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Educational Technology | F

Fab

Fabiano, Robert F. (1975).  Once Upon a Time in the Ancient Land of Academia  Educational Technology, 15, 8. 

A satire on the progressive versus the conservative viewpoints in teaching methods and research.

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_____. (1972).  Factsheets Describing National Membership and Service Organizations Concerned with Educational Communications. 

The organizations listed here are the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Great Plains National Instructional Television Library, Joint Council on Educational Telecommunications, the National Association of Educational Broadcasters, National Friends of Public Broadcasting, Inc., National Instructional Television Center, National Public Radio, and Public Broadcasting Service. The information listed for each of these is the address and telephone, the major administrative units and executives, and the role and major services of the organization.

_____. (1974).  Faculty in an Innovative Community College. 

This paper reports the findings of an attempt to identify elements in one community college that influenced teachers' choice of instructional methods and styles. The college studied was an innovative institution, focusing special attention on audio-tutorial instruction (multimedia systems), computer assisted instruction, and instructional television. Using the participant observation method, the process by which 125 full-time faculty members accepted or rejected innovations was examined. The faculty members are categorized into four types: Uninhibited Innovators, Hesitant Innovators, Uninvolved Non-Innovators, and Alienated Non-Innovators. The results of the study focus on the need of the faculty for a sense of autonomy in their work situation and the support and protection of their peers before adopting instructional practices foreign to them.

Fackelman, Mary P.; Krekel, Kimberly A. (1976).  International Telecommunications Bibliography. 

This annotated bibliography covers international telecommunications, concentrating on reports with possible policy implications for the Office of Telecommunications Policy and other government/industry agencies. Since the scope of international telecommunications policy is broad, the bibliography attempts to provide a framework useful in defining the U.S. role or potential roles within the international telecommunications community. The framework reflects the general scope of international telecommunications that may be of importance to U.S. policy makers, including articles on the technology, economics, industry structures, and legal aspects of telecommunications systems worldwide. An international telecommunications community is inferred, its moods suggested, and its future predicted by various sources. Multinational and international telecommunications programs are documented, as well as telecommunications programs worldwide with only domestic applications. Articles cited on telecommunications in developed and developing countries include both domestic and international applications, emphasizing programs where economic support has originated outside the country. U.S. relationships with these telecommunications systems are documented in several chapters. This is the first of an anticipated series of annual bibliographies for the international telecommunications community and includes sources up to November 1975.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Fag

Fagan, Edward R. (1970).  New Designs in English  Clearing House, 44, 6. 

If English as a subject in America's high schools is to survive through the next decade, new developments must be explored and utilized by teachers of this subject.

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Fai

Fairweather, Malcolm (1976).  Simulation Games: A Systematic Approach  Educational Technology, 16, 1. 

A discussion of how to construct simulation games for all subject areas in a systematic manner.

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Fal

Falus, I.; McAleese, Raymond (1975).  A Bibliography of Microteaching  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 12, 1. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2208.

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Farley, Alan; Moore, David M. (1975).  Utilizing Self-Instruction or Learning Packages: Teacher and Student Implications  Educational Technology, 15, 8. 

Article illustrates the types of activities which may occur in a learning package oriented curriculum.

Farley, Marilyn (1974).  Media Applications in Medical Education  Educational Broadcasting, 7, 2. 

A report on the activities of six university instructional media departments on the trends their directors note toward individualized instruction, education technology and continuing education programs, on technological advances they would like to see and on equipment they expect to purchase.

Farmer, James A., Jr.; Dravecky, Evelyn (1971).  The "Turned On" Teacher and Beyond: Education as a Socio-Technical System. 

As used in education, the term "turned on" teacher means a teacher who is "with it" in being emotionally, intellectually and existentially involved with: (1) the subject matter being taught; (2) the contemporary scene; and (3) what is relevant for students. Samples of administrators and teachers interviewed stressed personal characteristics and interpersonal abilities as being of primary importance for the "turned on teacher." Of striking note was the emphasis on the underlying concept of empathy as a crucial characteristic. As described by the sample, the excitement which is within and which is generated by a "turned on" teacher is not to be confused with the excitement which might be fabricated by new instructional technology. A theoretical framework for conceptualizing and interrelating "turned on" teaching and technological advances in education may be available in what is called socio-technical systems analysis.

Farnes, Nicholas (1976).  An Educational Technologist Looks at Student-Centered Learning  British Journal of Educational Technology, 7, 1. 

An evaluation of the student-centered learning program at Great Britain's Open University is presented.

Farquhar, Barbara B.; Votaw, Robert G. (1978).  Current Trends in Computer-Based Education in Medicine  Educational Technology, 18, 4. 

Important current trends in the use of computer technology to enhance medical education are reported in the areas of simulation and assessment of clinical competence, curriculum integration, financial support, and means of exchanging views and scientific information.

Farquhar, J. A.; And Others (1970).  Application of Advanced Technology to Undergraduate Medical Education. Memorandum. 

Advanced technology will have a great effect on medical education because it can speed up medical education and boost the quality of instruction without straining the capacity of medical schools to expand or driving costs to unreasonable levels. Six examples of an application of advanced technology to medical education are described in this report: computer assisted instruction (CAI), computer assisted self evaluation, ultra-microfiche retrieval and display, electronic video recording (EVR), and two multimedia aids known as the "Clinical Encounter Simulator" and the "Patient Management Decision Aid". The goals of applying technology to medical education are discussed, and questions are raised that must be answered prior to any attempt at widespread implementation of the systems described. The remainder of the report is concerned with sketching out directions for future research. Two examples of the form and possible results of such research are provided. An appendix estimates the costs of setting up a microform medical library system with equipment for search, retrieval, and use of information.

Farrell, Edmund J. (1971).  Deciding the Future: A Forecast of Responsibilities of Secondary Teachers of English, 1970-2000 AD. 

This document is a slightly revised version of author's Ph.D. Dissertation, "A Forecast of Responsibilities of Secondary Teachers of English 1970-2000 A.D., with Implications for Teacher Education" (ED 049 253). A study in two parts, Part I presents the need for future planning in education; discusses briefly methodologies for forecasting the future; explains why the Delphi technique was chosen for forecasting; describes the selection of experts to participate in the study; examines forces within the society that may affect the future functioning of education as an institution. Part II presents the forecasts of panelists in learning theory, educational technology, secondary curriculum, and English; and discusses some general implications of the study for programs of teacher education and some specific implications for the preservice education of secondary teachers of English. (This document previously announced as ED 053 138.) | [FULL TEXT]

Farrugia, Charles (1975).  Intellect: The Cinderella Element in Educational Technology  British Journal of Educational Technology, 6, 1. 

Paper proposes how the impact of the mechanical and intellectual elements of technology on, and their application to education can be exploited to evolve a technology within education.

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Fascione, Daniel R.; Penry, Edward B. (1971).  Establishing a Pupil Data Bank: Conflict Between Theory and Practice  Educational Technology, 11, 11. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2860.

Faseler, Len; West, Philip T. (1975).  The Media Administrator: Instructional Leader of the Future?  Educational Technology, 15, 7. 

A discussion of the changing role of the school principal, one more ideally compatible with curricula change, administrative excellence, and the evolving education system.

Fasenmyer, Mary S. (1970).  Educational Realities for a New Decade  Momentum, 1, 2. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2465.

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Fauquet, M. (1978).  Example of a Multi-Media Package for Use in Teacher Training.  Educational Media International

Discusses a multimedia educational package on the use of closed-circuit television for observing and analyzing teaching situations, to be used by staff at pilot training programs. The principles of this package are used to discuss teacher training, with special focus on the use of educational technology.

Faure, Edgar (1973).  Education and the Destiny of Man  Out-of-School Scientific and Technical Education, 3, 2-5. 

Discusses educational problems facing both the developed and developing countries and side effects of present technological developments to illustrate the importance of regarding man's learning as lifelong activities for the whole society. Suggests that the educational technology be widely used and developed through international cooperation and world solidarity.

Faust, Stephen M. (1974).  Instructional Systems Technologists as Content Specialists: A New Concept in Instructional Development  Audiovisual Instruction, 19, 10. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3785.

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Fawdry, Kenneth (1973).  EBU Experience in the Coproduction of Educational Programmes  Educational Media International, 4, 14-18. 

A look at how the program committee of the European Broadcasting Union developed an international production program for educational television.

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Fea

_____. (1970).  Feasibility of Computer-Assisted Elementary Keyboard Music Instruction. Final Report. 

A study was made to determine the feasibility, infeasibility, or deferred feasibility of adapting a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) system to an existing non-automated program for providing keyboard experiences to elementary school children. A systematic task-by-task approach was adopted for the study: learning objectives were assessed, the present keyboard experience program (in Wichita Public Schools) was studied at first hand, an analysis was made of the applicability of existing computer-related technology, preliminary design alternatives were formulated, and designs were subjected to feasibility testing and evaluation. Three computer-based designs were developed, tested, and evaluated: an instructional management system, an advanced CAI system, and an intermediate approach. Significant conclusions which emerged from the study include that a CAI keyboard experiences system is susceptible only in part to the solutions being found for CAI systems in other educational areas, that the interactive CAI keyboard systems is most technologically feasible but is not economically feasible, and that a keyboard experience program involving automated non-computerized methods for individualized instruction is both economically and educationally feasible, and should be implemented.

Feasley, Charles E. (1979).  A Thinking and Doing Model of Competency-Based Education.  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 8, 1. 

Merges the following into a model: various writer's refinements to systematic instructional design and development and the author's practical experience. There are four phases: competency identification, overall design, production, and evaluation, each of which is broken into a series of steps for thinking and doing.

Featherstone, Joseph (1971).  Schools Where Children Learn. 

This collection of essays from "The New Republic" offers a fresh look at America's current educational crisis. The approach used in the English primary schools is analyzed and found valuable. Also detailed are varieties of sound educational practice found in a New Zealand primary school, in a Colorado classroom, and in a Harlem street academy for high school drop outs. In all these new learning environments, the author finds common threads of freedom, a new conception of the teacher's role, an emphasis on standards of workmanship, and an implicit understanding that a full childhood is the best preparation for life. By contrast, several reports emphasize the "shoddiness and confusion" prevalent on the American scene--in the middle class high school, in educational technology, in franchised day care, in the "pathological professionalism" of the educational system.

Featherstone, Phillip (1970).  Educational Technology and the Secondary School Curriculum  J Educ Technol, 1, 2. 

Discusses why educational technology has made little impact on secondary education and outlines a model which uses technology to achieve a more flexible curriculum.

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Fecik, John T. (1975).  The Visual Communication or Graphic Communication Dilemma  Man/Society/Technology, 34, 7. 

The author reviews the history of communication and communications technology, considers differences between "visual communication" and "graphic communication," and comments on "seeds of revolution" in the industry. He offers four components of an educational structure or organization titled "graphic communication" which reflect needed changes in this area of industrial arts.

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Feder, Hubert C. (1976).  The Common Denominator of Learning  Educational Technology, 16, 2. 

The common denominator of learning is conceived as a guideline in organizing the learning material in support of learning continuity. As to its effect, the common denominator is thought of as a habit-forming element in realizing learning as a (continuous) sequence of relative rather than absolute experiences.

Fedo, Michael W. (1972).  North Hennepin's Class of 70's  American Education, 8, 3. 

Senior citizens can perform as well as their younger counterparts when in a classroom.

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Feil, Philip (1975).  Design of the Preclass Instructional Package for Higher Education. 

The Institute for Personal and Career Development (IPCD) provides graduate level instruction in a number of disciplines to groups of individuals who might otherwise not be able to obtain a graduate education. IPCD attempts to provide an alternate program that meets the needs of these individuals by emphasizing controls which would promote more efficient instruction and learning. These include such controls as (1) the compressed schedule; (2) a mastery of prerequisites; (3) course content; (4) instructional strategies; and (5) evaluation. This document highlights the importance of and methods of achieving the mastery of prerequisites through a specially designed preclass instructional package based on the competency-based model of instruction. The package includes an introduction to the course, instructions to the student, a list of course prerequisites stated as performance objectives, performance objectives for the first unit, a study directory, exercises and problems for the unit, self-assessment test, subsequent units, and a list of classroom activities stated as performance objectives. This package is intended to ensure the instructional effectiveness of the classroom sessions and the post class activities.

Feild, William B.; Swenson, Gardner (1972).  The UNIPAC: A Form and Process for Individualizing  Educational Technology, 12, 9. 

A brief description of UNIPAC, a learning package for individualizing instruction, and a discussion of the effectiveness of UNIPAC workshops in promoting in teachers the attitudes and skills conducive to individualization.

Feirer, John L. (1976).  Metric Conversion in Vocational Education. Final Report. Volume II of Two Volumes. 

This volume is the second half of a final report of a project concerned with developing indepth metric teaching units in the areas of carpentry and machine shop, preparing instructional materials to teach metrics in Spanish, and developing three-dimensional metric instructional materials and cassette tapes for persons with reading difficulties and sight handicaps. The volume contains the metric instructional materials developed for persons with reading difficulties and sight handicaps including an article on metrics for the visually impaired, guidelines for developing learning kits to teach metrics to students with low aptitudes or reading difficulties, and a handbook on teaching metrics to the sight handicapped. Conclusions and recommendations from the total project, presented at the end of this volume, emphasize the following: All State and city courses of study in vocational education should be re-evaluated to determine the amount of metrics that should be included in each of these study areas. Plans should be made to provide curriculum makers with up-to-date information on metric standards. Inservice training is essential in a well-planned, coordinated effort of metric conversion in vocational education. Metric materials in foreign languages should be made available to those groups who can use them. Ample funds must be provided in all areas of vocational education to purchase measuring tools and conversion equipment. The metric kits developed for persons with reading difficulty should be reproduced on a commercial basis. The three-dimensional material for persons with sight handicaps should be reproduced in quantity and made available at a low cost to all school programs for the blind. The most common weakness of most curriculum projects is the lack of adequate dissemination. There should be a followup study to refine and reevaluate the materials for persons with reading difficulty and for those with sight handicaps.

Feitler, Fred C.; Lippitt, Lawrence L. (1972).  A Multi-District Organizational Development Effort  Educational Technology, 12, 10. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3303.

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Feldhusen, David; And Others (1975).  Designing Open and Individualized Instruction at the Elementary Level: A Guide for the Individual Teacher  Educational Technology, 15, 1. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2221.

Feldhusen, John F.; And Others (1974).  Designing Instruction to Achieve Higher Level Goals and Objectives  Educational Technology, 14, 10. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3739.

Feldhusen, John F.; And Others (1976).  Is a Lack of Instructional Validity Contributing to the Decline of Achievement Test Scores?  Educational Technology, 16, 7. 

A new concept, instructional validity implies that a test is valid if it can be demonstrated that instruction of sufficient quality and behaviorally matched to the performance demands of the test items was offered.

Feldhusen, John F.; Treffinger, Donald J. (1971).  Psychological Background and Rationale for Instructional Design  Educational Technology, 11, 10. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2874.

Feletti, Grahame I.; Fisher, Lawrence A. (1979).  Evaluation of Process and Product in Medical Education.  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 16, 4. 

Describes the systematic program developed by the faculty of medicine at the University of Newcastle (Australia) for the evaluation of the effectiveness, efficiency, and acceptability of its educational endeavors. Evaluation needs, process, and constraints are discussed, as well as the specific tasks required at the University.

Felker, Daniel B.; Shettel, Harris H. (1975).  A Methodology for Evaluating a Systems Approach to Instructional Technology. 

This study was designed to develop a methodology for evaluating the application of Instructional Technology (IT), conceived of in terms of a systems approach. An idealized model of IT was prepared based on a literature review of current models. The model was matched against basic nursing education programs purporting to use IT. A rating technique was used to measure the "goodness of fit." Strengths and weaknesses of each program are identified as well as general trends in IT use. Six of the most effective programs were selected for validating the methodology. Data supporting the approach is presented.

Fellows, John C. (1975).  Training Operators for Business Computer Processing  Business Education Forum, 29, 6. 

Computer data on the technical level of devices, their speed rates, and computer languages of two Oakland County Michigan area centers' business data processing skill programs are discussed to provide information for other area centers on various hardware, software, and teachware.

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Fen

Fennell, Joseph P.; And Others (1977).  Projection for the Future of Instructional Computing in the Montgomery County Public Schools. 

This report summarizes the findings of a one man-month study of the current status and future direction of instructional computing in the Montgomery County, Maryland, Public Schools including computer assisted instruction, computer managed instruction, computer assisted problem solving, and data processing education. The report is presented in six sections: (1) the approach--a description of the methods used for gathering information; (2) current status of instructional computing in the MCPS system--brief descriptions of the present deployment and use of computer terminals in the schools and the Learner-Centered Management Support System (LCMSS); (3)the future of instructional computing in MCPS--a five year projection for instructional computing and questions about the validity of such predictions; (4) a descriptive analysis of the MCPS computer system; (5) possible future developments in instructional computing, investigating alternatives for expansion and relating costs for these alternative methods; and (6) recommendations summarizing the major findings of the study.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Ferguson, Richard L. (1976).  The Decline in ACT Test Scores: What Does It Mean?  Educational Technology, 16, 6. 

To shed as much light on the declining test score phenomenon as possible, pertinent American College Testing data are presented here in a succinct question and answer format.

Ferguson, Richard L.; Tse-Chi, Hsu (1971).  The Application of Item Generators for Individualizing Mathematics Testing and Instruction. 

Described is a procedure for utilizing a computer to generate domain-referenced tests in mathematics. The procedure can be adapted for use in testing and instructional programs in either an on-line or off-line mode. It requires specification of the objectives of interest in behavioral terms and grouping them into sets that share a common content. Addition, multiplication, and fractions are examples of possible groupings. To implement the procedure, one of the sets of objectives resulting from the grouping process is selected, and item forms representative of the behaviors implied by each objective in the set are specified. Then an item generator is developed that facilitates the construction of items representative of all item forms so identified. Given an on-line computer capability, the authors describe how it is possible to use the proposed item generator for assisting measurement and instruction in an individualized mathematics program.  | [FULL TEXT]

Fernandez-Shaw, Felix (1974).  The New International Telecommunication Convention (ITC) of Malaga-Torremolinos (1973)  EBU Review, 25, 2. 

A report on the International Telecommunication Convention (ITC), held at Malaga-Torremolinos, Spain during September thru October, 1973.

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Fessler, Ralph (1975).  A Model for School-Community Relations  Educational Technology, 15, 11. 

The conceptual model presented, The Perceptual Model of School-Community Consolidations, attempts to explain the nature and extent of philosophical agreement and harmony that exists between the school and its referent groups.

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Fetter, Wayne R. (1978).  An Evaluation Instrument for Instructional Materials.  Educational Technology, 18, 10. 

A form for evaluating various types of instructional materials, including their appropriateness to the learning environment and prior field testing, is presented.

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Feurzeig, Wallace (1978).  Programmer Job Training for the Disadvantaged.  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 7, 3. 

Discusses programer job training programs, designed to give the knowledge, skills, and effective job experience required for placement in entry level business programing jobs, to chronically unemployed, low-income adults who lack marketable skills, but demonstrate the intelligence, competence, motivation, and temperament required to do professional programing work.

Feurzeig, Wallace; And Others (1976).  Higher Order Adaptive Training Systems. Final Report, May 1975-February 1976. 

Instructor diagnosis of pilot trainee errors was studied in the context of instrument flying using a computer simulation system called ORLY. ORLY was used to record student pilot runs on a number of instrument flying tasks. These runs were subsequently replayed to instructor pilots who diagnosed student errors and hypothesized the underlying difficulties. Analysis of these instructor pilot protocols will guide the design of computer-based diagnostic procedures to be incorporated in ORLY.

Feurzeig, Wallace; Lukas, George (1972).  LOGO -- A Programming Language for Teaching Mathematics  Educational Technology, 12, 3. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3535.

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Fichtenau, Robert L. (1976).  Use of Educational Technology by High School Teachers of English  Educational Technology, 16, 2. 

The results of a survey on the use of educational media and technology by high school English teachers is reported.

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Fiddleman, Richard; Gorman, Michael M. (1972).  PMIS: Data Base Design Report  AEDS Journal, 6, 2. 

PMIS is a computer-based planning and management information system for local school districts. This report centers on the PMIS data bases that contain school system data by reviewing the major phases involved in their creation, explaining the factors that caused the unique orientation of the data bases, reviewing the two tasks that comprise the data base design process, and by introducing the data base subsystem through its features and functions.

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Field, Hyman F. (1978).  Delivery Systems: Meeting the Multiple Needs of Diversified Clientele  New Directions for Community Colleges, 6, 1. 

Explores a variety of instructional delivery systems available to community-based colleges and the unique capabilities and limitations of each. Also considers variables influencing the selection of a delivery system, such as instructional requirements, learner characteristics, institutional costs, and ease of administration.

Field, Sydney S. (1972).  Incident at Andover. 

A seminar on how to make education more responsive to our "fast-changing, unstable and incendiary society" was held as part of the North Reading Screen Education Project, at Andover, Massachusetts in November 1969. Conference participants pointed out, for example, that "no one knows how to make a ghetto school work", and that millions of white students are victims of schools "that can't teach kids to read in lily-white suburban areas any better than in black city-center schools", and that of the 3 million students who entered college in the year preceding the seminar, 40% were expected to drop out out within two years. Many participants felt multi-media communications offered the only cure to "the endemic toxicity that is infecting the very lifeblood of our future". To be successful a multi-media instructional system needs three parts: trained teachers who are professionally certified, a scientifically designed curriculum and physical equipment designed to meet established specifications.

Fielden, John (1977).  The Financial Evaluation of NDPCAL  British Journal of Educational Technology, 8, 3. 

The operation and methodology of the external financial evaluation of the National Development Programme in Computer Assisted Learning is outlined, and its three-tier approach to costing is described.

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(1972).  Fifty-Seven of the Best A-V Offerings You'll Find Anywhere  American School Board Journal, 159, 15. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3449.

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Filep, Robert T. (1973).  Open Learning Systems: Toward Humanistic Educational Technology  Educational Technology, 8, 8. 

Author advocates greater use of television and other media within validated educational technology systems called open learning systems.''

Filep, Robert T.; Schramm, Wilber (1970).  A Study of the Impact of Research on Utilization of Media for Educational Purposes. Final Report: Overview. 

For the abstract of the Final Report, see ED 042 064 in this issue of RIE.

Files, Ralph J. (1973).  The ITV System of Rockville Centre  Educational Broadcasting, 6, 1.

 

Fillion, Bryant (1971).  Turning On: The Selling of the Present, 1970  English Journal, 60, 3. 

Advocates teachers' working with students "toward a better understanding of media's personal and social effects, and toward freedom from media addiction"; a paper presented at annual convention of National Council of Teachers of English (Atlanta, November 27, 1970).

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_____. (1972).  Final Report: Time-Sharing Computer Applications in Undergraduate Anthropology at Dartmouth College. 

This document describes several time-sharing computer programs developed by the Department of Anthropology at Dartmouth College for undergraduate instruction in the various sub-fields of anthropology. The programs include teaching programs in elementary general anthropology and general inquiry into cross-cultural research. The teaching programs are similar to programmed instruction. The student is presented with certain concepts, required to master them, and apply them to the solution of set problems. The general inquiry programs permit the formulation of complex hypotheses whose testing requires or permits some form of multivariate analysis. Ten programs are described for the teaching and for the general inquiry program. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1972).  Final Report of the Task Force On Instructional Media. 

The recommendations of the Chico State College Task Force on Instructional Media are presented, along with several supporting position papers. The major recommendations listed are that: 1) all learning resources, such as the library, the media center, and the computer system, should be coordinated into a functioning integrated system; 2) faculty rights and responsibilities with regard to instructional media should be clarified by the Faculty Senate and the administration of the College; 3) technology should remain a tool to be used to achieve learning goals; 4) hardware and facilities should remain as flexible as possible in order to be adaptable to change; and 5) faculty should be kept informed of, and encouraged to participate in, instructional media developments. The 22 systems, operations associated with instructional media, and the role of the faculty with respect to learning and instructional media.

_____. (1973).  Financial Accounting System Based Upon NCES Revised Handbook II. 

This publication describes the development and implementation of a school district financial accounting system based on the concepts and guidelines of the National Center for Education Statistics Handbook II, Revised. The system described was designed by school district personnel to utilize computer equipment and to meet the accounting and management needs of Community High School District 88 in Villa Park, Illinois. This detailed documentation of the District 88 system is intended to serve as a helpful example for other districts that wish to implement Handbook II, Revised, through the use of computers. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1975).  Final Report of the Task Force on Library Manpower and Education to the Council on Library Development. 

In December 1973, the Council on Library Development set up a task force to carry out an integrated study of library manpower and education needs in Wisconsin, and of the resources available to meet those needs. The study was concerned with personnel at all levels, in all types of libraries, media centers, information centers, and similar organizations. Three formal data-gathering processes were developed: a questionnaire to librarians on employment statistics and trends and attitudes toward preservice and continuing library education; a questionnaire for public library board members on their background and perceived education needs; and an interview schedule to use in on-site visits to library/media education programs. Factual data were gathered from a variety of sources for use in developing recommendations and forecasting trends in enrollment in library schools and in employment opportunities for librarians in the state. The task force made 16 recommendations on credentials, library school curriculum and program articulation, continuing education, and the training of library board members. Appendixes to this report provide lists of courses offered in the state's library schools and state legislation of certification requirements.

_____. (1977).  Final Technical Report of the Special Office for the Visually Impaired. September 1, 1974 through May 31, 1977. 

The two major goals established for the Special Office for the Visually Impaired (SOVI) were to increase the numbers and varieties of materials available for education of the visually handicapped and to provide materials information input to the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS). These goals were supplemented by two additional ones that evolved during the course of the 3-year project. The staff's efforts to attain the preceding goals and objectives focused on 11 of the 23 elements (including to locate usable materials which exist and fulfill identifiable needs) specified in the Special Offices Workscope Elaboration. Results obtained through such efforts included: (1) development and/or adaptation of 63 new products for use by the visually handicapped (with two more under development); (2) identification and abstraction of approximately 12,000 materials appropriate for use by the visually handicapped for entry into NIMIS; (3) participation of project and staff in three Area Learning Resource Centers related to training activities; and (4) participation of project staff in the development of a questionnaire for use in the National Needs Assessment. Generally, the project was successful as each of the stated goals and related objectives was attained.

Finch, Curtis R. (1971).  A Design for Course Development in Occupational Education  Educational Technology, 11, 3. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3093.

Finch, John M. (1972).  An Overview of Computer-Managed Instruction  Educational Technology, 12, 7. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3327.

Findlay, Donald C. (1971).  Application of the CIPP Evaluation Model to a Center with Multiple Program Areas and Levels  Educational Technology, 11, 10. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2890.

Fink, Albert H.; Brownsmith, Keith (1977).  Intensive Inservice Training Program for Teachers of the Seriously Behaviorally Disordered (Project INSTEP). Final Report 52.1. 

The document provides the final report of Project INSTEP (Inservice Training Programs), a pilot project to develop, implement, and evaluate an innovative inservice training program for public school teachers of the behaviorally disordered. An introductory chapter reviews program objectives and rationale. A second chapter outlines components of effective inservice training, including cooperative planning with teachers, accessibility of multiple resources, and reinforcement for professional development, Chapter III discusses the development of performance-based programs, application of computer technology to special education personnel development, and application of instructional development technology as they relate to development of the model. Reported in Chapter IV is data on a planning workshop conducted with 12 teachers to determine what behaviors were typical problem behaviors of emotionally disturbed children, what priorities teachers placed on the modification of specific behaviors, and what skills the teachers deemed as most critical for effective interaction with emotionally disturbed students. Among conclusions outlined in a final chapter is that field-based training is enhanced through processes which allow teacher definition of skill needs. Among appendixes are a master list of problem behaviors and sociobehavioral skills, a chart of goals and objectives for emotionally disturbed students, and the Socio-Behavioral Interaction System Observer's reference manual.

Finkler, Deana C.; Welsh, David (1979).  Changes in Colleges and University Instructional Practices, 1954-1979. 

An instructional methods survey of full-time faculty at five midwestern colleges and universities was conducted during the fall of 1978 in an effort to provide both a description of current instructional practices and an historical perspective on their development over the last quarter century. The survey consists of a list of 42 method items including teaching methods, standards for evaluation of student performance, and 15 types of tasks. Results concerning methods of teaching and grading used by approximately 1,000 faculty are discussed in the context of institutional and disciplinary perspectives and are compared to the results of a similar survey of midwestern and southwestern institutions published in 1954. Results indicate that institutional size is not related to the rank order or frequency of use of the different teaching and grading methods. However, disciplinary affiliation was moderately influential on order and frequency of use of instructional practices. Discipline-associated trends involving the sciences and education faculty are discussed. Relationships between teaching methods and evaluation standards are also described. The most frequently used teaching methods in the current survey were similar to those indicated in the results of the 1954 survey. A comparative analysis of results from these two surveys is included. The survey methodology, results, and questionnaire are appended.

Finley, Robert M. (1970).  Stop Stumbling over Technology. A Superintendent's View  Nat Sch, 86, 4. 

Points out the problems of as well as the opportunities in new hardware and software, indicating that barriers to using technology effectively are found in the human element, and in the isolated, traditional position of many schools.

Finley, Robert M. (1970).  Changes Required in Patterns of School Organization, Management, Staffing, Facilities, and Finance for Technology to Effectively Improve Instruction. 

For practical application of educational technology in public school education, fundamental changes in education and administration must take place. Schools should have communications centers to include information from the outside world and to make wider use of the new technology. The success of the new technology in public schools depends on the acceptance and training of personnel. This should also be done within the school as an inservice program. Deterrents to the success of educational technology in schools include cost, parental resistance to change, and administrative problems. | [FULL TEXT]

Finn, Peter (1977).  Report on Development and Validation of Utilization Materials to Accompany Two Series of U.S. Office of Education Alcohol Education Films. 

This report records the development and validation by Abt Associates, Inc. of utilization materials developed to accompany the two U.S. Office of Education film series, Jackson Junior High and Dial A-L-C-O-H-O-L. The first section describes the process by which the nine project products were developed. These products include the following: (1) a teacher manual (with spirit masters), student booklet, and promotional brochure designed to accompany each set of films; (2) an adult group leader guide, with promotional brochure, designed to facilitate use of the films with adult audiences; and (3) a teacher training booklet for using the films with new teachers and inservice teachers enrolled in alcohol education courses. Each curriculum project was reviewed by a panel of consultants, and the printed materials were pilot tested. The second section consists of eight appendixes which provide the results of the evaluation and field testing.

Finn, Peter; And Others (1975).  A Teacher Manual for Use with Jackson Junior High: A Film Series for Grades Five Through Eight on Alcohol Education. 

This Teacher Manual is designed to help the teacher use the four films with maximum effect. While students will learn a great deal just by viewing them, it is essential to involve students in preparatory and follow-up activities using the facts and issues presented in the films. The Teacher Manual provides the following materials to help use the films effectively: (1) learning activities which preview important points the films make, highlight easily missed points, and reinforce and expand on points which the films make; (2) information about alcohol and alcohol education; (3) resources for obtaining additional information about alcohol and alcohol education; and (4) spirit masters for student handouts to accompany selected activities.

Finn, Peter; And Others (1975).  Kids and Alcohol: Facts and Ideas about Drinking and Not Drinking. 

This student booklet is to be used in conjunction with the Teacher Manual and films of the Jackson Junior High series. It presents facts and illustrations on the use of alcohol, and is intended to aid young people in deciding whether or not to drink. The booklet is divided into the following parts: (1) Introduction; (2) Alcohol's Effects; (3) Kids and Drinking; (4) Drinking Problems; (5) Alcohol Crossword Puzzle; (6) For More Information About Alcohol; and (7) Glossary.

Finn, Peter; And Others (1977).  Dial A-L-C-O-H-O-L and Jackson Junior High: Adult Group Leader Guide. 

This guide is designed to assist those helping professionals who work with adults in the area of alcohol education. Although originally developed for use with junior and senior high school students, the materials presented contain pertinent information about alcohol use, deal with significant issues related to alcohol abuse, and provide examples of behavior associated with drinking. Although the films which accompany this guide are not included, synopses of the films are provided together with sufficient information to make this guide a useful educational tool by itself. The content of the guide is organized in the following manner: (1) learning activities with foci on previews, highlights, and follow-up procedures; (2) information about alcohol and alcohol education; and (3) resources for obtaining further information about alcohol and alcohol education.

Finn, Peter; Lawson, Jane (1975).  Alcohol: Pleasures and Problems. 

This student booklet is to be used in conjunction with the Teacher Manual and films of the DIAL A-L-C-O-H-O-L series. It presents facts and illustrations on the use of alcohol, and is intended to aid young people in deciding whether or not to drink. This booklet is divided into the following parts: (1) Introduction; (2) The Enjoyment of Drinking; (3) Alcohol's Effects on the Mind and Body; (4) Drinking and Driving; (5) Problem Drinking and Alcoholism; and (6) Glossary.

Finn, Peter; Lawson, Jane (1976).  A Teacher Manual for use with DIAL A-L-C-O-H-O-L: A Film Series for Grades Nine through Twelve on Alcohol Education. 

This manual is designed to enable teachers to use the four DIAL A-L-C-O-H-O-L films with maximum effect. While students will learn a great deal just by viewing them, it is essential to involve students in preparatory and follow-up activities using the issues and facts presented in the films. The manual provides the following materials to help use the films effectively: (1) learning activities which preview important points the films make, highlight easily missed points, and reinforce and expand on points which the films make; (2) information about alcohol and alcohol education; (3) resources for obtaining additional information about alcohol and alcohol education; and (4) spirit masters for student handouts to accompany selected activities.

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Fisch, A. L. (1972).  The Trigger Film Technique  Improving College and University Teaching, 22, 4. 

Describes a new approach to teaching using a 3-minute film.

Fisch, Alan; Dwyer, Thomas F. (1972).  Interactive Television in the Continuing Education of Foreign-Trained Psychiatrists  Journal of Medical Education, 47, 11. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3432.

Fischer, Floyd B.; Nead, Benjamin M. (1972).  The Potential of Cable Television for Adult Education  NUEA Spectator, 36, 7. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3571.

Fischler, Abraham S. (1970).  The Role of the Professor and Technology in Higher Education  Educ Technol, 10, 2. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2458.

Fishburne, Robert Purdy, Jr. (1971).  A Comparison of a Programmed and a Nonprogrammed Text on Evolution for the Fifth Grade. 

Pupil learning about evolution under different types of instruction is examined. A branching style program in which written responses were required was compared with a program in which the same material was presented in straight narrative style. The project compiled and analyzed test results from 115 fifth-grade students. The students were divided into two groups, one of which was assigned a programmed text on evolution; the other was assigned a parallel narrative version. Results from a posttest and retention test indicated the programmed text to be significantly superior to the nonprogrammed text in teaching elementary school students about evolution. The results of a questionnaire on attitudes of the children toward presentation of the material on evolution indicated that they viewed both texts favorably, with slightly greater preference for the programmed text. The author concludes that the overall favorable attitude of the students to both texts could possibly be attributed to a novel approach. Tables and references on works relating to programmed instruction, audiovisual communication, and learning processes are included.

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Fitz, Raymond; And Others (1978).  An Integration of Normative Models for Environmental Education. 

This report summarizes the approach taken to construct a normative model of environmental education. Three sections are included in the report. The first section describes the background of the model including the project context and the purpose of the model. The second section describes the method of constructing the model. The third section describes the resultant normative model and includes numerous figures portraying the model and its subsystems. Appendices provide specific data on elements of the model. | [FULL TEXT]

Fitzgerald, Joseph (1973).  Educational Technology: Aid for the Classroom Teacher of Reading  Educational Technology, 1, 9. 

Some practical suggestions on how educational technology can help the classroom teacher who teaches reading.

Fitzgerald, William M.; Vance, Irvin E. (1970).  Other Media and Systems  National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Yearbook (33rd), 110-133, 70. 

Discussed are new media being used in classroom mathematics instruction; television, computers, programed materials, films, games, manipulative materials.

Fitzharris, Joseph (1973).  Slide/Sound Projects in History Classes  Audiovisual Instruction, 18, 9. 

At the College of St. Thomas, the initiation of a sound/slide project requirement in the introductory history course solved several chronic problems. Student interest, traditionally low, picked up dramatically. In addition, the meager supply of adequate courseware was supplemented, for the project resulted in some excellent productions which have been added to the standard curriculum.

Fitzpatrick, Edmund W. (1970).  Model for Designing a System to Individualize Instruction and Guarantee Learning. Final Report. 

This final report concerns a pioneering, three-year curriculum development project dedicated to translating recent learning theory and laboratory findings into operational practice in an existing educational institution. This project produced a highly successful and unique course that teaches two semesters of economics that students can master in from six weeks to one semester's time. In the course, students negotiate individual learning contracts with instructors, making decisions on what they will study, what media they will use, and how fast they expect to progress. Detailed performance specifications were prepared first, and then media were selected and materials developed that would most effectively and efficiently meet those specifications. The report explains how the course was developed, including the rationales, methods, and procedures which were empirically tested. Only a few educational development projects comparable to this in scope and goals have been conducted. None appears to have been documented in the form of developmental model for use by others, as is done here. (Certain pages may not be reproducible due to marginal legibility.)

Fitzpatrick, Edmund W. (1970).  Individualizing Instruction and Guaranteeing Learning. 

This final report concerns a pioneering, three-year curriculum development project dedicated to translating recent learning theory and laboratory findings into operational practice in an existing educational institution. This project produced a highly successful and unique course that teaches two semesters of economics that students can master in from six weeks to one semester's time. In the course, students negotiate individual learning contracts with instructors, making decisions on what they will study, what media they will use, and how fast they expect to progress. Detailed performance specifications were prepared first, and then media were selected and materials developed that would most effectively meet those specifications. The report explains how the course was developed, including the rationales, methods and procedures which were empirically tested. Only a few educational development projects comparable to this in scope and goals have been conducted. None appears to have been documented in the form of developmental model for use by others, as is done here.

Fitzpatrick, Edmund W. (1973).  Computing Cost-Effectiveness in a Public School System  Educational Technology, 13, 12. 

Article deals with a method developed for generating or computing cost-benefits and cost-effectiveness data.

Fitzpatrick, Jody (1979).  The Use of Satellite Technology in Education: An Evaluation Perspective. 

This discussion of research and evaluation issues in the application of satellite communications to education highlights the potential uses of this technology for the educator and points out what educational researchers and administrators can learn from past endeavors. The major projects known collectively as the Health/Education Telecommunications Experiments (HET)--conducted as a joint venture of NASA and HEW--are reviewed, including the Alaska education and health demonstrations, the Appalachian Educational Satellite Project (AESP), the Rocky Mountain Educational Project Satellite Technology Demonstration (STD), the Veteran's Administration experiments, and the Washington-Alaska-Montana-Idaho (WAMI) experiments. The SITE experiment in India is briefly discussed as an example of satellite communications in another country. Conclusions from ATS-6/HET experiments are related to future uses of telecommunications and criteria for evaluating satellite technology in education are offered. | [FULL TEXT]

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Flake, Janice L. (1975).  Interactive Computer Simulations for Teacher Education  Educational Technology, 15, 3. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 5243.

Flanagan, John C. (1970).  How Instructional Systems Will Manage Learning  Nat Sch, 86, 4. 

Discusses trends toward the systems approach in education including the development of effective instructional systems in government and industry; the introduction of teaching machines, programed learning, and computer- assisted instruction; and the increase in both the amount and sophistication of educational research and development.

Flanagan, John C. (1972).  The PLAN System as an Application of Educational Technology  Educational Technology, 12, 9. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 1887.

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(1977).  Flexibility Is the Message at Temple's Media Center  American School and University, 49, 6. 

The new media learning center has a flexible system that permits students to advance at their own paces, while at the same time lending itself to more formal, teacher-directed instruction.

Flechsig, Karl-Heinz (1972).  Bildungstechnologie und Curriculumentwicklung (Educational Technology and the Development of Curricula)  Programmiertes Lernen, 9, 3. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 1903.

Fleischer, Eugene B. (1975).  Bibliographic Citations for Nonprint Materials; a Manual for Writers of Term Papers and Theses. Preliminary Edition. 

A manual for cataloging nonprint materials reflects the recent agreement among authorities in the fields of library science and educational technology on cataloging rules, including terminology and order of entry. Written to produce citations compatible with established footnote and bibliographic forms, this manual can be used as a companion text to any style manual for writing scholarly papers. The two main sections cover (1) general rules for footnotes and bibliographic citations and (2) specific rules for entry of the elements of the collation. The latter section includes representative samples of footnotes and bibliographic citations for all nonprint media. A thirteen-item bibliography and a glossary of abbreviations are included.

Fleming, Malcolm L. (1970).  Perceptual Principles for the Design of Instructional Materials. Final Report. 

The designer of instructional materials makes many decisions that are probably based on evidence that is unreliable. More reliable evidence, based on perceptual and media research, has not been available to him in his own language. In this project a search of perceptual literature since 1960, and a search of media studies at the ERIC Clearinghouse for Educational Media and Technology at Stanford University are carried out, and the information collated analyzed to derive tenable principles and generalizations that can be used by practitioners who design instructional messages. A crucial objective of the project was to disseminate these principles to the designers of instructional materials. | [FULL TEXT]

Fleming, Malcolm L. (1979).  Relating Behavioral Science Research to Practice: What, Why, How. 

The problems of relating research to practice are discussed in the context of what, why, and how. The what of recent research is illustrated by examples which suggest that media-related research is becoming more rigorous, analytical, and theoretical, and thus more reliable and generally applicable. The why is briefly argued with reference to the greater reliability of research-based information over that learned on the job by an individual practitioner. The how is considered by noting the large available reservoir of relevant findings and by describing a way of cognitively relating the practitioner's questions to the researcher's findings through their common interest in relating instructional conditions to instructional effects. A list of references is provided.  | [FULL TEXT]

Fleming, Malcolm; Pett, Dennis (1972).  Fellowship Program in the Design and Development of Instructional Materials. Final Report. 

A two-year graduate program leading to a specialists's degree was administered to train individuals in the design of instructional materials for elementary, secondary, vocational and special education curricula. The program sought to achieve a multiplier effect by placing its graduates in positions in which they could help other educators to design the instructional software demanded by new technology and also served as a pilot program for other graduate training efforts. Eighteen students constructed individualized programs involving: a) coursework in instructional development, evaluation, the behavioral sciences, administration and curriculum; and b) a year's internship working with a teacher in the field. At the conclusion of the program evaluation indicated that the participants increased their message design skills, process and production skills, and behavioral science knowledge. Their professional growth was also promoted, as evidenced by the fact that most of them planned to begin doctoral programs in instructional systems technology as a preparation for careers as leaders in instructional design and technology. | [FULL TEXT]

Fletcher, J. D. (1975).  Computer Applications in Education and Training: Status and Trends. 

Updating information on various developmental efforts in computer-based training, this report provides information on new developments that may have implications for Navy training. Although projects in the military services are emphasized, major developments in the civilian sector are also reviewed. The range of activities emphasizes the use of computers for teaching and includes a wide variety of computer aids to instruction. Information for this report was gathered from reports supported under a Navy contract and from a continuing survey of other developments in computer-based instruction. It is organized under five major topic headings: (1) military activities, (2) civilian activities, (3) systems developments, (4) current issues in instructional design, and (5) state-of-the-art and Navy training needs. An overview is provided for each of the major topic areas as well as for many subtopic areas. A supporting bibliography is also included.

Fletcher, J. D.; Suppes, P. (1972).  Computer Assisted Instruction in Reading: Grades 4-6  Educational Technology, 12, 8. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3270.

Fletcher, James E. (1972).  How Can We Second-Guess Attention in the Classroom; A Physiological Answer. 

In preparing instructional materials, consideration must be given to the students' attention. Carl Hagfors has conducted a number of experiments measuring the electrodermal response simultaneously from a number of subjects viewing the same materials. When most subjects were attentive there was a large discursion of the recorder pen. When some were attentive and others not, the two effects cancel each other out. Such a technique might be easily adapted to aid in the preparation of instructional materials which gain the attention of nearly everyone. Furthermore, the addition of analog computer circuitry would make it possible to monitor the real-time attention of individual students in a class, and allow modification of presentation to recapture the attention of those students who are not being reached.

Fletcher, Jerry L. (1978).  Maximizing Human Learning and Performance.  Educational Forum, 43, 1. 

Stating that national educational policy increasingly involves the minimum competencies mentality, the author discusses his proposal to investigate the outer limits of human educability, addressing five steps toward creating educational programs to maximize human educability: master patterns, personal patterns, stages of development, educational technology, and cultural support systems.

Fletcher, Jerry L. (1978).  [The Impact of Demography, Migration, New Technologies and the Self-Actualization Movement on the Education System and on the Economic System.] Testimony of Jerry L. Fletcher, Prepared for The Joint Economic Committee Special Study on Economic Change, June 1, 1978. 

Demography, urban to rural migration, new educational technologies, and the human potential movement all impact on education. With the decline in number of school-aged children, schools can try to expand the number of students downward (early childhood education/day care), outward (special education, dropouts), or upward (adults), expand service through use of school facilities for social services, and/or rethink the role of schools. In urban to rural migration, the key distinction is whether migrants want to be in rural areas. Those who do not may try to "urbanize" the area, with detrimental affects on education through consolidation and inappropriate urban-oriented curriculums. Schools, already information poor and technologically backward, may be left behind as information providers as society faces revolutionary technological changes in communication through home computers, video-disc technology, laser-modulated fiber optics, and advanced satellites. The self-actualization movement in progress may influence schools to work toward a balanced development of the full range of human capabilities, addressing motivation to learn. Suggestions for economic policy dealing with each of the four areas are based on data presented. | [FULL TEXT]

Fletcher, R. Kay; Fawcett, Stephen B. (1978).  An Open Learning Center for Low-Income Adults.  Educational Technology, 18, 11. 

An open learning center designed to prepare students for the high school equivalency exam was developed, based on an analysis of the participation requirements of low-income adult learners. The setting, personnel, and mode of operation are discussed, and a flow chart of participant interaction is provided.

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Flinck, Rune (1976).  The Telephone Used in an Experiment of Distance Education at University Level. A Pilot Study. 

In an experiment in distance education conducted at the University of Lund, Sweden, students taking a course in educational technology studied at home with the aid of correspondence material. To help the students, telephone instruction with a tutor was provided. Each telephone conversation was recorded as part of the study. Students had positive opinions about the telephone aspect of the course. They knew that their calls were recorded, but this did not affect them negatively. The telephone calls were interpreted using two different methods of content analysis, and it was found that the most common problems for students on home study were of a limited subject-matter nature actualized by the tutor. Practical, organizational, and administrative problems actualized by the students were of secondary importance.

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_____. (1974).  Florida Library Services and Construction Act; FY 73 Annual Report. 

The Florida 1973 annual report of programs under Title I and Title III of the Library Services and Construction Act gives an overview of expenditures and programs, followed by information on the specific projects including the objectives, accomplishments and failures, special problems or observations about the project and effectiveness of the project in achieving the objectives of the Florida Long-Range Program for Library Service. Title I projects include: administration, Statewide library development, State library agency services, technical processing services, manpower development-career education, Statewide public library systems development, service to the disadvantaged, a library demonstration project for migrants, service to the aged, a drug information project, a project to improve regional resource centers, service to State institutions and service to the blind and physically handicapped. Title III projects were concerned with a communications network, a union list of serials and studying cooperative planning.

Floyd, Jerald D. (1972).  The Computer: An Administrative Dilemma. 

Administrators object to computers for two basic reasons: a refusal to face the problem of computer use and a refusal to pay for computers. Better understanding of what the computer can do helps solve these problems. Students' fears of depersonalization via use of computers must also be dealt with. Possible applications of computers include record storage, use in efficient decision making, computer-assisted instruction, and scheduling. As educators come to understand that computers are simply tools to facilitate teaching and learning, and as they gradually use computers to free themselves of mundane tasks, they also will face new problems, such as the moral and ethical consequences of the policies they choose to implement. The computer itself is neutral, without emotions. The administrator must remember that neither programers nor computers can be decision-makers. Decisions remain the responsibility of the administrator.

Floyd, John R.; Lumsden, D. Barry (1973).  Effects of Frame Size in Teaching Vocabulary Development with Programmed Instruction  Improving Human Performance, 2, 4. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 4068.

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Flynn, John M. (1970).  The Changing Role of the Teacher. Special Issue Introduction  Educ Technol, 10, 2. 

The guest editor of this special issue of "Educational Technology comments on each of the articles included and notes that "the teacher's role is diversified, and it is in a state of transition as a result of the dynamic state of society and the schools.

Flynn, John M. (1972).  Evaluations and the Fate of Innovations  Educational Technology, 12, 4. 

A brief discussion of the need for evaluation of educational innovations and a warning the innovations should not be rejected out of hand because of a poor showing early in their development.

Flynn, John M.; Simco, Edward R. (1974).  Individualizing Evaluations in Individualized Learning  Educational Technology, 14, 11. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3758.

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(1972).  Focus on Visual Literacy  Reading Newsreport, 7, 2. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3389.

_____. (1976).  Focus on the Future: A Report of the Interlibrary Cooperation Planning Institute (Columbus, Ohio, October 26-28, 1975). 

A summary of speeches and discussions from the Ohio Interlibrary Cooperation Planning Institute includes the reports and opinions of library leaders and decision makers from academic, institution, public, school, and special librarians. The focus is on: long range planning for multitype library cooperation; the current status and future of networks, cooperatives, and libraries in general; the roles of all types of libraries in future intertype library cooperation; and the components of a statewide multitype library plan. Major presentations cover Ohio's recent interlibrary cooperation experiences; a 1975 reassessment of cooperation; demographic, social, and political changes; changes in the economy and in public library financial support patterns; education trends; the influence of the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science; and strategies for cooperative development. A summary of group discussions, an outline of possibilities for future developments, and a list of participants are included. | [FULL TEXT]

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Foecke, Harold A. (1974).  The Man-made World  Prospects, 4. 

A broad analysis of educational technology attempts to review terminology and to give a few general indications of the direction of a program to develop the technology component of general education.

Foecke, J. F. (1972).  Total Information Educational Systems: Their Concepts and Development  AEDS Journal, 6, 2. 

Discusses the need to analyze and develop concepts of effective data handling when new systems projects are in their initial stages of development. For one such project -- TIES -- the author examines several of these concepts within the framework of the technical capability available and the need of the user. The developmental processes and the procedure logic fundamental to the inception of the system are presented to illustrate how the present level of concept development was attained.

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Fogarty, James S. (1976).  The Tyler Rationale: Support and Criticism  Educational Technology, 16, 3. 

Article examines the various philosophical aspects of the "Tyler rationale," and attempts to weight support and criticism in light of current thought on the matter.

Fogel, Richard Louis (1971).  An Approach for Program Evaluation  Educational Technology, 11, 11. 

This article proposes a conceptual framework for analysis, using some of the ideas embodied in the systems approach, which will enable the investigator to identify the relationships among program operations in a systematic manner, leading to a better understanding of the operations that produce program outputs."

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_____. (1975).  Folk Media in Development.  [Instructional Technology Report] 

This issue is dedicated to folk media. Using Indonesia for his case study, Dr. Nat Colletta analyzes traditional culture as a medium for development. Juan Diaz Bordenave expresses doubts about adapting folk media to development objectives; Susan Hostetler and Arthur Gillette report on uses of the theater to promote development objectives; and Henry T. Ingle reviews three articles on the role of higher education in the development process in Latin America. Conference reports are included from: (1) the 1974 New Delhi Seminar and Workshop on Folk Media, (2) the 1972 IPPF/UNESCO expert group meeting to discuss the integrated use of folk media and mass media in family planning communication programs, and (3) the 1975 East West Communication Institute Seminar on Traditional Media.

Follettie, Joseph F. (1972).  Experimental and Student-System Interactive Instructional Illustrations Pertinent to IDCMS. 

Southwest Regional Laboratory IDCMS (Instructional Development Control and Monitoring System) will be a flexible hardware system for controlling and monitoring instruction and research in the laboratory setting. This paper seeks to introduce potential users to the system and software designers to representative challenges that system exploitation will pose.

Follettie, Joseph F. (1972).  On-Line IDCMS Evaluation of Different Categories of Response. 

A manipulandum-referenced taxonomy for response categories appropriate to primary education is presented. The tenability of automatic on-line evaluation of the different types of response when processing equipment of the sort that probably will be available to Southwest Regional Laboratory is preliminarily evaluated.

Follettie, Joseph F. (1972).  Contingent Instructional Advance: Implications for IDCMS. 

An illustration of modestly-interactive instruction of moderate length--to be administered to six students who start off together--is presented. Implications for IDCMS regarding number of audio programs and video files and extent of looping are preliminarily deduced on the basis of characteristics of the illustrative instructional program.

Follettie, Joseph F. (1972).  Prespecified Event Sequences in Instructional Experiments: Implications for IDCMS. 

Instructional research now in advanced formulation at Southwest Regional Laboratory for Educational Research and Development is used to illustrate what a system of the IDCMS type must be able to do to acceptably support execution of such research. Of particular interest here is the event-control system which allows different subjects who participate in an experimental session under system control to proceed through the sequence at different rates.

Follettie, Joseph F. (1976).  Achievement Information Monitoring in Schools (AIMS): Larger Straws in the Winds of Change. Professional Paper 36. 

The Southwest Regional Laboratory for Educational Research and Development (SWRL) is dedicated to the belief that individual differences among students do not stand in the way of universal quality instructional achievement in the nation's schools. Important steps towards the condition of universal instructionalized achievement are: (1) the explication of instructional proficiencies; (2) the frequent assessment of instructional proficiencies; and (3) the widespread sharing of the findings of proficiency assessment. SWRL believes that the development of the means to provide the availability of proficency assessment information is currently possible although as of yet a base of such information does not exist. Through research and development, formulated here as Achievement Monitoring in Schools (AIMS), SWRL has designed a program of instructionalized achievement monitoring that is cost-beneficial and time-and-resource feasible. AIMS can be justified through study of the following issues: (1) the issue of educational equity and the bases for insuring equitable education; (2) the issue concerning conservation of a teacher's instructional resources when sufficiently frequent proficiency occurs in a classroom equipped to accommodate AIMS; and (3) the issue of cost-attractive hardware and hardware-referenced inputs and outputs that are consonant with the objectives of achievement monitoring. The greatest obstacle to effective and equitable education are the absence of a comprehensive proficiency framework against which instructional status and progress can be assessed, and the absence of a system insuring that pertinent data be collected, retained, and shared. The AIMS program was conceived to provide this framework and data bank.

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Forbes, Raymond L., Jr.; Nickols, Frederick W. (1974).  Educational Technology and Organizational Development: A Collaborative Approach to Organizational Change. 

The basic similarities between educational technology and organizational development provide a powerful rationale for collaboration. The two disciplines are essentially in the same business, that of systematically changing human behavior. System theory and the system model appear to supply the language and the technology through which such efforts could be effected. The Command Action Planning System (CAPS) employed by the U. S. Navy at the Human Resource Management Center, San Diego was successful for two reasons. First, the entire approach was systematic in nature (i.e., environmental demands were identified, outputs specified, functions derived, resources identified, and the process then implemented and modified until performance was satisfactory). Second, the collaboration of educational technologists and organizational development specialists allowed a comprehensiveness of effort that would have otherwise been impossible. The collaboration appears to have been made possible by the cross-disciplinary aspects of system theory and the integrative capabilities of the system model.  | [FULL TEXT]

Forbes, Roy H. (1974).  Cost-Effectiveness Analysis: Primer and Guidelines  Educational Technology, 13, 3. 

A discussion of how cost-effectiveness analysis provides a conceptual framework for analyzing the cost and effectiveness of educational programs.

Forbes, Roy H. (1976).  Assessing Educational Attainments  Educational Technology, 16, 6. 

The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), a project of the Educational Commission of the States, has for the past 7 years been assessing the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of groups of young Americans. NAEP collects data by age, sex, race, geographic region, size and type of community and level of parental education for several learning areas. (JY) Aspect of National Assessment (NAEP) dealt with in this document: Results

Forcier, Richard C. (1973).  Systems Design Team: Personal Relationships in Instructional Development  Educational Technology, 13, 3. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 4342.

Ford, Charles W. (1975).  Mirror, Mirror on the Wall, Who is the Best Teacher of Them All?  Educational Technology, 15, 3. 

A description of a program designed to teach the skills of teaching.

Ford, Nigel (1979).  Study Strategies, Orientations and 'Personal Meaningfulness' in Higher Education.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 10, 2. 

Discusses how learning strategies and study attitudes may imply a student's preoccupation with relatively extrinsic factors and short-term, limited valuing of information and ideas learned. It is suggested that these strategies and attitudes may be detrimentally linked with personal acceptance, valuing, and potential application of what is learned.

Forman, David C.; Chapman, David W. (1979).  Research on Teaching: Why the Lack of Practical Results?  Educational Technology, 19, 1. 

Reviews the evolution of research on effective teaching in an effort to account for the lack of practical findings to assist classroom teachers. Four influences are detailed: teacher qualities vs the nature of teaching, lack of guiding theories/models, methodological problems, and the lack of criterion measures for comparisons.

Forman, David C.; Richardson, Penny (1977).  Course Development by Team: Some Advice on How Many Cooks Does It Take to Spoil the Broth?  Educational Technology, 17, 12. 

What happens when a group of talented, energetic individuals, with diverse backgrounds, values and viewpoints, attempt to collaborate on the development of instructional products?

Forman, David; Richardson, Penny (1976).  The Adult Learner and Educational Television. 

This paper relates recent research findings to conceptual and practical considerations that pertain to educational television for adults. Issues discussed focus on (1) identification of the adult learner, (2) the learning needs of adults, (3) roles television can play in adult education programs, and (4) guidelines for designing programs for adult learners. Studies by the authors on the learning styles of adults are among the research projects cited.

Forsythe, Charles; Cardellino, Earl (1974).  Cable Television and Education: A Position Paper. Based On the Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Learning Resources Association Sponsored CATV and Education Conference, Seven Springs Mountain Resort, Champion, Pa., May 11-12, 1973. 

Cable television (CATV) has often been put to educational uses too quickly, too comprehensively, too superficially, and for the wrong reasons. In Pennsylvania, as in other states, there is a need for a systematic approach to coordinating CATV with other educational resources. The Pennsylvania Department of Education can promote the more effective use of cable by: 1) identifying the educational needs which can be served by CATV; 2) maintaining current information on available cable facilities; 3) designing a plan to provide cable channels to education; 4) encouraging the development of educational programing; 5) providing evaluation services for cable-related activities; and 6) fostering research on new uses of CATV. Cable's technology is powerful and its potential great, but educators must begin to make use of this promise or cable's channels will be given over to other purposes. In order to actualize this potential, educators will have to develop subject matter programs, have their schools wired for cable, explore cost-sharing and facility-sharing options, and confine their requests to realistic programs.

Forsythe, Richard O. (1979).  Instructional Radio: So Good but So Neglected.  Planning for Higher Education, 8

Issues related to the use of radio broadcasting for instructional purposes (such as two-way radio network conferences among doctors) and effectiveness, cost factors, and policy decisions within broadcasting are explored. Suggestions for implementing an instructional program on a school radio station are presented.

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Foskett, D. J. (1975).  Classification and Indexing for Educational Documentation  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 12, 4. 

A look at The London Education Classification, based on facet analysis, and has also been used as the basis for a thesaurus which was the English contribution to the multilingual thesaurus compiled for the EUDISED project of the Council of Europe.

Foss, Keir (1975).  The Status of Professional Studies in Teacher Education: Conflicts Between Intentions and Structures in a College of Education.  [University of Sussex Education Area Occasional Paper] 

This is the report of a study that examined the impact of the institutional structure on the development of the professional studies course at one college, the influence it had on the staff and student commitment and perception of relevance, and the way the structure affected the nature of the program at work. The research data for the study was collected through interviews, questionnaires, participant observation, and college documents. Chapter 1 concerns the formal organization and curriculum of professional studies. It discusses two phases, 1965-72 and 1972-75, in the development of the course. In chapter 2, the focus is on the perception of status and value of professional studies. It contains staff comments on the influence of the structural and organizational features of the college course pattern, and student comments on the competence and commitment of the staff. Chapter 3 contains staff and student comments on the conflicts and anxieties associated with teaching and learning in the professional studies area. (Appended are 14 items including research methods, questionnaires, course patterns, academic structure at the college, unit structure of courses, academic staff structure, staff teaching experience, matriculation patterns, lines of communication, and membership of the Academic Board.)

Foster, Graeme (1970).  Equipping a Science Department with Educational Media  Australian Sci Teachers J, 16, 1. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2427.

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Fothergill, Richard (1971).  News and Views from Colleges and Institutes of Education  Visual Education, 35, 37-38. 

A look at some cases where the work of colleges has been directly aimed at helping schools by providing assistance", loaning equipment and encouraging production of educational resources by staff and students.

Fothergill, Richard (1973).  Resource Centers in Colleges of Education. Working Paper No. 10. 

The establishment of resource centers has been a response to teachers' need for information on the many new curricula and materials which are today part of education. Through visitation and discussion, the activities of 78 resource centers in British colleges of education were reviewed. The resulting analysis of aims, costs, and operations is designed to provide assistance in the planning and implementation of future centers, specifically at colleges of education, but also in schools, teacher centers, and other college and university situations. Aims and functions of such a center are provided in the areas of storage of multimedia materials and provision of information on new curricula in ways that will be of benefit to teachers; production services and equipment for the use of staff, teachers, and students; and the provision of consultants and courses for the guidance of the center's users. Since a full scale center is neither necessary to nor affordable by smaller institutions, a network is proposed to connect small local centers with regional organizations which can provide more sophisticated services with less expense and duplication.

Fotinas, Constantin; And Others (1976).  Research Development and Implementation When an Open System Is Used to Train Educational Media Producers. 

An intensive research program was carried on which aimed at funding a structure in which the open school would make the teaching of cinema and television conform to the principle that school not only prepares students for their life, but is life in itself. Publication of case studies on parameters such as autonomy, needs assessment, learning cycles, values and objectives, and facilitators was projected to result from the research. This paper has three sections: (1) the problems and working hypothesis of an open learning system, (2) theoretical basis for open learning systems, and (3) static analysis of the system. The problems that open courses have brought to school administration, and the implications for reorganizing administration into a service approach and promoting the open system administration in the future are also discussed.

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(1970).  Four A-V Wonders Boards Will Buy in the Seventies  American School Board Journal, 158, 5. 

Discusses four trends in educational technology: casette audio tape recording, simplified videotape recording, random access audio-video systems, and computer assisted instruction systems

Fournier, J. P. (1978).  Educational Technology.  Educational Documentation and Information

Contains an account of the conclusions and recommendations of the International Conference on Economic Analysis for Educational Technology Decisions (June 1978), as well as an annotated bibliography of 26 working documents, and a separate annotated listing of approximately 350 articles, documents, books, and journals organized by types of clientele.

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Fox, G. Thomas, Jr.; And Others (1975).  A Descriptor for Individualized Instruction: Two Case Studies  Educational Technology, 15, 5. 

Article describes potential and current meanings of individualized mathematics instruction by describing and then analyzing two different operational programs.

Fox, G. Thomas; DeVault, M. Vere (1974).  Technology and Humanism in the Classroom: Frontiers of Educational Practice  Educational Technology, 14, 10. 

A discussion of how humanism and technology are integrated into educational practice.

Fox, John W. R. (1970).  Educational Technology and Overseas Exchange  Univ Quart, 24, 4. 

The success of interinstitutional exchange of instructional materials through educational technology in Great Britain encourages a similar exchange with developing nations lacking skilled teaching staffs.

Fox, Raymond (1979).  Toward the Future in Educational Systems.  American Annals of the Deaf

Originally part of a symposium on educational media for the deaf, the paper examines the need for education technology and explaines some current applications of computers relevant to education. Computer-assisted instruction, computer conferencing, instruction management, and instructional materials creation are surveyed.

Fox, Raymond (1979).  Media-Based Interactive Visual Image-Controlled (Vis-I-Con) Instruction Delivery System for Instruction of Deaf and Hearing-Impaired.  American Annals of the Deaf

Originally part of a symposium on educational media for the deaf, the paper describes a programmable media-based microprocessor-controlled interactive instruction delivery system using super 8 film and addressable audiotape messages, the Vis-I-Con system.

Fox, Raymond G. (1975).  Criteria for Engineering Job Oriented Instruction Delivery Systems  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 4, 4. 

The design of instruction delivery systems is described as an engineering discipline. Structured learning for individualization of instruction is defined. Instruction delivery applications are identified in formal training and job performance areas. Utility of the concept of structured learning is discussed.

Fox, Raymond G. (1978).  Computer Controlled Interactive Motion and Still Image Film Projection System for Vocational Education for the Deaf.  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 7, 3. 

Describes a micro-processor controlled instruction delivery system being developed for use with deaf students which incorporates film cassette, frame or sequence addressable, color motion or still visuals under computer program control for local or remote delivery. An authoring capability for development and validation and a program are also described.

Foxall, Anna (1972).  Radiovision--A Survey and Discussion  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 9, 6. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3402.

Foxall, Anna (1972).  Television and Radiovision in the Teaching of Modern Mathematics: A Comparative Study  British Journal of Educational Technology, 3, 3. 

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Foxall, Anna; Evans, Tom (1973).  Closed-circuit Television in Training for Teaching in Further Educational Institutions  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 10, 3. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 4248.

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Fradkin, Bernard M. (1974).  Effectiveness of Multi-Image Presentations  Educational Technology Systems, 2, 3. 

A discussion of an investigation of the effectiveness of viewing three types of visual presentations over different intervals of time.

Fraley, Lawrence E. (1972).  Comprehensive Instructional Mission-Systems for Universities  Educational Technology, 12, 5. 

The author advocates a total systems approach to instructional development in universities and outlines three currently advocated schemes for establishing the locus of responsibility for instruction.''

Fraley, Lawrence E.; Vargas, Ernest A. (1974).  Modular Instruction: Its Structure, Operation and Implications  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 3, 2. 

How modules are organized to provide flexibility in a curriculum is described.

Fraley, Lawrence E.; Vargas, Ernest A. (1975).  The Instructional Organization for Integrating Diverse Expertise  Higher Education, 4, 1.

 

Fraley, Lawrence E.; Vargas, Ernest A. (1975).  Academic Tradition and Institutional Technology  Journal of Higher Education, 46, 1.

 

Fram, Eugene H.; And Others (1976).  Connaitre and Savoir: Scholarship and Workmanship. 

William James drew a distinction between knowledge of a subject (experiential knowledge gained in every trade and profession) and knowledge about a subject (knowledge resulting from sustained, systematic study or scholarship). Scholarship plus workmanship serves to integrate both kinds of knowledge. The document contains three papers which present the following issues central to both adult education and James' statement: (1) where to look, (2) need to know, and (3) what to know in relation to knowledge of and knowledge about adult students. The paper on where to look describes demographic and psychographic analyses and the use of a marketing needs approach to provide information in relation to knowledge of and knowledge about the adult learner. The second paper discusses knowledge of and knowledge about an adult student's need to know which is seen as concerned with the human as well as economic developmental stages of the adult learner and calls for a flexible learning situation (including experiential learning) to meet those needs. The third issue concerns what to know and its many dimensions including curriculum and appropriate instructional strategies. A task force approach for designing a more flexible learning environment is described.  | [FULL TEXT]

Francis, Larry (1976).  The Tutor Training Course: Lessons Learned. 

The first formal author training course for the Tutor programing language and the use of the PLATO system was designed and conducted by the Military Training Centers (MTC) group. The course was developed according to thirteen cognitive and affective principles, and was used over a period of three years to train approximately 100 authors. This report contains a statement of the principles and a description of their implementation, including many examples from course materials. It also recounts the highlights and turning points of the author training course, reviews the basis for its modification, and examines the dilemmas encountered in teaching new authors to prepare computer-based instruction materials. Techniques for resolving some of these dilemmas are suggested. Also included is the course feedback from outside groups. This report is directed to instructors of new authors, developers of author training materials, and managers of computer-based instruction development centers.  | [FULL TEXT]

Francisco, Dave; Carlock, Phil D. (1970).  Stop! Look! Listen! And Learn!  Educ Media, 2, 1. 

Described are a community college's three new learning laboratories and the way they function.

Frank, Helmar G. (1970).  Grundsatze und Ansatze der programmierten Instruktion (Bases and Extensions of Programed Instruction)  Zielsprache Deutsch, 4, 153-156. 

Condensation of a presentation at a workshop on programed instruction in foreign languages in December 1969, Munich, West Germany.

Frankcom, K. (1973).  Educational Technology in the Primary School  Visual Education, 25

Article describes a new machine program, the Ricoh Synchrofax recorder, which provides a medium through which a magnetic recording may be produced by the child.

Frankle, Charles; Frankle, Edna (1971).  Guide to Educational Technology. 

"Educational technology is a means for organizing a systematic process for designing, operating, evaluating, and upgrading the learning experiences of individuals in terms of specific objectives, based on research in human learning, so as to increase the effectiveness of education." This reference book provides information on educational technology, first presenting a classification scheme which organizes and displays the interrelationships between media and equipment. The next section alphabetically lists 282 companies in the educational technology field with complete addresses, telephone numbers, and product lines. Following the company listings, a section lists manufacturers and service organizations by 28 materials categories, including films, filmstrips, transparencies, audio and video tapes, and various kinds of equipment. A special chart is also provided that shows materials produced by each company. A statistical section presents a collection of data on educational technology, including present and projected expenditures on audiovisual materials, educational inventories, and government funding information. As further sources of information, associations and periodicals related to educational technology are listed.

Franklin, Stephen; Marasco, Joseph (1977).  Interactive Computer-Based Testing.  Journal of College Science Teaching, 7, 1. 

Discusses the use of the Interactive Computer-based Testing (ICBT) in university-level science courses as an effective and economical educational tool. The authors discuss: (1) major objectives to ICBT; (2) advantages and pitfalls of the student use of ICBT; and (3) future prospects of ICBT.

Frantz, Nevin R., Jr.; And Others (1979).  Using Computer Managed Instruction for Staff Development at a Technical and Community College.  Technological Horizons in Education, 6, 3. 

Describes a computer-based system designed to alleviate problems that instructors at technical and community colleges face in developing and teaching courses. Discusses implementation of computer-managed instruction, field testing, record keeping, and revisions.

Frantz, Nevin R., Jr.; Fritchley, Ronald L. (1976).  Inservice Vocational Teacher Education Using Instructional and Communications Technology  Journal of Vocational Education Research, 1, 2.

 

Frase, Larry E. (1972).  The Concept of Instructional Individualization  Educational Technology, 12, 7. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3320.

Frase, Larry E.; And Others (1974).  Product Validation: Pilot Test or Panel Review  Educational Technology, 14, 8. 

A discussion of whether pilot testing or a panel review is the most effective way to evaluate curriculum materials.

Frase, Lawrence T. (1971).  A Heuristic Model for Research on Prose Learning. 

Learning activities that are associated with programed materials can be applied to learning from ordinary text; in fact, there is no essential difference between programed and ordinary text. Active response so important to programed learning can be controlled in textual materials by carefully defined adjunct aids such as word lists, underlining, and the types of questions asked. Sequencing of information, which is related to the organizational characteristics of a text, significantly influences recall. Appropriate pacing is more difficult with ordinary reading materials because the material is not divided into small, easily assimilated chunks as is the case of programed instruction. It has been suggested that the reading process should be slowed down, and this could be accomplished by inserting cues that would elicit appropriate learning activities. Adjunct aids in the form of typographical cues, questions, advance organizing statements, charts, etc. can direct attention and guide learning by the cue properties that are in the text. These aids may function to arouse, direct, simplify, prompt, pace, sequence, maintain, amplify, and train learning activities. Seldom is the kind of task analysis done, however, that would make it possible to adequately build adjunct aids. References are included.

Frayer, Dorothy A. (1972).  Levels of Concept Mastery: Implications for Instruction  Educational Technology, 12, 12. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3240.

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_____. (1971).  Fremdsprachen- Sprachlehrinstitute: Dokumentation der 1. Arbeitstagung am 25. und 26. September 1970 in Bochum (Foreign Language and Language Teaching Institutes: Proceedings of the First Conference, Bochum, September 25-26, 1970). 

This report of the first conference on foreign-language and language-teaching institutes, held in Bochum, Germany in 1970, contains articles on the following topics: (1) foreign-language education in the Soviet Union, (2) a working plan for programed Russian study, (3) foreign-language teaching and recent linguistic recommendations, (4) conditions for successful foreign-language education at the university level, (5) the importance of methods-related philological studies, (6) foreign-language teachers and teaching research at Bielefeld University, (7) the role of linguistics in language institutes. (8) foreign-language institutes and language-teacher training, (9) requirements for foreign-language instructional materials, (10) learning research in language institutes, (11) the desirability of objectivized instruction in language laboratories for pedagogical training, (12) the inclusion of programed learning concepts in audiovisual systems, (13) linguistics and grammar: work on a theoretical grammar, (14) detailed English courses in the high schools, and (15) a draft for a technical language center. A brief summary of conference proceedings and a register of participants are included.

Freda, Louis J.; Loolioan, John K. (1975).  Task Analysis as the Training Determinator: One Organization's Approach  Educational Technology, 15, 9. 

A discussion of the use of task analysis as a method of determining the need for training.

Fredrickson, John H. (1972).  An Analysis of Conventional and Experimental Approaches to School Design and Construction  Educational Technology, 12, 7. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3338.

Freedman, Ira (1978).  The Computer Age Has Arrived  Journal of the New York State School Boards Association, 11-4. 

A brief explanation of how the Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES) computer and its terminals work support descriptions of its role in providing administrative services and its use as an educational tool. Also included are a listing of BOCES New York computer alliance, computer costs and potential computer services.

Freeman, James E.; And Others (1974).  Public Library Use in Denver. An Analysis of Denver Citizen, Business, and Government Use of a Community Information Resource. 

The Denver Public Library (DPL) conducted a market analysis of its success in meeting the information needs of three segments of the population of Denver, Colorado: households, business firms, and city government and quasi-government agencies. Information was sought on current DPL usage and nonusage practices of these three groups, their levels of awareness and attitudes toward the DPL system, and their principal information needs and sources. The project's data collection phase consisted of three surveys conducted concurrently between February and June 1974. Personal interviews were conducted in a sample of households, while questionnaires were mailed to businesses and government agencies. The data analysis phase of the project produced a number of recommendations for specific actions by the DPL to make the system more responsive to its current and potential users. The bulk of this report consists of presentation and analysis of the survey responses of the three population segments under study.  | [FULL TEXT]

Freeman, Michael J. (1975).  Advanced Verbal Computers in Education  Educational Technology, 15, 5. 

A description of how highly sophisticated, computerized robots can be used in the classroom.

Frenkel, Richard E.; Adesserman, Sarah (1970).  The Color Affect Projective Technique: A Contribution Toward an Emotional Report Card for Children  Educational Technology, 10, 12. 

A description of a diagnostic-therapeutic projective technique that can be employed in the classroom" to determine a student's emotional reaction to each of his subjects."

Freund, Janet W. (1972).  The Application of a Flowchart Process to Learning Difficulties in Secondary Schools  Educational Technology-Teacher and Technology Supplement, 12, 5. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3464.

Frey, Allan H.; Frey, Donnalyn (1979).  Holography: Use in Training and Testing Drivers on the Road in Accident Avoidance.  Educational Technology, 19, 4. 

Defines holography, identifies visual factors in driving and the techniques used in on-road visual presentations, and presents the design and testing of a holographic system for driver training.

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Frick, Frederick C. (1972).  Educational Technology Program. Quarterly Technical Summary, 1 September Through 30 November 1972. 

Several on-goint activities were conducted during this quarter. Field trials of the Lincoln Training System-3 (LTS-3) at Keesler Air Force Base were extended to include high-aptitude students previously excluded. Results showed such students scored significantly higher on achievement tests and learned substantially faster when they received LTS instruction. An additional study on the use of LTS for task simulation led to the implementation of a new student response interpretation feature for the system. LTS-4 hardware development continued along several lines. Design of the microfiche selector/reader breadboard progressed and an experiment to evaluate pin positioning as an alternative means of vernier positioning was initiated. Results of data demodulation tests indicated that the system will support a 1200 band data rate. Finally, work continued on the evaluation of front-projection and rear-projection screen facilities and on the construction, programing, and debugging of a self-processor.

Fridlund, Alan J.; Tate, B. G. (1978).  Use of a CRT Terminal as a Test Performance Display Device.  Educational Technology, 18, 10. 

The use of a cathode ray tube (CRT) terminal as a display device for posting test results is described, and a parts list for the display system is provided.

Fried, Vojtech; Goldberg, David E. (1978).  Can Modern Educational Technology Replace the Teacher in the Classroom?  Journal of Chemical Education, 55, 1. 

Discusses the role of the teacher in modern education and the use of innovations of educational technology to solve educational problems.

Friedenberg, Edgar Z. (1970).  Effects of the Technological Mystique on Schooling. 

The crucial questions facing education in America are ethical, not methodological: Technology for what, and in whose service? In this paper the author first outlines the state of education as it regards socialization today. He finds the schools primarily a place to limit the freedom of children both physically and psychologically. He argues that there is potential in educational technology to alleviate some of the shortcomings of the schools, if society chooses to use it correctly. However, there must be radical philosophical changes in the minds of educators and change in the administration and structure of the institution of education if there is to be any real improvement in the quality of education in America. | [FULL TEXT]

Friedland, Ellen; And Others (1978).  Developmental Communication Disturbances: A Case Study. 

Detailed in a case study is the improvement in a 3-year-old severely language delayed child who participated in the Self-Controlled Interactive Learning Systems program, an early childhood program incorporating educational technology. Reviewed are the student's language and behavioral accomplishments resulting from exposure to the "talking typewriter." A psychiatric evaluation report is included, as well as data from the Behavior Rating Instrument for Autistic and Other Atypical Children. Results from five standardized measures are also provided.

Friedlander, Bernard Z. (1974).  The Communicative Effectiveness of Television as a Teaching Medium in the Elementary School Classroom: A Program of Investigation. 

A research program is proposed which would establish a standard method of evaluating the effectiveness of educational television programs for elementary school students. Because of the rapid emergence of inexpensive video cassette recordings and cable television, and because research shows that children's comprehension and cognitive assimilation of skills, facts, and ideas is a far more intricate and problematical process that has previously been supposed, and because of the extremely high costs of quality television production, it is important to have a standard method of evaluating television curriculum. Only when evaluative data indicate a high degree of successful communication and comprehension can production costs be justified.

Friedman, Myles I.; Anderson, Lorin W. (1979).  Evaluating to Solve Educational Problems: An Alternative Model.  Educational Technology, 19, 9. 

A 19-step general evaluation model is described through its four stages: identifying problems, prescribing program solutions, evaluating the operation of the program, and evaluating the effectiveness of the model. The role of the evaluator in decision making is also explored.

Friend, Jamesine (1975).  Programs Students Write. Technical Report No. 257. 

To explore the problem of designing an automated system for instruction in programing, and to study the problem-solving behavior of students, computer programs written by 40 college students as part of a CAI course in Algebraic Interpretive Dialogue were analyzed. The self-contained course consisted of 50 tutorial lessons; the analysis covers programs written as solutions to 25 programing problems, including 747 problems containing 7,063 commands. The distribution of data over problems and over students is discussed, along with problem difficulty and diversity of student solutions.  | [FULL TEXT]

Frith, Greg; Wells, Fred (1977).  The Alabama Learning Resource Center--Some Perspectives. 

The primary purpose of the Alabama Learning Resource Center is to keep special education personnel aware of current developments in instructional materials, media, and technology. A separate questionnaire was developed and circulated to each of three groups: special education teachers, university chairmen of special education programs, and coordinators of special education. The questionnaires used are not presented. However, teacher responses included: the names of the most used instructional materials by commercial name and by academic areas, their source of information for these materials, and the frequency of personal use of the Alabama Learning Resource Center. University chairmen responses included: the adequacy of methods courses to acquaint students with commercial aids, the geographic inaccessibility of learning centers for most students, and the frequent use of the Alabama Learning Resource Center as a major source of audiovisual aids. Coordinators of special education responses included: the need for learning center availability, the adequacy of instructional materials within a center, and the suggested percentage of budget that should be allocated to certain instructional materials. It was included that more services need to be offered to teachers, including equipment and materials training. It was also suggested that funding priorities be divided away from a centralized learning center and toward increasing accessibility to materials.

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Fromer, Robert (1972).  Distinctions Between CAI and CMI Systems  Educational Technology, 12, 5. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3474.

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Fruehling, Donald L. (1972).  Going Beyond Hardware and Software  American Vocational Journal, 47, 1.

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Fry, Carlton F.; And Others (1976).  Interactive Television in Nursing Continuing Education  Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 7, 3. 

The use of a telemedicine system (live, color microwave television transmission with two-way auditory and visual communication capability) to teach a course in critical care nursing from an urban university medical center to staff members in rural southeastern Ohio hospitals is described.

Fryman, John E. (1976).  An Instructional Media System Fallout: Job Jeopardy  Educational Technology, 16, 8. 

The responsibility for the reduction of occupational threats and a prime influence for effective use of media systems lie with those who train and assist others in media utilization. Feelings of job jeopardy will dissipate in proportion to familiarity with equipment, understanding of goals and possibilities, and confidence in programing products and standards.

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Fuglesang, Andreas (1978).  Off the Cuff: On Communication  Educational Broadcasting International, 11, 1. 

The value of technology can never exceed the value of the ideas it transmits. Experts oriented toward technology and the written language have difficulty communicating with people whose minds and behavior are molded by an oral tradition.

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Fullen, James, Ed. (1979).  OATYC Journal, Vol. IV, Nos. 1-2, Fall 1978-Winter 1979. 

"OATYC Journal," which is published by the Ohio Association of Two-Year Colleges, is designed as a forum for the exchange of concepts, methods, and findings relevant to the two-year college classroom. Along with commentaries and letters of reaction from the readership, the two issues of volume IV present the following articles: (1) "Focus: College of Applied Science and Technology, Youngstown State University," by Bari Lateef; (2) "Shorthand and CAI," by Linda Rodda; (3) "The Anatomy of a Community Cultural Calendar," by John C. Vitale; (4) "Ohio's State Community College Law: A Plus for the System?" by James E. Seitz; (5) "Cuyahoga Community College "Sends" Classes to Severely Disabled via Color Television," by Monica Martines; (6) "Issue: Accreditation: Is Its Purpose Being Threatened?" by Lloyd Monnin and Larry S. Fewell; (7) "Impact of Sex Bias upon Technical Education," by Johnnie Ruth Clarke; (8) "Professional Shorthand Teacher's Corner," by John C. Roman; (9) "Focus: Sinclair Community College: Planning for Tomorrow," by Jack Morton; (10) "The Curriculum Contract: An Individualized Approach to Nursing Education," by Francine Hekelman and Louise Bierer; (11) "Measure for Measure: Student Evaluation of Counseling Services at Cuyahoga Community College, Western Campus," by Nancy Dowding; (12) "Take the Classroom to the Students," by David McKelvey; (13) "Touch Now: Reflections on Teaching with Interactive Television," by Edward J. Martin; (14) "Issue: Can Instructional Accountability in Education Be Achieved through the Use of Behavioral Objectives, Proficiency Testing, etc?" by Richard M. Libby and Beth M. Waggenspack; and (15) "Research on Reading Problems: A Critical View," by Stephen R. Schroeder and Carolyn S. Schroeder.

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Fur

Furgusson, Jeremy (1972).  Science Facilities: Ten Ideas Upgrade School Labs.  American School and University, 45, 1. 

Ideas from an upcoming report by the National Science Teachers Association that looked at 125 exemplary science facilities across the nation.

Furlong, Franklin; Miller, William (1978).  DIAG NOSE: Computer-Based Reporting of Criterion-Referenced Test Results  Educational Technology, 18, 6. 

The computerized program which is described is designed to score and analyze multiple-choice examinations, providing prompt and detailed testing information.

Furukawa, James M. (1972).  Critical Chunk, Physical Length, and Number of Words Per Chunk in Programmed Instruction  Journal of Educational Research, 65, 8.

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Fut

(1973).  Future Media: A NAVA Institute Seminar Report  AV Guide: The Learning Media Magazine, 52, 1. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 4350.

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