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Educational Technology | V

Vag

Vagianos, Louis (1973).  What Rough Beast A-Borning?  Library Journal, 98, 12. 

The concept of information utility'' (an extensive super information system) presents a challenge to librarians. Philosophies and operations must evolve to insure the librarians' position as the information specialist capable of bringing order to the chaos of the information explosion.

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Valentine, C. Glenn (1971).  Contingency Management and the Design of Learning Environments  Educational Technology, 11, 4. 

The author presents some background material on the definition and theory of contingency management, explains how and where contingency management fits into the process of programming instruction" and gives some specific examples of how to use contingency management in the classroom."

Valley, John R. (1977).  Nontraditional Study in the 1970s  College Board Review, 106, 2-7. 

The ten elements of nontraditional study are carefully examined to provide an overview of their evolution and their impact on access to higher education. Discussed are degree-granting authority, competence as a basis for awarding degrees, adult students, experiential learning, specialized services, residence, and educational technology.

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Van de Bogart, Eric (1974).  Viewer-Active Television  Educational Technology, 13, 3. 

A look at how the Maine Public Broadcasting Network has recently made an effort to involve secondary school students and home viewers in an effective learning experience.

Van De Graveele, J. (1973).  International Cooperation in the Production of Educational Media  Educational Media International, 4, 20-22. 

An assessment of coproductions made by the Netherlands and Belgium.

Van Der Aa, H. J., Ed. (1970).  Computers and Education: An International Bibliography on Computer Education. 

Containing abstracts of over 1800 books and articles that have appeared in English, French, and German, this bibliography is intended to provide information about computers in education. While the main emphasis is on computers in education, educational technology involving programed instruction, television, and learning theory, as well as various non-instructional uses of computers (student records, scheduling, administration) are also covered. Abstracts are grouped by subject: computers in primary schools, in secondary schools, and in colleges; educational technology; college level computer courses; training for computer-oriented professions; bibliographies; and introductory and advanced computer science material. Entries are cross-referenced, and a combined subject-author index is appended.

Van Dusseldorp, Ralph (1971).  Management Responsibility for Information Systems  Educational Technology, 11, 5. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3075.

Van Dyne, Larry A. (1973).  The University of Wisconsin Reaching Rural America  Change, 5, 1. 

Project Rural Family Development combines television, home study materials, telephone problem-solving service and home visitation into an effective new educational system.

van Eijl, Pierre (1976).  A Concise Building Scheme for Instructional Modules  Educational Technology, 16, 2. 

This article describes how study-units in the module form can be built up to produce an effective learning process. These modules are self-contained, independent study-units on which a modular instructional system is based and which might be parts of mastery learning systems.

van Gigch, John P. (1974).  A Decision-Making Model to Remove Discrepancies: Application to a Reading Program  Educational Technology, 14, 1. 

Author believes that the application of the Decision-Making Model to the removal of "discrepancies" allows the teachers and other school agents to proceed with changes in an orderly and rational manner.

Van Gigch, John P.; Hill, Richard E. (1971).  Using Systems Analysis to Implement Cost-Effectiveness and Program Budgeting in Education. 

Program budgeting is an effective tool in helping school administrators and faculty to draw up budgets which reflect their own needs and those of their clients. The "systems approach" can be used to draw up a program budget systematically. Part I outlines systems concepts and the systems approach as they can be applied to education. Also, the goal-setting process needed to integrate the objectives of all participants (teachers, administrators, students, parents, community, etc.) in the decision-making process is described. Part II deals with the step-by-step process of developing programs and program alternatives which can be used to compare the value of the various alternatives. These measures can also be used as a basis to apply judgment and to debate the non-quantifiable merits of the program alternatives. The systems approach and its related cousin, program budgeting, are shown to provide a practical methodology for the design of school programs.

van Hees, E. J. W. M. (1976).  Computer Managed Learning at the University Level in the Netherlands  Educational Technology, 16, 4. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2155.

Van Meter, Eddy J. (1974).  A Prototypic Management Information System for Systemic Educational Renewal at the Local School District Level  Educational Technology, 14, 5. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3889.

Van Mondfrans, Adrian P.; Houser, Ronald L. (1970).  Selecting Media to Present Basic Concepts  Educational Technology, 10, 12. 

The purpose of this article is to briefly sketch a paradigm which the authors feel has promise of placing the selection of media to present basic concepts on a more scientific basis."

Van Praag, H. (1974).  Problems and Perspectives in European Multi-Media Systems Development. 

A proposal for cooperation in multimedia projects among European countries is advanced in a study sponsored by the Council of Europe. Projects that are now operating, such as the British Open University, are analyzed and the possibilities of extending them to other parts of Europe are assessed. Multimedia "first education", a cooperative middle-school curriculum, parent-education projects and methods of vocational guidance are also analyzed. A suggestion is made for a pilot project of about 20 broadcasts.

Van Wyck, William F. (1979).  Staff Development for an Ag-Tech College.  Community College Frontiers, 7, 4. 

Describes the inservice training program initiated at Delphi College, New York. Discusses the various programs organized as part of overall staff development. Contends that inservice programs provide staff with the confidence and competence to improve the teaching/learning environment in a time of evolving instructional technology.

VanderMeer, A. W. (1970).  How Teachers and Administrators Can Be Given a Better Indoctrination on the Potentialities and Uses of Instructional Technology. 

The strategy for giving educators a more solid and sophisticated indoctrination in the uses and possibilities of technology in education must aim at the reduction of the extreme points of view of the pertisans and opponents of technology. A. W. VanderMeer sees the prospective teacher as a professional with a thorough grasp, not only of every aspect of educational technology, but also of humanistic studies, behavioral sciences, and of the wide range of content to be taught within the discipline of the teacher's competence. The prospective teacher, in his training, should be creatively and self-consciously involved in a system of education which will establish in him those professional techniques and ways of study and operation that typify the manner in which applied social scientists apply their professions.  | [FULL TEXT]

VanderWiel, Ray; Foley, Bob (1974).  Any Telephone a Dial-Access Station  Educational Technology, 13, 3. 

A discussion of how the Cedar Rapids Community School System centralized its information retrieval equipment and made dial-access possible from any telephone in the community.

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Varat, Nancy (1972).  Reading Programs for the Forgotten 400  Reading Newsreport, 7, 2. 

Describes a performance contract for average and above average students.

Varenhorst, Barbara B. (1973).  Game Theory, Simulations and Group Counseling  Educational Technology, 13, 2. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 4371.

Vargas, Ernest A.; Fraley, Lawrence E. (1976).  Process and Structure: Reorganizing the University for Instructional Technology  Instructional Science, 5, 3. 

Author suggests that teaching expertise will be more important to college faculty in the future than will subject matter specialization.

Varossieau, J. W. (1973).  Educational Media in Holland  Audiovisual Instruction, 18, 8. 

A general indication of the direction educational technology is taking in Holland.

Vary, Jean-Marc (1973).  In Defense of the Language Lab  McGill Journal Of Education, 8, 2. 

Author concludes that the disappointing record of the language lab does not stem only from sub-standard software but also from the behavior and attitudes of the individuals involved.

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Vaughan, George B. (1974).  Busing--Community College Style  College Management, 9, 8. 

At Mountain Empire Community College in Big Stone Gap, Virginia, five busses are being utilized to transport students to and from college, while at the same time providing the equipment and materials needed to permit students to pursue their regular course objectives while traveling.

Vaughan, Jerry L. (1971).  What Instructional Systems Can Do For Education  Industrial Arts and Vocational Education, 60, 3.

 

Vaughan, Jerry L. (1975).  Industry as Educator  Educational Technology, 15, 12. 

A look at how learning will change in the future for industrial training courses.

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Vedder, Marion H. (1975).  Louisiana State Library Institutional Library Pilot Program. An Evaluation: November 5-27, 1974. 

The Louisiana State Library reviewed its Pilot Library Program to determine its effect on future library development in state institutions. The program was a cooperative endeavor between the state library, an individual institution, and the state agency responsible for administering this institution. Mental, charitable, and penal institutions were included. Each institutional library was evaluated by American Library Association (ALA) standards according to general impressions, budget formulation, personnel problems and physical facilities. It was concluded that the Pilot Library Program should be continued and that the state library should adopt national library standards. Administration and staff should be made more aware of budgeting and personnel.

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Veg

Veglahn, Peter A.; And Others (1978).  Computer Simulation--Training Tool for Collective Bargaining.  Personnel Journal, 57, 11. 

The technique of computer simulation applied to collective bargaining situations is presented in the setting of negotiations between library administration and staff (representing, respectively, management and labor union). The negotiation simulation exercise was developed for use in both college and industry.

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Verderber, Heide-Rose (1974).  English Language Series in School Broadcasting, W. D. R. Cologne  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 11, 5. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3772.

Verduin-Muller, Henriette (1972).  Tele-Blackboard. The Contribution of New Media to Education in Developing Countries. 

The tele-blackboard is an audiovisual system, the core of which is a tableau on which is put a normal piece of paper. The paper is written on with a pencil that goes with the tableau, and the visual information is transformed into narrow banded signals which are sent simultaneously with a verbal explanation by normal longwave radio transmitters. Visual and verbal information are thus transmitted across long distances at very low cost and can be received by normal radio and television receivers with special adapter. The tele-blackboard was designed for instruction in developing countries. It requires prior preparation of short, well organized teaching phases and high concentration by the pupils, while at the same time releasing the teacher from the anxiety of being on television. Other advantages offered by the tele-blackboard are the opportunity its use provides to develop original and modern forms of fundamental education, the reduction of loss of information which verbal information alone is subject to (particularly when the language used in the presentation is a second language for the students), and the capacity for producing dynamic content and concepts.

Vergis, John P.; Twyford, Loran C. (1970).  An Open Forum--Together or Separate  Audiovisual Instruction, 15, 8. 

Speeches presented at the Open Forum on the DAVI/AASL Standards at the 1970 Department of Audiovisual Instruction Convention in Detroit.

Vernam, Claude C.; Kennedy, Patrick (1977).  Implementation of ISD--Restructuring of the Radioman Curriculum  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 6, 2. 

Examines the application of the first three phases (analysis, design, and development) of an instructional systems development model to curriculum changes in an existing program, radioman occupational speciality.

Vernon, P. J. (1972).  Teaching Aids and their Production in Israel  Visual Education, 22-24

Full-Text Availability Options: 3355.

Vernon, P. J. (1973).  Education out of the Desert--2nd Report  Visual Education, 13, 15. 

A brief description of Israel's educational system including applications of audiovisual aids and educational technology.

Vernon, Peter (1970).  Internavex 70  Educ Training, 12, 7. 

Discusses the need for standardization by manufacturers of audiovisual aids, especially because of the value of these aids in stimulating the student to learn.

Vernon, Philip E. (1972).  Reactions of an Educational Psychologist to The Worth Report  Journal of Educational Thought, 6, 3. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3312.

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Vest, C. R. (1975).  The Educational Satellite: A Systems Model  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 3, 4. 

A frame of reference for integrating educational technology into an educational system is developed.

Vest, Carlos R. (1975).  A Learning Technology Curriculum: The First Step  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 4, 1. 

A discussion of the results of a meeting sponsored by American University and the Society for Applied Learning Technology, which aimed to develop a formal curriculum to train people in learning technology.

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Vic

Vickers, F. D. (1973).  Creative Test Generators  Educational Technology, 13, 3. 

A brief description of a test generating program which generates questions concerning the Fortran programming language in a random but guided fashion and without resorting to an item bank.''

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(1972).  Video Training At 24 Cents Per Session  Training In Business and Industry, 9, 1. 

The advantages and financial saving from using videotaped instruction for employee training and communication at Southern New England Bell Telephone are discussed.

_____. (1974).  Video Taping: A Medium for Social Change.  [Instructional Technology Report] 

The use of video taping as a technique to bring villagers into meaningful communication with each other and with government leaders is discussed. Three pilot projects are described: (1) a United Nations funded project in Rajasthan, India; (2) a Tanzanian project involving several villages; and (3) the Skyriver, Alaska project. As demonstrated by these three projects, videotaping technology shows potential for opening direct lines of communication between rural people and government agencies, gives villagers an opportunity to see themselves as part of a community, and raises community activism through participation in the formulation of community problems and solutions. However, the video technology must be part of a systematic process suited to local conditions before it can fulfill its potential.

_____. (1979).  Video & Micro-Teaching: Adaptable Medium, Adaptable Method.  [Development Communication Report] 

The title reflects the first and major article in an issue of this newsletter devoted heavily to video technology. The flexible capabilities of videotape used with microteaching are presented and illustrated with case studies of childhood education and rural health development programs in Nigeria, improvement of nurses' communication skills, and development of executives' helping skills. Other articles include a comparison of advantages and disadvantages of videotape versus film, a case study of the training of managers of newly established farm cooperatives in Peru, an interview on the background and goals of the Mauritius College of the Air, suggestions for appropriate research for educational technology in developing countries, hypotheses and suggestions for research on television broadcasting for rural community development, and a training strategy for women-to-women development and communication networks in third world countries.

Videbeck, Richard (1975).  The Doctor of Arts Program  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 4, 4. 

Three Doctor of Arts degree programs at the University of Illinois, Chicago Circle, prepare students as both scientists and instructional developers well grounded in instructional design, media use, and product evaluation.

Vidler, Derek C. (1974).  The Use of Contradiction to Stimulate Curiosity  Educational Technology, 14, 10. 

Article expands on one aspect of conceptual conflict, contradiction, in order to illustrate in greater detail how it might be exploited in educational practice.

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_____. (1973).  Viewpoints: Contemporary Educational Issues. Reports of Educational Staff Seminar Programs, 1970-1972. 

Educational Staff Seminar (ESS) is designed to assist professional staff members who are employed by the Executive and Legislative Branches of the Federal Government to obtain a more realistic understanding of current educational practices and problems and to improve communications between Washington educational staff members and educators in the field. This document is a compilation of reports descriptive of many of the programs ESS has sponsored. The compilation shows the range and variety of programs which ESS has presented in its first four years and provides, in one accessible compilation, some viewpoints on contemporary policy issues which may be useful to ESS participants and their federal agencies and organizations. The program descriptions are divided into the broad issue areas of education and government, governance in the schools, research and educational futures, technology in education, postsecondary education, education of children with special learning needs, and education in other nations.

Vierling, Anton F. (1973).  Computer-Generated Problem-Sets: A Practical Approach to Computers in Education  Educational Technology, 13, 10. 

A look at the use of the computer in instructional areas where speed, accuracy and recall are important. Practice sets for drill are discussed.

Vierling, Jacqueline S.; Shivaram, M. (1970).  On-Line Computer Managed Instruction; The First Step. AFIPS Conference Proceedings. Volume 37. 

The major features of Computer Managed Instruction (CMI) are diagnosis and testing, analysis, record keeping, and prescription. Diagnosis and testing are used to evaluate each student's performance at regular intervals. The results are analyzed to update the student's record and provide a prescription which suggests the learning process the student should pursue to achieve his objectives. The CMI system described here was used during a one-semester, multimedia physics course at the U.S. Naval Academy. The purpose was to develop and examine the first phase in a CMI system: diagnosis, testing, analysis, and record keeping. The system was used on a remote terminal connected by phone lines to a time-shared system. Each week students took a pre-test and a post-test on the objectives for that week. Results of these tests and a student's rating of the confidence he placed in his answers were input to the computer for storage and analysis by processes described here. The first step of CMI was achieved and proved to be efficient and flexible.

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Vinsonhaler, John F.; And Others (1971).  Computer Management of Instructional Resources  Educational Technology, 11, 5. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3077.

Vinsonhaler, John F.; Bass, Ronald K. (1972).  A Summary of Ten Major Studies on CAI Drill and Practice  Educational Technology, 12, 7. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3328.

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Virasai, Banphot, Ed. (1977).  Development of Higher Education in Southeast Asia: Challenges for Tomorrow. 

Five articles on the development of higher education in Southeast Asia are presented. In "Philosophy and Objectives for Higher Education in Southeast Asia," William B. Relf discusses the historical background of education in Southeast Asia, three general purposes for a university, education and national development, future needs, recommendations concerning educational planning, learning and teaching methods, educating for employment, and adult education. In "New Approaches to Teaching and Learning in Higher Education," Chai Hon-Chan considers pressure for change in higher education in Southeast Asia, the need to establish course objectives, incentives and rewards for teachers, and possibilities and problems of instructional radio, instructional television, programmed instruction, and future prospects for new approaches. In "University Research and Service to Society in the Southeast Asian Context," Niphon Kantasewi considers future needs for research in Southeast Asia, responsibilities in research, research in natural science and technology, the social sciences and related fields, the humanities, and the university role in assisting the public to solve problems. In "Innovations in the Management of Higher Education in Asia," Victor M. Ordonez discusses the concern for accountability, the adoption of management technologies and budgetary mechanisms, the greater utilization of professionally prepared administrators, and the growing interdependence among subsectors of higher education.

Virgin, A. E. (1976).  The Future: Some Thoughts from the Literature. 

This document reviews what the literature has to say about predicting the future of education, about the role of human values in affecting that future, and about the role of educational technology in the future. A review of current trends in Ontario is also presented. The literature reviewed suggests that teachers can control the future to a greater extent than they do now; that tools such as the Delphi Technique are available to help develop descriptions of alternative futures in terms of values, needs, and conditions; and that, to date, an extremely small portion of the educational dollar has been spent on long-term planning.

Virgo, Julie A.; Hody, George L. (1976).  Computer-Based Instruction and the Health Sciences Library  Journal of Medical Education, 51, 8.

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Vit

Vitelli, John L. (1972).  Computer and Television: A Joint Venture for Education  Educational Technology, 12, 5. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3503.

Vitrogan, David (1975).  The Role of the Administrator in the Development of a Self-Paced, Personalized System of Instruction  Educational Technology, 15, 8. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 5142.

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Voe

Voegel, G. H. (1976).  Two Hundred Down, Thirty to Go: Future Trends in Education  Community College Frontiers, 4, 3. 

Reviews the past, present, and future uses of technology in education.

Voegel, George H. (1971).  A Suggested Schema for Faculty Commission Pay in Performance Contracting  Educational Technology, 11, 1. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3140.

Voegel, George H. (1975).  Some Value Considerations  New Directions for Community Colleges, 3, 1. 

Discusses the values of instructional technology to education. The author recommends that instructional technology be considered as an efficient means of adding learning options for the student, rather than as an institutional end in itself.

Voegel, George H., Ed. (1975).  Using Instructional Technology. New Directions for Community Colleges, No. 9. 

This sourcebook indicates the range of instructional technology currently being used in community colleges. Issues discussed are: overcoming the barriers to faculty involvement by organizing the staff and creating an effective reward system for instructional development; how a learning resources center can assist instructors in applying instructional technology; using modules, audiotutorials, and contracts to individualize learning; how a public television station and a community college can cooperate; reaching students who cannot come to campus through a touch-tone dial-access information retrieval system; how one college developed a complete package of instructional materials for underprepared chemistry students; expanding the learning resources center to become the hub of the college; developing fair policies of copyright and ownership of college-developed materials; applying industrial research and development procedures to education; the importance of cognitive mapping; and the recurring issues in employing instructional technology. A review of additional pertinent literature and a bibliography are also provided. Contributors include: John H. Carmichael, Gloria Terwilliger, Michael H. Parsons, Richard W. Brightman, Boyd M. Bolvin, Louis J. Kotnick, Gary T. Peterson, Marshall Fisher, Marion Neil, Elizabeth Rinnander, and George H. Voegel.

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Voichick, Jane; Steele, Sara (1974).  The Phonoviewer as an EFNEP Teaching Method: Overall Conclusions. 

Final conclusions of a nationwide study of the use of the phonoviewer in the Expanded Foods and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) are given to supplement data and specific conclusions in two earlier reports. Based on mailed questionnaires returned from EFNEP coordinators, nutrition specialists, and a sample of county home economists augmented by a study of use by EFNEP aides and reaction of youth and adult programs participants, it is held that the phonoviewer has justified the investment in purchase of instruments and shows and the development of shows. Specific findings about the use of instruments and shows, along with user reaction, are given. Seventeen conclusions summarized the directors' recommendations for further implementation of the program. | [FULL TEXT]

Voigt, Melvin J. (1970).  The Undergraduate Library; The Collection and its Selection. 

There is a direct relationship between the care with which the book collection is developed and the success of the library. Questions which must be answered before developing a selection policy statement include: How large, broad or intensive should the periodical collection be? What should the policy be on back files of periodicals? On periodical indexes? Also basic questions on audio materials must be answered. A policy statement must also take into account the hard facts of what an institution can and will do in supporting the program. In addition, the policy statement should spell out the methods of selection development to be used, including the extent and manner in which faculty and nonlibrary staff will be used. Initial undergraduate collections vary in size from 15,000 to 60,000 volumes, with maximums expected ranging from 62,900 to 200,000. The size of the institution, availability of research collections and other libraries and the nature of educational programs are factors which help govern the size and nature of the undergraduate library collection.

Voigt, Melvin J. (1975).  Advances in Librarianship; Vol. 5. 

Major themes in library science for 1975 are discussed in depth in a collection of nine writings by ten prominent library figures from the United States, Spain, and France. The articles are titled: (1) international information systems; (2) national planning for library and information services; (3) statistics that describe libraries and library service; (4) coordination of technical services; (5) trends in library education--United States; (6) technologies of education and communication; (7) audiovisual services in libraries; (8) sound recordings; and (9) joint academic libraries. All articles have references and the book has author and subject indexes.

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Volk, John L. (1974).  Interactive Television Experiment in Reston, Virginia  Educational Technology Systems, 3, 1. 

Paper describes the Reston, Virginia, interactive television demonstration. It details how the system is put together, what the results have been to date, and what the plans are for the future.

Volker, Roger; And Others (1971).  Using Instructional Media; A Guidebook to Educational Media Education 305B. 

Designed for use in an education course in techniques that teachers use in presenting materials to a class, this guidebook consists of detailed descriptions of the operation and instructional utility of a wide range of educational media. The first section provides an introduction to the course and includes information about course objectives, equipment available, assignments, and grading. Other sections center upon instructional displays, behavioral objectives and scripting, still photography, motion photography and video taping, visual literacy and spirit duplicated materials, transparencies and the overhead projector, and audio taping and equipment. Each section is fully illustrated and has detailed instruction.

Vollbrecht, John (1974).  Will Future Media Centers be Built Around Computers?  Audiovisual Instruction, 19, 5. 

A discussion of the prospects for widespread use of computers for booking, routing and billing media orders.

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von Braun, Wernher (1975).  ATS-6 and the Future  Journal of Aerospace Education, 2, 6. 

Emphasizes the beneficial application of tools developed as a result of the space program in communications and education. Explains the use of a communication satelite, the ATS-6, in telemedicine and individualized instruction.

vonFeldt, James R. (1978).  A National Survey of the Use of Computer Assisted Instruction in Schools for the Deaf.  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 7, 1. 

This survey of the use of computer assisted instruction in schools for the deaf identified 34 systems with a total of 408 terminals, predominantly in elementary and secondary schools for the deaf; 28 of these computer systems are strictly used for CAI.

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Vriend, John (1973).  A Fully Equipped Computer-Assisted Group Counseling Research and Training Lab.  Educational Technology, 13, 2. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 4367.

Vriend, John; Dyer, Wayne W. (1973).  A Case for a Technology of Group Counseling and Delineation of Major Group Categories  Educational Technology, 13, 1. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2100.

Vriend, John; Dyer, Wayne W. (1974).  Vital Techniques in Effectively Conducting Initial Counseling Interviews  Educational Technology, 14, 10. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3738.

Vriend, John; Dyer, Wayne W. (1976).  Schools Fail to Promote Student Self-Development: The Case for Deliberate Psychological Education  Educational Technology, 16, 12. 

The emphasis here is on the need for affective education rather than on specific 'How-to's.' The concerned educator is the intended audience, and powerful arguments for including DPE in the school are offered as ammunition for persuading educational decision-makers.

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Vroman, H. William (1975).  An Application of the Nominal Group Technique in Educational Systems Analysis  Educational Technology, 15, 6. 

Describes the Nominal Group process and how it allows management information staff to develop a bank of information about innovative goals of the organization or the problems.

Vroman, H. William; Watson, Hugh J. (1974).  Innovation, Hierarchy and Management Information Systems  Educational Technology, 14, 4. 

Article discusses hierarchy and its implications for designing effective management information systems for educational organizations.

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