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Educational Technology | B

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Baath, John A. (1976).  How to Optimize the Learning Conditions of Correspondence Education. Autumn 1976 Workshop in Paris. 

Sometimes the term independent study is used to denote distance education or, specifically, correspondence education. However, traditional correspondence study does not cover the general meaning of independent study. Also, it does not fit in with the two recent movements of open learning and dialogue pedagogics which are close to the discovery learning model of teaching where great emphasis is placed on the self-directed activity of the student. Correspondence education is better described by means of an educational technology approach which does not consider all individual student wishes. Nevertheless, correspondence education may endeavor to design products of high quality that could be of maximum use to as many students as possible. Applying a modified version of the Gagne model of learning processes to correspondence education, five didactic functions (implicit and explicit learning conditions) should be considered: (1) linking up with previous knowledge and interests, (2) presentation of the material to be learned, (3) guiding and structuring, (4) providing feedback, and (5) arousing attention and strengthening motivation. If the learning conditions of correspondence education are optimized, particularly with respect to the motivating function, this study form may be able to foster future independent learners. (This paper concludes with a discussion of each of the didactic functions.)

Baath, John A.; Mansson, Nils-Ove (1977).  CADE--A System for Computer-Assisted Distance Education: Development, Design, and Evaluation of the System. 

A three-stage, computer-assisted distance education (CADE) project was undertaken to design a prototype of CADE that would improve the two-way communication in correspondence education in three respects: (1) the quality of the tutors' comments as to feedback effectiveness and motivational aspects, (2) the turn-round time of students' solutions to assignments, and (3) the quality of assignments. In the first two stages of the development work, the parts of the computer-assisted correspondence instruction were simulated by means of an optical reader and an operator at an automatic typewriter. The third stage involved developing and evaluating a real computer-assisted distance tutoring system and studying experimentally the effects of explicitly informing part of the students about the role of the computer in the teaching system. The final outcome is a system where the students' solutions are corrected by an optical reader. The results are analyzed by a computer which types out individualized comment letters to the students. The results of evaluating the system include the following: (1) Practical experience of the functioning of the system has been very positive, and (2) student responses to questionnaire items were positive regarding the answer forms, the turn-round time, the use of multiple choice as compared to traditional questions, and feedback comments.

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Babcock, William R.; Wallen, Matt K. (1974).  Visible Speech: Toward Improved Speech for the Hearing Handicapped  Educational Technology, 14, 1. 

A discussion of a course designed to see if observable improvements in intelligibility could be obtained with two profoundly deaf subjects, using the same approach that had been developed for English phonetics training of subjects with normal hearing.

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Baggaley, J. P. (1973).  Developing an Effective Educational Medium  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 10, 3. 

A discussion of the present and future demands for instructional technology and emphasis is given to the potential teaching functions of television. Areas for essential research in media effectiveness are discussed, and an initial theoretical orientation to the problems of media development is provided.

Bagley, Carole A.; Klassen, Daniel L. (1979).  Instructional Computing in Correctional Institutions.  Educational Technology, 19, 4. 

The introduction of computer assisted instruction (CAI) in correctional facilities in Minnesota is described. This experimental program indicated no increase in achievement or attitude attributable to CAI for the participants, but that computers are useful in motivating students, increasing their problem-solving skills, and providing repetitious drill for low ability students.

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Bailey, Catherine, Ed. (1972).  Communication and Educational Redesign. Communications Convocation. 

A selection of presentations made during the twenty-fifth Educational Communications Convocation is included in this summary. Some 1700 educators concerned with innovation in educational communications and technology participated; presentations took the form of research reports and demonstrations on developments and techniques of interest to teachers, directors, supervisors and administrators of educational communications. Major topics found within the scope of the conference included: educational media, communications in education, the use of television for educational purposes, the individualization of instruction through technology, instructional development, the relationship of teaching and technology, the use of films in education, instructional materials centers, and New York State Regents policy on instructional technology. In addition an exhibit sponsored by over 125 commercial groups displayed the latest educational equipment and materials.

Bailey, Charles J. (1973).  Adult Basic Education Personnel Training  Educational Technology, 13, 10. 

A brief discussion of why it is important for adult education teachers to have in-service training.

Bailey, Daniel E.; Polson, Peter G. (1975).  Real-Time Computing in Psychology at the University of Colorado  American Psychologist, 30, 3. 

An account of the development of the Computer Laboratory for Instruction in Psychological Research (CLIPR) which was established in the Department of Psychology at the University of Colorado in 1970. It was designed to bridge the gap between the model of the institutional computer-center service with a widely distributed clientele and the model of the private, single-user, mini-computer equipped psychology laboratory. A description is provided of its role in undergraduate instruction, graduate training, and time shared research.

Bailey, Gerald D. (1975).  Revitalizing the Course Advising Process with Videotaped Classroom Vignettes  Educational Technology, 15, 4. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 5205.

Bailey, Gerald D. (1976).  Videotaped Credential Profiles: Can They Make a Difference?  Educational Technology, 16, 2. 

A discussion of exploratory research data which tends to point to a significant finding: videotaped credentials will (when used in conjunction with written information) influence hiring officials' opinions in the hiring process.

Bailey, Gerald D. (1977).  Self-Made Classroom Observation Instruments: An Aid to Self-Assessment  Educational Technology, 17, 3. 

To help teachers identify and control their instructional behavior.

Bailey, Gerald D. (1977).  Improving Classroom Instruction with Means-Referenced Objectives  Educational Technology, 17, 7. 

Instructional objectives do not allow teachers to focus on the method or strategy which is employed to assist the student.

Bailey, Gerald D. (1979).  Maximizing the Potential of the Videotape Recorder in Teacher Self-Assessment.  Educational Technology, 19, 9. 

Reports conditions necessary for the adequate use of videotape recordings in reporting teaching techniques, teacher behavior, student behavior, and student teacher interaction. Proper camera placement is illustrated, observation categories are listed, and a sample videotape release form is included.

Bailey, Gerald Douglass (1978).  Improving Classroom Instruction with Student Feedback.  Educational Technology, 18, 10. 

Twelve factors which need to be considered when planning to use student feedback for improving instruction are discussed, including advantages and disadvantages, instrument selection and/or design, student attitudes, variables involved, teacher attitudes, and utilization of the data collected.

Bailey, William J. (1975).  Managing Self-Renewal in Secondary Education. 

This book tells how a secondary school can be improved without resorting to radical approaches. It is based on the author's experiences and on the programs at Concord High School, Wilmington, Delaware. Emphasis is placed on organizing a secondary school that can initiate changes from the "inside," by the educators on the firing line. Containing practical and simple procedures for developing a modern, progressive, viable secondary school, the book provides insight into new trends in secondary education. Sensitivity training, organizing for change, constructing a curriculum, scheduling for flexibility, and controlling students and dealing with outside pressures are discussed in relation to the development of a viable school that is capable of constant growth and change while it remains constantly effective and dynamic.

Baillie, John H. (1972).  The Video Inservice Program: Development of a Model  Educational Technology-Teacher and Technology Supplement, 12, 5. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3504.

Bair, Medill (1971).  Developing Accountability in Urban Schools: A Call for State Leadership  Educational Technology, 11, 1. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3139.

Baird, Joan, Ed. (1971).  Home Economics Teacher Education - the State of the Art. 

This document is a collection of 10 papers on home economics teacher education. The preface indicates that the theme "state-of-the-art" does not provide for statements of status or comparisons to other segments of teacher education or home economics. It is stated that the purpose of this collection is to dispel the notion that teacher education can be captured under a single rubric by showing that home economics teacher education is a viable segment of teacher education as a whole. The papers in this document, all prepared by practitioners in home economics teacher education, are as follows: a) "The Business of Teacher Education--Teaching Teachers"; b) "Changing Concept of the Home Economics Teachers"; c) "To Prepare the Beginning Teacher as a Specialist"; d) "To Prepare the Beginning Teacher as a Generalist"; e) "Technological and Structural Aids to Developing Selected Teaching Competencies"; f) "Utilizing Affective Modes in Developing Selected Teaching Competencies"; g) "The College Supervisor of Student Teaching in Home Economics--a Specialist or a Generalist?" h) "Technological Aids to Remote Supervision"; i) "Media Mix"; j) "The Future of Supervision."

Baird, Melvin S. (1974).  Career Opportunities Program: A Description and Case Study. Teacher Education Forum Series. Vol. 2, No. 23. 

The Career Opportunities Program (COP) is a nationwide program established under the Education Professions Development Act of 1967 to train and employ low-income community residents and Vietnam-era veterans as educational auxiliaries for poverty area schools. Indiana University at South Bend (IUSB), in cooperation with the South Bend Community School Corporation, has operated a COP Project since 1970. During the first semester, COP students are enrolled at IUSB and are assigned to Model Cities and Title I schools and Head Start centers. The 2-year COP curriculum is designed to provide students with a broad knowledge of the public school curriculum and the students in elementary-level Title I schools. Support services rendered to COP students include: (a) vocational, personal, and educational counseling; (b) child care services; (c) tutorial services; and (d) referrals to health and welfare agencies for support beyond the resources of IUSB. Graduates of the program are awarded the Associate of Science Degree in educational technology.

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Baker, Bill; And Others (1972).  Recommendations Regarding Performance Contracting  Educational Technology, 12, 6. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3337.

Baker, Eva L. (1973).  Improving Reading Instruction: The Use of Research Based Principles  Educational Technology, 1, 9. 

An outline of some instructional principles by which reading instruction may be analyzed.

Baker, Eva L. (1974).  Beyond Objectives: Domain-Referenced Tests for Evaluation and Instructional Improvement  Educational Technology, 14, 6. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3882.

Baker, Eva L.; Alkin, Marvin C. (1973).  ERIC/AVCR Annual Review Paper: Formative Evaluation of Instructional Development  AV Communication Review, 21, 4. 

The inadequacy and/or lack of evaluation procedures in the development of instructional products has been well documented. To help remedy this situation, the authors discuss and analyze research and theory in the field of formative evaluation applied to instructional development.

Baker, Frank B. (1973).  An Interactive Approach to Test Construction  Educational Technology, 13, 3. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 4335.

Baker, Frank B. (1973).  Teaching the Design of CMI System Software  Educational Technology, 13, 10. 

The emergence of wide-spread interest in computer managed instruction systems brought a course in the design of software systems. The resulting course Hardware/Software Systems for Instructional Use'' is described.

Baker, Frank B. (1978).  Computers and the Classroom.  New York University Education Quarterly, 9 n4 p13-19 Sum 1978, 78. 

The author suggests that the advent of computers and their applications in the classroom during the last two decades have not revolutionized teaching and learning, because the emphasis has been on technological rather than on educational issues.

Baker, Frank B.; And Others (1978).  A Micro-Computer Based Test Scoring System  Educational Technology, 18, 2. 

The goal of the project described was to develop a "stand-alone" test scoring system based upon a micro-computer available to the hobbyist market.

Baker, George A. (1972).  Toward Internal Locus of Control in the Community College Student  Educational Technology: Teacher and Technology Supplement, 12, 10. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3310.

Baker, Justine C. (1975).  The Computer in the School. Fastback No. 58. 

Intended as an overview of the nature and use of computers in schools, this document describes the history and development of computers generally and of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) specifically. Included is information on several CAI systems currently in operation including (1) Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations (PLATO), (2) Time-Shared Interactive Computer-Controlled Information Television (TICCIT), (3) the LOGO programing language for mathematics instruction, and (4) Program for Learning in Accordance with Needs (PLAN). Comments are also provided on current capabilities and future directions of both administrative data processing and CAI in American Schools. | [FULL TEXT]

Baker, Justine C. (1978).  Corporate Involvement in C AI  Educational Technology, 18, 4. 

Historic perspective of computer manufacturers and their contribution to CAI. Corporate CAI products and services are mentioned, as is a forecast for educational involvement by computer corporations. A chart of major computer corporations shows gross sales, net earnings, products and services offered, and other corporate information.

Baker, Robert L.; Elam, Robert J. (1978).  Managing the Development of Comprehensive Instructional Systems.  NSPI Journal, 17 n7 p6-11 Sep 1978

Identifies six stages for the development of a comprehensive instructional system (planning, design, development, implementation, management transfer, client operation) and describes briefly the general purpose of each stage as it relates to the total development efforts. Maintaining a strong user orientation and involvement at each stage is emphasized.

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Balderson, James H. (1975).  Instructional Flexibility: Some Implications for the Structure and Management of Schools  CSSE Bulletin, 2, 6. 

This discussion focuses on instructional flexibility as a property of school technology and identifies implications for the structure and management of schools. (Available from CSSE/SCEE, Box 1000, Faculty of Education, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E1; $2.00 single copy.)

Balderston, Michael (1979).  Satellite Communications for Education in the South Pacific.  Educational Technology, 19, 4. 

The utilization of satellites for the delivery of educational and cultural programs in the Southern Pacific region is discussed. Typical program schedules are presented and the problems of using high technology in remote areas are discussed.

Ball, Howard G. (1975).  Perceptions of School Media Specialists Toward a Professional Curriculum of Instruction. 

A survey of 495 school media specialists in five Southeastern states attempted to discern which courses in their professional education best prepared them to manage school media programs. Results listed the most highly regarded courses for both the elementary and the secondary specialists. In addition, the subjects rated the importance of various media specialist functions, and "selecting and evaluating resources" received the highest rating. The opinions of the specialists reflected a pragmatic orientation and were influenced by the credentialing criteria of their respective states. This document discusses the research methodology that was employed, outlines the results, and makes recommendations for future media specialist education.

Ballard, Richard J.; Eastwood, Lester F., Jr. (1975).  Planning Communication Networks to Deliver Educational Services. 

As companion to the more general document Telecommunications Media for the Delivery of Educational Programming , this report concentrates on the technical and economic factors affecting the design of only one class of educational networks, dedicated coaxial cable systems. To provide illustrations, possible single and dual dedicated cable networks are considered as ways to deliver educational services to selected institutions in the St. Louis metropolitan area. The networks described have the capacity to simultaneously distribute 35 forward and eight return channels. Cost estimates, construction techniques, and technical limitations of the systems are discussed in detail. Since user efficiency is a key factor in minimizing the cost of the system, a projection is made for the potential use of the system in the St. Louis area. Extensive appendixes concentrate on the technical functioning of the system. | [FULL TEXT]

Ballard, Richard; Eastwood, Lester F., Jr. (1974).  Telecommunications Media for the Delivery of Educational Programming. 

A study was made of the technical characteristics and costs which might be incorporated into a network for the delivery of educational programing. Broadcast media explored include AM and FM radio and UHF and VHF television. Two systems of computer-assisted instruction, TICCIT and PLATO IV, were examined as was Bell Systems' Picturephone. Attention was devoted to application of interactive networks to library systems. The report contains 22 tables and seven figures and appendixes outlining the basic principles of PLATO IV which allows CAI to be transmitted by ordinary telephone lines. | [FULL TEXT]

Ballendorf, Dirk A. (1974).  Coming Full Circle: A New School for Micronesia  British Journal of Educational Technology, 5, 2. 

A general discussion of the development of education in Micronesia.

Balson, Maurice (1971).  The Effect of Sequence Presentation and Operant Size on Rate and Amount of Learning  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 8, 3. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2940.

Balthazar, Earl E. (1975).  Do We Really Believe in the Retarded?  Mental Retardation, 13, 1. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 5199.

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Banathy, B. H. (1970).  Information Systems for Curriculum Planning  Educational Technology, 10, 11. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2343.

Banathy, Bela H.; Hayman, John L. (1975).  Systems Inquiry in Education  International Journal of Instructional Media, 3, 2. 

Four levels of systems inquiry are projected on an abstract-concrete continuum. Most abstract is exposition of general theories of systems, and most concrete is use of specific technical tools. Specific models of systems approaches to instructional development are examined, and a systems-models approach is outlined.

Banghart, Frank W.; And Others (1973).  Training Educational Managers via Educational Technology  Educational Technology, 13, 3. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 1698.

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Baran, Stanley J.; Meyer, Timothy P. (1974).  Imitation and Identification: Two Compatible Approaches to Social Learning from the Electronic Media  AV Communication Review, 22, 2. 

This paper compares the social learning theories expressed by Bandura and Gewirtz, argues for a synthesis of the two, and examines the importance of this synthesis for the field of educational technology and mass communication research.

Barcikowska, Wanda (1977).  Distance Education in Poland: The Televised Technical Agricultural School  Literacy Discussion, 8, 2. 

Describes an experiment with adult education conducted in Poland in which television is used in out-of-school secondary level agricultural courses, often called correspondence secondary schools.

Barclay, Andrew M. (1979).  Instructional Development Case Study: A Televised Human Sexuality Course.  Educational Technology, 19, 8. 

The design and development of a student produced, three credit/no credit televised course on human sexuality at Michigan State University is reviewed. The need for the course, its structure, and student reaction are presented.

Barker, Anne L.; Cowan, John (1978).  Cataloguing and Retrieval of Inter-Related Resource Material  British Journal of Educational Technology, 9, 1. 

Presents a possible solution to the problems of cataloging and retrieval which arise when teachers wish to assemble relatively large collections of structured resource materials, to enable their students to choose widely divergent routes, as they plan their studies with the ultimate goal of satisfying fixed criterion tests.

Barker, John (1977).  A Package Approach to Distance Teaching for Developing Countries  Teaching at a Distance, 9, 36-42.

 

Barnard, David P. (1971).  Implementing Instructional Technology Using the Systems Approach Interfaced with Program Budgeting  Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 8, 3. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3100.

Barnard, David P. (1973).  What's the Name of the Game?  Audiovisual Instruction, 18, 5. 

The name of the game in instructional technology is accountability. Instructional technology must contribute significantly to helping students learn within the limits of cost effectiveness. A 12-item list for self-assessment is presented.

Barnes, Donald E. (1971).  Humane Benefits for Education: Some Directions in Technology  Educational Technology, 11, 6. 

The author argues that technology's chief contribution to education will take the form of improving the cost effectiveness of instruction.

Barnes, Neil; Hooper, Richard (1976).  Report on the International Conference on Education and Research in Educational Television and Radio  British Journal of Educational Technology, 7, 3. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 4731.

Barnes, O. Dennis; Schrieber, Deborah B. (1972).  Computer-Assisted Instruction; A Selected Bibliography. 

Information from many different sources related to the use of computers in instruction, particularly computer-assisted instruction (CAI), is provided in this bibliography: journal articles, books, articles from edited books, and technical reports or memos. Each of the 835 entries contains title, year and place of publication, often the number of pages, and the author's name. Additional information considered pertinent for the location of a given source is also included where appropriate, and those articles or papers which were referenced in abstracted form are identified. Included in each entry are the appropriate keywords which serve to index its contents. An index of entries by descriptors and an author index are also included. | [FULL TEXT]

Barnes, Rey L. (1975).  Progress and Pedagogy: The Teachers Dilemma in a Technological Revolution. 

Though most technological advances are triggered by the initiative of the military and business sectors, if educators can overcome their aversion to technology, some recent technological developments can easily be adapted for use in the educational sector. For example, an experimental color television camera developed recently is no larger than a 35mm camera; resolution in video equipment has been vastly improved and changed to a digital mode which can be used to generate extremely realistic computer animation; advances in fiber optics and lasers may lead to the development of high-density audiovisual recorders with no moving parts; and reducation of electrical components to the molecular size also provides some interesting possibilities for the near future. It remains to be seen if man's imagination and sensitivity will insure that these technologies are used in beneficial ways.

Barnes, Ron (1972).  Learning Systems for the Future. Fastback Series, No. 9. 

The ideas for innovations in learning systems in this report are based on a scenario being developed for the Minnesota Experimental City. The primary function of the new system being developed in Minnesota is to assist the individual learner to discover his interests, assess his needs, set his learning objectives, and pursue these objectives. The report describes the characteristics of the Minnesota learning system, discusses procedures for orienting learners to the new system, identifies the people involved, and discusses the tools, resources, and facilities to be used.

Barnett, Howard C. (1975).  An Approach to Modelling Total Short Course Work Load  British Journal of Educational Technology, 6, 1. 

How work other than the actual contact hours for teaching may be assessed in order to better evaluate the total load involved in short course work.

Barry, Michael G. (1974).  Evaluation Technicians: Who Are They? Who Needs Them?  Educational Technology, 14, 2. 

Author cites the need for semiprofessional evaluators, evaluation-technicians, who can perform basic evaluation work required by schools; who will not need the diversified, extended skills obtained in graduate programs.

Barry, Roger D.; Carter, Robert A. (1972).  Evaluation of General Chemistry Slide/Audio-Tape Programs. 

This document presents an evaluation of an instructional system to assist students in the general chemistry course. These materials include a series of 16mm sound motion picture films that outline the required laboratory experiments, slide/tape programs for individual student use designed to teach the student how to analyze and draw conclusions from the laboratory data for each experiment, similar slide/tape programs covering many of the lecture topics, and an instructional booklet that contains sets of problems and learning exercises related to lecture topics and an outline of each laboratory experiment. Four major points can be cited as a result of the evaluation study: (1) the achievement of students who used the slide/tape programs was superior to the achievement of those who chose not to use them; (2) for those students who used the materials, achievement tended to increase slightly as the amount of time devoted to the slide/tape programs increased; (3) a slightly higher proportion of low than high ability students chose to use the slide/tape materials; and (4) lower ability students who chose to use the materials tended to spend slightly more time on them than did high ability students.

Bart, William M. (1974).  Test Validity and Reliability from an Ordering-Theoretic Framework  Educational Technology, 14, 1. 

Author states that psychometric research in alternative measurement models contribute to progress in the test construction field so that more qualitative behavioral information can be obtained from tests.

Bart, William M., Ed.; Wong, Martin R., Ed. (1974).  Psychology of School Learning: Views of the Learner. Volume I: Environmentalism. 

This document is the first of three volumes presenting essays from three schools of thought regarding learning. Volume one consists of readings from psychologists, philosophers, and learning theorists concerning the view that the learner is a product primarily of environmental factors. The list of essays includes the following: (a) "Ideas and Their Origin," (b) "The Free and Happy Student," (c) "The Technology of Teaching," (d) "Treatment of Nonreading in a Culturally Deprived Juvenile Delinquent: An Application of Reinforcement Principles," (e) "Production and Elimination of Disruptive Classroom Behavior by Systematically Varying Teacher's Behavior," (f) "Learning Theory Approaches to Classroom Management: Rationale and Intervention Techniques," (g) "A Token Reinforcement Program in a Public School: A Replication and Systematic Analysis," (h) "Educational Technology: New Myths and Old Realities," (i) "Computerized Instruction and the Learning Process," (j) "Teaching Machines: A Review," (k) "Instruction and the Conditions of Learning," (l) "Mastery Learning and Mastery Testing," (m) "Student Evaluation and Promotion of Learning," (n) "Behavioral Objectives: A Close Look," (o) "Why Behavioral Objectives?," (p) "Hereditary, Environment, and the Question 'How?'" (q) "Reflections on a Decade of Teaching Machines," (r) "The Classroom as a System," and (d) "The Behaviorally Engineered Classroom: A Learner-Sensitive Environment." Authors include B. F. Skinner, John Locke, Samuel Mayo, Anne Anastasi, and others.

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Bass, Charlie C.; And Others (1975).  Computers and Teacher Education  Educational Technology, 15, 9. 

A discussion of why computers fulfill a double role as a means of teaching and as objects to be experienced in their own right, therefore they must be presented in similar roles in the education of teachers.

Bass, Donald G. (1974).  Comparative Responses from Students, Faculty, and Administration to the Packaging of the Entry College Course, English 131. Curriculum Development. 

The practicum is the creation of a course orientation module for a new introductory English design. The module explains the course topics, the requirements, and the learning settings. Requirements call for specific skill levels in reading, writing, and discussion. Students will be learning in conference, in the community, in small groups, and in independent situations. The main feature of the design is that students have almost complete flexibility as to when they attend school. In addition to creating the module, the practicum studies administration, faculty, and student attitudes toward several course features. The features are independent study, continuous progress, active learning, educational technology, and learning in conference. Some of the important findings are that most of our students do not believe large-group instruction is effective. Our students are basically at ease with modern educational technology; they want to learn with directed independent study, and they find conference learning attractive. On the other hand, our students are somewhat unknowledgeable about the concept of continuous progress.

Bass, Ronald K.; And Others (1978).  Instructional Development: The State of the Art. Chapter 13. 

This discussion of the current state of the art in the field of instructional development includes an integration of the points made by the authors of Chapters 1-12 in the book, "Instructional Development: The State of the Art, Volume I," together with additional material. A discussion of professional organizations, journals, and training programs is presented, and a list of instructional materials for preparatory programs is provided. The issues involved in funding, location of jobs within organizations, and the present state of instructional development within public and higher education are examined, and factors affecting the impact of instructional development on education and industry are identified. A theory of impact is developed, and the impact of the above mentioned issues upon the future of instructional development is discussed in terms of this theory. A 42-item bibliography is provided.

Bassis, Michael S.; Allen, Joyce P. (1976).  TIPS: Individualization and Economy for Mass Instruction  Teaching Sociology, 3, 2. 

The Teaching Information Processing System (TIPS) uses computer monitoring of student progress to individualized instruction in large lecture classes.

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Bates, A. W. (1970).  A Technique for Recording and Analysing Lessons  Journal of Educational Technology, 1, 3. 

The present study was restricted to finding an inexpensive means of recording and analysing the activities of a teacher in a normal class-room situation, and of identifying the pupils with which he came into contact."

Bates, A. W. (1973).  An Evaluation of the Effect of Basing an Assignment on Broadcast Material in a Multi-Media Course  Programmed Learning & Educational Technology, 10, 6. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2032.

Bates, A. W. (1973).  Guidelines to Counselors and Tutors on Use of Broadcasts. 

At the Open University of Great Britain, certain problems are created by the school's heavy reliance on radio and television broadcasts as a mode of instruction. Students have difficulty: 1) integrating the broadcast with the rest of the course; 2) recognizing the purpose of the broadcast; 3) knowing what to do with the results of the broadcast; 4) concentrating on the main teaching points; and 5) concentrating through the entire length of the program. Counselors and tutors should encourage students to read the broadcast notes before each program, to answer a set of analytical questions after each program, and to record the essential points of the program immediately after the broadcast. | [FULL TEXT]

Bates, A. W. (1973).  Educational and Cost Comparisons Between Open-Network, Cable and Cassette Systems of Multi-Media Teaching. 

The Open University of Great Britain provides home-based instruction via broadcasts and correspondence. Since technical arguments for the superiority of open-network, cable, or cassette television systems are inconclusive, the university has been forced to develop a decision-making model to determine which system is the most cost effective. For each system the following characteristics must be considered: 1) student characteristics; 2) instructional characteristics; 3) flexibility; 4) available technology; and 5) type of evaluation. These characteristics must be weighed against the costs of the required development, production, transmission, distribution, software, and hardware. The resulting ratio of bundles of characteristics to cost will enable the Open University to select the system which most effectively resolves the institution's video-distribution problems. | [FULL TEXT]

Bates, A. W. (1974).  Success and Failure in Innovation at the Open University  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 11, 1. 

A discussion of the need to find an appropriate structure for decision making within the University, and the need for changes in the structure of higher and adult education generally.

Bates, A. W. (1974).  Problems of Learning from Television at a Distance. 

Very little is known about how students learn from television, particularly when television is used in conjunction with a prescribed set of written materials. At the Open University of Great Britain, classes have proliferated to the extent that it is not longer possible to broadcast one lecture to accompany each unit of instruction. To reduce air time broadcasts are sometimes restricted only to the presentation of partial agruments or to evidential material. Broadcast designers must clarify the distinction between learning objectives and teaching methods so that students clearly understand the relationship of the broadcasts to the written text and the course assignments. | [FULL TEXT]

Bates, A. W. (1975).  Student Use of Open University Broadcasting; A Survey of 10,537 Students Carried Out in November 1974. 

The Open University of Great Britain relies heavily on broadcasting as a mode of instruction. Because increased course offerings have made program scheduling a problem and because production costs have risen sharply, a survey was conducted to determine the use patterns of students so that the system's resources could be allocated in the most efficient manner possible. Nearly 13,000 of the school's 45,000 enrolled students were surveyed by mail. The response rate was high, and the results provided data on: 1) student viewing and listening time; 2) student ratings of broadcasts; and 3) factors influencing the viewing and listening times. These results facilitated a discussion of the best allocation of broadcast time. The text provides a detailed discussion of the survey design and tabular summaries of the data. | [FULL TEXT]

Bates, A. W. (1975).  The British Open University: Decision-Oriented Research in Broadcasting. 

The Open University of Great Britain is an open-enrollment, home-based institution in which the majority of the instruction is conducted via broadcasts and correspondence. There are over 50,000 students ernolled in nearly 100 courses which require the transmission of 1,000 television and 1,000 radio broadcasts each year. Recently, research has been conducted to: 1) determine which programs are most successful; 2) provide information for research allocation decisions; and 3) determine which combination of resources produces the most effective multimedia presentation. A 1974 postal survey of 1,200 students examined specific programs and attempted to measure the level at which educational objectives were met, the cost and the convenience of the broadcast strategy, and the effectiveness of the media mix. Such studies have resulted in alterations of the courses considered and have illustrated the value of research to decision-making in educational broadcasting. | [FULL TEXT]

Bates, A. W. (1975).  Broadcast Evaluation Report Number Three: Instrumentation, T291: TV6. 

A course in instrumentation offered through the British Open University included a television program which introduced and illustrated Fourier analysis and transducer response. The television component was evaluated using questionnaires, telephone interviews, and group discussions. The program was successful in that it demonstrated complicated operations which would be costly to provide by laboratory sessions and impossible to provide through home experiment kits. Some problems were encountered by students in relating Fourier synthesis and analysis to tranducer response as presented by the television program. Other difficulties were encountered with program transmission schedules and distribution of textual materials to students. Students generally reacted favorably to the broadcast itself but felt that the broadcast notes were inadequate. | [FULL TEXT]

Bates, A. W. (1978).  Some Aspects of Educational Broadcasting in Sweden. A Report of a One-Week Study Visit. IET Papers on Broadcasting No. 94. 

This report on the organization, development, and dissemination of educational and commercial radio and television programs by the Swedish Educational Broadcasting Company includes some of the research being done at the Open University. A planned reorganization of Sveriges Radio into two separate television channels and several channels for local radio is described, as well as programming of adult educational programs on radio, several newer television programs for the schools, and research by the Audience Research Department of Sveriges Radio and the Education Department. Distance teaching in higher education is available in three forms: university study circles, organized by the independent educational associations in collaboration with a university or college department; decentralized university courses which enable students to enroll on either a part-time or full-time basis in another town outside the university; and distance educational studies consisting of correspondence courses with additional study guides and booklists. | [FULL TEXT]

Bates, A. W. (1979).  Appropriate Teaching Functions for Television, Radio and Audio-Cassettes in Open University Courses: A Summary of Functions Proposed in Successful Course Team Bids. IET Papers on Broadcasting No. 124. 

Teaching functions for which television, radio, and audiocassettes are particularly appropriate are considered, based on the use of broadcasting at the Open University. Television is useful for the following purposes: to demonstrate experiments or experimental situations; to illustrate principles involving dynamic change or movement; to illustrate abstract principles through the use of physical models; to illustrate principles involving more than one dimension of space; to demonstrate the visual picture of an area or building; to provide primary resource material or case-study material; to demonstrate decision-making processes; to change student attitudes; to study films or dramatic performances; and to teach sketching, drawing, or painting techniques. Audiocassettes are more appropriate than radio to analyze detailed visual material, to review complex arguments, and to witness naturally occurring events. Radio is more appropriate than audiocassettes to provide remedial tutorials; to relate course material to current events; to provide criticism or alternative viewpoints to course material; and in other cases when only hearing the material would be sufficient. | [FULL TEXT]

Bates, A. W.; Pugh, A. K. (1975).  Designing Multi-Media Courses for Individualized Study: The Open University Model and its Relevance to Conventional Universities  British Journal of Educational Technology, 6, 3. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 5066.

Bates, Tony (1979).  A Master Plan for the Evaluation of the Radio Component of the Fifth Education Project for the Royal Government of Thailand. 

The master plan for evaluation presented in this report was developed by a UNESCO consultant as part of an agreement between the Government of Thailand and the United Nations Development Program for a project providing technical assistance for strengthening educational radio for schools and out-of-school education. Although this plan is restricted to the activities of the Centre for Educational Technology (CET), the Radio Correspondence Project (RCP), and the In-Service Teacher Training Division (TTD), brief descriptions of the activities of other sectors using the radio facilities provided under this education project are included. Formative and summative evaluation procedures proposed are based on a study of the educational radio for school and out-of-school project in its context, and an assessment of the available resources for the evaluation of the project. This report concentrates primarily on recommmending detailed sets of procedures for the evaluation of the in-school sector, and a broader and less detailed framework for the evaluation in the other sectors. A summary of the recommendations and a list of references conclude the report, and appendices provide background information on the project, including a detailed work evaluation plan for CET and an outline of project phasing, job descriptions, and terms of reference for foreign consultants.

Bates, Tony; Gallagher, Margaret (1976).  The Development of Research in Broadcasting at the Open University  British Journal of Educational Technology, 7, 1. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 4889.

Bates, Tony; Gallagher, Margaret (1977).  Improving the Effectiveness of Open University Television Case-Studies and Documentaries. 

It is argued that students find it difficult to reap the full potential of television case study programs, and find it particularly difficult to integrate this material with the material contained in correspondence texts. The difficulties could be explained by examining more closely the various dimensions of a television case study: didactic--open-ended, structured--unstructured, active--passive, neutral--polemical, and integrated--free-standing. It is suggested that course teams make a conscious decision about what approach to take, determined by the extent to which students have developed prior skills in the use of case study material. The final aim, however, would be to have students able to handle a wide variety of programs, including those which are open-ended, unstructured, polemical, or free-standing. The main academic justification for television case studies could be two-fold, i.e., of intrinsic content value and/or of value in developing learning strategies. Course teams should be more specific and explicit about the justification or purpose of case study programs. It may be necessary to adopt a broad reproduction of general broadcasting styles--a style of production which combines the best of documentary with the best of teaching practice.

Bates, Tony; Kern, Larry (1978).  Alternative Media Technologies for the Open University. A Research Report on Costed Alternatives to the Direct Transmission of Audio-Visual Materials. Final Report. I.E.T. Papers on Broadcasting No. 79. 

This study examines alternatives to direct transmission of television and radio programs for courses with low student enrollment at the Open University. Examined are cut-off points in terms of student numbers at which alternative means of distributing audio or audio-visual materials become more economical than direct television or radio transmission, organizational and design implications of using alternative distribution systems, and recommendations regarding alternative methods. This final phase of the study explores comparative costings, the organizational and production implications of alternative media, and some possible implications for a new studio center and a renewed BBC/OU agreement. The central concern is to study those ways of providing audiovisual media in student homes that are likely to be feasible in the near future. An examination of university courses, student enrollment, broadcast times, and home based audiovisual equipment is presented. Costs are calculated for use per hour, per single tranmission, per repeat transmission, six year total, average per student (six years), likely number of users (six years), and a per user per repeat transmission category. Formats considered in this study include radio, records, flexi-discs, audio-cassette, television, video-cassette, multi-media, telephone teaching, teletext, electronic blackboards, digital audiovisual, and personal computers.

Batoff, Mitchell E. (1974).  The Unit Box Approach: A Novel Facet of Elementary School Science Teacher Preparation  Educational Technology Systems, 3, 1. 

Part I of a two-part report which 1) describes the origins, evolution, details of the Unit Box Approach; 2) reports the findings of a followup study on the Unit Box Approach; and 3) reports on four significant ramifications of the Unit Box study.

Batoff, Mitchell E. (1975).  The Unit Box Approach to Elementary School Science and Mathematics Teacher Preparation  Educational Technology, 15, 5. 

A description of The Unit Box, an innovative development in elementary school teacher preparation.

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Bauch, Jerold P. (1970).  The Next Decade in Elementary Education  Kappa Delta Pi Rec, 6, 3. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2432.

Baum, Dale D.; Chastain, Thomas G. (1972).  Training Packages: An Innovative Approach for Increasing IMC/RMC Potential for In-Service Training in Special Education  Educational Technology, 12, 9. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3291.

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Bayliss, Win (1973).  The Creative Use of the Tape Recorder in School  Visual Education, 25-28

Full-Text Availability Options: 4257.

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Beard, Marian (1976).  Computer Assisted Instruction: The Best of ERIC, 1973-May 1976. 

This bibliography contains annotations of reports, reviews, and other documents on computer-assisted instruction (CAI) derived from a search of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) system. It covers 1973 to May 1976 and serves as an update to an earlier paper, "The Best of ERIC: Recent Trends in Computer Assisted Instruction" (ED 076 025). Section one covers major issues of interest, and section two presents specific applications and cases of CAI. PLATO and TICCIT, two interactive CAI programs, are the subjects of entries in section three. Research via CAI is covered in section four, and the last section covers descriptions of other CAI work such as applications in teacher training, development of author languages, and districtwide experience implementing CAI.

Beard, Marian; And Others (1975).  The Improvement and Individualization of Computer-Assisted Instruction: Final Report. 

Four research projects were conducted on the improvement of individualized instruction. Two methods of teaching foreign language were examined. In the first, the computer stored a profile of the student's previous performance in German vocabulary, and it developed a strategy to teach the student additional German words. The second project tested the effectiveness of a special keyword association method to maximize the retention of Spanish and Russian vocabulary. The second two projects were computer-assisted courses in computer programing: Algebraic Interpretive Dialogue (AID), and BASIC Instructional Program (BIP). In both, the computer combines the student's history and the structure of the curriculum to construct the optimal teaching strategy. | [FULL TEXT]

Beardsley, Barbara; And Others (1978).  ONTERIS Printed index. Cumulated Subject/Author Index to Volumes 1 and 3. 

ONTERIS is a computerized information retrieval system in education located in Canada. An alphabetical subject index and an author index to "ONTERIS Abstracts," Volumes One and Three are presented here. In addition, an introductory section on the following topics is included: (1) an explanation of the 1978 editions of "ONTERIS Abstracts" and of the present volume which supersedes Volume 2; (2) background to ONTERIS; (3) the coverage of the abstract volumes; (4) a description of the style and form of the abstracts; (5) an explanation of the alphabetical subject index which was produced by PRECIS (Preserved Context Indexing System); (6) a sample ONTERIS record and explanation of the terms used; (7) a glossary of types of studies; (8) availability information; (9) microfiching information; (10) discussion of future expansion; (11) the question of a French language version; (12) information on machine retrieval by ISIS; (13) acknowledgements; and (14) an evaluation form.

Beardsley, Barbara; And Others (1978).  ONTERIS Abstracts. Volume 3. 

ONTERIS is a computerized information retrieval system in education located in Canada. This volume contains resumes of 740 documents, numbered ON00627 to ON01367. In addition to current Ministry of Education and Toronto area board research reports, the coverage includes reports from school board research units across the province, Ontario Educational Communications Authority (OECA) reports, reports from the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE) not funded by the Ministry, and a few from the Ontario Educational Research Council (OERC). Each resume provides bibliographical data, descriptors, availability information, an abstract or annotation, cross references where applicable, and information regarding the source of the document. Computer searches of the ONTERIS Data Base are available through the Educational Information System for Ontario | [FULL TEXT]

Beardsley, Barbara; And Others (1978).  ONTERIS Abstracts. Volume 1 (Revised). 

ONTERIS is a computerized information retrieval system in education located in Canada. This volume contains resumes of the first 626 documents collected and indexed for the system. It covers all research produced up to 1976 by the research units of the eight boards of education in Metropolitan Toronto and other research funded by the Ontario Ministry of Education. Each resume provides bibliographical data, descriptors, availability information, an abstract or annotation, cross references where applicable, and information regarding the source of the document. Computer searches of the ONTERIS Data Base are available through the Educational Information System for Ontario

Beatts, Patrick M. (1971).  Possible Patterns of Education: A Graphic View  Educational Technology, 11, 11. 

The purpose of this article is twofold: first, to define verbally the six elements of education treated by the author; second, by replacing the verbally-defined elements with symbols, to depict various educational patterns distinguished by the inclusion of, exclusion of, and the relationship between, these elements."

Beauchemin, Jean-M. (1972).  Educational Media and the Schooling of Education  Educational Media International, 1, 10-13. 

A brief look at why professional educationists resist the possibilities of new techniques.

Beazley, William; And Others (1974).  An Interactive, Interdisciplinary, On-Line Graphics System for Presenting and Manipulating Directed Graphs. 

An interactive graphics system has been implemented for tutorial purposes and for research in man-machine communication of structural digraphs. An IMLAC intelligent terminal with ligthpen input is used in conjunction with a NOVA minicomputer. Successful application in linguistics and engineering problem solving are discussed, the latter in detail.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Bebeau, Muriel J.; Sullivan, Howard J. (1978).  Effects of Student-Preferred Incentives in University Courses. 

Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of student-preferred incentives across instructional tasks that varied in length and relatedness to course content. The first study was done to determine the effects of the opportunity to earn points toward the course grade. There were no differences between incentive and no-incentive students on any measure. Experiment 2 was designed to investigate the effects of student-selected incentive on student's posttest performance and study time across two instructional tasks related to course content. Incentive students performed better than no-incentive students on program subtests which required stating lists of rules that could be committed to memory. Experiment 3 was done to determine the effects of a highly preferred incentive, release from final examination, when used under instructional procedures in a two-week instructional unit. Effects of the incentive were studied on posttest performance, study time, student-initiated contact with instructor, and student attitude toward the incentives used. Students in the no-incentive condition scored higher than incentive students on a constructed-response subtest that required new rules applications. The evidence suggests that incentives are effective for memory-type tasks, particularly when the student is aware that rehearsal and memory are task requirements. | [FULL TEXT]

Bebout, Jim (1973).  A Study of Group Encounter in Higher Education  Educational Technology, 13, 2. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 4370.

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Bechtol, William M. (1972).  The ComPac: An Instructional Package for Competency-Based Teacher Education  Educational Technology, 12, 9. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3283.

Beck, Kay (1977).  Piaget Does Not Live on "Sesame Street"  Educational Technology, 17, 7. 

Despite Piaget's contributions to child learning, "Sesame Street" developed in a traditional American mode.

Becker, James W. (1971).  Whatever Happened to the Computer?  Journal of Educational Data Processing, 8, 1. 

Key problems remain to be solved in the development of a computer assisted instruction system.

Becker, James W.; Scanlon, Robert G. (1970).  Applying Computers and Educational Technology to Individually Prescribed Instruction. 

Research for Better Schools, Inc. (RBS) has three major components in its individualized learning program--Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI), Automated Learning Management System (ALMS), and computer assisted instruction (CAI). IPI is an instructional system based on a specific set of educational objectives and has correlated to these objectives diagnostic instruments, teaching materials, and methods. The initial objectives of ALMS is to provide classroom management information for the teacher on the individual learning procedures for the individual student. In cooperation with the Philadelphia school district RBS has been attempting to adapt IPI mathematics materials to CAI.

Becker, Judith V.; And Others (1975).  Winnie the Pooh Cleans Up  Educational Technology, 15, 7. 

A report on research which investigates the effectiveness of a reinforcement program which would require an increased amount of desirable behavior for each unit of reinforcement.

Becker, Stephen P. (1974).  The Development of Instructional Design and Organizational Performance to Achieve Profit-Oriented Objectives. 

A study was made using behavioral-science knowledge and educational technology to reduce the problem of lost and damaged freight at the St. Johnsbury Trucking Company, Cambridge, Massachusetts. This case study utilized the concept of force field analysis. The concept involved unfreezing a specific set of circumstances in the organization, moving to a new level of well-being in the organization, and then refreezing the organization at this new level of well-being. The key to the success of the program was high-quality training for non-specialists in the function and technology of the specialist which resulted in changing attitudes and perceptions about the need for preventative measures. From this program four major behavioral-science learnings were discovered: (1) to achieve a complex objective, it takes a whole series of training programs aimed at the same objective over a long period of time; (2) training alone cannot do the job, there must be support systems and clear performance goals; (3) the company never had a claims problem; instead, it had inefficient operations due to lack of management knowledge, commitment, and skill; and finally, (4) it is vital that the change agent be personally successful in the process.

Beckwith, Hugh (1970).  Innovations in Industry Likely to Affect Instructional Technology During the Next Ten Years. 

The content of this report is based primarily on an assessment of the activities and plans of large companies currently involved in various phases of instructional technology, on an extensive review of reports published on the subject, and on the knowledge and experience of the author with similar studies. The report examines broad areas of industrial technological advancement likely to occur in the next ten years. It notes that almost anything of a technological nature that is desired can be done. Examples are cited of specific new products to be expected. A number of factors likely to affect the nature and extent of change in instructional technology are examined. The report notes two basic factors required for innovation: recognition of the need for change, and a conviction that the proposed innovation meets the need on the basis of cost related to benefit. The final section of the report suggests some of the basic problems which hinder the use of instructional technology in meaningful ways in education. | [FULL TEXT]

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Bedard, Richard G. (1971).  Buying a Cassette Tape Recorder?  Educational Technology-Teacher and Technology Supplement, 11, 10. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2893.

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Bee, Clifford P. (1973).  Guidelines for Designing a School Evaluation  Educational Technology, 13, 5. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 4284.

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Begin, Yves (1979).  Une experience d'enseignement individualise de l'anglais langue seconde a l'elementaire (An Experiment in Individualized Instruction in English as a Second Language in Elementary School). Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 18. 

The question of whether educational technology can be of assistance to the public school teacher who is in the position of having to teach the rudiments of a second language that he himself has not mastered is addresed in this paper. A series of teaching and learning units were constructed and experimented with for two years in teaching English as a second language to 10- and 11-year-old students. The technology that was used allowed for a high degree of individualization of instruction, due particularly to the use of the cassette tape-recorder. The results show that the 10-year-old students performed better than a control group in a similar context. The instructional method used also seems to increase the motivation and enjoyment of the students in relation to English as a school subject. However, the learning environment thus created retains a certain rigidity unless it is enlivened by a teacher capable of speaking the second language and promoting dynamic exchanges between students.

Begland, Bob (1978).  Malpractice in Instructional Technology  Educational Technology, 18, 1. 

Probable malpractice issues which are likely to confront professional instructional technologists in the future.

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(1977).  Behavioral Objectives-Special Issue  Educational Technology, 17, 5. 

Past, present, and future trends concerning behavioral objectives. Topics include: the nature and roles of objectives, conceptual objectives for domain-referenced education, and objectives for instructional and evaluation design.

_____. (1970).  Behavior Principles Structural Model of a Follow Through Program, Dayton, Ohio: Model Programs. Childhood Education. 

Prepared for a White House Conference on Children (December 1970), this report describes a program in which first- through third-graders in three schools in Dayton, Ohio, participate in a model of a Follow Through program sponsored by Siegfried Engelmann and Wesley Becker of the University of Oregon at Eugene. All teachers chose to participate, many moving up a grade each year with their students. The program's approach is based on the fact that disadvantaged children are considerably behind middle-class children in learning skills when they enter school and, if these children begin at normal rates, they will always remain behind average children in school. The Engelmann Bereiter approach uses programed materials so that children will not encounter tasks that are too difficult for performance. The materials require many verbal responses for each child. Teachers systematically reinforce desired behaviors, using praise, food, or prizes as reinforcers. This program is used in the first three grades at three schools in West Dayton in impoverished areas. Most of the children have attended kindergarten and have been in Head Start programs. About 98 percent are black. For other booklets in the series, see UD 011 120-121, and 011 124-125.

Behrman, Daniel (1973).  A Dialogue with Plato IV  Intellect, 102, 2353. 

Considered the use of computers in education as an aid to teachers and the effect of the use of computer technology.

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Beilby, Albert (1972).  The Generalist-Specialist Issue. 

Society in general, and the field of educational technology as a particular example, has amply rewarded specialization, and generally ignored and denigrated generalists. While the complexities of modern society and the knowledge explosion do require many specialists, there are disadvantages to both the society and the individual in relying too heavily on specialists who cannot see the broader picture and who can become obsolete. The need of our society for a variety of integrative skills calls for a greater production of generalists: not jacks-of-all-trades, but people who have studied intensively, but not exhaustively, in a number of areas.

Beilby, Albert E. (1974).  Instructional Development in the Public Schools - Whose Job?  Educational Technology, 14, 1. 

A discussion of who should take a leadership role in instructional development in the public school systems.

Beilby, Albert; And Others (1972).  The Future: Some Implications for Educational Technology  Audiovisual Instruction, 17, 5. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 1907.

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Belcastro, Frank P. (1972).  Programmed Instruction and its Non-Use in Canadian Correctional Institutions  Programmed Learning & Educational Technology, 9, 1. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3578.

Bell, Chip R. (1976).  Participative Training Design  Educational Technology, 16, 11. 

Methods of increasing learner participation in training design are discussed.

Bell, Frederick H. (1974).  Why is Computer-Related Learning So Successful?  Educational Technology, 14, 12. 

Article suggests several reasons for the successful use of computers to augment learning and offers some principles and procedures for catalyzing creativity in computer-related learning environments.

Bell, Frederick H. (1975).  Computer-Related Laboratories: An Inter-Disciplinary Approach to Learning. 

The computer-centered, interdisciplinary learning environment called Soloworks at the University of Pittsburgh is described and placed in the perspective of continuing curriclulm change. The organization of the hardware into computer lab, dynamics lab, synthesis lab, modeling/simulation lab and logical design lab is explained. Teaching/learning innovations growing from the project are summarized; steps toward developing a secondary school curriculum are discussed. The project and related developments are said to make possible and practical a truly interdisciplinary and revolutionary approach to formal education.

Bell, M. E.; Anderson, Lorin W. (1978).  Application of Television to the PSI Model  Educational Technology, 18, 1. 

The use of television in PSI courses has two advantages: (1) student time involved in learning is comparable with that of students using only written material, and (2) it provides an avenue for learning for those students who prefer auditory learning to written learning.

Bell, Richard H. (1978).  Realizing the Other Half of the Dream  Audiovisual Instruction, 23, 1. 

Television should be more extensively used for formal instruction of children and adults in school and at home.

Bell, T. H. (1975).  A New Commitment to Instructional Technology. 

U.S. Commissioner of Education, T. H. Bell stated that individualized instructional television via videotape cassette is one of the answers to routine tasks in education, but educational leaders have not moved ahead to take advantage of the capability. The system, he said, allows teachers to select the programs they want and use them when they are needed. The cassettes can be stored on the library shelf. One particular application is for instruction of small groups within the classroom. The system is simple enough for any teacher to use and inexpensive to purchase and operate. Although he thought the key to successful learning will continue to be a bright, personable, and dynamic teacher, educators have lacked creative insight in not bringing instructional technology into teaching and learning.

Bell, T. H. (1976).  Education Research and Government Policy. 

The accomplishments of education research are many, and they are leaving an indelible imprint on the shape and character of American education. The role of the federal government in education is one of leadership and financial and technical assistance to the states or to individual school districts or higher education institutions. The birth of federal support to education research occured in 1862 when Congress passed the Morrill Act. Another jump in education research took place in 1917 with the passage of the Smith-Hughes Act for vocational education. In 1954 the Comparative Research Act was a major turning point for educational research and development. It was followed by the National Defense Education Act in 1958. A number of other acts passed by Congress have also led to noticeable improvements in American education including the Higher Education Act of 1965 and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. Many recently developed forms of educational technology are now being widely employed in instructional programs because of federal education policy. Education research is in its infancy in the United States and operates in a complex social arena. Its accomplishments are difficult to measure and evaluate because it is a social science.

Bellamy, Harold J.; And Others (1973).  Design of Training Systems, Phase I Final Report Appendices, Volume II of II. 

A series of five appendixes presents details related to Phase I of the three-stage project "Design of Training Systems" (DOTS). The first appendix discusses strategic assumptions and processes, while the second reviews mathematical models and data bases operational within the navel education and training command. The third appendix provides a bibliography of materials on three topics--mathematical modeling techniques, educational technology, and naval instructions and related pertinent matters. The fourth appendix lists the activities and locations visited in this phase of the project and the fifth provides a glossary of significant terms.

Bellamy, Harold J.; And Others (1975).  Design of Training Systems. Program Maintenance Manual; Data Base, ETE, SCRR, and TPF Models. Report No. 29. 

This report contains detailed information on the three Design of Training Systems (DOTS) models and the DOTS data base. It consists of a single volume containing a description and macro flow, detailed logic flows and program listings for the Educational Technology Evaluation (ETE) model, the System Capabilities Requirements and Resources (SCRR) model, the Training Processes Flow (TPE) model, and the DOTS data base. Control logic, input/output record formats, the temporary and permanent data files are described for each subsystem (the three models and the data base). The information contained in this volume is intended for use by programmers given the task of installing and modifying the DOTS programs.

Bellamy, Harold J.; And Others (1975).  Design of Training Systems. User's Manual; Data Base, ETE, SCRR, and TPF Models. Report No. 30. 

This report provides information necessary to familiarize the nonautomatic data processing user with the Design of Training Systems (DOTS) programs and to permit their initial application. It consists of a single volume containing a system overview and detailed information on the major subsystem; The DOTS data base, the Educational Technology Evaluation (ETE) model, the System Capabilities Resources and Requirements (SCRR) model, and the Training Process Flow (TPF) model. Each subsystem section contains a discussion of subsystem architecture, design assumptions, input requirements, and output parameters. Procedures are provided for pre-application system test and operational use. The DOTS data base section also includes a discussion of administrative procedures.

Belland, John C. (1973).  Testimony for the Senate Subcommittee on the Handicapped: 1973. 

Presented is a transcript of testimony for the Senate Subcommittee on the Handicapped. Considered is the role of the National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped (NCEMMH) in regard to needs assessment, field testing, and quality control of instructional materials as well as in coordinating the development of a national information and delivery system for instructional materials. Cited is the need of the NCEMMH for long-range dependable federal funding to support its efforts for handicapped children, especially in the area of educational technology.

Bellefleur, Philip (1978).  Radio/Teletype Communications Systems: An Adjunct to Television Captions for the Deaf.  American Annals of the Deaf, 123, 6. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 1389.

Belt, Sidney L. (1975).  Some CMI Design Considerations to Meet the Requirements of Individually Guided Education. 

Various methods of implementing the Individually Guided Education program of the Wisconsin Research and Development Center for Cognitive Learning are listed and described. Avenues by which schools may obtain computer support for managing instruction are suggested. IGE methods are contrasted with the self-contained classroom and "file-folder" approaches to individualized education. Methods for establishing instructional groups are described, and grouping recommendations. Group decision-making by teachers in the instructional unit is emphasized.

Belt, Sidney L.; Spuck, Dennis W. (1974).  Computer Applications in Individually Guided Education: A Computer-Based System for Instructional Management (WIS-SIM). Needs and Specifications. Working Paper No. 125. 

A model of computer managed instruction is reported which emphasizes the use of the Wisconsin System for Instructional Management (WIS-SIM) in classroom level decision making. Two major decision areas, specifying performance expectations and selecting appropriate educational experiences, were identified, and five major processes involved in WIS-SIM were specified: testing, achievement profiling, diagnosing, prescribing, and instructing. The WIS-SIM model was applied to two of the Wisconsin R & D Center's instructional programs--the Wisconsin Design for Reading Skill Development and Developing Mathematical Processes. A summary of the implementation schedule, identifying three successive annual applications of WIS-SIM is also presented.  | [FULL TEXT]

Belt, Sidney L.; West, Sara F. (1976).  Implementing Individually Guided Education (IGE) with Computer Assistance  Educational Technology, 16, 9. 

Describes one system of computer managed instruction and how it facilitates the management and information processing needs for one widely implemented system of individualized instruction, Individually Guided Education

Belzer, Jack (1970).  Patterns for Development of Education in Information Science. 

During the past decade, the scope of information science has been evolving into a broader but better defined area of specialization. In this paper several of the definitions of information science which have been suggested by various professional groups are discussed. The educational objectives of information science are identified, and the curricula necessary to achieve these objectives are outlined. The paper discusses the changing nature of the library's role in information science and the impact of computers on the field of information science in general. A list of references is appended. | [FULL TEXT]

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Bender, David R., Ed. (1976).  Issues in Media Management, 1976. 

Seven speeches presented during a Maryland inservice program for educators in charge of school media programs deal with public relations and instructional technology. The first presentation emphasizes the need for public awareness of media programs and materials. This is followed by two related articles: a review of basics for an effective public relations program in library media services, and a discussion of how to develop children's interest in literature. Four presentations on instructional technology include two reviews of techniques for systematic instructional planning and development, a systems approach to media programing, and the application of systems theory to the improvement of education.

Benenfeld, Alan R.; And Others (1974).  NASIC at MIT; Phase 1 Report, 16 July 1973 - 28 February 1974. 

An experimental, pilot operation of computer-based reference search services to users on a fee-for-service basis was initiated at M.I.T. as the first module in the development of the Northeast Academic Science Information Center (NASIC) under a New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) program. The development encompassed, among other tasks, selection of services, training for services, developing the initial organizational and operational policies and capabilities, publicity about available services, and the operations monitoring procedures. A fundamental philosophy was to integrate these services within the library environment where they complement traditional services. Initial experiences during a three month operational period showed that (1) a demand exists for computer-based reference search service; (2) users are willing to pay, even out-of-pocket, for such services; (3) searches are often interdisciplinary and require several sources; (4) various publicity mechanisms are helpful but none so important satisfied users telling their colleagues; and (5) users like and respond positively to the in-depth, customized service and personal attention to their bibliographic needs. | [FULL TEXT]

Bennett, Robert L. (1972).  New Opportunities Through Coordinated Instruction Systems  Junior College Journal, 42, 6. 

A coordinated instruction system can provide greater flexibility in an atmosphere of rapid change. This would include greater use of instructional media, work experience programs in the community, provision of special services to the disadvantaged, and articulation agreements which allow transfer from lower to upper division technical degrees.

Bennie, Frances (1977).  Learning Centers: Development and Operation. 

There has been in recent years a growing acceptance of individualized learning concepts. Learning Centers have come to be viewed as an economical and viable strategy for accommodating diverse learning styles and needs. This book provides the educator with an understanding of the learning center concept, its origins, present manifestations, and potential--through proper implementation--for achieving true individualization of instruction. Chapters trace the 200-year educational history leading to the emergence of learning centers, present an overview of trends in their development, set forth a conceptual framework for the model, present an operational model of processes, properties, and people in learning centers, describe a typical day in center operation, and discuss the learning center as a catalyst for change and staff development.

Bennion, Junius L. (1974).  Possible Applications of Optical Video Discs to Individualized Instruction Systems. 

The videodisc with random access and large capacity for storage of high quality audiovisual material has the potential of becoming a very effective new medium for individualized interactive instruction at low cost. This medium should be developed carefully, making use of the experience gained in the TICCIT project and the best available instructional psychology and learning theory so that the full potential of the videodisc can be realized. New techniques for lesson development utilizing interactive control of still frames and motion sequences need to be explored. Learner control of freeze frame, slow motion, or fast motion options during motion sequences by repeating or skipping revolutions is possible with the videodisc system, and needs to be evaluated.  | [FULL TEXT]

Bennion, Junius L.; Schneider, Edward W. (1975).  Interactive Video Disc Systems for Education. 

The basic design of the videodisc technology, especially the three features of the freeze frame, electronic address, and fast random access, makes possible the creation of a new audiovisual delivery system that has revolutionary applications for education in individualized interactive instruction. In addition to the linear playback mode for home movie and television rerun entertainment, the optical videodisc is capable of providing branching because of random access and electronic addressing capabilities. The system is also able to accommodate many psychological procedures for enhancing learning, such as the capability of inserting questions in still frames or aural modes at any point. Special features offered by the video disc system which make it more flexible than TICCIT are motion control, greater audio capabilities, and the lack of need for an external computer.

Benoist, Howard (1979).  Criterion-Referenced Testing for College-Level General Education: Some Problems and Recommendations.  Educational Technology, 19, 9. 

The adoption of a criterion-referenced assessment system and the resulting disadvantages of this form of evaluation for the college general education program are discussed, including problems in identifying assessment validation procedures.

Bentley, Charles F. (1971).  Aspects of Adult Education in North America and Great Britain. 

A tour to obtain a broad picture of the state of development of adult education in cities of the United States, of Canada, of India, and of the United Kingdom is described. The objectives of the tour were to examine: (1) the provision made for residential adult education overseas (the U.S.); (2) the relationship between the various agencies providing adult education, and, in turn, their relationship with the formal structure of education; (3) examples of the provision of adult education "at a distance," that is without the presence of a tutor at the point where the students are studying; and (4) the use of frequency modulated broadcasting in adult education. The introduction discusses the use of the term "adult education" in North America and the British usage. Areas of education included in the term "adult education" are External Degrees, Continuing Education, and Liberal Education. Other topics discussed in the report are: Residential Adult Education; Workers' Education; The Use of Technical Resources; Co-operation between Agencies; Adult Education at a Distance (discussion group programs, correspondence programs, the Open University); and financing Adult Education. Two appendixes present a List of Organisations Visited and Individuals Interviewed, and a Submission to Committee of Inquiry into Frequency Modulation.

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Bereiter, Carl (1973).  Must We Educate? 

This book attacks current educational practices and proposes new approaches and alternatives to education. The contents include: "Must We Educate? which discusses moral dilemmas in education, inequality, institutionalization of personal choice, and alternatives to education; "The Search for Morally Acceptable Education Goals," which examines educational goals and morality and the curriculum; "The Right to Make Mistakes," which discusses compulsory training versus compulsory education, four conceptions of the child, and children's rights; "Is Inequality Here To Stay?" which discusses skill deficiencies, improving teaching procedures, and teaching essential skills; "The Institutionalization of Personal Choice," which discusses control of individual decision making; "Schools Without Education," which discusses the role of the school, informal schooling, child care, and alternative proposals; "A Better Life for Children," which looks at quality of experience, cultural resources, and child care workers; "Optional Adolescence," which discusses different ways to spend the adolescent years; "Education and Society's Needs," which presents some of the social needs that can be projected into demands for education; and "Will Anything Happen?" which presents a summary of the previous discussion.

Berg, Richard C. (1971).  Films for Music Education  Educational Technology, 11, 8. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2980.

Berg, Thomas R.; Spinelli, Louis (1974).  Contemporary Threats to Teacher Autonomy  Journal of Thought, 9, 4. 

The position taken in this article was that the generalized trend toward educational techniques, which rationalize and systematize what all good teachers are doing, threatens teacher autonomy.

Berger, Guy P. (1974).  The Planned Establishment of a National Educational Technology Centre in Hungary  Educational Media International, 1, 19-22. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 1988.

Bergman, Brian A.; Siegel, Arthur I. (1972).  Training Evaluation and Student Achievement Measurement: A Review of the Literature. 

Training evaluation and student achievement measurement literature is reviewed with primary emphasis placed on studies reported in the last 10 years. Recent trends in training evaluation and student achievement measurement are presented. Factors relating to this topic, such as statistical methods, course development methods, training techniques, learning styles, motivation, and moderator variables are also included. Where new methods of training evaluation and student achievement measurement appear in the literature, detailed presentations are given. Among these procedures were cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit analysis, criterion-referenced testing, sequential testing, confidence testing, convergent and discriminant validity, and computer-assisted branched testing. Conclusions are that systematic approaches to evaluation and course development are receiving more and more attention. Most systems begin with a job analysis in order to derive a list of behaviorally-oriented job requirements from which training objectives can be formulated. The new techniques in evaluation and measurement have resulted from attempts to determine whether training objectives have been realized.

Bergman, Samuel; Varol, Yakov (1976).  Helping the Teacher Teach in Israel: A Computer Experiment  Educational Technology, 16, 4. 

A look at how the computer was used to help teachers in Israel deal with students' individual learning problems.

Bergquist, Harold (1971).  A Basic Operational Learning System  Educational Technology, 11, 11. 

This article describes the successful efforts of a small...and poor...school district to independently fund, organize and implement an individualized curriculum within the context of a learning system."

Bergquist, Sidney R.; Blanchowicz, Camille L. Z. (1977).  A Competency-Based Teacher Education Program in Reading  Educational Technology, 17, 12. 

A pilot program stressing university student involvement in the classroom.

Berkman, Dave (1972).  The Myth of Educational Technology  Educational Forum, 36, 4.

 

Berkman, Dave (1976).  Instructional Television: The Medium Whose Future Has Passed?  Educational Technology, 16, 5. 

A presentation of reasons why television has never been an integral part of instruction, and why it will not be in the future.

Berman, Arthur I. (1974).  The Media-Activated Seminar  Educational Technology, 13, 3. 

A description of a media activated seminar, which can serve to provide an element of direction. Less apparent, but of prime importance, is the potential for stimulation, motivation, and maintenance of attention characteristic of certain types of media.

Berman, Arthur I.; Baez, Albert V. (1970).  Seminar/Autolecture Experiences  Amer J Phys, 38, 3. 

Describes the characteristics and applications of the seminar/autolecture system, which is an open-ended learning system combining recent advances in educational technology with recent findings in behavioral science. The autolecture involves the use of an overhead projector and a cassette tape recorder. The authors report that the instructional system has met with encouraging success at several universities. Bibliography.

Berman, Mark L. (1971).  Introduction: Contingency Management Issue  Educational Technology, 11, 4. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3065.

Berman, Mark L. (1974).  Application of Contingency Management: Consideration in a Correctional Setting  Educational Technology, 14, 4. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3925.

Berman, Mark Laurence (1970).  Preparing Prisoners for College Using Programmed Learning and Contingency Management  Training Technol, 2, 1. 

Program learning and contingency management are two approaches designed to prepare prisoners for college. Academic performance of Newgate students has been high. In a quarterly supplement to Educational Technology Magazine.

Bernhard, Keith (1971).  Community College Group Nets Affiliate Status and a Sparkling Convention Program  Audiovisual Instruction, 16, 6. 

Presented is an overview of several speeches which described instructional innovations and programs at community colleges in various regions across the United States.

Bernhard, Keith E. (1979).  Teacher Education Redesign: Competencies in Educational Technology. 

This brief description of the development of competency-based teacher education (CBTE) programs at the University of Toledo emphasizes the analysis of the kinds of competencies in educational technology most needed by preservice teachers and the interdisciplinary nature of the analysis. The two appendices which form the major part of the paper include a collection of competencies currently "in force" in the CBTE programs at the University of Toledo, and a set of competencies grouped by functions in the domain of educational technology. These competencies-by-function form seven clusters--theories of learning and instruction, systematic instructional planning and evaluation, information search strategies, evaluation and selection of instructional media, production of instructional materials, use of alternative instructional media, and understanding and operating audiovisual equipment. A 23-item bibliography is attached. | [FULL TEXT]

Bernotavicz, Freda D.; And Others (1970).  Training Programs for Media Support Personnel; An Annotated Directory. 

Media-support personnel are employed in a variety of situations ranging from a television technician in an instructional television studio, to a teacher aide showing movies to children, to a graphics technician engaged in producing visuals for a slide/tape presentation. In order to meet the need for media-support personnel with training relevant to the kinds of tasks needing to be performed, the Jobs In Instructional Media Study (JIMS) was designed. As a part of its work, JIMS conducted a survey of the existing programs in two-year colleges to train media-support personnel. Information is presented here on such programs at fifteen institutions. In addition to details on the program and course descriptions for the core courses, information is also provided on how long the program has been in operation, the number of students enrolled in the program, and its anticipated growth.

Berrisford, Christopher (1973).  The Qualities of Leadership  Independent School Bulletin, 32, 4. 

Discusses the specific ingredients for leadership and the environments for developing those qualities.

Berry, C.; Unwin, D. (1975).  PLET Monitoring: Production and Audience Variables in Film and Television  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 12, 1. 

A selected bibliography of production and audience variables in film and television.

Berthold, Howard C.; Sach, Robert H. (1974).  Education of the Minimally Brain Damaged Child by Computer and by Teacher  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 11, 3. 

A study which considers principles which underlie both computer assisted instruction and special education.

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Besel, Ronald (1973).  Diagnosis-Prescription in the Context of Instructional Management  Educational Technology, 8, 7. 

Author argues that individual assessment of the students learning style should precede the decision of which teaching method is appropriate. He applies the medical terminology of diagnosis-prescription to this method of instructional development for management.

Beshers, James M. (1970).  On Technological Escapism  Educational Technology, 10, 9. 

The author argues briefly that the statement of urban problems and their solution require explicit use of social system concepts."

Beswick, N. W. (1975).  School Resources Centres: A Continuing Development  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 12, 3. 

The experience of the Schools Council Resource Centre Project, 1970-73 (Great Britain) is examined in context of recent international publication on the subject.

Beswick, N. W., Ed. (1977).  Media Awareness for Librarians. Course Guidelines. 

Guidelines are presented for three levels of training for professional librarians or library students in the handling of non-book materials. Course guide I is designed for use with students in their initial professional studies, regardless of eventual specialization. Course guide II pertains to advanced studies in non-book librarianship. Course guide III deals with the post-experience or post-graduate level. The guidelines, consisting largely of behavioral objectives which may be used in specific media courses or in conjunction with a general curriculum, are adaptable to a wide range of teaching methods.

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Bethell, H. P. (1974).  BBC Local Radio  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 11, 5. 

The development of Local Radio is traced from the case put by the BBC to the Pilkington Committee at the opening of the first twenty of the proposed forty stations.

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Bezeau, Lawrence (1975).  The Treatment of Capital Costs in Educational Projects  Educational Planning, 1, 4. 

Failure to account for the cost and depreciation of capital leads to suboptimal investments in education, specifically to excessively capital intensive instructional technologies. This type of error, which is particularly serious when planning for developing countries, can be easily avoided.

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(1972).  B. F. Skinner Comes to Class  Reading Newsreport, 7, 2. 

Describes a systems approach to reading instruction, employing programed materials and behavioristic concepts.

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Bhaerman, Robert D. (1971).  Accountability: The Great Day of Judgment  Educational Technology, 11, 1.

 

Bhatia, Tej K. (1975).  New Directions and Issues in Computer-Assisted Instruction. 

This paper examines several theoretical and empirical issues, together with new directions in thinking, which have emerged as the result of significant research done on the PLATO IV computer and with the advancement of the language pedogogical theory. CAI previously encountered three basic problems: (1) the cost of hardware, (2) the lack of adequate software, and (3) the algorithmic ability of the machine. The first two difficulties have been overcome by PLATO IV. The attitude conveyed by the Goedel Theorem in the field of mathematics and the algorithmic ability of the machine are no longer the center of controversy in the humanities. The focus is on how to exploit the capabilities of the computer and how to establish a meaningful interaction between man and the machine. Thus, attitudes toward machines have changed significantly. Theoretical problems are investigated along two parameters: computer-based and non-computer-based pedagogy. The former incorporates such questions as the various roles of the computer and which roles a humanist should assign to it. The "concept of sequencing" is discussed. The discussion of empirical issues includes questions such as whether or not the machine dominates man.

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Bhola, H. S. (1973).  Mass Media in Adult Education: Methodological Aspects of Media Research. 

Those involved in mass media and adult education in the Third World, including researchers in education, communication, and instructional technology, operators of mass media programs, and national policy makers, should regard themselves as change agents. In order to function effectively as such they must understand the methodological aspects of radio, film, and television at the levels of techniques, design, and policy. A system approach to the media which includes consideration of economic, ideological, socio-cultural, political, demographic and technological factors in conjunction with learner traits and objectives and instructional characteristics is the most useful organizing principle. In order to effect social change, media personnel must learn their tools, understand the media, focus on the message, produce their own programs, maintain pluralism, remain close to the culture, administer programs carefully, and follow up messages with social action. Researchers should concentrate upon reading available research, achieving efficient division of labor, and giving priority to research on the impact of media upon social behavior. Given all this, the mass media will be powerful tools for adult education. | [FULL TEXT]

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Bhushan, Vidya (1971).  An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Socio-Economic Status on Learning  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 8, 4. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2855.

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Bias, Lewis V.; And Others (1973).  A Retrospective Look At Educational Media Institute Programs in the U.S. Office of Education, 1965-71. 

An analysis of educational media training institutes was conducted to assess the residual effectiveness of those programs upon participants, the institutions involved, and the overall media field. Pertinent literature and existing institute documents were reviewed and questionnaires sent to institute participants and directors. Significant results included the findings that participants valued their experiences and reported an increase in their media-related skills. They found better jobs at higher salaries and tended to move into influential administrative positions at the individual school or, less often, at the county, district, or other broad organizational level. College media programs were also strengthened as a result of these institutes and a multiplier effect was achieved since graduates were significantly involved in training their colleagues in the field. The study did not substantiate that the original objective of producing a sufficient number of trained personnel had been fully achieved, but it did support the conclusion that the institutes were an effective means of developing trained manpower to meet the needs spawned by the unprecedented growth of educational media and technology. Therefore, it was concluded that as personnel needs continue to grow, the institutes should continue to play an important role.

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_____. (1977).  Bibliography on New Forms of Post-Secondary Education. 

This bibliography was compiled for the Latin American Meeting on New Forms of Post-Secondary Education and the Seminar on Open Learning Systems held in Caracas, Venezuela, from September 25 to October 2, 1976. The book contains a total selection of 658 bibliographical entries on educational innovations. Part I consists of an annotated bibliography presented in English and arranged alphabetically by author. Part II consists of the topics contained in Part I and are cross-referenced, for which purpose a table of contents by subject in alphabetical order is given at the beginning. Papers that deal with one or more subjects are listed under each subject in alphabetical order under the title and number given in Part I. The bibliography is supplemented by an addendum on experiences in Latin American countries, and also includes papers presented at the Latin American Meeting. The innovations contained in the bibliography range from the advances made in methods of instruction and learning up to the latest advances in communications technology applied to education at all levels.

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Bic

Bickel, Robert F.; Gill, F. Jean (1972).  How to Select a New Curriculum. 

The third volume in a series designed to help school administrators to install new curriculum programs contains information about the selection process. It begins with a definition of just what a new curriculum program should be, then suggests the composition of the search/selections committee, and finally describes a search procedure that incorporates a curriculum-criteria matrix to aid in making the final selection. An extensive appendix lists sources of information about new curriculum programs such as news reports, information services, libraries, directories, reference books, consulting organizations, academic institutions, research and development centers, government agencies, and professional organizations.

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Bielawski, Joseph G. (1973).  Guide to Educational Technology: Early Childhood Education. 

This reference book for educators, administrators, parent groups, and creators and producers of teaching materials provides up-to-date information on the available programs and teaching materials of early childhood educational technology. Surveying trends in preschool educational technology, it examines administration, funding, expenditures, teaching approaches, enrollment, teaching materials, and parental influences. Three directory sections provide information on companies and products in the field, giving their addresses and types of materials offered. Films, film loops, filmstrips, multimedia kits, transparencies, records, phonodiscs, slides, study prints, programs for teaching machines, pre-recorded tapes and videotapes, toys, and special purpose materials are all included within the scope of the work. Information on professional associations and periodicals in the field is also provided, along with a compilation of other pertinent data such as the results of surveys on attitudes toward educational innovation.

Bielawski, Joseph G. (1974).  Guide to Educational Technology: Elementary Education. 

To assist school teachers in planning an integrated program using many media, a selected guide describes characteristics of elementary school populations. An alphabetical listing of manufacturers and service organizations in elementary education is shown in chart form to classify products available. Devices and methods in elementary education technology are described and advantages cited. Selected lists of international, domestic, and audiovisual associations are included, along with lists of U.S. and foreign children's periodicals and magazines and sources of information about foreign countries. Sixteen tables illustrate trends in school populations and funding.

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Bio

(1971).  Biomedical Instructional Technology: The State of the Art  Journal of Medical Education, 46, 7 pt2.

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_____. (1979).  Bi-Regional Educational Improvement Forum (Atlanta, Georgia, November 19-20, 1979). 

The Bi-Regional Educational Improvement Forum in Atlanta, Georgia (November 1979) considered three areas of school improvement, including State Department of Education (SEA) delivery systems and the use of technology to improve schooling. The three forum articles concerned with delivery systems treat the transformation of policies emanating from Washington, D.C., the implementation of these policies at the local level, the range of SEA dissemination efforts, and the attempts in South Carolina to foster change in the educational delivery system. The three articles on technology discuss demographic and social changes that affect education, implications for the use of communications and technology in coping with the shrinkage in educational resources, and the use of energy-related technologies to improve the quality of community life. | [FULL TEXT]

Birchfield, R. W. (1975).  Portfolio Pedagogy: Probing for the Potentialities of the Nontextbook  Educational Technology, 15, 5. 

Suggestions for altering the traditional textbook format for instructional materials.

Birdsong, David (1977).  Computer-Assisted and Programed Instruction in Foreign Languages: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography. CAL-ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics, No. 50. 

The documents listed in this annotated bibliography on computer-aided and programmed instruction in foreign languages appeared in RIE during the period from April 1971 through February 1977. The selection comprises reports on conference and research projects, papers concerned with theory and application, and descriptions of teaching materials. The listing is selective rather than comprehensive, and each entry includes, when available, author's name, title of article, author's professional affiliation, date of completion or publication, number of pages, and ED number. | [FULL TEXT]

Birnbrauer, J. S. (1971).  Contingency Management Research  Educational Technology, 11, 4. 

The author enumerates some criticisms of contingency management research that have been raised and reviews some studies of contingency management in order to clarify the strategy and tactics being followed and point out ways in which investigators have fallen short of their own criteria for sound research and valid conclusions."

Birt, David (1976).  History Simulation is Alive and Well and Living in Textbooks  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 13, 3. 

Teaching history through simulation, with examples taken from a history book: "Involvement in History--The Tudors."

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Bis

Bishop, Lloyd K. (1971).  Individualizing Educational Programs  Business Education Forum, 25, 8. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3025.

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Bittle, Ronald G. (1977).  Recorded Telephone Messages: A Technique for Reducing Absenteeism  Educational Technology, 17, 4. 

Student absenteeism.

Bitzer, Donald (1979).  Uses of CBE for the Handicapped.  American Annals of the Deaf

Originally part of a symposium on educational media for the deaf, the paper reports on one computer-based educational application, the PLATO system. The system began in 1960 and changes over the years are described, as well as current capabilities. Potential uses of PLATO with the deaf, blind, and multiply handicapped, using adapted terminals, are considered.

Bitzer, Donald L.; And Others (1970).  The Plato System and Science Education. 

This report gives examples of diverse educational strategies in science and engineering education to illustrate the capabilities of the PLATO III computer-based education system. The basic structure of the TUTOR language is discussed and some technical details are given to explain how the PLATO III system works. A brief description of the large-scale PLATO IV system now under development is also given.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Bjerstedt, Ake (1970).  Goal Seeking, Goal Focusing, and Goal Adjustment: Systematic Analyses of Instructional Objectives  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 7, 4.

 

Bjerstedt, Ake (1971).  System Modification and Evaluation in Instructional Programming: The Final Phases of the Program Construction Process. 

In this final volume of a three-volume series on the construction of self-instructional systems, the focus is on various aspects of post-construction control and improvement. As the first step in this phase, the process of polishing the material by checking for readability, integration, retention, and motivation is described and some of the aids to be used in this checking phase are suggested. A description of empirical procedures is included to emphasize the need for systematic revision techniques. Some examples are presented of relevant variables and systematic mapping devices which aid in evaluation. Combinations of revision criteria are reviewed and a few special measures to reduce student boredom are suggested. The final task in program construction, compiling a program manual, is detailed with a catalog of the categories of information common to any program manual. A check list is provided to facilitate the assessment and comparison of existing programs. A glossary defines terms used in programed instruction and educational technology. See also volume one (EM 009 072) and volume two (EM 009 073).

Bjerstedt, Ake, Ed. (1973).  Subject-Matter Oriented Research: Some Current Projects at the Malmo School of Education. 

Research carried out at the Department of Educational and Psychological Research at Malmo (Sweden) dealing with major subject-oriented projects is described in this report. Included are discussions of projects on individualized mathematics teaching, instructional methods in German, studies of factors that affect concept formation and learning, vocational training problems, composition in the intermediate stage of the comprehensive school, and effects of mathematics teaching.

Bjerstedt, Ake; And Others (1970).  Investigation Into Closed-Circuit Television, Principally as a Component System of Educational Technology Intended for Integrated Teacher Training. 

The value of microteaching is being investigated at Malmo College of Education (Sweden). To study the effects of self-confrontation via closed-circuit television/videotape recording, as compared with the effect of the traditional tutorial model, a "p x q coefficient" experiment with repeated feeding was initiated in the school year 1968-69. During the first phase, Spring Term 1969, and during the second phase, Spring Term 1970, a total of 96 teacher trainees participated as experimental persons. In addition, about 360 pupils belonging to the fourth year of the experimental and demonstration school of the College of Education took part in the experiment and were divided into 24 instructional groups. A panel of four teachers of education assessed the microlessons used for both phases. Processing of the collected data has commenced. Questions the data are expected to answer bear upon the reliability of the panel, the effect of the experience on the participating teacher trainees, the correlation of variables, and the effects of the four different experimental stipulations. The Institute of Education at Malmo School will continue to issue reports on this and similar experiments from time to time. References are given.

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Bjorkquist, David C. (1972).  Individual Instruction--The Vocational Teacher's New Role  Agricultural Education Magazine, 44, 12. 

Stresses that the teacher is the most important instructional component in effective individualized instruction.

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Black, D.V.; And Others (1973).  Evaluation of LSCA Services to Special Target Groups: Final Report. 

To perform a complete and useful evaluation of the impact of federal funding, under Titles I, II, and IV of the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA), on public library services to the disadvantaged, handicapped, and institutionalized, two convergent lines of study were undertaken: the study of project plans and achievements and the study of the needs of users and potential users. A comparison was made to determine the degree to which the projects satisfied the needs of the users. The study team examined the plans and actions of each state, queried all project directors, and conducted interviews with project personnel and with users and nonusers of the offered services. A determination of success and failure factors within projects contributed to the definition of a model program for service to special clienteles. It was concluded from the data gathered that the LSCA projects studied had been successful to some extent. More projects succeeded than not, and significant numbers of special clientele groups were reached. LSCA funds also proved to have been a critical factor in these projects and to have been a prime factor in innovation in public library services in the United States. The bulk of this report consists of data presented in tabular form.

Black, J. (1970).  British Universities since the Brynmor Jones Report  J Educ Technol, 1, 1. 

A description of the establishment of central service units" in nearly 40 British universities through which to provide a framework for the serious introduction of educational technology into the university teaching system."

Blackwell, F. W. (1971).  The Probable State of Computer Technology by 1980, With Some Implications for Education. 

Based upon an assessment of new applications of computer technology and upon reasonable speculation about experimental projects that seem to offer particular promise, this paper considers some of the more significant developments in computer technology and their possible effects in education in 1980. A section on hardware discusses some current possibilities and potential uses for large computers and minicomputers and examines the necessity and future of low-cost reliable terminals. The feasibility of extensible higher-level programing languages, a longer range trend toward developing simpler programing languages, and some applications for languages are discussed in a section on software. The final section on systems considers time-sharing services, advances necessary in the communications industry, and computer networks.

Blackwell, Frank (1971).  Self Motivation at Five  Times (London) Educational Supplement, 2921, 58-9. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3024.

Blaisdell, F. J. (1976).  Historical Development of Computer Assisted Instruction  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 5, 2. 

The scope of this historical overview includes the salient contributions from the several scientific and engineering disciplines which made CAI possible during the late 1950's. The time span covered runs from Plato to PLATO.

Blaiwes, Arthur S.; Weller, Dennis R. (1977).  A Social Simulator: Development and Evaluation  Educational Technology, 17, 3. 

Research and development to evaluate the utility of the PLATO IV computer system to train socially related leadership behaviors.

Blake, C. S. (1970).  Learning Systems and Educational Technology  Visual Education, 92-95

Full-Text Availability Options: 1762.

Blake, C. S. (1971).  From Programmed Learning to Educational Technology to What?  Visual Education, 25-26

Full-Text Availability Options: 2800.

Blake, Frank (1973).  Bell Canada Training for Future  Canadian Vocational Journal, 9, 3. 

Bell Canada's plans for future training will be on a centralized basis, using specialists in instructional technology to identify training needs and design courses at both the technical and managerial levels.

Blake, Robert R.; Mouton, Jane Srygley (1979).  OD Technology for the Future.  Training and Development Journal, 33, 11. 

The authors state that organizational development (OD) consultants are reluctant to rely upon instruments because this would diminish their sense of usefulness. They discuss 15 OD issues and conclude that OD instruments must be based on sound principles of behavior and sequenced in a planned way in order to implement organizational change and development.

Blakely, R. J. (1974).  Use of Instructional Television in Adult Education: A Review of Some Recent Developments. 

This paper, concerned with criteria for using instructional television and the ways to use it effectively in specific situations, calls attention to some developments that may not be familiar to adult educators. The author describes an evolving discipline divided on the meaning of "instructional technology" (gadgetry or systems approach?), and reviews the findings of research on instructional television as they apply to adult education. A program in American Samoa and the Open University of the BBC are cited as examples of large instructional design; discussing movements toward instructional designs in the U.S., the author describes and evaluates the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, the Commission on Instructional Technology, and the National Institute of Education. Programs of the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications receive close attention: satellite, cable, microwave, and wireline networks have been developed in support of health-care delivery, education, and research. The author concludes that "there is no point in trying to do what most instructional television programming for adults has tried to do," and he offers his own guidelines for adopting televised instruction.

Blanchard, Gary F.; Cook, Desmond L. (1971).  Project Management and Educational Change  Educational Technology, 11, 10. 

The author discusses a program designed to provide project management training to educational personnel.

Blanzy, James J. (1974).  A Change System for Education  Educational Technology, 14, 4. 

Author argues that managing for change is desirable. It is necessary, but not a sufficient, condition to assure that future important ideas in education become more than passing fads that have little impact upon educational practice and educational output.

Blaschke, Charles L. (1979).  Microcomputer Software Development for Schools: What, Who, How?  Educational Technology, 19, 10. 

Presents a survey of user needs for microcomputer software in elementary and secondary schools. Approaches to software development are highlighted and the future of microcomputers is discussed.

Blaschke, Charles; Briggs, Peter (1970).  The Performance Contract--Turnkey Approach to Urban School System Reform  Educational Technology, 10, 9. 

A discussion of the turnkey process" as a means of providing vitally needed leverage for a school superintendent to deal with the requisite costs of administrative charges and political problems created by the infusion of a new instructional and management system through performance contracting."

Blaschke, Charles; Sweeney, John (1977).  Implementing Cost-Effective Educational Technology: Some Reflections  Educational Technology, 17, 1. 

An attempt is made to identify many of the conceptual, institutional, political and other barriers which impede the cost-effective application of educational technology in public schools. Two policy approaches are explored: one radical, the other evolutionary.

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Blitz, Allan N.; Smith, Timothy (1973).  Personality Characteristics and Performance on Computer Assisted Instruction and Programmed Text. 

An empirical study investigated whether personality characteristics have a bearing on an individual's success with particular modes of instruction, in this case, computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and the programed text (PT). The study was developed in an attempt to establish useful criteria on which to base a rationale for choosing suitable modes of instruction for different students. Fifty-one third-year dentistry students were enrolled in a required oral pathology course that had been specifically adapted for either CAI or PT. The students were divided into two groups and during the semester studied a combination of the two modes. Three separate analyses were conducted to measure the variety of Aptitude-Treatment Interactions (ATI) within and between the groups. The results indicated disordinal ATI for the personality characteristics of deference, order, and aggression with some ordinal effects for endurance and nurturance. The ATI effects were clearly a function of personality measures and not academic aptitude.

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Block, A. Harvey (1973).  Behavioral Technology and Teacher Training  Improving Human Performance, 2, 2. 

The ineffectiveness of current teacher training is discussed. A major source of this ineffectiveness stems from the myth that teaching is an art.'' A contrasting view and program is presented which emphasizes the behavior a teacher must master in order to produce desirable terminal behaviors in students.

Block, Karen K. (1970).  Strategies in Computer-Assisted Instruction: A Selective Overview. 

The history of some computer-assisted instruction (CAI) strategies is traced. A number of components of computerized instruction systems are described and explanations provided on the influence these components have in the development and production of a CAI system. A description of the interaction between a student and a CAI system is presented to show the impact of CAI on a student. Using the work of Dr. Patrick Suppes at Stanford University and that of the Learning Research and Development Center as primary examples, the instructional strategies of drill-and-practice systems are differentiated from those of tutorial systems. Other modes of CAI, such as simulations and interactive laboratories, are briefly described. Aspects of instructional strategies are considered which bear on the design of CAI lessons. The future of CAI is projected, with special reference to technical problems and curriculum design. | [FULL TEXT]

Block, Karen K.; McCaslin, Ellen S. (1978).  Using CAI to Teach Vocabulary Concepts. 

A project dealing with the development of computer-assisted instructional materials to teach new vocabulary words to college students is discussed in this paper. Seven different instructional modules for teaching new words are being developed at the University of Pittsburgh; they are entitled: define, word relations, classify, words in context, create, word line, and equivalents. The first three modules are discussed at some length in the paper and computer exercise routines are given. The remaining four modules are sketched briefly along with a summary of computer techniques. The research design, still in process at the time of writing, is described. The experimenters expect that there will be both specific and indirect methods effects in their program of vocabulary instruction. Several computer exercise routines are included.

Block, Murray H. (1970).  The Community College in the City  Educational Technology, 10, 10. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2365.

Blockhus, Wanda (1971).  Basic Business Education in the Future  Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 13, 4. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2841.

Bloom, Harry S. (1973).  Communications and the Law  British Journal of Educational Technology, 4, 1. 

The author argues the case for the acceptance of the Law of Communications as a separate, self sufficient legal discipline with the same status as a great many of the legal subjects taught in universities.''

Bloomer, Jacquetta (1973).  What have Simulation and Gaming got to do with Programed Learning and Educational Technology?  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 10, 4. 

The meanings and interrelationships of simulation, gaming, programed learning and educational technology are considered. Three criteria are put forward for ascribing meanings to such terms. Gaming and simulation are found to have distinct but compatible properties. Program learning and educational technology are viewed as a process, not a product.

Bloomer, Jacquetta (1974).  Prospects for Simulation and Gaming in Mathematics and Science Education  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 11, 4. 

The growth and potential of simulation and gaming techniques are examined in pure science, applied science and mathematics. The contribution of simulations, simulation games and non-simulation games are separately assessed with selective illustrations; in particular, indications for using simulated, as opposed to "live," experiments in science teaching are suggested.

Blough, John A.; And Others (1971).  The Simulation of an Urban School System for Use in Preparing Educational Administrators. Final Report 

The University Council for Educational Administration (UCES) conducted meetings throughout the country during the late sixties and came to the conclusion that both the experience background of professors and the limited number of conceptual and methodological tools available to them stand in the way of providing effective inservice and preservice programs for educational administrators. The project described in this report, arising out of this general problem, was designed to simulate an urban school system and had two general objectives: to develop several sets of instructional materials for immediate use in administrator preparation, and to develop plans that would provide bases for creating additional sets of materials. Chapter One of the report provides an overview of the project and a description of its rationale. Chapters Two, Three, and Four provide a brief discussion of the content and evaluation of each of the three multimedia sets of materials already developed. The next eight chapters describe plans for future simulations and provide information on the objectives of the simulations projected, their rationales, and their various components. Two chapters describing work achieved thus far in developing support materials basic to the use of simulations conclude the report.

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Blum, Ronald, Ed. (1971).  Computers in Undergraduate Science Education. Conference Proceedings. 

Six areas of computer use in undergraduate education, particularly in the fields of mathematics and physics, are discussed in these proceedings. The areas included are: the computational mode; computer graphics; the simulation mode; analog computing; computer-assisted instruction; and the current politics and management of college level computer installations. The participants generally concurred that aside from the high cost of hardware, the major problem is the lack of widely available textual materials that are computer oriented. The conference was held in 1970 and was attended by nearly 400 scientists and college level teachers.

Blumberg, Arthur; Schmuck, Richard (1972).  Barriers to Organizational Development Training For Schools  Educational Technology, 12, 10. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3304.

Blumenfeld, G. J.; And Others (1979).  Computer-Based Education: A Case for Planned Culture Change in the School.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 10, 3. 

This paper deals with general concepts of planned culture change that could reduce education's resistance to technological change. Ethnographic parallels are utilized to demonstrate the use of the principles of culture change and technological innovation in the culture of the schools.

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Boardman, Thomas L.; McCredie, John W. (1979).  University Computing: Declining Costs, Increasing Challenges.  Technological Horizons in Education, 6, 6. 

Carnegie-Mellon University has experienced 20 percent more computing power each year for the same percentage of the University budget. A planning strategy is described to optimize this opportunity.

Boaz, Martha (1970).  Some Current Concepts About Library Education. 

A review of current thought and activity in the library education field is presented. A brief introductory section discusses the developing role of the librarian as humanist and scholar, the influence of the library school atmosphere on teaching effectiveness and the importance of traditional student-teacher interaction in library education. Innovations in educational technology are summarized. The major part of the report explores current trends in library instruction techniques: computer-assisted instruction in reference courses, the computer-based laboratory of the Syracuse Library Education Experimental project, team teaching, the case study method for reference and library management courses, simulation and role-playing, group dynamics, the systems approach, independent study, off-campus practice, problem-oriented curricula, free university courses, and a mobile library program. | [FULL TEXT]

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Bobbe, Richard A.; Connolly, Phyllis E. (1975).  Educational Decision-Making: Collaboration Among School Board, Administrators and Community  Educational Technology, 15, 11. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 5093.

Bober, Charles F. (1975).  Improve Reading Achievement Through Teaching Typewriting  Business Education Forum, 29, 4. 

In Illinois, 27 elementary schools have bought a typing program with ESEA Title I funds. The idea of the typewriter as a writing tool that relates to improvement in language arts is well-received and successful; the author describes Chicago's program to guide other districts in curriculum improvements.

Boblick, John M. (1971).  A Computer-Based Simulation of an Acid-Base Titration  School Science and Mathematics, 71, 1. 

Reviews the advantages of computer simulated environments for experiments, referring in particular to acid-base titrations. Includes pre-lab instructions and a sample computer printout of a student's use of an acid-base simulation. Ten references.

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Bogdan, Robert (1978).  An Optimistic Friend: Positive Evaluation Research.  Educational Technology, 18, 12. 

Proposes an approach to evaluation that counters negative bias, i.e., optimistic evaluation research. Procedures and advantages of this approach are discussed.

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Bohringer, Kenneth C. (1975).  A Report on the Videotape-Electrowriter Remote Mode Program in Engineering of the University of Tennessee. 

The use of Videotape-Electrowriter Remote Mode (VERM) to deliver advanced level engineering graduate courses to student not on the University of Tennessee campus is described. Begun initially as an experimental project in 1969 using videotape equipment to record blackboard presentations, classes are now sent to other campuses and to industries throughout the Southeast using telephone-electrowriter connections. The University of Tennessee currently dedicates two classroom to the taping of on-campus lectures. Master of Science degrees are offered in engineering administration, chemical and metallurical engineering, civil and environmental engineering, and mechanical and aerospace engineering. A total of 135 different courses have been offered, and these have generated a total of 3,134 non-resident enrollments.

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Boland, R. G. A. (1977).  Design of the Autonomous Group Learning (AGL) System  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 14, 3. 

AGL is a system for group management training that operates without the direct intervention of an instructor. This article discusses how the "educational mix" for the AGL system was developed.

Bolemon, Jay S.; Etzold, David J. (1974).  Enriching Elementary Quantum Mechanics with the Computer: Self-Consistent Field Problems in One Dimension  American Journal of Physics, 42, 1. 

Discusses the use of a small computer to solve self-consistent field problems of one-dimensional systems of two or more interacting particles in an elementary quantum mechanics course. Indicates that the calculation can serve as a useful introduction to the iterative technique.

Bolston, David R. (1974).  Color Pictures from a Black-and -White Videotape Recorder  Educational Technology, 13, 3. 

Author proposes that practically any inexpensive color videotape recorder may be used to recover color from a black-and-white high resolution recorder if adequate burst is obtained at playback, despite what the manufacturer's manual may or may not say about the subject.

Bolvin, Boyd M. (1975).  Using Technology to Serve Learning Needs of the Community  New Directions for Community Colleges, 3, 1. 

Bellevue Community College (Washington) uses a touch-tone dial-access information-retrieval system to provide preprogrammed lessons, lectures, stereo music, current events, and other audio and video information in dial-access carrels on campus and via telephone in private homes. Future plans include the utilization of cable television for instructional purposes.

Bolvin, John O. (1970).  The New Technology: Its Implications for Organizational and Administrative Changes. 

Implications for the administration and organization procedures of schools were derived from assumptions on the learning process and, specifically, the individualization of instruction; the concept of the community as the school should be implemented, interrelating organizational patterns of administration should start with the student and feed back to the student, and professional educators at all levels should be willing to assume new roles and assist in the creation of new practices within the administrative organization. | [FULL TEXT]

Bolvin, John O. (1972).  Materials for Individualized Instruction: An Interpretation of Goals  Educational Technology, 12, 9. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3284.

Bolze, Lothar (1974).  Grundpositionen fuer die Entwicklung von Fachunterrichtsraeumen (Basic Positions for the Development of Department Teaching Rooms)  Fremdsprachenunterricht, 4-5, 188-192. 

Discusses the nature and significance of the departmental teaching room system in connection with the implementation of propositions regarding school policy of the VIIIth Congress of the SED. The specific requirements of foreign languages with respect to departmental teaching rooms, number, situation, equipment and design, are also discussed. (Text is in German.)

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Bommer, Michael R. W. (1972).  The Development of a Management System for Effective Decision Making and Planning in a University Library. Supplement to Final Report. 

The development of this management system begins with an exploration of what the library is attempting to achieve. After an investigation of the hierarchy of library objectives, it is concluded that the one objective which satisfies a set of specified criteria is to maximize the expected future exposure of university community members to documents given current and anticipated future expenditures. A measure of performance utilizing the concept of item-use-days is developed to evaluate the degree of attainment of this objective. Finally, the difficulties encountered in constructing an effectiveness measure to make year-to-year or interlibrary comparisons are explored. The Planning-Programming-Budgeting System is presented as a rational framework for the management of university libraries. Library activities are classified according to four different dimensions. A typical program structure is enumerated utilizing these dimensions. Benefit-cost analysis is discussed as a means for determining an effective allocation of the library's resources. It is shown that resources are allocated and utilized in the most effective manner when the marginal benefit-to-cost ratios for all elements of all programs are equal. Guidance is also offered for the development of a statistical information system to support the decision-making and planning process.

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Bonar, John R.; Dick, Walter (1974).  Development of a Computerized Management Information System for Teacher Education Programs  Educational Technology, 14, 2. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 1996.

Bonham, Glen C. (1973).  Computer Studies in Ontario Curriculum - A Pattern of Courses  Educational Media International, 1, 24-32. 

A description of the computer courses offered in the Ontario, Canada high Schools.

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Boothroyd, Arthur (1975).  Technology and Deafness  Volta Review, 77, 1. 

Provided is an overview of technological devices which have been designed to help the deaf with problems of warning communication (both face-to-face and at a distance), education, entertainment, and acquisition of information.

Boozer, Howard R. (1971).  The Growing Development of Specialized Training within Private Industry for Professional, Paraprofessional, and Technical Personnel. 

The philosophical justification for private industry involvement in specialized training is that these needs are of such magnitude as to require the best efforts of all who can contribute. The practical justification stems from the realization by industry that it must provide specialized manpower training to meet its own need for effective employees. Industry entrance into the training field dates from the latter part of the past century when no secondary schools offered industrial training. By the late sixties higher education activities of business and industry reportedly totaled almost $20 billion annually, with about 85 percent of the major industries involved. Industrial participation in education and training programs outside industry is a more recent phenomenon. This development grew out of the application of technology to educational problems, and was made possible to a great extent by federal and state programs dating from the mid-sixties. An even newer type of activity is that referred to as performance contracting, another approach to solving some of the problems in education.

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Borak, Miroslav; Borakova, Helena (1974).  Group Solution of Examples--Application to a "Unitutor" Programme  Convergence, 7, 2. 

The Unitutor effectively teaches special knowledge and mastery of the skills of group or individual work, of working with information, and of logical and creative thinking. Addressees, faced with a practical problem of economic life, must mobilize knowledge and skills to hypothesize, evaluate information, and freely come to decisions.

Borden, Christopher (1979).  Analysis of Curriculum Designs and Materials.  Educational Technology, 19, 12. 

Suggests a common format for analyzing and evaluating learning systems which takes into account costs, skill requirements and sequence, instructional techniques and requirements, motivational factors, and evaluation.

Borden, Christopher, III (1978).  Helping Print-Oriented Teachers to Use Other Media.  Educational Technology, 18, 12. 

Since the designer of interactive materials must ensure that the learner is directed to the information that he will be expected to acquire, he must recognize the components of the delivery system employed and the process by which they interact to deliver the information.

Bordogna, Joseph; Hannan, William J. (1973).  Holotape Systems in Education  Educational Technology Systems, 1, 4. 

The pedagogic potential of RCA's Holotape video playback system is assessed within the context of present innovative educational trends.

Borg, Walter R. (1971).  The Minicourse--A Milestone on the Road to Better Teaching  British Journal of Educational Technology, 2, 1. 

This article describes a large-scale teacher education programme" which employs a self-contained package of materials designed to train teachers to use specific teaching skills."

Borg, Walter R. (1972).  Minicourses: Individualized Learning Packages for Teacher Education  Educational Technology, 12, 9. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3289.

Borg, Walter R. (1973).  Protocols: Competency Based Teacher Education Modules  Educational Technology, 13, 10. 

An overview of the development of protocol materials, with specific examples from the Utah State University Protocol Project, which concentrates on concepts of teacher language.

Borich, Gary D. (1971).  Expanding the Stake Model to Increase Information Yield About New Educational Products  Educational Technology, 11, 12. 

The purpose of this article is to examine the way in which variables are assigned to determine the variance between or relationships within products and to suggest a method by which an evaluating agency can expand the information yielded from educational product analyses."

Borich, Gary D., Ed. (1974).  Evaluating Educational Programs and Products. 

A guide and handbook for planners, developers, and evaluators of educational programs and products, this book discusses the various settings in which an evaluator commonly works and the many roles he performs. The book divides the evaluator's work into three activities: establishing perspective, planning the evaluation, and analyzing the data.

Borich, Gary D.; Brackett, John W. (1978).  Instructional Program Design and Evaluation with a Structured Analysis and Design Technique  Educational Technology, 18, 7. 

Structured decomposition is explained as a process of reduction to parts of an educational program. Resulting substructures aid in an overview of the entire entity.

Bork, Alfred (1974).  George Leonard's View of the Computer in Education. 

Relatively few individuals have attempted to view the future of computers in education, and those who have done so often tend to focus too much upon present capabilities rather than thinking about the changes that new technology will introduce in the future. George Leonard's book "Education and Ecstasy" provides an interesting picture of what schools in the year 2001 may be like. He suggests that through extended computer technology students will be motivated to learn and that they will learn all basic information, including calculus, between the ages of three and ten. In the book students interact directly with the computer which monitors the student's progress in all subject areas. Children are depicted as linked directly to the computer through headphones that pick up the child's brain signals and indicate to the computer whether the child is comprehending the lesson. The implications of Leonard's book are worthy of serious consideration despite the resistance that computer assisted instruction may face in the near future. | [FULL TEXT]

Bork, Alfred (1975).  Current Status of the Physics Computer Development Project. 

With support from the National Science Foundation and the University of California, the Physics Computer Development Project have produced in the last six years computer based material in a wide variety of modes. Among the major products are science learning dialogs, graphic additions to APL (A Programming Language), the underlying software, and the authoring system. The project has five major objectives: to produce examples of effective use of graphics in computer-based teaching materials; to explore the use of graphics in computer based teaching materials; to explore authoring modes; to introduce dialogs and other standard computer approaches into standard undergraduate environments; to seek a compatible software strategy. Future projects include an organized Research Unit in Educational Technology and a single timesharing computer for science teaching on all eight undergraduate campuses of the University of California. | [FULL TEXT]

Bork, Alfred (1977).  Computers and the Future of Learning.  Journal of College Science Teaching, 7, 2. 

Indicates that the computer will become, over the next fifteen years, a revolutionary force in learning, completely transforming current processes and ways of operating. Discusses the current situation, the possibilities of developing technology, and several models of the future of education involving computers.

Bork, Alfred (1978).  Machines for Computer-Assisted Learning  Educational Technology, 18, 4. 

A review of computer equipment for immediate response interactive systems. CRT display instrumentation is explained, as is additional computer hardware that has direct application to student users.

Bork, Alfred (1978).  Stand Alone Computer Systems--Our Educational Future.  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 7, 3. 

Trends in modern technology suggest that stand-alone computer systems, perhaps incorporating the videodisc, will represent the major systems of the future; they will be widely available in homes, libraries, and educational institutions.

Bork, Alfred (1979).  Interactive Learning: Millikan Lecture, American Association of Physics Teachers, London, Ontario, June, 1978.  American Journal of Physics, 47, 1. 

By the year 2000 the major way of learning at all levels, and in almost all subject areas, will be through the interactive use of computers. Many of the factors involved in this revolution in education are reviewed.

Bork, Alfred; Franklin, Stephen (1979).  Personal Computers in Learning.  Educational Technology, 19, 10. 

Acquaints the reader with the personal computer, emphasizing its use as an aid in the learning process; considers the types of hardware available and software related to educational uses; and offers advice to those just entering this area.

Borman, Karl G. (1972).  The Development and Evaluation of a Model for the Teaching of Beginning Shorthand Through the Use of Computer-Assisted Instruction. 

The model described in this paper for the teaching of beginning shorthand through the use of computer-assisted instruction attempted to prevent incorrect responses from occurring during the acquisition of correct responses to beginning shorthand symbols.

Borman, Karl G.; Hall, Keith A. (1974).  Using Computer Assisted Instruction to Test the Relative Effectiveness of Prompting and Conformation as Instructional Strategies  Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 1, 2. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3700.

Born, David G.; Zlutnick, Steven (1972).  Personalized Instruction  Educational Technology, 12, 9. 

A description of an individualized instructional program in which undergraduate students perform an instructional role.

Bornet, David G. (1978).  The School District's Obligation  School Business Affairs, 44, 4. 

School districts have an obligation to provide an inservice education program. Effective individualized inservice programs can be developed by following specific guidelines, including concerned people, and utilizing technological resources.

Bortner, Rayman W., Ed.; And Others (1974).  Adults as Learners: Proceedings of a Conference. 

The proceedings consist of 11 papers grouped in two major categories: the context of adult learning (social significance and fact and fiction about adult learning) and the utilization of learning models for adult instruction. Contributors are Floyd B. Fischer, George L. Maddox, Rolf H. Monge, Eric F. Gardner, Arthur W. Combs, William J. Hoyer, Francis J. DiVesta, H. Peter Dachler, Rayman W. Bortner, David F. Hultsch, Samuel S. Dubin, Tom Hickey, and Robert M. W. Travers. A summary synthesizes the papers in a philosophical vein with comments on conceptualization of learning as related to an internal system of human control; operant psychology and individualized learning; information processing models, reflecting both internal and external loci of control; expectancy models (as part of motivation theory); and the effect of educational technology on learning as a socializing experience. The comments reflect subjects discussed in the second major section. References are included after each paper.

Borton, Terry (1977).  Reaching Them Where They Are: Guidelines for Developing Concomitant Instruction  Curriculum Inquiry, 7, 2. 

Suggests a number of principles for planning "concomitant instruction," teaching outside the schools by means of television, highway historical markers, cereal-box copy, and other devices that instruct incidentally while performing their chief, noneducational function.

Borton, Terry; And Others (1975).  Dual Audio Television; an Experiment in Saturday Morning Broadcast and a Summary Report. 

The Philadelphia City Schools engaged in a four-year program to develop and test dual audio television, a way to help children learn more from the massive amounts of time they spend watching commercial television. The format consisted of an instructional radio broadcast which accompanied popular television shows and attempted to clarify and amplify the vocabulary concepts that were presented. Supplementary audio broadcasts were developed for"Gilligan's Island,""The Flintstones," and "Scooby Doo," and studies were conducted to measure their levels of utilization and their effects on vocabulary development. Results showed that the audience size was insufficient to justify national networking, and the instruction was effective for only a portion of the intended audience. | [FULL TEXT]

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Bosner, Paul (1976).  Instructional Television: Do We Have the Courage to Succeed?  Educational Technology, 16, 5. 

A discussion of instructional television's implementation in terms of massiveness of the system; the decentralization of the system; and the fragmented, overlapping funding structure of the system, which results in obscured centers of power resting somewhere between state and local control, with subtle direction by the federal government.

Bossert, Steven T. (1977).  Activity Structures and Student Outcomes. 

This paper argues that the structure of activities provides the basis for a model of school organization and its effects on student outcomes. The observation is presented that it is within the context of daily activities that teachers and students make judgments about themselves and others, interact and form social ties, and experience social sanctions. It is stated that the structure of activities shapes the student's exposure to particular curriculum contents, the distribution and use of resources, the pedagogical decisions that teachers make, and the excercise of teacher authority. These, it is asserted, affect what children learn. The bases for this activity structures model in other work on social organization efforts are identified. Elements of the model are specified for different levels of schooling and the relationship between the structure of activities and other aspects of the schooling environment is described. Finally, associations are drawn between specific student outcomes and characteristic activity structures.  | [FULL TEXT]

Bossert, William H.; Oettinger, Anthony G. (1971).  Materials Toward the Comparative Analysis of Presentation Techniques. Project TACT Working Paper 2. 

One of the objectives of Project TACT is to determine the potential of a gamut of educational media. The working papers in this set have a basis in pictorial information produced through computer graphics. These papers are intended to serve as a basis for sharpening questions, delineating the context within which the answers might be significant, and determining whether or not interesting experiments are feasible and rewarding.  | [FULL TEXT]

Bossert, William H.; Oettinger, Anthony G. (1973).  The Integration of Course Content, Technology and Institutional Setting. A Three Year Report, 31 May 1973. Project TACT, Technological Aids to Creative Thought. 

A description is provided of an attempt at Harvard University to integrate course content with technology and the institutional setting. The course, "Communication in Societies," was aimed at non-science majors and explored the science and technology of communication and their effects on social organization. The objective was to impart an understanding of language and communication and enough command of scientific method and skills to mitigate the alienation from science found in so many students. The impact of the course on student attitudes toward science is examined, and the selection of course content, instructional methodology and grading patterns are discussed. Software and hardware used in the course are analyzed and a review is made of the problems involved in moving from experimental services to routine institutionalization. Attention is called to the needs to: 1) develop accounting procedures capable of projecting and comparing costs; 2) provide a better managerial structure for experiments; and 3) develop procedures which permit the handling of longitudinal data. A series of 12 appendixes gives complete details on the project. | [FULL TEXT]

Boston, Robert E. (1972).  Management by Objectives: A Management System for Education  Educational Technology, 12, 5. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3507.

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Boucher, Brian G.; And Others (1971).  A Selection System and Catalog for Instructional Media and Devices. 

A system is presented which facilitates the selection of training media and devices based on the requirements of specific learning objectives. The system consists of the use of a set of descriptive parameters which are common to both learning objectives and media. The system allows the essential intent of learning objectives to be analyzed in terms of these parameters covering manner of presentation, instructional strategy, and desired mode of response. A profile of the requirements is matched with the characteristic/capability profile of generic media types. The generic media types include both custom engineered devices and commercially available media such as television, programed texts, models, films, audiotapes, and teaching machines. When the process leads to commercially available training devices, comparisons can be made among over 450 devices described in this report. Appendixes list the devices and give the addresses of manufacturers.

Boucher, Brian G.; And Others (1973).  Handbook and Catalog for Instructional Media Selection. 

As a result of an extensive reevaluation of a systematic approach to media selection made for the United States Navy, this catalog investigates commercially available devices to help media specialists, curriculum designers, and teachers to make informed decisions about educational hardware. The recommended procedure is first to analyze learning objectives, then determine appropriate media types and select the best specific instrument. To facilitate this the first section analyzes learning objectives in terms of the information given to and the behavior expected of the learner, the sense modality (visual, auditory, etc.) of the presentation and learner response, and the nature of feedback and interaction. Next, a media capabilities matrix is developed to provide a framework for gauging the abilities of the various media types to satisfy learning objectives. Then, general types of media are described, followed by a rating of specific devices for specific purposes. This allows educators to match technological solutions to educational problems, to see the constraints on matches, and to use the standardized descriptions to compare makes and models.

Boud, D. J.; And Others (1975).  P.S.I.- A Review of Progress and Problems  British Journal of Educational Technology, 6, 2. 

Paper describes the original formulation and some of the interpretations, applications and evaluations of the self-paced method of instruction known as the Keller plan, or the Personalized System of Instruction.

Boud, D. J.; O'Connell, S. (1970).  Towards an Educational Technology of Laboratory Work  Visual Education, 12-13

This article describes one way of approaching the development of a course in laboratory work in which units are designed in a systematic way."

Boud, Dave; Pearson, Margot (1979).  The Trigger Film: A Stimulus for Affective Learning.  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 16 n1 p52, 56 Feb 1979. 

Examines ways in which learning activities can be designed around trigger films--short, high impact vignettes designed to stimulate learning--to enhance their use in situations dealing with affective learning. Illustrates the use of these films in an undergraduate course, and discusses difficulties tutors experience and guidelines for their production.

Bouillon, C. (1971).  Du Laboratoire de Langues a la Bibliotheque Sonore: l'Individualisation de l'Apprentissage en Langues Vivantes (From the Language Laboratory to the Tape Library: Individualized Modern Language Instruction). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1971. 

While it is theoretically possible to exploit individualized instruction in the language laboratory, in practice this rarely happens. This article suggests transforming the language laboratory into a tape library, in order to achieve self-paced, individualized use of the lab. This solution is preferable to the traditional laboratory use from the financial and the pedagogical points of view; it is more economical and instructionally more flexible. But perhaps the most important contribution of the library is the resulting shift in emphasis from language teaching to language learning.

Bourque, Jane M. (1976).  Materiel, Methodes, Techniques et Technologie (Materials, Methods, Techniques, and Technology). 

This presentation attempts to describe the current situation of French language instruction in the United States. As far as materials are concerned, there is a general tendency to emphasize communicative skills. Less attention is paid to literature, and more to the day-to-day activities of young French or Canadian people. Textbooks are generally good and plentiful, as are audiovisual materials. Methods tend to be eclectic and geared toward communication and culture learning. Techniques used by teachers include team and peer teaching, to lessen the work load, and songs, extra-credit activities, and field trips, to stimulate class interest. This approach should also be applied to testing. New trends in educational technology include an interest in computers and television as pedagogical tools and a decline in the use of the language laboratory.

Bourret, Philip L. (1971).  Television in Rural Areas; A Low Cost Alternative. 

Arguments in favor of radio over television as a low cost alternative for reaching rural areas cite the fact that installation and programming costs for television are three to five times that of radio. But new technology can now bring television to rural audiences. The concept of decentralizing transmitting stations, so that each mini-station reaches an area within a radius of 15 miles, is both technically and economically feasible. Such a station could be put on the air for as little as half the cost usually associated with establishing a rural radio station. Programming costs could also be reduced to feasible amounts if in a sufficiently large region, a dozen or more mini-TV stations were built. In this case, the population within range of each mini-station could afford both the $12,000 to $15,000 capital investment in their own station and a share in the cost of building and operating a single programming center to serve all of the regional stations. This plan allows the stations to serve the needs of the community, in providing adult education, for example. A system now operating in the Philippines illustrates the proposal.

Boutwell, Clinton E. (1972).  Differentiated Staffing as a Component in a Systematic Change Process  Educational Technology, 12, 8. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3261.

Boutwell, Richard C. (1976).  Designing a Systematized Program in Instructional Design and Development  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 5, 3. 

The Instructional Design and Development Program at Florida State University is described and offered as a role model for other institutions.

Boutwell, Richard C. (1977).  Medical Education and Instructional Design  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 6, 4. 

Rising costs of medical care and training of medical professionals have brought about circumstances which threaten the quality of medical care in the U.S. One response by the medical community has been the introduction of educational technology and design processes into professional training.

Boutwell, Richard C.; Barton, Grant E. (1974).  Toward an Adaptive Learner-Controlled Model of Instruction: A Place for the New Cognitive Aptitudes  Educational Technology, 14, 5. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 1976.

Boutwell, Richard C.; Tennyson, Robert D. (1973).  Concept Learning As Processed By Task Sequence And Memory Support. Working Paper Number Eight. 

The multivariate effect of task sequence, memory support, and state anxiety was investigated using a nonverbal concept acquisition task. Ninety-five Indian college students were randomly assigned to four treatment conditions resulting from the task sequences of 1) easy-to-hard and 2) hard-to-easy and from memory support versus nonmemory support. Results showed that subjects receiving the easy-to-hard sequence did significantly better on the performance test than did those receiving the hard-to-easy sequence. Also, the memory support treatment groups had significantly fewer errors on the performance test than did the nonmemory support groups. The instructional condition of easy-to-hard sequence plus memory support was the optimal treatment and provided manipulatable variables for applied usage. | [FULL TEXT]

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Bowen, John E.; And Others (1971).  Teaching Introductory College Geology by Television. 

This document supports the use of instructional television particularly as an alternative to the large lecture hall classes. The geology program at the University of Arizona consisting of television presentations from 1962 to 1970 is reviewed, including the history of the program, course description, attendance, course organization, TV facilities, financing, viewing, textbook, faculty response, innovations, educational philosophy and objectives. The following programs are also briefly described: University of Minnesota television course in physical geology "The Earth and the Sea," (part of the Odyssey Series for educational television); television geology at the University of Wisconsin; and the former program at Portland State University.

Bowes, John E. (1978).  Newsroom Technology in Journalism Education: Oversold or Underused? 

For several years, the University of Washington School of Communications has been evaluating the costs and advantages of incorporating electronic editorial systems in its educational program. Concurrent with the development of newspaper editorial systems, other applications of computer technology have evolved that are of potential use to journalists. Among the questions posed by the communications educators were how these capabilities might be of use to journalism instruction and research, and whether there are advantages to having them integrated into one system. The educators wanted a computer system to help in such areas as computer assisted instruction, analysis of textual materials, tabulation and reduction of statistical data, reductions in the complexity of conventional computer tasks, bibliographic systems, analysis of the editorial process, simulation and games, word processing, and the transfer of electronic copy. The problems in implementing such a system involve such factors as cost, formidable complexity, system augmentation and modernization, potential intrusions into the teaching process, and security. In attempting to solve such problems, educators at the University of Washington have worked out arrangements to enhance existing campus computer resources, minimize costs, and train system users.

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Boyd, G. M. (1973).  Educational Technology and the Re-Creation of the University  McGill Journal Of Education, 8, 2. 

Author argues that educational technology in the universities should be used to implement the overall system goals of promoting research and cultural productivity.

Boyle, Charles P. (1973).  Space Among Us. Some Effects of Space Research on Society. 

A summary of existing and possible effects of the space program on society is presented in this book to illustrate the second-order consequences of space exploration in the world community. Discussions are included concerning influences on human attitudes toward technology and space, life styles, man's outlook, relationships among fellowmen, social structures, international cooperations, economic and industrial developments, design of power sources, world's communications connections, weather observations, geological survey methods, management skills, computer utilization, techniques of systems analysis, curriculum developments, educational technology, plant growth researches, health services, global resources exploration, criminal inspection, legal frameworks, and political decisions. The author indicates the need for further space research by presenting an historical story of the Chinese abandoning of interests in naval research. A bibliography and detailed information relating to the content are given as appendices. Also included is an extensive index for use to complement the randomly arranged content.

Boyle, Thomas A.; And Others (1976).  Computer Mediated Testing: A Branched Program Achievement Test  Modern Language Journal, 60, 8. 

This paper introduces a method of computer analysis of responses in French tests, and describes a Branched Program Achievement Test suitable for computer analysis. Computer mediation and programmed testing is shown to be an efficient and economical educational strategy.

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Bozeman, William C. (1979).  Computer Managed Instruction - Is It A System For Your School?  Technological Horizons in Education, 6, 4. 

Presented is a primer providing the distinction between computer-assisted instruction and computer-managed instruction (CMI), as well as application notes on how CMI contributes to cost-effective achievement of individualized instruction and enhanced student learning.

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Brabner, George, Jr. (1970).  The Decline of Pedagocentricity  Educational Technology, 10, 11. 

The author examines the changing role of the instructor and sets forth a simple schema for categorizing learning situations, or environments,...which should prove useful in analyzing instruction and in clarifying the instructor's role."

Bradbury, Dennis (1974).  Audio Systems in a College of Education (Technical)  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 11, 5. 

The current practice of Bolton College of Education, its relationship with other departments, problems of storage and retrieval are described and related to possible future developments.

Bradley, Curtis H. (1977).  Systematic Interpersonal Skill Development for Inner-City Youth: A Microcounseling Approach  Educational Technology, 17, 3. 

Pilot study. Microcounseling format is base-line measurement, training, and re-interview designed for individualized training.

Bradshaw, W. T. (1974).  Computers in Architectural Education  International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 5, 3. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3693.

Braham, Mark (1972).  Natural Organization and Education. 

In this presentation the outlines of a general systems model for education which may be of value in the areas of curriculum development, course design and teaching are offered. It is based on what is called the "Principle of Natural Organization" which is defined as follows: every form tends to articulate its elements into functional structures; every whole is derived from the internal structuring of its parts. The model defines various cycles, stages and phases of organization and periods of divergence and convergence which are suggested as normative criteria for educational programming and practice.

Braham, Mark (1973).  The Grounding of the Technologist. 

In this revised paper, analyses are made concerning the rationale for initiating the training of educational technologists. Self- and social-optimization is described as a tendency in the development of man's individual and social life. Education is referred to as an agency, not only in the development of life, but also in the continuity of evolution at the human phase. While technology is concerned with the use of the acts, objects, and processes in the environment, an integration of technology and education is the best way to create effective teaching strategies for bringing about optimization of different individuals with individual differences. The author concludes that educational technologists should be trained to understand comprehensive educational theories grounded both in a logically and empirically justifiable concept of man and in technological methods and systems. Courses designed in this connection should include work in such topics as philosophy in education, educators' responsibilities, effects of educational activities, bio-psycho-social evolution in man's education, systems theory, and functions of the educational technology. Included is a list of graduate course requirements in educational technology.

Brahan, J. W.; Brown, W. C. (1973).  The Network Approach to Cooperative Development of Computer-Aided Learning Systems  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 10, 5. 

The National Research Council of Canada is conducting research in computer aided learning through a project to establish a national network of academic, industrial and government bodies in this field.

Bramble, William J., Ed.; Ausness, Claudine, Ed. (1974).  AESP Data Base Information: Rationale, Data Collection Procedure, Interpretation of Results. Technical Report Number 1. 

The Appalachian Education Satellite Project (AESP) was conceptualized in 1973 (1) to develop courses in reading and career-Education instruction for reachers in the Appalachian region, and (2) to determine the feasibility of conducting such courses over a large geographical area via communications satellites. To assist in the initial planning for the project, data were gathered on the various localities that would be involved in the project. Included in the data were: (1) demographic characteristics, (2) economic conditions, (3) educational characteristics, (4) the nature and scope of existing career-education programs in the region, (5) a listing of standardized tests used in the region, and (6) universities in the region that could offer graduate credit for AESP courses. An analysis of the data suggests that there is not a homogeneous Appalachian population to which a product can easily be shaped.

Bramble, William J., Ed.; Ausness, Claudine, Ed. (1974).  An Experiment in Educational Technology: An Overview of the Appalachian Education Satellite Project. Technical Report Number 2. 

The Appalachian Education Satellite Project was conceptualized in 1973 (1) to develop courses in reading and career-education instruction for teachers in the Appalachian region, and (2) to determine the feasibility of conducting such courses over a large geographical area via communication satellites. The courses consist of pretaped video instructional units, live video seminars, four-channel audio instruction, and ancillary laboratory materials. Each course is expected to upgrade the skills of participating teachers and consequently to improve the quality of instruction the students in the region receive. However, a broader goal of the project is to answer questions of an experimental nature regarding the use of advance technological systems for large-scale dissemination of knowledge. The project includes the development of courseware tailored to the needs of a geographically diffuse population, and the development of an organizational framework for conducting graduate-level courses without on-site teachers. For each course, the AESP is preparing a series of programs. The video and the four-channel audio portions of the instruction are to be transmitted to 15 sites in the Appalachian region via communication satellites in the Applied Technology Satellite (ATS) series.

Bramble, William J., Ed.; Ausness, Claudine, Ed. (1974).  Formative Evaluation Study for AESP Diagnostic and Prescriptive Reading Course. Technical Report Number Three. 

The Appalachian Education Satellite Project (AESP) was conceptualized in 1973 (1) to develop courses in reading and career-education instruction for teachers in the Appalachian region, and (2) to determine the feasibility of conducting such courses over a large geographical area via communications satellites. This report describes the formative evaluation design used for one course, the diagnostic and prescriptive reading instruction course for K-3 teachers. Twelve different instruments were used to evaluate the televised lecture tape, audio review tape, laboratory exercises, and scripts for the course module. Forty graduate and undergraduate students from reading classes at the University of Kentucky College of Education provided for formative evaluation data for the project. Examples of the instruments together with the specific procedures for their use are included.

Bramble, William J., Ed.; Ausness, Claudine, Ed. (1974).  The Evaluation Design: Summer Courses, 1974. Technical Report Number Four. 

The Appalachian Education Satellite Project (AESP) was conceptualized in 1973 (1) to develop courses in reading and career-education instruction for teachers in the Appalachian region, and (2) to determine the feasibility of conducting such courses over a large geographical area via communication satellites. During the summer of 1974 nearly 600 teachers at 15 sites received graduate education courses. The evaluation of those courses is described in this document. Included in the evaluation strategies used are: (1) pre-post course testing of the cognitive and affective behaviors of participants; (2) achievement testing after each unit of instruction; (3) user rating of the different presentation modes; (4) descriptive documentation of equipment, facilities, personnel, and participants; and (5) a field study of the additive impact of three activities in the course learning sequence. The implementation and data analysis procedures for the evaluation are also described.

Bramble, William J.; And Others (1976).  A Follow-Up Report on the Appalachian Education Satellite Project  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 5, 2. 

In May of 1974, the Applied Technology Satellite Number 6 (ATS-6) was launched. Among the jobs planned for ATS-6 was the large-scale delivery of educational and health services. Sponsored by the National Institute of Education, education projects were developed for Alaska, Appalachia and the Rocky Mountain Region.

Bramble, William J.; Mertens, Donna M. (1976).  Results of Appalachian Education Satellite Project Needs Assessment Conferences. Technical Report No. 14. 

An assessment was conducted to determine the needs of people in Appalachia for continuing education, adult education, in-service education, and undergraduate and graduate education for college credit. Needs have been categorized in five areas: education, medicine and health, business and industry, human resources and services, and government. The first section of this report provides an overview of the methodology used in the needs assessment. The next five sections report the results of needs assessment ratings, area priorities, additional needs, and utilization schedule data for each of the five areas. The last section summarizes the assessment and an appendix gives a complete list of additional needs in the five areas. | [FULL TEXT]

Brandes, O. Jean (1976).  Projects, Products, and Services of the National Center for Education Statistics, 1976. 

This volume provides an overview of projects conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). Particular emphasis is placed on NCES activities that directly affect educational users; studies intended to improve the quality or utility of NCES data and products are not included, nor are projects aimed at a single client such as the Commissioner of Education or a congressional committee. The volume consists mainly of individual project summaries, organized by major program areas into eight topical sections, including preprimary education, elementary and secondary education, adult and occupational education, higher education, libraries and educational technology, dissemination services publications, standard terminology projects and products, and development projects. Each project summary is divided into three sections--description, purpose and uses, and publications. Almost all of the listed reports can be purchased from Government Printing Office bookstores.  | [FULL TEXT]

Brannan, Evelyn S. (1973).  Another Look At Data Processing  Journal of Business Education, 48, 4. 

Evaluates the way a course has developed in the four years since its inception.

Bransford, Louis (1978).  Communication Satellites: Applications for the Hearing Impaired.  American Annals of the Deaf, 123, 6. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 1388.

Bransford, Louis; Nazzaro, Jean (1975).  Communication in Seven League Boots  Exceptional Children, 41, 5. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 5252.

Branson, Robert K. (1975).  Interservice Procedures for Instructional Systems Development: Executive Summary and Model. 

The document is the last of a five-part series focusing in minute detail on the processes involved in the formulation of an instructional systems development (ISD) program for military interservice training that will adequately train individuals to do a particular job and which can also be applied to any interservice curriculum development activity. It presents a summary and model of the Interservice Procedures for Instructional Systems Development (IPISD) and an overview of its application and management focusing on response to local needs. The functional phases of ISD include: (1) Analyze, (2) Design, (3) Develop, (4) Implement, and (5) Control. The difference between ISD and other instructional forms is discussed as well as the foundation of ISD and its benefits. The major part of the document (133 pages) covers a detailed outline of the five phases and their related steps. Each step is discussed in the light of: rationale, inputs, processes, outputs, and management decision. A list of references is included for each phase.

Branson, Robert K. (1976).  Academic and Military Instructional Technology. 

This paper examines the practices and accomplishments of the military in the area of instructional technology. An examination of historical background is used to increase the precision of the definition of instructional technology. Specific contributions of the military are described and then uses of instructional technology in the military and the academic community are compared. Finally, specific examples of applied instructional technology are described, and suggestions for the future are presented.

Branson, Robert K.; And Others (1973).  Analysis and Assessment of the State of the Art In Instructional Technology. Final Report: Task I. 

The state of the art of instructional technology in the Army TRADOC Schools and Training Centers is reviewed. The report: 1) defines instructional technology, 2) describes the current usages of the products and processes associated with instructional technology, 3) assesses the value or potential value of these products, and 4) describes exemplary programs utilizing these products or processes. The conclusions are reached that the atmosphere within the Army training system is conducive to the use of instructional technology, but that management personnel need training in the design and implementation of instructional models and that greater dissemination of successful programs is needed. It is recommended that: 1) personnel be trained to develop training models utilizing technology; 2) middle and upper management personnel be prepared to administer programs; 3) systems for research, development, evaluation and dissemination in the areas of instructional technology and instructional systems be developed; 4) job performance evaluation instruments be built from real world performance objectives; and 5) all instructional approaches used in training programs be examined to determine the proper function of each.

Branson, Robert K.; Foster, Richard W. (1979).  Educational Applications Research and Videodisc Technology.  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 8, 3. 

Required features of random access videodiscs are presented in the context of potential applications, and four classes of possible systems are described. The implications of these features for courseware design are discussed. Communication with hardware manufacturers is encouraged.

Braun, L.; And Others (1975).  Use of Educational Technology in a Program on Technology and Society  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 4, 2. 

Two secondary school programs for developing technological literacy are discussed. Then, the development of digital simulation packages for use in natural and social science instructional programs is described.

Braun, Ludwig (1972).  Digital Simulation in Education  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 1, 1. 

A discussion of possible uses of computer simulation in high schools and colleges when direct experimental experience is not available to the student. Sample runs of three simulation programs are also presented.

Braun, Ludwig (1978).  Microcomputers and Video Disc Systems: Magic Lamps for Educators?  Calculators/Computers Magazine, 2 n1 p21-25 Jan 1978

This is the first of three parts of a report that evaluates the present state of development of microcomputer and video-disc technologies as they relate to education.

Braun, Ludwig (1978).  Some Bases for Choosing a Computer System: Suggestions for Educators. Technical Report No. 2. 

This report reviews four different computer systems that are available for educational use. Presented is a system overview, and the strengths and weaknesses of each of the following systems: PLATO, TERAK, Compucolor II, and PET. Each of these machines is included as a representative of a "class" of machines available to the educator. Their selection for review is not intended as an endorsement, but rather to permit specificity in discussions of properties. The report looks at the characteristics of each of these machines as they pertain to educational applications, to aid educators in evaluating computer systems, and in making a good choice from among the multitude of systems offered in the marketplace. This document concludes with a comparison among these four computers based upon a set of 25 educationally important parameters and a glossary of technical computer-related terms.

Braunfeld, Peter; And Others (1973).  Mathematics Education: A Humanist Viewpoint  Educational Technology, 13, 11. 

In this article, an appeal is made for the development and acceptance of mathematics curricula that express the humanistic viewpoint.

Braverman, Barbara B.; Cronin, Barry Jay (1978).  Television and the Deaf.  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 7, 1. 

Presents a perspective on the limited access deaf people have had to television viewing. Legal and technological breakthroughs which will facilitate access are addressed, as well as the need for researchers and producers to work together in developing effective television programing for use with deaf audiences.

Bray, W. J. (1975).  Advances in Telecommunications Technology and Systems: Possibilities for Education  Educational Media International, 1, 26-32. 

An engineer's viewpoint concerning research into advanced telecommunications technology.

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Brebner, Ann; Hallworth, H. J. (1973).  Computer-Assisted Instruction on a Small Computer  International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 5, 3. 

A look at the Computer-Assisted Instruction Project in the Faculty of Education at the University of Calgary, which has been primarily concerned with the use of a small time-shared computer.

Brecke, Fritz H.; And Others (1975).  Algorithms: A New Tool for Educational Technology. 

The concept of an algorithm derives from the physical sciences, but it has often been misunderstood and misapplied in the social sciences and in education. The theoretical and practical significance of algorithms stems from their applicability to problems of learning, instruction, and instructional design, and they may potentially provide the basis for the development of a paradigm or model of instruction. For the purposes of this paper, an algorithm may be defined as a strictly replicable procedure which always produces the correct result when applied by a user to a problem or class of problems. Examples of the specification and use of an algorithm are provided together with a discussion of the properties and characteristics of algorithms. Some areas for further investigation and clarification are also suggested.

Breitenfeld, Frederick, Jr. (1970).  Instructional Television: The State of the Art. 

In attempting to assess the current state of instructional television, this paper concerns itself first with the various distribution systems and pieces of machinery available to educators and in use across the country. It deplores the inflexibility of the American educational structure which has not yet committed itself to the full exploitation of the possibilities of instructional television. The organizational and administrative structures prevalent in education are commented upon, and their inherent ability to assimilate television into the system is demonstrated. Several case studies chosen by the National Association of Educational Broadcasters are presented as examples of instructional uses of radio and television. | [FULL TEXT]

Brennan, Robert L. (1973).  Computer Assisted Achievement Testing in Instruction  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 2, 1. 

A review of four areas in which the computer has influenced the theory and practice of achievement testing: a) test scoring and item analysis, b) item sampling, c) item generation, and d) the sequencing of items resulting in various types of adaptive testing. Also, reference is made to the impact of computer assisted achievement testing upon the development, integration, and evaluation of instruction.

Brenner, Lisa P.; Agee, C. Coe (1979).  The Symbiosis of PLATO and Microcomputers.  Educational Technology, 19, 10. 

Presents a case for the integration of stand-alone microcomputers into the educational environment through time-sharing networks utilizing medium to large-scale central computer facilities. The PLATO system is used to illustrate the evolution of distributed processing in the computer-based education environment.

Brethower, Karen S. (1973).  Individual Testing As A Guide  Improving Human Performance, 2, 3. 

Testing instructional materials with individual subjects produces unique and invaluable data for revising the instructional materials. Examples of the procedures and the usefulness of individual testing demonstrate the critical importance of the technique in developing validated instruction.

Bretz, Ruby (1971).  Color Television in Instruction  Educational Technology, 11, 7. 

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Bretz, Rudolph (1976).  Handbook for Producing Educational and Public-Access Programs for Cable Television. 

This handbook responds to local cable television broadcasters' need to generate more local programing in order to comply with federal statutes and to capitalize on growing interest in local interests. The text begins with a brief overview of the cable television industry, and there are chapters which cover the following topics: (1) goals of local programing, (2) audiences, (3) costs, (4) program formats, (5) producing programs, (6) production techniques, (7) personnel and training, and (8) equipment and facilities. It also includes a bibliography of cable television related materials, and the appendix provides information on the Canadian cable television system, a list of community program subject areas, and a glossary.

Bretz, Rudy (1970).  An Independent-Access Instructional Television System  Educational Technology, 10, 12. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2324.

Bretz, Rudy (1971).  A Taxonomy of Communication Media. 

Twenty-eight specific communication media are defined and described in this monograph. A distinction is made between information and instruction and between instructional media and instructional aids. A set of criteria is proposed by means of which communication media may be distinguished from nonmedia, one medium may be distinguished from another, and a single medium may be distinguished from multimedia applications. A two-dimensional classification system for communication media is proposed. One dimension consists of seven media classes which are based on two ways of representing information--audio and visual. In the second dimension, communication media are divided into two groups, telemedia and recording media. The discussions and definitions are directed more toward media users, professional practitioners, and decision makers than toward scholars or research people. A glossary of standard media terms and phrases is provided.

Bretz, Rudy (1971).  The Selection of Appropriate Communication Media for Instruction: A Guide for Designers of Air Force Technical Training Programs. 

Communication media are defined as systems that transmit messages for larger user systems which serve such purposes as instruction, information, entertainment, or propaganda dissemination. The report describes and discusses the uses of all types of communication media in instruction. Eleven uses for communication in instruction are described together with their requirements in terms of communication media, equipment configurations, and program content. Examples of these uses include motivating the learner, directing learner activities, and evaluating learner progress and program effectiveness. The selection of appropriate media for each of these uses is discussed, and criteria are given for determining the need for various system capabilities in illustrative instructional situations.

Bretz, Rudy (1976).  In-School Television and the New Technology  Educational Technology, 16, 5. 

A discussion of how video and television technology has advanced and is being used in the schools.

Breuse, Edouard; And Others (1974).  New Patterns of Teacher Education and Tasks; Country Experience. Belgium, France, and United Kingdom. 

This collection of four reports deals with the topics of teacher education, teacher tasks, general aspects of training policies, and changes in teacher tasks and working conditions. The first report, "Experiments in Continuing Teacher Training," by Edouard Breuse, examines the program established in the French-speaking part of Belgium. The experiment organized for state school teachers promotes training for new teacher attitudes and brings teams of educators together for retraining. "Experiments in Continuing Teacher Training," by Gilles Feery, examines several innovative approaches to teacher training in France. Topics include a) diversity of conditions in which the innovations were set up, b) variety of models, and c) disparities in how the models fit into institutional structures. The report also considers whether a new model of teacher training is now being built up from disparate efforts, each focusing on a limited aspect of training. "Experiment of the College of Secondary Education at Marly-le-Roi and Its Implications for Teacher Tasks," by Josette Poinssac, discusses the effects of educational technology on the changing pattern of teacher tasks. "Innovative Trends to Teacher Training and Retraining," by S. J. Eggleston, discusses the 1972 government white paper on educational reorganization and its policies for the restructuring of tertiary education and the adjustment of teacher supply as being the critical factor in innovation in England and Wales.

Brewer, Ilma M. (1979).  Group Teaching Strategies for Promoting Individual Skills in Problem Solving.  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 16, 2. 

This study of the effectiveness of a multimedia course in plant anatomy shows a highly significant improvement in the capacity to answer final examination questions which involve problem solving, and a correlation between this improvement and the strategies used in small group teaching. Data, references, and notes are provided.

Brewster, David (1970).  Program Description-DASM: Direct Access Storage Management. Information System for Vocational Decisions. 

This paper explains DASM, a package of programs and routines for Direct Access Storage Management on 70/564 disc packs. Its basic unit of data is a record. DASM processes (retrieves and maintains) records by techniques which require the user to reference a record by its name (both record and file name). The steps through which a user can create a DASM file are examined. In addition the internal workings of DASM are clarified.

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(1975).  British Computer Society Working Party Reports: The Computer in Secondary Education  Educational Media International, 1, 18-23. 

A portion of a report by a Working Party of the British Computer Society Schools Committee.

Briand, Paul L., Jr. (1978).  Technology in the Teaching of Composition. 

The use of technology in teaching composition, which has increased in recent years, began with a few filmstrips on grammar. Then slide-tape presentations were used to stimulate writing, and overhead projectors helped in evaluating writing in class. Now, videocassettes are used to record commonly repeated minilectures and minilessons on spelling, punctuation, and other topics. Also, an electronic typewriter hooked up to a television screen is available for use in teaching spelling and to emphasize particular words in a sentence or particular parts of a word. An improvement on this would be to add color, keyed to specific parts of speech, so that the function of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs could be easily demonstrated. Computer-assisted instruction is being used to analyze compositions in terms of spelling, punctuation, grammatical errors, and other mechanical aspects of writing. Also, a computer can count the frequency of various types of clauses, phrases, verbs, and sentences so that writers can discover ways to increase the variety in their writing. Such mechanical analyses free the instructor to discuss such matters as selection of topic, narrowing to thesis, organization and development, and usage and style.

Briault, Eric (1970).  Educational Technology in Inner London Schools and Colleges  J Educ Technol, 1, 2. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 1765.

Brickell, Henry; And Others (1970).  Report of the Dissemination Advisory Committee to the National Center for Educational Communication, U.S. Office of Education. 

The National Center for Educational Communication (NCEC) has shifted its emphasis from dissemination of information toward the broad objective of improvement in educational practice. With this change, the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) system will no longer serve as the focal point of the operation. In its discussions of NCEC's new role, the Advisory Board recommended: (1) establishment of multiple-stop Practice Centers in preference to one-stop centers, (2) enhancement of existing centers toward eventual incorporation within a network of such centers, (3) development of evaluation schemes to assess the work of these centers, (4) consideration of the user's viewpoint as a basic element in communication system development, (5) establishment of use incentives, (6) improved communication practices utilizing media technology and (7) greater involvement with existing related organizations and agencies. Other policy matters to be considered by NCEC include changes in the school as an institution, higher productivity in the field of education, improvements inside and outside the profession, the active and passive roles of information centers, advancement of educational technology, electronic networks, packaged information outputs, improved reporting, cooperative action, response to increased demands for service, and systematic development of a national communication system. | [FULL TEXT]

Brien, Robert L.; Towle, Nelson J. (1977).  Instructional Design and Development: Accelerating the Process  Educational Technology, 17, 2. 

Examines some factors which may threaten the use of instructional technology in specialized subject areas and suggests procedures to reduce cost and time in producing instructional systems.

Briggs, Leslie J. (1970).  Selecting Objectives and Media for Urban Education  Educational Technology, 10, 10. 

The author suggests several stages to be considered in long-range planning for educational reform and comments on some of the aspects of needed actions.

Brigham, Christopher R.; Kamp, Martin (1974).  The Current Status of Computer-Assisted Instruction in the Health Sciences  Journal of Medical Education, 49, 3. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3980.

Brigham, Thomas A.; And Others (1976).  An Application of Operant Principles to Instruction  Educational Technology, 16, 3. 

A discussion of a new emphasis for behavior modification which produces behaviors to prompts rather than reaction to information.

Brigham, Thomas A.; Bushell, Don (1973).  Notes on Autonomous Environments: Effects of Student-Selected and Teacher-Selected Rewards on Academic Performance  Educational Technology, 13, 12. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 4090.

Bright, R. Louis (1970).  Should Educators Generate Specifications for the Purchase of Equipment? 

Many educators believe that they should be able to decide what they need and issue functional specifications for the equipment they want to purchase. In order to maximize the cost effectiveness of a given technology, it may be better to have a constant interplay between people familiar with educational problems, educational research, hardware technologies, and production and development costs, so that it will be possible to make intelligent trade-offs among various alternative approaches. Educational users should also be represented on all appropriate industrial standardization committees and should agree to specify that all equipment they order must be in compliance with the standardization recommendations of these committees, unless there is some urgent educational reason for deviating. Government support of research would help to encourage companies to develop products without the necessity of having a guaranteed market against which they can write off their development costs. | [FULL TEXT]

Bright, R. Louis; Kerr, Eugene G. (1974).  Computer-Aided Instruction is Feasible Now  Technical Education Reporter, 1, 2. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3843.

Brightman, Richard W. (1970).  The Computer and the Junior College: Curriculum. 

Rather than suggest specific course outlines, this report provides guidance for continued development of computer curricula, discusses established principles, and helps to revise current programs. Junior colleges should offer specialized programs for students planning to work as professional data processors. They should also provide computer literacy courses for students and offer education in computer programing skills for non-data processing majors. Considerations for implementing and operating data processing educational programs are: (1) general organization; (2) staffing; (3) communication between the high schools and junior colleges; and (4) evaluation. There are nine steps in the actual development of such programs: (1) establish objectives; (2) survey the community; (3) form an advisory committee; (4) determine the organizational structure; (5) hire or appoint staff; (6) design the curriculum; (7) determine equipment needs and sources; (8) make the equipment available; and (9) begin.

Brightman, Richard W. (1972).  Coast's Practitioners Review Computer Assisted Instruction. 

A review of the literature concerning computer assisted instruction (CAI) yielded 23 assertions of the value of CAI as an instructional technique. Sixty-seven faculty members in two community colleges who have had opportunities to use CAI were surveyed as to their agreement or disagreement with each assertion. The faculty responses showed widespread agreement with all 23 assertions with a few differences of opinion appearing between faculty members teaching technical and those teaching non-technical subjects. Comments made by the respondents suggest a need for data file access for CAI purposes and that alternative instructional systems may be more effective than CAI in realizing some of the assertions. The author recommends that considerably more research is needed to compare the relative costs of CAI and to assess whether or not its increased effectiveness, if any, is justified.

Briley, T. S. (1975).  Hard Times and Basic Backward Evaluation  Educational Technology, 15, 12. 

A discussion of how subordinates could evaluate supervisors' work performance, and therefore provide a basis for self-improvement staff development programs.

Brindley, William A. (1978).  Objective Grading of Essay Examinations.  Educational Technology, 18, 10. 

A method of grading essay examinations that measures the credibility, quality, and volume of a student's answers is explained. Responses are marked either correct or incorrect and assigned a point value, using the system which is described.

Brinkerhoff, Bob (1973).  An Evaluation Technique Dealing With the "Boundary Problem"  Educational Technology, 13, 5. 

A discussion of the problems in specifying resources, planning activities and anticipating results in designing educational projects.

Brislin, Patricia B. (1970).  Educators Information Technology System; Project EDITS. Final Report. 

A project, the Educators Information Technology System (EDITS), was designed to instruct teachers in data processing, broaden the knowledge of educators concerning the impact and utilization possibilities of computers, and allow teachers to develop techniques for using computer information technology in the classroom and in administration. Participants, representing diverse areas and levels of education, were provided with individualized instruction from a tutorial team, laboratory experiences, field trips, and lectures from professionals in the field. The curriculum included three phases: the first was designed to provide general background and programing, the second to instruct in techniques and applications, and the third to provide advanced applications to individual disciplines. From projects completed by participants during the program and from activities of the participants after completion of the program, project EDITS was judged to be successful in providing an effective technique for dissemination of computer information technology.

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Brock, John F. (1977).  Simulation in Maintenance Training: Now That I've Thrown Out the Bath Water, Where is the Dear Baby? 

There is little question that, over the next decade, the military services are going to be committing significant resources to developing simulators for use in maintenance training courses. The arguments for such a direction are persuasive, particularly in terms of training dollar savings. This paper reviews the past R&D on maintenance training, discusses current developments and trends, and discusses the trade-offs involved in simulating maintenance tasks. It is suggested that current maintenance training programs are only training a subset of required skills, but that introducing simulation may simply change the subset being trained. A program to avoid this problem is discussed.

Brock, John F. (1978).  Issues in Computer Simulation in Military Maintenance Training  Educational Technology, 18, 3. 

This article discusses the state of computer-based simulation, reviews the early phases of ISD, suggests that current ISD approaches are missing critical inputs, and proposes a research and development program.

Brock, John F.; And Others (1975).  PSI+Job-Task Analysis=Effective Navy Training  Educational Technology, 15, 4. 

How Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) is used with task analysis for Navy training.

Broderick, W. R. (1976).  A Computer Managed Learning System to Help the Teacher  Educational Technology, 16, 10. 

Describes, from the teacher's point of view, the Havering Computer Managed Learning System. It is essentially an applied research project to investigate the behavior of computer managed learning systems from the perspective of student, teacher, and administrator.

Broderick, W. R.; Lovatt, K. F. (1975).  Computer Managed Learning in the London Borough of Havering  British Journal of Educational Technology, 6, 2. 

Results of a computer assisted instruction project for individualized instruction in London, England.

Broderick, William A. (1975).  Instructional Development for the Florida PLATO Project: Process and Evaluation. 

The process used in the design and evaluation of modules of instruction with the PLATO IV Computer System for stimulus display and response recording is described. Steps in the instructional design process are listed as problem identification and task analysis, identification of entry characteristics, development of performance objectives, development of evaluation instruments, determination of instructional sequence, design of instructional components, and production of instructional materials. Evaluation is discussed in terms of product, evaluation, process evaluation, and system effectiveness.

Brodt, Dagmar E. (1973).  Task Analysis for the Development of Audiovisual Programed Instruction Modules  Audiovisual Instruction, 18, 9. 

The task analysis presented in this article was developed for use in a project designed to create programed instruction units for Navy hospital corpsmen. The procedures followed are presented in detail in a process chart which could serve as a guide for others attempting to develop such instructional units.

Brody, Philip J. (1979).  Selecting Services for Instructional Improvement Programs.  Educational Technology, 19, 5. 

Discusses the identification and application of instructional support services to the instructional development process. To determine the full extent of these support services a matrix is presented, listing services and criteria for their inclusion in the ID process.

Bronson, Vernon; Edmunds, Alfred F. (1971).  The Cooperative Use of Instructional Technology to Cope With the Crisis in Higher Education  Educational Broadcasting Review, 5, 6.

 

Brook, Chris (1979).  Immediacy of Course Materials.  Teaching at a Distance

The growth of the Open University has led to attempts to increase the efficiency of the whole operation, such as prepackaging of teaching materials and advanced scheduling and planning of new courses. Effects of such policies on tutor-student links and the immediacy of materials are discussed.

Brooks, Gary D.; Lyon, James M. (1972).  The Lexicon of the Computer  Educational Technology, 12, 4. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3500.

Brooks, Kenneth W.; Conrad, M. J. (1973).  The Advocate Team Process: A Powerful Planning Tool  Educational Technology, 13, 10. 

A look at the advocate team process, a relatively new administrative curriculum and planning technique, the basic purpose of which is to generate and detail alternative strategies.

Brooks, Nelson (1971).  Speaking of Language. 

Fourteen selected speeches dating from 1955 to 1969 cover a broad range of information relevant to the history of language instruction in American schools. A state-of-the-art review of language instruction, written in 1955, precedes papers on: (1) language proficiency; (2) school and college language program cooperation; (3) motion pictures in teacher education; (4) applied educational psychology; (5) teaching methodology; (6) humanizing foreign language instruction; (7) testing of language, culture, and literature; (8) art and mechanics in language instruction; (9) program articulation; (10) teaching culture; and (11) foreign language instruction in Georgia. Many problems and aspects of theory which strongly influenced the development of audiolingual language instruction are discussed in the speeches.

Brooks, Rae; Eastman, Danielson J. (1974).  Project IRMA: Development and Demonstration of a Computer-Assisted Citizen Information Resource System to Enable Urban Residents to make Use of available Public Services. Final Report. Volume II, Appendix. 

The Information and Referral Manual (IRMA) project is an ongoing comprehensive urban services information system that produces and maintains directories of city agency services and functions for New York City. Contained in this document are the appendices to the final report for the project. It includes: 1) the administrative order that initiated the project, 2) findings of a survey of similar systems in other localities, 3) a description of the potential uses of IRMA, 4) results of the testing and evaluation of early IRMA directories in the field, 5) results of the pilot testing of agency and service organization information collection procedures, 6) examples of the initial and final directories produced by IRMA, 7) descriptions of the computer hardware and software support systems for IRMA, 8) data element definitions and report samples for the IRMA data bases, and 9) a bibliography.

Brosgall, J. (1974).  Innovation in Industrial Training  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 11, 1. 

Article presents the NCET Research on the need to collate and disseminate information on innovations in industrial training and the related fields of further and higher education in the United Kingdom.

Broudy, Harry S. (1976).  The Search for a Science of Education  Phi Delta Kappan, 58, 1. 

To acquire what Dewey called educational science, teachers and administrators have no alternative to studying the various ancillary disciplines well enough to understand their import for schooling; they are not in the position of the farmer who can take the results of science and technology from the extension expert.

Brown, Bill; And Others (1976).  Test-Ease: An Innovative Evaluation Technology  Educational Technology, 16, 10. 

With the aid of funds received through a Title III ESEA, Section 306 grant, the San Juan Board of Cooperative Services (Colorado) has developed a system to aid teachers in evaluating their students.

Brown, Bob Burton (1970).  Experimentalism in Teaching Practice  Journal of Research and Development in Education, 4, 1. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2311.

Brown, Bobby R.; And Others (1971).  An Investigation of the Effects of Two Types of Instructional Terminals in Computer-Managed Instruction. 

The findings of an experiment are reported in which 28 students taking a graduate level course in techniques of programed instruction were randomly assigned to either cathode ray tube (CRT) or teletype terminals. Results from the analysis of the final concept test data revealed that students performed equally well regardless of terminal device. Apparently the information load in the computer-managed instruction (CMI) system is sufficiently low to allow acceptable performance without the necessity for some form of memory support. The difference in error rate is interpreted to reveal a diminished effect of memory support on reducing errors. This effect of memory support has been found in cathode ray tubes using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) learning materials. The failure to find this effect in this study is probably due to the difference in CMI and CAI, i.e., CMI does not present instructional material that may require some form of memory aid for effective learning. The CRT group completed the units earlier than did the teletype group.

Brown, Bobby R.; Sustik, Joan M. (1979).  Response Mode Effects on Computer Based Problem Solving. Report Series 1979. 

This response mode study attempts to determine whether different response modes are helpful or not in facilitating the thought process in a given problem solving situation. The Luchins Water Jar Test (WJT) used in this study illustrates the phenomena "Einstelling" (mechanization of response) because it does not require any specialized content information. The author discusses the results which indicate that there is no reason to prefer constructed response mode over multiple choice or numerical list modes when considering set formation and breaking out of set.

Brown, Danielle (1973).  Educational Media in Quebec: A Summary Report  McGill Journal Of Education, 8, 2. 

A brief report which focuses on the main agency using mass media, films and other audio-visual means to produce educational documents; identifies some major projects recently undertaken; and offers some indication of the progress of these projects.

Brown, Duncan H. (1978).  The Developmental Testing of A101: A Follow-up Study. 

To gauge reactions to the developmental testing of the broadcast component of an Arts Foundation Course, 18 members of the team identified as either producer or academic on a television or radio program tested were sent questionnaires containing open response type questions. In addition, the views of members of the Institute of Educational Technology closely involved with the developmental testing were collected through a series of informal discussions. Results indicated that full developmental testing of a broadcast component requires the following conditions: (1) adequate resources must be allocated including finance, personnel, and production time; (2) agreement to test must be made early enough to ensure production of all programs in time for testing; (3) production methods must be developed which will make draft versions of programs possible; (4) criteria for deciding which courses or programs to test must be identified; and (5) there must be a general recognition that developmental testing might indicate the need for a total remake of the program. Appendices include the questionnaire used, written responses, sample developmental testing report, and a student questionnaire. | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, Duncan H. (1978).  Educational Radio: A Select Annotated Bibliography. I.E.T. Papers on Broadcasting: Number 104. 

This selected, annotated bibliography for the Audio-Visual Media Research Group of the Open University includes sections on (1) general bibliographies and literature reviews, (2) experimental studies, (3) BBC audience research reports, (4) miscellaneous items, (5) radio in less developed countries, and (6) Audio-Visual Media Research Group Reports. The project was begun with a computer search of the ERIC files to provide a source of background information for members of the research group who are involved in a study of the use of radio programming and audio-cassettes in Open University courses. | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, Duncan H. (1979).  Student Attitudes to Radio. I.E.T. Papers on Broadcasting: Number 108. 

This report describes a study conducted by the Audio-Visual Media Research Group of the Open University to investigate student attitudes, over time, to the value of radio as a course component. Results of a January 1979 survey using a questionnaire are reported with tables and analyzed according to (1) whether a student had access to a VHF radio at home, (2) the way in which a student already used radio, (3) any experience a student may have had with Open University radio before beginning a foundation course, and (4) any expectations students might have of the role radio could play as a course component and how confident they were that they could use radio in this way. The appendices include the questionnaire, data on the samples used, and the percentage of responses to individual questionnaire items. | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, F. Dale; Mitchell, Thomas O. (1979).  TIFS: A Low-Cost, High Usage Technology for Instructional Feedback.  Educational Technology, 19, 5. 

Describes a self-instructional practice test utilizing negative-image slides of multiple choice questions and subsequent correct answer slides to provide immediate feedback.

Brown, Faye M. (1977).  Southeast Area Learning Resource Center. Final Technial Report. September 1, 1974 through May 31, 1977. 

Provided is the final report of the Southeast Learning Resource Center's project to coordinate state formulated programs designed to enhance the educational opportunities of handicapped children in each state of Region 13 (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, and the Virgin Islands). Section I gives introductory information on the project background; philosophy, goals, and objectives; and organization. Section II focuses on a statement of the work completed between September 1, 1974 and May 31, 1977. Regional office summaries are given for elements in the following major areas: state program development; media, materials, and educational technology training; media and materials information system; and project administration. Also included in this section are dollar appropriations chart and state-by-state project summaries (which make up the bulk of the document). A final section is a listing of products produced.

Brown, George D., Jr.; Ladd, George T. (1974).  Excursions in Geology. 

To achieve economy in the teaching of earth sciences, an audiovisual-tutorial program was designed in the pattern of a simulated field trip. Twelve weekly exercises combining slides, filmstrips, and audiotapes were produced and tested on an experimental group of 50 students, who also received one lecture a week. The program was evaluated and revised weekly, with the number of lectures increased to two by student demand. After one semester, student test scores were compared to those of students taught by conventional methods, and there were no differences. The method has now been extended to other courses.

Brown, James W., Ed. (1973).  Educational Media Yearbook 1973. 

This collection of articles brings together the historical, statistical, and factual data needed to lend perspective to the attempt to understand the past and foresee the future of educational media. Coinciding with the 50th anniversary of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, the Yearbook stresses the need for cooperation among media specialists and highlights the need for economic and educational efficiency. Part 1, "Educational Media Developments" discusses the general status of the field while the following section, "Manpower and the Media Professions," covers the training of media specialist. "Research and Development Activities" critiques media-related research. Part 4, "Sales and Business Outlook," studies the economic aspects of the media field and "International Educational Media Developments" deals with media developments in Great Britain. Part 6, "Educational Media--Related Organizations" provides information on some 300 groups which deal with media. The "Director of Foundations and Federal Granting Agencies" annotates about 75 organizations which have supported media research and development. The final section, "Multimedia Resources Directory," lists more than 1200 "media about media" useful to higher education courses and in-service professional training.

Brown, James W., Ed. (1974).  Educational Media Yearbook 1974. 

This is the second annual edition of reports, studies, and statistics covering every aspect of the educational media field. Part 1, "The State of the Art," contains 37 articles divided into 6 topics: major organization reports, educational media developments, media professionals, research and developmental activities, sales and business outlook, and international media developments, with special attention this year to Latin America. Part 2, "Reference and Directory Information," furnishes guides to 21 universities offereing media-related doctoral programs, 450 media-related periodicals, and the 1973 American Film Festival winners. Expanded directories in this edition include those to 120 foundations and federal granting agencies, more than 500 educational media-related organizations, and some 1,500 materials--books, microfilms, tapes, and others--about media.

Brown, James W., Ed. (1975).  Educational Media Yearbook 1975-1976. 

Intended for use by media specialists at all levels, this volume joins two preceding editions in reviewing the current status of educational media, instructional technology, librarianship, information science, and telecommunication. First is a collection of essays which address the following topics: 1) perspectives on educational media; 2) major organizations in the field; 3) new developments; 4) media personnel; 5) research and development; 6) sales and business; and 7) international developments. The remainder of the text consists of extensive directories to organizations, granting agencies, information clearinghouses, doctoral programs, and publications that relate to educational media.

Brown, James W.; And Others (1972).  Administering Educational Media: Instructional Technology and Library Services. Second Edition. 

Intended primarily as a college text for media specialists, librarians, audiovisual specialists, and others who will assume positions of leadership in the field of educational media, this book begins with an analysis of the place of the media program in the total educational system--its relationship to instructional development and the nature and requirements of current professional opportunities in the educational media field. The varying requirements of media program administration at each of four levels are dealt with separately: the single school, district and county, state, and college and university. Identification and discussion of the differences, relationships, and common features of the several levels of administration provide an essential base for generalizing about the field and for seeing it "in the whole." Separate chapters are devoted to the analysis of significant functions related to the systematic administration of media programs at all levels: designing instructional systems, instructional facilities; administering materials, textbooks, equipment, production services, television services, individualized learning; automated learning systems; improving utilization practices; Budgeting media services; administering media personnel; and research and evaluation.

Brown, John Seely; And Others (1974).  SOPHIE: A Sophisticated Instructional Environment. Final Report for Period January 1974 through June 1974. 

The SOPHIE program, which implements mixed initiative computer-assisted instruction within a simulated electronics trouble shooting training laboratory interaction, has been extended in several ways. The language processor now accepts ellipses and other nonspecific requests and resolves these from dialog context. A help requesting facility has been provided which will suggest possible faults (based on the student's knowledge about the circuit at the time of request) which could explain the symptoms he has observed. The net effect of modifications is that a dialog is much more like a conversation with a very skilled tutor who can infer what a students means, based on a complete interaction session, and respond appropriately. The resulting program can be accessed through the ARPA network of computers. | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, R. W. Bill (1975).  A Systems Approach to Performance Based Instruction  Educational Technology, 15, 4. 

A computer assisted approach to accountability and performance based instruction is discussed.

Brown, R. W. Bill (1975).  Computerized, Objectives-Based Media Selection  Educational Technology, 15, 11. 

A brief look at a technology to integrate media and objectives by cataloging and retrieving materials by computer.

Brown, R. W.; And Others (1974).  Painless Accountability. 

The computerized Painless Accountability System is a performance objective system from which instructional programs are developed. Three main simplified behavioral response levels characterize this system: (1) cognitive, (2) psychomotor, and (3) affective domains. Each of these objectives are classified by one of 16 descriptors. The second major characteristic of the system is that it is based on taxonomics (keyword indexes) of curriculum areas, which might appear in any K-12 curriculum. The third distinguishing feature is a coding procedure which allows an entire objective to be specified in a maximum of 30 characters. Coding of more than 100 objectives per hour is possible. Two of the significant outputs of the system are the performance objective chart, whose major function is to promote continuous curriculum development, and the Management By Objectives System (MBO) which is an economical data compiling aid for administrators in: (1) planning, (2) monitoring, and (3) evaluation. Two printouts from this processing are the Gantt Chart and the monitoring report. The cost for a school district to implement and maintain the computer program is also discussed.

Brown, Robert D.; And Others (1974).  Evaluation of a Variety of Television Lesson Formats for Potential Adult Learners in an Open Learning System  Educational Technology, 14, 8. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3830.

Brown, Robert M. (1971).  Instructional Systems Development: Cost and Content in College Courses  Educational Technology, 11, 5. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3039.

Brown, Stephen; Nathenson, Michael (1978).  Designing Instructional Materials: Guesswork or Facts? 

A systematic study is reported of the mathematical skills and learning abilities of new students immediately prior to entry into the Open University's (England) foundation courses in technology and social sciences. The intent was to provide predictive information about potential student entry skills for the team preparing a new technology foundation course. Basic language and mathematical skills were assessed by a questionnaire-test given to a sample of applicants for the courses. It was found that mathematical skills were an area needing special attention, and changes in course materials and schedules are proposed to assist students in developing the skills in the course. It is concluded that such systematic evaluations of critical learner skills are needed as a prerequisite to the design of instructional material for other courses, both at the Open University and in other institutions. | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, Thomas C.; McCleary, Lloyd E. (1973).  Learner Performance Accounting: A Tri-Cycle Process  Educational Technology, 13, 5. 

The Tri-Cycle Process described in the model permits for the first time an integrated system for designing an individualized instructional system that would permit a rational, diagnosis-prescription-evaluation system keyed to an accounting system.

Brown, Thomas; And Others (1976).  A Self-Paced Learning System in Action in Higher Education  Educational Technology, 16, 3. 

A discussion of the use of modules for self-paced learning at Allendale, Michigan. nHB)

Brown, Timothy F. (1976).  Students, Teachers, Administrators and Parents View Individualized High School Education  Educational Technology, 16, 10. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 4753.

Brown, W. C. (1975).  Computer-Aided Learning for All  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 12, 5. 

This article describes the design philosophy for a computer-based educational cooperative. A multimedia intelligent terminal, a silent input device providing any arbitrary keyboard or other interactive symbols in addition to computer-controlled displays is detailed.

Brown, Willard A. (1973).  A Computer Examination Compositor for the IBM 360/40  Educational Technology, 13, 3. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 4334.

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Brubaker, George R. (1979).  CAI: Two Strategies.  Creative Computing, 5, 10. 

A description is given of a computer-assisted instruction program on polymer properties in chemistry.

Bruce, Elizabeth W. (1973).  Health Science Libraries in North Dakota. Report of a Survey and Recommendations for Future Development.  [North Dakota Library Notes] 

A survey of medical and allied health libraries in North Dakota was made between July 1 and September 30, 1973, to define for the state's expanding medical education programs the goals and plans for the learning resources and health science library phase of the program. Part I of the survey involved the correlation of the aims and goals of North Dakota medical education programs with generally accepted guidelines for medical library development. Questionnaires were also distributed to health care personnel to elicit their opinions about the scope of resources and services desired in a health science library. Part II of the survey involved the on-site evaluation of predominantly medical and health-related library facilities within the state, examining them according to four categories which correspond to sections of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) guidelines: library resources, library services, physical facilities, and personnel. Results indicated that the greatest present need is the recruiting of qualified library personnel. Recommendations are made for library development to ensure access to basic library services for every health professional in the state and for the establishment of a North Dakota Health Science Information Network.

Bruce, Elizabeth W. (1974).  Decentralization of the National Biomedical Communications Network; Development of Regional and State Plans. North Dakota Library Notes, Vol. 5, No. 6. 

The current trend in biomedical information systems is to decentralization. Starting with the Medical Library Assistance Act of 1965, various plans of organization have been tried for improving the national diffusion of medical information. In 1968 the John Crerar Library became the Midwest Regional Medical Library, serving as an intermediary between local medical libraries and the National Library of Medicine (NLM). North Dakota was a member of this centralized information system. In 1973, the Midwest followed other regions in switching to a decentralized network, with 10 libraries designated as resource libraries for their regions and consortia of neighboring libraries being encouraged to form. The NLM requested that each region and state develop a resource sharing plan. The state plan for North Dakota will include division of the state into four service quadrants and central coordination by a new Director of Health Science Libraries.

Bruch, John, Jr.; Howard, John (1974).  Computer-Generated Film: An On-Line System for Making Instructional Movies  Engineering Education, 65, 2. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3725.

Brudner, Harvey J. (1976).  Education--1984  Journal of Teacher Education, 27, 4. 

It is becoming increasingly clear that advanced forms of total educational systems for total populations can be achieved over the next decade.

Brudner, Harvey J. (1978).  Gedanken Experiments in Educational Cost Effectiveness  Journal of Technological Horizons in Education, 5, 2. 

Discusses the effectiveness of cost determining techniques in education. The areas discussed are: education and management; cost-effectiveness models; figures of merit determination; and the implications as they relate to the areas of audio-visual and computer educational technology.

Brunelle, Eugene A. (1975).  New Learning, New Libraries, New Librarians  Journal of Academic Librarianship, 1, 5. 

Technological change in academic libraries requires a redefinition of the professional librarian's functions and qualifications.

Bruno, James E., Ed. (1972).  Emerging Issues in Education: Policy Implications for the Schools. 

Contents of this volume, one product of a collaboration between the Carnegie Corporation and Rand initiated in July 1969, include the following papers: "Emerging Issues in Education . . .," J. E. Bruno; "Societal Foundations for Change: Educational Alternatives for the Future," W. Harman: "Constitutional Aspects of Equality of Educational Opportunity," H. Horowitz; "Heritability and Teachability," A. R. Jensen; "Community Influence Upon School District Policy: Building Responsiveness in Urban School Districts," J. D. Schribner; "Teacher Militancy: An Analysis of the Strike-Prone Teacher," H. Zeigler; "School Finance Policy for the Next Decade," E. L. Lindman; "Early Education and Child Care," R. R. Rowe; "An Analysis of Curriculum Policy-Making," M. W. Kirst and D. F. Walker;"Teacher Characteristics and Their Influence on Pupil Performance," A. M. Mood; "Technology and Learning: An Analysis of Current Issues," C. R. Carpenter; "Issues and Insights into Accountability in Education: An Introductory Overview," G. R. Hall and J. P. Stucker; and, "The Emerging Intersection of Economics and Psychology in Educational Research," H. M. Levin and R. E. Snow.

Bruton, Ronald W. (1974).  A Method for Evaluating Instructional Objectives  Educational Technology, 14, 9. 

A method to evaluate instructional objectives is considered; 1) it is based upon child behavior, and 2) it is a means of evaluating objectives apart from instruction.

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Bryan, Glenn L. (1970).  Student-to-Student Interaction in Computer Time-Sharing Systems  Amer Soc Inform Sci, 21, 4. 

Paper presented at the Education and Information Science Symposium," Sponsored by the Ohio Chapters of the American Society for Information Science in cooperation with The Department of Computer and Information Science, The Ohio State University, June 23 and 24, 1969.

Bryson, David; Schacher, Stephen (1970).  Developing a Neighborhood Clinic with Computer and Training Technology  Educational Technology, 10, 10. 

This article describes an urban health system in which professional responsibility can be developed in individuals trained in less than two years."

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Buchanan, A. Cameron (1974).  Career Education in Manufacturing Occupations: A High School Level Program  Educational Technology, 14, 9. 

A description of materials developed for a high school program in manufacturing occupations.

Buchanan, Paul C. (1972).  Organizational Development as a Process Strategy for Change  Educational Technology, 12, 10. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3282.

Buck, James (1973).  Instructional Systems Clearinghouse: An Innovation  Educational Technology Systems, 1, 4. 

Information concerning the latest innovations in instructional methods and materials can now be obtained by forward-looking educational communities. An Instructional Systems Clearinghouse puts technology at the fingertips of those who are interested in educational advantage.

Buckingham, D. (1974).  Engineering Education at Exeter: Three Years On  British Journal of Educational Technology, 5, 3. 

A report on the use of educational technology in the engineering science course at the University of Exeter, Great Britain.

Buckingham, D. J.; Jones, M. H. (1971).  Visual Communication in Engineering Science  British Journal of Educational Technology, 2, 1. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3006.

Buckley-Sharp, M. D. (1973).  A Multiple Choice Question Banking System  Educational Technology, 13, 3. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 4333.

Buckley-Sharp, M. D.; Harris, F. T. C. (1972).  MINISCORE - A Computer Program for Scoring Multiple Choice Tests and its Relation to Self Learning Assessment Modules (SLAM)  International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 3, 4. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3403.

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Budak, Aram (1975).  Design of a TV System to Bring Education to Small Groups at Place of Work  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 4, 4. 

The use of video technology for delivering graduate engineering education to professionals where they work.

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Buffer, James J. (1971).  Theoretical Bases of Instructional Method  American Council on Industrial Arts Teacher Education Yearbook, 132-190, 71. 

Eight models of instructional systems and systematic analysis of instructional problems are presented.

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Bugg, Phillip W. (1974).  Contractual Development: An Alternate Approach  Audiovisual Instruction, 19, 10. 

Author details his approach to instructional development--contracting with a subject matter specialist for a specific instructional package.

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Bukoski, William J.; Korotkin, Arthur L. (1976).  Computing Activities in Secondary Education  Educational Technology, 16, 1. 

A report from a study completed by American Institutes for Research (AIR), detailing the extent and type of computer use in U.S. public secondary schools. The second such study done by AIR, analysis of trends and estimates of future growth and directions are presented.

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_____. (1973).  Bulletin of the Scottish Centre for Social Subjects. Number 3. 

This Bulletin, published irregularly by the Scottish Centre for Social Subjects, discusses aspects of curriculum development in the social sciences at national and local levels in Scotland. The Centre's interest and activity focus on three areas: (1) collecting and disseminating information on curricular developments in the social sciences in Scotland and elsewhere in the United Kingdom; (2) helping the Scottish Central Committee to co-ordinate the activities of local groups and working parties of teachers; (3) issuing teaching and learning materials for trial in schools and collecting and processing results. This issue contains the following seven articles: (1) Cognitive Development and the Social Subjects; (2) Towards a Technology of Education -- the Organisation of Audiovisual Aids in Schools; (3) History and the Non-academic Pupil; (4) Modern Studies: Growth, Consolidation and Challenge; (5) Windows on Geography: Materials for Alternative 0 Grade Geography; (6) The Schools Council Curriculum Project: Geography for the Young School Leaver; and (7) Curriculum Development in an Ontario Secondary School. Short notes from members of the working Parties and professional associations are also included. Articles are solicited.

Bullard, John R.; Mether, Calvin E. (1974).  Audiovisual Fundamentals; Basic Equipment Operation and Simple Materials Production. 

A guide illustrated with simple sketches explains the functions and step-by-step uses of audiovisual (AV) equipment. Principles of projection, audio, AV equipment, lettering, limited-quantity and quantity duplication, and materials preservation are outlined. Apparatus discussed include overhead, opaque, slide-filmstrip, and multiple-loading slide projectors; record player and cassette and open-reel audiotape recorders; 16mm projectors and videotape recorders; thermal copying and direct spirit master preparation. Dry mounting, laminating, and inklifting are explained. An appendix includes 11 assignment sheets to teach techniques of lettering and duplicating. A trouble-shooting guide for instructional equipment is included.

Bullough, Robert V. (1975).  An Approach to Competency Based Program Development  Educational Technology, 15, 2. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 5266.

Bullough, Robert V., Sr.; Brumbaugh, W. Donald (1974).  The Development of a Competency-Based Model for Use in Instructional Technology. 

The faculty of the Division of Instructional Systems and Learning Resources at the University of Utah is developing a model for a competency-based curriculum in instructional media and technology. The group first defined the roles of the instructional technologist at different educational levels and then delineated appropriate functional expectations. These were divided into competencies which, in turn, were further broken down into behavioral objectives. The major program areas were identified as: instructional design; evaluation and selection; integration; utilization and dissemination; media design and production; administration and implementation; data processing; reference; instruction; and research and development. Standardized terms were specified and the Model of Mastery was adopted to assist in the development, implementation, and evaluation of instructional materials and programs. This Model allows instructors to evaluate alternative approaches by specifying stimuli, student responses, products of responses, effectiveness, cost and difficulty. Instructional modules based on this approach have been field-tested and the initial results are highly favorable. As a result, additional modules in the area of design and production of media, integration, utilization and dissemination are being prepared.

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Bumpass, Donald E. (1970).  Video Tape Recorders: A Help or a Headache?  Clearinghouse, 44, 9. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2438.

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Bunderson, C. Victor (1971).  Markets and Models for Large-Scale Courseware Development. 

Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is not making an important, visible impact on the educational system of this country. Though its instructional value has been proven time after time, the high cost of the hardware and the lack of quality courseware is preventing CAI from becoming a market success. In order for CAI to reach its market potential it must find a new educational target market. The junior colleges represent the best market for CAI because of their increasing enrollments and their intermediate position between the generally recalcitrant school districts and the graduate oriented universities. The high cost of hardware is being solved and all that really remains is for the CAI industry to meet the high-volume instruction requirements of the courseware. The production and dissemination of courseware will require a new design and development technology with high quality standards. The author discusses the entire subject of marketing CAI in depth. | [FULL TEXT]

Bunderson, C. Victor (1973).  The TICCIT Project: Design Strategy for Educational Innovation. ICUE Technical Report No. 4. 

The educational contributions and courseware design strategies which have evolved at Brigham Young University in the course of developing TICCIT (Time-sharing Interactive Computer-Controlled Information Television) are given. The Mitre Corporation and the University of Texas CAI Laboratory also cooperated in this project, which is an advance version of computer-assisted instruction. Discussed is a systems approach to educational goals and needs and the derivation of goals from needs and values. Specified in this report are some parameters of the TICCIT courseware system and the design strategy, learner control, and mastery techniques used by the developers. The roles of students, teachers, and other educators are outlined in the context of the instructional needs in mathematics and English at community colleges. The paper ends with a discussion of effectiveness goals and institutional goals of TICCIT. | [FULL TEXT]

Bunderson, C. Victor (1975).  Alternate Learning Strategies: The "Why?" Askers. Occasional Paper No. 4. 

Students ask "why?" questions in the survey stage of using TICCIT lessons either because (1) they have holistic learning strategies, (2) they are searching for familiar bases upon which to attach new material, or (3) they desire to find out what relevance the lesson has for their future lives. In the design phase of TICCIT, an effort was made to answer the "why" question as it relates to the survey aspects of learning by introducing material that showed why a particular lesson or unit was important. However, the teaching and proctoring staff of a TICCIT class have the responsibility to deal with the additional "why?" questions which can only be answered by perceptive human beings, and to prompt students in the use of improved learning techniques. | [FULL TEXT]

Bunderson, C. Victor (1978).  Response from TICCIT  Educational Technology, 18, 4. 

The findings of the ETS study of TICCIT in community colleges, which is described in a previous article in this issue, are compared with the results of a series of studies on the system conducted at the Brigham Young University.

Bunderson, C. Victor (1979).  Instructional Strategies for Videodisc Courseware: The McGraw Hill Disc.  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 8, 3. 

Describes instructional strategies available for videodisc courseware in terms of the amount of processing intelligence available and locus of sequencing control. The consumer videodisc is compared and contrasted to intelligent videodisc systems.

Bung, Klaus (1971).  The Concept of Partial Order in Language Programming and the Freedom of the Consumer: Part 2  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 8, 2. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2961.

Bunyard, John (1971).  The Establishment of the Validities of a Linear Science Program and a Criterion Test  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 8, 2. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2938.

Bunyard, John (1971).  The Learning of Nigerian Secondary School Children from Programmed Material  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 8, 4. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2850.

Bunyard, John (1972).  A Comparison of the Learning Achieved by Nigerian and English Children from Programmed Material  Programmed Learning & Educational Technology, 9, 1. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3589.

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Burchinal, Lee G. (1970).  Training of Users: Nonconventional Tools--Education and Behavioral Sciences. 

In developing a nationwide education information system, the U. S. Office of Education faced two problems common to many countries: (1) How to develop a system for education, a field with little experience in modern information systems; and (2) How to acquaint educators with the system and train them in using its services. This paper reports results of experiences of the U. S. Office of Education in attempting to resolve both problems. Included are references to related documents, Appendices listing the ERIC clearinghouses and data on the growth and development of ERIC products and services.  | [FULL TEXT]

Burdin, Joel (1974).  Three Views of Competency-Based Teacher Education: 1. Theory. CBTE Promise and Problems. Fastback 48. 

This monograph discusses competency/performance-based teacher education (C/PBTE) as a training alternative with promise and problems. Four basic characteristics of C/PBTE are discussed, namely, specification of competencies to be mastered, assessment of C/PBTE outcomes, extensive use of technology, and use of flexible time requirements for individualizing training programs. Also, some implied characteristics are discussed, and working examples are used to illustrate both kinds of characteristics. Some problems relating to C/PBTE programs are discussed, including budgeting, selecting competencies, assessing problems, and creating a massive training and retraining program. Discussion of issues that arise concerning C/PBTE and the present status of and future possibilities for C/PBTE conclude this monograph. Categories of teacher behaviors, resources for C/PBTE, and illustrative competencies for Minnesota are appended; an 11-item bibliography is included. | [FULL TEXT]

Burdin, Joel L.; Mathieson, Moira B. (1972).  A Review of the Research on Performance-Based Teacher Education  Educational Technology, 12, 11. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3237.

Burgwardt, Frederick C. (1975).  Individualized Instructional Systems Used by Xerox  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 4, 1. 

A discussion of how individualized instruction has been used by Xerox to: 1) identify appropriate instructional techniques; and 2) reduce costs by devising a delivery system by which programs prepared under a "single point" design/development concept can be distributed to users at various geographical locations.

Burke, Caseel D. (1972).  The Structure and Substance of the WILKIT Instructional Module  Educational Technology, 12, 9. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3292.

Burke, J. Bruce; And Others (1972).  A Humanized Model of a Computer Managed Instructional System  Educational Technology, 12, 11. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3244.

Burke, J. Bruce; And Others (1973).  Competency Designs For a More Humane Education. 

A computer-assisted, competency-based instructional model has been developed for a teacher education program. It is based on the assumptions that individuals should control their own lives and that technology should be used to expand the range of human choice. The model uses a systems approach to organize the human, curricular and environmental variables of instruction; in addition, students participate in decision-making, instruction is modular, mastery criteria are used, the affective side of learning is attended to, and an enhanced self-concept for the student is sought. Students join small groups, interact with an academic counselor, and have access to a Learning Center with varied resource personnel. They select educational experiences according to their interests and employ the computer to help put themselves through instructional modules whose components include the statement of objectives, pre-testing, the presentation of instructional material, reference to resources, and post-testing. Implementation strategies include, among others, seminars, small group instruction, laboratories, computer-assisted instruction and auto-tutorial sessions. | [FULL TEXT]

Burke, Ken (1977).  A Pragmatic Approach to Criticism of Multimedia  Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 6, 1. 

Recommends a functional/experiential approach to analysis and judgment of multimedia presentations, emphasizing structure and style of presentation, technical and aesthetic factors, value to the audience, and the critic's personal reactions.

Burlingame, Dwight F. (1976).  Them's Fightin' Words: Media in the Library  Audiovisual Instruction, 21, 8. 

Examines the similarities and variations which exist between learning resource centers and the traditionally-organized separate library and audiovisual units in terms of facilities, types and quantity of materials, equipment, budget, personnel, and services provided.

Burnell, Jerrold B. (1971).  How Shortwave Radios Can Improve Teaching Effectiveness  Educational Technology-Teacher and Technology Supplement, 11, 10. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2910.

Burnhill, Peter; And Others (1975).  Writing Lines: An Exploratory Study  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 12, 2. 

Article describes some preliminary investigations into the effects of lined and unlined paper on the organization of the written work of young children.

Burns, Judith (1971).  The Joint Standards: Media or Mediocrity?  Educational Technology, 11, 9. 

This article presents a short discussion of the history and content of Standards for School Media Programs," a joint publication of the American Association of School Librarians and the Department of Audiovisual Instruction.

Burns, Mary Ada (1977).  The Relationship between the Use of the San Diego State University Library and Selected Personal Characteristics of the Student Population. 

This study examined the relationship between the use and non-use of the Education Resource Center (ERC) at the San Diego State University Library and selected socioeconomic characteristics of graduate students enrolled in educational technology and librarianship classes. A questionnaire was administered to a sample population of 181 students; 140 were returned. While analysis of the data using the Statistical Program for the Social Sciences (SPSS) found relatively small differences between the personal characteristics of users and non-users, two patterns based on other variants were indicated: library usage increased as students progressed through the university; and the average non-user, while as intelligent or academically competent as the user, regarded the use of the library as strictly course related. Frequency analysis distributions are summarized and tabulated for the following areas: service and reference materials; print materials; media software; function of the ERC; students' feelings toward the ERC; students' use and opinion of the university library and other libraries; and personal characteristics. Recommendations for further research include conducting another study that could better isolate the factors which contribute to use and non-use of the ERC by students. The questionnaire and students' comments are appended.

Burns, Michael G. (1979).  Establishing an Environment for Efficacious Classroom Education.  Canadian Vocational Journal, 15, 2. 

Discusses the controversy over the use of technocratic or humanistic instructional delivery systems in the classroom, pointing out that both are essential for effective education and may occur simultaneously in the same classroom. Defines the qualities of technology and humanism in the instructional environment.

Burns, Richard (1971).  Methods for Individualizing Instruction  Educational Technology - Teacher and Technology Supplement, 11, 6. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2955.

Burns, Richard W. (1972).  An Instructional Module Design  Educational Technology, 12, 9. 

The author details the essential components of an instructional package and suggests possible methods for using them.

Burns, Richard W. (1972).  Behavioral Objectives For Competency-Based Education  Educational Technology, 12, 11. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3257.

Burns, Richard W. (1972).  Achievement Testing in Competency-Based Education  Educational Technology, 12, 11. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3249.

Burns, Richard W. (1973).  Learner Awareness of Success with Learning Packages  Educational Technology, 8, 8. 

Article discusses student knowledge of learning progress from an individualized instruction point of view.

Burns, Richard W. (1974).  Interaction: Place Your Efforts Where the Action Is  Educational Technology, 14, 11. 

How administrators can provide for individualized instruction.

Burns, Richard W. (1976).  Instructional Television, Interaction and Learning Objectives  Educational Technology, 16, 5. 

A discussion of some basic research questions for learning and television.

Burns, Richard W. (1976).  Minorities, Instructional Objectives and the SAT  Educational Technology, 16, 6. 

The general decline in wide-range achievement and scholastic aptitude test scores over the past few years is examined with particular regards to who is taking the test and the relationship between test objectives and school objectives.

Burns, Richard W., Ed.; Klingstedt, Joe Lars, Ed. (1973).  Competency-Based Education; An Introduction. 

Competency-based education involves the specification of instructional objectives such that the time spent by each student may vary, but achievement levels are held constant: it is the competency attained which is important. The 19 chapters in this volume present the experiences, views, and predictions of different educators with competency-based education.

Burns, Richard W.; Brooks, Gary D. (1970).  The Need for Curriculum Reform  Educ Technol, 10, 4. 

"Fourteen reasons why our curricula need changing" are identified and discussed.

Burris, Joanna S.; George, Kenneth D. (1976).  Individualized Instruction in Basic Mathematics: An Audio-Tutorial Approach  Educational Technology, 16, 4. 

A look at a math program at Burlington Community College designed to insure competencies and reduce the attrition rate in the program.

Burris, Russell W. (1970).  Major Areas of Emphasis for Instructional Engineering. 

Applying technology to teaching and learning has given rise to many questions which this author here attempts to identify and label. These questions come under seven headings: objectives, criteria and evaluation; characteristics of individual learners; instructional components and instructional design; use of devices; support for instructional research and development; privacy, and copyright and publication. The implication is that, if these questions are satisfactorily answered, the role of technology in education will be vastly improved.  | [FULL TEXT]

Burris, Russell; And Others (1979).  Teaching Law with Computers: A Collection of Essays. 

The use of the computer in teaching law is examined in this collection of essays. Discussed are the development of law-related programmed workbooks, predecessors to computer aided instruction (CAI); research findings and their implications for the design of law-related CAI exercises; advantages and limitations of CAI programs in law; and attempts to measure the effectiveness of CAI as a method of law instruction. Essays include: "Why Use a Computer in Teaching and Learning Law?" (Robert Keeton); "How Can the Law Professor Best Use Computer-aided Exercises?" (Roger Park); "How Do Computer-aided Exercises in Law Work?" (Robert Keeton); "The Authoring Process and Instructional Design" (Russell Burris); "The EDUCOM Workshop: A Model" (Carolyn P. Landis); "Network Experience and Experiments" (Russell Burris); and "Computer-aided Instruction in Law: Theories, Techniques, and Trepidations" (Roger Park and Russell Burris). Included in several of the essays are statistics and tables reporting such findings as student reaction and response to CAI, law schools involved in preliminary use of CAI, and examples of CAI exercises. The benefits of CAI were reported to be that it gives each student individual attention in that there is constant communication and feedback between student and computer and it gives the professor the opportunity to view instant critique of the student's performance as reported by the computer.

Burson, Jeanne L. (1975).  Learning Outcomes: Criteria for Accountability in the Training and Functions of Instructional Programmers  Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 2, 2. 

A set of learning outcomes for an Instructional Programmer training program is presented along with a description of a project undertaken to develop the program and an information system for operational accountability.

Burt, Gordon (1976).  Detailed Evaluation and Content Analysis  Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 13, 4. 

A method of analyzing textual learning materials is described. Using data from student questionnaires, the method reveals the underlying structure of concepts in the materials and can pinpoint the location and cause of student difficulties.

Burt, Gordon (1977).  How Do Readers Comment on the Structure of Teaching Materials?  Teaching at a Distance, 10, 67-76. 

The value of intensive commentary by subject expert teachers on Open University course materials is emphasized. The insights of someone who can alternate the role of reading as a student with that of reading as an expert and teacher are seen as significant in making substantial improvements to course material.

Burt, Gordon J. (1976).  The Detailed Evaluation of Mathematics Courses at the Open University. Report No. 1: The Unit on "Functions" in the Mathematics Foundation Course. 

As a part of the two-year process of revising the basic mathematics course at the Open University (Britain), an in-depth survey of students completing the first unit of the course was conducted. A sample of 120 students was divided into three groups of 40; group members received a questionnaire concerning concepts covered, a questionnaire about sections of the unit, or a test on the material. Approximately half of the students in each group returned the questionnaires. The concept questionnaire asked students to rate their prior familiarity, effort needed to understand, and current understanding of each concept identified in a conceptual analysis of the unit. These ratings were submitted to a multivariate analysis of variance. The sections of the unit were rated, and data analyzed similarly. Several relationships were uncovered: difficulty of concepts was predicted by amount of effort, and the time needed per section of a unit was related to level of concepts, number of diagrams, and number of lines in the text. The rating instruments and summaries of responses are included.

Burton, Nancy W. (1979).  Assessment as Exploratory Research: A Theoretical Overview.  Educational Technology, 19, 12. 

Presents a case for conducting exploratory rather than confirmatory research in generating hypotheses as opposed to testing them. Exploratory data analysis, the National Assessment Design, and the analysis of assessment data are explained.

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Bushell, Don; Brigham, Thomas A. (1971).  Classroom Token Systems as Technology  Educational Technology, 11, 4. 

The authors explain the use of tokens in improving childrens' motivation, productivity and the quality of their work in the classroom.

Bushey, Julia A. (1975).  The Copyright Controversy and Education. ERS Information Aid. 

The legality of certain teaching practices is being questioned. The controversy arises from the application of the 1909 copyright law to the use of the new copying technology. This information aid considers the current copyright law and the needs and practices of educators. The stickiest part of copyright law is the fair use doctrine, which allows for the use of copyrighted material in a reasonable manner withou the consent of the copyright holder. Hope for a future solution to these problems resides in the National Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Words, which was created by the 93rd Congress. Until the commission's final report and suggestions are submitted years from now, attempts to improve the existing legislation continue. Approaches such as the licensing of schools and libraries and the creation of a clearninghouse to mediate between copyright holders and those wanting to use copyrighted material have also been proposed.

Bushnell, David S. (1970).  ES '70: A Systems Approach to Educational Reform. 

Nineteen geographically distributed secondary schools were linked with research and development resource groups for the purpose of implementing a 5-year learner-centered curriculum. The ultimate goal was to have each of the schools serve as a demonstration center for regionally continguous school districts. The changes attempted were the products of a carefully planned, systematic timetable with redesigned subsystems (instructional, administrative, and budgeting) developed by outside resource groups but necessitating full involvement of practitioners. Progress over the first three years and implications for facilitating future effective linkage between researchers and practitioners and resources at State and national levels are discussed.

Bushnell, David S. (1971).  Applications of Technology in Vocational Education  Educational Technology, 11, 3. 

The primary purpose of this article is to describe some of the more recent developments benefiting vocational education, and, where possible, point up the need for further research."

Bushnell, David S. (1976).  The Impact of Instructional Technology on Training in the U.S. Army. 

The Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) has applied human factors and behavioral science principles to improve the training and performance of Army personnel. Military training now emphasizes decentralized decision-making, use of individualized instruction, and increased flexibility in training approaches. Research conducted by HumRRO has resulted in the development of a generalizable procedure for structuring training sequences and organizing and evaluating training programs.

Bushnell, Don D. (1970).  Introducing the Docile Technology Inmemoriam of CAI. 

The most common mode for the use of computers in education is for the student to be directed by the programed stimulus of the computer. This method has failed to solve the long-standing problems of education. The author suggests that the time-shared computer assisted instruction console should be used as a problem-solving tool for the student. He sees the computer as a tool for experimentation in new subject matters and as a simulator of unfamiliar environments. He finds the use of computers for drill and practice and tutorial projects to be inefficient. He discusses modifications that must be made in the mediation process if the student is to use the computer effectively. In the appendix several short papers discuss further uses for computers in education. A bibliography is appended. | [FULL TEXT]

Busse, Bonnie B. (1972).  Innovation in the Professional Preparation of Foreign Language Teachers.  [Bulletin of the Illinois Foreign Language Teachers Association] 

A brief review of innovative approaches to the teaching of foreign languages during the 1960's is presented in this report. The potential use of media in current programs is emphasized in a discussion of: (1) creative application of technology in the solution of instructional problems, (2) television and related media, (3) observation via television and videotape, (4) microteaching, (5) interaction analysis, (6) performance curriculum, and (7) individualization.

Bussell, Charles H.; Hollander, Sophie S. (1972).  Schools WithoutFailure  School and Society, 100, 2339. 

Computerized universalization of occupational education in Massachusetts is described.

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Butler, David; Butler, Janice (1979).  Systematically Prioritizing Media Services and Customers.  Educational Technology, 19, 11. 

Suggests standard operating procedures for non-routine and low priority customer requests for media services and gives an example of prioritizing the distribution of audiovisual presentation services.

Butler, F. Coit (1977).  The Major Factors That Affect Learning: A Cognitive Process Model  Educational Technology, 17, 7. 

Decision model for instructional and curriculum design.

Butler, F. Coit (1978).  The Concept of Competence: An Operational Definition  Educational Technology, 18, 1. 

A structural model of the concept of competence.

Butler, Lucius (1974).  A Dream of No More Schools in Laos  International Journal of Instructional Media, 1, 4. 

Written in the form of a newspaper article of the future (1980), this article provides answers to questions which traditional educators and parents might ask on the use of technology and community resources for primary education.

Butler, Lucius (1979).  Visual-Tutorial System for Teaching Media Utilization.  British Journal of Educational Technology, 10, 2. 

Discusses a self-instructional programed Visual-Tutorial learning system, designed to teach preservice elementary school teachers both theory and skills related to effective classroom utilization of audiovisual materials and equipment. An outline of the course, "Media Practicum," is included.

Butler, Roy L. (1975).  Using Applied Change Technology to Enhance Career Education Delivery Systems  Business Education World, 55, 3. 

The article cites useful sources that can be employed in the absence of written materials about applied change technology in the career education movement.

Butman, Robert C. (1973).  CAI - There Is a Way to Make It Pay (But Not in Conventional Schooling)  Educational Technology, 13, 12. 

CAI can pay by choosing a market where a decrease in training time or an increase in student-teacher ratios can be translated into lower over-all costs to the system. This situation obtains when CAI is used for the education and training of professionals, children with learning disabilities and others whose instructional needs cannot be met by the conventional classroom approach.

Butman, Robert C.; Frick, Frederick C. (1972).  The Lincoln Training System: A Summary Report. 

The current status of the Lincoln Training System (LTS) is reported. This document describes LTS as a computer supported microfiche system which: 1) provides random access to voice quality audio and to graphics; 2) supports student-controlled interactive processes; and 3) functions in a variety of environments. The report offers a detailed description of LTS-3, the current embodiment of the system concept outlined above, discussing its microfiche reader terminal, audio recording, audio reader, logical processor, and lessons. Results of the field test of LTS-3 are given, the most significant of which indicate that a system can be designed which is cost effective, which reduces training time without adversely influencing training quality, and which enhances the performance of low ability students. Further developments growing out of the LTS-3 project are also treated. These hardward modifications are expected to result in LTS-4, a streamlined and significantly less expensive version of the LTS in which each LTS-4 console will be capable of stand-alone operation and self-contained computational power.

Butz, Margarete N. (1971).  A Systematic Approach to Developing Curriculum in the Domain of Instructional Technology  Audiovisual Instruction, 16, 6. 

An attempt to analyze job functions an instructional technologist performs in order to develop training programs.

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Byers, Burton H. (1973).  Classroom Interaction, Satellite-Interposed  Audiovisual Instruction, 18, 10. 

The PEACESAT project for interconnecting classrooms of colleges in the Pacific Basin was tried for the first time in June and July, 1971, between two campuses of the University of Hawaii. The experimenters found that, while classroom interconnection by satellite produces some frustrations, it has infinite possibilities.

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Byram, Claudia A. (1973).  Competency Based Education: How Competent?  Educational Technology, 13, 10. 

A discussion of instructional systems characterized by a set of learner objectives or competencies in which three processes bring about individualization: assessment, diagnosis and prescription.

Byrne, Colin J. (1976).  Computerized Question Banking Systems: I--the State of the Art  British Journal of Educational Technology, 7, 2. 

Explains what question banks are and how they work, with descriptions of a number of computer assisted test preparation systems selected to illustrate the variety in operation. Indicates costs.

Byrne, Thomas E.; Thompson, Christine W. (1977).  Computing at Dartmouth, 1973-1976. 

The significant accomplishments and events in computing at Dartmouth College during the period July 1, 1973 through June 30, 1976 are described in detail. The report is divided into six sections: (1) review of activities, (2) acquisition of equipment, (3) software development, (4) computer applications, (5) highlights of the first decade of the Kiewit Center, and (6) the 1973-76 use of the Dartmouth Time Sharing System.

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Bystrom, J. W. (1975).  The Application of Satellites to International Interactive Service Support Communication. 

PEACESAT (Pan-Pacific Education and Communication Experiment by Satellite) is a demonstration project initiated in 1971. Its objective is to study the benefits arising from direct conference communications between groups with common interests in widely separated nations of the Pacific. Cooperating institutions are linked by low cost, self-contained radio terminals and a communication satellite relay. Each station is able to communicate simply and easily with all others and send and receive voice and facsimile signals. Teletype and slow scan television experiments are also planned. This experimental network is available for use by persons and institutions engaged in research, education, health, and other community services.

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