learning and lifelong learning. This paper draws on the twofold nature of learning in a knowledge society and explores options for technological support. The concept of Second-Order Learning Objects is introduced as a potential means to foster generative learning. Generative learning goes beyond what is already known and extends or transforms the socially shared knowledge including its artefacts and practices. According to the notion of individual and social learning as a process of reflective action, the role of strategies and media for reflection and inquiry is stressed. This paper outlines the use of schematically represented strategies for learning and reflection and sketches important features of a pursuant modelling approach.

Allert, Jeanne L. (2007).  Tongue-Tied? A Quick Lesson in Tech Talk  School Administrator, 64, 5. 

Political doubletalk is considered the second language of Washington, D.C. Empty words and meaningless phrases swirl around as if they have substance, but the only outcome is a beleaguered and bewildered listener. Some educational leaders might feel as though they are caught in the same kind of terminology tornado when it comes to technology. To help school system leaders become more savvy users and consumers of technology as they sit down at the table with IT vendors, the author has compiled a list of the terms and phrases that seem to cause the most confusion. These include: (1) Web-enabled; (2) Intuitive; (3) Flexible; (4) Leverage; (5) Innovative; (6) Compliant; (7) Virtual; (8) Holistic; (9) Interactive; (10) Integrated; (11) Robust; (12) Scalable; and (13) Redesign.

Allison, Debra H.; DeBlois, Peter B. (2008).  Top-Ten IT Issues, 2008  EDUCAUSE Review, 43 n3 p36-38, 40. 

EDUCAUSE presents the top-ten IT-related issues in terms of strategic importance to the higher education institution, as revealed by the ninth annual EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey. This year, "Security" moves back to the top of the list.

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Akk

Akkaya, Recai; Karakirik, Erol; Durmus, Soner (2005).  A Computer Assessment Tool for Concept Mapping  [Online Submission] 

Current educational theories emphasize assessment as a vital part of teaching-learning process. Alternative assessment techniques aim to expose and promote the process of the learning rather than the final outcome. Concept mapping is a technique for representing conceptual knowledge and relationships between concepts in a graphical form. Requiring to construct concept maps encourages learners to organize concepts and the relationships between them in a hierarchical structure. Although constructing concept maps might be difficult in every domain including mathematics and might require extensive domain knowledge, it is essential to employ concept mapping technique in order to reveal learners' conceptual understanding. Hence, asking learners construct their concept maps or to fill missing parts in a pre-designed concept maps might be used as a part of the assessment process. A prototype computer system, called Concept Map Assessor (CMA), is designed to help learners to construct concept maps and to evaluate their performances in pre-designed concept maps. In this study, the basic features and elements of the CMA will be presented and its possible contributions to mathematics education will be discussed.  | [FULL TEXT]

Akkoyunlu, Buket (2002).  Educational Technology in Turkey: Past, Present and Future.  Educational Media International, 39, 2. 

Explains the past, discusses the present, and makes projections for the future of educational technology in Turkey. Topics include historical background of Turkey and of educational technology in Turkey; the role of the Ministry of National Education; distance education; technology-based education; and the national information infrastructure.

Akkoyunlu, Buket; Orhan, Feza (2001).  The Use of Computers in K-12 Schools in Turkey.  TechTrends, 45, 6. 

Focuses on the Turkish educational system, technological developments, and changing educational needs. Discusses instructional technology programs in Turkey; new information technology (IT) policies in Turkey; the World Bank supported "Project for Globalization in Education 2000"; IT policies for teacher training programs; and the outlook for the future.

Akkoyunlu, Buket; Soylu, Meryem Yilmaz (2004).  A Study on Students' Views about Blended Learning Environment  [Online Submission] 

In the 21st century, information and communication technologies (ICT) have developed rapidly and influenced most of the fields and education as well. Then, ICT have offered a favorable environment for the development and use of various methods and tools. With the developments in technology, blended learning has gained considerable popularity in recent years. Together with the developments it brought along the description of particular forms of teaching with technology. Blended learning is defined simply as a learning environment that combines technology with face-to-face learning. In other words blended learning means using a variety of delivery methods to best meet the course objectives by combining face-to-face teaching in a traditional classroom with teaching online. This article examines students' views on blended learning environment. The study was conducted on 64 students from Department of Computer Education and Instructional Technologies in 2005-2006 fall semester in Instructional Design and Authoring Languages in PC Environment at Hacettepe University. The results showed that the students enjoyed taking part in the blended learning environment. Students' achievement levels and their frequency of participation to forum affected their views about blended learning environment. Face-to-face interaction in blended learning application had the highest score. This result demonstrated the importance of interaction and communication for the success of on-line learning.  | [FULL TEXT]

Akkoyunlu, Buket; Yilmaz-Soylu, Meryem (2008).  Development of a Scale on Learners' Views on Blended Learning and Its Implementation Process  Internet and Higher Education, 11, 1. 

The purpose of this study was to extend the evaluation of learners' views on blended learning and its implementation process by developing and validating an objective assessment instrument. Cronbach' alpha, item analysis and item discrimination indices, principal component analysis, varimax rotation, and discriminant validity were used to measure the reliability and validity of the scale. A 50-item refined version of the scale was found to be highly reliable and of reasonable length. Further refinement was made based on principal component analysis. This indicated two major components, which facilitate the elicitation of learners' views on blended learning and its implementation process in relation to the complexity levels of the learning process. The scale is recommended to identify individual's views on blended learning and its implementation process and thus, to contribute to the improvement of a blended learning environment for learners.

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Ala

_____. (2005).  Alaska State Educational Technology Plan  [Alaska Department of Education and Early Development] 

The Alaska Department of Educational and Early Development (EED) has developed this five-year educational technology plan based on the recommendations of a taskforce representing education stakeholders throughout the state and has submitted this report to the Office of Educational Technology at the U.S. Department of Education. A state technology plan is required under NCLB, specifically the Enhancing Education Through Technology (Ed Tech)--Title II, Part D. Although this plan is required by NCLB, it provides much more than the fifteen requirements (as referenced in appendix 2). The taskforce recommendations for educational technology go beyond merely satisfying the federal requirements but create a plan that can meet the districts' needs and expand the implementation of technology in an equitable manner. The Alaska State Educational Technology Plan provides a blueprint to guide future state and local technology planning. Through implementation of this plan, EED hopes to inform and educate stakeholders by: obtaining and sharing a snapshot on current educational technology progress; identifying best practices, resources, and tools in educational technology; providing guidance on educational technology implementation; and using performance indicators to evaluate success over time. All the goals in this plan will help meet the goals of the Title II, Part D (Ed Tech) program. This report is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Mission and Vision; (3) Beliefs and Goals; (4) Integration and Learning; (5) Professional Development; (6) Data-Driven Schools; (7) Access and Infrastructure; and (8) Community Involvement. Appended are: list of taskforce members; No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Title II, Part D requirements; list of website resources; and a glossary. | [FULL TEXT]

Al-Araki, Magid (2005).  The Octograph and E-Learning by Labyrinth-Cases  International Journal on E-Learning, 4, 3. 

This article maintains that labyrinth-cases of multiple outlets, although difficult, but pleasant to construct, are probably the way to go to strengthen computer-aided learning. The objective of the article is to show, based on a particular labyrinth-case, how to construct labyrinth-cases and consolidate their contents based on associative knowledge retrieved from a database. A labyrinth-case motivates the student to construct his or her own knowledge to solve the case. Some of this knowledge is in the labyrinth-case itself. Additional knowledge could be obtained underway while solving a labyrinth-case. The particular labyrinth-case discussed here obtains additional knowledge from a database with small texts that suits the labyrinth-case. The database, based on an organisational model called the Octograph, includes concepts, exercises, methods, theories, and cases. These are exploited according to detailed study plans administered by the tutor. The introduction of thematic labyrinth-cases is among the latest developments in this plan. The article draws on systems theory, constructivism, and theories of thinking and didactics ascribed to Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406), an eminent scholar from the 14th century (al-Araki, 1983).

Alajaaski, Jarkko (2006).  How Does Web Technology Affect Students' Attitudes Towards the Discipline and Study of Mathematics/Statistics?  International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science & Technology, 37, 1. 

This paper attempts to clarify how a Web technology-based approach (eStudy approach) affects students' attitudes towards (1) studying mathematics/statistics, and (2) perceiving the very idea of the eStudy approach. A group of Finnish polytechnic students (n=53) participated in an experimental course in mathematics/statistics. Attitude questionnaires were presented to the students at the beginning (pre-test) and end (post-test) of the study course. The effects were measured by the attitude changes from pre-test to post-test. The attitudes towards studying mathematics/statistics showed neither overall nor between-group changes (groupings by gender, ICT-orientation, mathematical background). The overall attitudes towards the eStudy approach developed in the negative direction. However, significant between-group differences were found: the attitudes of (1) female students, (2) students with a higher ICT-orientation, and (3) students with a stronger mathematical background developed negatively while the attitudes of (4) male students, (5) students with a lower ICT-orientation, and (6) students with a weaker mathematical background developed positively. Web technology seems not to be a particularly attractive platform for studies of mathematics/statistics, holding different attractions for different student groups; those with a better basis for studying the given content seem to be less attracted by it.

Alajaaski, Jarkko; Suomala, Jyrki (2002).  Another Perspective on Assessing the Significance of Information Technology in Education  Computers in the Schools, 18, 2-3. 

The significance of information technology in education is usually assessed or evaluated on terms of some measures of effectiveness. In different school settings the effectiveness is operationalized in different ways, and in the literature various methods of determining the effectiveness have been discussed (e.g., Secretary's Conference on Educational Technology 1999). In this article, models for assessing the significance of information technology in education based on the teachers' subjective perspective are introduced. Theoretical backgrounds of the models are based on methods developed in information management science to assess the impact of information technology (IT) in industry and business. The first model is comprised of categorizing the rationales for using IT in education, the second model assesses the strategic impact of existing IT applications on one hand and of future IT applications on the other on education, and the third model assesses the roles of applications of IT in teaching. Also, the empirical findings of a small scale test of the two latter models in the Teacher Training School in Rauma (TTSR), a primary school in Finland with about 260 pupils and 19 teachers, are introduced.

Alamaki, Harri; Seppala, Pauliina (2002).  Experimenting with Mobile Learning in a University Environment. 

This article describes a mobile learning project, where mobile devices are used for educational activities. The article defines the word "mobility" from the educational point of view. The authors present experiences recorded while using mobile technology in teacher training and among students of forest resource. Two pilots were carried out at the Department of Home Economics and Craft Science and the Department of Forest Resource Management of the University of Helsinki. The idea of the pilot in home economics teacher training was that supervising teachers and trainee students should discuss and share their ideas about teaching methods and other topics through mobile devices and also using SMS-messaging and digital pictures as part of the supervision process. The use of digital pictures, which were delivered via the mobile device, was surprisingly successful. The students of forest resources used mobile technology to deliver textual and pictorial material from forests. The goal of these innovative pilot projects is to create flexible teaching solutions that will enable users of all kinds of devices to access information, and to support learning in a variety of ways.

Alamprese, Judith A.; Stickney, Eric (2001).  Connecting People, Practices, and Policies: Evaluation of the Outreach and Technical Assistance Network (OTAN). 

By establishing its Outreach and Technical Assistance Network (OTAN) in 1989, California became the first state to spend substantial funds on building a technological infrastructure for adult education. OTAN's goals are as follows: foster communication among state officials, researchers, and local administrators, instructors, and staff in adult education; facilitate access to library and other information about adult education policies and practices; and provide technical assistance in introducing the use of technology to adult educators. OTAN's history may be divided into the following periods: (1) building the foundation (1989-1994); (2) building a communication and information system (1994-1997); and (3) enhancing the system (1997-1999). OTAN's staff has provided training and technical assistance to enable its subscribers to feel comfortable using technology and to become facile in accessing OTAN's various services and materials. To reach a variety of adult education programs throughout California, OTAN's staff has provided on-site training in regional resource centers and local programs. Work is under way to enhance OTAN's roles as a platform for furthering the use of technology and as a gateway to adult education resources worldwide. Copies of the OTAN user and nonuser surveys and seven graphics depicting use of an OTAN Web site are appended. | [FULL TEXT]

Alansari, Eissa M. (2006).  Implementation of Cooperative Learning in the Center for Community Service and Continuing Education at Kuwait University  Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 46, 2. 

The purpose of this study is to review the success of implementation of cooperative learning in various courses delivered at the Center for Community Service and Continuing Education at Kuwait University. According to recent research in the field of social cognition, learning situations which make use of the social context often achieve superior results over individualistic experiences. Interviews with 200 university teachers conducted for the last two years showed their experience and opinions about the effects of cooperative learning in their classrooms on the achievement of content knowledge, retention and students' attitudes toward it. The results of this study revealed that about 75% of the teachers believed that cooperative learning had been successfully implemented. The present analysis offers a series of positive findings and recommendations to improve further the educational standard of the Center in Kuwait University.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Amo

Amory, Alan (2007).  Game Object Model Version II: A Theoretical Framework for Educational Game Development  Educational Technology Research and Development, 55, 1. 

Complex computer and video games may provide a vehicle, based on appropriate theoretical concepts, to transform the educational landscape. Building on the original game object model (GOM) a new more detailed model is developed to support concepts that educational computer games should: be relevant, explorative, emotive, engaging, and include complex challenges; support authentic learning activities that are designed as narrative social spaces where learners are transformed through exploration of multiple representation, and reflection; be gender-inclusive, include non-confrontational outcomes, and provide appropriate role models; develop democracy, and social capital through dialogue that is supported by means of computer mediated-communication tools; and include challenges, puzzles or quests, which form the core of the learning process, where access to explicit knowledge, conversations, and reflection results in the construction of tacit knowledge. It is argued that the GOM version II can be used not only to support the development of educational computer games but to provide a mechanism to evaluate the use of computer games in the classroom.

Amory, Alan; Naicker, Kevin (2001).  Web-Based Notes Is an Inadequate Learning Resource. 

Development of online courses requires the use of appropriate educational philosophies that discourage rote learning and passive transfer of information from teacher to learner. This paper reports on the development, use and evaluation of two second year Biology online software packages used by students in constructivist environments. The courses on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were developed in conjunction with subject experts but were designed from different perspectives. The carbohydrate metabolism course provided diverse views of a single knowledge domain and included the ability to find information in different ways. The lipid metabolism course was designed as a "notes-on-the-Web" module. Evaluations were conducted via paper- and electronic-based software evaluation, students interviews, and analyses of student performance (pre- and post-testing, examination results). Results showed that students enjoyed using the software, found the constructivist learning environments challenging, valued the permanent availability of online information, found the user interface of the software products easy to use and navigate. Analyses of examination results showed that students performed better than in the previous year (traditional lectures). Results for the carbohydrate course were superior to those of the other course. It appears that interactive components that foster constructivist-based learning skills are more important in online learning environments than presentation of information. | [FULL TEXT]

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Ali

Ali, Ahmed (2003).  Faculty Adoption of Technology: Training Comes First.  Educational Technology, 43, 2. 

Discusses faculty adoption of technology based on experiences in a faculty training project that was developed to help them integrate technology into their teaching. Considers the appropriateness of the technology; faculty involvement; faculty attitudes; support for faculty; lack of confidence; changes in instructional style; and faculty needs versus student needs.

Ali, Ahmed; Franklin, Teresa (2001).  Internet Use in the Classroom: Potential and Pitfalls for Student Learning and Teacher-Student Relationships.  Educational Technology, 41, 4. 

Discussion of the integration of educational technology focuses on Internet integration in classrooms and its effect on students' learning and teacher-student relationships. Describes results of a study of Internet use among undergraduates, including positive and negative influences on student learning and the effects of Internet use on classroom roles and relationships.

Ali, Gadacha (2007).  Assessment of Metacognitive Knowledge among Science Students, a Case Study of Two Bilingual and Two NNS Students  System: An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, 35, 2. 

This investigation aims to assess awareness of genre and writing skills among science students via an abstract writing task, with recall and follow-up protocols to monitor the students, and to characterize the relationship between the abstract and the base article. Abstract writing involves specific data selection techniques of activities involved but nevertheless is highly relevant to scientists and science students alike. The investigation shows to what extent students target potentially problematic areas of the research article. Appropriate remedial tasks are then recommended, an illustration of pedagogical implications of task-based learning.

Aliaga, Oscar A., Ed. (2001).  Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) Conference Proceedings (Tulsa, Oklahoma, February 28-March 4, 2001). Volumes 1 and 2. 

This document contains 127 papers and innovative sessions and three poster sessions presented at a conference on human resource development (HRD). A program overview, author index, keyword index, and a CD-ROM version of the document are also included. The papers are grouped by the conference's 44 symposiums, which were devoted to the following topics: action learning; integrating university and corporate learning with work; HRD in Asia; distance learning; HRD in Latin America; trust in organizations; global team development; coaching and knowledge transfer; ethics and integrity in HRD; organization values; issues in evaluation; global knowledge transfer issues; leadership development; transfer of learning; HRD theory; organizational development; the role of HRD in women's career development; knowledge management and human capital; organizational change; university programs; theory building; human resource management issues; workplace learning; managerial performance issues; improving learning with technology; professional development; informal learning; emotions and behavior in the workplace; evaluation in HRD; organizational enhancement; workplace learning issues; managing the HRD function; career development issues; research issues in HRD; adult learning; learning organizations; measurement and research tools; assessment and evaluation modeling; issues in training; workplace issues in human resources; executive and management development; HRD and small manufacturers; motivation for improving performance; and redefining HRD. Most papers include substantial bibliographies. | [FULL TEXT]

Alibrandi, Marsha; Beal, Candy; Thompson, Ann; Wilson, Anna (2000).  Reconstructing a School's Past Using Oral Histories and GIS Mapping.  Social Education, 64, 3. 

Describes an interdisciplinary project that incorporated language arts, social studies, instructional technology, and science where middle school students were involved in oral history, Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping, architectural research, the science of dendrochronology, and the creation of an archival school Web site.

Alim, Feride (2007).  Evaluation of a Blended Course from the Viewpoint of Constructivism  [Online Submission] 

This paper was written to evaluate an undergraduate course, Internet Applications in Education, given at Computer Education and Instructional Technologies department at Middle East Technical University in Turkey. In this paper, the researcher analyzes underlying design rationalities of this course from the viewpoint of Constructivism. After analyzing, Internet Applications in Education course, the researcher saw that many of the constructivist instructional strategies are used effectively in this course. Some different technologies are used, because in constructivism, there is a need for information to be presented in a variety of different ways (Ertmer & Newby, 1993). Eventually, the researcher strongly supports the idea of Ertmer & Newby (1993), to be successful, meaningful, and lasting; learning must include all three of these crucial factors: activity (practice), concept (knowledge), and culture (context) (Brown at al., 1989 cited in Ertmer & Newby, 1993). Since all these components are used effectively, it is a successful lesson in which constructivism is integrated influentially. | [FULL TEXT]

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And

Anderman, Lynley H.; Patrick, Helen; Ryan, Allison M. (2004).  Creating Adaptive Motivational Environments in the Middle Grades  Middle School Journal, 35, 5. 

Student motivation is a cause of great concern for educators at all levels, but perhaps never more so than during the middle school years. Teachers' observations about declines in student interest and confidence in academic tasks are borne out by a number of large-scale empirical studies. In this article, the author examines how teachers create adaptive motivational environments through the messages they communicate to their students at the beginning of the year. In order to assess the effectiveness of this adaptive motivational environments to students, a team of observers spent more than 15 hours with each of 10 different teachers during the first three weeks of school. They recorded all aspects of the teachers' classroom instruction and their interactions with students. Three features of these teachers' practice emerged as particularly important: viewing learning as an active, student-centered process; demonstrating genuine enthusiasm for learning across the curriculum; and maintaining relationships with students that were simultaneously convivial and demanding. Both of the teachers who created adaptive motivational environments for their students emphasized active, student-centered learning through their constant focus on students' improvement and understanding, their promotion of student interaction in class, and the ways in which they evaluated and provided feedback to their students.

Andersen, Richard (2003).  Achieving Consistency in Writing across the Curriculum  Kappa Delta Pi Record, 39, 4. 

From the early 1900s to the present, there have always been inconsistencies in how teachers evaluate the writing quality of their students' essays. Their critiques vary as much as their personalities. To establish common standards in writing for all courses in which essays are assigned and, at the same time, not infringe on the integrity of evaluators, nor limit the means of expression available to students, the School of Human Services at Springfield College in Massachusetts implemented a two-course writing sequence that featured the same course objectives when conducted on any of the college's campuses. In addition, the Springfield College Writing across the Curriculum Committee piloted and published "Reading Writing! How to Evaluate, Edit, and Respond to What Others Have Written" (Andersen and Fraizer, 1998), which offers faculty members a range of options for evaluating writing and responding to student essays. The book also provides suggestions for teaching students how to identify, correct, and avoid repeating their own conventional errors. An outcomes-assessment measurement implemented at two School of Human Services campuses indicated the program's positive impact. Establishing writing courses with in-common learning objectives, introducing faculty members to different ways of responding to student essays, and providing students with a writing guide and tutors trained to be supportive in their approach to writing not only created consistency in the ways students wrote and instructors evaluated, but the students wrote better and the instructors evaluated more effectively. | [FULL TEXT]

Anderson, Bill; Simpson, Mary (2007).  Ethical Issues in Online Education  Open Learning, 22, 2. 

Teaching at a distance raises ethical issues particular to the distance context. When distance teaching is also online teaching, the situation is even more complex. Online teaching environments amplify the ethical issues faced by instructors and students. Online sites support complex discourses and multiple relationships; they cross physical, cultural and linguistic boundaries. Data of various kinds are automatically recorded in a relatively permanent form. In a discussion of the practices and welfare of staff and students, we highlight ethical issues related to matters of equity and diversity, surveillance and consent, identity and confidentiality. Rather than attempt to resolve issues raised in this discussion, we pose questions to encourage exploration of those issues.

Anderson, Cheryl A. (2001).  Implementing a Laptop Program at a Small, Liberal Arts University. 

In the fall of 2000, the University of the Incarnate Word, a small, Catholic, liberal arts university located in San Antonio, Texas became the largest IBM ThinkPad University in the South. At present, 2,000 laptops have been distributed to students and faculty. This paper explains the implementation process and the components that made this a successful program. Commitment from the University's leadership, involved corporate partners, a broad-based planning team, effective communication, faculty training and a supportive infrastructure lead to a positive first year experience for students. The paper discusses problems that were encountered and makes recommendations to institutions that might be considering such an initiative. | [FULL TEXT]

Anderson, Cindy L.; Borthwick, Arlene (2002).  Results of Separate and Integrated Technology Instruction in Preservice Training. 

Research into the best method for developing preservice teachers who integrate technology is mixed in its conclusions. The International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) study in 1999 indicated that integrating technology training into teacher education classes was the strongest predictor of success. However, subsequent research identified the self-contained class in educational technology as an essential tool for developing technology-integrating preservice teachers. This study compared survey results of two elementary education cohorts, both part of the Master of Arts in Teaching program that is part of the National-Louis University Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers to Use Technology grant, on their skills necessary to be successful technology-integrating teachers. One cohort received their introductory educational technology course as a class integrated into an introductory special education class while the other cohort received their introductory educational technology class as a separate, stand-alone class. Results indicated several areas where greater gain scores between pre-test and post-test were reported by the group receiving the stand-alone class. The student survey form and two syllabi are appended. | [FULL TEXT]

Anderson, Cindy L.; Petch-Hogan, Beverly (2001).  The Impact of Technology Use in Special Education Field Experience on Preservice Teachers' Perceived Technology Expertise.  Journal of Special Education Technology, 16, 3. 

Eight preservice special education teachers participated in a technology-rich field experience with students with disabilities. Preservice teachers felt as a result of their field experience that their knowledge of computers increased, they were better able to evaluate effective software, and that they could use technology to facilitate instruction and as a teacher tool.

Anderson, Jeffery W. (2003).  Faculty Perspectives of the Blackboard Course Delivery System. 

This study was a qualitative examination of faculty perceptions about the Blackboard 5 learning platform. The study took place within the School of Education at the University of Alabama at Birmingham during the fall of 2001. The study involved content analysis of cases developed from recorded interviews of conversations with faculty members concerning their experiences with the Blackboard course delivery system. Interviews were conducted with five participants, four who were Blackboard users and one who chose not to use Blackboard in his class. Ten categories emerged from content analysis. Several of these categories were similar and revolved around the benefits of increased communication/collaboration/community through online instruction.  | [FULL TEXT]

Anderson, Jonathan R. (2005).  The Relationship Between Student Perceptions of Team Dynamics and Simulation Game Outcomes: An Individual-Level Analysis  Journal of Education for Business, 81, 2. 

In many business courses, computer-based simulations are becoming a popular choice of pedagogical technique, yet research is only beginning to consider how these simulation games impact student outcomes. In this study, the author investigated individual perceptions of simulation team dynamics and their relationship to student affect regarding the simulation as well as simulation performance in a sample of 172 responding students. The results showed that a student's affect regarding the simulation game was influenced by student team cohesion and student team independence. Alternatively, student simulation performance was influenced by team heterogeneity, opportunistic practices, and hypothesis-driven thinking. These findings encourage instructors to consider thoughtfully the outcomes they want students to experience when structuring student teams that will participate in simulation learning games.

Anderson, Joseph (2002).  District Initiative Keys in on Classroom: Workshops Pour Technology into the Existing Curriculum.  Journal of Staff Development, 23, 1. 

Describes the HyperTeaching workshop series, developed to get teachers in one school district to use technology by showing them how to use it with their own curriculum. Teachers selected topics they felt could be enhanced using the Internet, developed activities that would require students to use the Internet, and learned how to use Microsoft's PowerPoint to enhance classroom activities.

Anderson, Karen L.; Goldstein, Howard (2004).  Speech Perception Benefits of FM and Infrared Devices to Children with Hearing Aids in a Typical Classroom  Language

Children typically learn in classroom environments that have background noise and reverberation that interfere with accurate speech perception. Amplification technology can enhance the speech perception of students who are hard of hearing. Purpose: This study used a single-subject alternating treatments design to compare the speech recognition abilities of children who are hard of hearing when they were using hearing aids with each of three frequency modulated (FM) or infrared devices. Method: Eight 9-12-year-olds with mild to severe hearing loss repeated Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) sentence lists under controlled conditions in a typical kindergarten classroom with a background noise level of +10 dB signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and 1.1 s reverberation time. Participants listened to HINT lists using hearing aids alone and hearing aids in combination with three types of S/N-enhancing devices that are currently used in mainstream classrooms: (a) FM systems linked to personal hearing aids, (b) infrared sound field systems with speakers placed throughout the classroom, and (c) desktop personal sound field FM systems. Results: The infrared ceiling sound field system did not provide benefit beyond that provided by hearing aids alone. Desktop and personal FM systems in combination with personal hearing aids provided substantial improvements in speech recognition. Clinical Implications: This information can assist in making S/N-enhancing device decisions for students using hearing aids. In a reverberant and noisy classroom setting, classroom sound field devices are not beneficial to speech perception for students with hearing aids, whereas either personal FM or desktop sound field systems provide listening benefits.

Anderson, M. Brownell, Ed. (2000).  A Snapshot of Medical Students' Education at the Beginning of the 21st Century: Reports from 130 Schools.  [Academic Medicine] 

This collection of reports on curricular structure and change in North American medical education covers almost all of the accredited medical schools in the United States and Canada (118 of the 125 in the United States and 12 of the 16 in Canada). The reports have the same basic structure so that information can be more readily compared, and they emphasize process and change rather than quantitative data. These sections provide information about each school: (1) curriculum management and governance structure; (2) office of education; (3) budget to support educational programs; (4) valuing teaching; (5) curriculum renewal process; (6) learning outcomes; (7) changes in pedagogy; (8) application of computer technology; (9) changes in assessment; and (10) clinical experiences. These profiles provide a picture of the profound changes that have occurred and are occurring in U.S. medical education. An appendix contains a glossary. | [FULL TEXT]

Anderson, Mark Alan (2007).  Technology, Design, and the Artist's Hand  SchoolArts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 107, 1. 

Computers have changed the ways students study components of design. Once on the computer, students tend to get so excited that they usually neglect to make preliminary sketches. Rather than rely on design software to provide visual solutions, this author chose to use design assignments that are intended to foster thinking in his students. In this article, the author relates how he makes his students learn various forms of handwork in conjunction with Photoshop, scanners, digital cameras, and printers. He also describes an art activity that he introduced to his students that explores the principles of graphic design.

Anderson, Mary Alice (2001).  The Media Specialist and Staff Development.  Educational Media and Technology Yearbook, 26

Explains how media specialists can play an active role in providing staff development that helps teachers use technology to teach in a changing learning environment and integrate technology in the curriculum. Highlights include key research about staff development, the changing role of the media specialist, and examples of successful staff development in practice.

Anderson, Mary Alice (2001).  All Set for Summer? Summer Technology Academies for Staff.  MultiMedia Schools, 8, 2. 

Describes steps in the timeline for the Winona Area (Minnesota) Public School District's annual summer technology academy, with tips for success. The steps are presented according to how far in advance they should occur, from pre-planning six to eight months in advance to the first day of class.

Anderson, Mary Alice (2004).  Summer School for Teachers: Creating Technology Workshops Is Easier than You Expect  School Library Journal, 50, 2. 

Media Specialists who are actively involved in staff development are in a unique position to present summer technology workshops to their schools and district staff. This article lists the key ingredients needed to create a successful summer tech program.

Anderson, Mary Alice (2005).  Technician or Technologist?  Library Media Connection, 24, 1. 

It is argued that library media specialists should consider technology as integral to their jobs as they do literature and books and use it to create an active learning community. The many ways that technology can be used to enhance student achievement are discussed.

Anderson, Peggy L. (2005).  Case Studies for Inclusive Schools. Second Edition  [PRO-ED, Inc.] 

Case Studies for "Inclusive Schools, Second Edition" presents a sampling of case studies that contain realistic problems concerning inclusion issues for teacher education students to solve. This format was chosen because the case study approach to learning is gaining in popularity as it provides students with an opportunity to apply information they've learned rather than just memorizing it. This book overviews school problems related to inclusion and provides a basic understanding of the multitude of issues related to establishing and maintaining inclusive programs. The new edition emphasizes the importance of initiating a collaborative approach to problem-solving and the growing role of technology in solving instructional problems. The number of case studies has been reduced from 70 to 50. Because of this, the material covered is presented in an in-depth manner. "Case Studies" for Inclusive Schools is great for use as a supplementary text for introductory courses in special education, for use with on-line special education courses, or for school district inservices. Each chapter includes questions and suggested activities following the case study. The content of the case questions was revised to reflect current instructional concerns, which include assistive technology, curriculum accessibility, and standards-based reform issues. This text is a must-have for anyone who aspires to or currently works with learners with all kinds of disabilities in educational settings designed to serve the needs of learners without disabilities.

Anderson, Ronald E.; Dexter, Sara (2005).  School Technology Leadership: An Empirical Investigation of Prevalence and Effect  Educational Administration Quarterly, 41, 1. 

The general question addressed is what technology leadership attributes make what kind of difference in the success of various technology-related programs. First, this article has integrated the prescriptive literature on technology leadership with the National Educational Technology Standards for Administrators (NETS-A) and then has operationalized technology leadership in terms of NETS-A. Data from the 1998 Teaching, Learning, and Computing nationwide survey of more than 800 schools were used to examine technology leadership characteristics and their effect on indicators of technology outcomes. The findings confirm that although technology infrastructure is important, technology leadership is even more necessary for effective utilization of technology in schooling.

Anderson, Ronald E.; Dexter, Sara L. (2000).  School Technology Leadership: Incidence and Impact. Teaching, Learning, and Computing: 1998 National Survey, Report #6. 

This report examines the relationship between school leadership and effective utilization of technology. As an aid to identifying a wide variety of technology policy decisions, a taxonomy of educational technology leadership decisions was constructed. Decisions that pertain primarily to the infrastructure are distinguished from those that deal primarily with instructional processes, although many decisions apply to both. The taxonomy divides decisions into six functions: strategic planning, goal setting, vision and vision sharing; budgeting and spending; organizational structure and processes; curriculum; program evaluation and impact assessment; and external relations and ethical issues. Before analyzing each of these six types of decisions, the distinction between the administrator and the teacher as leaders is considered. This discussion examines decision making mostly from the standpoint of the administrators, including principals, technology coordinators, and others in administrative roles. The national probability sample of schools consisted of 898 public, private, and parochial schools. Survey findings in this report are organized in three parts. The first section gives percentages for all United States schools that have adopted technology-related policies and what proportion of schools possess different technology leadership characteristics. Next, technology leadership is broken down by school demographic factors, examining which types of schools have more or less technology leadership. Finally, one aspect of the technology leadership model (that shows technology leadership to be influenced by background factors such as type of school and by infrastructure factors such as amount spent on technology) is tested, specifically, the relationship between technology leadership and technology integration. | [FULL TEXT]

Anderson, Susan E.; Maninger, Robert M. (2007).  Preservice Teachers' Abilities, Beliefs, and Intentions regarding Technology Integration  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 37, 2. 

This study investigated changes in and factors related to students' technology-related abilities, beliefs, and intentions. Participants were 76 preservice teachers who responded to pre- and post-course surveys while taking an introductory educational technology course. Statistically significant changes were found in students' perceived abilities, self-efficacy beliefs, value beliefs, and intentions to use software in their future classrooms. Students' self-efficacy, value beliefs, and intentions were moderately correlated with each other. Abilities were correlated with self-efficacy and computer access. The best predictors of intentions were self-efficacy beliefs, gender, and value beliefs. These results strongly support the effectiveness of educational technology coursework in improving not just abilities, but also beliefs and intentions. They highlight the importance of relationships between preservice teachers' beliefs about technology integration and their potential use of technology in their future classrooms. The authors provide suggestions for enhancing preservice teachers' beliefs during technology coursework.

Anderson, Thor A. (2003).  I Object! Moving beyond Learning Objects to Learning Components.  Educational Technology, 43, 4. 

Explores why "learning" and "object" have been combined in the field of instructional technology. Examines why current definitions of these terms are lacking when looked at from a standards and interoperability point of view. Suggests a new definition with a rationale to satisfy needs of technologists for precise, practical software development details and provide the flexibility in implementation of learning design theories and approaches.

Anderson-Inman, Lynne; Horney, Mark A. (2007).  Supported eText: Assistive Technology through Text Transformations  Reading Research Quarterly, 42, 1. 

To gain meaningful access to the curriculum, students with reading difficulties must overcome substantial barriers imposed by the printed materials they are asked to read. Technology can assist students to overcome these challenges by enabling a shift from printed text to electronic text. By electronic text it means textual material read using a computer or some other electronic device such as Palm, iPod, or even a LeapPad. Yet, in spite of its inherent possibilities, electronic text by itself is rather limited in its usefulness to readers and learners. In order to really take advantage of its potential as an assistive technology, an electronic reading environment that intelligently transforms text into something that supports comprehension and extends meaningful learning is required. In this article, the authors feature supported electronic text or supported eText, and discuss how the concept of supported eText was developed and its impact on students' reading comprehension and content area learning. The authors also outline four research topics related to supported eText as an assistive technology for students with disabilities. These four research topics: (1) Research to determine effective forms and delivery modes for each resource type and subtype; (2) Research to identify and evaluate powerful combinations of eText resources; (3) Research to identify appropriate levels of student control and access to individual eText supports or combination of supports; and (4) Research to investigate interactions between texts, resources, tasks, and students, are presented with a brief overview of the central issues and a list of sample research questions on each topic.

Andersson, Sven B. (2006).  Newly Qualified Teachers' Learning Related to Their Use of Information and Communication Technology: A Swedish Perspective  British Journal of Educational Technology, 37, 5. 

This qualitative study focuses on newly qualified teachers' use of information and communication technology (ICT) as a tool for meeting the challenges of their everyday work. The overarching aim is to investigate whether they can contribute to new knowledge about learning in ICT contexts. Theoretical points of departure concern the changeable nature of learning in situations where ways of communicating knowledge and skills are changed. The study draws upon interviews and observations. The findings show intersections picturing the new technique as partly changing the circumstances for teaching, learning and collaboration between colleagues. The new teachers' utterances show that ICT utilisation is extensive and exhibits great variation both among female and among male participants. Boundary-crossing changes become visible in the collaboration between more experienced teachers and those who are newly qualified, especially when they work on a common development project. However, there are relatively few teachers who bring up active ICT use in connection with pupils' learning. Changed roles because of ICT competence raise questions about the importance of systematic ICT features within teacher education. Many of the newly qualified teachers wish they had more knowledge about ICT and related techniques. Another question is whether newly qualified teachers who show interest in using the technique can take on the role as agents of change in their active and creative use of ICT.

Andone, Diana; Dron, Jon; Pemberton, Lyn; Boyne, Chris (2007).  E-Learning Environments for Digitally-Minded Students  Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 18, 1. 

While most existing online learning environments cater for needs identified during the 1990s, a new generation of digital students has emerged in the developed world. Digital students are young adults who have grown up with digital technologies integrated as an everyday feature of their lives. Digital students use technology differently, fluidly (and often simultaneously) using instant messengers, mobile phones, the web, MP3 players, online games and more. If their use of technology is different, the kind of learning environment they will require is likely to be equally different. To identify these differences we ran an online survey in universities from the UK, Romania, Finland and Hungary, followed by focus groups, interviews and observations of students in traditional and online learning environments. As a result we have refined our initial definition of digital students, we identified the digitally-minded students, most notably to include recognition of such students' need for control over their digital environment. From this analysis we have more clearly identified how a learning environment for these students should be constructed and used; an environment that contains a blend of Internet and mobile technologies which enhance student-tutor and student-student communication through multiple media channels, providing responsiveness, customizability and flexibility to adapt and be adapted to the students' needs.

Andres, Hayward P.; Petersen, Candice (2002).  Presentation Media, Information Complexity, and Learning Outcomes  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 30, 3. 

Cognitive processing limitations restrict the number of complex information items held and processed in human working memory. To overcome such limitations, a verbal working memory channel is used to construct an if-then proposition representation of facts and a visual working memory channel is used to construct a visual imagery of geometric spatial information. Recent findings suggest that these two channels augment each other in enhancing cognitive processing, thereby increasing comprehension and retention. Multimedia computing provides a variety of information presentation modality combinations (i.e., text, pictures, narration, animation, and video). The fact that educators have observed that visuals enhance learning suggests that multimedia presentations should be superior to text-only and text with static pictures in facilitating optimal human information processing and, therefore, comprehension. This article reports the findings from a 3 (text-only, overhead slides, and multimedia presentation) 2 2 (high and low information complexity) factorial experiment. Subjects read a text script, viewed an acetate overhead slide presentation, or viewed a multimedia presentation depicting the greenhouse effect (low complexity) or photocopier operation (high complexity). Multimedia was superior to text-only and overhead slides for comprehension. Information complexity diminished comprehension and perceived presentation quality. Significant interactions indicated that multimedia was able to reduce the negative impact of information complexity on comprehension and increase the extent of sustained attention to the presentation. These findings suggest that multimedia presentations invoke the use of both the verbal and visual working memory channels resulting in a reduction of the cognitive load imposed by increased information complexity. Moreover, multimedia superiority in facilitating comprehension goes beyond its ability to increase sustained attention; the quality and effectiveness of information processing attained (i.e., use of verbal and visual working memory) is also significant.

Andrew, Malcolm (2001).  Web-Based Strategies for Improving Undergraduate Commitment to Learning. 

Students need a variety of ways to encourage them to learn. Web-based learning can provide a platform for achieving this in a variety of ways other than the simple provision of "flat" lecture notes. This paper describes a number of Web-based programs used to augment, rather than replace, traditional, face-to-face delivery of a pharmaceutical microbiology module to second year undergraduates on a 4-year "MPharm" course. The paper reports feedback from three cohorts of students. Experience of delivering this module over three academic sessions suggests that using Web-based learning to augment traditional face-to-face teaching was successful, both for the tutor and for the students. The Web site was well used, and student performance in and commitment to the module was enhanced, as judged by the feedback questionnaires, attendance at classes and by achievement in assessments. It was clear from the student behavior that, like many tutors, students find it difficult to shed the "hard copy habit," and feel the need to print out most of the Web pages. This has implications for the support provided for them to do this. The amount of Web-based learning that is expected of students needs to be carefully judged to avoid "screen fatigue" among them. | [FULL TEXT]

Andrews, Geoffrey (2006).  Laptops + Challenging Curriculum = Student Success  Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers, 81, 5. 

Modern day education reform, impacted by the No Child Left Behind Act, is dominated by accountability and results. At Polaris Career Center in Middleburg Heights, Ohio, student results are front and center. Students participating in a laptop and online curriculum initiative have documented astonishing achievement gains. Prior to the 2004 school year, the decision was made to target precision machining technology (PMT)--an under-enrolled career technical program--by engaging the students with wireless laptop technology and robust online content. The result: in one year, students using this technology mastered more than 85 percent of the two-year state-recommended curriculum. All of the secondary related indicators also trend very positively. Based on this success, the laptop and virtual curriculum initiative has now expanded to include five other Polaris career-technical programs.

Andrews, Paul; Sayers, Judy (2006).  Conditions for Learning: Part 3  Mathematics Teaching Incorporating Micromath

In this article, the authors compare texts, times, technologies, and trails in mathematics lessons in five European countries (Flanders, England, Finland, Hungary and Spain). They start by discussing the provision and use of textbooks. After this they discuss lesson lengths and their impact on learners. They consider the extent of technology integration in project classrooms and close with a brief look at the ways in which teachers trail the content of their lessons.

Andrews, Richard; Freeman, Allison; Hou, Dan; McGuinn, Nick; Robinson, Alison; Zhu, Judy (2007).  The Effectiveness of Information and Communication Technology on the Learning of Written English for 5- to 16-Year-Olds  British Journal of Educational Technology, 38, 2. 

The last few years have seen an increase in research studies on the impact and effectiveness of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the teaching and learning of English as a school subject. It is against that research background and against recent developments in policy and practice in the UK that the present systematic review of the effectiveness of different ICTs in the teaching and learning of English has been undertaken. The aim of this review was to shed light on whether ICTs are effective in the teaching and learning of English for 5- to 16-year-olds. A total of 2103 papers were found in the initial search of studies published between 1998 and 2003 on the topic of the review. An in-depth review on the effectiveness of ICT in the teaching and learning of written composition in English concentrated on nine studies. As eight of the nine studies were judged to be of medium weight of evidence and were also different from each other in nature, it was not possible to arrive at a clear answer to our in-depth research question. Rather, we wish to report that the field is in a preparadigmatic state where definitions of English, literacy and ICT are still relatively unclear, and where the causal and/or reciprocal relationships between them have yet to be fully theorised.

Andrews, Trish; Klease, Greg (2002).  Extending Learning Opportunities through a Virtual Faculty-The Videoconference Option.  International Journal of Educational Technology, 3, 1. 

Discusses a virtual faculty as an alternative to extending learning opportunities for students in regional universities or universities where specializations of interest may not be offered. Describes an Australian project that explored the viability of establishing a virtual faculty using videoconferencing, and discusses the importance of collaboration, planning, and strategic priorities.

Andrus, Alan (2003).  Total Cost of Technology Ownership: Doing It Right.  School Business Affairs, 69, 2. 

Describes several factors related to investing in educational technology: Total cost of ownership, availability of qualified information technology staff, support and planning, and outside resources.

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Aro, Mikko; Olkinuora, Erkki (2007).  Riding the Information Highway--Towards a New Kind of Learning  International Journal of Lifelong Education, 26, 4. 

In the modern world, skimming through information quickly and finding the important nuggets of knowledge from amongst the information overload is an essential skill. One way to train oneself for this kind of literacy is reading on the internet, which requires continuous assessment of search results and specifying searches. In this article a central question is in which ways computer usage is connected with literacy needed in everyday life, which can be called functional literacy. We also examine what kind of an effect generation, occupational status and education have on the connection between computer use and literacy. Finnish data from the Second International Adult Literacy Survey (SIALS), carried out in 1998, is used. Three domains were examined in SIALS--prose literacy, document literacy and quantitative literacy. Real-life texts, figures and tables were used in the tests. According to the results, there were more good readers among those who regularly used computers for searching for information and reading on the internet. While the youngest scored highest in literacy, the use of computers for information seeking purposes was also connected to better literacy in the older age groups. The lowest educated appeared to benefit the most from the use of computers.

Aron, Laudan Y.; Zweig, Janine M. (2003).  Educational Alternatives for Vulnerable Youth: Student Needs, Program Types, and Research Directions  [Urban Institute] 

Chapter 1 of this document examines the need for alternative education among vulnerable youth by reviewing the numbers and characteristics of youth who disconnect from mainstream developmental pathways in various ways. The second chapter examines the question of "what is an alternative education school or program" and draws on a variety of elements from the literature to suggest the beginnings of a typology that might be used to define and organize the varieties of educational alternatives that currently exist and might be promoted in the future. Finally, Chapter 3 summarizes the findings of a roundtable on directions for future research on alternative education and describes the types of information and studies that are needed to advance the field of alternative education and foster more support for the development of high quality educational alternatives that all children can choose and benefit from. Appended are: (1) Factors that Place Students At Risk; and (2) Roundtable Participants.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Abraham, John (2004).  Multidisciplinary Explorations: Bridging the Gap between Engineering and Biology  Journal of College Science Teaching, 33, 5. 

As the evidence of the benefits of multidisciplinary education accumulates many schools and instructors are finding ways of hybridizing courses to include substantial components of what are otherwise distinct sciences. Often, such course development is done with an eye toward industry, which requires a workforce capable of synthesizing varied fields of information. The biotech industry is on the forefront of this movement, and its requirements are pushing universities to educate students to be fluent in multiple sciences (Dahms 2001). In particular, the author states that a bridge is urgently needed between the biomedical/biotechnology and the mechanical engineering disciplines (Schrof 1999) to facilitate the development of improved medical devices and safer surgical procedures and for the characterization of biotissues and biotransport processes. In this article, a course integrating the fields of engineering and biology was developed to teach students to solve real-world problems that included aspects from both disciplines. Computer simulations were also developed and carried out, and findings were presented in a formal report format. Thus, the author states that such courses encourage interdepartmental cooperation between students and provide a broad view of the multidisciplinary nature of scientific exploration.

Abrahamson, Dor (2006).  The Shape of Things to Come: The Computational Pictograph as a Bridge from Combinatorial Space to Outcome Distribution  International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning, 11, 1. 

This snapshot introduces a computer-based representation and activity that enables students to simultaneously "see" the combinatorial space of a stochastic device (e.g., dice, spinner, coins) and its outcome distribution. The author argues that the "ambiguous" representation fosters student insight into probability. [Snapshots are subject to peer review.]

Abrahamson, Dor; Wilensky, Uri (2007).  Learning Axes and Bridging Tools in a Technology-Based Design for Statistics  International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning, 12, 1. 

We introduce a design-based research framework, "learning axes and bridging tools," and demonstrate its application in the preparation and study of an implementation of a middle-school experimental computer-based unit on probability and statistics, "ProbLab" (Probability Laboratory, Abrahamson and Wilensky 2002 [Abrahamson, D., & Wilensky, U. (2002). "ProbLab." Northwestern University, Evanston, IL: The Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern University. http://www.ccl.northwestern.edu/curriculum/ProbLab/]%29. ProbLab is a mixed-media unit, which utilizes traditional tools as well as the "NetLogo" agent-based modeling-and-simulation environment (Wilensky 1999) [Wilensky, U. (1999). "NetLogo." Northwestern University, Evanston, IL: The Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling http://www.ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/] and "HubNet," its technological extension for facilitating participatory simulation activities in networked classrooms (Wilensky and Stroup 1999a) [Wilensky, U., & Stroup, W. (1999a). "HubNet." Evanston, IL: The Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern University]. We will focus on the statistics module of the unit, "Statistics As Multi-Participant Learning-Environment Resource" (S.A.M.P.L.E.R.). The framework shapes the design rationale toward creating and developing learning tools, activities, and facilitation guidelines. The framework then constitutes a data-analysis lens on implementation cases of student insight into the mathematical content. Working with this methodology, a designer begins by focusing on mathematical representations associated with a target concept--the designer problematizes and deconstructs each representation into a pair of historical/cognitive antecedents (idea elements), each lying at the poles of a "learning axis." Next, the designer creates "bridging tools," ambiguous artifacts bearing interaction properties of each of the idea elements, and develops activities with these learning tools that evoke cognitive conflict along the axis. Students reconcile the conflict by means of articulating strategies that embrace both idea elements, thus integrating them into the target concept.

Abrami, Philip C. (2001).  Understanding and Promoting Complex Learning Using Technology.  Educational Research and Evaluation: An International Journal on Theory and Practice, 7, 2-3. 

Introduces this special issue focusing on eight projects designed to promote complex learning using technology with an associated chapter of commentary. Highlights key issues related to the use of technology and lists 14 learner-centered psychological principles for complex learning.

Abramovich, Sergei (2006).  Early Algebra with Graphics Software as a Type II Application of Technology  Computers in the Schools, 22, 3-4. 

This paper describes the use of Kid Pix-graphics software for creative activities of young children--in the context of early algebra as determined by the mathematics core curriculum of New York state. It shows how grade-two appropriate pedagogy makes it possible to bring about a qualitative change in the learning process of those commonly struggling with mathematics by substituting computer-mediated tasks for algebraic tasks. The pedagogy is analyzed along the lines of Vygotsky's theory of using tools and signs in the internalization of higher psychological functions.

Abramovich, Sergei; Cho, Eun Kyeong (2006).  Technology as a Medium for Elementary Preteachers' Problem-Posing Experience in Mathematics  Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 25, 4. 

This article attempts to extend current research and development activities related to the use of technology in problem posing, to early grades mathematics. It is motivated by the authors' work with elementary preservice teachers toward this goal, both at the graduate and undergraduate levels. New York State Learning Standards for K-4 mathematics serve as a background for technology-enabled learning. Spreadsheet-based environments designed by the authors (using Microsoft Excel 2004) are introduced from a tool kit perspective, enabling a meaningful combination of manipulative and computing activities by elementary preteachers and their students alike.

Abramovich, Sergei; Norton, Anderson (2006).  Equations with Parameters: A Locus Approach  Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 25, 1. 

This paper introduces technology-based teaching ideas that facilitate the development of qualitative reasoning techniques in the context of quadratic equations with parameters. It reflects on activities designed for and used with prospective secondary mathematics teachers in accord with standards for teaching and recommendations for teachers in North America. The main educational implications of the proposed didactics include an emphasis on using geometric constructions in the context of algebra, emergence of residual mental power that can be used in the absence of technology, and development of skills in problem posing.

Abramovich, Sergei; Strock, Tracy (2002).  Measurement Model for Division as a Tool in Computing Applications  International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 33, 2. 

The paper describes the use of a spreadsheet in a mathematics teacher education course. It shows how the tool can serve as a link between seemingly disconnected mathematical concepts. The didactical triad of using a spreadsheet as an agent, consumer, and amplifier of mathematical activities allows for an extended investigation of simple yet intriguing properties of whole numbers. The authors argue that revisiting elementary content in a technological context enables pre-service teachers to appreciate the role that conceptual knowledge can play in the development of a spreadsheet-enabled pedagogy.

Abramson, Gertrude, Ed. (2002).  Telecommunications: Systems and Services. [SITE 2002 Section]. 

This document contains the following papers on telecommunications systems and services from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: (1) "Using the Web To Provide Parent Progress Reports on Standards for All Students: Developing the System" (Kevin M. Anderson and Cindy L. Anderson); (2) "Computer and Network Security" (Anu A. Gokhale); (3) "Designing, Implementing and Maintaining A Web Site: Issues and Technique Tips" (Leping Liu); (4) "PhoneChannel: Bridging the Digital Divide with Ubiquitous Technologies" (Tammy McGraw and John Ross); (5) "The Place of Internet-Based Architectures in Supporting the Professional Practice of Teaching" (Bronwyn Stuckey and others); (6) "The Transformation, Reform and Prospect of Distance Education in Taiwan" (Chih-Hsiung Tu and Hui-Ling Twu); (7) "Infusing Wireless Technology into Teacher Education" (David Zandvliet and Laura Buker); and (8) "COLEGA: A Collaborative Learning Environment Based on Individual and Group Memory Building" (Jesika Carvajal and others). A brief summary of a conference presentation on finding quality in online publications is also included. Most papers contain references. | [FULL TEXT]

Abramson, Trudy, Ed. (2001).  Telecommunications: Preservice Applications. [SITE 2001 Section]. 

This document contains the following papers on telecommunications for preservice teachers from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference: (1) "Regional List Servers as a Means of Peer Support for an On-Line Learning Community" (John Green); (2) "The Imfundo Project: ICT in Teacher Education in Developing Countries" (Michelle Selinger); (3) "The Handheld Web: Using Mobile Wireless Technologies To Enhance Teacher Professional Development" (Paul Shotsberger); and (4) "Electronic/Distance Preservice Teacher Education: An Example" (Leon Wickham). Most papers contain references. | [FULL TEXT]

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_____. (2006).  A Comprehensive Study of the Programs, Governance and Administration of Regional Education Service Agencies (RESAs). The Report of the RESA Task Force in Response to West Virginia Senate Bill 127  [West Virginia Department of Education] 

In June 2006, the State Superintendent of Schools, Dr. Steven Paine, convened the Task Force comprised of county superintendents, RESA executive directors, county school boards, county and RESA specialists in staff development, finance, and technology, staff from West Virginia Senate and House Education Committees, the State Auditor's Office, and West Virginia Department of Education staff who served as facilitators for each subcommittee. This report presents findings, recommendations and impact on code and/or policy for: (1) Governance, Administration, Personnel, and Oversight; (2) School Improvement and Staff Development; (3) Education Technology; (4) Other Programs and Service; and (5) Financial Integrity, Oversight, and Accountability. Twenty-seven recommendations have been made; seven suggest changes to State Board Policy 3233 (especially in the areas of governance and finance), one to State Board Policy 5500, and another to State Board Policy 2320. One recommendation proposes changing the name of RESAs to Regional Education and Community Service Agencies (RECSAs) and would require a change in State Code. Several recommendations address the need to increase funding to support RESAs in the delivery of technical assistance to low performing schools, targeted technical assistance, and technology services. The document includes 5 attachments: (A) 2006 Online Survey of County Superintendents; (B) WV Senate Bill 127 RESA Study Task Force Members; (C) 2005 RESA Survey; (D) RESA Personnel Policy Procedures Manual for Policy 3233; and (E) Student Populations by RESA. | [FULL TEXT]

Acosta, Curtis (2007).  Developing Critical Consciousness: Resistance Literature in a Chicano Literature Class  English Journal, 97, 2. 

Starting from a framework that emphasizes indigenous heritage, high school teacher Curtis Acosta and students in the Chicano/Raza Studies classes engage with literature that reflects the students' lives, families, and histories. Doing so encourages students to visualize and affirm academic identities while they confront current issues of oppression, develop critical consciousness, and become familiar with movements of resistance and action.

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Ayo

Ayo, C. K.; Akinyemi, I. O.; Adebiyi, A. A.; Ekong, U. O. (2007).  The Prospects of E-Examination Implementation in Nigeria  [Online Submission] 

The massive examination leakages, demand for gratification by teachers, bribe-taking by supervisors and invigilators of examinations have become a global phenomenon. This menace has resulted to general fallen standards of education and Nigeria is no exception, particularly among developing nations. Consequent upon this, all Nigerian universities have resorted to conducting post-entrance "Post-JAMB" examination/screening because of lack of confidence in the conduct of the entrance examinations. This paper proposes a model for e-Examination in Nigeria where all applicants are subjected to online entrance examination as a way of curbing the irregularities as proposed by the Joint Admissions Matriculation Board (JAMB), the body saddled with the responsibility of conducting entrance examinations into all the Nigerian universities. This model was designed and tested in Covenant University, one of the private universities in Nigeria. There were 120 questions drawn from English (30), Mathematics (30), General Science (20), Commercial Courses (20), and Religion Knowledge (20), all for one hour duration. Questionnaires were administered to the applicants at the end of the examination to assess their level of ICT literacy, ease of use of the system and the difficulties encountered. Findings revealed that the system has the potentials to eliminate some of the problems that are associated with the traditional methods of examination such as impersonation and other forms of examination malpractices. The system is easy to use and candidates can get use to it with time. The timing of examination can be spaced without compromising the quality and integrity of the examination. However, much is still desired if the system were to be adopted on a national scale, particularly in terms of infrastructural and manpower development. Similarly, the quest for e-Examination can fast track the development of e-Learning facilities in the country with improved access to education.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Ava

Avalos, Mary A.; Plasencia, Alina; Chavez, Celina; Rascon, Josefa (2007).  Modified Guided Reading: Gateway to English as a Second Language and Literacy Learning  Reading Teacher, 61, 4. 

Guided reading is an important component of a comprehensive literacy program. Using this approach to reading instruction is beneficial to all students, including English-language learners (ELLs). While guided reading is generally used in the early elementary grades, this approach is recommended for ELLs of all ages when appropriate methods and materials are used. Teachers can modify guided reading to better meet the literacy "and" second language (L2) learning needs of ELLs. Building on previous work in the area of guided reading and L2 reading instruction, this article describes guided-reading modifications for ELLs, integrating reading, writing, listening, and speaking to build the four language skills. A lesson-planning guide and examples are provided for teachers who are facing the challenge of providing language and literacy instruction to students learning to read in their L2.

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Atk

Atkins, Hilary; Moore, David; Sharpe, Simon; Hobbs, Dave (2001).  Learning Style Theory and Computer Mediated Communication. 

This paper looks at the low participation rates in computer mediated conferences (CMC) and argues that one of the causes of this may be an incompatibility between students' learning styles and the style adopted by CMC. Curry's Onion Model provides a well-established framework within which to view the main learning style theories (Riding and Rayner, 1998). The outer layer of Curry's model examines instructional preference. This layer is considered to be most observable, least stable, and most easily influenced. The middle layer of Curry's model concerns an individual's intellectual approach to assimilating information and encompasses many of the learning style theories that are currently popular. This layer is considered to be more stable than the outer layer because it does not directly interact with the environment, although it is modifiable by learning strategies. The inner layer of the model examines cognitive personality style, addressing an individual's approach to adapting and assimilating information, and is considered to be an underlying and relatively permanent personality dimension. The Curry model is used in this paper to review the learning style theories, and it is argued that Riding's Cognitive Styles Analysis is the most powerful theory with which to examine educational CMC. A framework for conducting an empirical investigation using this theory is outlined. | [FULL TEXT]

Atkins, Nigel; May, Steve; Marks-Maran, Di (2005).  Widening Participation in Subjects Requiring Data Handling Skills: The MathsAid Project  Journal of Further & Higher Education, 29, 4. 

MathsAid was established in 2001 as a university-wide resource for students enrolled on programmes at Kingston University that contain a mathematics or statistics component. Its broad aims are to provide a set of non-threatening remedial and motivational opportunities in maths and statistics through one-to-one tutorial support, peer-assisted learning (PAL) and ICT products managed through the BlackBoard learning management system. An evaluation of the MathsAid program has found it to aid some students in both their short- and long-term learning objectives but has raised questions of whether it could be adjusted to reach more of the most vulnerable students. This article outlines the MathsAid programme and the evaluation results.

Atkinson, Robert K.; Mayer, Richard E.; Merrill, Mary Margaret (2005).  Fostering Social Agency in Multimedia Learning: Examining the Impact of an Animated Agent's Voice  Contemporary Educational Psychology, 30, 1. 

Consistent with social agency theory, we hypothesized that learners who studied a set of worked-out examples involving proportional reasoning narrated by an animated agent with a human voice would perform better on near and far transfer tests and rate the speaker more positively compared to learners who studied the same set of examples narrated by an agent with a machine synthesized voice. This hypothesis was supported across two experiments, including one conducted in a high school computer classroom. Overall, the results are consistent with social agency theory that posits that social cues in multimedia messages, including the type of voice, can affect how much students like the speaker and how hard students try to understand the presented material.

Atkinson, Robert K.; Renkl, Alexander (2007).  Interactive Example-Based Learning Environments: Using Interactive Elements to Encourage Effective Processing of Worked Examples  Educational Psychology Review, 19, 3. 

This review describes parts of our research program on example-based learning that relates to recent efforts to incorporate interactive elements into learning environments designed to support learning from worked-out examples. Since most learners spontaneously study or process examples in a very passive or superficial manner, this review focuses on how a variety of specific interactive elements in example-based leaning environments are capable of encouraging learners to actively process the examples. The review begins with an overview of the literature on worked examples and the associated self-explanation, which is important given that the quality of self-explanation is a major factor in determining whether learners benefit from studying examples. The review notes that example-based learning environments tend to be effective but often promote passive processing. It then highlights the strengths and limitations of three types interactivity introduced to example-based learning environments. The review concludes with a discussion of the role that these interactive elements play in these learning environments.

Atkinson, Terry S.; Williams, Sarah C. (2006).  Building Their Stories: Electronic Case Studies of Struggling Readers  Reading Horizons, 47, 1. 

Ten university graduate students created electronic case studies describing the learning of struggling readers as a part of this study designed to yield insights about literacy education and the efficacy of electronic case study development. A variety of data, analyzed through a qualitative content analysis, revealed understandings regarding participants' perceptions about themselves as learners, ideas about their influences on students, and revelations about literacy instruction. A final theme revealed that, as participants reflected upon their own learning; they also voiced a commitment to literacy teaching that went beyond their personal classroom settings. Further, researchers gained insights about how to better prepare literacy educators, as well as how to more effectively integrate technology into the case study process.

Atkinson, Tom (2004).  Jazz It Up, with Music Technology!  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

As the song goes, "Don't know much about His -to-ry, don't know much about Tech-no-lo-gy!" But what we do know is that music technology now plays a crucial role in most schools. Fully integrating this technology requires much greater awareness. From Mozart to Madonna, technology has forever changed the field of music. Although accessing music through the Web and through digital storage devices has been remarkably significant, perhaps to an even greater extent, music synthesizers and editing software have dramatically changed the very nature of music. Technology provides powerful aids to composing, notating, editing, and performing music that even elementary school students can learn to use. | [FULL TEXT]

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Arv

Arvaja, Maarit (2007).  Contextual Resources in Meaning Negotiations of a Student Pair in a Web-Based History Project  International Journal of Educational Research, 46, 3-4. 

This study examines how one student pair working face-to-face at a computer and engaged in a web-based discussion environment negotiated meanings for their activity and what contextual resources they used in this negotiation process. The aim was also to study how the students themselves interpreted the learning activity. The subjects were two secondary school students (aged 15) participating in a web-based history project. Data was collected by various means in order to validate the findings. Linell's [(1998). "Approaching dialogue. Talk, interaction and contexts in dialogical perspectives." Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Co.] notion of contextual resources was used as an analytical tool in studying how students constructed knowledge and negotiated meanings in their activity. Because contextual resources comprise not only the concrete resources (e.g. books) but also more abstract and mediated resources (e.g. socio-cultural contexts), the students' discursive activity was analysed to identify common features or patterns of interaction from the data. Results showed that students' meaning negotiations was framed and mediated by students' comprehension of (school) knowledge, which directed the way resources were used in the situation and which resources were considered legitimate to use in the school context. In addition, students' habitual use of communication technology, which came outside the formal school activities, made up a situational frame and was manifested in the hectic communicative approach adopted in the situation. Altogether, the study demonstrated the situated and mediated nature of learning activity.

Arver, Cara M. (2007).  Are You Willing to Have Your Students Join Ralph, Jack, and Piggy?  English Journal, 97, 1. 

High school teacher Cara M. Arver walks teachers through her experience of setting up a virtual world to augment students' reading of "Lord of the Flies." Students interact as additional characters, discuss and solve problems based on the circumstances of the story, and complete classroom assignments within a virtual environment.

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Ars

Arslan, Ismahan; Inan, Fethi A.; Ozel, Claire Thomas; Wells, Anita G. (2007).  Assistive Technologies for College Students with Disabilities  [Online Submission] 

The purpose of this study was to examine the needs and availability of assistive technologies for university students with disabilities. The study also explored attitudes toward computers and the extent computers are utilized by students with disabilities. The participants were university students from one private and four public universities in Ankara, Turkiye. The results of the study indicated that students with disabilities utilized technology for different purposes such as writing and conducting research when the resources and support were available. Furthermore, relationships between students' knowledge, skills, attitudes, social norms, and beliefs were found.  | [FULL TEXT]

Arslan, Mehmet (2006).  The Influence of Teaching Note-Taking and Information Mapping on Learning and Recalling in Science  [Online Submission] 

This work describes an experimental research on note taking and concept mapping in a science class of 5 graders in Kayseri (Central Anatolia, Turkey) in the academic year 2002 - 2003. Gained results are in favor of convictions that view note taking as an effective learning strategy. At least it was more effective than concept mapping in the experiments of the present study. A possible reason for this is that students benefited from their notes by recapitulating lesson contents whereas concept maps were not used in such a way. This assumption is supported by other experimental evidence that ascribe the advantages of note taking to its function as external memory store that helps students to better process lesson contents.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Ann

Annetta, Len (2004).  CTLSilhouette[TM]: An Online Tool for Assessment and Evaluation  School Science and Mathematics, 104, 4. 

The stakes are getting higher for teachers to provide evidence that suggests their students are meeting the goals set forth by national and state standards. The stakes are also getting higher for administrators at the state and local levels to provide evidence that their teachers are "highly qualified." Currently lacking in many areas is an assessment tool that can meet the needs of administrators and teachers alike for providing quantifiable data. Washington State University has developed an online data collection tool known as CTLSilhouette[TM] (http://www.ctlt.wsu.edu/CTLSilhouetteinfo.asp%29 that attempts to address these characteristics. CTLSilhouette[TM] is the software that carries the Flashlight Online[TM] service. This article reviews the unique capabilities of CTLSilhouette[TM] as an instrument for assessment and evaluation.

Annetta, Leonard A. (2003).  An Interactive Discussion of Distance Learning Technologies and Methods. 

The attention given to distance education in high schools, universities, and corporations has been increasing due to cost and time effectiveness for the learner. This paper identifies a framework for teaching science using distance education. Interactive television, which is a two-way communication device, allows student and presenter to interact in real-time at a distance. A tracking option is available for the facilitator to track the time students spend on each task. Distance education is used as an instructional tool, which is an important and cost-effective teaching method that creates a meaningful learning environment. | [FULL TEXT]

Annetta, Leonard; Murray, Marshall; Gull Laird, Shelby; Bohr, Stephanie; Park, John (2008).  Investigating Student Attitudes toward a Synchronous, Online Graduate Course in a Multi-User Virtual Learning Environment  Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 16, 1. 

This article describes a graduate distance education course at North Carolina State University, which combined science content and pedagogy with video game design. The course was conducted entirely in a synchronous, online, Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) through the ActiveWorlds[TM] platform. Inservice teachers enrolled as graduate students in science education learned to construct video games as a supplement to their science instruction. The ultimate objective of this course was to advance student achievement and interest in science by providing teachers with a viable source for integrating video game technology into the curriculum. A case study design suggested positive student attitudes toward course satisfaction. The implications of these results suggest a positive avenue for technology integration in teacher education that meets the growing demand for engaging students in all content areas.  [This project was funded by the North Carolina State Distance Education and Learning Technologies Alliance.]

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Alg

Alghazo, Iman M. (2006).  Student Attitudes toward Web-Enhanced Instruction in an Educational Technology Course  College Student Journal, 40, 3. 

This study aimed at investigating students' attitudes toward Web-enhanced instruction in an educational technology course taught in the College of Education at the United Arab Emirates University. The sample of the study consisted of (66) college female students. A survey with 5 point Likert-type items and open-ended questions was used to collect the data. Results revealed that students had positive attitudes toward most aspects of Web-enhanced instruction. They identified many advantages of web-enhanced instruction such as: discussions about course content through the discussion-board, communication with the course instructor, obtaining grades from the Web, easy access to course related materials, submitting assignments through the Web, and increasing course understanding, communication with classmates. However, students identified some obstacles to using web-enhanced instruction such as: low speed of the internet, difficulties in accessing the course from home, and limited access to computer labs.

Alghazo, Iman Mohammad (2006).  Computer Competencies of the Faculty Members of the College of Education at the United Arab Emirates University  International Journal of Instructional Media, 33, 3. 

In its effort to obtain accreditation using NCATE standards, the College of Education at the United Arab Emirates University is integrating ISTE standards into its teacher education programs. The main challenge at this stage is preparing faculty members to integrate technology into their teaching in order to help their students meet ISTE standards. This can only happen if a well-structured professional development program is established. This study aimed at determining the technological competencies of faculty members, their preferences of professional development options, and their attitudes toward computers. Four researcher-designed surveys were used. The results revealed that the faculty members lacked many technological competencies; they had different preferences formats; and they had positive attitudes toward computers.

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Ade

Adeoye, Blessing; Wentling, Rose Mary (2007).  The Relationship between National Culture and the Usability of an E-Learning System  International Journal on E-Learning, 6, 1. 

The purpose of this study was to investigate possible relationships between national culture and the usability of an e-learning system. The theoretical frameworks that were used to guide this study were Hofstede's (1980) cultural dimensions, and Nielson's (1993) usability attributes. The sample for this study was composed of 24 international students from 11 different countries attending a large Midwest university in the United States. This sample was selected for this study because they represented the various cultural dimensions being studied, had spent their formative years in their home country, and were not advanced computer users. Three instruments were used in this study and each instrument assisted in collecting information regarding unique aspects of the research study. The study revealed that females had higher scores for Learnability Time and Learnability Path, while males had higher scores for Satisfaction with Navigation and Satisfaction with General Usage. The study also found that respondents in the Low Uncertainty Avoidance group had higher Memorability Path scores than those in the High Uncertainty Avoidance group.

Adeyemi, Michael B., Ed. (2000).  Social Studies in African Education. 

This collection of essays is organized into two sections: Section 1 deals with general issues in social studies, while Section 2 examines social studies education in Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Zambia. Essays in Section One are: (1) "The Historical Context of Education in British Colonial Africa" (L. Mafela; P. T. Mgadla); (2) "Philosophical Foundations of Social Studies Education in Africa" (A. A. Adeyinka); (3) "The Language of Social Studies Teaching in Africa" (J. Honey); (4) "The Linguist in the Teaching of Social Studies" (J. T. Mathangwane); (5) "The Use of Religion in Uniting the African People" (J. N. Amanze); (6) "Moral Education in African Schools" (V. Ocaya); (7) "The Relationship between Moral Education and Social Studies: The Case of Botswana Junior Secondary Curriculum" (J. O. Awino); (8) "The Role of African Parents in the Socialisation of Children" (M. O. Onyewadume); (9) "HIV and AIDS among Youth in Botswana: An Emerging Issue in Social Studies" (E. Seloilwe; E. Ncube; D. Ntseane); (10) "Socialisation Issues in Sport" (L. O. Amusa; S. A. Adeniran); (11) "The Values of Sport in the Promotion of a Culture of Peace" (A. L. Toriola); (12) "The Importance of Mathematics to Social Studies" (D. C. Mapolelo); (13) "Educational Technology in the Teaching of Social Studies in African Schools" (A. Akinyemi; A. Ngwako; P. Nleya); (14) "The Role of Teaching Practice in the Preparation of Social Science Teachers" (V. Morara); (15) "Infusing Gender Equity in Social Studies Teaching" (L. Asimeng-Boahene and B.-M. Mazile). Essays in Section Two are: (16) "Social Studies in Botswana" (G. Mautle); (17) "Social Studies in Ethiopia" (H. G. Dagne); (18) "Social Studies in Ghana" (L. Asimeng-Boahene); (19) "Social Studies in Kenya" (J. E. Otiende; O. Oanda); (20) "Social Studies in Malawi" (J. Tlou; V. Kabwila); (21) "Social Studies in Namibia" (F. A. Phiri); (22) "Social Studies in Nigeria" (M. B. Adeyemi); (23) "Social Studies in Tanzania" (W. L. M. Komba); and (24) "Social Studies in Zambia" (C. P. Chishimba; R. K. Simukoko).

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Asi

Asimopoulos, Nikolaos D.; Kyriakos, Nathanail; Mpatzakis, Vlasios (2007).  A Network-Based Electrical Engineering Laboratory  International Journal on E-Learning, 6, 1. 

Technical education is, by definition, a field that requires hands-on practice and experience by the student. When it comes to distant learning, technical education suffers from lack of such practical study, given the fact that e-learning is based on theoretical material being provided remotely to the student. This article presents the idea of assisting technical education that is provided remotely, by introducing a remotely controlled laboratory--a key feature in technical education fields such as electrical engineering. Furthermore, the paper discusses functionality and practical application of such an idea, using an implemented example of a remotely controlled robotic arm and an online education platform while the observed results are evaluated, accompanied by the conclusions that the scientific team reached.

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Ahm

Ahmed, Iftikhar; Sadeq, Muhammad Jafar (2006).  An Autonomous Mobile Agent-Based Distributed Learning Architecture: A Proposal and Analytical Analysis  British Journal of Educational Technology, 37, 4. 

Current distance learning systems are increasingly packing highly data-intensive contents on servers, resulting in the congestion of network and server resources at peak service times. A distributed learning system based on faded information field (FIF) architecture that employs mobile agents (MAs) has been proposed and simulated in this work. The learning contents are decentralised in the proposed system, and these are dynamically distributed around the main education site server on different nodes in response to network congestion and server overload. The system simulation results have been presented and analysed. The proposed system holds the potential to address the network congestion and server-overload problems in distance learning systems.

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Amr

Amrani, D. (2007).  Determination of Absolute Zero Using a Computer-Based Laboratory  Physics Education, 42, 3. 

We present a simple computer-based laboratory experiment for evaluating absolute zero in degrees Celsius, which can be performed in college and undergraduate physical sciences laboratory courses. With a computer, absolute zero apparatus can help demonstrators or students to observe the relationship between temperature and pressure and use datalogger software to mathematically extrapolate to find absolute zero.

Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey; Foulger, Teresa S.; Toth, Meredith (2007).  Examining the Development of a Hybrid Degree Program: Using Student and Instructor Data to Inform Decision-Making  Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 39, 4. 

This paper investigates the questions and considerations that should be discussed by administrators, faculty, and support staff when designing, developing and offering a hybrid (part online, part face-to-face) degree program. Using two Web questionnaires, data were gathered from nine instructors and approximately 450 students to evaluate student and instructor perceptions and opinions of hybrid instruction and activities. In comparison to prior research, the results of this study offer larger and more significant policy and programmatic implications for degrees based on the hybrid format, including instructional technology training and support for students and instructors, creation of common class procedures and expectations, and development of consistent schedules that maximize benefit and flexibility for students and instructors.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Asl

Aslan, Canan (2007).  Content Analysis on Language Mistakes Made by Turkish, Turkish Language and Literature Teachers in Internet  [Online Submission] 

Mother tongue is the language that a person learns in the society he/she lives especially from his/her mother by imitating herself which begins from the period of infancy and also mother tongue is the language that he/she expresses him/herself best. Vardar (1980:20) defines mother tongue as, "[Mother tongue] is the language which is learned for the first time within the family or the society that a person he/she lives". According to Aksan (1990:81), "[Mother tongue] is the language which is learned from mother and close relatives at first, and then within the society that a person he/she lives and that is present at the subconscious level and establishes a strong connection between person and the society he/she lives". Some linguists define mother tongue briefly as "the language learned from mother" considering the word "mother" that exists within the structure of the term of mother tongue.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Agd

Agdelen, Benan; Agdelen, Zafer (2007).  Analyzing the Perceptions of Educators Concerning the Execution of Managerial Processes in Elementary Schools and Determining the Training Needs  [Online Submission] 

The main aim of this study is to analyze the perceptions of educators concerning the execution of managerial processes in elementary schools and to study whether there is significant difference about the opinions of educators according to their gender. The study was carried out in elementary schools located around Guzelyurt City in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC). A questionnaire was used to collect data from the educators working in elementary schools concerning the execution of managerial processes. The findings showed that out of 28 questions asked to the educators, only for five of them, there were significant differences and for the rest 23 items, there were no significant differences about the perceptions of educators according to their gender. As a result of the study, the training needs of educators are determined.  | [FULL TEXT]

Agdelen, Zafer; Haydar, Ali; Kanani, Andisheh (2007).  Analyzing the Factors Affecting the Success in University Entrance Examination through the use of Artificial Neural Networks  [Online Submission] 

There are many factors that affect the success of students in university entrance examination. These factors can be mainly categorized as follows; social factors, environmental factors, economical factors etc. The main aim of this study is to find whether there is a relation between these factors and the success in the university entrance examination. To achieve this goal, we use radial basis functions (RBF) network which is one of the artificial neural networks approach used to find a relation between input and output variables nonlinearly. From the experimental results, we observed that the relation between the input variables that corresponds to social, economical and environmental factors and the output variable can be modeled nonlinearly using radial basis functions network.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Aci

Acikalin, Isil (2007).  Power-Solidarity Relationship of Teachers with Their Future Colleagues  [Online Submission] 

Classroom talk is an example of institutional discourse, based on asymmetrical distribution of communicative rights and obligations between teachers and students. Teachers hold power and solidarity relationships with their students. It has been assumed that, in general, women are more concerned with solidarity while men are more interested in status and being powerful. In this study the interactions of 2 female and 2 male teachers of Mentally Disabled Department of Education Faculty are recorded during their face to face teaching. The study is centered on an analysis of 3 discourse features: the occurrence of questions, rhetorical questions and first person plural usage. The results emphasized the existence of professional solidarity between the teachers and students of Mentally Disabled Department.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Acc

_____. (2002).  Accreditation and Assuring Quality in Distance Learning. CHEA Monograph Series, 2002. 

This report describes the scope and impact of distance learning on higher education and identifies the primary challenges that distance learning poses for accreditation. The responses of the accrediting community designed to assure quality in distance learning are outlined. Data from a variety of sources show that 5,655 institutions are accredited by the 17 regional and national accreditors. Of these institutions, 1,979 offer a form of distance-delivered learning programs or courses, some of which lead to degree acquisition. Standards, guidelines, and policies to determine academic quality are in place for the scrutiny of distance learning. The 17 institutional accreditors actively apply these standards or guidelines in their reviews. Assuring quality in distance learning presents three major challenges to accreditation, those of: alternative design of instruction, alternative providers of education, and the expanded focus on training. Accrediting organizations examines alternative instructional designs with a particular focus on curriculum and instruction, faculty support, student support, and student learning outcomes. Accrediting institutions scrutinize new providers of higher distance education in a manner that parallels the scrutiny of site-based institutions and programs. Accreditors may use the platform of the eight regional accrediting organizations and the standards of the nine national accrediting organizations to focus on the expanding universe of discrete training activities offered apart from longer-term, structured offering such as degree programs. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (2007).  Accreditation Overview  [Distance Education and Training Council] 

This booklet is designed to help prospective students, counselors, public agencies, and institutions better understand distance education accreditation and how the accreditation procedures of the Distance Education and Training Council (DETC) Accrediting Commission work. It describes distance education and the accreditation process for distance education programs, and addresses frequently asked questions about accreditation. The names of DETC members and staff are presented, and a list of Accrediting Commission milestones is included. | [FULL TEXT]

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Ake

Akeroyd, Michael (2007).  A Novel Whiteheadean Science Program for 14-16 Year Olds in England and Wales  Interchange: A Quarterly Review of Education, 38, 2. 

A novel "Whiteheadean" science program was initiated in England and Wales in September 2006. Following a critical House of Commons report in 2002, the government altered the National Curriculum targets and thus forced the Examination Boards to alter their specifications in order to come in line. Assessment at GCSE level (i.e., the 14-16 year cohort) was criticised for: a) failing to inspire students to continue with science, b) discouraging students from thinking for themselves, c) neglecting contemporary science, d) lacking flexibility, and e) making practical work into a tedious and dull activity. The British government has insisted that all pupils in state funded schools must know the names of some modern scientists and their work. They must discuss some current scientific problems. History and philosophy of science is included under the topic heading "How Science Works." In Chemistry these objectives have destroyed the traditional linear top-down sequential approach of teaching into an approach based more closely on Whiteheadean lines (cf., the ideas expressed in "The Aims of Education", 1926, Chapters 1-3)

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Avo

Avouris, N.; Fiotakis, G.; Kahrimanis, G.; Margaritis, M.; Komis, V. (2007).  Beyond Logging of Fingertip Actions: Analysis of Collaborative Learning Using Multiple Sources of Data  Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 18, 2. 

In this article, we discuss key requirements for collecting behavioural data concerning technology-supported collaborative learning activities. It is argued that the common practice of analysis of computer generated log files of user interactions with software tools is not enough for building a thorough view of the activity. Instead, more contextual information is needed to be captured in multiple media like video, audio files, and snapshots, in order to re-construct the learning process. A software environment, Collaborative Analysis Tool, (ColAT) that supports interrelation of such resources in order to analyse the collected evidence and produce interpretative views of the activity is described.

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Ass

(2005).  Assessment Matters: Find out What Students Need to Know and Assign Appropriate Learning Materials--All with the Same Engaging Learning Environment  Technology & Learning, 26, 2. 

Since the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act was introduced, schools and districts have focused their efforts on better ways to evaluate student progress and report results. Beyond test scores, however, ongoing assessment can make all the difference in student learning and improving scores. Third grade is a year in which some students begin to fall behind their peers. It is also the first year of NCLB testing. In December 2002, Delta State University began a research project funded by the U.S. Department of Education to study the impact of using the LeapTrack[R] Assessment & Instruction System with third-graders in four school districts. Senatobia Public Schools participated in the study. The LeapTrack[R] system combines research-based curriculum with multisensory technology to advance student achievement through the use of LeapPad[R] and Quantum LeapPad[R] personal learning tools (PLTs), which provide motivation, instruction, feedback, and targeted practice through personalized instruction. Senatobia found that using the LeapTrack[R] system to provide regular formative assessment and instruction based on individual needs produced significant learning gains, especially for low achieving students. That is why the students in kindergarten through second grade now use the LeapTrack[R] system too. After a full year of using the system, says Mr. Jackson, "Senatobia Elementary School's state accreditation level came in at level 4; that's an 'exemplary school.'"

_____. (2001).  Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario 2002 Environmental Scan. 

This environmental scan is designed to assist Ontario's colleges in their strategic planning processes. Ontario's colleges have supported a 35% increase in enrollment, with a 40% decrease in funding, over the last ten years, while operating costs have risen. In addition, Ontario eliminated the secondary school Ontario Academic Courses (OACs), which often kept high school students in secondary school for an extra year. The first wave of students who are exempted from the OACs are expected to graduate in 2003, the same year as the last class that is not exempted. This class (the double cohort) will create a temporary enrollment increase. Enrollment will also rise due to increased population and participation. Total additional employees required as a result of increased enrollment is estimated at 7,114, including faculty, administration, and staff. The colleges also aim to facilitate economic development, to improve the current 91% graduate employment rate, and to develop new programs that are responsive to local, regional, and provincial needs. The paper reports on enrollment changes by division (Arts, Business, Health, Technology) over the years between 1995-2001. The paper also reports on distance learning, apprenticeship training, adult literacy in Ontario, Ontario's demographics, international students, economy, labor, succession planning, and student retention, among other issues. Includes tables, graphs, and references for each of the seven sections and appendices. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (2005).  Assessment Advisory Committee Report, 2005. FY 2005 Report to the Legislature  [Minnesota Department of Education] 

Minnesota Statute 120B.365 established an Assessment Advisory Committee to advise the commissioner on statewide assessment issues. The committee may consist of up to 11 members. The Committee will make recommendations to the commissioner and/or the legislature about issues involving statewide assessment. This report briefly provides a background and a summary of the Assessment Advisory Committee's deliberations for the past 14 months. The Committee is chaired by the Director of State Assessments and meets approximately every 3 to 4 months. The Committee addressed many topics regarding assessment issues in Minnesota. The most important or significant included the purpose of the Minnesota Assessment System, assessing LEP/ELL students, use of technology in assessment, single reporting date for test scores and AYP results, the long range assessment plan through 2010, the transition to the MCA-IIs, the raising of graduation requirements, and value-added and growth models. The Committee made three recommendations on the following topics: (1) Long-range assessment plan; (2) Raising graduation requirements; and (3) Value-added models. This report summarizes the deliberations of the Assessment Advisory Committee as required by 120B.365. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (2006).  Assistive Technology. NetNews. Volume 6, Number 4  [LDA of Minnesota] 

Technology has changed the world. Unfortunately, for many adults with learning disabilities (LD), the literacy demands of technology are beyond their reach. Since most adults with LD struggle in the area of reading, they are frequently not able to understand higher levels of written language or remember multi-sequence procedures often necessary for accessing and using technology. However, a variety of assistive technology is available for persons with disabilities that is intended to maximize their abilities while minimizing the challenges of their disabilities. The purpose of this issue is to share a selection of assistive technology devices appropriate for adults with language-based learning disabilities or related learning difficulties. Other topics discussed in this issue include: (1) Assistive Technology (AT); (2) AT for Reading Difficulties; and (3) AT for Writing Difficulties. [For Volume 6, Number 3 of "NetNews," see ED493598.] | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (2006).  Assessment of the Higher Education Needs of Snohomish, Island, and Skagit Counties (SIS)  [Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board] 

This report contains the Higher Education Coordinating Board's (HECB) assessment of the higher education needs in Snohomish, Skagit, and Island (SIS) Counties, and its recommendations to the legislature regarding those needs. The report contains two sections. Section I provides: (1) Primary conclusions and related considerations derived from the study, and (2) Study recommendations; and (3) Proposed Board resolution adopting the study recommendations. Section II provides a detailed examination and discussion of the study methods and findings. Principal Recommendations include: (1) As first priority, improved core funding and provision for growth at existing state public institutions, including implementation of a 10-year strategy to fund the colleges and universities at the 60th percentile of similar institutions within the Global Challenge States, as proposed in the Governor's Washington Learns project: (2) Future consideration of the creation of a new four-year campus in the SIS region when the existing colleges and universities have reached their maximum programmatic and physical capacity; and (3) Continued planning for a new four-year campus in the SIS region. should continue. Supporting recommendations include: (1) Examination and research of best practices and lessons learned from institutions with advanced use of technology as well as selected universities with a polytechnic focus; (2) Formation of a liaison committee with representatives of institutions of higher education with sufficient authority and experience to identify and work cooperatively to resolve issues of concern about regional and statewide delivery of services; (3) Development of a policy on enrollment management, service areas and strategic curriculum planning as a strategy to improve access and maximize the production of professional certificates, and baccalaureate and graduate degrees; (4) Review of the organizational systems and the assignment of major lines and types of degrees in light of projected statewide needs; (5) Support of growth in SIS area community colleges to accommodate additional students in adult basic education, workforce training, and academic transfer-oriented programs and investigation of the feasibility of a future university center; and (6) Feasibility investigation of coordinated pre-admission procedures, including a common application process.  | [FULL TEXT]

Assaf, Frederick G. (2001).  They Find the Solution Right in Their Lap.  Momentum, 32, 3. 

Describes the process of bringing a college preparatory school up to industry standard in technology. To enhance the project's success, the school provided faculty with laptop computers and training classes, and made use of 15 of its own students who were getting their Microsoft Certified Professional certification.

Asson-Batres, Mary Ann; Shneyder, Artyom V. (2006).  Method for Developing a Standardized Protocol for Capturing and Storing Brightfield Photomicrographs  American Biology Teacher, 68, 5. 

Photography can be a useful tool for teaching biology at both the macroscopic and the microscopic levels of organization. While more complex, taking photographs of microscopic specimens is a procedure that can be performed with all students. In this article, the authors outline a general approach that can be followed to develop a specific protocol for capturing, processing, printing, and storing brightfield photomicrographs using microscope-camera systems that are found in colleges and universities. The protocol is based on an evaluation of a set of conditions that include light intensity, aperture setting, filters, shutter speed, film speed, and type of film. A simplified protocol for novices or for use in a K-12 setting is also included.

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_____. (2004).  A Report and Estimating Tool for K-12 School Districts. Texas District Case Study  [Consortium for School Networking] 

The scope of this project included end-user computing devices, network servers, local area network hardware, and the labor costs associated with each of these components. Software, application service providers, content and curriculum development, and staff developmental training were included as well. The case study is composed of five sections. The first is an overview of the district and the general setting of the distributed computing environment. The second section contains the TCO metrics. The third section includes an interpretation of key selected TCO metrics. The fourth section provides a review of the district?s participation in the 2004 case study focus initiatives of wireless communications, voice/data integration, and e-learning technologies. The fifth and final section discusses the TCO processes related to the district.

_____. (2005).  A Report to the U.S. Department of Education on Educational Challenges and Technical Assistance Needs for the Western Region  [CNA Corporation] 

This report addresses the challenges and needs of the Western Region around No Child Left Behind (NCLB) implementation. It is imperative to note that the Western Region has more Title I and English Language Learners (ELL) students than any other region in the nation. This report will be submitted to the US Department of Education in developing a Request For Proposal (RFP) for technical assistance centers in the United States. In creating this report, RAC members were restricted by the US Department of Education from suggesting needed alterations in the NCLB law itself or from suggesting needs for additional funding through the law. The consensus of this RAC is that current funding levels will severely limit the ability of centers to address the identified needs under NCLB law in this region. It is essential that the services that are provided are cost-effective. Appended are: (1) California enrollment statistics; and (2) Biographic information about members of the Western Regional Advisory Committee. A glossary is also included. (Contains 17 tables and 2 figures.] [Prepared by the Western Regional Advisory Committee.] | [FULL TEXT]

Arend, Bridget D. (2004).  New Patterns of Student Engagement: Lessons from a Laptop University  About Campus, 9, 3. 

In the spring of 2002, the author conducted a qualitative study that used student engagement as a lens through which to analyze the effects of technology on campus. The setting was a four-year private institution that had, three years prior, instituted a laptop computer requirement for undergraduate students. The study used focus groups of first-year students, stratified by academic major and self-reported levels of laptop use, to explore the influences of a laptop requirement from the students' perspective--specifically, what students are doing with their laptops and why. This article describes the results of this study which revealed that patterns of engagement are changing due to the use of personal computing, yet many institutional services are barely keeping up with high student expectations for technology, let alone capitalizing on the learning opportunities inherent in the technology. Although the results speak about only one campus, they raise common questions about how technology and engagement intersect. In the author's study, changing engagement patterns were most notable in student interactions with faculty, with campus resources, and with academic content.

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Apedoe, Xornam S.; Reeves, Thomas C. (2006).  Inquiry-Based Learning and Digital Libraries in Undergraduate Science Education  Journal of Science Education and Technology, 15, 5-6. 

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to describe robust rationales for integrating inquiry-based learning into undergraduate science education, and to propose that digital libraries are potentially powerful technological tools that can support inquiry-based learning goals in undergraduate science courses. Overviews of constructivism and situated cognition are provided with regard to how these two theoretical perspectives have influenced current science education reform movements, especially those that involve inquiry-based learning. The role that digital libraries can play in inquiry-based learning environments is discussed. Finally, the importance of alignment among critical pedagogical dimensions of an inquiry-based pedagogical framework is stressed in the paper, and an example of how this can be done is presented using earth science education as a context.

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Ayas, Cemalettin (2006).  An Examination of the Relationship between the Integration of Technology into Social Studies and Constructivist Pedagogies  [Online Submission] 

Educational technologies, specifically computer and the Internet technologies, have apparently become powerful tools in the classroom as they change the way we teach and learn today. That is why pedagogies of school reform are now highly influenced by and built around the "constructivist" theories of learning, assuming the use of technology in education for active and meaningful knowledge construction. Due to these trends it appears inevitable that social studies educators do need to know how to use technology effectively in their educational settings. Therefore, after a brief look at the concepts of technology and educational technology including a rationale for the use of technology in education, the current literature specifically on the integration of technology in the social studies with a reference to constructivism is examined. As a result, based on this study it seems that the infusion of technology into educational environments, specifically in the social studies, aligned with constructivist pedagogy bears the potential to inspire new ways of teaching and learning. | [FULL TEXT]

Ayati, M. B.; Curzon, Susan Carol (2003).  How To Spot a CIO in Trouble.  Educause Quarterly, 26, 4. 

Asserts that before failure occurs for chief information officers (CIOs), three major warning signs signal that the CIO is in trouble. Explores the three warning signs, discussing how intervene before problems have gone too far to resolve: (1) the importance of executive support; (2) the significance of strategic directions; and (3) the importance of project portfolio management.

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Aguti, Jessica N.; Fraser, William J. (2006).  Integration of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the Distance Education Bachelor of Education Programme, Makerere University, Uganda  [Online Submission] 

This article reports on the problems experienced by the Department of Distance Education, Makerere University, Uganda with the B.Ed. (External) programme with specific reference to the technology needs and expectations of the programme. With a total enrollment of nearly 3,500 students in 2003, this programme was one of the largest distance education programmes for teachers in the country. It was therefore important to establish what technologies the stakeholders of this programme had access to, what technologies they believed could be used for the programme and for what purpose, and finally what prerequisites should be put in place for this technology to work. The article reports on the availability of and access to ICTs, access to telecommunications and sources of funding for ICTs in the distance education programme. The authors also looked critically at a number of prerequisites thought to enhance the effectiveness of ICTs in the B.Ed. (External) programme from an African perspective hoping that the integration of ICT in the programmes would lift the distance education mode of delivery of these programmes from a classical first and second generation, to a third generation level of operation.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Altalib, Hasan (2002).  The Use of Mobile-Wireless Technology for Education. 

This paper focuses on the use of mobile-wireless technology for education. The first section is an introduction which provides a definition of the terms. The second section discusses implementation of mobile-wireless technology in schools, providing examples from Latrobe Junior High School, where wireless laptops were issued to students and River Hill High School, where personal data assistants (PDAs) were issued to students. The next section focuses on use of mobile-wireless technology in higher education; the cases of Wake Forest School of Medicine, New York Law School, and the Wharton School of Business, are provided to offer an insight into how these institutions are using this technology to enhance their learning environment and offer students a real world perspective. The fourth section examines mobile-wireless technology and constructivism, providing a definition of constructivist learning. This section provides highlights from the Pilot Laptop Program, conducted jointly by the Microsoft Corporation and Toshiba America, which saw the benefits in providing and facilitating "anytime, anywhere" learning by helping schools acquire laptop computers and software tools for students and teachers; findings of the Rockman Study, research commissioned to assess the Pilot Laptop Program's success, are also summarized. The paper concludes that the advantages of integrating mobile-wireless devices in learning environments have become evident. As technologies emerge and as learning becomes more mobile, these new devices will become commonplace in schools and universities around the world. As educational environments slowly move toward more constructivist approaches to learning, mobile-wireless devices will help provide the technological tools for it to happen. | [FULL TEXT]

Altbach, Philip G. (2000).  The Crisis in Multinational Higher Education.  Change, 32, 6. 

With the demand for higher education increasing rapidly worldwide, the advent of new technologies and international collaboration offers new solutions and challenges. Presents facts about multinational and distance education, examining problems and challenges this raises, and stressing the importance of analyzing the new realities, both positive and negative, of these enterprises.

Altbach, Philip G. (2001).  The Multifunctional Digital Centre: A Concept for Developing Countries in the Electronic Age.  PEB Exchange

Discusses the idea of multifunctional digital center (MDC) as a solution to some of the problems faced by higher education in developing countries and the lessons the MDC has for industrialized nations. The MDC is shown to have the potential for linking the technologies of the 21st century with the idea of community in a cost- effective manner.

Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Gumport, Patricia J., Ed.; Johnstone, D. Bruce, Ed. (2001).  In Defense of American Higher Education. 

Contributors to this collection assert that radical alterations to the practices that have established and upheld the excellence of higher education in the United States must be considered carefully. They reflect on the failings of higher education, but note its many strengths. The chapters are: (1) "The American Academic Model in Comparative Perspective" (Philip G. Altbach); (2) "Higher Education as a Mature Industry" (Arthur Levine); (3) "The 'Crisis' Crisis in Higher Education: Is That a Wolf or a Pussycat at the Academy's Door?" (Robert Birnbaum and Frank Shushok, Jr.); (4) "Built To Serve: The Enduring Legacy of Public Higher Education" (Patricia J. Gumport); (5) "From Mass Higher Educating to Universal Access: The American Advantage" (Martin Trow); (6) "Higher Education and Those 'Out-of-Control Costs'" (D. Bruce Johnstone); (7) "The Liberal Arts and the Role of Elite Higher Education" (Nannerl O. Keohane); (8) "The Technological Revolution: Reflections on the Proper Role of Technology in Higher Education" (Jack M. Wilson); (9) "Academic Change and Presidential Leadership" (Richard M. Freeland); (10) "Graduate Education and Research" (Jules B. LaPidus); (11) "College Students Today: Why We Can't Leave Serendipity to Chance" (George D. Kuh); (12) "Governance: The Remarkable Ambiguity" (George Keller); and (13) "Understanding the American Academic Profession" (Martin J. Finkelstein). (Each chapter contains references.)

Altemeyer, Brad (2005).  Computer Software Training and HRD: What Are the Critical Issues?  [Online Submission, Paper presented at the Academy of Human Resource Development International Conference (AHRD) (Estes Park, CO, Feb 24-27, 2005) p678-684 (Symp. 30-1)] 

The paper explores critical issues for HRD practice from a parsonian framework across the HRD legs of organizational development, adult learning, and training and development. Insights into the critical issues emerge from this approach. Identifying successful transfer of training to be critical for organizational, group, and individual success. Systems such as email, enterprise resource planning (ERP), and videoconferencing help create insights into some of the critical issues.  [For complete proceedings, see ED491486.] | [FULL TEXT]

Althoen, Steve (2005).  Ferrari's Method and Technology  Mathematics Teacher, 99, 1. 

Some tips that combine knowledge of mathematics history and technology for adapting Ferrar's method to factor quintics with a TI-83 graphing calculator are presented. A demonstration on the use of the root finder and regression capabilities of the graphing calculator are presented, so that the tips can be easily adapted for any graphing calculator with these features.

Altun, Arif (2005).  Toward an Effective Integration of Technology: Message Boards for Strengthening Communication  [Online Submission] 

This paper reports on preliminary findings from a longitudinal study on the integration of multimedia and the internet technologies into language teaching. Phase I of the study included novice computer users' approaches to multimedia design. Phase II explored the correlations between their attitudes and cognitive styles; and Phase III focused on their attitudes and beliefs about the use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools. The current paper discusses and reports the findings from the last phase. A total of 53 students from the department of English Language Teaching (ELT) at Abant Izzet Baysal University (AIBU) voluntarily participated in the study. An integrated message board system was designed and adopted for an elective computer assisted language learning course (CALL) for students in the ELT program. 26 students were enrolled in this course. The data was collected through several sources. One source was an attitude questionnaire toward computer-mediated communication. Students' asynchronous correspondences constituted the other part of the data. Also, students' personal reflection journals were gathered as another source of data. The data was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The findings of the study indicated that students generally tended to develop positive attitudes toward using asynchronous communication tools in their language teaching program. Also, no attitudinal changes in their attitudes toward CMC were observed. Finally, students expressed positive reflections about the use of CMC tools and their integration into teaching.  | [FULL TEXT]

Alty, James L. (2002).  Dual Coding Theory and Computer Education: Some Media Experiments To Examine the Effects of Different Media on Learning. 

Dual Coding Theory has quite specific predictions about how information in different media is stored, manipulated and recalled. Different combinations of media are expected to have significant effects upon the recall and retention of information. This obviously may have important consequences in the design of computer-based programs. The paper describes an experimental approach, which has been developed using the Statistical domain in which the presentation media have been varied (Text only, Text and Diagrams and Diagrams with Voice-over). The results are compared with Dual Coding theory predictions and the effects of Student Learning Style explored. | [FULL TEXT]

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Akpinar, Yavuz (2007).  Liberating Learning Object Design from the Learning Style of Student Instructional Designers  Performance Improvement, 46, 10. 

Learning objects are a new form of learning resource, and the design of these digital environments has many facets. To investigate senior instructional design students' use of reflection tools in designing learning objects, a series of studies was conducted using the Reflective Action Instructional Design and Learning Object Review Instrument tools. Analysis revealed that most participants found the reflection questions useful in design but also that intensive use of the tools is needed to free learning object design from the personal learning traits of the designers.  [Further work on this research is currently supported by Bogazici University Scientific Research Fund.]

Akpinar, Yavuz; Bal, Volkan (2006).  Student Tools Supported by Collaboratively Authored Tasks: The Case of Work Learning Unit  Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 17, 2. 

This research aims to devise a set of computer-based tools to meet the diverse needs of learners for comprehending a science learning unit, namely work. A model of computer-based tools on the learning unit for developing procedural knowledge for solving work problems was developed together with a set of teacher customization and collaboration tools. The main components, developed and implemented in an integrated manner for both students and teachers, are Student Activity Environment, Curriculum Authoring Center, Global Activity Center, and Teacher Collaboration Tools. The framework of supporting students through teachers' collaborative course authoring, considering the different backgrounds of the students and preferred teaching/learning style of teachers/students, was evaluated with students and teachers using two different task regimes. The evaluation studies presented encouraging and promising results.

Akpinar, Yavuzz; Simsek, Huseyin (2006).  XLearning Object Organization Behaviors in a Home-Made Learning Content Management System  [Online Submission] 

This study designed, implemented and evaluated a learning content management system to facilitate creating both standard based and free style learning objects. The system, BULeCoMas, also enabled users to tag learning objects with usage data and tools supported with components accommodated under a Global Activity Center, are Global Task Pool, Experience Repository and Learner Record Repository. This study examined whether the experience in information technology use affect e-learning object authors': (1) use of assets; (2) organization of assets; and (3) embedding of instructional elements into their content authoring. The system, enabling common standards of reusable learning objects, was tested for ease of use with thirty-four novice and experienced preservice teachers. The participants found the system easy to use in general, novice and experienced information technology users were able to develop learning objects similar in size and features. The study suggests some further work for using the same system in collaborative learning object authoring.  | [FULL TEXT]

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_____. (2001).  Adult Literacy: Policies, Programs and Practices. Lessons Learned. Final Report = Alphabetisation des adultes: politiques, programmes et pratiques. Etude bilan. Rapport final. 

Studies and reports examining the problems associated with adult literacy and efforts to address those problems were reviewed to identify lessons for adult literacy programs in Canada and elsewhere. Low literacy levels were linked to above-average rates of personal and/or learning difficulties, low self-esteem, associated social problems, and below-normal incomes. Literacy problems also appeared to cost business/industry in terms of lost productivity, health and safety problems, training, and retraining. The main lessons identified were as follows: (1) although adult literacy programs benefit individuals and society, low levels of public interest and political support have prevented full realization of their benefits; (2) experience suggests how to design and deliver good adult literacy programs, but the conditions allowing that to happen do not always exist; (3) adult literacy programs aimed at specific target groups appear to have better results; (4) adults in need of upgrading face barriers that make entering or remaining in literacy programs difficult; (5) adult literacy learners should have a say in policies and programs addressing their needs; (6) learning technologies appear to provide significant advantages when used in adult literacy programs; and (7) more systematic evaluation of adult literacy policies, programs, and practices is needed to increase accountability and improve the field's knowledge base. | [FULL TEXT]

Aduwa-Ogiegbaen, S. E.; Iyamu, E. O. S. (2006).  Factors Affecting Quality of English Language Teaching and Learning in Secondary Schools in Nigeria  College Student Journal, 40, 3. 

This study examined the factors responsible for the poor quality of the teaching of English as a second language in public secondary schools in Nigeria. To guide the study three research questions were posed. The questions examined the following three variables: (1) Frequency of the use of instructional media; (2) Frequency of the use of instructional techniques; and (3) The school learning environment. A questionnaire was distributed to 3000 senior secondary school students across the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria. Results revealed that English language teachers do not frequently use modern instructional technologies and variety of teaching techniques in their English language lessons. It was also found that students learn under harsh environment, which is often rowdy, congested and noisy.

Aduwa-Ogiegbaen, Samuel E. O.; Isah, Stella (2005).  Extent of Faculty Members' Use of Internet in the University of Benin, Nigeria  Journal of Instructional Psychology, 32, 4. 

This study investigated the extent faculty members in the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria, use internet services for instructional purposes. The study set out to find out the most popular areas of internet usage among faculty members and to determine the role of gender in such usage. A questionnaire made up of 18 Likert-type items, were distributed to 300 faculty members and 258 usable copies of the questionnaire were returned and used for the study. Results revealed that 13 of the items were significant as the most recurring internet usages among faculty members. The most popular internet uses were in writing and publication of journal articles, word processing, searching for relevant instructional materials, accessing of reference materials and the use of internet in courses. The data did not find any significant difference between male and female in internet usage.

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_____. (2006).  Afterschool Programs: At the STEM of Learning. Afterschool Alert. Issue Brief No. 26  [Afterschool Alliance] 

The 21st century's information economy is creating more jobs that require not only a college education but also at least some expertise in the fields of science, technology, engineering and math, collectively known as STEM. Across the country, schools and communities are finding that the hours after school are particularly conducive to project-based activities where a wide variety of children can participate in the design, construction, investigation, sense-making, and communication of science projects. Additionally, after-school program connections to community organizations such as museums and science centers can change attitudes about math and science, giving students from under-represented communities, opportunity to gain the necessary skills to compete in formal science classrooms. Some after-school programs are making headway, giving students extra time to explore the STEM fields. The report concludes that after-school programs have proven to be effective supports for young people on a variety of fronts, including: fostering healthy lifestyles; preventing drop-outs; boosting student academic achievement and self-esteem; and helping young people find and develop their passions. As the public and parents become more concerned about students falling behind in math and science, they are realizing that the extra hours after school can be used to help young people keep up and excel. It is noted, however, that after-school programs alone can not make up all lost ground, but that they can and should be part of a comprehensive approach to giving more young people a chance to discover an interest in STEM, and an aptitude that could lead many to choose degrees and careers in emergent STEM fields.  | [FULL TEXT]

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(2005).  A Timely Solution for a Timeless Challenge: Atomic Learning Used for Educational Training  Technology & Learning, 26, 2. 

This article features the Atomic Learning. The challenge of teaching people how to effectively use technology motivated a group of technology coordinators to form a company and create a product to help teachers and students understand the software and hardware they were employing in the classroom. This group, with over 200 collective years of classroom and training experience, set off determined to use a common-sense method to answer the "How do I do that?" questions--and to be there whenever and wherever the answers were needed. They called the product Atomic Learning, to reflect the delivery method of the training: short, easy-to-view-and-understand tutorial movies that answered the common questions people have when learning software--in other words, "atoms of learning." Today, Atomic Learning provides a library of over 15,000 tutorials on over 80 of the most commonly used software applications in education. Atomic Learning is a great resource for training students and staff how to use today's software applications. Atomic Learning also provides an effective supplement to traditional stand-up training sessions.

_____. (2000).  A Time To Sow: Report from the Task Force on Learning Technologies. 

Information technology and telecommunications advances affect universities in addition to business. Ontario universities need to address the importance of incorporating learning technologies (LTs) into their teaching. The Task Force on Learning Technologies was established to address Ontario universities' need to utilize learning technologies and to guide their implementation in the Ontario higher education system. Many workplaces in Ontario, Canada require development of advanced technological skills, and continued education and training. Opportunities exist for appropriate uses of information and telecommunications technologies in the realms of teaching and learning, particularly with regard to Ontario's university system. The task force recommends that each institution develop specific strategies for learning technology (LT) at the institutional and system level; that there is a need for a more supportive environment for faculty and students who use learning technologies; and that there is a need for significant investment in learning technologies by government, private sector, and institutions, facilitated by strategic partnerships and collaborations. It is recommended that the COU articulate a system-wide approach to LTs; and that each institution indicate their level of commitment to LTs via their strategic plans and policies. | [FULL TEXT]

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Alden, Jay (2002).  NDU Knowledge Net: A Web-Enabled Just-In-Time Information Service for Continuing Education. 

This paper describes the development of a web-enabled information service for constituents of the Information Resources Management College (National Defense University, Washington, DC). The constituents of the College, who include graduates, current students, and prospective students, typically work in the Chief Information Officer (CIO) office of United States federal agencies. The Web-enabled information service, known as "Knowledge Net," is intended to tie the College constituents located throughout the world into a virtual community, sharing technical information, emerging problems, and potential solutions. Knowledge Net has evolved over a 3-year span from a skunk-works project of several faculty members to an institutionalized system supported by the University. The most significant lessons learned to date include the requirement for a Web-enabled content management system to ease posting of information to the website and the need to adjust administrative policy to encourage faculty to take on and integrate Knowledge Net related activities into their ongoing academic responsibilities. | [FULL TEXT]

Aldrich, Clark (2001).  The State of Simulations: Soft-Skill Simulations Emerge as a Powerful New Form of E-Learning.  Online Learning, 5 n8 p52, 54. 

Presents responses of leaders from six simulation companies about challenges and opportunities of soft-skills simulations in e-learning. Discussion includes: evaluation metrics; role of subject matter experts in developing simulations; video versus computer graphics; technology needed to run simulations; technology breakthroughs; pricing; customized versus off-the-shelf courses; role of e-learning standards; computer games as models; biggest hurdles to selling simulation products.

Aldridge, Robb (2005).  The ABCs of Technology Leasing: Get the Facts on the Pros and Cons of Leasing  Technology & Learning, 26, 2. 

Ownership means control. What one buys is easier to manage with respect to upgrading or getting rid of equipment that is no longer adequate for the job. Purchasing can put severe demands on cash flow, however, so sometimes the budget drives the decision to lease. Not surprisingly, leasing reverses the advantages and disadvantages of ownership. For many entities, it is easier to budget for smaller payments over time than a larger allocation for purchase. Loss of control is the greatest disadvantage; unfortunately, some leasing companies exploit this to generate extreme profits. For those who decide to lease, however, control can be increased by adding technology refresh and end-of-lease options. Here, the author discusses the pros and cons of technology leasing.

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Akc

Akcay, Husamettin; Durmaz, Asli; Tuysuz, Cengiz; Feyzioglu, Burak (2006).  Effects of Computer Based Learning on Students' Attitudes and Achievements towards Analytical Chemistry  [Online Submission] 

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of computer-based learning and traditional method on students' attitudes and achievement towards analytical chemistry. Students from Chemistry Education Department at Dokuz Eylul University (D.E.U) were selected randomly and divided into three groups; two experimental (Eg-1 and Eg-2) and a control (Cg). In teaching analytical chemistry topics, two different computer based methods--new analytical chemistry learning software called HEHAsit (Method A) and a Microsoft Excel program (Method B)--were prepared by us and applied to Eg-1 and Eg-2, respectively. Whereas the last group (Cg) was taught by the traditional method (Method C). In the comparison of the effects of the three methods, we developed an attitude questionnaire and an achievement test related to Analytical chemistry, and applied to students in all three groups. Students' attitudes towards computers were also tested by a computer attitude test developed by us. As a result of the study, significant differences between control group and both experimental groups and between experimental groups on computer attitudes and analytical chemistry attitudes were found. Furthermore, analytical chemistry achievement in experimental groups was significantly higher from the control group.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Awo

Aworuwa, Bosede; Worrell, Paige; Smaldino, Sharon E. (2006).  Working with Partners: A Reflection on Partners and Projects  TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 50, 3. 

Initially, when discussing how to best approach the issue of examining the PT3 (Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers to Use Technology) projects in the context of professional development schools or K-12 collaboration, these authors first had to define what they considered to be a partnership between a college of education and a K-12 school. The concept of professional development schools conjures up an image of a type of relationship that involves much time and energy on the part of university and school faculty including the university and K-12 students. The concept of K-12 collaboration has not been as well defined. In a professional development school model, there is formalization of the relationship. On the other hand, K-12 collaboration is sometimes left to the initiative of the individual faculty member. The PT3 initiative by the U.S. Department of Education was focused on helping teacher preparation institutions enhance their own technology resources, improve the ways in which faculty incorporated technology into their teacher education courses, and establish resources for faculty to use. This particular review of PT3 projects is focused on the ways in which these projects developed and maintained relationships with K-12 schools. In this review, the authors set out to find PT3 project partnerships that articulated and implemented five goals: (1) preparing children to achieve their potentials and value education in a changing environment; (2) ensuring quality teacher education program with advances in technology and methodology; (3) promoting professional development of participating educators; (4) sharing of research and scholarship opportunities; and (5) working collaboratively with different stakeholders to ensure quality learning experiences for all students.

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Ago

Agodini, Roberto; Dynarski, Mark; Honey, Margaret; Levin, Douglas (2003).  The Effectiveness of Educational Technology: Issues and Recommendations for the National Study  [Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.] 

The No Child Left Behind Act (P.L. 107-110) called for the U.S. Department of Education to carry out a national study of the effectiveness of educational technology. With computers becoming ubiquitous in American schools, and purchases of hardware and software now substantial expenses for school districts, whether funding is supporting effective uses of technology and whether spending can be more effective have become concerns. The legislation's mandate called for the study to use rigorous methods to provide evidence of effectiveness. In October 2002, the U.S. Department of Education began working with Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. and its partners, the American Institutes for Research and the Education Development Center, to identify issues confronting a national study of technology effectiveness and to develop designs for the study. A key part of the design effort was to engage a panel of outside experts on educational technology, educational policy, and research methodology, to help identify important questions to be addressed in the study and to suggest possible approaches for answering them. The design team worked with the advisory panel and with ED staff to arrive at nine recommendations for how the national study could focus its attention (see box, next page). The panel played an important role in suggesting issues and approaches, and in discussing the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches, but did not formally make recommendations. The key broad question to be addressed by the evaluation is "Is educational technology effective in improving student academic achievement?" The design team recognized that, stated in this way, no single study could answer the question. In effect, many questions are implied, related to alternative definitions of education technology, effectiveness, and improving student achievement. The team needed to define what is meant by "educational technology," "effective," and so on. The design team's recommendations refine the study, so it can have the potential to contribute substantially to what is known about the effectiveness of educational technology. The recommendations focus attention on technology applications that support instruction in reading or math in low-income schools serving the K-12 grade levels. The study would use experimental designs (with random assignment of students, classrooms, or schools, depending on the type of technology application) to ensure that measured effects can be attributed to the technology applications. The key outcome would be scores from a commonly used standardized test, supported by other academic outcomes collected from extant data. The report provides rationales for the recommendations and discusses conceptual frameworks and statistical issues related to measuring effects and determining sample sizes. Appended are: (1) Technical Working Group Members; and (2) Estimates of Intra-Cluster Correlation Coefficients for Schools and Classrooms.  | [FULL TEXT]

Agostinho, Shirley; Meek, Jim; Herrington, Jan (2005).  Design Methodology for the Implementation and Evaluation of a Scenario-Based Online Learning Environment  Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 16, 3. 

A constant challenge facing university faculty and academics is determining how innovative and authentic elements, based on constructivist philosophy, can be manifested effectively in online learning settings. In this article, we describe an educational technology postgraduate course on evaluation that incorporated a scenario whereby assessable tasks were grounded within the context of a fictitious consultancy company. The scenario was driven by the use of a fictitious character--a "remote" "Chief Executive Office" (CEO) and the reconfiguration of the teacher as a company-recruited "Academic Advisor." Characters were used as a motivational device to drive the online activity for the course, which was delivered completely online. The evaluation findings highlighted that whilst the company scenario and use of character did provide an authentic learning experience for most students, its use required considerable support and scaffolding in order to maximise its potential to facilitate an engaging and authentic learning environment. This article describes the rationale for the course redesign, explains the approach taken to evaluate the effectiveness of its implementation and presents the findings of the evaluation.

Agosto, Denise E. (2004).  Girls and Gaming: A Summary of the Research with Implications for Practice  Teacher Librarian, 31, 3. 

Over the last two decades, the topic of gender and computer gaming has generated much research interest. Researchers have examined a number of related issues, including the relative frequency with which girls and boys use computer games, the educational benefits of gaming and the types of educational games that appeal to girls. This article organizes the major findings from this research into thematic issues and considers the implications for teacher-librarians. It also offers practical suggestions to implement in the school library. These methods can help change the image of computer games as "boys' toys" to computer games a medium of entertainment and education for all young people. A list of computer games that meet girls' preferences, and are available free on the Internet is provided.

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Aju

Ajuwon, Paul M.; Craig, Christopher J. (2007).  Distance Education in the Preparation of Teachers of the Visually Impaired and Orientation and Mobility Specialists: Profile of a New Training Paradigm  RE:view: Rehabilitation Education for Blindness and Visual Impairment, 39, 1. 

The authors discuss the establishment of a program at a state university that prepared teachers of the visually impaired (TVI) and orientation and mobility (O&M) specialists using distance education and intensive, face-to-face instruction. The authors evaluated the self-assessed competencies of 8 participants who completed prescribed TVI and O&M courses and noted that the participants reported significant gains in applying several competencies. The authors make recommendations for further investigations of the competencies in which participants expressed limited knowledge and skills.

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APr

_____. (2007).  A Professional Development Framework for E-Learning. Topics: Leadership, Training and Learning Packages for E-Learning  [Learning and Skills Network] 

The topics outlined here have been developed to complement the policies and methodologies outlined in the professional development framework for e-learning. They include: (1) a core topic: e-learning fundamentals; (2) pedagogically based practitioner topics; (3) specialist e-learning developer topics; and (4) leadership topics (developed by the Centre for Excellence in Leadership). Any participant wishing to undertake e-learning professional development (ePD) would complete the e-learning fundamentals topic alongside a selection of appropriate pedagogical, specialist or leadership topics. These can be followed by individuals or used to develop organizational approaches to embedding e-learning within teaching, learning and management. The framework described has been developed to allow for ePD and so participants may decide to re-visit topics after a suitable period of time has elapsed or repeat topics but with different software, hardware or technologies. The aim has been to provide a framework that can meet the individual's needs and identify areas of priority for professional development. Programs of delivery may be developed from the framework, or mapped retrospectively to tie into existing initiatives where there is related work, e.g., in any subject, theme or initiative where there is some electronic or e-learning aspect. Key themes may be threaded throughout the topics as applicable, e.g., assistive technology, legislation, copyright, Intellectual Property Rights and sustainability. The framework would facilitate the creation of ePD for those currently in the functional roles described as follows, or facilitate the creation of training programs for those aspiring to those roles. [This publication was produced by Learning and Skills Network, London, UK and the Centre for Excellence in Leadership, London, UK.] | [FULL TEXT]

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Ame

(2002).  A Member's Web Site Helps Students Navigate the World of Commercials.  NEA Today, 20, 5. 

Presents a collection of suggestions for using computers to enhance learning, including: creating a Webquest to help students recognize the tactics advertisers use; using the Internet to participate in a global water sampling project; creating, administering, and grading tests online; and going to a Cyrano de Bergerac Web site to compose a love letter/poem.

Amenkhienan, Ehichoya; Smith, Edward J. (2006).  A Web-Based Genetic Polymorphism Learning Approach for High School Students and Science Teachers  Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 34, 1. 

Variation and polymorphism are concepts that are central to genetics and genomics, primary biological disciplines in which high school students and undergraduates require a solid foundation. From 1998 through 2002, a web-based genetics education program was developed for high school teachers and students. The program included an exercise on using freely available bioinformatics tools on the Internet to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms in genomic DNA and gene-based sequences to evaluate variation or polymorphism. Similar tools were also used to show the functional effect, if any, of the single nucleotide polymorphisms. A total of 25 science teachers and 60 students from high schools in Alabama and Virginia participated in the program that ranged from 2 to 4 weeks. Seventy percent of the teachers have now developed a web-based module to teach at least two lessons involving DNA variation and how it influences other disciplines, including evolution. Among former high school students, five are in Ph.D. programs in genetics or related subjects, and 80% are in medical school or in college in a biology or pre-med major. The exercise is simple to implement, and the cost is relatively low, requiring only a computer with an Internet connection. It also provides a foundation for introducing students to the theory of evolution, a concept that remains controversial in high school science curricula. Similar programs, if properly implemented, may result in fostering more interest in the biological sciences among prospective college students and ensure a good foundation in the pipeline for career biologists and scientists.

Ames, Pat C. (2003).  Gender and Learning Style Interactions in Students' Computer Attitudes  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 28, 3. 

University students' attitudes toward computers were assessed as a function of learning style. Analyses of responses provided by 232 students to a learning style assessment instrument and a computer attitude survey revealed that specific learning styles were associated with an affinity for (liking of), confidence in, and anxiety about the use of computers. Within those learning styles, gender differences were discovered when students manifested a clearly dominant style. The findings indicate that computer-based or computer-assisted instruction may not be appropriate for all students and that curriculum modifications to account for learning style differences may increase the effectiveness of and reduce the aversion to computers in the classroom. Additional research into the relationship between learning styles and computer attitudes may also provide assistance relative to increasing the enrollment of females in technology-oriented courses of study.

Amey, Marilyn J. (2001).  Center for the Study of Advanced Learning Systems: Engaging Differently with Postsecondary Education.  Community & Junior College Libraries, 10, 1. 

States that the Center for the Study of Advanced Learning Systems (ALS) at Michigan State University was developed to serve as a hub for research and development activity. ALS examines long-term issues regarding technological change in postsecondary education. Reports that ALS focuses on five themes: leadership, human capacity, diversity, technologies, and globalization.

Amey, Marilyn J. (2006).  Breaking Tradition: New Community College Leadership Programs Meet 21st-Century Needs. A Leading Forward Report  [American Association of Community Colleges] 

University-based community college leadership programs are meeting not only student needs but also the needs within their states. This report from the American Association of Community Colleges' (AACC's) Leading Forward initiative highlights strategies and practices of six new programs, formed since 2000, that are breaking tradition through their use of flexible scheduling, innovative delivery methods, and strong partnerships among universities, community colleges, and others concerned with developing community college leaders. The insights and lessons discussed in this report should assist both college leaders and policymakers as they continue to tackle the critical task of nurturing and developing strong and effective leaders.  | [FULL TEXT]

Amey, Marilyn J.; VanDerLinden, Kim E.; Wang, Wei-Ni (2002).  The Use of Technology: Administrator Perceptions of Institutional Issues. 

This study focused on administrator perceptions of technology issues in higher education and the effects of technology on their work. This analysis is based on a study that used an instrument developed for the study with 34 questions with open-ended response items. The survey was sent to a stratified random sample of community college administrators across 14 position codes, and 910 usable surveys were received (54% response rate). The study aimed to report trends and patterns in the data. Thus the data reported is mainly descriptive. Administrators described an increasing number of conferences, workshops, and professional development workshops on the incorporation of technology, but the most pressing issues and challenges were not always clear. What responses did make apparent is that the rapid changes as a result of technology demand more systematic approaches to faculty development, staff training, and technological compatibility and upgrades, as well as student support services. Data show many different administrative perspectives, making clear the need for additional research. | [FULL TEXT]

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Aga

Agaoglu, Esmahan (2006).  The Reflection of the Learning Organization Concept to School of Education  [Online Submission] 

The change and development that has been observed everywhere, it is the result of the knowledge accumulated along the human history. The knowledge was increasing since the primitive era and is now becoming the unique factor of production fast sidelining both capital and power. As a result of this situation, it is treated of the knowledge society. In the "knowledge society," it necessitates the learning organisations, which know to profit by knowledge as a basic power. In our time, the organization should adopt the education as a life style and transform them to learning organisation. This situation is current for educational organisations. The societies of today need the individuals who know how to reach knowledge, how to convert the gained knowledge to the behaviours, how to produce new knowledge using them. For growing up the individuals who have these characteristics, educational organisations have to transform to learning organisations. In this process, the teachers also have important role. For this reason, it was realised a descriptive study, which aimed to determine whether the schools of education have the learning organisation features. The sample group of study is the academic staff of the school of education at Anadolu University. The data was gathered with the questionnaire of learning organisation features. At the end of study, it was found that the academic staff believed the faculty had many features of learning organization, but some deficiencies about strategies.  | [FULL TEXT]

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AnI

_____. (2005).  An Invitation to BuildingChoice.org: Raising Achievement through Public School Choice. Innovations in Education Resource  [US Department of Education] 

In many places across the country, public school students no longer automatically attend their neighborhood school. Instead, parents may decide that their child's needs are better met elsewhere, for example, at a small alternative school, an arts magnet school, a charter technology high school, or a media academy operating within a larger school. They may choose a school across town or one next door. They might even choose a virtual school, which has no building at all. A growing number of parents have such options thanks to public school choice programs run by school districts across the country. The intent of public school choice is to increase parent involvement, provide varied learning environments that may better match children's different needs, increase school integration, and encourage educators' creativity--all in the service of improved student achievement outcomes. If you've been thinking about starting a choice program in your own district, or improving the one you already have, lessons learned from districts that already have choice programs can make your job easier. These districts have already encountered and addressed the kinds of practical challenges that are inevitable in getting a choice program up and running. Now you can learn from their experiences. This publication is your invitation to learn more about BuildingChoice.org, a new Web-based toolkit brought to you by the U. S. Department of Education's Office of Innovation and Improvement. The online toolkit provides a variety of practical resources drawn from diverse districts across the country that have been identified as having promising practices related to school choice. It is online to help you easily read, learn from, share, adopt, and adapt the resources.  [This booklet was produced by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Innovation and Improvement | [FULL TEXT]

Anido, Luis E.; Fernandez, Manuel J.; Caeiro, Manuel; Santos, Juan M.; Rodriguez, Judith S.; Llamas, Martin (2002).  Educational Metadata and Brokerage for Learning Resources.  Computers & Education, 38, 4. 

Discusses the need for standardization for learning technologies in computer-based training systems. Highlights include institutions and organizations involved in standardization; a survey of educational metadata; how these data models are applied by actual software systems to facilitate the location of learning resources; and educational brokerage.

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AlB

Al-Bataineh, Adel; Brooks, Leanne (2003).  Challenges, Advantages, and Disadvantages of Instructional Technology in the Community College Classroom.  Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 27, 6. 

Presents a twenty-year history of computer-based technology integration, focusing on print automation, learner-centered approaches, and virtual learning via the Internet. Discusses integration strategies applicable in the present-day classroom, the hierarchy of teacher effectiveness, and current challenges and trends. Asserts that the ultimate success of schools still remains in training and supporting quality frontline teachers.

Al-Bataineh, Adel; Brooks, S. Leanne; Bassoppo-Moyo, Temba C. (2005).  Implications of Online Teaching and Learning  International Journal of Instructional Media, 32, 3. 

The proliferation of online courses has become a major concern for some educators when it comes to whether they apply valid and reliable instruments to asses learning outcomes. In addition, few publications seem to have dealt with the faculty realm that addresses the front-end fundamental learning principles of instruction that underlie quality online learning. Overall, there does not seem to be a clear coordination or consensus of thought and methodology between what is expected from online courses, and what is generally delivered at the end of a learning period. As a result, course management systems, which are mainly computer-based, vary in type and delivery approach from institution to institution. In this article, the authors discuss the implications of interactivity and personal approach to learning on the following: (1) the instructional strategies; (2) the online teacher; (3) the online learner; and (4) the future.

Albanese, Andrew Richard (2004).  Campus Library 2.0: The Information Commons Is a Scalable, One-Stop Shopping Experience for Students and Faculty  Library Journal, 129, 7. 

In fall 2003, Mt. Holyoke, an elite, largely undergraduate liberal arts college with a student population of roughly 2000, unveiled its take on the information commons. Located in an area known as Miles-Smith 4, the commons functions as a conduit between the main library and Dwight Hall, which houses the library offices, state-of-the-art media labs, and computer workshops. As late as last year, this area, with its open space and banks of windows, in the words of Mt. Holyoke officials, was "underutilized": it housed shelves of scientific journals. Today the space teems with students dispersed among more than 50 high-end computers, including three large flat screens for group instruction. Of course, when the Miles-Smith addition was built just 13 years ago, the Internet and e-journals did not exist at MHC. At Mt. Holyoke another key aspect of the information commons model emerges. A library by any other name is still a library. The information commons is in reality a new edition of the campus library, one that necessarily supports both the information and the media with which that information has now become fused. Students today at the MHC library borrow everything from books to digital cameras. They get reference help, assistance navigating electronic databases, or technical instruction on how to do a Power Point presentation. A student at MHC can find the information resources, the equipment, and the instruction to use it all in the library. Socked by a virus with your paper due in a day? The information commons can help. "I have a student in there right now doing a Windows restore," says Marc Boucher, nodding over his shoulder to the diagnostic center, based in the commons. "It crashed, so she had to go back to the beginning and format the machine from scratch. But first we had to save all of her previous work in DOS." The center is yet another example of meeting student needs all under the library roof. Boucher, co-coordinator of lab operations in the Department of Technical Support and Repair, says it is not uncommon for upwards of a half-dozen machines to be worked on at one time. At Mt. Holyoke, and at campus libraries nationwide, the current challenge is to expand continually what we think of when we think of library services and to break those services outside of library walls

Albano, Giovannina; D'Apice, Ciro; Tomasiello, Stefania (2002).  Simulating Harmonic Oscillator and Electrical Circuits: A Didactical Proposal  International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 33, 2. 

A Mathematica[TM] package is described that uses simulations and animations to illustrate key concepts in harmonic oscillation and electric circuits for students not majoring in physics or mathematics. Students are not required to know the Mathematica[TM] environment: a user-friendly interface with buttons functionalities and on-line help allows immediate use of the application. Students who are familiar with the programming language have the opportunity to see the set up code that is used, and they can eventually customize it. The goal of the application presented is to enhance student insight, in the spirit of learning by experimentation.

Albayrak, Meltem; Smith, Brian K. (2004).  Capturing Rehearsals to Facilitate Reflection  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

Many learning environments involve rituals for rehearsal and reflection. Musicians, for instance, spend countless hours practicing scales and adjusting their bodies to increase their skills. But they do more than simply practice: They also play for instructors and others who can provide valuable critiques of their performances. Architectural design studios encourage students to create designs and share them with experts and peers in organized "crit" sessions that point out good and bad aspects of their work. Athletic coaches often watch videos of games with their players to reflect on issues for improvement. In all cases, there is a cycle of skill rehearsal followed by periods of critical reflection to understand successes and failures, ultimately to improve future performance. The research considers the importance of making actions into artifacts for reflective thinking. In particular, this paper describes ongoing efforts to develop computer-based visualizations for diabetes health management. Approximately 17 million American suffer from diabetes (NIDDK, 1998), and those numbers continue to increase. The disease cannot be cured, but it can be managed through insulin and oral medications and changes in diet and exercise habits. The paper focuses on the latter part of diabetes self-management, the regulation of daily routines to prevent abnormal blood sugar levels that could lead to future health complications. The authors' hypothesis was that diabetics could begin to engage in reflective thinking around their health practices when provided with visualizations that point out potential correlations between blood sugar levels (captured by glucose meters) and behaviors (captured in photographs). The paper reports results from a recent study of the use of visualizations of behavioral and physiological data to enhance the aspects of reflection stated in findings. | [FULL TEXT]

Albion, Peter R.; Ertmer, Peggy A. (2002).  Beyond the Foundations: The Role of Vision and Belief in Teachers' Preparation for Integration of Technology.  TechTrends, 46, 5. 

Discussion of the successful adoption and use of information technology in education focuses on teacher's personal philosophical beliefs and how they influence the successful integration of technology. Highlights include beliefs and teacher behavior; changing teachers' beliefs; and using technology to affect change in teachers' visions and beliefs.

Albury, Rebecca (2001).  On Being "Head": Reflections on Leading an Educational Innovation Involving Computer Technology. 

The demand for innovative educational development is also a demand for new approaches to leadership in higher education. The assumption that the adoption of an institutional policy that encourages the use of learning technologies is all that is necessary for the successful implementation of the policy obscures the role of middle level leadership. During the late 1990s the University of Wollongong began preparing to offer several degrees at regional centers by flexible delivery methods. The paper explores the B.A. (Bachelor of Arts) development project in a heuristic way, using two models from the literature on leadership for change in both corporate and university settings to explain first what had to be done in order to be successful, and then what the author, as the leader, did to enable that success. 

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ACT

(2006).  2005 ACTE Convention--A Lesson in Persistence  Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers, 81, 2. 

This article features the 2005 ACTE Annual Convention and Career Tech Expo held in Kansas City. The 2005 ACTE Convention had its share of challenges, but in the end, it was an amazing professional development experience.

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Agr

Agron, Joe, Ed. (2004).  American School & University. Volume 76, Number 11  American School and University, 76, 11. 

Each month "American School & University" provides a mix of thought-provoking features, how-to-articles, industry reports, exclusive surveys, new sections, insightful columns, new product introductions and case histories to assist education officials in better performing their jobs. This June 2004 issue includes the following: "Linked to Learning" (Editor's Focus--Joe Agron); "Preparing for Disaster" (Cover Story--Mike Kennedy); "A Floor for All" (Julie Strahle); "Taking up Residence" (Joe Agron); "The Filter Factor" (Stephanie Earley); "Protecting The Perimeter" (Beverly Vigue); "Inside: Washington"; "Know-How: Windows" (Mike Kennedy); "Project File: $40 million facelift"; " Project File: From the curriculum up"; "Project File: Designing for athletics"; "Project File: Touching up schools"; "Tech Talk: Are you In or Out?" (C. William Day); "Facility Planning: Making Room" (James E. Rydeen); and "Product Solutions."

Agron, Joe, Ed. (2005).  American School & University. Volume 77, Number 11  American School and University, 77, 11. 

Each month, "American School & University" provides a mix of thought-provoking features, how-to-articles, industry reports, exclusive surveys, new sections, insightful columns, new product introductions and case histories to assist education officials in better performing their jobs. This March 2005 issue includes the following: "Education's Most Wanted" (Editor's Focus--Joe Agron); "Spending Paradox" (Mike Kennedy); "Beyond the Seat" (James E. Rydeen & Kim A. Sorenson); "Working in a Vacuum" (Allen Rathey); "Modern Method" (Dominic Sorrentino); "Inside: Construction"; "Solutions Center: Bus Compounds"; "Project File: Recycling Design Plans"; "Project File: Embracing Technology"; "Project File: Dining in at School"; "Know-How: Doors/Windows" (Mike Kennedy); "Tech Talk: Extending Trust" (C. William Day); "Product Solutions"; "Technology Tools" (Mike Kennedy); and "Office Equipment/Communications Systems Product Solutions".

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ACh

(2005).  A Child Who Cannot Attend Classes Is in Danger of Being "Left Behind"  School Administrator, 62, 4. 

A teacher's assessment of a student's progress and interaction with peers on class topics can be as comfortable as a normal phone call. TEC International's MultiTelepatcher Audio Conference System is a valuable collaboration tool within the distance learning education field. Various classroom sizes, as well as teaching styles, are easily accommodated. This article briefly describes a typical TEC phone call and how it works.

Achacoso, Michelle V. (2004).  Post-Test Analysis: A Tool for Developing Students' Metacognitive Awareness and Self-Regulation  New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2004, 100. 

Instructors can help students improve their metacognitive awareness and future exam performance by analyzing an exam after it has been taken.

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Alo

Alobiedat, Ahmad (2005).  Comparing Pre-Service Technology Standards with Technology Skills of Special Educators in Southwestern Michigan  International Journal of Instructional Media, 32, 4. 

This study explores the ISTE technology standards as they have been adopted by Western Michigan University. The ISTE standards used in this study included five key areas: (1) professional use of technology; (2) application of technology in instruction; (3) utilization of information technology resources; (4) technology use in professional settings; and (5) facilitating student use of technology. The purpose of this study is to determine what relationships exist between the new ISTE Technology Standards for teachers as adopted by Western Michigan University (Western Michigan University, 1999) and current technology practice by special education teachers in southwestern Michigan. A survey of education technology use by special educators was conducted with the goal of providing the students with a practical research experience as well as with an opportunity to gather base line information concerning how special educators in southwestern Michigan were using various forms of educational technology. Here, the author presents his findings for each standard. He found out that three of the new technology standards adopted by Western Michigan University closely match the technology use and skills of special education teachers in southwestern Michigan.

Alonso, Fernando; Lopez, Genoveva; Manrique, Daniel; Vies, Jos M. (2005).  An Instructional Model for Web-Based e-Learning Education with a Blended Learning Process Approach  British Journal of Educational Technology, 36, 2. 

Web-based e-learning education research and development now focuses on the inclusion of new technological features and the exploration of software standards. However, far less effort is going into finding solutions to psychopedagogical problems in this new educational category. This paper proposes a psychopedagogical instructional model based on content structure, the latest research into information processing psychology and social contructivism, and defines a blended approach to the learning process. Technologically speaking, the instructional model is supported by learning objects, a concept inherited from the object-oriented paradigm.

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Aus

Ausband, Leigh T. (2006).  Instructional Technology Specialists and Curriculum Work  Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 39, 1. 

This case study investigated the job responsibilities of district-level instructional technology specialists that related to curriculum work and the perceptions the specialists had concerning their job responsibilities and their relationship to curriculum work. Data were collected through document analysis, shadowing, interviews, and a focus group. A framework of curriculum themes and categories was created, which was then used to define instructional technology work. Instructional technology specialists were found to be engaged in many aspects of curriculum work. The individual and focus group interviews revealed factors the participants considered to be barriers to getting their work done. Recommendations are provided for overcoming these barriers and a call is made to reconceptualize instructional technology specialists as curriculum workers.  | [FULL TEXT]

Ausburn, Lynna J. (2004).  Course Design Elements Most Valued by Adult Learners in Blended Online Education Environments: An American Perspective  Educational Media International, 41, 4. 

This research describes course design elements most valued by adult learners in blended learning environments that combine face-to-face contact with Web-based learning. It identifies the online course features and the instructional design goals selected as most important by a sample of 67 adults and compares the group rankings with those of various sub-groups based on gender, pre-course technology and self-direction skills and experiences, and preferred learning strategies as measured by Assessing the Learning Strategies of Adults (ATLAS). The results of the study support the principles of adult learning, indicating that adults value course designs containing options, personalization, self-direction, variety, and a learning community. Findings also identify some differences in learning emphasis by gender, preferred learning strategies, and previous experience with technology and self-directed learning. Implications of these findings for higher education in serving adult learners are discussed.

Ausburn, Lynna J.; Ausburn, Floyd B. (2004).  Desktop Virtual Reality: A Powerful New Technology for Teaching and Research in Industrial Teacher Education  Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 41, 4. 

Virtual Reality has been defined in many different ways and now means different things in various contexts. VR can range from simple environments presented on a desktop computer to fully immersive multisensory environments experienced through complex headgear and bodysuits. In all of its manifestations, VR is basically a way of simulating or replicating an environment and giving the user a sense of being there, taking control, and personally interacting with that environment with his/her own body. In this article, the author discusses the benefits of using visual technologies for teaching and learning in industrial education. Such a technology is virtual reality (VR). The capabilities and possibilities for VR technology may open doors to new vistas in industrial and technical instruction and learning, and the research that supports them. The emergence of desktop VR now makes it possible for industrial educators to add this powerful high-impact technology to their classroom instructional mix, and to build a unique research base in the field. Desktop VR may be a technology whose time has come for both research and practice in industrial education. With recent breakthroughs in technical and cost accessibility, the door to the world of virtual reality is standing wide open. For industrial teacher educators and researchers, it's only a matter of walking through. Furthermore, implications and recommendations for the use of VR technology as a potential tool for technical and industrial training are discussed. | [FULL TEXT]

Ausman, Bradley D.; Lin, Huifen; Kidwai, Khusro; Munyofu, Mine; Swain, William J.; Dwyer, Francis (2004).  Effects of Varied Animation Strategies in Facilitating Animated Instruction  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

The use of animation and audio as a virtual panacea for everything from advertising to educational videos and instruction has created the presumption that any materials that use them 'must be better!' Now doubt that the addition of animation can improve message delivery on a number of scales, but the use of animation regardless of message and with little concern for systematic placement may be causing more harm than good. Combined with the increasing prevalence of computing technology and increasing ease of development on standard workstations the integration of animation in web-based instruction is a more realistic possibility. This study explores the effect of animation on higher order educational objective achievement in a web-based, selfpaced programmed instructional unit on the human heart and its functions for undergraduate students with majors outside of the life sciences | [FULL TEXT]

Aust, Ronald; Newberry, Brian; O'Brien, Joseph; Thomas, Jennifer (2005).  Learning Generation: Fostering Innovation with Tomorrow's Teachers and Technology  Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 13, 2. 

We discuss the context, conception, implementation, and research used to refine and evaluate a systemic model for fostering technology integration in teacher education. The Learning Generation model identifies conditions where innovations for using technology emerge in small group dialogues. The model uses a multifaceted implementation with programmatic reform, enhanced infrastructure, technology enriched field placement, ongoing technical support, robust web communications, and Innovation Cohorts. Ideal cohorts include teacher education and liberal arts faculty, preservice student(s), practicing teachers and K-12 students. Cohort development evolves through seven stages: (1) genesis, (2) consultation, (3) planning, (4) initiation, (5) action, (6) assessment, and (7) celebration. Cohort topics include: Technology Integration, Legislative Tracking, Making Hope Happen, Technology in Science Teaching, Foreign Language, and Choral Music. Phase one of the research involved a survey and interviews on uses of technology. Survey results with student and faculty found significant differences between six subscales: word processing (M=3.84), basic computer skills (M=3.61), online activities (M=3.49), software use (M=2.99), presentations (M=2.84), spreadsheets/database (M=2.77); F (5, 244) = 173.11, p [is less than] .001. The lower scores on presentation and spreadsheets/database software are worth noting because these uses are often the most successful in supporting inquiry and constructive learning activities. Survey results also found that the confidence of women was lower than men in basic computer skills (p=.004) and use of presentation software (p=.002). In the interviews, several faculty members (36%) specifically mention the importance of modeling the use of technology in their instruction. Further research is needed to investigate the relationship between faculty modeling of technology use on teacher education students across gender. An audit of the cohorts' products and faculty interviews indicate that the Learning Generation goals were achieved. Faculty report that their technology skills improved and they embraced the collaborative grass-roots nature of cohorts. Learning Generation is a flexible model that can be adapted to the unique needs, culture and capacities of diverse teacher education institutions.

Austin, James T.; Mahlman, Robert A. (2000).  Technology and Assessment. In Brief: Fast Facts for Policy and Practice No. 5. 

The process of assessment in career and technical education (CTE) is changing significantly under the influence of forces such as emphasis on assessment for individual and program accountability; emphasis on the investigation of consequences of assessment; emergence of item response theory, which supports computer adaptive testing; and pressure for authentic assessment by critics of standardized testing. The use of technology for assessment is being increasingly stressed. Potential advantages of computerized assessment include rapid feedback, money savings, enhanced security, more curriculum time, and capability to track process-oriented variables. Potential disadvantages include costs of equipment, personnel, and training; increased marginalization of groups based on ethnic or socioeconomic status; and missed opportunities to implement authentic assessments. Examples of applications of technology to evaluation in CTE include test design, item creation, presentation, item scoring, and location (through use of the Internet). In moving toward computerized assessment, consequences should be considered in line with current evaluation and validation models. Especially for policy makers and administrators, implementation is an important aspect of computerized assessment. Technology can support the broad changes in assessment that are ongoing as a function of internal and external scrutiny, and both authentic as well as traditional assessment can benefit from technology. | [FULL TEXT]

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Azz

Azzam, Amy M. (2006).  Digital Opportunity  Educational Leadership, 63, 4. 

This article details the content of a recently released report from the Children's Partnership titled "Measuring Digital Opportunity for America's Children: Where We Stand and Where We Go From Here". On the basis of 40 indicators, the report's Digital Opportunity Measuring Stick showed how U.S. children and young adults use information and communications technology in ways that relate to their achievement, health, economic opportunity, and civic participation. The report also highlighted the fact that a disparity exists in technology usage along low-income and ethnic minority children. However, low-income children enhance their learning opportunities when given access to technology. Recommendations for education policymakers to provide digital opportunities for the youth are also presented. Lastly, this article also provides several brief reports related to technology.

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Ahl

Ahlfeldt, Stephanie; Mehta, Sudhir; Sellnow, Timothy (2005).  Measurement and Analysis of Student Engagement in University Classes where Varying Levels of PBL Methods of Instruction Are in Use  Higher Education Research and Development, 24, 1. 

Students participate more in a classroom and also report a better understanding of course concepts when steps are taken to actively engage them. The Student Engagement (SE) Survey was developed and used in this study for measuring student engagement at the class level and consisted of 14 questions adapted from the original National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) survey. The adapted survey examined levels of student engagement in 56 classes at an upper mid-western university in the USA. Campus-wide faculty members participated in a program for training them in innovative teaching methods including problem-based learning (PBL). Results of this study typically showed a higher engagement in higher-level classes and also those classes with fewer students. In addition, the level of engagement was typically higher in those classrooms with more PBL.

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Astleitner, Hermann (2005).  Principles of Effective Instruction--General Standards for Teachers and Instructional Designers  Journal of Instructional Psychology, 32, 1. 

This paper offers a review on effective instructional methods from educational and psychological research. Thirteen instructional principles are presented which should help teacher and educators to improve the quality of their instruction. Principles 1 to 4 concern general conditions of successful instruction. Principles 5 to 8 consist of instructional methods to improve and optimize cognitive effects of learning. Principles 9 to 11 refer to motivational and emotional design. Principle 12 is dealing with the handling of ethic aspects. Finally, principle 13 concerns the design of instructional materials.

Astramovich, Randall L.; Jones, W. Paul; Coker, J. Kelly (2004).  Technology-Enhanced Consultation in Counselling: A Comparative Study  Guidance & Counselling, 19, 2. 

Two quasi-experimental studies comparing technology-enhanced counselling consultation were conducted with a sample of 147 students enrolled in an undergraduate counselling and consultation course for elementary and secondary teachers. Study 1 (N = 76) compared the effectiveness of counselling consultation using telephone, text chat, or text chat with video streaming. Study 2 (N = 71) compared the effectiveness of telephone, telephone with video streaming, and text chat with video streaming. Results from both studies suggest that telephone consultation and text chat, especially when accompanied by a live video stream, are viable alternatives to face-to-face consultation.

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Avi

_____. (2001).  A Vision of E-Learning for America's Workforce: Report of the Commission on Technology and Adult Learning. 

In 2000, the American Society for Training and Development and the National Governors Association convened the Commission on Technology and Adult Learning. The 31-member commission included representatives of the business, government, and education sectors. They formulated a vision for the future of e-learning in the United States and identified the actions needed to make that vision come to life. After defining e-learning as instructional content or learning experiences delivered or enabled by electronic technology, the commission made the economic case for e-learning and emphasized e-learning's potential to broaden access to high-quality education and training opportunities and thereby boost income growth at all levels. The commission presented a vision of a future where e-learning allows learning to become a continuous process of inquiry and improvement that keeps pace with the speed of change in business in society. The commission called for public and private sector leaders to work together to accomplish the following actions: (1) create the highest-quality e-learning experiences possible; (2) implement new measures and methods for assessing and certifying what individuals know and are able to do; and (3) ensure broad and equitable access to e-learning opportunities. The commission also presented 13 recommendations regarding quality, assessment and certification, and access.

Aviles, Kitzzy; Phillips, Bill; Rosenblatt, Tim; Vargas, Jessica (2005).  If Higher Education Listened to Me  EDUCAUSE Review, 40 n5 p16-18, 20. 

Technology has had a profound impact not only on colleges and universities but also on college and university students. Today's students have technological proficiencies not even imagined twenty-five or more years ago. Yet today's students are a varied group, composed of several generations. The Baby Boomers (born 1946-64), the Generation X-ers (born 1965-80), and the Millennials (born after 1980) have different backgrounds in, experiences with, and expectations of technology--and of higher education. In this article, four students from these three generations share their thoughts on the use of technology in teaching and learning, on the role of professors and the adoption of technology by professors, on the importance of technology for social networking, and on university-provided technology services. They discuss their generational differences of opinion regarding technology--and also the commonalities that transcend all three generations. The students reflect on their academic, social, and personal experiences, offering their observations on how higher education might better respond to their technology needs and expectations.

Avis, James (2005).  Beyond Performativity: Reflections on Activist Professionalism and the Labour Process in Further Education  Journal of Education Policy, 20, 2. 

The paper examines the argument that the contradictions of performativity provide the context in which new forms of professionalism can develop. English further education is used to explore these questions. The paper addresses four issues. It seeks to locate the discussion within the period immediately following the incorporation of colleges of further education in 1993, when colleges of further education were removed from local authority control and placed under aegis of the Further Education Funding Council. This is followed by an examination of changes to the management regime following incorporation. It considers suggestions that bullying forms of management have been superseded and that there has been some feminization of senior management. This discussion is set alongside one addressing the socio-economic context as well as hegemonic understandings of the economy. The final part of the paper examines claims made for the development of an "activist" or transformative professionalism. However the key difficulty with these potentially progressive arguments is that analyses operate at the level of ideology accepting the way in which the knowledge economy is constructed thereby failing to seriously consider and work through the patterns of antagonistic relations that exist within capitalism. In a similar manner they play down education as site of struggle. Whilst the paper is orientated towards English further education the argument has a wider purchase, applying to education in particular and the welfare state in general.

Avis, Peter (2002).  Response to "ICT and Attainment at Primary Level" by Terry Goodison.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 33, 2. 

This response to the previous paper on information and communication technology and attainment levels of primary school students as reported by the British Educational Communications and Technology Agency (BECTa) is critical of the author's approach to the reports. Emphasizes that they were preliminary reports, commissioned by the government.

Aviv, Reuven; Erlich, Zippy; Ravid, Gilad (2004).  Design and Architecture of Collaborative Online Communities: A Quantitative Analysis  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

This paper considers four aspects of online communities. Design, mechanisms, architecture, and the constructed knowledge. We hypothesize that different designs of communities drive different mechanisms, which give rise to different architectures, which in turn result in different levels of collaborative knowledge construction. To test this chain of hypotheses, we analyzed the recorded responsiveness data of two online communities of learners having different designs: a formal, structured team, and an informal, non-structured, Q&A forum. The designs are evaluated according to the Social Interdependence Theory of Cooperative Learning. Knowledge construction is assessed through Content Analysis. The architectures are revealed by Statistical Analysis of p* Markov Models for the communities. The mechanisms are then identified by matching the predictions of Network Emergence Theories with the observed architectures. The hypotheses are strongly supported. Our analysis shows that the minimal-effort hunt-for-social-capital mechanism controls a major behavior of both communities: negative tendency to respond. Differences in the goals, interdependence and the promotive interaction features of the designs of the two communities lead to the development of different mechanisms: cognition balance and peer pressure in the team, but not in the forum. Exchange mechanism in the forum, but not in the team. In addition, the pre-assigned role of the tutor in the forum gave rise to its responsibility mechanism in that community, but not in team community. These differences in the mechanisms led to the formation of different sets of virtual neighborhoods, which show up macroscopically as differences in the cohesion and the distribution of response power. These differences are associated with the differences in the buildup of knowledge in the two communities. The methods can be extended to other relations in online communities and longitudinal analysis, and for real-time monitoring of online communications. | [FULL TEXT]

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Ayr

Ayres, Kevin M.; Langone, John; Boon, Richard T.; Norman, Audrey (2006).  Computer-Based Instruction for Purchasing Skills  Education & Training in Developmental Disabilities, 41, 3. 

The purpose of this study was to investigate use of computers and video technologies to teach students to correctly make purchases in a community grocery store using the dollar plus purchasing strategy. Four middle school students diagnosed with intellectual disabilities participated in this study. A multiple probe across participants research design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment. Results indicated the program was effective at teaching the dollar plus purchasing strategy to three out of four participants and promoted generalization to the natural environment. Finally, limitations of the study, implications for practice, and future research questions are discussed.

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Apo

Apodaca, Jason Patrick (2006).  Computers and Cranberries: A Reflection  Social Studies and the Young Learner, 19, 1. 

In this article, the author reflects back to when he was in fifth grade, when his teacher taught the class to bake bread in school. It was November, and baking bread tied into the lesson. His teacher and some open-minded parents and students knew that to bake, sew, paint, sing, play an instrument, or dance as part of a lesson for a math class, science, history, English, or any other subject made school more fun. The author believes it truly was an educational experience. Maybe that approach to teaching and learning is why he liked school as a kid, and why he is pursuing his doctorate and is not a high school dropout. The author asserts that teachers need to have more freedom to teach in ways that encourage students to appreciate learning about the world around them--all of it. Maybe teachers would even have the liberty to spend an hour with their students baking some cranberry bread.

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Ath

Atherton, Carol (2006).  A-Level English Literature and the Problem of Transition  Arts and Humanities in Higher Education: An International Journal of Theory

This article considers the transition from A-level to degree-level study from the schoolteacher's point of view. It highlights the conflicting subject philosophies that exist at A level, and the resistance to the revised English of Curriculum 2000 that has been apparent in debates about the nature of English Literature post-16. Its main argument is that teachers of English in higher education need to be alert to these issues in order to understand the difficulties that first-year students often experience, recognizing that the "problem of transition" is as much a problem of epistemology as of pedagogy.

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AED

_____. (2004).  AED in the Middle East  [Academy for Educational Development] 

Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is an independent, nonprofit, charitable organization that operates development programs in the United States and throughout the world. This directory presents an overview of the varied activities undertaken by AED throughout the Middle East. Current AED Programs include: (1) Behavior Change Communication for Health Reform; (2) Civil Society Participation; (3) Conflict Resolution; (4) Education Reform (5) Electricity Regulation; (6) Environmental Education and Training; (7) Gender Equity in Education; (8) Quality Improvement in Education; (9) Scholarship Programs, and (10) Water Conservation. This directory provides reports on multicountry programs as well as programs specific to 11 countries in the Middle East. | [FULL TEXT]

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Adi

Adiguzel, Tufan; Akpinar, Yavuz (2004).  Improving School Children's Mathematical Word Problem Solving Skills through Computer-Based Multiple Representations  [Association for Educational Communications and Technology] 

Instructional resources that employ multiple representations have become commonplace in mathematics classrooms. This study will present computer software, LaborScale which was designed to improve seventh grade students' word problem-solving skills through computer-based multiple representations including graphic, symbolic, and audio representations. The proposed presentation will illustrate the design, implementation and validation of an interactive learning environment (ILE), LaborScale. This ILE is based upon the principles of computer based interactive problem solving environments, which connects different types of knowledge representation forms, and aims primarily to assist students as they explore symbolic representations used in word-problem solving process. | [FULL TEXT]

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Als

Al-Saleh, Bader A. (2000).  An Analysis of Papers Published in the AECT Annual Proceedings from 1996 through 2000. 

This study describes the results of an analysis of the 293 papers published in the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) annual proceedings for the years 1996 through 2000. The primary purposes of this study are to identify the major topics or themes that were investigated in papers published in the proceedings over a 5-year period, and to identify the major research methodologies employed in the research studies of these proceedings. Other secondary purposes are to identify types of papers, subject or target audience addressed, contributing authors, authors' institutional affiliations, and the extent to which international contributions were present. This study used a content analysis methodology. Findings are presented and discussed according to the research questions related to seven characteristics: type of paper, topic, methodology, target audience, contributing author(s), contributing institution(s) and international contributions. Major findings were as follows: research study was the dominant type of paper; computer-mediated communication was the most popular research topic; experimental and qualitative methodologies were the most common research methods used; and college students were the audience most targeted. The Content Analysis Recording Form is appended. | [FULL TEXT]

Alsop, Steve, Ed.; Bencze, Larry, Ed.; Pedretti, Erminia, Ed. (2004).  Analysing Exemplary Science Teaching  [Open University Press] 

How might exemplary practice be represented by teachers' narratives? How might such representations be analyzed? How might theory and practice be related? "Analyzing Exemplary Science Teaching" is a text that seeks to combine educational theory and practice through analysis of a series of teachers' descriptions of "exemplary" science lessons. The book comprises edited chapters with a common goal; to explore features of high-quality learning and teaching in the sciences. Early chapters describe classroom practice written by well-respected and insightful classroom teachers and students. Later chapters, authored by scholars of international standing, have a theoretical focus and utilize educational theory to discuss, define and analyze documented practice. A unique feature is the use of annotated comments to cross-reference descriptions of practice with theoretical analysis. The text has an international flavor; the lessons described and analyzed come from middle and secondary schools in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom. Following a foreword by Bill McComas, and a general preface, this book is divided into four parts. Part One, Creating Possibilities, presents: Introduction: Accounts, Theoretical Lenses and Possibilities for Practice (Steve Alsop, Erminia Pedretti, and Larry Bencze). Part Two, Teachers' Accounts, includes: (1) Case One: Kidney Function and Dysfunction--Enhancing an Understanding of Science and the Impact on Society (Keith Hicks); (2) Case Two: Episodes in Physics (George Alex Przywolnik); (3) Case Three: Recollections of Organic Chemistry (Josie Ellis); (4) Case Four: The Science Class of Tomorrow? (Richard Rennie and Kim Edwards); (5) Case Five: Science with a Human Touch: Historical Vignettes in the Teaching and Learning of Science (Karen Kettle); (6) Case Six: Exploring the Nature of Science--Reinterpreting Burgess Shale Fossils (Katherine Bellomo); (7) Case Seven: Motivating the Unmotivated--Relevance and Empowerment through a Town Hall Debate (Susan A. Yoon); (8) Case Eight: Mentoring Students Towards Independent Scientific Inquiry (Alex Corry); (9) Case Nine: Learning to Do Science (Gabriel Ayyavoo, Vivien Tzau, and Desmond Ngai); and (10) Case Ten: Practice Drives Theory--An Integrated Approach in Technological Education (James Johnston). Part Three, Account Analysis, contains: (1) Analysis One: Challenging the Traditional Views of the Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry (Derek Hodson); (2) Analysis Two: Developing Arguments (Sibel Erduran and Jonathan Osborne); (3) Analysis Three: STSE Education--Principles and Practices (Erminia Pedretti); (4) Analysis Four: Conceptual Development (Keith Taber); (5) Analysis Five: Problem-Based, Contextualised Learning (Ann Marie Hill and Howard Smith); (6) Analysis Six: Motivational Beliefs and Classroom Contextual Factors--Exploring Affect in Accounts of Exemplary Practice (Steve Alsop); (7) Analysis Seven: Instructional Technologies, Technocentrism and Science Education (Jim Hewitt); (8) Analysis Eight: Reading Cases--Central Themes in Teachers' Accounts of Exemplary Science Practice (John Wallace); (9) Analysis Nine: Equity in Science Teaching and Learning--The Inclusive Science Curriculum (Leonie Rennie); and (10) Analysis Ten: School Science for/against Social Justice (Larry Bencze). Finally, Part Four, Possibilities, Accounts, and Theoretical Lenses, presents: (1) Exemplary Science Teaching: Voice, Vision and Viewpoints (Erminia Pedretti, Larry Bencze, and Steve Alsop); and (2) Representing Exemplary Science Teaching (Larry Bencze, Steve Alsop, and Erminia Pedretti). Notes about contributors; and an index are also included.

Alston, Antoine J.; Miller, W. Wade; Williams, David L. (2003).  The Future Role of Instructional Technology in Agricultural Education in North Carolina and Virginia.  Journal of Agricultural Education, 44, 2. 

A stratified random sample of agriculture teachers in North Carolina (n=210) and Virginia (n=170) returned 85 and 110 usable surveys respectively. Teachers were undecided about future uses of instructional technology although they perceived benefits. Accessing Internet lesson plans was a primary use. Hardware/software costs were the principal barrier.

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Asp

Aspden, Liz; Helm, Paul (2004).  Making the Connection in a Blended Learning Environment  Educational Media International, 41, 3. 

The presence of a virtual learning environment (VLE) in an on-campus setting can alter the dimensions of existing learning and teaching relationships. Research literature indicates that increased engagement with educational technology can have the effect of drawing staff and students closer together (both physically and virtually) rather than encouraging campus-based institutions to deliver more of their provision at a distance. This paper will explore how on-campus students can benefit from appropriate use of technology in ways that make them feel increasingly connected with their institution and their peers. Using qualitative data we explore how effective use of technology can help to bridge the physical gap between the students, their institution and their peers--even where the actual interactions between students take place offline--and how the combination of physical and virtual learning environments can be used to create an effective learning and teaching experience.

Aspinall, Ann; Hegarty, John R. (2001).  ICT for Adults with Learning Disabilities: An Organisation-Wide Audit.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 32, 3. 

Describes a survey of microcomputer use for adults with learning disability within The Home Farm Trust, a United Kingdom national organization for people with learning disability that was carried out in light of a planned organization-wide initiative to introduce modern information and communications technology to service users.

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Auy

Auyeung, Lai Hung (2004).  Building a Collaborative Online Learning Community: A Case Study in Hong Kong  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 31, 2. 

This article reports on how a social sciences instructor teaching contemporary global issues implemented collaborative learning among students in a virtual environment. A substantial part of this particular course was delivered at a distance with the help of the Web. The bulletin board feature of WebCT was used to implement a simulation game where students role-played different countries and discussed issues online. At the end of the course, a total of over 480 messages were posted. A summative evaluation was conducted to examine the online collaborative experiences of the students. It was found that more than 90% of students reported that they gained from either actively participating in the online discussion or from just reading others' messages. In light of the present results, factors that would promote online collaboration among students were explored.

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Ahn

Ahn, June (2004).  Electronic Portfolios: Blending Technology, Accountability & Assessment  T.H.E. Journal, 31, 9. 

Many educators struggle to discover the proper assessment strategies for students. Systemic reform and the standards movement introduce clarity and accountability in assessing students. Though proven to be efficient, standardized assessment such as multiple-choice tests often turn teachers away as they may not align with their classroom practices or accurately measure students' abilities. Portfolio-based assessment and, more recently, the electronic portfolio have been seen as an alternative to standardized tests. An e-portfolio collects student work for individual teachers to grade and critique. At first glance, standardized and individual assessment strategies create a natural conflict: The former is an efficient and powerful tool for indexing student data, while the latter validates the professional work of the teacher and displays the actual effort of the student. However, e-portfolios possess the potential to bridge these conflicting goals as they combine individual student work with standards-based assessment, while also organizing and indexing student data. This article highlights the collaboration between a public school and an educational software firm to create an e-portfolio project that would achieve these goals.

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AnO

_____. (2004).  An Overview of Distance and Technology-Mediated Instruction in the State University System of Florida  [Board of Governors, State University System of Florida] 

Enrollment in distance and technology mediated instruction has seen strong growth at Florida's public universities over the past six years, closely following the growth in overall student enrollment up to 2002-03. This document includes: (1) a bulleted list of key growth indicators; (2) a chart that compares distance education enrollment with system total enrollment; (3) a table that provides a breakdown of course offerings by associated technologies; and (4) the most current inventory of degree and certificate programs offered primarily through distance education. The most current data represents Summer Term 2002, Fall Term 2002, and Spring Term 2003. | [FULL TEXT]

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Ain

Ainley, John; Banks, D.; Fleming, M. (2002).  The Influence of IT: Perspectives from Five Australian Schools.  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 18, 4. 

Examines the ways in which information and communication technologies (ICT) influence teaching and learning in five Australian elementary and secondary schools. Describes studies where ICT was the key enabler of the learning program, and other studies which focused on an entire school's approach to ICT as an agent for changed approaches to learning.

Ainsworth, Shaaron; VanLabeke, Nicolas (2004).  Multiple Forms of Dynamic Representation  Learning and Instruction, 14, 3. 

The terms dynamic representation and animation are often used as if they are synonymous, but in this paper we argue that there are multiple ways to represent phenomena that change over time. Time-persistent representations show a range of values over time. Time-implicit representations also show a range of values but not the specific times when the values occur. Time-singular representations show only a single point of time. In this paper, we examine the use of dynamic representations in instructional simulations. We argue that the three types of dynamic representations have distinct advantages compared to static representations. We also suggest there are specific cognitive tasks associated with their use. Furthermore, dynamic representations of different form are often displayed simultaneously. We conclude that to understand learning with multiple dynamic representations, it is crucial to consider the way in which time is displayed.

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ABl

_____. (2003).  A Blueprint for Preparing America's Future. The Adult Basic and Literacy Education Act of 2003: Summary of Major Provisions. 

In preparation for reauthorization of the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA), the Bush administration outlined its vision for adult basic and literacy education. Key principles of that vision are as follows: (1) creating accountability for results; (2) funding that works; (3) expanding options and choices for students; and (4) reducing bureaucracy and increasing flexibility. The first area of focus of the Bush administration's vision is on the following improvement strategies: (1) hold local programs and state agencies accountable for student achievement; (2) require state-developed or state-adopted content standards and aligned assessments; (3) focus on what works by promoting local use of research-based practice; (4) provide increased options for basic skills acquisition; (5) expand appropriate technology options; (6) promote collaboration and resource sharing across agencies serving undereducated adults; and (7) coordinate service delivery through the One-Stop Career Center system. The second area of focus of the Bush administration's vision for the AEFLA is national leadership activities in the following areas: demonstration of cross-agency planning; technical assistance; evaluation and assessment; national needs assessment; and rigorous research. The third area of focus of the administration's vision is the National Institute for Literacy and its efforts to improve reading across the lifespan, math and English acquisition for adults, and technical assistance and training. | [FULL TEXT]

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Arc

Archambault, Francis X., Jr.; Kulikowich, Jonna M.; Brown, Scott W.; Rezendes, George J. (2002).  Developing Performance Assessments To Measure Teacher Competency in the Use of Educational Technology. 

The Connecticut State Department of Education has established three levels of educational technology competencies for teachers. Over the past several years researchers at the University of Connecticut had developed a number of performance assessments to measure the extent to which teachers possess these educational technology competencies. This report describes the development and validation of an early version of the Level 1 technology assessment. Level 1 competencies include basic computer skills and the use of typical productivity software. It also describes how technology competence or accuracy scores related to teachers self-efficacy concerning the tasks assessed by the performance measure as well as their interest in the use of technology. Data were obtained from 61 teachers from 2 metropolitan school districts. Scores from the Level 1 performance measure have been found to be a valid and reliable means of assessing teacher educational technology competence. The measure has also been well-received by teachers. The research has uncovered significant positive correlations between educational technology competency and self-efficacy as expected. Unexpected, however, are the low correlations between interest scores and both teacher competency and self-efficacy. Differences were also found between the correlations of technology competency and self-efficacy scores taken before and after the technology competency measure was administered. Correlations are generally higher at posttest than at pretest, implying that teachers assessments of their own technology skills align more closely with the performance measure of these skills after they have taken an assessment designed to measure these skills.   | [FULL TEXT]

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AlR

AlRawahi, Zahra; AlShidhani, Saleh (2002).  The Usability of the Virtual Hospital Round. 

A usable instructional system is defined as a system that enables learners to accomplish learning goals or tasks in an effective and efficient way. This paper investigates the usability of the Virtual Hospital Round (VHR) prototype, and explores medical students' and professionals' attitudes toward the VHR system. Results of the evaluation of the prototype indicated that students and medical professionals liked and valued the program as a useful and enjoyable learning tool. The interface was mostly easy to use. The prototype stimulated learning and clinical reasoning.

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Aug

Augustson, J. Gary; Roberts, Mike (2004).  The Case for Broadband Evangelism  EDUCAUSE Review, 39, 6. 

Higher education has an important stake in the national effort to widely deploy a state-of-the-art broadband public network. The Broadband Policy Group (BPG) developed a set of three principles to provide a consistent frame of reference for pursuing policy initiatives: (1) affordable broadband access; (2) a new regulatory structure; and (3) federal R&D support. Articulating and fulfilling the vision for Broadband America requires many activities, of which those in higher education are only a part. The BPG places the highest priority on the following five action areas: (1) The need for a revitalized and well-articulated national broadband vision; (2) The need for a new telecommunications legislation; (3) The need for new competitive players in the provisioning of local communications services; (4) The need for new approaches to universal service; and (5) The need for the continued contributions of federal research sponsors to the design, development, and deployment of the Internet. These principles and action areas are briefly discussed in this document.

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Aka

Akahori, Kanji (2002).  Qualitative Analysis of Information Communication Technology Use on Teaching-Learning Process. 

This paper describes some of the features of Information Communication Technology (ICT) and its uses in the teaching-learning process in elementary schools. In most schools, it is difficult for ICT to be used effectively in the teaching-learning process. The author observed many classes using ICT in elementary schools. Qualitative data, such as interviews with teachers and observation of student conversations and behaviors were analyzed. The research findings were based on ethnographic case studies and are summarized as statements. The findings were summarized and are presented as a causal relation graph. The main results were: (1) Basic computer operating skills, such as typewriting depend largely on the classroom teacher's attitude and computer literacy; (2) most computer operation skills, such as file saving, and design skills, such as designing and developing a homepage were mastered through reciprocal teaching and modeling among children; (3) the teacher's advice helps children to search and access information related to their topics. It was further found that ability to access topic relevant information was the result of a comprehensive understanding of the information domain, rather than operational skills; (4) learning motivation was highly promoted by collaborative and competitive group activities; (5) integration of synchronized systems, such as videoconferencing into classes requires professional technical support.   | [FULL TEXT]

Akar, Evren; Ozturk, Ebru; Tuncer, Bige; Wiethoff, Marion (2004).  Evaluation of a Collaborative Virtual Learning Environment  Education + Training, 46, 6-7. 

Research results concerning the evaluation of a collaborative virtual learning environment CVLE are presented in this paper. The focus of the evaluation is the perceptions of the learners concerning the technical and social qualities of a CVLE. It is argued in this paper that course designers and system developers should put efforts to build technically robust CVLEs with proper social infrastructure. The research results showed that although some of the failures experienced by users in CVLEs are based on technological reasons, some others are based on the lack of proper social arrangements. Additionally, if CVLEs are implemented in an international environment special attention should be paid for language and cultural differences. This research also argues about the evaluation of CVLEs that should follow a socio-technical approach, to cover both technological and social issues.

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Ads

Adsit, Jason N. (2004).  Technology-Mediated Professional Development Programs for Teachers and School Leaders  [American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education] 

This paper presents and examines the latest research on technology-mediated professional development (TMPD) programs for PK-12 teachers and school leaders. TMPD is defined as professional development that incorporates technology (e.g., computers, Web-based resources, or digital video) as a primary design, delivery, or support component. There are three general types of TMPD delivery formats: workshops, blended programs, and digital programs. TMPD has been shown to support teacher change and improvement, collaboration and community-building, and professional development reform efforts while offering the benefits of reduced teacher isolation and access to a broad range of resources. Because school leaders play a crucial role in the integration of technology into the curriculum, programs are being developed for administrators as well as teachers, such as Technology for Principals Leading Utah Schools (T-PLUS) and the Information Environment for School Leader Preparation (IESLP) program. General guidelines are provided for assessing TMPD programs. | [FULL TEXT]

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Alv

Alvarez, Jose Luis; Miller, Paddy; Levy, Jan; Svejenova, Silviya (2004).  Journeys to the Self: Using Movie Directors in the Classroom  Journal of Management Education, 28, 3. 

This article suggests that temporary (project based) filmmaking organizations, and film directors as their leaders, lend themselves to examining a plethora of leadership issues, from social sources of power to competencies in network organizations. It advances for classroom discussion and teaching the cases of Almodovar and Coppola as examples of idiosyncratic filmmakers in a "subsidy-trapped," craft like European cinema versus a gross and agent-driven Hollywood studio system. The article concludes with a discussion of the journey metaphor as a unique opportunity to look at the philosophical problem of the meaning of life and the achievement of consistency and continuity in one's trajectory.

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Atw

Atwell, Nedra Skaggs Wheeler (2001).  Appalachian Women Teaching the Future. 

This paper explains that women teachers working in public schools across Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia face many challenges related to poverty and rural locations. However, they also have several elements in common across their classrooms which they incorporate into their instructional practice. These elements are: maintaining high expectations for success; utilizing effective praise; providing direct instruction combined with challenging activities; incorporating technology; teaching metacognitive strategies; recognizing and accommodating learning styles; promoting self-assessment and self-monitoring; protecting and optimizing instructional time; valuing parental involvement; and celebrating diversity. An accompanying PowerPoint presentation is included. | [FULL TEXT]

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Ave

Avenell, Simon (2001).  Some Lessons for Higher Education from the Economics of Electronic Commerce. 

The arrival of the Internet has been seen to portend the rise of the virtual university, global competition, and the end of campus education. The emerging economics of electronic commerce (eCommerce) allows for a measured understanding of the implications of the new technologies for higher education and even how educational innovation should be focused. This paper considers what constitutes eCommerce and why it matters. The forces at work in its uptake across the economy are examined, and the key concepts of transaction and organizational costs are defined and discussed, as are some possible economic and labor market effects of eCommerce. The lessons of all of this for higher education are discussed, and some concluding observations are offered. Four lessons emerge: (1) campus education is probably a normal good in that demand for it increases with income; (2) eCommerce alone does not provide grounds for significant changes to university offerings; (3) new partnerships and delivery mechanisms will emerge but not dominate; and (4) there will be pressure from a variety of sources to enhance campus education in light of the new information technologies and practices.

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Adk

Adkins, Sam S. (2003).  The Brave New World of Learning.  T+D, 57, 6. 

Explores how old and new training technologies are converging. Discusses the concept of integrated applications and provides a taxonomy of convergent enterprise applications for use with real-time workflow.

Adkins, Sam S. (2003).  Radical Learning Technology Happening Now.  T+D, 57, 11. 

Enterprise application integration products are changing the landscape of learning technology, content, and services. Although products are marketed as processes to measure performance indicators, this is just the beginning of a strategy to integrate learning with other enterprise processes.

Adkins-Bowling, Treana; Brown, Shandua; Mitchell, Teketa L. (2001).  The Utilization of Instructional Technology and Cooperative Learning To Effectively Enhance the Academic Success of Students with English-as-a-Second-Language. 

This study examined whether utilizing technology in a cooperative learning environment would enhance the academic achievement of Hispanic students who had English as a second language (ESL). Surveys were administered to 30 elementary school teachers. The surveys examined the importance of using technology in the classroom, how the teachers have used technology to assist ESL students, which technological advances were the least and most effective, what technological training was offered to them, and additional comments regarding ESL students and technology. A total of 10 out of the 30 teachers completed the survey. Data analysis indicated that there was a great need for, and support for, using technology in the classroom to assist ESL students. Many teachers needed training because they lacked the technological skills to make this an efficient teaching method for them. Teachers noted a need to know what types of technologies were available for use in their individual classrooms so they could receive the most appropriate training. There appeared to be a shortage of public school funds to provide the necessary equipment and training to teachers and classrooms. Three appendixes include the study's cover letter, the questionnaire, and acknowledgments. | [FULL TEXT]

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Asu

(2001).  A Survey of Traditional and Distance Learning Higher Education Members.  Ed at a Distance, 15, 7. 

Discusses the results of a survey of public colleges and universities with NEA (National Education Association) members to determine distance learning practices. Highlights include the growth of distance learning courses; similarities and differences between distance learning and traditional faculty; distance learning technology; course development; student characteristics; and faculty attitudes.

Asuncion, Jennison V.; Fichten, Catherine S. (2003).  Are You Considering All Students, Including Those with Disabilities, When Planning for Technology Integration?  Educational Technology, 43, 5. 

Discusses results from a survey of Canadian college students with disabilities that investigated how they used computers, types of technologies being used, adaptive software and hardware, and problems accessing or using necessary technology. Includes recommendations for planners of technology integration.

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Ayb

Aybay, Isik; Dag, O. Oguz (2003).  A Learning Management System Developed at the Eastern Mediterranean University.  Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 2, 2. 

Discusses distance education programs in higher education and describes the Eastern Mediterranean University (Cyprus) Learning Management System which was developed while the online program was offered to on-campus students. Explains functions of the system, including user enrollment, course management, lectures, quizzes, announcements, assignments, discussion board, and student tracking, and compares it to other learning management systems.

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Asa

Asakawa, Tasia; Gilbert, Nigel (2003).  Synthesizing Experiences: Lessons To Be Learned from Internet-Mediated Simulation Games.  Simulation & Gaming, 34, 1. 

Draws on published evaluations of Internet-mediated (I-M) educational, business, and policy games to establish an inventory of lessons for future I-M ames. These types of I-M games have important concerns in common: objectives, role-play, synchronicity, game facilitation, and participant interaction. Lessons of design and implementation derived from these experiences are identified and explored.

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Avg

Avgoulea, M.; Bouras, C.; Paraskevas, M.; Stathakopoulos, G. (2003).  Policies for Content Filtering in Educational Networks: The Case of Greece.  Telematics and Informatics, 20, 1. 

Discusses the problems associated with schools allowing access to the Internet and describes the technologies currently available to address filtering issues. Presents a proposed solution for the Greek School Network, including the creation of acceptable use policies and selecting appropriate software.

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Anf

Anfara, Vincent A., Jr.; Danin, Susan T.; Melvin, Kathy; Dillner, Harry (2000).  Traveling Road Show or Effective Professional Development? A Professional Development Science Project on Wheels. 

This study evaluated a science professional development initiative developed by the Delaware State Department of Education, examining the nature of professional development activities, their effect on science classrooms, and their impact on teachers, students, and schools. The Science Van Project integrated technology and inquiry into Delaware's high school classrooms. Science Van visits consisted of a specialist who brought sets of laptop computers interfaced with electronic data-collecting probes or other hardware/equipment to teachers' classrooms. A typical classroom visit lasted 4-8 days. Specialists worked alongside teachers to demonstrate the proper use of technology and to model best practice pedagogy. Students used the technology to conduct scientific investigation. To be eligible for Science Van visits, teachers had to participate in project workshops. Data from surveys, interviews, observations, and pretests/posttests of teachers and students indicated that the project effectively incorporated the five elements of professional development. Teachers reported increases in areas specifically targeted by the professional development and in their knowledge of state content standards. They gave the Science Van program high ratings in effectiveness. Students reported liking the Science Van visits very much. They believed that their understanding of science content and of designing and conducting experiments improved. | [FULL TEXT]

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Axm

Axmann, Mandi; Fourie, Wiida; Papo, William Duncan (2002).  Adding Net Value: The Nature of Online Education at a South African Residential Institution.  Educational Media International, 39, 3-4. 

Discussion of online learning focuses on course development at a South African residential institution that incorporated online assignments into a face-to-face journalism course to introduce information technology. Describes course structure, activities, assessment methods, student involvement, and problems with students' lack of computer skills and access to personal computers and the Internet.

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Anc

Ancker, William P. (2002).  The Challenge and Opportunity of Technology: An Interview with Mark Warschauer.  Forum, 40, 4. 

Interviews Mark Warshauer, Vice Chair of the Department of Education at the University of California, Irvine. His research focuses on the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) in second and foreign language teaching, the impact of ICT on literacy, and the relationship of ICT to institutional reform, democracy, and social development.

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Aun

Aune, Adonica Schultz; Lim, Dan (2002).  The McLuhan Global Classroom: A Singapore-U.S. One-Year Instructional Interaction. 

WebCT was integrated and modeled in a global Instructional Technology (IT) Certification Summer Institute offered through the University of Minnesota. Courses were first introduced with an on-site certification where technology integration was modeled in each course through the use of highly interactive web-based learning applications and games authored in Flash and Toolbook. The United States and Singapore participants achieved the intended learning outcomes through (1) the modeling of technology integration; (2) the constructivist learning environment; (3) collaborative learning; (4) problem-based learning; as well as (5) the experience of online learning. After five weeks on-site, individual real-world projects were assigned in each course for the remaining full IT certification. Through synchronous and asynchronous communication, projects continued. East and West viewpoints are underscored and emphasized in creating a quality Instructional Technology Certification program that addresses global online instruction and corresponding needs. Includes 11 notes. Cites 20 works. Attached is a student survey. | [FULL TEXT]

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AQu

_____. (2002).  A Quality Teacher in Every Classroom: Improving Teacher Quality and Enhancing the Profession. 

Through the No Child Left Behind Act and various budget proposals, President Bush is addressing the challenges of teacher quality and teacher training byassisting states and districts as they strive to improve teacher quality, taking specific steps to enhance the teaching profession and work environment, and providing new tools for teachers in specific areas of instruction. Some of the key elements of this agenda include: $2.85 billion in grants to states to improve teacher and principal quality; support for programs that provide innovative ways to recruit new teachers (e.g., Troops to Teachers, which helps place members of the armed forces into teacher education, and Teach for America, a national core of recent college graduates who commit 2 years to teach in public schools); the Teacher Preparation Act, which ensures that teachers, principals, and school officials can take reasonable steps to maintain order and discipline in the classroom without fear of litigation; a proposed Teacher Tax Deduction on up to $400 of qualified education expenses; training and support for early childhood educators; reading initiatives to help students become successful readers; professional development to help teachers educate English language learners; and support for training teachers of students with disabilities. | [FULL TEXT]

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Avr

Avraamidou, Lucy; Zembal-Saul, Carla (2001).  Web-Based Philosophies: Making Prospective Teachers' Personal Theorizing Visible.  Science Education International, 12, 4. 

Investigates preservice elementary school teachers' perceptions of the changes in science teaching and learning over time and integrating these with educational technology.

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Ase

Asensio, Mireia, Ed.; Foster, Jonathan, Ed.; Hodgson, Vivien, Ed.; McConnell, David, Ed. (2000).  Networked Learning 2000: Innovative Approaches to Lifelong Learning and Higher Education through the Internet. Proceedings of the International Conference (2nd, Lancaster, England, April 17-19, 2000). 

This document contains 59 papers presented at a conference in England on approaches to lifelong learning and higher education through the Internet. Representative papers include the following: "The University of the Highlands and Islands Project: A Model for Networked Learning?" (Veronica Adamson, Jane Plenderleith); "The Costs of Networked Learning--An Interactive Workshop" (Charlotte Ash, Paul Bacsich); "An Investigation and Design of Networked Learning in Inner-City Leeds" (Tim Barker, Rachel Pilkington); "Institutional Readiness for Implementing Network Technology" (Aidan Black, Hazel Derbyshire, Jackie Knowles O'Keefe, Phil Poole, Merce Rius Riu, Jie Shen); "Effective Delivery of On-Campus Networked Learning: Reflections on Two Case Studies" (John Cook, Tom Boyle); "A Methodological Approach to Networked Collaborative Learning: Design and Pedagogy Issues" (T. Daradoumis, J. Marques); "Teaching and Learning Computing Skills via an Intranet-Based Course" (Adrian Friday, Alan Parkes, David Nichols); "Project Work in Networked Distance Education" (Morten Knudsen, Jan Helbo, Lars Peter Jensen, Ole Rokkjaer, Ole Borch, Jorgen Ostergaard); "Networked Learning in Virtual Environments" (Anni Koubek, Sandra Kober); "Networked Learning in Applied Science Education" (Jutta Pauschenwein, Anni Koubek); "Creating Effective Online Collaborative Educators" (Gerard A. Prendergast); "Staff Development for Networked Distance Education" (Sue Tickner); and "Evaluating an Open University Web Course: Issues and Innovations" (Martin Weller, Robin Mason). Most of the papers contain references; many include abstracts. | [FULL TEXT]

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Arb

Arbaugh, Fran; Scholten, Carolyn M.; Essex, N. Kathryn (2001).  Data in the Middle Grades: A Probability WebQuest.  Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 7, 2. 

Describes how probability is treated in the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' (NCTM) "Principles and Standards of School Mathematics".

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Age

Ager, Alastair; Aalykke, Soren (2001).  TASC: A Microcomputer Support System for Persons with Cognitive Disabilities.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 32, 3. 

Describes the Telematics Applications Supporting Cognition (TASC) project, an international collaboration funded by the European Union to develop a microcomputer-based system supporting decision-making, planning, and communication for persons with cognitive disabilities. Considers a flexible, modular solution to meet the needs of persons with intellectual disability, acquired brain injury, and dementia.

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Apt

Apthorp, Helen S.; Bodrova, Elena; Dean, Ceri B.; Florian, Judy E. (2001).  Noteworthy Perspectives: Teaching to the Core--Reading, Writing, and Mathematics. 

This publication helps identify ways in which high standards can be established and carried out in the classroom, discussing the importance of high standards and what has been learned from research about how teachers can help their students meet high learning goals. Chapter 1, "Introduction," examines the intent of standards, what has happened in the states regarding standards, and how teachers are the key to learning. Chapter 2, "The Keys to Literacy: Teaching Reading and Writing," discusses literacy standards, the standards-based curriculum, the importance of teacher knowledge, and effective classroom practices for literacy (e.g., balancing application and acquisition, tailoring instruction, and having meaningful conversations). Chapter 3, "Beyond Computation: Teaching Mathematics," examines mathematics standards, characteristics of an effective curriculum, the importance of teacher knowledge, and effective mathematics classroom practices (e.g., hands-on experience, meaningful classroom discussion, and supportive technology). Chapter 4, "Supporting Instructional Change," discusses professional development focused on standards, thinking systematically about improvement, short-term school improvement strategies, standards-based reform versus test-based reform, benefits of standards, and the future of standards. | [FULL TEXT]

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Adm

_____. (2001).  Administrator's Guide to Technology: Planning, Funding & Implementation. 

This document provides guidelines for administrators related to instructional technology and planning. Chapter 1 discusses planning, including developing a technology plan, facility assessment, e-rate planning, formation of a technology committee, budget planning, and hardware/software replacement plan and costs. Chapter 2 addresses implementation, including integrating technology into the curriculum, developing a World Wide Web site, parents as advocates and users, Internet usage policies and procedures, copyright and antipiracy policies, legal and ethical issues, and security. Chapter 3 covers funding, including how to develop proposals, developing business partnerships, federal funders, and private and corporate funders. Chapter 4 describes equitable instructional technology resources, including e-learning, distance learning, assistive technology, and teaching strategies. Chapter 5 discusses software, including selecting software for the classroom, teacher top picks, and software resources. Chapter 6 addresses staffing, including job descriptions and professional development. Chapter 7 covers assessment and accountability, including evaluating a technology program, technology assessment surveys, and technology standards for continuous student assessment. Appendices include a glossary and a list of resources for acceptable use policies, assessment and accountability, assistive technology, Web site accessibility, curriculum integration, distance education, funding, hardware suppliers, international collaboration on the Web, legal issues, professional development, school Web site design, technology planning and implementation, telementoring, virtual schools, and Web safety. (Includes an index.)

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2008-09-03T17:05-07:00