Translations
Caution: Machine generated language translations may contain significant errors. Use with discretion.

Educational Legislation | H

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Haas, Eric; Wilson, Glen; Cobb, Casey; Rallis, Sharon (2005).  One Hundred Percent Proficiency: A Mission Impossible  Equity and Excellence in Education, 38, 3. 

Applying microeconomic theory to No Child Left Behind predicts that its use of significant consequences for schools that do not reach 100% proficiency on rigorous standardized tests by 2014 will likely prevent most, if not all schools, from providing a high-quality education for their students. The central problem is cost. Quality assurance models predict that costs associated with achieving the required 100% pass rate will rise well above typical school budgets. Thus, No Child Left Behind, or any reform that combines a rigid demarcation between passing and failing with a 100% proficiency requirement, will fail as prohibitively expensive.

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Haberkern, Rachel M. (2002).  Implementing Charitable Choice at the State and Local Levels.  [Issue Notes] 

The 1998 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) was the first federal legislation to contain a "charitable choice" provision allowing faith-based organizations (FBOs) to compete for state and federal government funds on the same basis as secular providers. For FBOs that consider pursuit of government funding a suitable strategy, financial collaboration with state and local governments can offer increased financial resources, capacity, and networking opportunities. State and local governments can use the federal faith-based initiative to increase FBO participation in by taking the following actions: ensure that all stakeholders understand PRWORA's charitable choice provision; model the federal government's "faith-friendly" actions at the state and local levels; and remove barriers to FBO participation in government procurement processes. Other issues that must be addressed are as follows: revising government grant and contracting processes; overcoming barriers to collaboration that exist in state/local laws and practices; ensuring the existence of secular alternatives to FBO-provided services; and holding FBOs accountable for restricting the use of government funds to approved services and protecting clients' religious freedoms. Research has identified numerous innovative strategies and practices for fostering partnerships between FBOs and state and local governments in Ohio, New York, and Michigan. | [FULL TEXT]

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Hacker, Andrew (2002).  How Are Women Doing?  New York Review of Books, 49, 6. 

Reviews five books on how the politics of choice affects adoption, abortion, and welfare; Roe v. Wade; causes and consequences of nonmarital fertility; how misguided feminism harms young males; and the myth of frailty. Suggests that many of the issues raised will receive national notice if recent legislation requiring all states to test students on academic skills shows girls outperforming boys.

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Hadderman, Margaret (2002).  Charter Schools. Trends and Issues. 

This document looks at the increasing popularity of charter schools for intradistrict school choice. During 2000, about 1,700 charter schools were serving some 250,000 students in the United States. Charter schools typically begin as preexisting schools or as "startups" born with charters. States seem to have ambivalent attitudes toward charter schools, having either "strong" or "weak" laws on their books. A recent study shows that charter legislation thrives in states with a policy encouraging entrepreneurship, poor test scores, Republican legislative control, and proximity to other strong-law states. As a whole, charter schools are somewhat more racially diverse, serve a slightly higher percentage of economically disadvantaged students, and serve a slightly lower proportion of disabled and limited-English-proficiency students than do other public schools. They are havens for children with bad educational experiences and have stimulated improvements in the broader education system; most districts respond with energy to charter-school initiatives. As regards quality of education, statewide evaluations of charter schools in Colorado, Arizona, Massachusetts, Michigan, California, and New Jersey show mixed results, though some programs are too new to draw strong conclusions. Some innovative charter programs that are described include residential schools and cyber charter schools. Other issues that are covered here include implementation problems, equity, governance and regulatory issues, accountability, staffing policies, church-state issues, and key policy issues. | [FULL TEXT]

Hadderman, Margaret, Comp. (2002).  School Choice. Trends and Issues. 

This document examines many of the issues surrounding school choice. It summarizes the prevalence of school choice and touches on elements of the debate, such as the dilemma in finding the right balance between individual/family freedom and the interests of the community. In looking at school-choice options, the paper divides them into intrasectional (public) choice plans and intersectional choice plans. One example of an intrasectional or intradistrict plan is the magnet school, which is the most prevalent instrument of choice. Other types of intrasectional options include controlled-choice plans, charter schools, and contract schools. Plans that can be classified as intersectional choice plans include public voucher plans, as well as private voucher and scholarship plans. These plans allow students to attend schools in different districts, and various examples of where these plans have been tried are discussed. Other "choice" plans that are discussed are homeschooling, virtual schools, and alternative schools. The document describes how these various plans serve minority and disadvantaged students, looks at community and parental satisfaction, outlines some successful programs along with student achievement, evaluates tax credits and legislation, and lists some unfavorable outcomes associated with different school-choice options. | [FULL TEXT]

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Haefeli, Kurt (2000).  Vocational Education in Switzerland: Facts, Figures and Prospects. 

Vocational education (VE) in Switzerland is characterized by diversity and pragmatism and is shaped by the country's geography, political system, economy, and culture. Roughly two-thirds of all Swiss youth participate in some form of vocational training at the upper secondary level. Vocational certificates and higher vocational certificates can only be taken after several years of job experience. Apprenticeship is the predominant form of VE in Switzerland. In terms of quantity, the most important sectors for VE are industry, crafts, trade, banking, insurance, transport, restaurants and hotels, the other service sectors, and home economics. Switzerland's Federal Vocational Education Act regulates vocational training in those sectors. VE falls under jurisdiction of the Federation Department of Economic Affairs. The original form of training in apprenticeships consisted of two learning venues (the firm where apprentices trained and the vocational school) and was called the dual system. In 1980, the "triad system" was established. It includes training in a firm, attendance at a vocational school, and compulsory "introductory courses." VE opportunities for special needs people include elementary training schemes for young people with "more practical abilities" and special programs for gifted students at advanced vocational schools. Vocational schools are funded almost exclusively by the state, but training centers and apprenticeships are subsidized by professional associations and firms. | [FULL TEXT]

Haertel, Edward; Herman, Joan (2005).  A Historical Perspective on Validity: Arguments for Accountability Testing. CSE Report 654  [National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST)] 

Using achievement tests to hold students and schools accountable seems an obvious idea. Students come to school to learn. Tests show which students, in which schools, are meeting learning standards and which are not. Those students and schools that are falling short should be held accountable. Of course, the rationales for accountability testing programs are much more complex than that, as are testing's effects, both intended and unintended. This chapter, describes various rationales for accountability testing programs over the past century. This history forms the backdrop for current test-driven reforms, including Public Law 107-110, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), which was signed into law in January 2002. The goals are first, to illustrate the diversity of mechanisms whereby testing may affect educational practice and learning outcomes; and second, to show that while many of the same ideas have recurred over time in different forms and guises, accountability testing has become more sophisticated. One constant in this changing picture has been the idea that education should produce measurable results. Again and again, policymakers have advanced accountability testing as a means for improving education, each generation responding to the failings of the previous. It remains to be seen how effective today's accountability testing will prove to be in supporting genuine, comprehensive educational reform. | [FULL TEXT]

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Hafner, Anne L.; Maxie, Andrea (2006).  Looking at Answers about Reform: Findings from the SB 2042 Implementation Study  Issues in Teacher Education, 15, 1. 

In September 1998, the California State Legislature passed SB 2042, legislation that authorized the reform of teacher recruitment, certification, and licensing in the state. Its provisions are unique in that they represent the first time in California's history that almost all of the standards dealing with teacher preparation and induction were revised at the same time; every currently approved program that prepares teachers was requested to rewrite and submit program documents in a short time frame; the basic teaching credential was revised to carry the authorization to teach English Learners; and a requirement was created to mandate use of an assessment of teaching performance based on teaching performance expectations. The intent of SB 2042 was to use the California Standards for the Teaching Profession (CSTP), Teaching Performance Expectancies (TPEs), and a teacher performance assessment (TPA) and allied reform requirements to reform teacher education and prepare high quality teachers. The purpose of this research study was to evaluate the initial impact of SB 2042 on subject matter preparation and professional teacher preparation in California. The study has limited scope, as it took place over a six-month period and captured the impact on colleges, universities and school districts during the 2002-2003 academic year, the initial year of implementation. It also compared the experiences of early and late adopters of the reform. The findings provided feedback to the state on how the process worked, what the major successes and challenges were, and generated suggestions for the next phase of implementation. The main research questions were: (1) How did individuals and groups experience the process of implementing SB 2042 credential reform in CA? (2) What has been the impact of SB 2042 implementation on programs and curricula? (3) What has been the impact of credential reform on instructional and assessment practices (e.g., faculty development, candidate assessment, resources allocation)? (4) What has been the impact of credential reform on districts, other institutional partners, and other partners? and (5) How did early adopters differ from late adopters?

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Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Jefferson, Gretchen L. (2002).  Using Data To Promote Academic Benefit for Included Students with Mild Disabilities.  Preventing School Failure, 46, 3. 

This article discusses how special education reform movements continue to influence school practices regarding special education placement decisions and offers recommendations for promoting academic educational benefit for included students with mild disabilities. Schools are urged to make responsible decisions regarding inclusion by developing measurable educational goals and evaluating placement efficacy. 

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Haider, Steven J.; Schoeni, Robert F.; Bao, Yuhua; Danielson, Caroline (2004).  Immigrants, Welfare Reform, and the Economy  Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 23, 4. 

The welfare reform bill adopted in the United States in 1996 limited the eligibility of immigrants for several government assistance programs, and early projections estimated that nearly half of the savings associated with the reforms would come from these immigrant restrictions. Several studies have found that subsequent program participation declined more for immigrants relative to natives, seemingly verifying the early projections. However, many of these restrictions were either rescinded by the federal government or superceded by state and local policies. In this paper, we first reproduce earlier findings that show the relative declines in program use among immigrants. We then show that much, but not all, of the relative decline in program use among immigrants can be explained by changing macroeconomic conditions.

Haines, Len; Sanche, Bob (2000).  Assessment Models and Software Support for Assistive Technology Teams.  Diagnostique, 25, 4. 

This article reviews requirements for considering the need for assistive technology (AT) services within the Individualized Education Program process and highlights the importance of collaborative teamwork. Current AT models are described, along with the AT Co-Planner. The use of a software version of the model is discussed. 

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Hale, Lorraine (2002).  Native American Education: A Reference Handbook. Contemporary Education Issues. 

This handbook presents information and resource materials on various aspects of Native American education. Chapters 1-2 trace the history of Native education in the 18th-20th centuries, including the loss of Indian lands and movement west, Christian conversion and acculturation as the main motivations for providing Native American education, missionary schools, the federal system of Indian boarding schools, the Meriam Report, movement toward greater self-determination and tribally controlled education in the second half of the 20th century, and development of tribal colleges and Native Studies programs. Chapter 3 presents a chronology. Chapter 4 reviews the influence on Native education of early treaties and various laws and federal legislation. Chapter 5 discusses issues in Native education: cultural assumptions and ideologies, cultural differences in learning styles, textbook content, giftedness and gifted programs, academic failure and dropout rates, and cultural preservation. Chapter 6 outlines strategies related to language skills, reading and writing, English as a second language, native language instruction, math, and science. Chapter 7 lists American Indian organizations, government agencies, private funding sources, professional organizations, tribal colleges, and tribes of the United States. Chapter 8 presents a bibliography of print and nonprint resources: articles and reports, books, books for youth, journals, subject-related resources, Internet resources, and videotapes. A lengthy appendix contains the text of six laws related to Indian education.

Hall, Daria (2007).  Graduation Matters: Improving Accountability for High School Graduation  [Education Trust] 

An analysis of accountability for high school graduation rates under the federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) reveals two major problems: (1) State goals for raising graduation rates are far too low to spur needed improvement and (2) Gaps between student groups are allowed to persist by an accountability system that looks only at average graduation rates. The high school diploma is the bare minimum credential necessary to have a fighting chance at successful participation in the workforce or civil society. Yet, writes Hall, current high school accountability policies represent a stunning indifference to whether young people actually earn this critical credential. To spur improvement, accurate data is required. But also needed are ambitious graduation-rate goals for all groups of students, measuring tools to confirm that schools are meeting these goals, and strategic support for struggling students and schools.  | [FULL TEXT]

Hall, Don (2004).  Preparing For The Data Deluge  Learning and Leading with Technology, 32 n2 p32, 33. 

Can public education succeed in the Information Age without creating a culture where data drives decision making with timeliness and impact? Today?s educators are data rich but information poor. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) train seems to roll across the educational landscape like a juggernaut leaving its tracks on everything it touches. Yet the question still remains, "How will a school district develop an intentional approach to data management and the selection of enterprise tools to support effective decision making?" In the course of this article, I will investigate some of the key issues educators must consider when they try to tackle this concern. | [FULL TEXT]

Hall, Martin; Symes, Ashley (2005).  South African Higher Education in the First Decade of Democracy: From Cooperative Governance to Conditional Autonomy  Studies in Higher Education, 30, 2. 

This paper tracks policies in the governance of higher education over the first decade of South Africa's democracy. The first democratically elected government of 1994 was faced with the formidable task of dismantling the structures of apartheid education. The foundations for a new policy were laid by a National Commission that reported in 1996, and advocated a philosophy of "cooperative governance" by a wide range of stakeholders. However, the government's formal policy, articulated in a White Paper and legislation the following year, established a more directive role for the state. Successive amendments to the legislation culminated in a National Plan for Higher Education in which the state plays a strongly directive role, and seeks to recast the higher education landscape through extensive incorporations and mergers. While there is a strong case for state steering of public education in a country such as South Africa, where urgent attention to key issues of economic development and social justice is essential, the concept of cooperative governance is now a hindrance in finding the appropriate balance between the government's responsibility to the electorate and institutions' rights to academic freedom. "Conditional autonomy", in contrast, allows both for the procedural role of the state in ensuring the effective use of public money and the substantive rights of higher education institutions to academic freedom in teaching and research.

Hall, Martin; Symes, Ashley; Luescher, Thierry M. (2002).  Governance in South African Higher Education. Research Report. 

This report provides a description and analysis of the present state of governance of higher education in South Africa, discusses the concept of cooperative governance, and develops some proposals for the improvement of efficiency, effectiveness, and accountability in higher education governance. The first chapter, "Framing the Inquiry," outlines the terms of reference for the study and outlines its goals. The second chapter, "Governance and Public Higher Education in South Africa," reviews policy and legislation for South African higher education over the last 5 years. Chapter 3, "Governance in Practice," discusses governance as it has been experienced on a day-by-day basis on the 12 institutions that make up the study sample. Chapter 4, "Institutional Governance: Senate, Council and the Institutional Forum," continues the detailed analysis of higher education with a study of three major agencies of governance: the Senate and concept of academic freedom; the Council on Higher Education and the role of trusteeship; and the Institutional Forum, in the context of governance. Chapter 5, "Conditional Autonomy: The State and the Governance of Higher Education Institutions," focuses on the balance between state steering of largely autonomous institutions and a regime in which the state exercises direct control of higher education. It also considers the ways in which higher education institutions should report to the Department of Education, and it presents a generic model for governance failure. The "Conclusion," chapter 6, summarizes the discussion. Chapter 7 is a bibliography. Three appendixes contain extracts from policy and legislation documents, some pertinent legislation, and discussions of institutional governance structures. | [FULL TEXT]

Hall, Martin; Symes, Ashley; Luescher, Thierry M. (2004).  The Culture of Governance in South African Public Higher Education  Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 26, 1. 

The South African public higher education system is at a point of transition as the mould of segregation is broken through a process of mergers and incorporations. This paper reports a study of governance at this transitional stage. Using case studies of 12 institutions, representative of the system as a whole, four types of governance were identified, differentiated by the representivity of those participating in decision-making processes, organizational effectiveness and capacity for implementation of policies. Together, these governance types constitute organizational cultures with distinctive characteristics. While the current restructuring exercise is addressing some core problems, the culture of governance is more than a set of technical arrangements. The case studies show that governance practices are shaped by institutional histories and complex sets of interests that have a durability that might require more than legislation to change.

Hall, Pete (2005).  A School Reclaims Itself  Educational Leadership, 62, 5. 

Anderson Elementary, a preK-6 school founded in 1886, was dubbed "In Need of Improvement" in 2002 after failing for three years in a row to make adequate yearly progress required under the No Child Left Behind Act. Anderson Elementary, to raise fallen achievement scores, pressed every school professional into the service of student literacy.

Hall, Robert F.; McCaw, Donna S.; Philhower, Susan; Pierson, Max E. (2004).  School District Reorganization in Illinois: Improving Educational Opportunities for Students  [Illinois Institute for Rural Affairs] 

This study examines five case studies of proposed school consolidations. None of the five proposed consolidations were voted by their constituents into reality. This report also examines the curricular impact that these variables have upon the secondary course offerings available as well as the lessons learned from 11 Committee of Ten members. These interviews represent three different consolidations and inform the reader about the emotional and financial impact that serving in this capacity can have. The study also shares needed insight into what future Committee of Ten members need to do and how they should do it. Committee of Ten interview questions are appended.

Hall, Will (2007).  Harassment, Bullying, and Discrimination of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students: Legal Issues for North Carolina Schools  [Online Submission] 

The purpose of the report is to inform students, parents, school personnel, and officials of the legal issues related to harassment, bullying, and discrimination of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students. This report describes existing research on the current school climate for LGBT youth as well as the harmful effects of harassment, bullying, and discrimination. While existing statewide laws and policies do not effectively protect LGBT youth in school, several federal statutes are described in relation to protection of LGBT students from harassment, bullying, and discrimination. Several descriptions of court cases where schools and school personnel failed to fulfill their legal obligations are also included. Based on findings showing a hostile school climate for LGBT youth and inadequate statewide laws and policies, we recommend the following: (1) education policymakers and government officials pass comprehensive laws and policies to better protect students, (2) school officials provide specialized training for school personnel, and (3) school officials conduct regular school climate assessments to inform and guide efforts to improve the climate for all students. The following are appended: (1) NC Basic Education Program Law; (2) NC Policy Against Harassment, Bullying, & Discrimination; (3) Lawsuits Against School Districts & School Personnel; and (4) State & National Resources. [This report was produced by Safe Schools NC.] | [FULL TEXT]

Hallahan, Daniel P.; Mercer, Cecil D. (2001).  Learning Disabilities: Historical Perspectives. Executive Summary. 

Although the federal government's involvement in learning disabilities through task forces, legislation, and funding has been evident only since the 1960s and 1970s, the roots of learning disabilities can be traced back to the early 1800s. Learning disabilities are one of the newest categories officially recognized by the U.S. Department of Education, but the origins of the concept are long-standing. This paper summarizes a report that investigates the history of learning disabilities and divides this history into five periods: European Foundation Period (1800 to 1920); U.S. Foundation Period (1920 to 1960); Emergent Period (1960 to 1975); Solidification Period (1975 to 1985); and Turbulent Period (1985 to 2000). It argues that during the most recent period, circumstances have solidified the field while several issues have also threatened to tear the field apart. It points out that from 1976-77 to 1998-99, the number of students identified as having a learning disability has doubled to more than 2.8 million, representing just over half of all students with disabilities. Controversies over identification and inclusion are discussed. The paper also discusses research advances that have resulted in breakthroughs in knowledge about how children learn to read and what constitutes effective reading programs. | [FULL TEXT]

Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Lynne; Shaw, Jacquelene; Rhamie, Jasmine (2007).  The Provision of Educationally Focused Parenting Programmes in England  European Journal of Special Needs Education, 22, 3. 

In recent years, there has been an increased recognition of the importance of parenting and the way in which parenting programmes can be an effective intervention in changing behaviour and parent-child interactions. The aim of this research, funded by the Department for Education and Skills, was to provide a map of parenting programme provision in England. In phase 1 of the research data were collected through responsible local authority (LA) officers from all LAs in England to explore the different types of parenting programmes available. On the basis of findings from phase 1 of the research, 20 examples of particular types of parenting programmes were selected for more in-depth study. In phase 2 field-visits were undertaken to parenting programmes and interviews undertaken with staff. The paper reports the extent to which LAs have access to or provide educationally related parenting programmes in England and the nature of that provision, including infrastructure, organization and funding; the set up of programmes and referral systems; participants and dropouts; types of programmes; programme content and follow-up; evaluation; staff training; and difficulties experienced in providing such programmes and for parents in accessing them. The findings are discussed in the light of the implementation of Parenting Orders and the operationalization of the Antisocial Behaviour Act 2003.

Hallford, Abby; Borntrager, Cameo; Davis, Joanne L. (2006).  Evaluation of a Bullying Prevention Program  Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 21, 1. 

In order to address the federal "No Child Left Behind Act", the state of Oklahoma required that all public schools address the problem of bullying. Although numerous anti-bullying programs exist, few have been evaluated to determine their effectiveness. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of one such program, "Bullyproof," in a sample of elementary students in a southwestern U.S. urban school district. The evaluation included tracking the frequency of observed bullying and attitudes toward bullying from pre-program to 5 months post-program. The study also included an assessment of participants, satisfaction with the program. At 5 months post-program, results indicated little change in frequency of observed bullying behaviors, although attitudes changed significantly toward an increased anti-bullying perspective and greater perceived power to intervene in bullying. Overall, participants rated the evaluation positively. Implications for future research efforts and programmatic efforts are discussed.

Halocha, John (2001).  Teaching for Understanding in Primary Geography.  Evaluation & Research in Education, 15, 3. 

Discusses what is meant by understanding in elementary school geography and considers the place of geography as a subject in current curriculum legislation in the United Kingdom. Provides some strategies teachers might use to support students in the development of their geographical understanding.

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Hamann, Edmund T.; Lane, Brett (2004).  The Roles of State Departments of Education As Policy Intermediaries: Two Cases  Educational Policy, 18, 3. 

As the variety of state education agency (SEA) responses to the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 demonstrates, different SEAs interpret the same federal educational policy differently. Nonetheless, little research has depicted how federal policies are changed by SEA-based policy intermediaries. Using an "ethnography of educational policy" approach, this article offers two illustrations of mediation processes at the SEA level: Maine's and Puerto Rico's initial attempts to implement the federal Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration program. Both attempts show that the mediation process is inevitable and that its general direction can be predicted: Policies will be adapted in ways that better correspond with local problem diagnoses, understandings, and habits of action. The study leaves intact McLaughlin's assertion that local negotiation and reframing of policy can be a source of improvement or added value. Such improvement is more likely if an expectation of mediation is explicitly accounted for and if what counts as improvement reflects local mores.

Hamilton, J. Ogden (2001).  Seize the Day. NCLB: Failed Schools--Or Failed Law?  Educational Horizons, 82, 2. 

This article argues that merely discrediting No Child Left Behind (NCLB) is no more worthy an undertaking than any other manifestation of negative politics. Instead, show the community leaders the goals and measures the faculty came up with and get them to accept those goals and measures as short term alternatives to NCLB. And then, the piece de resistance: schedule a big wingding for the day the federal government is to release the Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) figures. Invite the mayor, the city and county councils, state legislators, the press, the chamber of commerce, the taxpayers association, the local clergy--all the community leaders who could be constructive forces in support of the community schools. Announce your performance in achieving the goals the faculty set; celebrate your success. Ignore the NCLB press release; shrug it off if you cannot ignore it. Sections in the article include the following: Seize the Day; This Goes Beyond Being Feisty; At the Lowest Level It's about Vulnerability...; ...and Schools Are Amazingly Vulnerable; The Wrong Goals and Measures; A One-Time Opportunity; The Real Agenda Behind NCLB; It's Not about Their Agenda; It's About Your Response; and Seize the Day. | [FULL TEXT]

Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.; Marsh, Julie A.; McCombs, Jennifer Sloan; Robyn, Abby; Russell, Jennifer; Naftel, Scott; Barney, Heather (2007).  How Educators in Three States Are Responding to Standards-Based Accountability under No Child Left Behind. Research Brief  [RAND Corporation] 

In 2002, the RAND Corporation launched a project to understand how educators are responding to the new accountability requirements in California, Georgia, and Pennsylvania--three states that represent a range of approaches, regions, and student populations. The researchers aimed to identify the factors that enhance the implementation of SBA systems, encourage positive changes in teaching practices, and improve student achievement. Through surveys, interviews, and visits to schools in these three states, they found that NCLB is affecting the work of superintendents, principals, and teachers both positively and negatively. Although the three states developed different accountability systems, school and district administrators are engaged in similar school improvement activities. The key findings, summarized in this brief, were: (1) Most superintendents considered three improvement strategies most important: using data for decision making, aligning curriculum with state standards, and focusing on low-performing students; (2) Teachers changed their instruction in both desirable and undesirable ways; (3) Most educators felt challenged by insufficient alignment among state standards, curriculum, and tests; and (4) The researchers recommend improving alignment among standards, tests, and curriculum; providing educators with professional development assistance; and exploring ways to measure performance more accurately.

Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.; Marsh, Julie A.; McCombs, Jennifer Sloan; Robyn, Abby; Russell, Jennifer; Naftel, Scott; Barney, Heather (2007).  Standards-Based Accountability under No Child Left Behind: Experiences of Teachers and Administrators in Three States. MG-589-NSF  [RAND Corporation] 

Since 2001-2002, standards-based accountability (SBA) provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) have shaped the work of public school teachers and administrators in the United States. NCLB requires each state to develop content and achievement standards in several subjects, administer tests to measure students' progress toward these standards, develop targets for performance on these tests, and impose a series of interventions on schools and districts that do not meet the targets. Many states had such systems in place before NCLB took effect, but, since 2001-2002, every state in the United States has had to develop and implement an SBA system that met the requirements of the law, and its provisions have affected every public school and district in the nation. This book sheds light on how accountability policies have influenced attitudes and been translated into actions at the district, school, and classroom levels in three states, with a focus on mathematics and science. SBA is leading to an increased emphasis on student achievement, and many educators laud this focus, but a single-minded emphasis on student proficiency on tests has some potentially negative consequences such as narrowing curriculum and declining staff morale. This book is divided into the following chapters: (1) Introduction; (2) Study Design and Methods; (3) SBA Systems in California, Georgia, and Pennsylvania; (4) Educators' Opinions about Standards, Assessments, and Accountability; (5) School and District Improvement Strategies; (6) Instructional Practices Related to Standards and Assessments; (7) Perceived Barriers to School Improvement; and (8) Conclusions and Implications. The following are appended: (1) Sampling and Survey Responses; (2) Supplementary Tables; and (3) Superintendent, Principal, and Teacher Surveys.

Hamilton, Laura; Stecher, Brian (2004).  Responding Effectively to Test-Based Accountability  Phi Delta Kappan, 85, 8. 

The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 has focused the attention of educators, policy makers, and the public on accountability for performance in public education. Yet many of those who will be responsible for improving school performance lack guidance on how to proceed in the brave new world of NCLB accountability. For the most part, state education department and district staff members, principals, teachers, and parents have spent their time trying to understand what the law means and how it will affect them. They have had to react quickly--and sometimes without much direction--to those provisions of the law that have already gone into effect. Few have had time to look ahead and make plans for operating effectively in this new environment. This article is intended to offer some strategies that will help educators function better in the world of accountable districts and accountable schools.

Hamilton, Stuart (2002).  September 11th, the Internet, and the Affects on Information Provision in Libraries. 

The September 11th terrorist attacks on the United States have contributed greatly to a change in the information environment around the world. The weeks following the attacks saw governments around the world rush to pass legislation designed to prevent future acts of terrorism. Much of this legislation targeted information flow, especially on the Internet, in the hope that closer scrutiny of communications traffic would enable security forces to identify possible terrorist action and stop potential atrocities before they occur. While a desire to safeguard law-abiding citizens is not to be dismissed lightly, there is a suspicion that much legislation passed following the attacks consisted of security forces' wishlists from previous years, and that a lot of the measures were rushed through without in depth consideration of the implications for civil liberties. The library community has had much to consider following the passing of the so-called "Anti-terror" acts around the world, and the role of libraries as providers of free, equal and unhampered access to information has been restricted since September 11th. | [FULL TEXT]

As Congress prepares to make important decisions about the future of Head Start, Program Information Report (PIR) data provide important contextual information about Early Head Start programs and the children and families they serve. In 2004, Early Head Start served a diverse group of infants, toddlers, and pregnant women, most of whom were from working families earning below the federal poverty line. Young children and their families continued to receive comprehensive services through Early Head Start, and the proportion of young children receiving professional dental exams improved. More teachers and home visitors had degrees in early childhood education in 2004 than in previous years, although salaries did not improve.  | [FULL TEXT]

Hammer, Ben (2003).  Reconsidering the Status of Title IX.  Black Issues in Higher Education, 20 n4 p20-21, 39 Apr 10 2003. 

Discusses the controversy over Title IX and women's participation in college athletics. Critics say the mandate shortchanges men's teams, while proponents say that women's sports programs remain underfunded in spite of Title IX. Describes some proposed modifications to Title IX and their potential effects.

Hampton, Greg; Gosden, Richard (2004).  Fair Play for Students with Disability  Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 26, 2. 

Universities provide a competitive environment that in some ways resembles the sporting field. But unlike the arrangements made for disabled athletes, for whom separated fields of competition are available, disabled students are required to enter into open competition with non-disabled students. To make this open competition fair, students with disability are provided with a range of accommodations to compensate. The availability of these compensatory measures gives rise to some difficult decision making for university administrators. These difficulties are mostly concerned with two questions of fairness: who is eligible for the accommodation, and how much accommodation is appropriate? Students with disability who are eligible for accommodation should still be encouraged to minimise their reliance on this type of assistance in order to ensure they properly develop attributes of independent learning.

Hampton, Jim (2003).  How Florida's Voters Enacted UPK When Their Legislature Wouldn't. 

In 2002, Florida voters placed on the ballot through petition and passed a state constitutional amendment mandating universal prekindergarten (UPK) for all 4-year-olds beginning in 2005; it was the nation's first voter-initiated, mandated UPK. This case study examines Florida's successful UPK campaign. The report highlights the leadership of David Lawrence Jr., the former publisher of The Miami Herald and chairman of the Florida Partnership for School Readiness (the gubernatorially appointed state board overseeing Florida's programs of child care and early education), and of Alex Penelas, the executive mayor of Miami-Dade County. The major impetus for the amendment was the 1999 School Readiness Act, which created the Florida Partnership for School Readiness to administer all child care, health, and educational programs for children birth to age 5, to allocate combined state and federal funding, and which required local School Readiness Coalitions. Rules suggested for achieving success in passing a constitutional amendment include: (1) polling to assess support for and opposition to UPK; (2) ensuring that the proposal can pass the state constitutions own legal tests and possible challenges; (3) raising money to gather the required petitions; and (4) hiring a professional petition-gatherer. Efforts to promote the UPK amendment included rallies and informational meetings, focus groups, and major conferences. The case study highlights the importance of identifying which vested interests are apprehensive about UPK and trying to allay their fears in every possible forum. Additional local actions described in the case study include the creation of The Children's Trust in Miami-Dade County and the passage of a levy for a half-mill (50 cents per $1,000 assessed valuation) property tax to finance its programs. State action included the formation of a UPK Advisory Council to analyze programmatic aspects and outcomes for UPK programs. Remaining challenges to the Governor and the legislature include selecting a government agency to house UPK and selecting someone to head the program. A summary of recommendations regarding UPK from the Florida Partnership for School Readiness is appended. | [FULL TEXT]

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_____. (2000).  Hands That Shape the World: Report on the Conditions of Immigrant Women in the U.S. Five Years after the Beijing Conference. 

This report details the challenges that immigrant women in the United States have faced since the 1995 United Nations World Conference on Women in Beijing, China. It presents a compilation of research and synthesis by immigrants' rights activists and organizations. Data come from immigrant women's testimony. The following topics are featured: "U.S. Immigration Policies Undermine Women's Rights"; "Border Patrol Abuse of Female Migrants"; "Immigration Enforcement's Impact on Women"; "Gender and Asylum"; "Women in Detention"; "Immigrant Women and Welfare Reform"; "Immigrant Women's Health"; "Employment Conditions of Immigrant Women"; "Trafficking in Women"; "Immigrant Women and Domestic Violence"; "Lesbian Immigrant Women"; and "Immigrant Girls and Youth." The report finds that not only has the United States failed to protect the rights of immigrant women, but legislation and immigration policies have negatively impacted their well-being, health, employment, and family life. Recommendations are provided as a starting point for governmental and nongovernmental bodies to address the issues and conditions of immigrant women (e.g., repeal employer sanctions, legalize their work, end human rights violations, and protect family unity). An appendix describes the Beijing World Conference on Women and Platform for Action and the U.S. commitments to the Platform for Action.

_____. (2000).  Handbook on Parents' Rights. 

This handbook is intended to inform parents of children with disabilities with information about parent rights, the rights of the child, and the responsibilities of the local education agency (LEA) toward meeting the special needs of the child. Individual sections address the following topics: special education laws and children with disabilities, parents' rights, parental consent, referrals for special education services, participation in meetings, prior written notice, evaluation procedures, independent educational evaluation, eligibility determination, the individualized education program, related services, placement, reevaluation, discipline procedures, interim alternative education settings, private school placement, opportunity to examine records, resolving disagreements, mediation, formal written complaints, due process hearings, placements during due process, surrogate parents, transfer of parental rights, and resources for parents. | [FULL TEXT]

Handler, Beth R. (2006).  Two Acts, One Goal: Meeting the Shared Vision of No Child Left Behind and Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004  Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies

No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 04) demonstrate a focused attempt by the U.S. Congress to improve the educational outcomes for students with disabilities through shared responsibility and accountability of both general and special educators. In this article, the author illuminates the complementary and parallel legislative language of NCLB and IDEA 04 and considers two related challenges that need to be addressed if the shared goal of increased academic achievement for students with disabilities articulated in these laws is to be realized. The author suggests that if people are to succeed in realizing the shared vision of NCLB and IDEA 04 for greater academic achievement for students with disabilities, the current approach to disability and special education must change. Instead of wholesale application of the psycho-medical approach to disability and perpetuation of the illusion that all struggling students require unique professional intervention, it is necessary to demystify disability and special education through collaboration and shared knowledge. Through collaboration and knowledge-sharing, special educators can facilitate general educators' skill development to increase the potential for their independently succeeding in teaching struggling students, disabled or nondisabled. Finally, special education processes and practices should be made transparent to all so as not create erroneous assumptions about the skills necessary to successfully teach students with disabilities.

Haney, David W.; Schmidt, Mark (2002).  Support for School Construction: Blending Sales Tax with Property Tax.  School Business Affairs, 68, 11. 

Describes how opinion by North Dakota's attorney general allows school district and city of Jamestown to collaborate in the issuance of bonds for school construction and renovation projects, three-quarters of the revenue for which is raised by a voter-approved city sales tax.

Haney, James M.; Cohn, Andrew (2004).  Public Relations and Technology Transfer Offices: An Assessment of US Universities' Relations with Media and Government  Industry and Higher Education, 18, 4. 

This article discusses the importance for technology transfer offices of sound media and government relations strategies. It reports the results of a nationwide electronic survey in the USA and interviews with technology transfer managers on how they handle public relations issues in their offices. Strengths and weaknesses of their communication operations are highlighted, and perceived training needs are identified. Based on their research, the authors recommend: (a) more proactive public relations activities for technology transfer offices, (b) increased promotion of business partnerships, (c) effective evaluation of current activities, (d) possible best practices, (e) specific training initiatives and (f) ways to improve responses to attacks on the Bayh-Dole Act.

Hannagan, Tim (2006).  Leadership and Environmental Assessment in Further Education  Journal of Further and Higher Education, 30, 4. 

This paper examines management reaction to strategic change in organizations based on the findings from a study of management responses to environmental change in further education. The paper sets out a number of propositions about the key factors required for successful strategic change in a public sector organization based on a national survey of colleges of further education in England in the six years after incorporation, which was followed up by case studies to investigate the key variables in greater detail. The analysis of strategic change in these public sector institutions highlights the importance of leadership and environmental assessment while the development of a conceptual model to underpin the research illustrates how private sector approaches can be adapted to the public sector.

Hannaway, Jane; Murphy, Marilyn; Reed, Jodie (2004).  Leave No City Behind: England/United States Dialogue on Urban Education Reform  [Urban Institute] 

Both the United States and England initiated ambitious standards-based education reform to eliminate large gaps between their highest and lowest achievers. England appears to be ahead, having started in 1988 with a national curriculum, tests, and performance tables. The United States' No Child Left Behind Act began rewriting state rules in 2002 with more incentives and punitive measures aimed at school performance. Viewing the contrasts as opportunity, educators and policymakers from each side of the Atlantic gathered in Philadelphia in mid-October for the second half of a dialogue on urban education. As talk moved to action, participants planned such follow-up activities as sending a delegation of principals and teachers from Georgia to English schools and creating a New York City school with British educators. With communication channels opened, possibilities seemed endless for comparing and analyzing data on education reforms. Inevitably too, all agreed, the education dialogue should expand to more countries. This policy brief offers highlights from their discussions. [The "No City Left Behind" dialogue was a collaborative effort of the British Embassy, HM Government's Department for Education and Skills, the Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR) in London, Temple University College of Education in Philadelphia, and The Urban Institute. Additional support was provided by Glaxco SmithKline, The Lenfest Foundation, Thompson-Peterson's Learning, the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Vocational and Adult Education and its Institute of Education Sciences through funding for the Laboratory for Student Success at Temple University's Center for Research in Human Development and Education.] | [FULL TEXT]

Hannay, Lynne M.; Erb, Cathy Smeltzer; Ross, John A. (2001).  To the Barricades: The Relationship between Secondary School Organizational Structure and the Implementation of Policy Initiatives.  International Journal of Leadership in Education, 4, 2. 

Explores the relationship between (Ontario) secondary-school organizational structures and implementation of legislated change initiatives. Examines the role of individuals responsible for implementing two legislated curriculum innovations: curriculum integration and performance-based assessment. Implementing whole-school or subject-based innovations is problematic in departmental organization schemes.

Hansen, Janet S.; Roza, Marguerite (2005).  Decentralized Decisionmaking for Schools: New Promise for an Old Idea?  [RAND Corporation] 

Interest in decentralized decisionmaking for schools (DDS) is on the rise. With state and federal accountability systems placing pressure on school-level leaders to improve student performance, increasing attention is being paid to the question of how to help principals do their job more effectively. "Business as usual" in American education appears highly unlikely to result in the dramatic achievement gains called for by the federal No Child Left Behind Act and its state counterparts. The irony of the new attention being paid to DDS in the United States is that many public schools claimed to have tried decentralized decisionmaking-- so-called school-based management--in the 1980s and 1990s, yet the performance of U.S. education during that period improved only modestly, at best. Why then are some policymakers turning again to decentralization to help accomplish the goal of improved performance? Is there much chance that new school-based decentralization can accomplish more than earlier efforts did, and what would it take for decentralized decisionmaking to fulfill the promise so long held out for it? Given the lack of success to date in moving public education to significantly higher levels of performance, the attempt seems worthwhile. The reasons for trying DDS are stronger than ever. Changes in education (such as standards-based reform, new accountability systems tied to standards, and the increased availability of objective indicators of student learning) and in the broader political environment now supply conditions crucial for successful implementation of DDS. This paper explores why it might be a good time to revive DDS and discusses conditions that might affect its implementation. Finally, it develops questions that can be used to construct an agenda for research and analysis. Answers to the questions could help policymakers, this time around, design school autonomy policies that effectively contribute to improved student outcomes. (Includes 19 footnotes.)

Hansen, Lone (2001).  Bibliotek.dk: Immediate Access to Danish Libraries--A Path To Follow. 

Bibliotek.dk is a development project, resulting in a World Wide Web site, that gives the Danish citizen access via the Internet to search and order material in the collections of Danish public and research libraries. The citizen decides himself or herself which library he or she wants to collect the material from. Bibliotek.dk is developed in connection with the change of the public libraries act into an act regarding library services. The act was passed in May 2000 and concerns both the Danish public libraries and a number of government and government-funded libraries. Major topics covered by this paper include: (1) background on DanBib (a database containing location information from public and research library collections); (2) the development from DanBib to bibliotek.dk, including the user's central position, accessibility, the library role, access to other Internet services, technology, and fees; (3) opening and use of bibliotek.dk, including the information campaign, number of requests, materials in demand, users, user expectations and wishes, and changes in the libraries; and (4) improvements for the near future. | [FULL TEXT]

Hanson, Anne Marie (2006).  No Child Left Behind: High-Stakes Testing and Teacher Burnout in Urban Elementary Schools  [Online Submission] 

The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 calls for 100% proficiency in reading and mathematics by 2014. The mandate thus transforms reading and mathematics into high-stakes subject areas. This quantitative cross-sectional study examined legislated testing mandates in relation to burnout subscales, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Second through fifth grade high-stakes reading and mathematics teachers and low-stakes art, music, and physical education teachers working in an urban elementary school district completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educator Survey and a demographic survey. Results showed a significant difference in emotional exhaustion among high-stakes versus low-stakes subject area teachers across grade levels and school labels. Since burnout impedes job performance, results suggest the achievement gap may widen because of the very legislation instituted to close it. Appended are: (1) Demographic Survey Instrument; (2) Maslach Burnout Inventory and Permission to Use; (3) Script for Research Assistants Administering Survey; (4) Informed Consent to Conduct Research; and (5) University of Phoenix Informed Consent Agreement.  [Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Phoenix.] | [FULL TEXT]

Hanson, Dale; Burton, Darla; Quam, Greg (2006).  Six Concepts to Help You Align with NCLB  Technology Teacher, 66, 1. 

The overall goal of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act is to have all students--100 percent--achieving at proficient levels by 2014. Between now and 2014, states, districts, and schools must take a series of specific steps toward that goal. The law requires that educators focus intensively on challenging academic standards and assessments in reading, math, and science, accountability for the performance of every child, and the guarantee of a highly qualified teacher in every classroom. This article discusses six concepts that can help teachers succeed in meeting these goals: (1) Accountability is here to stay; (2) Data-based decisions will drive the curriculum; (3) Reading in the content area; (4) Integration and collaboration with core subjects strengthens technology and engineering education and the core subjects; (5) Contextual learning in technology and engineering education connects students to the real world; and (6) Communicating technology and engineering education's value in supporting NCLB.

Hanson, Thomas L.; Kim, Jin-Ok (2007).  Measuring Resilience and Youth Development: The Psychometric Properties of the Healthy Kids Survey. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 34  [Regional Educational Laboratory West] 

This report summarizes findings from a study of the psychometric properties of the resilience and youth development module, a key component of the Healthy Kids Survey. The study aims to improve resilience assessment and research so that educators can shape the school environment to promote academic resilience. The Healthy Kids Survey (HKS) is a comprehensive student self-report tool for monitoring the school environment and student health risks. This report focuses on one module of the survey, the resilience and youth development module (RYDM), which assesses environmental and internal assets associated with positive youth development and school success. The report describes the results of these analyses, makes recommendations on the proper use of the instrument, and suggests modifications to improve the module. The following are appended: (A) Analytic Strategy; (B) Results; (C) Results and Model Selection Details; (D) Other Assessments of Resilience and Related Factors; and (E) Detailed Tables.  [This report was produced for the National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences (IES) by Regional Educational Laboratory West administered by WestEd.] | [FULL TEXT]

Hanushek, Eric A.; Raymond, Margaret E. (2005).  Does School Accountability Lead to Improved Student Performance?  Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 24, 2. 

The leading school reform policy in the United States revolves around strong accountability of schools with consequences for performance. The federal government's involvement through the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 reinforces the prior movement of many states toward policies based on measured student achievement. Analysis of state achievement growth as measured by the National Assessment of Educational progress shows that accountability systems introduced during the 1990s had a clear positive impact on student achievement. This single policy instrument did not, however, also lead to any narrowing in the Black-White achievement gap (though it did narrow the Hispanic-White achievement gap). Moreover, the Black-White gap appears to have been adversely impacted over the decade by increasing minority concentrations in the schools. An additional issue surrounding stronger accountability has been a concern about unintended outcomes related to such things as higher exclusion rates from testing, increased dropout rates, and the like. Our analysis of special education placement rates, a frequently identified area of concern, does not show any responsiveness to the introduction of accountability systems.

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Harber, Clive (2001).  State of Transition: Post-Apartheid Educational Reform in South Africa. Monographs in International Education. 

This book reviews the major dimensions of post-apartheid educational change and continuity in South Africa since 1994. It sets educational reform in the context of the nature of the anti-apartheid struggle inside South Africa and in the global economic environment in which South Africa re-entered the world stage as a legitimate actor. Recognizing the difference between planned reform at the policy level and the actual nature of educational change within the schools, the book sets educational reform in the contextual realities of South African education as they presently exist in order to understand the difficulties and ambiguities of change and transition and the overt aims and goals enshrined in policy documents and legislation. Five chapters focus on: (1) "Policy, Finance and Governance"; (2) "Over the Rainbow? Race, Language and Gender"; (3) "Qualifications, Curriculum and Assessment"; (4) "Life in Schools: The Culture of Learning and Teaching"; and (5) "Teacher Education and Teacher Identity." A conclusion discusses "No Instant Miracles: From Policy to Practice."

Harbin, Gloria L. (2001).  Implementing Early Intervention Policy: Are We Making the Grade?  Journal of Early Intervention, 24, 2. 

This response to an article evaluating Indiana's early intervention service delivery (EC 628 669) based on the state's comprehensive data system evaluates the amount of services provided, type of services, the service system, and the service delivery model. Analysis indicates continuing gaps between federal law requirements and implementation in each of these areas and between recommended and actual practices.

Harbort, Gina; Gunter, Philip L.; Hull, Karla; Brown, Queen; Venn, Martha L.; Wiley, Larry P.; Wiley, Ellen W. (2007).  Behaviors of Teachers in Co-Taught Classes in a Secondary School  Teacher Education and Special Education, 30, 1. 

Researchers examined roles and actions of members of "co-teaching" teams including a special educator and a regular educator in a public high school. Observational data were collected using momentary time sampling procedures. Results indicated that regular educators presented material to students in 29.93% of observed intervals; special educators presented material in less than 1% of observed intervals. Researchers observed regular educators conducting non-interaction instructional tasks (e.g., preparing for instruction) in 28.33% of the intervals; special educators conducted these tasks in 3.96% of intervals. Special educators observed or drifted in 45.24% of the intervals and responded to students more often (i.e., 29.86% observation intervals) than regular educators. Results are discussed in terms of needed study related to roles of general and special educators as increasing numbers of students with disabilities are expected to master the general curriculum.

Harbour, Clifford P.; Davies, Timothy Gray; Lewis, Chance W. (2006).  Colorado's Voucher Legislation and the Consequences for Community Colleges  Community College Review, 33, 3-4. 

In this article, the authors examine the new voucher program used to subsidize undergraduate education at Colorado community colleges and four-year institutions. The authors explain the voucher program and discuss the fiscal and policy conditions that led to its adoption. This baseline account of the voucher program and the underlying conditions leading to its enactment provides a foundation for further community college research concerning open access, the comprehensive mission, student participation, and organizational culture.

Harding, Bertrand M., Jr. (2000).  Federal Tax Issues Raised by International Study Abroad Programs.  Journal of College and University Law, 27, 1. 

Identifies and describes tax issues raised by study abroad programs and suggests steps that a college or university can take to minimize or eliminate adverse U.S. and foreign tax exposure to both itself and its employees.

Hardman, Ken (2006).  Promise Or Reality? Physical Education in Schools in Europe  Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education, 36, 2. 

Most European governments have committed themselves through legislation to making provision for physical education in schools but they have been either slow or reticent in translating this into action in schools. Consequently, there are perceived deficiencies in school physical education provision, specifically in curriculum time allocation, subject and teacher status, financial, material (inadequacies in facility and equipment supply) and qualified teaching personnel resources and the quality and relevance of the physical education curriculum. The crux of the issue, according to the Council of Europe Deputy General Secretary, is a "gap between promise and the reality". This article explores the theme of "promise" and "reality" by drawing from data generated by a number of international, national and regional surveys and an extended longitudinal literature review, which together highlight the extent of the alleged "gap". It examines recent inter-governmental and non-governmental initiatives to address relevant issues and concerns and suggests some policy strategies to assist in converting "promises" into "reality" and so secure a safe future for physical education in schools.

Hardman, Michael L. (2003).  Put Me in Coach: A Commentary on the RPSD Exchange.  Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 28, 3. 

This commentary discusses principles concerning requirements for scientifically based research under No Child Left Behind: scientific inquiry begins with important research questions, not specific methodologies; the logic that scientifically based research equates with randomized controlled trials will result in research and practice disconnects; and no single research method is superior.

Hardman, Michael L.; Dawson, Shirley (2008).  The Impact of Federal Public Policy on Curriculum and Instruction for Students with Disabilities in the General Classroom  Preventing School Failure, 52, 2. 

The promise that all children will achieve higher levels of academic performance is the foundation of the current educational reform movement. Standards-based reform began with financial assistance to the states for the development of content and performance standards, improved teacher quality, and increased school accountability. The reform movement has evolved to federal corrective action under the No Child Left Behind Act (2001) and the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act of 2004 for schools and states that fail to make adequate yearly progress. In this article, the authors briefly examine (a) the history of the federal role in standards-based reform over the past two decades, (b) the role of federal policy in ensuring access to the general curriculum and research-based instruction for students with disabilities, and (c) future policy issues pertaining to achieving higher levels of academic performance for all students.

Hardman, Michael L.; West, Jane (2003).  Increasing the Number of Special Education Faculty: Policy Implications and Future Directions.  Teacher Education and Special Education, 26, 3. 

This article reviews the history of national policy for personnel preparation under Part D of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and offers some recommendations for federal policy that may increase special education faculty. It concludes that higher education must develop new ways of communicating its importance to policy makers. 

Hardy, Lawrence (2001).  A Question of Funding.  American School Board Journal, 188, 9. 

Discusses controversy involving state funding of Pennsylvania cyber charter schools.

Hardy, Lawrence (2003).  Education Vital Signs. Main Events: The Year of "No Child Left Behind."  American School Board Journal

A brief overview of national issues in public education in 2002. Discusses the views of advocates and opponents of the No Child Left Behind Act and the school voucher movement; federal, state, and local government challenges to local school board authority; and school funding and general economic issues.

Hardy, Lawrence (2003).  High Goal Hard Task.  American School Board Journal, 190, 9. 

Provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) are putting pressure on schools. Last year, schools were only required to show gains for entire grade levels. This year, all states must also show specified improvement in various subgroups. Provides five examples. The National Education Association plans to file a lawsuit over the unfounded mandates of NCLB.

Hardy, Lawrence (2003).  The Contrarian.  American School Board Journal, 190, 10. 

Education researcher Gerald Bracey claims that the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) will result in privatization and educational vouchers because schools are expected to show regular gains in the proportion of students judged "proficient."

Hardy, Lawrence (2004).  A Nation Divided on Education in 2003  Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 69, 7. 

To understand what is going on in American education, it might help to turn to a relatively neutral source, the Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, and its released report, The 2004 Political Landscape: Evenly Divided and Increasingly Polarized. "Over the past four years, the American electorate has been dealt a series of body blows, each capable of altering the political landscape," the report said. "The voting system broke down in a presidential election. A booming economy faltered, punctuated by revelations of one of the worst business scandals in U.S. history. And the country endured a devastating attack on its own soil, followed by two major wars." As a result, the nation has emerged "almost evenly divided politically, yet further apart than ever in its political values," the report said. Here, an adaptation from the chapter "A Nation Divided" by Lawrence Hardy published in "Education Vital Signs 2004" is presented. In this article, the author talks about the nation's divided stance on education policies and reforms.

Hardy, Lawrence (2005).  A Girl Sues the Military over Recruiter Tricks  Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 71, 3. 

This paper highlights the misunderstanding between recruiters and enlistees--as well as accusations of outright deception--which are common as an all-volunteer military struggles to keep up with the personnel demands of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. What makes these disputes a school concern is that many young people are being recruited from the halls of high schools across America. Such is the case of Jessica Faustner, who joined the National Guard at age 17, a few months after graduation. Faustner was told the guard would pay for nursing school before she was deployed overseas, says John Roberts, her attorney. But a subsequent meeting of recruits, a commander says her unit had a "90% chance of going to Iraq" after basic training. In effect, Faustner, now 18, went AWOL, and her 2,000 member brigade went to war. This is the right guaranteed to the military by the No Child Left Behind Act which requires districts to give recruiters access to schools and student information, including names, addresses, ethnicity, and grade point averages. How to provide access is a difficult issue for schools seeking to balance their duties to students and parents with their responsibilities to the military. In many districts, those decisions are delegated to principals. Others restrict them to designated areas and require they make appointments before coming to school. The National Guard, meanwhile, contended that Faustner's notion that she could be sent to Iraq immediately after basic training was wrong.

Hardy, Lawrence (2005).  The Future of Education: Not All We Hoped, or Had Hyped  Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 70, 7. 

Thirty years ago, at the close of the tumultuous 1960s, futurist Alvin Toffler wrote a bestseller, "Future Shock," which warned of the effects of accelerating change, or what Toffler described as "the dizzying disorientation brought on by the premature arrival of the future." In the section of the book which was on education, Toffler was remarkably perceptive. He talked about the obsolete "industrial era school," its antiquated schedules and seat groupings, its ever-present bells. He called for revising the curriculum--while not neglecting math and reading--in order to be able to make it relevant for the future. This article discusses a report released in early December by the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) ranking 15-year-olds in the United States 24th among peers from 29 other nations in the area of math literacy. The U.S. score of 483 was 17 points below the average score for the participating countries. Furthermore, it was lower than the score of several European nations of modest wealth, including Poland, Hungary, and Spain. More relevant to the issue of U.S. competitiveness were the scores which were generated by two Asian nations on the test: South Korea and Japan, which were ranked second and fourth, respectively. (The top five nations, as determined by the results of this study, and their scores, were: Finland, 544; South Korea, 542; the Netherlands, 538; Japan, 534; and Canada, 532.) The United States has moved up a little, but there is still a huge gap between what American students can do and what students do in the high-performing Asian countries. Even though all of this is not the outcome Toffler might have expected 35 years ago, it is where Americans find themselves today as they seek to compete in the 21st century.

Hardy, Lawrence (2006).  Do Schools Owe 65% of Funding to Instruction?  Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 71, 7. 

Ohio Secretary of State J. Kenneth Blackwell, a Republican candidate for governor, is one of several lawmakers across the country supporting a group called First Class Education, which is pushing for state initiatives that would require schools to spend at least 65 cents of every education dollar in the classroom. The group, led by Overstock.com President Patrick Byrne, hopes to get the measure on the ballot in up to 10 states for the 2006 general election. Critics of the program, known as the 65-cent solution, say nothing in education is that simple, and a Standard & Poor's analysis backs up their claim. The analysis, issued in November, concludes that "no minimum spending allocation is a "silver bullet" solution for raising student achievement."

Hargrave, Lou Ann (2003).  Needing a Second Chance.  Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers, 78, 1. 

Temporary Assistance to Needy Families offers welfare recipients a second chance for success. How good that chance will be depends on the next version of the legislation. If its work requirements do not allow for sufficient training, achieving success may be more difficult.

Harper, Michelle (2003).  Building for a Healthy Future: Sustaining School-Based Enrollment in Health Insurance Programs. 

Despite expansions in children's health insurance programs, rates of uninsurance in California continue to be high. Noting that absenteeism due to poor health is associated with school failure and asserting that schools offer an established framework on which to build a coordinated approach to enrolling children in health insurance programs, this report identifies four sets of California initiatives on which policymakers and schools could build school-based programs. The initiatives discussed are built on an existing platform, provide access to the target population, have the capability to offer comprehensive services, present opportunities for sustainability, and have the potential to include a tracking and evaluation mechanism. Section 1 of the report provides a rationale for school-based approaches to children health insurance program enrollment and describes current California efforts. Section 2 presents guidelines for building school-based health insurance programs. Section 3 describes several sources of funding that program planners may wish to pursue. Section 4 describes initiatives on which policymakers or schools could build school-based health insurance outreach, enrollment, utilization, and retention programs: (1) Healthy Start; (2) Proposition 10--First 5 California; (3) National School Lunch Program; and (4) the use of health coordinators. Throughout the report, examples are provided to illustrate how health insurance programs may be implemented in schools. Because some of the options may require legislative, policy, or procedural changes, Section 5 offers recommendations for schools and for policymakers to maximize the effectiveness of children's health insurance efforts in California. | [FULL TEXT]

Harr, Jenifer J.; Parrish, Tom; Socias, Miguel; Gubbins, Paul (2007).  Evaluation Study of California's High Priority Schools Grant Program: Final Report  [American Institutes for Research] 

Passed in 1999, the Public Schools Accountability Act (PSAA) established a results-based accountability system in California with specific performance targets for schools. The PSAA created a system of rewards and sanctions for meeting or not meeting those targets, and established assistance programs for low-performing schools. In 2001, the High Priority Schools Grant Program (HPSGP) was established as part of PSAA to provide additional funds to the lowest-performing schools in the state, taking the place of the prior Immediate Intervention/Underperforming Schools Program (II/USP). In 2005, the California Department of Education (CDE) contracted with the American Institutes for Research (AIR) to examine the implementation, impact, costs, and benefits of the HPSGP. The CDE identified four primary evaluation questions for the study: (1) How effectively did participating schools and districts implement the HPSGP?; (2) What has been the overall impact of participation in the HPSGP on school and district personnel, parents, and the community, and on school and district organization, policies, and practices? (3) What has been the impact from a school's participation in HPSGP on student performance? and (4) What unintended consequences have resulted from the implementation of the HPSGP? To address the study's research questions, AIR: (1) Analyzed extant data, including student- and school-level achievement data for HPSGP and non-HPSGP schools within California, HPSGP Annual Reports and expenditure reports for all HPSGP schools, and the California Basic Educational Data System (CBEDS); (2) Conducted case study visits to 16 HPSGP schools in nine districts; (3) Analyzed data from surveys in 106 HPSGP schools; and (4) Analyzed data from phone surveys in 49 districts. It was found that, on average, HPSGP schools showed gains in student performance during the period of program implementation. However, the effect of participating in the program on student performance was negligible. Detailed findings and recommendations are discussed.  [This report was submitted to the Evaluation, Research and Analysis Unit, Policy and Evaluation Division, California Department of Education.] | [FULL TEXT]

Harr, Jennifer J.; Parrish, Tom; Chambers, Jay; Levin, Jesse; Segarra, Maria (2006).  Considering Special Education Adequacy in California  [American Institutes for Research] 

The ways in which the needs of special populations--students in poverty, English learners, and particularly special education students--have been addressed in studies measuring educational adequacy vary widely. This paper analyzes how these populations have been treated across various adequacy studies, with its major focus on special education adequacy. The study focuses on two primary research questions: (1) What analytical techniques exist for estimating the cost of an adequate education for special education students?; and (2) How might these techniques be applied to estimate the cost of an adequate education for special education students in California, and how do these cost estimates compare to what is currently spent on special education students? Of the four standard adequacy methodologies, only the professional judgment and econometric approaches appear at least theoretically capable of producing comparable stand alone estimates of special education adequacy. Although there are questions as to whether stand-alone special education adequacy estimates can be derived from these types of approaches, to the extent this can be done such estimates would have an important advantage in that the needs of special education students can only be fully considered in relation to the general education services they receive. It is only in this holistic sense that special education adequacy can be fully considered.  Recommended Special Education Staffing Ratios for Wyoming (Based on Parrish et al., 2002); (2) Examples of Panel Configurations of Selected Professional Judgment Panel Studies; (3) Comparison of Base Estimates from Selected Studies Using Both the Professional Judgment and Successful Schools/Districts Approach; and (4) Brief Overview of the Standardized Account Cost Structure (SACS).) [This research was conducted at the request of the Governor's Committee on Educational Excellence, the California Superintendent of Public Instruction Jack O'Connell, and members of the California Legislature. It is part of a larger group of studies coordinated through Stanford University.] | [FULL TEXT]

Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Jackson, J. K. (2004).  Redefining Teacher Quality: Myths of No Child Left Behind  Teacher Education and Practice, 17, 2. 

This article describes four myths about teacher quality commonly associated with the 2001 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation. Myth 1 explores the hypothesis that generating an endless supply of new teachers to solve the teacher shortage is the best way to alleviate any real teacher shortage. Myth 2 tackles the assertion that academic ability alone qualifies one to teach, and academic ability is the most important attribute of an effective teacher. A candid discussion about the changing definition of waivers and their role in concealing a growing population of underprepared teachers is discussed in Myth 3. Finally, Myth 4 examines claims that alternative certification programs produce teachers who are as good or better than traditional prepared teachers.

Harris, Debbi (2006).  Beyond Compliance: Response to Michigan's Teacher Induction Mandate. Policy Report 25  [Education Policy Center, Michigan State University] 

Helping novice teachers both improves their effectiveness and increases the likelihood they will remain in teaching. Ignoring the needs of novices is costly, in terms of both student achievement and teacher turnover. This brief discusses the strategies used by districts as they strive to offer high quality induction programs in an environment of scarce resources. While these strategies provide guidance for districts still struggling with the induction mandate, their usefulness extends beyond this particular mandate as well. The strategies used in this particular case are applicable to the more general problems associated with substantive compliance with unfunded mandates.  | [FULL TEXT]

Harris, Debbi; Burian-Fitzgerald, Marisa (2004).  More Information or More Paperwork? Reporting Requirements for Michigan's Schools under No Child Left Behind. Policy Report 23  [Education Policy Center, Michigan State University] 

The federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) requires school districts in every state to publish and disseminate annual report cards with information on district performance. Schools are required to report similar information. These report cards must include not only information on overall student achievement, but also on the performance of measurable subgroups, including economically disadvantaged students, special education students, and students from major racial and ethnic groups. (In Michigan, student achievement for this purpose is measured by the Michigan Education Assessment Program (MEAP.) Michigan state law requires schools and districts to report most of this information for a generation. Along with provisions for several curricular reforms and new school programs, Public Act 25 of 1990 included a statewide requirement for a school report card. Under P.A. 25, school districts in Michigan are required to report annually on student test scores, school accreditation status, retention/dropout rates, and several other types of information for each of their schools and for the district overall. The reporting requirements of NCLB would seem to be superfluous for the state of Michigan, but before judging the value of the NCLB reporting requirements, the question to ask is whether schools and districts complied with existing state law? The authors of this report used data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) for the 1999-2000 school year to examine the district and school production of performance reports in Michigan, and at the information contained in those reports. Their analysis includes the responses of 143 Michigan school districts and 297 schools, and is weighted to be representative at the state level. These data were collected prior to the 2002 passage of NCLB and provide information about the types of reports that were available to the public before the new reporting requirements were even under serious discussion. The report concludes that most Michigan schools and districts were reporting performance data to parents and the community prior to the report card requirement of NCLB. The data suggests that reporting requirements do make a difference: reporting rates for information not specified by P.A. 25 were much lower than for information included in the legislation. The issue of reporting requirements will soon be eclipsed by the component of NCLB known as Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB reporting requirements, then, is more of a report card to the federal government than to parents. The report contains two tables. Table 1 looks at the types of information reported by school districts and schools to the public they serve. Table 2 looks at reporting by a variety of district characteristics: size, urbanicity, degree of poverty and minority enrollment. | [FULL TEXT]

Harris, Douglas N. (2004).  Class Size, Pre-Kindergarten, and Educational Adequacy: Costs and Funding Options for Florida. Policy Brief.  [Education Policy Studies Laboratory, Arizona State University College of Education] 

Since 1998, Florida voters have passed three amendments that pressure state officials to increase education spending. The 1998 amendment introduced constitutional language establishing the importance of education to the state and its citizens, requiring "adequate provision?for a uniform, efficient, safe, secure, and high quality system of free public schools." Two amendments followed in 2002, requiring free, high-quality pre-kindergarten and mandating the reduction of class sizes. The analysis in this brief suggests that the recurring costs of the class size and pre-K amendments will be $3 billion per year after full implementation. For pre-K, the actual costs estimated here are close to the estimates being used by the Legislature; for class size, the actual costs estimated here are lower. Florida now has the lowest overall tax rates in the country. This analysis suggests that full funding of the two amendments would raise Florida's ranking only slightly, from 50th to 49th. Therefore, Florida would remain a low tax state. | [FULL TEXT]

Harris, Douglas N. (2007).  High-Flying Schools, Student Disadvantage, and the Logic of NCLB  American Journal of Education, 113, 3. 

In debates about accountability, advocates often point to individual "high-flying" schools that achieve high test scores despite serving disadvantaged populations. Using a near-census of U.S. public schools, this new analysis considers the likelihood that schools become high flyers. The results suggest that of the more than 60,000 schools considered, low-poverty schools are 22 times more likely to reach consistently high academic achievement compared with high-poverty schools. Schools serving student populations that are both low poverty and low minority are 89 times more likely to be consistently high performing compared with high-poverty, high-minority schools. This does not mean that schools have no influence over student achievement, or that schools should be unaccountable, but that accountability systems need to have carefully defined objectives and measures of school progress. In addition, the results suggest the continued need to address home and community factors in the pursuit of educational equity.

Harris, Douglas N.; Herrington, Carolyn D.; Albee, Amy (2007).  The Future Of Vouchers: Lessons from the Adoption, Design, and Court Challenges of Florida's Three Voucher Programs  Educational Policy, 21, 1. 

This study considers why Florida has been the most aggressive state in adopting school vouchers. Vouchers are consistent with Florida's tradition of aggressive educational accountability policies, arising from the state's moderate social conservatism, openness to privatization, and state demographic characteristics. Even with this fertile political soil, vouchers probably would not have been adopted without the efforts of Governor Jeb Bush. The programs also rest on a shaky legal foundation because of the state's Blaine Amendment and constitutional provisions for "public" and "uniform" schools. The authors conclude that state-level voucher programs in Florida and other states are on uncertain political and legal ground.

The Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA) restructured the delivery of youth services in the workforce system. It introduced several new features, including a focus on more comprehensive year-round services, the addition of youth development elements, mandatory youth councils, Youth Opportunity Grants to distressed areas, and a requirement for post-program follow-up. Last session, the Senate's WIA reauthorization bill, S. 1627, passed the Senate with unanimous support. S.1627 would have made several positive changes to the youth provisions of WIA, especially related to relaxing income eligibility for certain youth in high-risk categories--drop-outs, offenders, and youth in foster care. The bill was never conferenced with the House WIA bill in the last session of Congress; thus, WIA reauthorization was left unfinished. In January 2005, Senator Mike Enzi (R-WY), chairman of the Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee, introduced S. 9, which builds upon S. 1627. This document examines the following other changes that the Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP) recommends that would enhance the delivery of services, especially to youth in high-risk categories: (1) Target the Funds to Where the Need is the Greatest; (2) Retain Service to Both In-School and Out-of-School Youth. Greater Service to Out-of-School Youth should not be at the Expense of In-School Youth; (3) Keep Youth Councils Mandatory; (4) Refine the Eligibility Requirements for Out-of-School Youth; (5) Incorporate Adjustment Factors into the Performance Measures; and (6) Allow Youth to Access Core Services from the One-Stop. | [FULL TEXT]

Harris, Linda (2006).  Learning from the Youth Opportunity Experience: Building Delivery Capacity in Distressed Communities   

In May 2000, the United States Department of Labor awarded sizable Youth Opportunity (YO) Grants to 36 high-poverty urban, rural, and Native American communities. These communities were among the most economically distressed communities in the nation, all characterized by high drop out rates, high youth unemployment rates, greater incidence of juvenile crime, violence, and gang activity. The Youth Opportunity Grants--ranging from $3.1 to $43.8 million over five years--provided the resources to put in place comprehensive approaches at considerable scale. The Department's expressed intent in awarding these grants was to demonstrate that the educational outcomes and economic prospects for young people in high-poverty communities could be dramatically improved by infusing these communities with resources; building capacity and infrastructure; connecting systems; and developing comprehensive, age-appropriate opportunities for youth. The observations in this paper are based on the responses of 22 of the YO sites to a "Learning from Youth Opportunity" survey administered by the Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP), wherein respondents were asked to identify areas of strength and challenges on 120 items in four categories: (1) Mobilizing and Engaging Leadership; (2) Connecting Systems; (3) Implementing Comprehensive Program Strategies; and (4) Engaging the Business Sector. Focus group discussions were conducted with several of the YO sites shortly after the start of the final grant year and then again as the year ended. This paper presents an assessment of the capacity building efforts in YO communities, the strengths and challenges of the program, lessons learned, and recommendations for policy and approach. The following are appended: (1) YO Community Collaborations with Other Systems; (2) Communities Indicating Success Worth Sharing in Various Areas; and (3) Contact Information for Respondents to the "Youth Opportunity: Lessons Learned Survey." | [FULL TEXT]

Harris, Mary M.; Miller, James R. (2005).  Needed: Reincarnation of National Defense Education Act of 1958  Journal of Science Education and Technology, 14, 2. 

This paper reviews the historical and current response of the United States to threats to its world leadership in scientific endeavors, with particular attention to the National Defense Education Act of 1958. The current status of the United States in mathematics, science, and engineering education is reviewed with respect to K-12 student achievement, K-12 teacher quality, numbers of degrees granted, and other indicators of international competitiveness. Concluding that we are a nation in peril, recommendations are made to enhance the likelihood that the United States will retain its preeminent position in science and technology and, therefore, provide for the national defense and economic wellbeing of citizens in an information age and global economy.

Harris, Sandra; Irons, E. Jane; Crawford, Carolyn (2006).  Texas Superintendents' Ratings of Standards/Assessment/Accountability Programs  Planning and Changing, 37, 3-4. 

Accountability and assessment are critical components to the success of schools today. As leaders of school districts, superintendents in Texas and across the nation are faced daily with meeting this challenge. While doing so, they must remember that their priority commitment is not to testing programs, but to helping children achieve. Consequently, understanding how to analyze and use data for education planning is critical. With this in mind, superintendents must be able to use accountability systems that work to equip children to achieve. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact on the district of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) and No Child Left Behind (NCLB) assessment and accountability programs as perceived by Texas superintendents. The following are appended: (1) Requirements for Texas Rating Categories; and (2) Copy of Survey.  | [FULL TEXT]

Harris-Murri, Nancy; King, Kathleen; Rostenberg, Dalia (2006).  Reducing Disproportionate Minority Representation in Special Education Programs for Students with Emotional Disturbances: Toward a Culturally Responsive Response to Intervention Model  Education and Treatment of Children, 29, 4. 

The purpose of this article is to present an argument for the need for culturally responsive Response to Intervention (RTI) as an approach for reducing disproportionate minority representation in Special Education Programs for Students with Emotional Disturbances. We present an overview of the RTI model as initially intended for use in determining IDEA eligibility category of Specific Learning Disability (SLD), discuss current literature that examines the use of RTI for evaluation of Emotional Disturbances (ED), and highlight research-based instruction and intervention practices of culturally responsive pedagogy. Then, we discuss the integration of such practices into an RTI model for the evaluation of ED. Our intent is that through discussion and development of a culturally responsive approach to RTI for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students who display social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties, disproportionate representation and assumption of within-child deficits, can be effectively addressed and remedied.

Harrison, Ellen K. (2001).  The Estate Tax Enigma.  Currents, 27 n7 p26-28, 30. 

Discusses the implications for planned giving of the new Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001. Describes changes in income, estate, generation-skipping, and gift tax regulations and their consequences for estate planning.

Harrison, John; Kasak, Deborah (2005).  Recognizing Excellence in Middle-Grade Schools  Principal, 84, 5. 

Leaders in schools with grades 5 to 8 face unprecedented responsibilities in working with young adolescents. As schools respond to the mandates of No Child Left Behind, more than half of the students tested annually will be enrolled in these middle grades. This means that the success or failure rate of schools nationwide will be largely determined by the competencies of middle-grades students. Yet, even after a decade of surging interest in this group, there remains a great deal of confusion about how middle-grades schools can most effectively serve their students.

Harry, Beth (2005).  Equity, Excellence and Diversity in a Rural Secondary School in Spain: "Integration Is Very Nice, but ... "  European Journal of Special Needs Education, 20, 1. 

This paper addresses the intersection between the inclusion of students with special needs and those with cultural/linguistic differences. Using data from a qualitative study in a rural secondary school in Spain, the author found that school personnel effectively distinguished between cultural needs and cognitive deficits. However, a one-way model of assimilation, a knowledge transmission model of pedagogy and the retention of the traditional canon as the goal of secondary learning defeated the school's efforts to implement inclusion for both groups of students in particular, Moroccan immigrants. This mismatch resulted in professional role conflicts and frustration. Spain's changing education legislation provides the context for the study.

Hart, Debra; Zimbrich, Karen; Whelley, Teresa (2002).  Challenges in Coordinating and Managing Services and Supports in Secondary and Postsecondary Options. Issue Brief. 

This issue brief discusses the challenges that youth with disabilities face as they prepare to leave secondary school and how service coordination can help these students find appropriate services and supports for adult life. It reviews federal legislation designed to address transitions to postsecondary education and employment and current models of service coordination. The differences between youth and adult service delivery and the lack of interagency collaboration that complicate service coordination are also explained. The brief then identifies the five major barriers to effective coordination and management of supports and provides the following recommendations for addressing these barriers: (1) build partnerships that establish interagency cooperation at state and local levels; (2) develop clear and uniform mechanisms for information sharing, communication, and coordination of services and supports across agencies and audiences; (3) conduct resource mapping and alignment on state and local levels; (4) identify and develop services to address gaps; and (5) build student- and family-professional partnerships using student- and family-centered strategies. The brief closes by stressing that service coordination must be a flexible, youth-centered, culturally responsive process that assists individuals and family members to secure supports and services that they want and need when they want and need them. | [FULL TEXT]

Hart, Gary (2000).  Rural Health Issues. Keynote Address. 

Medical students that come from rural areas are more likely to return to rural areas to practice, but rural students apply for medical school at half the rate of urban students. Factors that contribute to this problem are the lack of rural representation on medical school selection committees; centralization of medical education facilities in urban areas; the perspective payment system, which contributed to rural hospital closures; the reduction of services brought about through managed care; reductions in federal funding; the "one size fits all" approach to legislation; and the urban perspective of most policymakers. Addressing the rural health care provider shortage will require: educational programs that give rural students the science they need to apply to medical school; role models for rural students; rural physicians on medical school selection committees; more residency programs with a rural training track; community empowerment to determine and meet local health care needs; development of students' sense of place by reemphasizing courses such as geography and history; policies that encourage the recruitment and retention of rural physicians; increased federal funding of programs for the rural poor; insurance for the uninsured; an environment for rural providers that is satisfactory socially, financially, and professionally and gives opportunities for growth; and local leaders that take responsibility for efficient use of available resources. | [FULL TEXT]

Hart, Gary K.; Brownell, Nancy Sady (2001).  An Era of Educational Accountability in California.  Clearing House, 74, 4. 

Outlines the role of California policymakers as they work to shift the focus of educational reform from rules and processes to student achievement and accountability. Describes the Public Schools Accountability Act of 1999, the most immediate and comprehensive of California's new laws. Shows how it defines fundamental questions of who should be accountable.

Hart, Katherine; Schumacher, Rachel (2005).  Making the Case: Improving Head Start Teacher Qualifications Requires Increased Investment. CLASP Head Start Series. Policy Paper No. 1   

This paper summarizes the research on the importance of teacher education and salary levels, provides a snapshot of Head Start and Early Head Start staff credentials and related issues, describes recent legislative history and changes on teacher qualifications, and assesses whether states and higher education systems are ready to address a major policy change. It concludes with a discussion of cost implications and policy recommendations for Congress. This discussion draws from both relevant research and federal data from Program Information Reports (PIR) submitted to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) by all federal Head Start grantees.  | [FULL TEXT]

Hartell, C. G.; Maile, S. (2004).  HIV/AIDS and Education: A Study on How a Selection of School Governing Bodies in Mpumalanga Understand, Respond to and Implement Legislation and Policies on HIV/AIDS  International Journal of Educational Development, 24, 2. 

Very little research has been done in South Africa on HIV/AIDS and education. This article is a small attempt to plug the gap. The purpose of the research is to investigate the legal and policy provisions and implications regarding HIV/AIDS for rural and township schools in the Mpumalanga district of South Africa. It seeks to answer three questions: (1) What is the status of policy and legislation on HIV/AIDS and Education in South Africa? (2) How do schools understand, respond to and manage issues of law and policy regarding HIV/AIDS? (3) What are the possible areas of conflict between legal and policy provisions and educational practices and behaviours? After examining the different laws relating to HIV/AIDS and education in South Africa a case study approach is used to explore the research questions in a number of rural and township schools. The findings highlighted a general ignorance of basic human rights issues, the right to confidentiality, the right to security from discrimination if it is known that a teacher or a pupil is HIV positive, the right to privacy and the right, under certain circumstances, to disclosure. The findings also reveal a distance between policy and practice so that schools need to develop vigilance with respect to any legal challenges that they might face at a local level. The findings also show that governing bodies should be made aware of the general legal issues surrounding the individual and HIV/AIDS before they can introduce fair and balanced policies.

Hartle, Terry W. (2006).  On Campus Web-Monitoring Rules, Colleges and the FCC Have a Bad Connection  Chronicle of Higher Education, 52, 23. 

A regulation issued by the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) requires facilities-based Internet services providers who operate their own equipment, including colleges, to make their Internet systems compliant with a statute known as the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (Calea) by April 2007. However, the FCC does not specify how compliance is to be achieved, the legality of the issue appears dubious, and the potential costs are outrageous.

Hartle, Terry; Simmons, Chris (2003).  Federal Triangle: Congress Focuses on Access, Affordability and Accountability  Connection: The Journal of the New England Board of Higher Education, 18, 2. 

Congress has begun to rewrite the Higher Education Act, the federal law that authorizes student aid programs like Pell Grants, student loans, Federal Work-Study, TRIO and GEAR UP. This will mark the eighth time that the law has been formally revisited since it was enacted in 1965. It is still early in the process and it is uncertain what the Congress will do. However, three issues should be on the radar screen of every senior campus administrator and trustee in the country: access to college for low- and middle-income students, the affordability of a college degree, and the accountability of colleges and universities. In this article, the authors discuss why these issues are likely to cause some concerns. | [FULL TEXT]

Hartley, Roger C. (2001).  Enforcing Federal Civil Rights against Public Entities after "Garrett."  Journal of College and University Law, 28, 1. 

Demonstrates that the ruling in "Board of Trustees of the University of Alabama v. Garrett, " a case involving an Americans with Disabilities Title I suit, made it more problematic than ever that Congress will be able to deploy Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment to abrogate state judicial immunity. Evaluates surviving options for enforcing federal rights after "Garrett."

Hartmann, Heidi I. (2000).  New and Stronger Remedies Are Needed To Reduce Gender-Based Wage Discrimination. Testimony of Heidi I. Hartmann, Ph.D., Director, Institute for Women's Policy Research, Before the U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Hearing on Gender-Based Wage Discrimination. 

Studies indicate these potential sources of wage differentials between women and men: women have different skills and qualifications; they work in the same jobs and establishments and have equal qualifications but receive unequal pay; and they work in different jobs or establishments, where pay is low, but have qualifications similar to men working where pay is higher. Differential hiring and employment patterns suggest occupational segregation is an important explanation of the wage gap. Extent of female dominance in an occupation affects its pay rate, net of such factors as differences in qualifications of job incumbents, differences in job requirements, and differences in characteristics of occupations or industries. Discrimination causes women's families to lose because of lower income and causes women to under-invest in themselves and reduce their educational attainment and skill development. The Fair Pay Act offers a remedy to effectively raise women's wages in female-dominated jobs. A study of 20 state governments that implemented pay equity wage adjustments in their civil services has found the following: (1) state-made pay adjustments addressed the problem of unequal pay effectively; (2) states that targeted specific underpaid female-dominated jobs spent a relatively small portion of their total wage bill on pay equity adjustments; and (3) these remedies did not have the unfortunate side effects many economists predicted. | [FULL TEXT]

Hartwig, Eric P.; Ruesch, Gary M. (2000).  Disciplining Students in Special Education.  Journal of Special Education, 33, 4. 

This article addresses the substantial changes that Congress made in the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act concerning discipline of students with disabilities. It analyzes both the procedural and substantive requirements related to suspending students, expelling students, and conducting functional behavioral assessments and manifestation determinations. 

Hartwig, Eric P.; Ruesch, Gary M. (2001).  Discipline in the School. Second Edition. 

This book is intended to assist in the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of more effective, legally sound disciplinary policies and procedures for all students in school. Case histories, court decisions, literature reviews, and positive education practices regarding the use of properly created intervention plans are available in many forms and in a variety of formats. The book summarizes and addresses techniques that increase the potential for school districts to create an effective intervention model. Constitutional requirements are addressed in the context of establishing rules that are reasonable, clear, adopted in good faith, and designed to achieve school objectives. Specific chapters address: (1) historical perspectives of discipline issues and institutional and parent factors that affect discipline; (2) the role of the Individualized Education Program (IEP) team; (3) the role of the IEP in placement and programming; (4) legal parameters; (5) suspension and expulsion and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act; (6) positive educational alternatives to traditional discipline; (7) developing schoolwide discipline plans; and (8) the due process hearing. Appendices include sample Individual Behavior Management Plans, least restrictive behavioral interventions, procedural guidelines, suspension notices, and guidelines for expulsion proceedings. (Chapters include references.)

Harvey, Cathryn (2004).  Special Education Solutions in the Age of NCLB  T.H.E. Journal, 31, 10. 

The No Child Left Behind Act specifies schools' responsibilities for including special education students in their overall assessment programs. These students must be assessed under a standardized test that is used for all students within a district--a test that is designed to show whether a student is meeting that state's standards for learning. Schools nationwide are now struggling with how to meet the requirements of NCLB for special education students without excluding them from realistic assessments and/or negatively impacting their educational progression. While NCLB mandates are holding teachers more accountable for instruction that works, they have caused even more paperwork for special education teachers. For instance, screening assessments are recommended for all students at the beginning of each school year, while dynamic assessments--those embedded in instruction--are recommended throughout the school year. Teachers are also asked to keep a systematic record of how individual students perform. This information is then used to tailor and shape instruction to the needs of children in a class. This additional paperwork takes away instructional time when it is needed most, which causes a cycle of failure for both the teacher and the student. While the individualized approach is helping mainstream students succeed, there have not been solutions that special education teachers can adopt in helping with the issues surrounding standardized testing.

Harvey, David, J. (2005).  Policy Recommendations for Community Colleges in Vietnam  [Online Submission] 

The purpose of this study was to recommend policy changes that would enhance Vietnamese community colleges related to lifelong learning, governance, and program relevance. The project was not a typical education research paper. The study utilized a policy-oriented research methodology. Its purpose was not to yield "findings" in the traditional research sense. Instead, the purpose of policy-oriented research was to first identify and assess policy problems and then convincingly advocate to decision makers a specific future course of action or inaction. Therefore, the results of this study were not "findings" but rather substantiated recommendations that would enhance community colleges. First, the study examined exemplary international models in the research literature related to the three policy subtopics. Second, the political, economic and social context pertinent to the current policy environment in Vietnam was discussed. Third, the relevant current and draft new legislation was discussed as well as a case study documenting the innovative practices at the Tra Vinh Community College and their potential impact upon policy. Fourth, the study's future oriented recommendations were detailed and underlying rationale explained. The study made four recommendations. First, to promote lifelong learning, policy should develop community colleges' unique position in order to facilitate academic credit transfer (i.e., articulation) between the post secondary vocational and college programming levels. Second, external stakeholders should form at least half the representation on the mandatory institutional advisory boards that provide non-binding advice to provincial People's Committees. Third, community colleges should annually collect and report key performance indicator data (i.e., graduate employment and self employment rates, etc.) to the government. Fourth, Vietnamese researchers should explore further community college case studies in Vietnam. In particular, further case study research should examine other education and training institutions to determine the impact of different innovative models designed to achieve the new legislation's objectives.  | [FULL TEXT]

Harvey, Michael W. (2001).  Transition in the Field of Special Education.  Preventing School Failure, 45, 3. 

An introduction to this theme issue on special education transition policy and practice summarizes articles and notes a focus on the importance of transitional services in the 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Emphasis is on practical information based on research, legislative development, and empirical evidence to support best practice recommendations.

Harvey, Michael W. (2001).  The Efficacy of Vocational Education for Students with Disabilities Concerning Post-School Employment Outcomes: A Review of the Literature.  Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 38, 3. 

A literature review examined federal legislation for students with disabilities and the efficacy of secondary vocational education. Research indicates a high rate of vocational participation in this population and significant contributions to positive post-school outcomes. Some mixed findings suggest a need to identify specifically which students with disabilities are best served by which vocational programs.

Harwood, Eileen M.; Bernat, Debra H.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Vazquez, Mary Jo; Wagenaar, Alexander C. (2004).  Public Opinion in Puerto Rico on Alcohol Control Policies  Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 26, 4. 

This article discusses the first study to assess public opinion of alcohol policies in Puerto Rico. In 2001, a telephone survey of 514 adults on the island assessed levels of support for 20 alcohol control policies covering five domains: (a) raising alcohol taxes, (b) restricting alcohol consumption in public places, (c) punishing adult providers of alcohol, (d) restricting youth access to alcohol, and (e) restricting marketing of alcohol. Results show high-level support for all alcohol policies, especially for restrictions on alcohol consumption in public places (93% to 95% support) and increases in alcohol taxes earmarked for alcohol treatment, prevention, and education (92% support). Multiple regression analyses reveal older respondents, compared to younger respondents, and respondents reporting lower levels of alcohol consumption were more supportive of alcohol control policies. Results demonstrate a willingness in Puerto Rico to consider public policy solutions to social and health problems associated with drinking.

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Hasian, Marouf, Jr. (2001).  Silences and Articulations in Modern Rhetorical Criticism.  Western Journal of Communication, 65, 3. 

Focuses attention on the potential strengths and weaknesses of "vernacular" studies within the sub-field of legal rhetoric in order to defend contentions about some of the silences and articulations that are involved in modern rhetorical criticism. Defends the heuristic importance of vernacular legal theory for future judicial investigations.

Haslam, M. Bruce; Rouk, Ullik (2006).  Professional Development with the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute Model: Impact, Lessons, and Future Prospects  [Policy Studies Associates, Inc.] 

The Yale-New Haven Teachers' Institute was founded in 1978 on the belief that "university and school teachers across the country have a strong, mutual interest in the improvement of teaching and learning in the schools." The core goal of the model is to establish a sustainable partnership between districts and universities in order to provide teachers with a rigorous program of professional development seminars heavily influenced by needs that teachers themselves define. This report by Policy Studies Associates, Inc., commissioned by the Wallace Foundation, discusses the lessons from a recent demonstration project funded by Wallace in four districts--Albuquerque, Houston, Pittsburgh and Santa Ana, CA--to determine the feasibility of implementing this innovative model of teacher development in urban districts larger than New Haven. This report begins with a review of the principles that define the institute model and that guided implementation in the four sites. Next, it looks at the seminar experience, focusing specifically on collegiality in the preparation and use of curriculum units. The third section concentrates on the preparation and use of curriculum units, and the fourth examines leadership in the institutes, with particular attention to leadership by teachers. The fifth section explores the organization and governance of the institutes, with particular attention to the various institutional partnerships that support them and the challenges of sustaining these partnerships. This section also summarizes the role of the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute as leader, monitor, and partner in the demonstration project. The sixth section looks at resource issues. The report closes with a discussion of the impact of the teachers institutes, lessons learned from the national demonstration project, and the challenges of sustaining teachers institutes in the future. Appendix 1 presents the 16 principles of the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute model. Appendix 2 provides an overview of the approach to the evaluation.  [Writing assistance for this report was provided by Katrina G. Laguarda. This report was prepared by Policy Studies Associates, Inc. and commissioned by The Wallace Foundation.] | [FULL TEXT]

Hassel, Bryan C. (2004).  Fast Break in Indianapolis: A New Approach to Charter Schooling  [Progressive Policy Institute] 

This report has describes how the young Indianapolis charter school initiative can claim a number of successes: (1) Many community leaders have stepped forward to spearhead the creation of charter schools, bringing new energy and resources into public education; (2) Parents have flocked to the new schools, lining up on waiting lists and noting increasing satisfaction with their children's experiences; (3) Students in most charter schools are making steady progress in reading, language, and math, and in many cases outpacing Indiana and national norms for growth; and (4) The mayor has established a comprehensive accountability system for the schools, with high expectations and transparent sharing of data about the schools with the public. As is the case elsewhere, the charter sector in Indianapolis will ultimately be judged by its effects on students, families, neighborhoods, and the city as a whole, and those long-term effects remain to be seen. Though the elementary and middle schools are making good progress, they are still young. The one high school open in 2003-2004 struggled in its first year, and faces significant challenges as it enters its second year. In addition, the initiative's growth in 2004-2005 (doubling from five schools to 10) represents a much faster expansion than in the initiative's first two years, which could tax the mayor's systems. As of the spring of 2004, mayor-sponsored charter schools in Indianapolis represents a small fraction of the city's students--less than 1 percent. But just the schools already chartered will double that fraction by 2005 and triple it by 2008. If all goes as planned, more high-quality applicants will receive charters in the coming years. The result should be a large, vibrant sector of newly formed public schools. If successful, these schools will provide excellent educations for the children who attend them, forge new models that can serve as examples for other schools, demonstrate effective accountability in action, and exert a wide, positive impact on public schooling in Indianapolis.  | [FULL TEXT]

Hassel, Emily Ayscue; Hassel, Bryan C.; Arkin, Matthew D.; Kowal, Julie M.; Steiner, Lucy M. (2006).  School Restructuring Under No Child Left Behind: What Works When? A Guide for Education Leaders  [Learning Point Associates] 

This guide provides users with a step by step approach to restructuring, from organizing a district team and assessing the district's capacity to govern restructuring decisions to conducting a school-by-school analysis and implementing a restructuring plan. The text of the guide is supplemented with templates, checklists, and other practical tools. This guide: (1) reflects the best education and cross-industry research on restructuring; (2) translates that research into practical decision-making tools; (3) includes process steps; and (4) includes realistic consideration of strengths and constraints in a wide variety of school districts. The major actions included in this guide are divided into four steps. These steps are presented in Tool 1 Restructuring Roadmap on page 13. Tool 2 Overall Organizer's Checklist on pages 14-16 provides detailed substeps. In summary, the four steps are as follows: (1) Take Charge of Change--Big Change; (2) Choose the Right Changes; (3) Implement the Plan; and (4) Evaluate, Improve, and Act on Failures. This guide primarily focuses on choosing among the first four options under No Child Left Behind (NCLB), which are relatively drastic and unfamiliar to district leaders. It grows out of four papers in the "What Works When" series that explore what is known about when and under what circumstances these four options improve student learning. Education Leaders' Summaries of these four papers appear at the end of this guide. State takeovers are addressed early, in Step 1, to help districts determine whether they have capacity to manage the restructuring decision process and again at the end of Step 2, when districts may consider state takeovers of some individual schools.  [This guide was produced by Learning Points Associates, Washington, DC and The Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, Washington, DC. Research was administered by Learning Point Associates in partnership with the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL) and WestEd, under contract with the Office of Elementary and Secondary Education of the U.S. Department of Education.] | [FULL TEXT]

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Hatch, Thomas; Bass, Randy; Iiyoshi, Toru; Mace, Desiree Pointer (2004).  Building Knowledge for Teaching and Learning: The Promise of Scholarship in a Networked Environment  Change, 36, 5. 

Roberto Corrada's labor law course at the University of Denver embodies both growing interest in new approaches to teaching and learning and some of the latest uses of educational technology in the scholarship of teaching. In that course, Corrada engages his law school students, many of whom have had little experience in union work settings, in a simulation in which they have a chance to form their own union and to negotiate with him as their "employer." In the process, he extends classroom conversations in online discussion forums. He has also created a course Web site with links to numerous materials, claim forms, and other resources students can use to help them form their union, and he provides opportunities for them to create multimedia resources such as an online newspaper that reports on relevant developments in their organizing efforts. Practitioners' efforts around the country are also targeted at developing a new medium for the production and exchange of faculty knowledge and getting past obstacles. They are creating innovative strategies for collecting teaching materials, they are making those materials public, and they are experimenting with new forms of representation that reflect the complexity of teaching. They are also inventing tools that can facilitate the creation of new representations of knowledge and establishing the electronic environments and platforms that can support the scholarship of teaching and learning. This article explores the promise of scholarship in a networked environment in the following sections: Making Teaching Public; From Collections to Compression; Tools for Scholarly Representations; Developing Environments for Sharing the Knowledge of Teaching and Learning; and Conclusion. List of the URLs referenced in the article and related resources are included.

Hatfield, Thomas A. (2007).  The Unevenness of Arts Education Policies  Arts Education Policy Review, 108, 5. 

In the past decade of educational reform, there has been one astounding accomplishment: The federal and state governments and the private sector have recommended and adopted policies to advance the visual and performing arts as essential to a comprehensive education. The goals created by the president and the governors of all 50 states for American education now include the arts. Goals 2000 and other legislation have provided funding for arts education. The National Assessment for Educational Progress has adopted a policy to assess the arts each decade. These exemplary policies and resources for arts education are evidence of an educational direction aimed at the graduation of students who are artistically literate. However, several studies have revealed that there are serious flaws in some arts education policies. In this article, the author examines several of them. He focuses on issues such as content standards for the arts, the importance of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), gateway policies for K-12 students, and arts study and college admissions.

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Hauptman, Arthur M.; Hamill, Matthew W.; Wellman, Jane V.; Rodriguez, Esther M.; Mingle, James R.; Michaelson, Martin; Novak, Richard; Johnson, Neal (2001).  Ten Public Policy Issues for Higher Education in 2001 and 2002. Public Policy Paper Series. 

This paper highlights the major federal and state public policy issues that will affect higher education in 2001 and 2002. Its purpose is to provide board members and other higher education officials with brief descriptions of the most important public policy issues. Each issue is defined, with a brief summary and a discussion in greater depth. Information sources are provided for each issue. The issues identified are: (1) tax cuts and the federal budget; (2) effects of the expected economic slowdown; (3) affirmative action and recent court decisions; (4) student aid policies; (5) economic and workforce development; (6) information technology and access to information; (7) teacher training and quality; (8) public perceptions of higher education; (9) standards, accountability, and high-stakes testing; and (10) intercollegiate athletics.

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_____. (2006).  Hawaii Department of Education Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. Amended with Approval  [US Department of Education] 

This workbook, submitted by the Hawaii Department of Education to the U.S. Department of Education, is for State Grants under Title IX, Part C, Section 9302 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Public Law 107-110). By January 31, 2003, States must complete and submit to the Department this Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. The workbook divides into two parts. Part I, Summary of Required Elements for State Accountability Systems, contains a chart that presents an overview of States' implementation of the critical elements required for approval of their State accountability systems. States must provide detailed implementation information for each of these elements in Part II of this workbook. For each of the elements listed in the chart, States should show the current implementation status in their State by indicating whether the State has a final policy for implementing this element in its accountability system; the State has a proposed policy for implementing this element in its accountability system, but must still receive approval by required entities in the State; or the State is still working on formulating a policy to implement this element in its accountability system. In Part II, State Response and Activities for Meeting State Accountability System Requirements, States are to provide detailed information for each of the critical elements required for State accountability systems. Appended is: Required Data Elements for State Report Card.  | [FULL TEXT]

Hawke, Angela, Ed. (2002).  Birth Registration: Right from the Start. Innocenti Digest. 

The right to birth registration, the official recording of the birth of a child by some administrative level of the state as a permanent and official record of a child's existence, is enshrined in the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child. This digest examines birth registration, a right that opens the door to other rights, including education and health care, participation, and protection. The digest explains why the births of more than 50 million children go unregistered each year. It is noted that, in legal terms, these children do not exist and their right to an official name and nationality is denied; their access to basic services may be severely jeopardized and they may find themselves more vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. The effects can last a lifetime, with the unregistered adult unable to vote, open a bank account, or obtain a marriage license. The digest asserts that countries need to know how many people they have and how many there are likely to be in the future in order to plan effectively. The digest emphasizes the crucial importance of birth registration, explores the obstacles to universal registration, and highlights the actions, including awareness raising, legislative changes, resource allocation, and capacity building, that are needed to ensure the registration of every child.

Hawke, Constance S. (2004).  Accommodating Students with Disabilities  New Directions for Community Colleges, 2004, 125. 

Community colleges serve a higher percentage of students with disabilities than any other sector of higher education. An understanding of the requirements imposed by disability laws in accommodating those students is important for all community college leaders.

Hawkins, Margaret R. (2004).  Researching English Language and Literacy Development in Schools  Educational Researcher, 33, 3. 

There is a curious disjuncture in the current discourse(s) on the schooling of immigrant and minority students. The official discourse, as has been communicated through the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 rhetoric and the concomitant focus on standards and assessment, says that minority children, especially English language learners (ELLs) must gain "standard" English language skills in an unreasonably short time frame, while achieving on par with native English speaking students in academic content areas. Policy decisions at federal, state, and local levels are being made without input from educational researchers and professionals who have expertise in these areas. However, even within educational circles there is heated debate about how best to educate ELLs, and what "best practices" and "best programs" look like.

Hawley, Willis D., Ed.; Ready, Timothy, Ed. (2003).  Measuring Access to Learning Opportunities. 

This study examined the continued relevance and adequacy of the Elementary and Secondary School Civil Rights Compliance Report (E&S Survey) as a tool for enforcing civil rights laws in education, monitoring quality of access to learning opportunities, and research on other current issues of educational policy and practice. The Committee on Improving Measures of Access to Equal Educational Opportunity was formed to study the E&S Survey and its uses. The Committee commissioned five papers based on E&S Survey data and oversaw a basic analysis of data from the 2000 E&S Survey. The Committee concludes that the E&S Survey continues to play an essential role in documenting disparities and providing information that is useful both in guiding efforts to protect students' civil rights and for informing educational policy and practice. It also concludes that the Survey's usefulness and access to the survey data could be improved. Recommendations for survey administration, improving data quality, increasing access to the data, and disseminating survey findings are included. The four appendixes include synopses of papers prepared for the Committee, overview of findings from the 2000 E&S Survey, the 2000 E&S Survey, and using E&S Survey data in combination with other federal datasets.

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Haycock, Kati (2006).  No More Invisible Kids  Educational Leadership, 64, 3. 

From talking with educators across the United States, the author has concluded that No Child Left Behind is having "an enormously positive impact." NCLB's most important benefit is a new focus on the academic performance of poor and minority students, English language learners, and students with disabilities. The law has also provided leverage for educators who are working to close achievement gaps, putting the power of the federal government behind them. Haycock describes school districts in which educators have used NCLB data to inform positive change. She cites results from state assessments and the National Assessment of Educational Progress indicating that the achievement of elementary students is rising and gaps are narrowing. She recommends changes in the law to increase its effectiveness, including getting serious about high schools, giving more support to low-performing schools, including growth data in accountability measures, raising curriculum standards, providing more guidance for teachers, and doing more to attract the best teachers to the most needy schools.

Hayes, William (2004).  Are We Still a Nation at Risk Two Decades Later?  [Rowman & Littlefield Education] 

For the past twenty years, federal and state education departments and school districts have been engaged in efforts that have touched every phase of public education. People have seen the emergence of the standards movement, "high-stake" testing, and an emphasis on school accountability. Requirements for those entering the teaching profession have become more stringent in order to provide "highly qualified" teachers. School personnel on all levels must deal with constantly changing requirements, often without the financial support necessary. High school graduation requirements have been changed, especially in the areas of technology, math, and science. The ideas of school choice, charter schools, and school vouchers are being experimented with in many forms. These changes have all been accelerated with the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act signed in 2002. This book is a study of the 1983 report "A Nation at Risk" and its impact on public education. Hayes analyzes the impact of this reform and suggests future priorities for public education in the United States. After a preface, this book is organized into the following seventeen chapters: (1) The Beginning; (2) The Commission; (3) The Report; (4) The Others; (5) The Critics; (6) The Standards; (7) The Tests; (8) The Teachers; (9) The Administrators; (10) The Boards; (11) The Parents; (12) The Students; (13) The Money; (14) The Choice; (15) The Law; (16) The Present; and (17) The Future. An index is also included.

Hayes, William (2006).  The Progressive Education Movement: Is it Still a Factor in Today's Schools?  [Rowman & Littlefield Education] 

For more than one hundred years, the United States has been the scene of academic warfare between traditional and progressive educators. During most of the nation's history, many Americans have assumed that the primary purpose of school is to pass on to children the information and skills necessary to survive in society. This traditional view accepts the fact that a teacher's task is to inform children as to what they should know. Officials at the state and local level determine the content of students' education, and it is the teacher's job to ensure that the content is taught. Even before the beginning of the 20th century, John Dewey and others introduced a different model. They believed that students learn best "by doing" not by being passive listeners. For progressive educators, the teacher's role was to be a facilitator of learning in classrooms where students' interest helped to provide appropriate developmental learning experience. This new approach to education has greatly affected our schools during the past century. More recently, the emergence in American education of four initiatives that have threatened the continued influence of progressive education have been seen. They include the "back to basics movement", mandated state curriculum standards, high stakes testing, and school accountability. Despite these trends, there appears to be several factors that might lead one to conclude that progressive education is remaining a viable approach in the United States. This book considers these factors as well as past, present, and possible future of the progressive education movement. Following the introduction, the book presents sixteen chapters for review: (1) The Rise of Progressive Education; (2) John Dewey; (3) Other Pioneers in the Progressive Education Movement; (4) The Progressive Education Movement During the First Half of the Twentieth Century; (5) The Fifties; (6) The Sixties and Seventies; (7) A Nation at Risk (1983); (8) The Eighties and Nineties; (9) No Child Left Behind; (10) Maria Montessori; (11) Teacher Education Programs; (12) Middle Schools; (13) Choice; (14) Education of the Gifted and Talented; (15) Progressive Education Today; and (16) The Future of Progressive Education.

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_____. (2003).  Head Start Reauthorization: Questions and Answers. 

In view of the pending reauthorization of Head Start in 2003, this paper presents information on the effectiveness of Head Start, alternatives to Head Start, program funding, performance standards, and other issues germane to its reauthorization. Topics considered in the question-and-answer format of the report are: (1) Head Start benefits for children; (2) changes in the program; (3) state prekindergarten programs; (4) program funding; (5) coordination of services for preschool children; (6) the need for comprehensive services for Head Start children; (7) literacy needs; (8) parents views of the program; (9) teacher qualifications; (10) student assessment and current accountability measures; (11) enrollment; (12) benefits of Early Head Start; and (13) program improvement. The report closes with recommendations for Congressional priorities when the program is reauthorized, including moving toward full funding of Head Start over the next 5 years, expanding Early Head Start, further improving the quality of Head Start, preserving the focus on comprehensive services, providing additional flexibility to local programs, and addressing in an open forum proposed Head Start changes regarding a national assessment.

_____. (2003).  Head Start: Working Towards Improved Results for Children. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education Reform of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Eighth Congress, First Session. 

These hearings transcripts present testimony on the impact of the Head Start program for preparing disadvantaged children for school, to inform the reauthorization of Head Start. Opening statements by U.S. Representatives Michael Castle (Delaware) and Lynn Wolsey (California) focused on needs for improving Head Start. A written statement by Representative Ciro Rodriguez (Texas) argues that the proposed block funding of Head Start will not meet poor children's needs and will not work for Migrant and Seasonal Head Start. Testimony was offered by two panels of witnesses, the first comprised of Assistant Secretary for Children and Family Services Wade Horn and Governor John Rowland of Connecticut, with the director of the Institute for Educational Sciences available for questions; and the second comprised of the author of a preschool language enrichment program, the chair of the National Head Start Association (NHSA), and the director of a not-for-profit child care development agency. Horn's testimony maintained that the President's proposal for offering states the opportunity to coordinate preschool programs with Head Start in exchange for meeting certain accountability requirements is not a block grant and assured the committee that states would be required to maintain the comprehensive nature of Head Start services, maintain their current level of state preschool funding, and explain how state and federal funds would be coordinated to promote school readiness. Governor Rowland outlined potential benefits of the President's plan. Questions for the first panel related to assessment of school readiness, states' commitment to preschool education, the role of and support for parent involvement, states' roles in setting program standards, and consequences of not submitting a plan. Testimony from the second panel focused on the impact of a language-rich curriculum on poor children, Head Start's successes, and recommendations for its future. The NHSA chair argued that goals for enhancing literacy/language program components and improving coordination could be met within the current program structure and questioned the wisdom of moving Head Start to the states in the middle of a major review of Head Start effectiveness. Questions focused on replicability of the language enrichment program, concerns that the Administration is trying to dismantle Head Start, current Head Start collaboration efforts, and states' commitment and ability to offer quality comprehensive programs within the climate of state economic shortfalls. The transcripts' ten appendices contain written statements and additional documents submitted for the record. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (2005).  HEA Reauthorization. Issue Paper  [Council for American Private Education] 

The reauthorization of the Higher Education Act is a major education priority of the 109th Congress. Many provisions within HEA have a direct impact on programs at the elementary and secondary levels. CAPE believes that federal higher education programs that benefit public school students and teachers should provide equitable benefits to comparably situated private school students and teachers. Such equity is mandated in much of federal education law. It is based not only on a commitment to fairness, but also on the practical recognition that America?s children are educated in a variety of schools and that the nation is best served when all its children are well-educated. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (2005).  Head Start: Ensuring Dollars Benefit the Children. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate, One Hundred Ninth Congress, First Session (April 5, 2005). Senate Hearing 109-119  [US Senate] 

In his opening statement, Senator Lamar Alexander (R-TN), chairman, Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development, stated that one responsibility of Congress is to ensure that taxpayer dollars are being spent for the purposes intended and for the children intended. Between January 2003 and the first months of this year, there were numerous accounts from communities across the country of serious financial abuses or irregularities by individuals or entities entrusted with Head Start dollars. That is why the House and Senate Education Committee leaders asked the Government Accountability Office (GAO) to look into allegations of financial abuse and irregularities by the local agencies or individuals entrusted with Head Start funds. The purpose of this hearing was to consider the findings of the GAO report as well as its recommendations for how the Department of Health and Human Services can do a better job of overseeing the spending of Head Start money. Among those testifying were witnesses, representatives of the writers of the GAO report and of the Federal managers of the Head Start money as well as representatives from the community agencies that actually administer and use the Head Start money. Testifying before the Subcommittee were: Lamar Alexander (R-TN), Chairman, Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development; Michael B. Enzi, Chairman, Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions; Edward M. Kennedy (D-MA); Wade Horn, Assistant Secretary for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Marnie S. Shaul, Director, Education, Workforce, and Income Security Issues, U.S. Government Accountability Office; Christopher Dodd (D-CT); Jim Caccamo, Director, Metropolitan Council on Early Learning, Kansas City, MO; A.C. Wharton, Mayor, Shelby County, TN; Yvonne Gates, Director for Marketing and Community Relations, Center for Academic Enrichment and Outreach, Clark County, NV; Olivia A. Golden, Senior Fellow, Urban Institute; and Hillary Rodham Clinton (D-NY). Additional material (statements, articles, publications, letters, etc.) were submitted by: Wade F. Horn (in response to questions of Senator Enzi); Wade F. Horn (in response to questions of Senator Ensign); Government Accountability Office (in response to questions of Senator Alexander); Mayor A.C. Wharton (in response to question of Senator Alexander); and Olivia A. Golden (in response to questions of Senator Enzi).  | [FULL TEXT]

Heafner, Tina L.; O'Connor, Katherine A.; Groce, Eric C.; Byrd, Sandra; Good, Amy J.; Oldendorf, Sandra; Passe, Jeff; Rock, Tracy (2007).  Advocating for Social Studies: Becoming AGENTS for Change  Social Studies and the Young Learner, 20, 1. 

In this article, the authors emphasize the role of elementary social studies teachers as citizen activists and reformers. The authors call upon all teachers to become AGENTS for change in order to strengthen the role of social studies in elementary schools, to guarantee that all students have an equitable opportunity to learn social studies, and to ensure the development of a citizenry who have the knowledge, skills, and dispositions needed to participate in a globally interdependent society. The authors have created the acronym AGENTS to inspire people who are willing to promote change for a greater purpose. Each letter of the acronym represents their interpretation of the leadership qualities and actions that one should aim for in this effort. They provide a description of each step in the process of becoming AGENTS for change, with suggested activities and resources.

Healey, Jean B. (2005).  Peer Abuse as Child Abuse and Indications for Intervention  [Online Submission] 

Peer abuse in the form of bullying is now recognised as an endemic feature of school life and in terms of impact, outcomes and intervention requirements can be equated with other forms of child abuse. It is argued in the light of data presented here that the parallels between peer abuse and more generally accepted forms of child abuse must be recognised and addressed with some urgency. The paper discusses the types, frequency and intensity of bullying behaviour reported in high schools in NSW, and comparative data for child abuse reports for this age group. This provides a clear demonstration of the correlations of the behaviours indicating that the behaviours which are currently reported as bullying behaviours are also abusive and equally harmful. It seems evident that peer abuse fits the common descriptors of child abuse across all reported criteria. However, it is also evident that teachers currently often do not interpret the behaviours as either abusive or bullying, but as mutually aggressive interactions between peers, leaving victims unprotected and unsupported. It is suggested that some interventions currently established for dealing with bullying are inappropriate as they do not recognise that bullying is abuse. It is proposed that implementation of legislative requirements for mandatory notification by teachers of all forms of abuse should be considered as a means of intervention.  | [FULL TEXT]

Hearn, James C.; McLendon, Michael K.; Gilchrist, Leigh Z. (2003).  Governing in the Sunshine: The Impact of State Open-Meetings and Record Laws on Decision-Making in Higher Education. 

State open-meetings and records laws, often colloquially termed "sunshine laws," affect public higher education systems in numerous ways. Perhaps most visibly, the laws shape the governance activities of institutional boards and high-level campus leaders. Since their beginnings in the 1970s and 1908s, the laws have become an institutionalized element in public higher-education governance in most states. Unfortunately, however, the laws have only rarely been investigated systematically. This study begins an ongoing examination of sunshine laws with a review of the existing literature. Researchers are beginning an analysis of the current status of these laws using data from six selected cases plus data from a recent national governance survey. Data gathering is not complete; this paper reports on the literature review and discusses the characteristics, dimensions, and variations of the laws currently in place. It considers aspects of the laws deemed harmful or beneficial to effective governance, and describes several potential challenges to the laws. The paper concludes with cautions regarding the complexity of ascertaining the laws' benefits, costs, and ultimate effects. An appendix describes the ongoing study.   | [FULL TEXT]

Hearn, James C.; McLendon, Michael K.; Gilchrist, Leigh Z. (2004).  Governing in the Sunshine: Open Meetings, Open Records, and Effective Governance in Public Higher Education. Public Policy Paper Series No. 04-01  [Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges] 

Sunshine laws are designed to make meetings and records of public entities visible so that a state can help ensure accountability of decision making affecting public resources. The laws often pit the news media's desire for greater public disclosure of information on public college and university governance against institutional leaders' desire to deliberate and discuss issues candidly. According to a new survey of data and interviews in six states, the areas in which open-meeting and open-records laws have their greatest impact on boards are in board performance and presidential search and selection. The laws are steadily being updated to reflect the mood in state legislatures. Also affecting the laws' evolution are various new developments such as the rising importance of fund-raising by university-related foundations, electronic communication technologies that allow for "virtual meetings," and new campus security measures that require balancing the "public's right to know" and the need to shield security measures from potential terrorists.

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Hebbeler, Kathleen; Barton, Lauren R.; Mallik, Sangeeta (2008).  Assessment and Accountability for Programs Serving Young Children with Disabilities  Exceptionality, 16, 1. 

States currently are in the process of developing child and family outcome measurement systems for young children with disabilities to meet federal data reporting requirements for the Part C (Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities) and Part B Preschool Grants program supported through the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. This article reviews issues related to the use of assessments in providing outcome data, discusses challenges raised in conducting valid assessments with young children for accountability purposes, and outlines decisions states must make related to assessment as they design and implement outcome measurement approaches. Considerations related to the standardized or curriculum-based measures are discussed along with other choices related to the use of assessment for accountability.

Hebbeler, Kathleen; Wagner, Mary; Spiker, Donna; Scarborough, Anita; Simeonsson, Rune; Collier, Marnie (2001).  A First Look at the Characteristics of Children and Families Entering Early Intervention Services. Data Report. National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study (NEILS). 

The National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study (NEILS) is being conducted to address important questions related to the implementation and outcomes of Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). NEILS is following a nationally representative sample of children from birth to 3 years old and their families through and after their early intervention experiences. This report presents the first information on children and families available from NEILS, information reported by early intervention professionals about children and families who were enrolling in early intervention for the first time. The report provides data on the gender, race/ethnicity, age at entry and reasons for eligibility of the children. It also presents information about families receiving public assistance and children in foster care who are receiving early intervention. The final section of the report summarizes what has been learned, discusses the significance of the findings, and highlights next steps in the NEILS analysis agenda. Appendix A presents detailed information about the study's methodology. Appendix B contains information on the various disabilities of children found eligible to receive early intervention services. Appendix C contains additional data tables related to the analyses presented in the report.   | [FULL TEXT]

Hebel, Sara (2001).  How a Landmark Anti-Bias Law Changed Life for Disabled Students.  Chronicle of Higher Education, 47 n20 pA23-A25 Jan 26, 2001. 

Describes one university's efforts to make its services and facilities accessible to students with disabilities, giving considerable credit to the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Describes the law's effects on the campus as it enters into its second decade, noting attention to glaring deficiencies, highlighting problems that still exits, and discussing changes in faculty attitudes.

Hebel, Sara (2001).  Colleges Anxiously Eye Plan To Repeal the Estate Tax.  Chronicle of Higher Education, 47, 27. 

Describes how some colleges are afraid that Republican plans to repeal the federal estate tax could hurt institutions' fund raising efforts.

Hebel, Sara (2001).  Proposed Rules on Foreign Students Leave Many Colleges Worried.  Chronicle of Higher Education, 48, 9. 

Describes how many college officials are concerned about new legislation that would make it more difficult and expensive for foreign students to obtain visas. They fear declines in enrollment, revenue, and diversity.

Hebel, Sara (2003).  Use of Racial Data Faces an Uncertain Future in California.  Chronicle of Higher Education, 50, 7. 

Describes how proponents of a measure to limit the collection of racial data say the information is divisive and useless; opponents say the law would have adverse effects on college access and research.

Hebert, Yvonne (2003).  Ontario.  Exceptionality Education Canada, 13, 2-3. 

This article profiles the educational system of Ontario and discusses initiatives for students who are at-risk. It describes programs and services for students who are at-risk, relevant educational legislation, areas of strength, challenges that need to be overcome, and areas of action. Individual Education Plans are discussed.

Hebert, Yvonne (2003).  Quebec.  Exceptionality Education Canada, 13, 1-2. 

This article profiles the educational system of Quebec and discusses initiatives for students who are at-risk. It describes programs and services for students who are at-risk, relevant educational legislation, areas of strength, challenges that need to be overcome, and areas of action.

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Heck, Ronald H. (2006).  Assessing School Achievement Progress: Comparing Alternative Approaches  Educational Administration Quarterly, 42, 5. 

Purpose: Currently under the No Child Left Behind Act, cut scores of successive cohorts of students are used to identify schools that are successful and others that are failing. For many schools, however, this score does not provide an accurate, fair, or comprehensive performance assessment. The focus of this study is to compare three alternative approaches for estimating student progress with respect to their accuracy, equity, and usefulness in making inferences about school effectiveness. Research Design: The study compares achievement estimates compiled across a 4-year period from successive and longitudinal cohorts in a multilevel sample of 123 elementary schools and several thousand students. Findings: First, method effects associated with the designs interact with estimates of school effectiveness. Less than 20% of the schools are similarly identified as meeting performance standards across all three designs investigated. Second, in each approach, contextual indicators (e.g., student composition) dominate in explaining between-school differences in proficiency levels. Third, the longitudinal-cohort approach provides more comprehensive results about performance because of the simultaneous focus on student proficiency and growth. Equity and usefulness are also increased in comparisons of student growth because student composition and context effects are diminished and, conversely, process effects (e.g., academic expectations) are increased in explaining school differences. Conclusions: The comparisons suggest caution in making decisions about schools based on proficiency levels because both method effects and extraneous variables interact with the validity of estimates obtained. Modeling students' growth trajectories, however, can uncover positive school results that are missed in the current proficiency-status approach.

Heck, Ronald H. (2007).  Examining the Relationship between Teacher Quality as an Organizational Property of Schools and Students' Achievement and Growth Rates  Educational Administration Quarterly, 43, 4. 

Purpose: No Child Left Behind (NCLB) brought attention to the need for states to upgrade the criteria used to certify teachers for entry into the profession. This study focuses on collective teacher qualifications mandated by NCLB and the role they play in explaining differences in school achievement and growth rates. Research Methods: The study examines whether school-level differences in teacher quality are related to student learning in reading and math in a longitudinal cohort consisting of more than 14,000 students nested in a random sample of 197 elementary schools. Findings: First, as a school-level resource, collective teacher quality was positively related to school achievement levels in reading and math. Second, the strength of the relationship was conditional on school demographic composition; for example, the positive relationship in reading was enhanced in school contexts where targeted student subgroups (e.g., low socioeconomic students, students receiving English services) were more highly clustered. Third, collective teacher quality was related to increased student growth rates in math. Fourth, within schools, higher teacher quality was associated with reduced gaps in student learning rates associated with social class and race/ethnicity. Implications: Results are consistent with studies that have found that teacher professional qualifications matter in explaining differences in student achievement. They also suggest other promising avenues through which collective teacher quality influences school effectiveness and equity outcomes.

Hecker, JayEtta Z. (2002).  Welfare Reform: DOT Has Made Progress in Implementing the Job Access Program but Has Not Evaluated the Impact. Testimony before the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, Subcommittee on Highways and Transit, U.S. House of Representatives. 

A series of reviews of the Department of Transportation's (DOT's) Job Access and Reverse Commute (Job Access) Program explored DOT's and grantees' challenges in implementing the Job Access program and the status of DOT's program evaluation efforts. DOT and grantees faced significant challenges in implementing the Job Access program. DOT's process for selecting Job Access grantees was not consistent and the basis for some selections was unclear. Grantees reported problems in meeting standard grant requirements necessary to obtain Job Access funding. The Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century required DOT to evaluate the Job Access program and issue a report to the congressional authorizing committees by June 2000. However, according to a DOT official, DOT had no estimated date for issuing the report. | [FULL TEXT]

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Hedlund, James; Shults, Ruth A.; Compton, Richard (2003).  What We Know, What We don't Know, and What We Need To Know about Graduated Driver Licensing.  Journal of Safety Research, 34, 1. 

Summarizes and provides a quick reference to information from papers and participant discussions from the Symposium on Graduated Driver Licensing held November 5 - 7, 2002, in Chatham, Mass. 

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Heine, Cindy (2002).  Kentucky School Updates: A Parent/Citizen Guide for 2002-04. 

This annual report is intended to assist parents and citizens to stay informed on the educational reforms in Kentucky schools and serves as a reference source for information concerning specific programs or areas of interest in Kentucky schools. Specific updates addressed in the report include the following: (1) assessment and school accountability; (2) early childhood programs; (3) primary school; (4) reading programs; (5) extended school services; (6) high schools; (7) career and technical education; (8) students with special needs; (9) equal opportunities in education; (10) school-based decision making; (11) family resource/youth services centers; (12) school safety; (13) technology and education; (14) professional development; (15) teacher preparation and the Education Professional Standards Board; (16) school finance; (17) governance; (18) alternative school schedules and calendars; and (19) parent involvement. Most of these sections of the report provide information on: the basics of the law; what is new in the current year; what parents and citizens might expect to see as a result of the changes; how to become involved; and a list of sources for more information. The guide concludes with a map of committee community support regions.

Heine, Hilda (2006).  Teacher Certification Systems. Policy Brief  [Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL)] 

The relationship between good teaching and student achievement elevates the importance of teacher quality in the eyes of parents, educators, and policymakers. While some teachers may have a special gift to help students learn, good teaching encompasses critical elements, such as knowledge of the learning process, child development, teacher experiences, academic ability, and content knowledge. The notion of "highly qualified teachers" is the backbone of recently enacted U.S. federal legislations such as the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" (NCLB) and other similar initiatives. Teacher preparation is instrumental in improving performance of all students. This policy brief reviews current research, policies, and practices in teacher certification systems with the purpose of assisting regional policymakers in examining their own systems, addressing necessary changes, and proposing policy changes to their own legislatures, parliaments, or governing boards. Appended are: (1) INTASC Model Standards for Beginning Teachers; and (2) Exemplary Alternative Teacher Certification Programs.

Heine, Hilda C. (2002).  "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" and Implications for the Pacific Territories and Freely Associated States. PREL Briefing Paper. 

Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) prepared a summary and brief analysis of the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" (NCLB) and its implications for education for the American Pacific region. This briefing paper is intended to help educational leaders understand the law and its expectations and implications for schools, educators, parents, and children. The NCLB is based on stronger accountability for results, greater flexibility and local control, expanded options and choices for parents, and emphasis on teaching methods that work. Freely Associated States' eligibility for grants under NCLB has been reduced. For Hawai'i, federal education funding is increased to more than $194.6 million, Title I funding is increased to more than $38.6 million, and more than $13.6 million is provided to train and retain skilled educators. For U.S.-Affiliated Territories, benefits include substantial set-asides in the new legislation and an increase in federal dollars overall. The territories also gained a Coordinator for the Outlying Area within the Office of the Secretary for the U.S. Department of Education. A table provides a bird's-eye view of funding by title and lists the implications for education in the state of Hawai'i, the territories, the Freely Associated States, and for PREL. | [FULL TEXT]

Heine, Hilda C.; Emesiochl, Masa Akii (2007).  Preparing and Licensing High Quality Teachers in Pacific Region Jurisdictions. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 031  [Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific] 

The provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001 for teacher quality direct that all students in U.S. public schools be taught by highly qualified teachers. Although the Pacific Region entities are trying to meet this teacher-quality mandate, most are still far from fulfilling the minimum education requirements for their teachers. By creating an accurate picture of teacher preparation and licensing across the Pacific Region, which includes 10 jurisdictions and the national government of the Federated States of Micronesia, this report provides educators and policymakers with knowledge that they can use in addressing teacher quality, preparation, and licensing. Teachers in Pacific Region entities are far from meeting even the minimum education requirement for certification except in Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Under-certified teachers are a particularly severe problem in Palau, in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and in Micronesia. Additionally, the share of certified teachers is decreasing in six of the eight entities with data for comparison. The number of graduates from institutions of higher education in the region is inadequate to meet needs to recruit new teachers and replace retirees. The choice of state-approved teacher preparation programs is largely limited to programs offered by two-year accredited community colleges. Each ministry or department of education also organizes professional development programs geared to meeting the unique needs of teachers in each entity. Summer teacher training programs are the most important professional development opportunities for teachers in all the Pacific Region entities. The greatest need for in-service training and professional development is in areas where many teachers are not certified and have less preparation for teaching. Teacher preparation programs are constrained by the remoteness of island communities and the distances from schools to central offices and community colleges. Training for teachers to meet minimum education standards has thus been limited to summer programs and programs offered through distance learning or hybrid models (some courses online and some face-to-face) that provide bachelor-level training for cohorts of teachers and administrators. Many teachers and administrators complete the cohort programs. Even so, teacher retirement and attrition keep the number of teachers with four-year degrees small, and these off-island programs are temporary, of limited duration, and expensive. Prompted by NCLB's teacher-quality mandate, Pacific Region state education agencies have intensified their review of teacher certification and licensing procedures. Over the past two years more than half the entities have revamped their teacher certification system and many are using teacher tests to determine teacher knowledge, but, of the entities covered in this report, only the Northern Mariana Islands and Guam have teacher certification and licensing systems to track teacher professional development and performance. Other entities find it necessary to include emergency or provisional certificates in teacher certification requirements. Processes for reviewing and approving teacher preparation programs are also not well established in the Pacific region, and quality assurance processes are lacking. Three related factors possibly contribute to the need for more highly-qualified teachers in the Pacific Region and are recommended for further study: (1) Limited supply of new teachers in teacher training programs; (2) Limited availability of teacher training programs geared to meet Pacific Region needs; and (3) Limited implementation of policies to prepare and certify high quality teachers. The report includes five appendixes: (A) Methodology; (B) Documents Reviewed; (C) Approved State Teacher Preparation Programs and Institutions in the Pacific Region; (D) Associate of Science Degree in Elementary Education at the College of the Marshall Islands; and (E) Third-Year Certificate in Teach Preparation at the College of Micronesia.  [This report was prepared for the National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences (IES) by Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific administered by Pacific Resources for Education and Learning.] | [FULL TEXT]

Heinrich, Carolyn J. (2007).  False or Fitting Recognition? The Use of High Performance Bonuses in Motivating Organizational Achievements  Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 26, 2. 

This research undertakes a theoretical and empirical examination of (high performance bonus) systems in government, that is, incentive payments awarded by the federal government to state organizations or statewide programs to motivate and recognize high performance achievements. The paper draws from a multidisciplinary literature on incentives in organizations to first derive implications for the design and implementation of high performance bonus systems. An empirical analysis of the Workforce Investment Act performance bonus system and its effectiveness in recognizing and rewarding performance follows. The results of the theoretical and empirical investigation suggest that high performance bonus systems are more likely to encourage misrepresentation of performance and other strategic behaviors than to recognize and motivate exceptional performance or performance improvements.

Heinz, Ann Simeo (2001).  Review of Issues Facing Congress. News from Capitol Hill.  Insights on Law & Society, 2, 1. 

Discusses various topics that have faced the 107th U.S. Congress, such as tax cuts, judicial appointments, domestic issues, patients' bill of rights, stem cell research, election law, and campaign finance reform. Includes information on U.S. Senate and federal judicial appointments. Provides ideas for student learning activities.

Heinz, Ann Simeo (2002).  Review of Congressional Issues. News from Capitol Hill.  Insights on Law & Society, 3, 1. 

Focuses on U.S. congressional issues in two categories: (1) enacted legislation, and (2) proposed legislation. Addresses topics such as the resolution related to Iraq, the Department of Homeland Security, Pledge of Allegiance, social security protection, elder justice, and women's rights. Includes learning activities.

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_____. (2000).  Helping Families Achieve Self-Sufficiency: A Guide on Funding Services for Children and Families through the TANF Program. 

This guide suggests ways that states may expend their federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) and State Maintenance-of-Effort (MOE) funds. The guide is organized into these seven sections: (1) "Introduction" provides background information, explaining the progress that has been made on welfare reform, what the funding situation is, the purposes of TANF, and the purpose of the guide; (2) "Considerations in Deciding Whether a Use of Funds Is Appropriate" lists factors that a state should consider when deciding what benefits and services to fund with federal or state dollars; (3) "Federal TANF Funds" addresses the basic criteria that apply to the expenditure of the federal block grant funds; (4) "State Maintenance-of-Effort (MOE) Funds" addresses the basic criteria for determining whether state expenditures would count as part of the minimum state financial contribution to the TANF program; (5) "Appropriate Uses of Funds" provides examples of benefits and services that might be paid for with federal TANF or state MOE funds, including support for work activities, child care, transportation, education and training, mental health/substance abuse counseling/treatment, aid to victims of domestic violence, developmental and learning disabilities assistance, enhancing or supplementing the family income or assets, child welfare, family formation and pregnancy prevention, and community development; (6) "Additional Considerations" provides more detailed information about the potential implications of providing "assistance" and other kinds of benefits under the TANF program, as well as information about what kinds of expenditures are allowable; and (7) "General Guidelines and References" identifies eight additional sources of information about the appropriate use of federal and state funds and a chart summarizing the specific program requirements that would apply under different state program designs. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (2001).  Helping Students To Be First in the World: Recommendations for Federal Action on Legislation, 107th Congress. 

The Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) created a series of recommendations to the federal government and President for a 4-year federal investment in improving elementary and secondary education. These recommendations incorporate new initiatives with the reauthorizations of ESEA, OERI, and IDEA. The national objective is set to establish the purpose of federal funding and the order of priority and magnitude of federal commitment. Academic progress is to be accelerated for students in both public and private schools in greatest need of help through the use of Title I funds and the fulfillment of the federal commitment to share 40 percent of the cost of education for disabled students. Teacher quality is to be improved through professional development and incentives with emphasis on mathematics, science, and technology. States, local districts, and schools will also have flexibility in using federal funds through comprehensive plans. Mechanisms will be established to ensure accountability in the use of these funds. Research to improve education will also be supported. Four sections in this document cover vision and context, the goals for the nation, legislative specifications, and federal education policy and funding recommendations. A list of CCSSO Board of Directors and members concludes the document. The summary report is appended. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (2004).  Helping Teachers Help All Students: The Imperative for High-Quality Professional Development. Report of the Maryland Teacher Professional Development Advisory Council  [Maryland State Department of Education] 

The Maryland State Department of Education (MSDE), schools districts, and institutions of higher education have initiated a number of efforts to improve teacher quality and professional development. The first section of this report highlights the recommendations of leading commissions and reports released in the past ten years pertaining to teachers' professional development. The second section of the report presents the results of MSDE's "Survey of Teacher Participation in High-Quality Professional Development" in 2003-2004. This survey served two functions. First, it enabled MSDE to comply with No Child Left Behind (NCLB), which requires states to report annually on teacher participation in high-quality professional development. The third section of the report examines how MSDE and districts organize professional development and the challenges they confront. The main challenge to MSDE, the Council asserts, is defining and maintaining a viable and productive role in a process in which most of the action occurs at the local level. The fourth section of this report introduces the new Maryland Teacher Professional Development Standards. The result of an extensive review of research on professional development and numerous examples of standards developed elsewhere, six of these standards define the content of professional development while three others address critical elements of the process. The final part of the Council's report looks to the future. It recommends the creation of a statewide system of high-quality professional development to help ensure that every child in the state learns from competent, caring teachers. The Council also recommends that the Maryland State Board of Education and each of Maryland's 24 school districts adopt the Maryland Teacher Professional Development Standards as the foundation for the system. "What Stakeholders Say about Maryland's Professional Development Standards for Teachers" is appended.  | [FULL TEXT]

Helland, Eric; Tabarrok, Alexander (2007).  Does Three Strikes Deter?: A Nonparametric Estimation  Journal of Human Resources, 42, 2. 

We take advantage of the fortuitous randomization of trial outcome to provide a novel strategy to identify the deterrent effect exclusive of incapacitation. We compare the post-sentencing criminal activity of criminals who were convicted of a strikeable offense with those who were tried for a strikeable offense but convicted of a nonstrikeable offense. As a robustness check, we also make this comparison in states without three-strikes laws. The identification strategy lets us estimate the deterrent effect nonparametrically using data solely from the three-strikes era. We find that California's three-strike legislation significantly reduces felony arrest rates among the class of criminals with two strikes by 17-20 percent.

Heller, Barbara R.; Nichols, Mary A. (2001).  Workforce Development in Nursing: Priming the Pipeline.  Nursing and Health Care Perspectives, 22, 2. 

The University of Maryland School of Nursing is addressing the nursing shortage through public-private partnerships and alliances with the health care industry. Strategies include increasing public awareness through marketing, supporting legislation, expanding articulation agreements, and working with secondary schools to recruit students.

Heller, Frank (2001).  Lessons from Maine: Education Vouchers for Students since 1873. Cato Briefing Papers No. 66. 

Since 1873, Maine has financed the private school education of thousands of K-12 students. This lets parents in towns without traditional public schools choose from a list of approved private and public schools, enroll their children, and have the town pay the tuition up to an authorized amount. The town receives full or partial reimbursement from the state. In fall 1999, 5,614 students from 55 communities attended a variety of private schools through this program, while 30,412 attended public schools. Data from the Maine Department of Education suggest that the tuition program costs roughly $6,000 per student (20 percent less than Maine's average per pupil expenditure for public education). Families weigh such factors as goals and aspirations for their children and special programs when choosing schools. Anecdotal evidence suggests that public schools in choice areas respond to the competition by attempting to improve school services. Repeatedly, citizens vote to keep this system, which has been described as "the most valued attribute" of living in Maine. However, this feature of the educational system is limited to students who live in the "right" towns. This paper recommends that policymakers seek to facilitate greater educational opportunities for all students. | [FULL TEXT]

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Hemmer, Joseph J., Jr. (2008).  Exploitation of American Indian Symbols: A First Amendment Analysis  American Indian Quarterly, 32, 2. 

American Indian symbols are used extensively as logos, mascots, nicknames, and trademarks. These images identify postsecondary as well as secondary academic institutions, professional sports franchises, commercial products, and geographic locations. Over the past few decades, efforts have been directed at eliminating or at least reducing the use of American Indian images and terms. In this article, the author examines the current controversy regarding the use of American Indian symbols. He considers arguments offered by both critics and defenders of symbol use and explores whether such customs may be regulated under First Amendment doctrines. The study is divided into two sections: (1) arguments that frame both sides of the controversy and (2) First Amendment analysis in light of six established First Amendment doctrines: (1) offensive words; (2) fighting words; (3) hate speech; (4) group libel; (5) significant governmental interest; and (6) commercial speech. Each concept is described and then applied to the issue of symbol use to determine whether that standard may be used as a basis for regulation. The author concludes that these standards provide little relief to those who would regulate use of American Indian symbols.

Hemp, Richard; Parish, Susan; Braddock, David, Ed.; Smith, Gary, Ed. (2001).  Trends and Milestones: Leveraging Federal Funding in the States To Address Olmstead [and] Growing Waiting Lists.  Mental Retardation, 39, 3. 

This article discusses using existing state resources not currently used for matching purposes to leverage additional federal Medicaid funding for community services and supports for persons with mental retardation. A table is provided that lists state funds potentially available to match additional federal Medicaid funding.

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Henderson, Anne T.; Raimondo, Beverly N. (2001).  Unlocking Parent Potential.  Principal Leadership, 2, 1. 

Following the legislature's passage of the 1990 Kentucky Education Reform Act, the statewide Commonwealth Institute for Parent Leadership was established. The 700 graduates form a small cadre of activists who are informed about standards-based reforms and how to make them work for their children.

Henderson, Christopher L.; Buehler, Alison E.; Stein, William L.; Dalton, John E.; Robinson, Teresa R.; Anfara, Vincent A., Jr. (2005).  Organizational Health and Student Achievement in Tennessee Middle Level Schools  NASSP Bulletin, 89, 644. 

Although the successful middle level school was designed to address both the affective and cognitive development of young adolescents (NMSA 2003), academic achievement is the outcome of paramount importance in the current political context of accountability, high-stakes testing, and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. In their efforts to reform, many middle level schools have implemented programmatic components like the teaming of teachers, advisory periods, and exploratory curricula. Few have truly explored the relationship between these structural changes and a school's organizational health. This mixed-methods study focuses on three dimensions of organizational health (teacher affiliation, resource support, and academic emphasis) and their relationship to academic performance. Findings indicate a positive relationship between a school's academic emphasis and students' academic performance. In an effort to more fully explore this finding, qualitative data are presented.

Henderson, Kelly (2001).  Overview of ADA, IDEA, and Section 504: Update 2001. ERIC Digest E606. 

This digest compares the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) as amended in 1997, and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Comparisons are provided which look at: (1) the type/purpose of each Act; (2) eligibility for services under each Act; (3) whether the Act requires the provision of a free, appropriate public education; (4) whether federal funds are provided to implement the Act's requirements; (5) procedural safeguards and due process provisions under each Act; and (6) evaluation and placement procedures under each Act. Also included are telephone information lines and Web sites concerning each of the three Acts. | [FULL TEXT]

Henderson, Kelly (2008).  Optional IDEA Alternative Dispute Resolution. inForum  [National Center on Dispute Resolution, Consortium for Appropriate Dispute Resolution in Special Education (CADRE)] 

Though most interactions between parents and school personnel about students with disabilities are positive and productive, disagreements can arise. Disputes may range in intensity from minor miscommunications to significant conflicts that trigger the use of procedural safeguards available under federal law. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) provides for several distinct dispute resolution processes including mediation, filing of a due process complaint, which may lead to a resolution meeting and/or an impartial due process hearing, and civil action [P.L. 108-446 Section 615(e)(i)]. Some states and localities voluntarily choose to adopt alternative mechanisms for resolving disagreements over the provision of special education services. This In-Depth Policy Analysis summarizes results from a national survey of states' use of non-IDEA required alternative dispute resolution (ADR) processes and findings of an in-depth case review of those processes in eight states. The ten processes studied are: (1) conflict resolution skills training; (2) stakeholder management or oversight council; (3) parent-to-parent assistance; (4) dispute resolution case managers; (5) telephone intermediary; (6) IEP facilitation; (7) non-IDEA mediation; (8) third-party opinion or consultation processes; (9) early complaint resolution; and (10) resolution-meeting facilitation. Each of these processes is defined and findings are described under each process. Factors that impact the use of these processes are examined and conclusions are drawn.  | [FULL TEXT]

Hendrickson, Rachel (2000).  Significant Labor and Employment Law Issues in Higher Education During the Past Decade and What To Look for Now: A Union Perspective.  Journal of Law and Education, 29, 3. 

A union perspective of major issues in higher education labor law in the 1990s includes the 11th Circuit Court cases on whether Congress abrogated states' 11th Amendment immunity for suits under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) and under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Analyzes contract issues of protection around age discrimination and the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) provisions.

Hendrie, Caroline (2004).  In U.S. Schools, Race Still Counts: Despite Progress, Challenges Loom  Education Week, 23 n19 p1, 16-19 Jan 2004. 

Since the historic moment of "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka," much has changed in American life and education. By today's standards, the notion that black children could be consigned to separate schools solely because of their skin color--in a nation founded on principles of freedom and equality--seems unconscionable. Fifty years after racially segregated schooling was pronounced unconstitutional, one-race public schools, and even virtually one-race districts, still exist. Despite a growing number of thoroughly integrated schools, many remain overwhelmingly white or minority. And schools with many black and Hispanic children, especially if most of those pupils live in poverty, often come up short on standard measures of educational health. In this article, the author emphasizes the role that race continues to play in American schools, and the impact brought about by "Brown v. Board of Education" to American education.

Hendrie, Caroline (2004).  High Court Upholds State's Bar on Aid to Theology Majors  Education Week, 23 n25 p1, 23 Mar 2004. 

This article reports the 7-2 ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court upholding a Washington state scholarship program that denies aid to theology majors. Disappointing proponents of tuition aid for students in religious schools, the court held that Washington state was well within its rights to exclude students' training for the ministry from its Promise Scholarship Program, which subsidizes college costs for high-achieving students of modest means. Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist, who wrote for the majority in "Locke v. Davey" (Case No. 02-1315), states that training someone to lead a congregation is an essentially religious endeavor. However, lawyers for former college student Joshua Davey had argued otherwise, and the two dissenting justices in the case, Justices Antonin Scalia and Clarence Thomas, agreed with them. But the majority accepted Washington state's argument that it was entitled under its own constitution's ban on financing religious instruction to protect taxpayers' freedom of conscience by prohibiting students from using scholarships to pursue theology degrees.

Hendrie, Caroline (2005).  Charter Authorizers Eye Rules on Closings  Education Week, 24 n21 p1, 20-21 Feb 2005. 

With the nation's charter sector now encompassing some 3,200 schools in 40 states and the District of Columbia, shutdowns have become more common occurrences in the past few years. As estimated one in every 10 charter schools has now closed its doors, up from only about 4 percent four years ago. Most authorizers who take their responsibilities seriously agree that weeding out bad schools is a vital component of the autonomy-for-accountability bargain at the heart of the charter school concept. But amid the sparks thrown off by closings, those authorizers are often ending up singed. As shutdowns grab headlines--particularly when schools collapse in midyear, stranding students, families, and staff--their authorizers may come under fire for how they've handled the process. As a result, leaders among the authorizers that grant the contracts to operate to publicly financed but independent schools--including states, school districts, universities, and others--are getting serious about sharing their experiences and finding better ways to pull the plug. As they struggle to develop policies and protocols to shut weak charter schools, authorizers are grappling with issues that may increasingly apply to regular public schools as they fall under sanctions for sub par performance imposed by the federal No Child Left Behind Act.

Hendrie, Caroline (2005).  High Court to Decide Who Must Prove Case in Special Education Disputes  Education Week, 24 n25 p1, 27 Mar 2005. 

When it comes to the legal fight over special education that they have waged for the past seven years, Jocelyn S. and Martin P. Schaffer and their Maryland school district don't agree on much. But the two sides do see eye to eye on this: With the U.S Supreme Court's decision to review the Schaffers' case, the dispute suddenly has the potential to shape the outcome of clashes over special education between parents and public schools across the nation for years to come. At issue before the high court in "Schaffer v. Weast" is which side bears the legal burden of proof when parents and school districts disagree over the services or placement that children with disabilities require. With the federal Individuals with Disabilities Act silent on that question, judges in federal and state courts repeatedly have come down on opposite sides.

Hendrie, Caroline (2005).  Title IX Covers Whistleblowers, High Court Says: Teachers, Coaches Can Sue under Sex-Bias Law  Education Week, 24 n30 p1, 26-27 Apr 2005. 

Teachers and coaches who suffer reprisals for complaining about illegal sex discrimination against their students will be able to sue their school districts for damages, under a ruling by a sharply divided U.S. Supreme Court. The 5-4 ruling held that the federal law that bars discrimination based on sex in federally financed education programs gives people the right to sue if they suffer retaliation for alleging that the law is being broken. It came in a case brought by Roderick L. Jackson, a high school girls' basketball coach who sued the Birmingham, Alabama, school district in 2001. Hailed by advocates as a major victory for female equality and for civil rights more broadly, the court's March 29 ruling in "Jackson v. Birmingham Board of Education" (Case No. 02-1672) was seen by some experts as a new source of legal headaches for school districts. The ruling establishes that the private right to sue under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 extends to claims of retaliation for complaints about violations of the statute, even if the plaintiffs are not the direct victims of the sex discrimination they report.

Hendrie, Caroline (2005).  NCLB Transfer Policy Seen as Flawed  Education Week, 24 n32 p1, 14-15 Apr 20. 

This article examines what some people see as flaws in the transfer policy provision of the No Child Left Behind law. Advocates of the policy are calling for providing schools with incentives to accept transfers and for giving parents more time, information, and options, among other changes. States need to hold districts' feet to the fire, those proponents argue, and the federal government needs to lean harder on states and collect better data. Skeptics about the provision argue that offering transfers should be only one of several options for under-performing schools, and certainly not the first sanction schools face. They also say that transfers should be restricted to certain students, and that Washington needs to send districts more money to carry out the policy. The transfer requirement is the first of a string of consequences that the law imposes on schools that receive Title I money and repeatedly fail to make adequate yearly progress, or AYP, the key measure of success under the law. Those schools not making AYP by the third year are required to offer their students such options as tutoring, but many more students have gotten those options than have transferred, suggesting that school choice is not where the action is under the NCLB law. Other issues include the timing of parental notification, school capacity in small and rural districts, and evidence that moving a child to a different school actually improved their achievement. Solutions from various experts are suggested.

Hendrie, Caroline (2005).  NCLB Cases Face Hurdles in the Courts  Education Week, 24 n34 p1, 22 May 2005. 

When cobbling together the landmark No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, Congress quietly tacked on an unusual provision that says the law does not require states or school districts "to spend any funds or incur any costs not paid for under this act." Little noticed at the time and lifted directly from an earlier version of the law enacted in 1994, the clause was originally pushed by Republican legislators wary of federal intrusion into schools by the Democratic administration of President Bill Clinton. In a historical twist, the language has now become the main legal weapon brandished by those hoping to prove in the courts that the Republican administration of President Bush has overstepped its authority in carrying out the law he championed. The legal action against the Bush administration's implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act comes as complaints about the costs of complying with the 3-year-old law are mounting. Congress said this is not an unfunded mandate, but that word does not seem to have gotten through to the Department of Education.

Heneman, Herbert G., III; Milanowski, Anthony; Kimball, Steven M.; Odden, Allan (2006).  Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation as a Foundation for Knowledge- and Skill-Based Pay. CPRE Policy Briefs. RB-45  [Consortium for Policy Research in Education] 

State accountability systems and the federal No Child Left Behind Act have put additional demands on schools and teachers to improve teacher quality and improve student achievement. Many researchers (e.g., Cohen, 1996; Corcoran & Goertz, 1995; Floden, 1997; Newman, King, & Rigdon, 1997) have argued that such improvements will require a substantial increase in the instructional capacity of schools and teachers. One strategy for capacity building is to provide teachers with incentives to improve their performance, knowledge, or skills. The incentive strategy requires the design and implementation of alternative teacher compensation systems that depart from the single salary schedule (Odden, 2000; Odden & Kelley, 2002). Though slow to take hold, the incentive strategy is currently being pursued by several states (Peterson, 2006). Most of these new or proposed plans link pay to combinations of assessments of teacher performance, acquisition of new knowledge and skills, and student test score gains. The Teacher Compensation Group of the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) has been studying the design and effectiveness of such systems for nearly a decade. Findings from this research on some of these systems are the focus of this issue of "CPRE Policy Briefs." Appended is: Summary of Research Activities at the Four Sites. | [FULL TEXT]

Henfield, Malik S.; Owens, Delila; Moore, James L., III (2008).  Influences on Young Gifted African Americans' School Success: Implications for Elementary School Counselors  Elementary School Journal, 108, 5. 

Too often, African American elementary school students, including the gifted, disengage academically and underachieve in public schools. Increased research on the underachievement and low achievement of African American students in gifted education programs has suggested that an array of educational, personal/social, and familial factors (e.g., low funding, racial identity development, and child-rearing practices) contribute to negative school outcomes. In this article we explain how these factors influence these students' academic performance. We also offer practical strategies elementary school counselors can use to counter these negative educational outcomes and assist gifted African American students in elementary school in developing the identity of a scholar.

Henig, Jeffrey R. (2008).  The Evolving Relationship between Researchers and Public Policy  Phi Delta Kappan, 89, 5. 

When it comes to the role of research in shaping public policy and debate, one might reasonably argue that this is the best of times. No Child Left Behind (NCLB), with its frequent mention of evidence-based decision making, has underscored the role that objective knowledge should play in a democratic society. The Institute of Education Sciences, through its grant policies, promotion of randomized field trials, and its What Works Clearinghouse, has provided detailed road maps of what greater reliance on strong research design might mean. Research findings and debates get deep coverage in such outlets as "Education Week" and instant coverage in the blogosphere. Advocacy groups appear anxious to enlist researchers as spokespersons and draw on social science evidence to add legitimacy to their causes. Paradoxically, it might just as well be argued that this is the worst of times. Among policy makers and many scholars, educational research has a reputation of being amateurish, unscientific, and generally beside the point. Exacerbating matters are high-profile tussles between prominent researchers publicly disparaging one another's methods and interpretations. Researchers disagree; that is neither new nor a matter of concern. The portrayal of the debates in the public arena reinforces cynicism with regard to the independence and potential contribution of good scientific techniques. In this article, the author highlights five broad structural changes that are potentially changing the demand for research, the availability and type of data, and the way research enters the public realm as part of ongoing policy and political debates.

Henke, Karen Greenwood (2005).  From Vision to Action: How School Districts Use Data to Improve Performance. 3D: Data-Driven Decision Making  [Consortium for School Networking] 

With the passage of "No Child Left Behind" in 2001, schools are expected to provide a standards-based curriculum for students to attain math and reading proficiency and demonstrate progress each year. "NCLB" requires more frequent student testing with publicly reported results in an effort to close the achievement gap and to inform parents, teachers, administrators of student progress. Meeting these ambitious accountability goals requires transparency in the workings of the organization and the cooperation of everyone involved in the education of each student. These mandates have accelerated change already underway in the nation's schools and in the teaching profession. Leading school districts have developed advanced technological systems and professional expertise for analyzing data to deliver timely information for the improvement of operations and instruction. They have embarked upon a process of using data in decision making at all levels of the organization, borrowing management models from business and from each other. Published in 2003, "Vision to Know and Do: The Power of Data as a Tool in Educational Decision Making" defined a vision for continuous improvement, identified leadership districts creating a climate for change, and reviewed the implementation of systems and processes to enable data-driven decision making (DDDM). "From Vision to Action: How School Districts Use Data to Improve Performance" moves beyond the vision and visits districts that are acting on their data, testing the process, and seeing improvement in student learning. "From Vision to Action: How School Districts Use Data to Improve Performance" is written for school district leaders and K-12 educators who are seeking ways to implement a data-driven decision making process. To understand how pioneer school districts have met the technological and human challenges of DDDM, "From Vision to Action" focuses on three areas of development and action: (1) leading in a learning organization; (2) moving from data collection to analysis to action; and (3) sustaining data-driven decision making.

Henke, Karen Greenwood (2006).  Diminishing Resources, Increased Demands: What Funding Trends Can Educators Expect for the Year Ahead?  Technology & Learning, 26, 12. 

If necessity is the mother of invention, 2007 should be a banner year for K-12 educational technology. Deep cuts in federal dollars have reduced funds earmarked for technology while school districts face rising computing demands. From addressing No Child Left Behind testing requirements to dealing with the proliferation of student-owned devices, administrators are under pressure to do more with less. The good news is that new technologies and faster, cheaper, and more flexible applications may help innovative districts gain more access to the infrastructure already in place. As always, the onus will be on school leaders to make the case for continuing support for technology. In this article, the author explores the funding trends educators can expect for the year ahead.

Henke, Karen Greenwood (2007).  Measuring up in a Flat World: Pioneering Groups Are Reforming Curriculum to Prepare Students for the Global Digital Workforce  Technology & Learning, 27, 6. 

Graduating students who can compete in the digital age is imperative but remains an uphill battle in the absence of a strong national technology policy, empowered education leadership, and ongoing dialogue involving business, community, government, and educators. Meantime, in pockets around the country, some states, districts, and schools are moving forward with innovative initiatives that aim to prepare students for success in the global digital workplace. In this article, the author discusses West Virginia's step towards refining and aligning state standards and assessments, as well as shaping a new curriculum. She also talks about West Virginia and North Carolina's "Partnership for 21st Century Skills' Framework," which they incorporate into their curriculum strategy. It is concluded that as policymakers consider reauthorization of No Child Left Behind legislation in the coming year, those schools, districts, and states taking the first steps toward integrating 21st century skills represent the pioneers in the next wave of education reform. Issues such as how to define and measure the new essential skills, whether to standardize them nationally, and how to determine their impact on workplace success remain very much works in progress. Six key elements of 21st Century Learning; a brief list of related resources complete the article.

Henley, Joan; McBride, Jackie; Milligan, Julie; Nichols, Joe (2007).  Robbing Elementary Students of Their Childhood: The Perils of No Child Left Behind  Education, 128, 1. 

The "No Child Left Behind" Legislation has altered the landscape of elementary schools across the nation. This alteration has left many educators and parents wondering whether children are being robbed of their childhood in order to meet the legislation's many mandates. Across the nation, traditional school days, instructional programs, and programs such as recess, music, and art, along with programs for the gifted and educationally disabled, have been eliminated or altered beyond recognition. This paper addresses those concerns by citing evidence of the potential harm to students and by interviewing stakeholders who have direct involvement with the children as either teachers or parents.

Henley, Patricia; Fuston, Judy; Peters, Tracie; Wall, Laurie (2000).  Rescuing the Troublemakers.  Principal, 79 n4 p33-34, 36 Mar 2000. 

In 1996, Missouri passed legislation that provided districts with grants to establish alternative schools or programs for violent, abusive, or disruptive students. St. Joseph School District developed a successful Elementary Management School stressing social skills needed to succeed in a regular classroom. Facility, staffing, curriculum, and placement particulars are described.

Henn-Reinke, Kathryn (2004).  The Reading Club: A Guide to a Literacy Intervention Program for Reluctant Readers in Spanish and English  [Rowman & Littlefield Education] 

As a result of recent federal legislation, school districts are being required to have all students reading at grade level by the year 2012. Such an exceedingly lofty goal cannot be achieved without powerful intervention programs. Here is a guide for districts and schools that outlines an intervention program for students in grades 1-3 who struggle in their literacy development. Offered in English and/or Spanish, it is designed for small groups of four or less to provide more individualized instruction. The program is easily adaptable for use by educational assistants, classroom teachers, and/or reading specialists. This book has the potential to help the majority of its students achieve grade level literacy skills within a single academic year. It addresses all of the reading components of the Reads First Initiative, including phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. In addition, there is a well-developed emphasis on strategy development and assessment of student progress. The format of the lessons involves daily thirty-minute intervention sessions which complement but do not replace classroom literacy instruction. The book is for principals, curriculum specialists, reading coordinators, teachers, inservice and preservice teachers, and educational assistants. Following an introduction, the book is organized into the following six chapters: (1) Overview of the Reading Club; (2) The Reading Club Sessions; (3) Assessing Student Progress; (4) Inservice for Educational Assistants; (5) Strategy Development; and (6) Exiting the Program. The following are appended: (1) El Club de Lectura/The Reading Club for Kindergarten; (2) El Club de Lectura/The Reading Club, Fourth-Grade Social Studies; (3) El Club de Lectura/The Reading Club, Fifth-Grade Social Studies; (4) Screening Materials in English and Spanish; (5) Word Works Materials; (6) Student Monitoring Forms; and (7) Inservice Plans. A list of references and an index are also included.

Hennen, Thomas J., Jr. (2004).  The Challenge of Wider Library Units: Merging Libraries and Developing Taxing Districts May Be a Way to Stabilize Funding, but the Path Is Not Always Clear  Library Journal, 129, 15. 

Last year, Louisville, KY, grew overnight from the country's 64th largest city to the 16th largest, the result of the merger of the city with Jefferson County. Pittsburgh and Buffalo, NY, are among other communities discussing city-county mergers. Many smaller communities are considering merging services, such as police and fire, or consolidating separate communities into a single larger entity. Budget pressures and the desire to eliminate needless duplication fuel such plans. Most attempts stumble on tax equity or power-sharing grounds. Libraries have not usually been in the forefront of such discussions because they are generally such a small piece of the total tax burden. If these cuts are merely cyclical, then library leaders can continue old strategies that allow, if not encourage, fragmention, tax disparities, and duplication of service. If a realignment of government funding and services occur, then radical changes in strategy will be needed. Wider units, referenda, regional taxes, and state or regional revenue sharing will become critically important. This article discusses these issues and possible solutions.

Henry, Brian (2005).  Combating the Four-Wall Syndrome  Principal Leadership, 5, 9. 

Reforming traditional practice has proven to be a difficult and controversial task in the field of education. If a change to the school's organizational structure is not implemented in the appropriate manner, it can severely damage the reputation of the leadership team and possibly cost the administrator his or her job. Considering the possible consequences of school reform, principals must collaborate with essential stakeholders to identify a vision for reform and a plan for implementing change. Although this process might sound like common sense, administrators and teachers often forget the value of collaboration in building consensus. For teachers in the classroom, collaboration is a vital facet of their professional lives. However, educators often fall victim to the "four-wall syndrome" that prevents professional sharing and isolates educational practice. In this article, the author defines collaboration, identifies barriers that prevent beneficial collaboration in contemporary schools, and describes the collaborative structure at Park Hill South High School in Riverside, Missouri. At Park Hill South, teachers work collaboratively to clarify desired student outcomes in each course, establish student performance goals to monitor progress, and draw from the instructional knowledge of colleagues to enhance student performance. At Park Hill South, the implementation of the professional learning community format has involved the efforts of the entire staff and a commitment to teacher collaboration that is designed to improve learning opportunities for students.

Henry, Carole (2002).  Standards: Encouraging the Arts in Schools.  Kappa Delta Pi Record, 39, 1. 

Teachers can use arts standards as a tool to determine what is important to teach and learn. Recent federal legislation places the arts on the same level as other academic subjects. Professional organizations are beginning to develop standards for art teacher preparation. The paper examines 12 standards for art teacher education developed at the University of Georgia.

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Herdman, Paul A.; Smith, Nelson; Skinner, Cynthia (2002).  Charter Schools and the New Federal Accountability Provisions. Policy Brief. 

This brief examines critical issues that charter schools and their authorizers will face as states respond to the No Child Left Behind Act's (NCLB) new accountability provisions. The first section provides a context for the NCLB and summarizes its major accountability provisions, discussing timelines for states to put these systems into place and describing the new federal definition of adequate yearly progress. The second section describes key tensions or challenges between NCLB's requirements and existing powers and practices of authorizers. Challenges include measuring school performance and setting the bar, potential misalignments of timelines, and measuring the performance of at risk students. The third section discusses how states and authorizers might respond to these new demands and describes how value-added analysis could be a helpful component in authorizer accountability systems. The brief concludes that many issues raised by charter school leaders will be important for traditional public schools as well; NCLB provides states enough latitude for authorizers to oversee charter schools in a fair and transparent way; and it is not clear whether the act's prescribed consequences for poor performance will take precedence over the terms of a given authorizer's preexisting charters or contracts. A timeline for corrective action is attached. | [FULL TEXT]

Herman, Bob (2007).  CAPTA and Early Childhood Intervention: Policy and the Role of Parents  Children & Schools, 29, 1. 

Children younger than three are overrepresented in substantiated cases of abuse and neglect. As with all maltreated children, infant and toddler victims of abuse and neglect are disproportionately affected by developmental delays. Over the past 20 years, child development research has demonstrated the importance of the first three years of life on subsequent learning, behavior, and social development. To ensure intervention during this critical stage of life, 2003 amendments to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) require child welfare programs to refer all child victims of abuse and neglect younger than three to local early childhood intervention programs. These children receive an evaluation, and if they have developmental delays, they are referred for intervention. This article examines implementation challenges for this legislation with regard to parental consent to and participation in early childhood intervention. Practical guidance for child welfare and early childhood intervention professionals is provided.

Herman, Deborah M. (2003).  Iowa College Students' Attitudes toward Official English Legislation: An Exploratory Study.  Journal of Language

Surveyed 745 undergraduate student Iowans' attitudes toward the need for an official English law and examined the reasoning behind those opinions. Challenges and opportunities for language educators are discussed, as well as suggestions for future research.

Herman, Joan (2005).  Making Accountability Work to Improve Student Learning. CSE Report 649  [National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST)] 

That No Child Left Behind (NCLB) places unprecedented demands on districts and schools to improve student performance is trite and a truism. That NCLB places unprecedented demands on the design and productive use of accountability systems may be less well appreciated. In this article, the author considers how accountability is supposed to work to support the improvement of student learning; how it does work, based on available research evidence; and finally what might be done to make it work better. | [FULL TEXT]

Herman, Joan L. (2007).  Accountability and Assessment: Is Public Interest in K-12 Education Being Served? CRESST Report 728  [National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST)] 

The reauthorization of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) makes this a good time to consider whether and how current accountability serves the public interest and whether and how it can better do so. This report explores these issues in the context of the current literature on the effects of accountability in K-12 education. It considers the meaning of "public interest" and offers a model of how public interest may be served through accountability to benefit student learning. The report considers how well the model fits available evidence by examining whether and how accountability assessment influences students' learning opportunities and the relationship between accountability and learning.  | [FULL TEXT]

Herman, Joan L.; Abedi, Jamal (2004).  Issues in Assessing English Language Learners' Opportunity To Learn Mathematics. CSE Report 633  [US Department of Education] 

The Annual Yearly Progress (AYP) requirements of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) underscore both the mandate and the challenge of assuring that English Language Learners (ELLs) achieve the same high standards of performance that are expected of their native English speaking peers. The intent indeed is laudable: states, districts, schools, and teachers must be accountable for the learning of their ELLs as are the students themselves. ELLs can no longer be invisible in the educational system, their learning needs must be met, and they too must make steady progress the goal of all students being judged proficient based on statewide testing by the year 2014. Already, however, NCLB results suggest a different reality: ELL subgroups are being left behind and schools and districts serving significant proportions of ELLs are less likely to meet their AYP goals and more likely to be subject to corrective action. Fairness demands that ELLs have equitable opportunity to learn (OTL) that upon which they are assessed, especially if those assessments carry significant future consequences. Moreover, if NCLB goals are to be met and achievement gaps reduced, schools must move beyond the performance only orientation of AYP to understand why results are as they are and how to improve them. OTL data can help to provide guidance in these areas and to acknowledge the reality that ELLs' learning is unlikely to improve unless and until students have more effective opportunities to attain expected performance standards. This study was conceived as a pilot, the results of which add fuel to the concern for and underscore some of the complexities of adequately measuring OTL; the full study involving a larger and more representative sample of teachers and classrooms and a more robust outcome measure is to follow. | [FULL TEXT]

This focus of this newsletter asserts that if one accepts that accountability systems are intended to serve both symbolic and technical functions, one can ask how well they are operating symbolically to motivate action and how well they are doing in providing adequate technical information to support intended inferences. In this column, it is argued that while accountability may be accomplishing its motivational goals, current systems may be technically inadequate for serving ultimate goals of improving student learning. While the federal government recently has offered states new flexibility in counting students for AYP purposes, important issues remain in optimizing the learning value of accountability assessments. Unless and until they seriously incorporate local and/or classroom assessment (performance assessment), accountability systems cannot assure adequate reliability and validity for individual decision-making purposes and cannot provide necessary information to support student learning. One idea for system design is presented by the authors here. | [FULL TEXT]

Hermes, James (2003).  What Is SEVIS?  Community College Journal

Describes the Student and Visitor Exchange Information System (SEVIS). SEVIS legislation requires institutions to report electronically foreign students' identities and addresses, as well as visa and other information. Reports on updates to the legislation that are being enacted as a result of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. Includes government web site address for more information.

Hermes, James (2008).  Big Dreams, Serious Implications: How the DREAM Act can Help America Meet its Workforce Demands  Community College Journal, 78, 4. 

This article describes how the Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act will help undocumented students by: (1) establishing a path to legal status and eventually earn legal residency through two years of higher education or military service; and (2) repealing a provision of federal law that bars states from granting in-state tuition to undocumented students. Advocates of the legislation argue that the DREAM Act must be part of any policy to improve the competitiveness of the nation's workforce.

Herr, Edwin L. (2001).  The Impact of National Policies, Economics, and School Reform on Comprehensive Guidance Programs.  Professional School Counseling, 4, 4. 

Discusses the changing expectations of guidance and counseling in an era of educational reform. Outlines the roots of comprehensive guidance programs in schools, the transition from services-based to results-based programs, and the development of federal legislation supporting comprehensive guidance programs.

Herr, Kathryn; Arms, Emily (2004).  Accountability and Single-Sex Schooling: A Collision of Reform Agendas  American Educational Research Journal, 41, 3. 

This ethnographic study documents how accountability measures skewed the implementation of gender equity reform at one California public middle school serving low-income students of color. In creating single-sex classes throughout the school, the Single Sex Academy (SSA) became the largest public experiment with single-sex schooling in the country, but pressure to raise its standardized test scores diverted the school away from the exploration and implementation of the gender reform. The chronicle of SSA is particularly relevant in light of (a) a recent call to relax Title standards and increase the numbers of public single-sex classes and schools, and (b) the provision of monies mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 for single-sex classes and schools, along with the act's imposition of accountability standards and testing.

Herren, Ray V.; Edwards, M. Craig (2002).  Whence We Came: The Land-Grant Tradition--Origin, Evolution, and Implications for the 21st Century.  Journal of Agricultural Education, 43, 4. 

Based on a review of primary and secondary sources, this article discusses the contexts, circumstances, people, and legislation that affected the origins and evolution of land-grant universities. Poses questions for the future, including whether land-grant universities are losing their historic commitment to their mission and becoming elitist.

Herrera, Martha Cecilia; Diaz, Alexis V. Pinilla; Suaza, Luz Marina (2007).  Between God and Country: School Manuals in Social Sciences and Images of the Nation  Paedagogica Historica: International Journal of the History of Education, 43, 5. 

A review of how the history of education in Colombia has been analyzed shows that the privileged sources for this task have been educational policies and legislation, along with the ideas and the works of teachers and masters, official statistics on coverage and growth of the educational system, as well as the school texts from the different areas that have formed school curricula. These texts can be considered to be devices that link together the world of social and cultural production with the academic disciplines and the complexity of school culture. In the case of social sciences texts, it is worth noting that it was through these disciplines that several strategies were created for the creation, promotion and dissemination of ideas on the notion of nation-states by the national elites in the nineteenth century. The objective of this article is to present an analysis of the text "Manual de instruccion moral y civica," written by Francisco Jose Urrutia in 1907, showing how the policies of the Catholic Church and the policies of the leaders of the traditional parties created a conception of social order and disseminated it through school texts which, as in the case of the above-mentioned text, were official texts, mandatory in the schools throughout the country, thus in one way or another contributing to the construction of visions of political culture.

Herrera, Sandra; Holland, Lana; Wesson, Suzanne (2000).  School Safety and Violence. 

School districts in the Education Service Center, Region 2, (southern Texas) were surveyed to examine procedures the districts have put in place to identify threats of violence to school safety and security. The target population was 47 school districts. Data collection was done using mailed questionnaires with a simple yes/no answer format. Twenty-eight schools completed and returned questionnaires. Data are presented in a narrative, tabular format. Survey results show that planning is of the utmost importance and must include every level of community. Communication among all parties involved is vital to carrying out plans and keeping chaos and stress to a minimum. Proactive measures include a variety of surveillance programs, standardized dress, closed-campus policies, and anger management and conflict resolution in curricula. Recommendations include doing a replicate study using a larger population, establishing a lobby to promote and seek school-safety legislation, and placing greater emphasis on educating future school personnel about school violence at the university level. The report concludes with 45 references and 4 appendices containing a list of principles to help avoid misinterpretation of early warning signs of violence, a list of early warning signs, letters and forms for permission to survey and perform the follow-up study, and the survey questionnaire. | [FULL TEXT]

Herrera, Socorro G.; Murry, Kevin G. (2006).  Accountability by Assumption: Implications of Reform Agendas for Teacher Preparation  Journal of Latinos & Education, 5, 3. 

Recent reform initiatives, especially the No Child Left Behind Act, tend to rely on a variety of highly debatable assumptions that fail to reflect the diversity of today's classrooms and also place pressure on educators in a manner we characterize as accountability by assumption. Such reform initiatives have become so political, complex, and omnipresent in teachers' perspectives on professional practice that these educators are increasingly intimidated, frustrated, reactionary and reductionistic, and disauthentic in their instruction and assessment of English language learners (ELL). Accordingly, we argue that classroom assessment will become less criterion-referenced, authentic, and capable of measuring incremental gains among students who are ELL.

Herring, David J. (2006).  Everyday Law for Children. The Everyday Law Series  [Paradigm Publishers] 

This book provides an accessible introduction to laws that affect children and families, and the dominant public debates that surround and drive these laws. Using real-world examples, the book exposes the tension between reliance on the private, autonomous family and the public's desire to secure child wellbeing. A look at some public systems, such as child welfare and juvenile delinquency, shows that an initial public aspiration to assist children and families is often frustrated by a lack of resolve and resources. In other areas, such as education and healthcare, the public shrinks from a commitment to comprehensive child wellbeing. "Everyday Law for Children" makes a case for the improvement of public systems by focusing on pragmatic goals related to child wellbeing. More immediately, it makes a case for zealous advocates for children who can have a dramatic impact on children's everyday lives. Accordingly, the book provides an annotated list of resources and contact information for parents and for service providers who need help addressing specific problems within complex public systems.

Herrington, Carolyn D.; Weider, Virginia (2001).  Equity, Adequacy and Vouchers: Past and Present School Finance Litigation in Florida.  Journal of Education Finance, 27, 1. 

Thus far, Florida's school funding system has withstood equity-based attacks. Florida's new, clearly defined accountability standards, coupled with newly strengthened constitutional wording regarding education, may succeed in persuading courts that "adequate provision" is not being met. The statewide voucher system may also attract judicial attention.

Herrington, David E.; Kidd-Herrington, Kathleen; Kritsonis, Mary Alice (2006).  Coming to Terms with No Child Left Behind: Learning to Teach the Invisible Children  [Online Submission] 

It is critical that teachers and administrators seek out and serve the invisible children in their classrooms and schools. When they acknowledge the condition of homeless and foster children, they can begin to address their unique learning needs and close their learning gaps. Based on definitions provided by the McKinney-Vento Act, some schools were unaware they had homeless children enrolled in their schools. They discovered that ten percent of their students would be considered homeless. This article challenges educators to be knowledgeable about homeless and foster children and their unique learning needs. | [FULL TEXT]

Hershberg, Ted; Simon, Virginia Adams; Lea-Kruger, Barbara (2004).  The Revelations of Value-Added: An Assessment Model that Measures Student Growth in Ways that NCLB Fails to Do  School Administrator, 61, 11. 

In the No Child Left Behind era of high-stakes testing, school administrators are facing their toughest challenge ever. They are being held accountable for the performance of their schools, yet current systems in public education typically fail to provide them with the appropriate tools to manage effectively. Although the classroom is where learning takes place, superintendents and principals often know precious little about what is happening within them. As never before, administrators need the means to measure and evaluate the impact of curricula, new practices and professional development on academic achievement. For unless the quality of classroom instruction and programs can be improved significantly, students will be unlikely to meet the high standards now required. Fortunately, significant help is available in the form of a relatively new tool known as value-added assessment. Because value-added isolates the impact of instruction on student learning, it provides detailed information at the classroom level. Its rich diagnostic data can be used to improve teaching and student learning. It can be the basis for a needed improvement in the calculation of adequate yearly progress. In time, once teachers and administrators grow comfortable with its fairness, value-added also may serve as the foundation for an accountability system at the level of individual educators.

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Hess, Doug; Woo, Nicole; Phelps, Anne; Parker, Lynn; Weill, Jim (2002).  School Breakfast Scorecord, 2002. Twelfth Annual Status Report on the School Breakfast Program. 

The School Breakfast Program provides breakfast to millions of children from low-income families who otherwise might go hungry in the morning and be less ready to learn. This report is the eleventh from the Food Research and Action Center (FRAC) to examine the program, its benefits, and the performance of the nation and of each state in reaching children with school breakfasts during the 2001-2002 school year. Data were obtained from state reports to the U.S. Department of Agriculture and from an annual FRAC survey of state nutrition officials. Findings indicate that although there have been gains in school breakfast program participation over the past decade, further major increases in service remain an urgent goal. Participation varies significantly from state to state, with estimates that breakfast programs failed to reach almost 1.9 million eligible children. The obstacles to greater student participation in the school breakfast program were identified by state nutrition officials as: school buses arriving too late for students to participate, students unwilling or unable to arrive early enough, teacher or administrator opposition to classroom breakfasts, lack of parent awareness of the benefits of school breakfast, and students' reluctance to be perceived as "poor." Strategies to increase program participation include creating universal breakfast programs, making it easier for schools to receive the "severe need" reimbursement, and providing grants to start new programs. States efforts regarding the school breakfast program relate to state funding and breakfast requirements, and direct certification. The report's appendices include descriptions of three model breakfast programs and a delineation of state legislation promoting school breakfast. | [FULL TEXT]

Hess, Frederick M. (2000).  Hints of the Pick-Axe: The Impact of Competition on Public Schooling in Milwaukee. 

This paper describes the United States' first public voucher program, which was launched in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in 1990. It discusses the three phases that school competition has undergone in the Milwaukee Public School (MPS) district. These phases are a period of minimal competition from 1990-95, the passage of new charter-school legislation and a dramatically expanded voucher legislation in 1995, and the city's final push into charter schooling in 1997-98, which launched increasingly visible competition. Competition has neither had any systemic effects on teaching and learning in MPS schools and classrooms, nor has the presence of limited competition refocused teachers or principals or changed how they do their jobs. Competition has produced some new efforts to raise standards, increase choices, and open new schools, albeit there is little evidence that these moves have affected classrooms. Furthermore, charters have provoked symbolic reactions from MPS and leaders of the Milwaukee Teachers' Education Association, creating the potential for meaningful change and permitting new schools to form. The paper concludes that there is no evidence to suggest short-term market forces have ended inefficiencies in Milwaukee, although there is reason to believe competition has stoked entrepreneurial energy in MPS. | [FULL TEXT]

Hess, Frederick M. (2002).  Tear Down This Wall: The Case for a Radical Overhaul of Teacher Certification.  Educational Horizons, 80, 4. 

Depicts the current state of teacher certification, asserting that state laws giving teacher education programs a monopoly are the core problem. Advocates a competitive certification model.

Hess, Frederick M. (2002).  Making Sense of the "Public" in Public Education. Policy Report. 

The purpose of this policy report is to bring coherence to discussions about school reform and to encourage policymakers to use a consistent metric when judging whether reform proposals are serving the needs of children and the nation. The current confusion and policy debates over what is a public school--brought about by recent educational legislation--creates problems for policymakers, the paper contends. It presents a list of key questions to help guide the thinking and focus of policymakers and educators. What goals are we pursuing? Why do we want children to attend schools? To what extent do we want to insist upon a common educational purpose of all children? How should we apportion responsibility for each childs education between the state and the family? Who should be permitted to provide schooling? How actively should the state regulate providers? Will profit-seeking individuals and firms be permitted to run schools or to manage schools for others? What obligations should schools have to ensure opportunity to all students? Are schools obliged to treat all students equally, or are they permitted to enroll or sort students as they see fit? What components of schooling should we consider to be public? | [FULL TEXT]

Hess, Frederick M. (2004).  The Political Challenge of Charter School Regulation  Phi Delta Kappan, 85, 7. 

Despite the premise that charter schools are to be given flexibility in return for being held accountable for their results, few charter schools have actually been closed because of poor academic performance. The author sees the problem as a political one: the differing stakes between charter school families and members of the broader community. In this article the author discusses two visions of charter school accountability and improving regulatory accountability for charter schools.

Hess, Frederick M. (2004).  Different Strokes for Different Folks  School Administrator, 61, 3. 

The author recently had the same conversation about local school reform with two superintendents--one from a large, urban district in the East and the other from a small district in the Midwest. Both superintendents were working with their respective boards to approve, design and fund reading initiatives consistent with the new federal guidelines. Both had encountered resistance due to tight budgets, potentially recalcitrant teachers and board members worried about the response of influential parents. Drawing on their training and professional experience, both superintendents had tried to resolve the conflict by seeking buy-in and pursuing consensus. At this point, the conversations went in two very different directions. The small-district superintendent had enjoyed significant success with this strategy. The initiative was in good shape and moving forward. The large-district superintendent was bogged down amidst concerns about the impact on the district's magnet programs, how to ensure professional development wouldn't run afoul of collective bargaining provisions and which schools would be required to adopt the reading program. This article discusses the separation between the two districts and why there are differences.

Hess, Frederick M. (2005).  Commentary: Accountability Policy and Scholarly Research  Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 24, 4. 

Since 2001, considerations of school reform have been dominated by performance-based accountability. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has changed the way policymakers and educators talk about education, look at educational performance, and think about educational challenges. Nonetheless, NCLB and the state accountability systems it has spawned have been subjected to little careful scrutiny. This article discusses four recent research contributions and considers how they might inform policymaking on accountability. While scholarly scrutiny will not necessarily settle debates, it can help yield more constructive and informed decisions. In particular, research can clarify the actual consequences of policy decisions; highlight and refine approaches that may be more reliable, stable, and effective than those in use; flag the unanticipated or overlooked effects of design decisions; and ensure that both policymakers and the public are aware of the costs and benefits of accountability.

Hess, Frederick M. (2006).  Accountability without Angst?: Public Opinion and No Child Left Behind  Harvard Educational Review, 76, 4. 

In this article, Frederick Hess discusses public opinion trends related to educational issues from the enactment of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) in 2002 through 2006. Using data from three separate public opinion polls, Hess analyzes the general public's and parents' opinions on several issues, including the proper use of large-scale assessments, the appropriateness of punitive action for failing schools, the place of school choice, and the responsibility for closing achievement gaps across groups. Among many important findings, the author determines that NCLB has had little effect on the public's general opinion of public schools; that there is little public support for the sanctioning of struggling schools; and that while the public feels that schools should not be blamed for existing achievement gaps, schools should be responsible for closing them. He concludes with a discussion of implications for policymakers and practitioners.

Hess, Frederick M. (2006).  Tough Love for Schools: Essays on Competition, Accountability, and Excellence  [American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research] 

The author forthrightly declares in this book of essays on school reform that teachers are no more saintly than anyone else, that poor schools should be closed and lousy teachers should be fired, that philanthropy may sometimes do more harm than good, that teaching experience is not essential to being a school principal, that schools should be more efficient and cost-effective, and that profit-driven competition might be good for public education. He rejects the notion that loving schools means apologizing for them. Tough love means that one demands more, not less, of the people and the things one cherishes. "Tough Love for Schools" insists that people must ask how schools can do more, rather than how they can get more, and that people be blunt and clear-eyed in their assessments of both schooling and proposed reforms. Hess argues that real school reform requires new policies that enable public and private entrepreneurs to forge new institutions, improve school management, reward excellence, harness advances in technology and knowledge, and devise strategies to draw new talent into the field. The book explores the practical and political challenges of accountability, competition, excellence, and the public good. Addressing topics ranging from the federal No Child Left Behind Act to the racial politics of school reform to the relationship of philanthropy and schooling, the author casts an unsparing eye on schooling and on school officials, would-be reformers, philanthropists, education professors, teacher unions, and public officials. This collection includes updated and revised versions of influential essays on issues such as who should teach, mayoral control of public schools, the challenge of accountability systems, and what it takes for school choice to create real competition. This volume is essential for policymakers, practitioners, and parents serious about leaving no child behind.

Hess, Frederick M. (2007).  The Case for Educational Entrepreneurship: Hard Truths about Risk, Reform, and Reinvention  Phi Delta Kappan, 89, 1. 

To an unprecedented degree, this is the era of educational entrepreneurship. Unconventional thinkers have waded into the world of K-12 education, founded influential organizations, and upended conventions. They have developed new models for delivering instruction or recruiting teachers and have applied old-fashioned practices with inspired fidelity. While their efforts constitute a still-minuscule portion of schooling, they are responsible for many of the most exciting developments in 21st-century education. Entrepreneurial ventures always carry the risk of failure. The author believes that the education system is far more endangered by conventional approaches to school reform that have merely preserved the status quo. In this article, he discusses why entrepreneurship is important in education and presents three sets of obstacles blocking the way to creating an entrepreneurial environment: (1) barriers to the entry of new providers; (2) a lack of venture capital; and (3) a pinched pipeline for human capital.

Hess, Frederick M.; Finn, Chester E., Jr. (2004).  Inflating the Life Rafts of NCLB: Making Public School Choice and Supplemental Services Work for Students in Troubled Schools  Phi Delta Kappan, 86, 1. 

To no one's surprise, the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act has become a political football in this election season. Amidst the heated rhetoric and impassioned claims, it can be easy to forget that NCLB is no one thing but rather an awkward compendium of many disparate pieces. While public officials are pressed to render absolute judgments--that NCLB is a wondrous advance or a malign mistake--observers and educators must recognize that anything as unwieldy and complex as this law will inevitably yield mixed results. NCLB's remedies for students whose schools have been identified as needing improvement may not be working as intended. In this article, the authors recommend some mid-course corrections that could help ensure that the law's promise is fulfilled.

Hess, Frederick M.; Finn, Chester E., Jr. (2007).  Can This Law Be Fixed? A Hard Look at the No Child Left Behind Remedies. Education Outlook. Number 3  [American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research] 

After five years of experience with the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), and with reauthorization looming, it is time to draw some conclusions about how the act has actually unfolded--and how it ought to be changed. A new book from the AEI Press by Frederick M. Hess and Chester E. Finn Jr., "No Remedy Left Behind: Lessons from A Half-Decade of NCLB," does just that, while also providing a roadmap for how to improve the act. This article highlights key recommendations made in the book.

Hess, Frederick M.; Petrilli, Michael J. (2004).  The Politics of No Child Left Behind: Will the Coalition Hold?  Journal of Education, 185, 3. 

On January 8, 2002, President George W. Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) into law. Surrounded by smiling members of the Democratic and Republican leadership, the President declared, "as of this hour, America's schools will be on a new path of reform, and a new path of results". NCLB brought sweeping changes to the 37-year-old Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) and thrust the nation's educators, schools, and school districts into a new world of federal educational leadership. This article talks about the "Washington consensus" and its commitment to educational improvement as well as the critics that goes along with it. This article presents three primary reasons to expect that the NCLB coalition will hold and that sweeping changes will be forestalled: (1) Though the education community has been scathing in its attacks on NCLB, and though many state legislatures have condemned the law, these arguments do not appear to have decisively turned public opinion; (2) Glimmerings of consensus on likely "refinements" are emerging, and these have tended toward the modest rather than the dramatic; and (3) To date, many believe that the "Washington consensus," positing that poverty is no excuse for poor student achievement and that only external accountability will push schools and districts to make tough changes needed to improve, remains largely intact.

Hess, Frederick M.; Petrilli, Michael J. (2007).  No Child Left Behind Primer. Second Printing. Peter Lang Primer Volume 11  [Peter Lang New York] 

No Child Left Behind (NCLB) is the single most influential piece of federal education legislation in American history, and Hess and Petrilli provide a concise yet comprehensive look at this important and controversial act. Signed into law in 2002, NCLB seeks to ensure that all American students are proficient in math, reading, and science by 2014. Trumping two centuries of state primacy in K-12 education, it set standards for measuring student performance, ensuring the quality of teachers, and providing options for students in ineffective schools. The authors trace the heritage of these new policies, explain how they work, and examine the challenges of their implementation.

Hess, Frederick M.; Rotherham, Andrew J. (2007).  Can NCLB Survive the Competitiveness Competition? Education Outlook. Number 2  [American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research] 

Some see the George W. Bush administration's American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI) as the perfect complement to the No Child Left Behind Act's (NCLB) equity focus. The authors believe, however, that the prospects for synergy of these two agendas are not bright. In this essay, the authors discuss the history behind NCLB and the ACI, and argue that there is a fundamental disconnect between the two programs' central ideals.

Hess, Frederick M.; Rotherham, Andrew J.; Walsh, Kate (2005).  Finding the Teachers We Need. Policy Perspectives  [WestEd] 

In recent years, the debate over teacher quality and preparation has gained new urgency. Competing groups of partisans have dominated this debate: one seemingly eager to assail the nation's education schools and to suggest that there is an insufficiently defined body of professional teaching knowledge, the other committed to advancing professionalism by ensuring that all teachers are prepared and licensed through a prescribed and formal training program. Experts even disagree about what constitutes a qualified teacher, how well today's preparation programs are training teachers, whether we can best improve teaching through new regulations or by relaxing the old ones, and whether teaching leans heavily on innate skill or is primarily a matter of training and experience. The conflict is suffusing research, confusing policymakers, and stifling potentially promising reforms.  [This Policy Perspectives paper is adapted from Frederick M. Hess, Andrew J. Rotherham, and Kate Walsh. "A Qualified Teacher in Every Classroom? Appraising Old Answers and New Ideas." Cambridge: Harvard Education Press. Copyright 2004 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College.]

Hess, Frederick M.; West, Martin R. (2006).  A Better Bargain: Overhauling Teacher Collective Bargaining for the 21st Century  [Program on Education Policy and Governance, Harvard University] 

In this paper, the authors argue that at a time when disappointing student performance, stark achievement gaps, and an ever-"flattening" world call for retooling American schools for the 21st century, the most daunting impediments to doing so are the teacher collective bargaining agreements that regulate virtually all aspects of school district operations. They believe that these agreements are a harmful anachronism in today's K-12 education system, where effective teachers are demanding to be treated as respected professionals and forward thinking leaders are working to transform schools into nimble organizations focused on student learning. The authors propose that superintendents and school boards chart a new course by working with union leaders to modify collective bargaining agreements on five key fronts: (1) Teacher pay should reflect the scarcity and value of teachers' skills, the difficulty of their assignments, the extent of their responsibilities, and the caliber of their work; (2) Pension and health benefits should resemble those offered by other organizations competing for college-educated professionals, which will entail shifting from industrial-era defined-benefit plans to defined-contribution plans better suited to the new economy and a professional workforce; (3) Tenure should be eliminated from K-12 schooling or, at a minimum, contracts and state laws should be modified to enable management to more readily remove ineffective educators; (4) Personnel should be assigned to schools on the basis of educational need rather than seniority; and (5) Work rules should be weeded out of contracts, and contracts should explicitly define managerial prerogatives. To do this, they must commit themselves to the strategies of accountability, choice and competition, and tough-minded governance.  [This report was produced in part by the Program on Education Policy & Governance, Harvard University.] | [FULL TEXT]

Hess, Frederick, M.; Squire, Juliet (2007).  The Student-Loan System Needs a Major Overhaul  Chronicle of Higher Education, 54, 4. 

In September 2007, Congress voted to cut subsidies to lenders in the federal guaranteed-student-loan program and use much of the savings to increase student aid. Congress also passed other significant provisions, including modified repayment periods and loan forgiveness for certain students. Such legislation came on the heels of New York Attorney General Andrew M. Cuomo's high-profile investigations into student lenders and their partnerships with colleges, and his call for new codes of conduct to govern those relationships. This article argues that, while both Congress and Cuomo deserve credit for addressing the challenges and excesses of the student-loan machinery, more must be done to overhaul an outdated and overburdened system that needs a thorough redesign. At least six steps deserve consideration: (1) reassess federal subsidies and guarantees; (2) expand income-contingent loans; (3) streamline the financial-aid application; (4) re-evaluate the HOPE and Lifetime Learning tax credits; (5) make loan originators more responsible for their loans; and (6) improve the training and evaluation of financial-aid officers.

Hess-Grabill, Donella; Bueno, Soyon (2000).  Roadmap to Perkins III: The Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998. A Guidebook for Illinois. 

This guidebook is intended as a road map to the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Technical Education Act of 1998 (Perkins III) for career-technical education (CTE) practitioners and policymakers in Illinois. The following topics are among those covered: (1) framework for Perkins III (national educational reform, Illinois provisions for quality CTE, stages of career development); (2) Perkins III accountability (Perkins II versus Perkins III, program and fiscal accountability; (3) gathering and using data to improve performance (collecting and reporting data in Illinois, designing a systematic improvement process); (4) the continuum of quality support for learners; and (5) a crosswalk with other initiatives (common themes and interface of educational reform laws, the report "New American High Schools"). Ninety-seven charts are included. The bibliography lists 147 references. The following items are appended: (1) glossary of terms; (2) glossary of acronyms; and (3) summaries of seven pieces of federal educational legislation concerned with CTE, school-to-careers, workforce development, and individuals with disabilities. Concluding the guide are the following resources: strategies to assist individuals with disabilities; work-related student competencies; workplace skills and career development competencies; ideas and strategies to achieve Perkins core indicators; and lists of 202 World Wide Web resources, 9 additional publications, and 19 additional organizations. | [FULL TEXT]

Hestenes, Linda L.; Cassidy, Deborah J.; Hegde, Archana V.; Lower, Joanna K. (2007).  Quality in Inclusive and Noninclusive Infant and Toddler Classrooms  Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 22, 1. 

The quality of care in infant and toddler classrooms was compared across inclusive (n=64) and noninclusive classrooms (n=400). Quality was measured using the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ITERS-R). An exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed four distinct dimensions of quality within the ITERS-R. Inclusive classrooms were higher in quality on the overall scale as well as on three of the four factor-based scales. Teachers reported, on average, that children had mild to moderate disabilities. Correlational analyses indicated that neither having more children with disabilities nor having children with more severe disabilities was associated with higher or lower quality scores. Teacher education and teacher-child ratios were important predictors of quality. Information on low-scoring items on the Personal Care Routines subscale is also presented.

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Heumann, Judith E.; Warlick, Kenneth R. (2000).  Guidance Regarding the Requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) on Individualized Education Programs. 

This policy memorandum provides guidance to assist educators, parents, and state and local education agencies in implementing the requirements of Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) regarding Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) for children with disabilities. The document stresses the requirements of the IEP to involve each child with a disability in the general curriculum, to involve parents and students, together with regular and special education personnel, in making individual decisions to support each child's educational success, and to prepare students with disabilities for employment and other post-school activities. It stresses that the IDEA affords states and local educational agencies significant flexibility to choose to establish IEP format requirements and to establish requirements for developing IEPs that include specific provisions that are not expressly required by IDEA. It also emphasizes that, in considering any changes to its IEP-related requirements, a state or local education agency carefully consider the impact of such changes on both compliance with other IDEA requirements and on ensuring that children with disabilities receive the services they need in order to be involved and progress in the general curriculum, to prepare for employment and post-school independence, and otherwise to achieve to high standards. | [FULL TEXT]

Heumann, Judith E.; Warlick, Kenneth R. (2000).  Questions and Answers about Provisions in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 Related to Students with Disabilities and State and District-Wide Assessments. Memorandum. 

This memorandum from the federal Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) to state directors of special education presents questions and answers related to inclusion of students with disabilities in state and district-wide assessments under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997. The 26 questions and answers address accountability, individualized education program (IEP) processes, parental permission, accommodations and modifications, alternate assessments, out-of-level testing, reporting, and monitoring. Among specific topics covered are the following: requirements for performance goals and indicators, use of assessment results, the role of the IEP team, parental permission under various state standards, the definitions of "accommodations" and"modifications", alternate assessments for students unable to participate in general assessments, requirements concerning establishment of participation guidelines, requirements of local education agencies concerning alternate assessments, difficulties with use of out-of-level tests, required reports on assessment, requirements for aggregation and disaggregation of data, and monitoring by OSEP of compliance. | [FULL TEXT]

Heumann, Judith E.; Warlick, Kenneth R. (2001).  Guidance on Including Students with Disabilities in Assessment Programs. Memorandum. 

Designed for parents and family members of students with disabilities, this policy statement clarifies federal requirements for including children with disabilities in state and district-side assessment programs. Information is presented in a question-and-answer format that addresses: (1) requirements under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act for including children with disabilities in assessments; (2) how participation in assessment programs benefits children with disabilities; (3) parental permission for student participation in state and local assessment programs; (4) the role of the Individualized Education Program team in state or district-wide assessments; (5) accommodations and modifications for test administration; (6) alternate assessments for students with disabilities who cannot participate in state or district-wide assessments; (7) consequences of decisions about accommodations and modifications in assessments; and (8) how results of assessments are supposed to be reported and used. | [FULL TEXT]

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Hewitt, Thomas W. (2008).  Speculations on "A Nation at Risk": Illusions and Realities  Phi Delta Kappan, 89, 8. 

Magicians present illusions. Commissioned reports and the writers who produce them sometimes do the same. Controversy continues to surround the findings of the Warren Commission report on the Kennedy assassination long after it was completed. And the same has been true of "A Nation at Risk", ever since its publication in 1983. The two most controversial issues have been the report's role in the development and establishment of a new and permanent federal influence in national education policy making and the degree to which the report's recommendations set the direction for subsequent national education reform actions. Overall, the controversies feed into the perception that, at least since its publication, American education has been in a perpetual state of rolling crisis and reform. In this article, the author argues that while it's clear that "A Nation at Risk" had a major impact, at least in the continuing development of federal influence, the reality is that in terms of the curriculum, the report's impact on schools and schooling is the illusion.

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Heybach, Laurene M.; Nix-Hodes, Patricia; Price, Sarah (2000).  The Education of Homeless Children: Rules, Rights and Practical Solutions. A Training Manual for Shelter Providers, Staff, Advocates and Parents. 

These training materials provide advocates with the tools needed to help families obtain a stable and effective education for their children despite the condition of homelessness and the trauma that accompanies it. Nine sections include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "How Mobility Hurts Homeless Children and Schools"; (3) "Laws and Rules Governing the Education of Homeless Children" (the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act, the Illinois Education for Homeless Children Act, policy of the State Board of Education, and the settlement agreement in Salazar v. Edwards); (4) "What the Laws and Rules Mean for Homeless Families in Chicago" (choice of schools, records, enrollment, the appeal process, transportation, and equality); (5) "A Word about Children or Youth with Special Education Needs" (children and youth currently attending school and children not currently attending school); (6) "Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth"; (7) "Other Important Issues" (Chicago public school liaisons, outreach, tutoring, food programs, preschool eligibility, fee waivers, notice, uniforms, and standardized tests and mandatory summer school); (8) "Practical Suggestions for Shelter Staff"; and (9) "Conclusion." Ten appendixes, which comprise the bulk of the document, present details on various legislative acts and educational guidelines and policies. Also included is a brochure entitled "Going to School: Your Rights, Your Choices." | [FULL TEXT]

Heyman, Cory; Brush, Lorie; Provasnik, Stephen; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan (2002).  Changing Girls' Education in Peru. 

Access to quality education is a problem for all rural children in Peru, but especially for rural girls, who complete primary school at far lower rates than other Peruvian children. In 1998, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity (GEA) in Peru, also known as New Horizons for Girls' Education, which aims to increase girls' completion of primary school, particularly among rural and indigenous populations. During 1998-2001, the project had a substantial impact on the general discourse about girls' education. Its activities improved general knowledge about the importance of girls' education, inspired national legislation on rural girls' education, and inspired girls' education projects at the regional and local levels. This report gives an overview of the project, describing the creation of a national network for girls' education (Florecer), national conferences, publications, a mass media campaign aimed at affluent citizens with political influence, advocacy efforts with policy makers, and interactions among national and regional networks and local committees. Several project studies are summarized, including a situational analysis and rapid rural appraisal of barriers to rural girls' education; a baseline study in pilot communities; evaluations of demonstration activities involving bilingual education, girls' self-esteem, community-based monitoring committees, and adult literacy; and the accomplishments of regional networks in Ayacucho and San Martin. An analysis of systemic changes in girls' education looks at GEA's progress in legitimizing its policy goals, building an active constituency, mobilizing resources, designing and modifying organizational structures, mobilizing action, and monitoring systemic change. | [FULL TEXT]

Heyneman, Stephen P. (2001).  How Should Education Be Managed and How Should Policy Be Decided?  Peabody Journal of Education, 76, 3&4. 

Explains that every school system faces the challenge of how to manage staff more effectively, introducing several articles that focus on whether: large-city school systems are more bureaucratic, a system of family school choice is more efficient or effective, tuition is an answer to a reduction in public education finance, and there are common lessons to be learned from taking a small intervention to national scale.

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Hiatt-Michael, Diana (2000).  Parent Involvement as a Component of Teacher Education Programs in California. 

This paper presents findings from the 1999 Survey of California Teacher Education, with follow-up telephone interviews in 2000. The four-item survey examined the extent to which 53 California teacher training institutions included courses, activities, and modules relating to three areas of focus identified in state documents: (1) developing beginning teacher communication skills to dialogue with families; (2) providing ways to involve parents in learning activities with their children at home; and (3) finding ways to connect home culture to learning at school. The follow-up telephone interviews asked teacher educators how they incorporated parent involvement in their courses. Results indicate that universities which offered basic teacher credentials incorporated parent involvement issues within existing courses. Universities primarily focused on parent involvement issues and activities within courses dealing with language arts/reading, cultural diversity, and teaching English as a Second Language. The universities highlighted the importance of parent involvement through activities related to parent conferencing, interviews, and conflict resolution. Most teacher education programs did not use computer technology to connect with parents. Teachers tended to acquire parent involvement concepts and skills using case studies. An appendix includes the survey.

Hiatt-Michael, Diana (2001).  Preparing Teachers To Work with Parents. ERIC Digest. 

Though the benefits of working with families are documented, teacher education programs and school districts offer limited educational opportunities to new teachers. Until recently, most state certification departments did not require courses on family involvement in preservice education. During the late 1990s, the number of states requiring that teachers possess knowledge and skills related to parent and community involvement increased significantly. A recent survey of 96 teacher education programs found that 22 offered courses on parent involvement (developed for special education or early childhood teachers), though they were not required. Most programs interwove parent involvement issues into existing courses. Other studies show that early childhood and special education receive disproportionate amounts of parent involvement attention within university preparation and in school practice. Teachers consider working with parents important to children's positive school outcomes. If teachers do not receive such training during preservice education, opportunities to acquire it within the schools are limited. Three national hubs are the most promising sources for information, training, and support to new teachers, connecting schools, districts, and states into networks of sharing, development, and assessment. Legislation is needed that supports teacher education in meeting necessary requirements to work effectively with families across all 50 states. | [FULL TEXT]

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Hickok, Eugene W. (2004).  No Child Left Behind Act: Education Needs to Provide Additional Technical Assistance and Conduct Implementation Studies for School Choice Provision. Report to the Secretary of Education. GAO-05-7  [US Government Accountability Office] 

The school choice provision of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA) of 2001 applies to schools that receive Title I funds and that have not met state performance goals for 2 consecutive years, including goals set before the enactment of NCLBA. Students in such schools must be offered the choice to transfer to another school in the district. The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) undertook this review to provide the Congress a report on the first 2 years of the implementation of NCLBA school choice. The objectives of this report were to determine: (1) the extent to which Title I schools have been affected by the school choice provision of (NCLBA) of 2001 in terms of the number of schools identified for choice and the number of students exercising the option; (2) the experiences of selected school districts in implementing the choice provision; and (3) the kinds of guidance and technical assistance that the Department of Education provided states and districts as they implemented public school choice. GAO collected school performance data from all states, interviewed Education officials, and visited 8 school districts in California, Illinois, Ohio, Mississippi, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Washington, and recommended that: (1)Education monitor issues and promote promising practices related to limited classroom capacity; (2) help states develop strategies for better informing parents about school choice; and (3) include in its planned NCLBA implementation study, an examination of the academic outcomes and retention rates of transferring students. Appended are: (1) Scope and Methodology; (2) NCLBA Interventions for Schools Not Meeting Yearly Performance Goals Over Time; (3) Number of Title I Schools in Each State Identified for Choice in School Year 2002-2003; (4) Number of Title I Schools in Each State Identified for Choice in School Year 2003 2004; (5) Number of Students in Each State Transferring under Choice Option in First 2 Years of NCLBA; (6) Poverty and Minority Rates of Schools Required to Offer Choice and Schools Offered as Transfer Options; and (7) Comments from the Department of Education.  | [FULL TEXT]

Hickok, Eugene W. (2004).  No Child Left Behind Act: Additional Assistance and Research on Effective Strategies Would Help Small Rural Districts. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-04-909  [US General Accounting Office] 

Congress has raised concerns about difficulties rural school districts face implementing the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA). This report describes: key challenges rural states and districts face; strategies rural districts have developed; expenditures and resources related to rural districts? compliance; and guidance and assistance from the Department of Education (Education). Researchers conducted a nationally representative survey of rural and nonrural school districts and interviewed Education officials and officials in rural states and school districts. Data analysis indicates that rural districts faced challenges in meeting NCLBA provisions to a greater extent than nonrural districts. For example, rural district officials were more likely to report challenges presented by a large enrollment of economically disadvantaged students who may live in communities lacking resources, such as libraries. Rural districts reported that small school size and geographic isolation greatly affected their ability to implement NCLBA. Rural officials said that limited access to teacher training facilities and internet line maintenance difficulties impeded NCLBA implementation efforts. Rural school officials reported using such strategies as teacher training to the same extent as nonrural respondents to help meet student proficiency provisions and implement teacher qualification requirements of NCLBA. Rural districts were more likely to increase computer capacity than nonrural districts. However, small rural districts were less likely than other rural districts to use certain strategies, such as teacher mentoring. Rural state and district officials identified specific expenditures related to NCLBA, such as those relating to analyzing assessment results and providing tutoring services to students. However, district officials could not determine total expenditures made to implement NCLBA, in part because their accounting records were not maintained in a way that tracked expenditlocal funds, officials reported using multiple federal programs to implement NCLBA. | [FULL TEXT]

Hickok, Eugene W. (2004).  No Child Left Behind Act: Improvements Needed in Education's Process for Tracking States' Implementation of Key Provisions. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-04-734  [US Government Accountability Office] 

To provide information about states' efforts to track implementation of key provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA), this study examined: state goals for student proficiency and their implications for whether schools will meet those goals; factors that facilitated or impeded state and school district implementation efforts; and how the Department of Education (Education) supported state efforts and approved state plans to meet student proficiency requirements. Researchers analyzed data from plans which all states submitted to Education and that Education approved by June 2003; obtained information from officials in the 50 states, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico about the number of schools they had identified as meeting annual progress goals and their school and district characteristics in 2002-03; visited 4 states and 6 districts within the states, conducting phone interviews with officials in another 17 states to obtain data on factors that facilitated and impeded implementation of student proficiency requirements; reviewed documentation Education provided the states; reviewed Education regulations and guidance; interviewed Education officials about their efforts to assist states in developing plans and their process for approving plans; reviewed the status of Education's approval of states' standards and assessments systems that were required to comply with the 1994 Elementary and Secondary Act; and interviewed officials from national education organizations and other experts in the area. States varied in how they established proficiency goals and measured student progress. State and school district officials said their leadership's commitment to improving student achievement and technical assistance provided by an Education contractor facilitated implementation of NCLBA requirements. Tight timeframes for determining school progress and problems with student data impeded implementation. Education is working on efforts to help states improve their data systems, such as monitoring state data quality policies. Education helped states develop their plans for improving student proficiency, and by June 10, 2003 approved, fully or conditionally, all plans. Education asked assessment experts to review all plans and provide states with on-site evaluations. Education has developed guidance for its review and approval of states' expanded standards and assessments. Appendixes contain methods to establish starting points; percentage of schools that met state goals in 2002-03; state plan requirements; comments from Education; and GAO contacts and staff acknowledgements. | [FULL TEXT]

Hickok, Eugene W. (2005).  Charter Schools: To Enhance Education's Monitoring and Research, More Charter School-Level Data Are Needed. Report to the Secretary of Education. GAO-05-5  [US Government Accountability Office] 

Charter schools are public schools that are granted increased autonomy by states in exchange for meeting specified academic goals. State law determines who approves the formation of a charter school, often the board of education. As public schools, charter schools are subject to the performance requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA) as well. In this environment, states' systems for allowing charter schools flexibility and ensuring school performance and financial integrity assume greater importance. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) examined: (1) how states allow charter schools flexibility; (2) how states promote accountability for school performance and financial integrity for charter schools; (3) the implications of NCLBA for charter schools; and (4) the role the Department of Education plays in charter school accountability. GAO surveyed the 39 states and jurisdictions with operating charter schools in 2002-03 and interviewed charter school experts and Education officials. The following are appended: (1) Scope and Methodology; (2) Selected Data Tables from Survey; (3) Summary of Selected Charter School Research Projects Sponsored by the Department of Education; (4) Comments from the Department of Education; and (5) GAO Contacts and Staff Acknowledgements.  | [FULL TEXT]

Hickok, Eugene; Ladner, Matthew (2007).  Reauthorization of No Child Left Behind: Federal Management or Citizen Ownership of K-12 Education? Backgrounder No. 2047  [Heritage Foundation] 

As Congress considers reauthorization of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 a fundamental question in the debate is whether to continue to increase federal government management authority over education or to restore citizen ownership of America's schools. Testing requirements in NCLB are having unintended consequences: by requiring states to test students annually and make annual progress toward a national goal of all students scoring proficient by 2014, the law has created a strong incentive for states to lower standards so that more students will pass. Researchers have termed this problem a "race to the bottom," which threatens to eliminate academic transparency about student performance, denying parents, citizens, and policymakers needed information on school performance. The authors advocate that Congress can address this problem by ending NCLB testing policies and allowing states to opt out of NCLB requirements. Parents, citizens, and policymakers would continue to receive the information about student and school performance through state testing. Restoring citizen ownership of American education is advocated as necessary for future efforts to strengthen American public schools.  [This document was produced by the Domestic Policy Studies Department, The Heritage Foundation.] | [FULL TEXT]

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_____. (2002).  Higher Education Counts: Accountability Measures for the New Millennium. Report II. Data Analysis Update: Performance Improvement Targets. 

This report is the second annual accountability report of Connecticut's state system of higher education. With the passage of Public Act 01-173, each constituent unit of higher education is to submit an accountability report to the Commissioner of Higher Education annually by January 1. The Commissioner is charged with assembling a consolidated accountability report to the Joint Standing Committee on Education. For the first time, the 2002 report contains performance improvement targets. This document provides updated baseline data and peer institution comparisons for measures reported in the previous year and data on several new measures included for the first time this year. A set of four measures for the Connecticut Distance Learning Consortium is also presented for the first time. The report opens with the presentation of system-level measures to provide a statewide perspective on higher education in Connecticut. These measures are followed by reports from each of the constituent units. Each section begins with a brief discussion of unit mission, strategic priorities, and peer institutions used for comparative purposes. Attachment A contains a list of measures for which performance improvement targets have been set. Attachment B contains an updated timeline for the development and reporting of measures not yet included in this report, and Attachment C provides a list of measures that have been substituted or dropped. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (2002).  High-Skill Training: Grants from H-1B Visa Fees Meet Specific Workforce Needs, But at Varying Skill Levels. Report to Congressional Requesters. 

A study examined the skill grant and scholarship grant programs. Findings indicated skill grantees offered training through various service delivery options to people needing skill upgrading; scholarship grantees provided scholarships to low income students for college degree programs in computer science, mathematics, and engineering. The skill grant program required grantees to create partnerships to implement the program; the nature of the partnerships was flexible. Finding students eligible for the scholarship grant program was a challenge. Skill grant training was based on local workforce needs and addressed occupations below and at bachelor's degree level required for H-1B visas; the scholarship program's training was based on national workforce needs and jobs that many H-1B visa holders fill. The skill program designed training to address skill shortages in the local workforce. The scholarship program's focus was attracting and keeping students in fields with national workforce shortages. Federal programs and initiatives were not coordinated to address the national need for high skill workers; local skill grant programs were more coordinated. By implementing skill grants, local workforce officials increased coordination with partners and employers. Skill grantees wanted more Department of Labor (DOL) aid in obtaining information on companies needing H-1B workers and developing a national program marketing strategy. (Appendixes include scope and methodology; survey; data; and comments from the DOL, National Science Foundation, and Department of Commerce.) | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (2003).  Highlights, FY 2003-05 Biennial Operating Budget for Higher Education. 

This report explains that the General Fund budget: provides $1,232.6 million for the FY 2003-05 biennium; slashes student financial aid funding by 8.6 percent; includes a reduction of 3 percent for Early Retirement Incentive Plan salary savings; represents a budget that is 16.5 percent below requested current services funding, $15.8 million below the Governor's recommendation for FY 2004 and $20.3 million below the Appropriations Committee's recommendation; and reverses the Governor's proposed transfer of the Connecticut State University (CSU) and Community-Technical College System (CTC) central offices into the Department of Higher Education (DHE) to form a Board of Regents but maintains the requirement for most of the estimated consolidation savings of $2.8 million in FY 2004 and $5.8 million in FY 2005. The final budget for the DHE reverses the transfer of one-half of the CSU and CTC central office positions along with the additional savings of 25 percent in FY 2004 and 50 percent in FY 2005. Funding for the University of Connecticut and UConn Health Center is slightly lower than previous legislation recommendations, while funding for the CTC is slightly higher than previously proposed. The budget for Charter Oak State College eliminated the restoration of the collective bargaining funding with the settlement of the contract and the $200,000 of growth funding for the Connecticut Distance Learning Consortium. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (2003).  Higher Education Accountability Plans  [Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board] 

Washington state's public four-year universities and college have submitted their 2003-05 accountability plans to the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB). The state operating budget directs the Board to review these plans and set biennial performance targets for each institution. For 2003-05, the four-year institutions are reporting on a total of six measures: (1) Graduation efficiency for freshmen; (2) Graduation efficiency for transfer students; (3) Undergraduate retention; (4) Five-year freshmen graduation rate; (5) Faculty productivity (which may be measured differently by each institution); and (6) A unique measure for each institution that reflects its mission. Section I of this report describes efforts undertaken by the institutions in 2001-03. Section II presents accountability data, targets, and definitions. Section III provides comments on institutional performance and targets, and describes strategies the institutions have planned for 2003-05. The institutions have set some goals which seem modest or reduced compared to goals set in 2001-03, but these new targets represent a long-term increase when compared to performance in earlier years. All of the institutions are making efforts to meet the needs of students. It is difficult for an institution to attribute the cause of a single effort to a change in results; rather, all efforts combined seem to contribute to overall results. However, some spikes may reflect increasing selectivity in admissions more than any other factor: efforts to comply with recent legislation to reduce the number of students who graduate with excess credits are mentioned in several institutional plans, and may have a measurable effect on graduation efficiency and five-year graduation rates.  | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (2004).  Higher Education Assistance Fund Proposed Reallocation For FY 2006 through FY 2015.  [Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board] 

With the repeal of the statewide ad valorem tax in 1981, many state colleges and universities no longer had resources for construction, improvements, major repair and renovation, and the acquisition of capital equipment. The Legislature recognized the need to provide permanent capital funding for those colleges and universities not participating in the Permanent University Fund (PUF), which included some of the institutions of The University of Texas System and the Texas A&M University System. Amendments to the Texas Constitution provided for the appropriation of $100 million annually, beginning in September 1985, from the first money coming into the state treasury not otherwise appropriated by the constitution. This document contains statistical information on funds for each college in the state of Texas. Information from the first meeting of the Higher Education Assistance Fund (HEAF) Reallocation Advisory Committee and a summary of the recommendations from the Coordinating Board, are included in this document. The following are appended: (1) Higher Education Assistance Fund Reallocation Advisory Committee; and (2) Elements of the proposed HEAF Allocation Formula.  | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (2005).  2005-2006 Highly Qualified Teacher Reporting Materials. How Will I know if I Meet the Federal Definition of a Highly Qualified Teacher?  [Ohio Department of Education] 

The federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), which took effect in 2002 and requires that all teachers be highly qualified in the core academic content area(s) they teach, places major emphasis upon teacher quality as a factor in improving achievement for all students. This emphasis grows out of the research showing that teachers' mastery of the academic content they teach is critical to engaging students and is a significant factor in raising levels of student achievement. Newly hired and veteran teachers must satisfy the definition of a Highly Qualified Teacher. Veteran teachers must be HQT by the end of the 2005-2006 school year. Federal regulations require that new and newly hired teachers be highly qualified at the time of hire. This packet contains the forms principals need to complete the HQT requirement. New teachers, new teachers to the building or teachers with new assignments shall complete Forms A-E. Veteran teachers in the same building will receive a status sheet. The form(s) will be used to determine whether the teacher satisfies the definition of a Highly Qualified Teacher based on the federal criteria. Teachers who do not yet meet the requirements have until the end of the 2005-2006 to comply. All forms and status sheets will be available from the EMIS coordinator following the EMIS October report. | [FULL TEXT]

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Hill, Heather C. (2007).  Mathematical Knowledge of Middle School Teachers: Implications for the No Child Left Behind Policy Initiative  Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 29, 2. 

This article explores middle school teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching and the relationship between such knowledge and teachers' subject matter preparation, certification type, teaching experience, and their students' poverty status. The author administered multiple-choice measures to a nationally representative sample of teachers and found that those with more mathematical course work, a subject-specific certification, and high school teaching experience tended to possess higher levels of teaching-specific mathematical knowledge. However, teachers with strong mathematical knowledge for teaching are, like those with full credentials and preparation, distributed unequally across the population of U.S. students. Specifically, more affluent students are more likely to encounter more knowledgeable teachers. The author discusses the implications of this for current U.S. policies aimed at improving teacher quality.

Hill, Jacqueline; MacMillan, Bob (2004).  An Effective, Research-Based Instructional Approach to Meet the Needs of All Students: Direct Instruction. The Case for Employing Direct Instruction in America's Schools: Examples and Explanations for Administrative Personnel  [Online Submission] 

Low-test scores in literacy and mathematics have resulted in increased accountability for educators, as evidenced by statewide "high stakes: testing. The push by federal and state mandates, such as the "No Child Left Behind" Act and the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) have increased the amount of teaching and learning required of educators and students. As a result, administrators are continuously searching for and utilizing instructional approaches that are research-based, have a proven record of effectiveness and efficacy, and are able to meet the increasingly diverse academic needs of the general education population. The authors suggest that incorporating DI in the classroom may be the answer. A crucial element in the implementation of DI in most cases is change. A total embracement of direct instruction by administrators is necessary for DI to be effective in the classroom. This article discusses how administrators can effectively implement DI into their schools by providing definitions and examples of DI, discussing the types of DI available and providing examples of the cost of these materials, and addressing the role of the administrator in embracing DI in their districts. | [FULL TEXT]

Hill, Jane Donnelly; Flynn, Kathleen (2004).  English Language Learner Resource Guide: A Guide for Rural Districts with a Low Incidence of ELLs  [Mid Continent Research for Education and Learning] 

This resource guide will help rural school districts with a low incidence of English language learners (ELLs) develop the capacity to build and implement a comprehensive program that meets both the academic and language proficiency needs of ELLs. Under Title III of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, ELLs must show increased academic achievement in content areas each year, even as they are also learning English. Low incidence districts, therefore, must seek creative means for delivering services to these students. This guide will assist administrators and teachers in such districts create and provide necessary services. The following are appended: (1) ELL Advisory Committee Survey; (2) ELLs Administrative Guide; (3) ELLs Administrative Guide--Identification of ELLs; (4) Language Development Profile for ELLs; and (5) Spanish Language Questionnaire. | [FULL TEXT]

Hill, Paul T. (2003).  School Boards: Focus on School Performance, Not Money and Patronage. 

This paper lays out a performance-based model to better leverage the mission and power of school boards toward improving student learning. It moves beyond discussions about whether boards should be elected or appointed, instead arguing that mode of selection is less directly responsible for board success than clarity and focus about its mission and its role. The paper examines key issues and provides recommendations for school reform. The paper is organized into three parts: part 1, "Why the Existing Structure of Oversight Does Not Promote School Performance"; part 2, "What Performance-Focused Oversight of Schools Would Entail"; and part 3, "How the Missions and Activities of School Boards and District Central Offices Must Change." The paper concludes with a table, supplemented by text, on governance alternatives, and a table, also supplement by text, that compares board missions under two new governance models. The paper ends with a brief discussion of responsibility and accountability in light of recent educational legislation. | [FULL TEXT]

Hill, Paul T. (2005).  Doing School Choice Right  American Journal of Education, 111, 2. 

School choice is growing, due to growth of charter schools, private voucher programs, and No Child Left Behind requirements that school districts offer options to children in low-performing schools. Growth can bring dangers if choice is implemented carelessly. Recent research on choice shows that program design and implementation matter: the quality of parent information, the amounts of money that follow children to schools of choice, and rules governing school admissions all help determine whether disadvantaged children benefit from choice. Smart program design can also reduce the risk of harm to children left behind in regular public schools. The article describes a needed research program on doing choice right, which can provide guidance to local leaders charged with choice implementation.

Hill, Paul T.; Rainey, Lydia; Rotherham, Andrew J. (2006).  The Future of Charter Schools and Teachers Unions: Results of a Symposium 
 

Over the past 15 years, charter schools and teachers unions have battled in state legislatures, the courts and the media. But with increasing frequency, the two groups are facing each other in the everyday operation of schools. This report summarizes the opinions expressed at a meeting of local state, and national leaders from both the charter school and teachers union communities convened to begin to answer questions such as: (1) Will on-the-ground experiences change charter schools or unions? and (2) Will existing conflicts only spread, or will direct experience lead to some moderation within each party? The meeting was held on May 20, 2006 at the Progressive Policy Institute in Washington, DC. The report makes the case that if relations are to improve, three things are needed. First, to help ground the discussion in facts, we need better evidence about the charter school teaching force and the impact of chartering on issues that matter to teachers. Second, more exemplars and models of effective union-charter partnerships can help show how important problems can be solved. Finally, both groups could engage in confidence-building measures to demonstrate their desire to make progress, not just give the appearance of openness. Appended are: (1) Participants; and (2) Agenda Questions. | [FULL TEXT]

Hill, Paul T.; Warner-King, Kelly; Campbell, Christine; McElroy, Meaghan; Munoz-Colon, Isabel (2002).  Big City School Boards: Problems and Options. 

Though the public believes that urban school boards should handle problems with failing schools, urban school boards spend very little time considering ways to turn such schools around or transforming the educational experiences of at-risk students. Today's school board members are expected to be interest representatives, trustees for children, and delegates of the state. These missions are in conflict because they require boards to serve different masters and accomplish different objectives. Mission confusion is one reason why school boards often look disorganized. Legislatures exercise great control over local school boards, since boards operate on a grant of authority from the state. School board duties are defined via accretion. Past approaches to school board missions (i.e., discipline via standards, school board training, and imitating boards of private business) have failed. Options for righting the balance in favor of trusteeship include broadening the constituency to which school board members answer, limiting school boards' basic powers and duties, and eliminating school boards' exclusive authority to oversee schools in a particular geographic area. Three appendices contain data on school board duties defined by accretion under state law, school board responsibilities, and how state and mayoral takeovers have changed school board powers. | [FULL TEXT]

Hill, Twyla J. (2002).  Grandparents in Law: Investigating the Institutionalization of Extended Family Roles  International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 54, 1. 

Previous research on grandparents has focused on the individual and familial level and has characterized grandparent roles as ambiguous and contingent. Emphasizing instead structural phenomena, this theoretical paper argues that grandmother and grandfather roles are being institutionalized through state and federal legislation. This phenomenon provides an opportunity to investigate the process of institutionalization as it happens. Grandparenthood is evaluated as a potential site for institutionalization and law as a source of institutionalization is discussed. Preliminary evidence of the legal institutionalization of grandparenthood is presented and implications and directions for further research are suggested.

Hillard, Lurana Case; Guglielmino, Lucy Madsen (2007).  Promoting Reading Improvement: A Case Study of Exemplary Elementary Principals  ERS Spectrum, 25, 2. 

The primary purpose of this study was to determine if there were commonalities in the approaches of 10 elementary school principals in the state of Florida identified as "success stories" in leading reading improvement in their schools in 2002, shortly after enactment of the No Child Left Behind Act at the national level and the Just Read, Florida! initiative at the state level. A secondary purpose of this study was to determine the principals' levels of readiness for self-directed learning. Several commonalities were noted, and in a qualitative analysis of selected interview questions, five major themes emerged: Philosophical Framework, Human Resources, Programs/Strategies, Use of Data, and Use of Federal and State Initiatives and Information. On the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale, the principals' scores were exceptionally high, comparable with those of the top entrepreneurs in the United States. The conclusion of this study centers on the identification of these exemplar principals as "educational entrepreneurs" who employ innovation, teacher empowerment, shared leadership, and reliance upon data to lead reading improvement in their schools.

Hilton, Alan (2007).  Response to Intervention: Changing How We Do Business  Leadership, 36, 4. 

In this article, the author discusses Response to Intervention (RtI), a school-wide system of intervention. One of the advantages of RtI in the diagnosis of disabilities is that it allows schools to intervene early to meet the needs of struggling learners. RtI also maps those specific instructional strategies found to benefit a particular student, which is helpful to teachers and parents. The author identifies several areas that are essential to the implementation and sustainability of RtI as a school-wide reform movement in California districts. By taking these areas into consideration during the implementation of RtI, district leaders will be better able to ensure success of this change.

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Hinde, Elizabeth R.; Ekiss, Gale Olp (2005).  No Child Left Behind...Except in Geography? GeoMath in Arizona Answers a Need  Social Studies and the Young Learner, 18, 2. 

It is no secret that language arts and math are the dominant features of the elementary curriculum. This is especially the case in Kindergarten through third grades. In many states, the thrust of the curriculum in the primary grades is on learning to read. After that, it is thought that students will then be able to read to learn. With that philosophy in mind, many elementary teachers and their administrators consider social studies as secondary to language arts and math. They teach social studies if there is time in the day after the subjects included on mandated assessments have been taught. Time and instructional emphasis is placed on those subject areas that are covered on tests. In order to combat the curtailment of social studies (geography in particular) at the elementary level, the Arizona Geographic Alliance has produced innovative programs that teach elementary geography content integrated with the tested content areas of language arts and math. These programs, GeoLiteracy and GeoMath, are described in this article, with special emphasis on GeoMath.

Hing, Bill Ong (2005).  Deporting Cambodian Refugees: Justice Denied?  Crime & Delinquency, 51, 2. 

Until recently, the United States did not deport refugees convicted of crimes to the communist-dominated countries of Cuba, Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. After all, these refugees had fled persecution, and diplomatic ties between the United States and these countries are not particularly strong. But in March 2002, the United States convinced Cambodia to each month accept the repatriation of a few of its nationals who have been convicted of aggravated felonies. These individuals have served their sentences in the criminal justice system, and the vast majority either fled the killing fields of Cambodia as toddlers or were born in Thai refugee camps. Is justice really being served by their deportation?

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Hipsky, Shellie (2007).  The Paraprofessional Perspective  [Online Submission] 

This qualitative report examines the role of the paraprofessional. The 2004 reauthorization of IDEA, explains that paraprofessionals who are appropriately trained and supervised (in accordance with state law, regulation, or written policy) are recognized as personnel who may assist in the provision of special education and related services to students with disabilities [20 U.S.C. 1412(a)(14)]. The study was originally conducted for the practical purpose of examining the support structure of a specific school. However, the information that was garnered from the internal study can be applied to other school programs that have paraprofessionals who work with special needs students. A questionnaire was presented to 23 paraprofessionals at an alternative 1st-12th grade school that serves both day and residential students with emotional and/or behavioral disabilities. The following themes emerged throughout the analysis of the responses: the role of the paraprofessional, the healthy classroom, from paraprofessional to teacher, and paraprofessional professional development. The study begins with a literature review on paraprofessionals and explores quotes directly from the paraprofessional's perspective that was derived from the survey. Suggestions for training and other recommendations for strengthening the current supports for paraprofessionals were explained in the report. | [FULL TEXT]

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Hirsch, E. D., Jr. (2007).  Using Tests Productively  Educational Horizons, 85, 2. 

Tests of academic progress such as those enforced by No Child Left Behind Act are the only practical way to hold schools accountable for educating all children and are therefore essential to the twin aims of quality and fairness. Many of the complaints against the No Child Left Behind law pertain to the supposedly harmful influence of intensive preparation for the standardized reading tests. These objections seem justified only because there is a lack of fit between the kind of education that promotes significant progress in reading and the kind of education that the schools have currently devised in their unsuccessful attempts to raise scores on reading tests. In this article, the author outlines some of facts about reading tests that are not widely known yet but are needed to be familiarized by parents, teachers, and citizens who are interested in educational improvement. The author shows how standardized reading tests can foster a rich and formative education that meets the requirements of adequate yearly progress for all groups with flying colors.  | [FULL TEXT]

Hirsch, E. D., Jr. (2008).  Why Do We Have a Knowledge Deficit? Policy Perspectives  [WestEd] 

"Policy Perspectives" presents visiting authors' own views and/or research on issues relevant to schools and communities nationwide. The idea that reading skill is largely a set of general-purpose maneuvers that can be applied to any and all texts is one of the main barriers to our children's overall low achievement in reading, argues the author of this "Policy Perspectives." It leads to activities that are deadening for agile and eager minds, and it carries huge opportunity costs. These activities take up time that could be devoted to gaining general knowledge, which, according to the author, is the central requisite for high reading skill. He asserts that his call for a revolution in the teaching of subjects related to reading is issued in a period when activities in the elementary grades of the public schools are overshadowed by the provisions of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act. Because of the exigencies of this law, the time could be ripe for making better ideas prevail. The author argues that the inherent conflict between the dominant principles of naturalism (natural, engaging activities) and formalism (all-purpose, how-to knowledge) leads to resentment of the idea that the children should be constantly tested, since the new accountability provisions of NCLB, it is thought, have forced schools to engage in all of this soul-killing drill in clarifying and summarizing. The internal conflict between the principles simply generates the need for continual reform, and offers an enemy that is always to be resisted, even when it has been generated by the drills that go with formalistic ideas. The author concludes that, this conflict of ideas is, then, the root cause of the impasse between NCLB and the schools, for the only way to improve scores in reading comprehension and to narrow the reading gap among groups is systematically to provide children with the wide-ranging, specific background knowledge they need to comprehend what they read. [This issue of "Policy Perspectives" was excerpted from "The Knowledge Deficit: Closing the Shocking Education Gap for American Children" by E. D. Hirsch, Jr.

With No Child Left Behind's call for highly qualified teachers, the stakes for recruiting and retaining teachers have never been more important. Alabama, like other states, has struggled to develop policies and programs that effectively staff all classrooms with quality educators. The Center for Teaching Quality, with the support of SERVE, has surveyed approximately 4,200 educators in Mobile, Talladega and Hoover to inform the work of the Governor's Commission on Quality Teaching. By asking those whose opinions matter most on these critical issues--classroom teachers--policymakers can better gauge what incentives and school conditions are most essential in recruiting and retaining teachers for all Alabama classrooms. Survey respondents were positive about the teaching and learning conditions in their schools, reporting that leadership supports them, professional development provides the knowledge and skills they need to teach effectively, and that facilities and resources are adequate. This is important as educators noted that these conditions drive their future employment decisions. Educators who indicated that they are most likely to move schools or quit teaching have much more negative perceptions of teaching and learning conditions than those who want to remain in their school. Additionally, issues such as leadership, empowerment, and time (along with salary) were among the most important influences on teachers' decisions about whether to stay in their school. Leadership, in particular, was an important factor. Recommendations are offered for the Governor's Commission's consideration.  [This report was produced by the Center for Teaching Quality, formerly known as the Southeast Center for Teaching Quality.] | [FULL TEXT]

Hirschland, Matthew J.; Steinmo, Sven (2003).  Correcting the Record: Understanding the History of Federal Intervention and Failure in Securing U.S. Educational Reform.  Educational Policy, 17, 3. 

Asserts that the debate over the appropriate federal role in education began with the founding of America. Argues that successive waves of educational reform are the products of the compromise between localism and national progressive goals. Consequently, a type of schizophrenia rather than a coherent and stable public policy characterizes American national education policy.

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Hjort, Katrin (2006).  De-democratisation in Denmark?  European Educational Research Journal, 5, 3-4. 

In Denmark, as in many other countries, international agendas represented by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's Programme for International Student Assessment studies, the European Bologna process and the school effectiveness movement are important factors for educational policy. However, in national contexts, international policies become interwoven with local agendas and power relations. In Denmark, neo-liberal educational policies are linked with the present reform processes in the Danish welfare system, new public management. At the moment a political majority in Denmark has decided--without much of a prior democratic debate--to tone down the democratic statements in the objects clause of the Danish Primary Education Act. This seems odd, since traditionally, democracy has been a pillar in the self-perception and self-projection of the Danish educational system. The question dealt with in this article is whether we are dealing with de-democratisation in the Danish educational system and the Danish society, or with the development of new interpretations of democracy and a new need for a democratic debate.

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Hoag, Lydia, Ed. (2004).  The LSS Review. Volume 3, Number 1  [Laboratory for Student Success (LSS), The Mid-Atlantic Regional Educational Laboratory] 

A growing number of American students are nonnative English speakers. These students are vulnerable to early school exit and schools are facing more and more such students each year. Presently, about 56% of all public school teachers in the United States have at least one English language learner (ELL) student in their class, but less than 20% of the teachers who serve ELLs are certified English as a second language (ESL) or bilingual teachers. What are the best methods and policies to help ELLs attain academic success? What are the most effective methods one can use when teaching ELLs? More broadly, what kind of training are teachers receiving or should they receive in order to help ELLs meet high academic standards? These questions were discussed at a National Invitational Conference, "Improving Teacher Quality for English Language Learners", convened November 13-14, 2003 in Arlington, Virginia. Sponsored by The Laboratory for Student Success (LSS), the Mid-Atlantic Regional Educational Laboratory, at Temple University Center for Research in Human Development and Education, the purpose of the conference was to provide insights and research-based information on how to improve the quality of teachers for all ELLs. The conference papers, general discussion, and work groups pointed to the conclusion that teaching informed by knowledge about language acquisition, cultural differences, and the social context of schooling can improve outcomes for English language learners and that increasing such knowledge among teachers, administrators, researchers and policymakers is both necessary and achievable. Strengthening links between evidence-based research and classroom teaching can benefit the growing population of English language learners in U.S. schools and those who share responsibility for educating them. This issue of "The LSS Review" contains the following: (1) Improving Teacher Quality for English Language Learners: Reports and Next-Step Recommendations from a National Invitational Conference (Hersh Waxman, Kip Tellez, and Herbert J. Walberg); (2) Critical Issues in Developing the Teacher Corps for English Language Learners (Patricia Gandara and Julie Maxwell-Jolly); (3) Training Teachers through Their Students' First Language (Liliana Minaya-Rowe); (4) Quality Instruction in Reading for English Language Learners (Margarita Calderon); (5) Successful School Leadership for English Language Learners (Elsy Fierro Suttmiller and Maria Luisa Gonzalez); (6) Lessons Learned from a Research Synthesis on the Effects of Teachers' Professional Development on Culturally Diverse Students (Stephanie Knight and Donna L. Wiseman); (7) Reculturing Principals as Leaders for Cultural and Linguistic Diversity (Augustina Reyes); and (8) National, State and Local Policies: Issues for the Preparation of Quality Teachers for Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Students (Eugene Garcia and Tom Stritikus). [For "The LSS Review. Volume 2, Number 4," see ED497148.] | [FULL TEXT]

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Hobbs, Renee; Jaszi, Peter; Aufderheide, Patricia (2007).  The Cost of Copyright Confusion for Media Literacy  [Online Submission] 

Purpose: Media literacy educators in K-12, higher education, and after-school programs depend on the ability to make use of copyright materials (print, visual, film, video and online) in their teaching. This study investigated the knowledge, attitudes and experiences of media literacy educators regarding copyright and fair use. Methodology: Sixty-three educators from K-12, higher education, youth media, and non-profit organizations were interviewed. The interview, approximately 45 minutes or longer, usually by phone, consisted of open-ended questions organized into three broad categories: (1) how educators use copyrighted materials in the classroom or other educational setting for educational purposes; (2) how their students use copyrighted materials in their own creative work; and (3) how educators use copyrighted materials in their curriculum development, materials production, or other creative work. Results: The fundamental goals of media literacy education--to cultivate critical thinking about media and its role in culture and society and to strengthen creative communication skills--are compromised by unnecessary copyright restrictions. Among K-12 educators, youth media specialists, and college faculty, teachers face conflicting information about their rights, and their students' rights, to quote copyrighted material. Many confront complex, restrictive institutional copyright policies in the workplace. As a result, media literacy educators use less effective teaching techniques, teach and transmit erroneous copyright information, fail to share innovative instructional approaches, and do not take advantage of new digital platforms. Conclusions: Copyright law permits a wide range of uses of copyrighted material without permission or payment. Educational exemptions sit within a far broader landscape of fair use. However, educators today have no consensus around what constitutes acceptable fair use practices. Recommendations: Media literacy educators can address this problem with the same techniques they use in their work: increasing shared knowledge. Like other creative communities, such as documentary filmmakers, media literacy educators from K-12 to university level can articulate their own shared understandings of appropriate fair use in a code of practice. This code can educate not only themselves and their colleagues, but their students and administrators. Finally, their code can guide and instruct other educators, in formal and informal settings, who use copyrighted material in their teaching for a wide range of educational purposes and goals. The following are appended: (1) Research Methodology; and (2) Interviewees. [This report was produced by the Center for Social Media, School of Communication, American University.] | [FULL TEXT]

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Hodge, David R. (2007).  Releasing Students from Class for Spiritual Instruction: Does It Hinder Academic Performance?  Children & Schools, 29, 3. 

Release time programs allow public school students to be excused from classes to receive offsite spiritual instruction during school hours. With the passage of the federal No Child Left Behind Act, schools are under increasing pressure to raise test scores, which has led to questions about the advisability of allowing students to miss classes. In the face of these concerns, this study examined the relationship between release time participation and academic outcomes in a large urban school district. Contrary to what might be expected, participation in release time was not associated with lower academic test scores. The article also explores the possibility that release time may represent a form of social capital, particularly in low-income neighborhoods, helping to instill values that directly and indirectly help students to achieve academically.

Hodge, Warren A.; Jones, Joyce T. (2000).  Evaluating the Role of Waivers in Systemic School Reform.  Evaluation and Program Planning, 23, 3. 

Studied the efficacy of using waivers to deregulate and improve public education in Florida, where the state gave school districts the authority to seek exemption from state statutes, rules, and regulations. Content analysis of waiver requests from sampled districts shows that collection of waiver-related data from districts is not systematic and does not assure adequate planning and evaluation when seeking waivers.

Hodges, Terry; Jones, Stephanie; Purvis, Mary L.; Rubin, David B.; Thrasher, Doralee; Underwood, Julie; Watkins, W. David (2002).  Understanding and Limiting School Board Member Liability. 

This book is a primer on board-member liability issues and is intended for both board members and school attorneys. The first chapter, "The Legal System," examines federal sources of legal authority, state and local sources of legal authority, and federal and state judicial structures. Liability under state tort law is the subject of chapter 2, which includes sections on basic tort principles, personal liability of school board members, liability for injury, sexual abuse, and other concerns. Chapter 3 discusses the Section 1983 claim that prohibits the deprivation of any rights, privileges, or immunities secured by the Constitution and laws. The chapter describes basic elements of the law, remedies for successful claimants, common Section 1983 claims, and "nonconstitutional" Section 1983 claims. Chapter 4 outlines some of the legal defenses against liability, including procedural defenses, substantive defenses, and statutory or common-law defenses. The last chapter, "Minimizing Liability," discusses the need to develop a coherent plan that lessens the risk of a district being sued. These prevention measures include adopting and implementing sound policies, securing legal advice on policies, training everyone in the district, investigating complaints against the district, securing appropriate insurance, and formulating a course of action should the school board become the target of a suit.

Hodgkinson, Harold L. (2004).  Tunnel Vision: New England Higher Education Ignores Demographic Peril  Connection: The Journal of the New England Board of Higher Education, 18, 5. 

This author states that American higher education ignores about 90 percent of the environment in which it operates. Colleges change admissions requirements without even informing high schools in their service areas. Community college graduates are denied access to four-year programs because of policy changes made only after it was too late for the students to adjust their studies accordingly. Most important, the enormous shifts in pre-K-12 education caused by the No Child Left Behind Act are totally unknown to higher education's leaders. There are also several demographic factors that New Englanders have ignored. First and most important, the decreasing birth rate in three New England states means that, unless young families of childbearing age start moving into New England in droves, the region's population will get older and smaller very quickly. A second factor is the "net" of people moving in and out of a state. During the 1990s, four New England states saw more people move out than in. Many of New England's low-income and minority citizens are not participating in the American Dream, and the number of college-goers in the region known around the world as a center of higher education is lower than one would expect, especially in Vermont. | [FULL TEXT]

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Hoff, David J. (2004).  Funding Concerns Greet Legislatures as Sessions Begin  Education Week, 23 n16 p1, 24 Jan 2004. 

Despite rosy economic news, highlighted by the 8.2 percent surge in the nation's economy in the third quarter of 2003, state coffers aren't growing at pace to meet the needs of schools and other high-priority programs such as Medicaid and prisons. Last month, many states started issuing estimates of how the money they'll have to spend in the 2005 fiscal year, which starts July 1 in most states. Overall, 21 states are forecasting shortfalls, totaling $40 billion, which amounts to about 11 percent of their operating budgets, according to the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. In this article, the author discusses the factors that lead to the financial shortfalls of public education aid in some states. Public schools' advocates and educators have demanded the increase in order to keep up with the growing cost of public education.

Hoff, David J. (2004).  Debate Grows on True Costs of School Law: No Child Left Behind Act Prompts State Concerns  Education Week, 26 n27 p1, 22 Feb 2004. 

Depending on who's talking, the Bush administration's signature education law either imposes an onerous financial burden on schools or provides enough aid for states and schools to administer it. This article discusses the study released by the Ohio Department of Education estimating that the state will spend about $1.5 billion a year to meet the administrative costs and achievement goals of the No Child Left Behind Act. Here, the author talks about bipartisan complaints and scrutiny in Ohio.

Hoff, David J. (2005).  K-12 Finance a Top Priority in '05 Sessions: States Feeling Pressure from Competing Needs  Education Week, 24 n16 p1, 23 Jan 2005. 

Good fiscal news is arriving in state capitals: Tax revenues are finally starting to recover from their four-year swoon. The bad news: States face pressure to meet increasing health-care costs and to replenish rainy-day and other funds legislatures tapped in recent years. The bottom line is that schools will have to fight for significant increases in the next fiscal year's budget, according to lawmakers and analysts preparing for the 2005 legislative sessions. School funding will be at the center of debates over how to spend money when all 50 state legislatures convene this 2005. In an annual 50-state report released in December by the NCSL, budget officers in 26 states said that funding of K-12 education would be one of the top three priorities in the 2005 sessions. In a separate survey conducted late last year by the Education Week Research Center, state education officials in 31 states said their states were considering major changes to the way they finance schools.

Hoff, David J. (2005).  NCLB Law Needs Work, Legislators Assert: Report by State Legislatures' Group Urges More Flexibility  Education Week, 24 n25 p1, 20 Feb 2005. 

The federal government has taken control of state education systems, and state leaders want them back, legislators around the country say. Through the No Child Left Behind Act, Congress and the U.S. Department of Education have forced state lawmakers to expand their testing systems, alter the ways they reward and punish schools, and spend their states' own money on federal mandates, the National Conference of State Legislatures contends in a report issued Wednesday. To address the situation, the 76-page report says, Washington should give states broader authority to define student-achievement goals and more latitude to devise the strategies to help students reach those goals. While the report includes strong rhetoric--including suggestions that the 3-year-old No Child Left Behind law is unconstitutional--NCSL leaders struck a conciliatory tone when releasing it. In this article, the author highlights the most controversial points of the report.

Hoff, David J. (2005).  Texas Stands behind Own Testing Rule  Education Week, 24 n26 p1, 23 Mar 2005. 

Faced with a conflict between state and federal laws, Texas officials have come down on the side of their own law and set up a possible showdown with the U.S. government over millions of dollars in education aid. In determining which schools and districts were meeting annual goals under the federal No Child Left Behind Act, the state last February 2005 granted a host of appeals from districts and schools that said they should get credit for following less stringent state rules for assessing special education students. As a result, 431 districts and 1,312 schools were considered by Texas to be making adequate yearly progress, or AYP, even though they did not follow the federal law's strict rules for counting the test scores of students with disabilities. The author states that states will be watching how the U.S. Department of Education reacts to the Texas decision and whether it withholds any of Texas' $1 billion annual share from the No Child Left Behind Act.

Hoff, David J. (2005).  Online Tools for Sizing Up Schools Debut: Web Site Stirs Concerns over Fair Comparisons  Education Week, 24 n29 p1, 22 Mar 2005. 

Three years after a federal law required states to collect a host of education data, much of that information and more will now be available in one place--giving the public a newfound resource and giving educators headaches over how schools can be compared. On a free Web site to be launched on March 29, 2005, a public-private partnership will post test scores, school spending, student demographics, and other relevant data. The site will feature research tools that allow users to compare achievement across districts, track districts' and individual schools' progress in reaching student-achievement goals under the federal No Child Left Behind Act, and find schools and districts that may be outperforming others. The site--www.schoolmatters.com--also will give people ways to measure whether school spending translates into student learning, as well the chance to compare schools' effectiveness. Some educators have questioned whether the Web site provides a fair way to compare schools, especially in the section that calculates a school's "return on spending." State officials said that they would be watching how critics and supporters of public schools use the data to bolster arguments that specific schools should or should not get more money.

Hoff, David J. (2005).  States to Get New Options on NCLB Law: More Flexibility Promised as Special Education Rules Eased  Education Week, 24 n31 p1, 38 Apr 2005. 

In her most noteworthy policy speech since taking office in January, U.S. Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings outlined how she would give states new flexibility to implement the 3-year-old law. The Department of Education will entertain proposals from states to waive rules under the federal No Child Left Behind Act. The department also will soon propose new rules for every state that would make it easier to assess students with disabilities. While Ms. Spellings said that she does not have the authority or the desire to waive certain tenets of the law, she is willing to address concerns she has heard from state and local officials.

Hoff, David J. (2005).  Efforts Seek Better Data on Graduates: State, Federal Plans Target High School Improvement  Education Week, 43 n24 p1, 31 Jul 2005. 

North Carolina says it graduates 97 percent of its high school students, while Washington state reports it gives diplomas to just 66 percent. But researchers, using methods they believe are more accurate, estimate that the two states' graduation rates are essentially the same, at around 64 percent. Acknowledging that such disparities in data are common, state and federal officials are taking steps to make sure that states publish figures that compare graduation rates using the same scorecard. In the past two weeks, 46 governors signed a pact to produce graduation-rate data that more accurately gauge how well their states do at ensuring students finish on time. Separately, federal officials announced that the U.S. Department of Education would publish its own state-by-state graduation data along with the methodologically disparate rates states now report under the No Child Left Behind Act. The developments together constitute a big step toward producing data that tell policymakers whether their states are providing a sound high school education and that will help track efforts to improve high schools, backers of the changes say. The planned changes in reporting graduation rates are part of new efforts to improve the quality of high schools.

Hoff, David J. (2005).  States Address Academic Concerns  Education Week, 25 n5 p1, 17 Sep 2005. 

State and local officials are slowly untangling complicated webs of accountability, testing, and graduation policies, hoping to give thousands of students displaced by Hurricane Katrina a better handle on their academic standing. While officials in Texas, Tennessee, and Alabama offered some guidance to such students, school leaders in storm-ravaged Louisiana and Mississippi continued to wait for responses to their requests for flexibility in meeting some federal requirements. Mississippi state schools chief, Hank M. Bounds, pressed his case in Washington with members of Congress and officials at the U.S. Department of Education. His state has asked that districts battered by Katrina and those enrolling large numbers of displaced students be exempted this school year from the No Child Left Behind Act's rules on adequate yearly progress. Cecil J. Picard, the state superintendent in Louisiana, has made a similar request. While federal officials deliberate over how they will handle federal rules, state officials are addressing questions about how to assimilate large numbers of students who have been held to different standards and coursework requirements in their home states.

Hoff, David J. (2006).  Kentucky Budget Would Hike K-12 Spending: But Some Contend Amounts Fall Short of Meeting Needs  Education Week, 25, 33. 

Kentucky schools are poised to get their biggest state spending boost in more than a decade, but educators say it won't be enough to counter a lawsuit arguing the state inadequately finances its K-12 schools. In the legisltative session that concluded earlier this month, Kentucky lawmakers passed a two-year budget with $7.9 billion for K-12 education, a 14 percent increase over the current two-year spending plan. The increase is the highest since the 30 percent jump in the biennial budget for fiscal years 1991, and 1992, according to the state budget director's office. The increases in the budget, which is awaiting Governor Ernie Fletcher's signature, would not satisfy the school districts that are suing the state. They cite estimates from school finance studies that found the state is almost $1 billion short of providing districts enough to meet the state's academic goals.

Hoff, David J. (2006).  Leader of State Chiefs' Group to Step down in August  Education Week, 25 n34 p21, 26 May 2006. 

The top executive of the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) has announced that he will leave his post in 2006 at the end of the summer, giving the group time to plan a lobbying strategy for the reauthorization of the No Child Left Behind Act with a new director. G. Thomas Houlihan, the CCSSO's executive director since 2001, said that he is resigning for personal reasons, and chose to do so now because the group is beginning the process of deciding what changes it will seek when Congress revisits the far-reaching law. Federal lawmakers are scheduled to reauthorize the 4-year-old measure in 2007, but most Washington observers expect action to be postponed for a year, or maybe two. In the five years since Mr. Houlihan took the reins of the Washington-based group, which represents state superintendents and commissioners of education, state schools chiefs have played arguably the most significant role in the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act. They have been responsible for expanding their testing systems to provide annual tests in grades 3-8 student proficiency; and creating policies to ensure teachers are "highly qualified."

Hoff, David J. (2006).  "Reading First" Details Sought by Lawmakers  Education Week, 26 n7 p1, 27 Oct 2006. 

This article reports how two prominent Democrats are demanding to know more about the problems identified in the implementation of the federal Reading First program, including whether criminal violations may have occurred and what Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings may have known about the problems while she was a White House aide. In the wake of a report last month that found U.S. Department of Education officials had acted improperly in administering Reading First, Rep. George Miller of California and Sen. Tom Harkin of Iowa have asked the Bush administration to provide additional information about how the $1 billion-a-year program has been carried out. According to the report, it appeared that department officials had improperly organized an advisory panel to favor a specific teaching method and may have exceeded their legal authority by requiring states to adopt specific curricula to qualify for Reading First grants.

Hoff, David J. (2006).  Big Business Going to Bat for NCLB: Competitiveness Is Cited as Reason to Retain Law  Education Week, 26 n8 p1, 24 Oct 2006. 

Large companies and major business groups are known for hiring well-heeled lobbyists to push for their interests, especially in such areas as tax and spending laws. Their federal lobbying presence on education issues has been relatively modest. The author discusses the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and the Business Roundtable--two prominent Washington-based groups representing business owners and chief executives of large corporations, respectively and other business organizations' interests in the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). They are pushing for changes in other areas of pre-K-12 education, such as improving mathematics and science education, expanding instruction in foreign languages and international issues, and offering preschool to all families that want it. Competitiveness is cited as reason to retain NCLB. The author discusses the U.S. Business community's education agenda--one that extends from preschool to college.

Hoff, David J. (2006).  Democratic Majority to Put Education Policy on Agenda  Education Week, 26 n12 p1, 26-27 Nov 2006. 

This article discusses the democratic majority's move to put education policy on agenda. The leaders of the incoming Democratic-controlled Congress say they will make college affordability their top education policy priority, while also working to reauthorize the No Child Left Behind Act, a goal they share with President Bush. In this article, the author discusses the problems that may arise, and might cause a struggle to accomplish both the Democrat's higher education agenda and the reauthorization of the No Child Left Behind Act. Aside from this, the author also discusses the likely support of some Key House Republicans behind the renewal of the No Child Left Behind Act.

Hoff, David J. (2007).  Bush to Start NCLB Push in Congress  Education Week, 26 n18 p1, 23 Jan 2007. 

Making college more affordable, raising the minimum wage, and other domestic items were at the top of Democrats' agenda during their meeting at Capitol Hill. President Bush made clear that reauthorizing the No Child Left Behind Act is one of the priorities. To mark the fifth anniversary of his signing the measure into law on January 8, 2007, the president invited leading members of the new 110th Congress to the White House to discuss his goal of revising the law on schedule by the end of the year. Many believe that it will be difficult to push NCLB bill through Congress this year because it is too time-consuming and politically difficult since it is the presidential-campaign season. However, local officials expressed optimism regarding this matter. But exactly how to accomplish it will likely be the subject of intense debate.

Hoff, David J. (2007).  Bush Offers "Blueprint" for NCLB: Partisan Split Expected as Strategies Diverge  Education Week, 26 n21 p1, 25 Jan 2007. 

This article reports how President Bush's new blueprint for the No Child Left Behind Act will create a partisan debate on educational strategies. In its plans for NCLB, the administration said it wants private and charter schools to create competition that would spur improvement in substandard schools. Democrats, however, have their own priorities for improving the lowest-performing schools. They would create incentives for teachers to work in the toughest schools, give teachers professional development in skills necessary to improve student achievement, and attempt to improve states' services to those schools. As such, there are fears that this partisan divide might unnecessarily sidetrack Congress as it tries to reauthorize NCLB this year.

Hoff, David J. (2007).  Bush Plan Would Heighten NCLB Focus on High School  Education Week, 26 n22 p1, 21 Feb 2007. 

President Bush's new plan to heighten the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act's focus on high schools is being questioned by policy makers. This article discusses how the Bush administration, with its proposals to reauthorize the current version of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, the NCLB, wants to use the law to change the way high schools prepare students for college and careers. The plan would require schools to assess students' readiness for life after graduation and, for the first time, would create a funding stream dedicated to high schools in the law's $12.7 billion flagship program, Title I. However, education policymakers in the states question whether expanding the federal government's reach into high schools, especially using the NCLB law's emphasis on testing, would help existing state-based efforts to make high school curricula more rigorous.

Hoff, David J. (2007).  The View from Rockland  Education Week, 26, 22. 

The community in Rockland County is working together to come up with proposed changes to No Child Left Behind (NCLB). This may be the only community-wide effort in the United States to closely study the lengthy law and recommend detailed changes to it. Under the Rockland County plan, which is discussed in this article, the tests in the accountability system would measure students' progress based on portfolios of work and grades for classroom participation, as well as scores on mostly multiple-choice exams. However, testing would occur less frequently, and schools would be graded based on results for 4th and 8th graders, not the larger group the currently falls under the NCLB system.

Hoff, David J. (2007).  Panel Report Is Latest Rx for NCLB  Education Week, 26 n24 p1, 30 Feb 2007. 

Now that a high-profile and potentially influential panel has released its detailed proposal for revising the No Child Left Behind Act, the Bush administration and education groups are waiting to hear from the institution that matters most, Congress. The Aspen Institute's Commission on No Child Left Behind unveiled 75 recommendations for changes to the 5-year-old federal law. The commission's report outlines ways to determine teachers' effectiveness using student test-score data, proposes a $400 million investment in technology so states can track individual students' academic growth, and says that parents should have the right to sue districts if they are not faithfully implementing the law.

Hoff, David J. (2007).  Not All Agree on Meaning of NCLB Proficiency  Education Week, 26 n33 p1, 23 Apr 2007. 

The goal of the No Child Left Behind Act is simply stated: All children should be proficient in reading and mathematics by the end of the 2013-2014 school year. More than five years after the law was enacted, it remains unclear what "proficient" means. Because the federal law gives the states the power to define proficiency, there are 50 different definitions of the term. Policymakers are sending mixed messages about how to judge the rigor of each state's standards. Some experts criticize the states for not matching the proficiency levels in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). This article discusses these disparities and the need for Congress to set up a process that would establish national standards and tests that states would be able to adopt, knowing that they met a national definition of proficiency.

Hoff, David J. (2007).  State Tests Show Gains since NCLB; Report Cautions against Crediting Education Law  Education Week, 26 n39 p1, 20 Jun 2007. 

Scores on state tests have increased consistently and significantly in the five years since the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) became law, and there's some evidence that gains that started in the 1990s accelerated after the law's enactment, a new report concludes. The authors of the report, which was set for release this week, are quick to say that the gains found in their comprehensive review of all 50 states' test results can't necessarily be attributed to the NCLB law. Most states had already undertaken efforts to raise academic performance before the law was enacted. Still, NCLB proponents are likely to use the data to bolster their argument that the law--a top domestic priority for President Bush that passed with wide, bipartisan support--has met its goal of increasing student achievement. Critics of the federal law said that state test scores are inaccurate measures of how much students know and what they can do. They say such test results are easily skewed by instructional practices that may yield higher scores without ensuring that students understand and retain the material, and point out that scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) paint a more mixed picture of students' knowledge.

Hoff, David J. (2007).  Turnarounds Central Issue under NCLB  Education Week, 26 n42 p1, 32-33 Jun 2007. 

For all the debate over the effectiveness of the No Child Left Behind Act, researchers and policymakers say that, despite the law's flaws, it has successfully identified 1,200 public schools that need help, some of them desperately so. Now the question is: How can the federal law be changed to make sure such schools get that help? As Congress works to reauthorize the 5-year-old education law, researchers and interest groups have put out lists of policy proposals that would expand state officials' tool kits for intervening in struggling schools, including expanding school choice under the law, pouring extra money into the troubled schools, and finding ways to differentiate interventions depending on schools' needs. In the early stages of the reauthorization debate, prescriptions for turning around struggling schools have taken a back seat, though, to issues such as whether to adopt national standards and how to measure students' academic growth. However, many advocates say that turning around poorly performing schools is the most important matter facing Congress. Current intervention requirements and proposed fixes are described.

Hoff, David J. (2007).  Draft NCLB Bill Intensifies the Discussion  Education Week, 27 n2 p1, 20 Sep 2007. 

This article reports on the draft bill that outlines key House members' plans to change the accountability system by measuring students' academic growth and adding other indicators to those in reading and mathematics. The release this week of a preliminary proposal for reauthorizing the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act starts a busy fall in Congress, as both the House and the Senate try to revamp the NCLB accountability system and ramp up efforts to improve struggling schools. Most education groups reacted cautiously to the draft as they considered the impact of changes proposed in the House Education and Labor Committee document, which committee leaders called a "work in progress." On the Senate side, lawmakers worked on an NCLB bill throughout the August recess and are aiming to have their bill win the Senate's approval by the end of the year.

Hoff, David J. (2007).  Law's Timeline on Proficiency under Debate: 2013-14 Goal for Reading, Math May Be Open to a "Fresh Look"  Education Week, 27 n5 p1, 23 Sep 2007. 

When President Bush and Congress crafted the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, they agreed on one specific goal for academic achievement: All students would be proficient in reading and mathematics by the end of the 2013-14 school year. This article reports on the reconsideration of this law's timeline on proficiency. Once considered sacrosanct, that goal appears to be open for negotiation as House and Senate leaders consider plans to reauthorize the law. Although congressional leaders haven't proposed plans to relax the 2013-14 goal, they have backed down from earlier public statements supporting it. Their recent statements suggest that they are willing to reconsider the timeline. The House Education and Labor Committee's draft NCLB-renewal bill would require schools to track students' academic growth based on the law's original proficiency deadline, but the target and everything else in the draft are open for discussion.

Hoff, David J. (2007).  Provision on Tutoring Raises Renewal Issues  Education Week, 27 n7 p1, 19 Oct 2007. 

With the number of students eligible for federally financed tutoring continuing to grow, school officials and tutoring providers are fighting over the scope of the program and debating how to measure its quality. As Congress revisits the tutoring initiative and other sections of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, lawmakers want answers to questions that are vital for the future of the program. To its supporters, who include U.S. Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings and leading congressional Republicans, the tutoring program offers students the chance for focused instruction that they aren't otherwise receiving in their schools and can compensate students who attend inadequate schools. To its critics, though, tutoring done under the nearly 6-year-old law has been poorly monitored and has siphoned federal money away from schools that could be spent on providing reading teachers and other services directly tied to states' academic standards. Congress is working on a bill to reauthorize the NCLB law. Leaders of the House Education and Labor Committee are working on a bipartisan bill for the committee to consider. Issues related to testing, accountability, and teacher pay have been the subject of the most public debate since the House panel's leaders released the first sections of a "discussion draft" bill in late August. Even if tutoring isn't as prominent or controversial as those issues, Congress still must confront questions about the tutoring program, also known as supplementary educational services, or SES.

Hoff, David J. (2007).  The Next Education President?  Education Week, 27, 11. 

President George W. Bush and President Bill Clinton have both enacted significant expansions in federal oversight of K-12 schools during their terms. In the combined 15 years of the Clinton and Bush presidencies so far, the federal government has required states to set academic goals for their students and has made schools and districts accountable for meeting those goals. With the campaigns for the 2008 presidential nominations in full swing, few of the current candidates have laid out detailed strategies for improving the quality of American schools and increasing the knowledge and skills of the nation's elementary and secondary students. So far, most of the 16 Democrats and Republicans who hope to win the presidency a year from now have given general ideas of their education platforms only when asked for them in debates. None has released policy proposals as comprehensive or as specific as those of Clinton and Bush in their initial campaigns. In this article, the author reports some of the educational goals of the candidates for the 2008 presidential nominations. [This article was produced by Editorial Projects in Education, Bethesda, MD.]

Hoff, David J. (2007).  2007 NCLB Prospects Are Fading  Education Week, 27 n11 p1, 22-23 Nov 2007. 

Supporters and critics of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) agree on only one thing and that the law should be fixed and quickly. However, it looks that Congress will not be able to make much progress in addressing the flaws of NCLB this year. This circumstance will endanger the prospects that the revision of the law might not be completed before President George Bush leaves office. Efforts to revise the law are mired in backroom negotiations in both the House and the Senate and show no signs of gaining the momentum necessary to ensure completion of the reauthorization in 2008. With Congress' agenda filled with other tasks, including a potentially protracted fight with President Bush over spending on education and other domestic programs, it will be difficult for lawmakers to meet their self-imposed goals of ensuring passage of NCLB bills in both the House and the Senate this year, followed by a compromise version the two chambers can approve in early 2008. [This article was produced by Editorial Projects in Education, Bethesda, MD.]

Hoff, David J. (2007).  "Growth" Pilot Now Open to All States  Education Week, 27 n15 p1, 20 Dec 2007. 

All states that meet federal criteria will now be allowed to take part in the U.S. Department of Education's 2-year-old experiment with "growth models," which let states measure individual students' achievement gains as a way of ensuring accountability under the No Child Left Behind Act. After originally capping participation at 10 states, and approving just eight, department officials this week opened eligibility for the growth-model pilot project to all qualified states. The officials say that the first states to use those models in the project have shown it can be done without compromising the goals of the law. The new states will have to meet the same criteria as the original eight. They will have to gauge whether students are on track to attain proficiency in reading and mathematics by the end of the 2013-14 school year. They also will have to make sure their testing systems produce consistent results across grade levels. State officials will welcome the opportunity to sign up for the expanded pilot because it's clear that the NCLB law's accountability measures will eventually focus on academic growth, said Scott R. Palmer, the director of the education practice at the Washington office of the law firm Holland & Knight.

Hoff, David J. (2007).  "Growth Models" Gaining in Accountability Debate  Education Week, 27, 16. 

In the debate over the future of the No Child Left Behind Act, policymakers, educators, and researchers seem to agree on one thing: The federal law's accountability system should be rewritten so it rewards or sanctions schools on the basis of students' academic growth. The U.S. Department of Education recently reaffirmed the Bush administration's commitment to so-called growth models. Earlier this month, the department announced it would approve all states' growth models that meet its criteria for participating in a 2-year-old pilot project. Compared with the NCLB law's current "status model"--which makes accountability decisions by tracking the test scores of one year's group of students against the previous year's--growth models, by tracking individual students' progress, can provide a more accurate picture of whether a school is succeeding in helping its students. But despite widespread support for the concept, the path to implementing growth models under a revised No Child Left Behind law won't be easy, researchers and policymakers say.

Hoff, David J. (2008).  Spellings Seeks to Cast Her Glow over NCLB  Education Week, 27 n17 p1, 20 Jan 2008. 

In her three years as U.S. secretary of education, Margaret Spellings has been a celebrity contestant on "Jeopardy!," a guest on "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart," and an occasional subject of Washington's best-read gossip column. Above all, though, she's been the nation's leading spokeswoman for the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). With one year left on the job and Congress stalled over reauthorizing the 6-year-old federal education law, the task of promoting and defending it is tougher than ever. But Ms. Spellings plans to continue her plain-spoken pitch for the NCLB law, which is one of President Bush's biggest domestic-policy accomplishments and something he wants to be part of his legacy. This article profiles Secretary Spellings.

Hoff, David J. (2008).  McCain Emphasizes School Choice, Accountability, but Lacks Specifics  Education Week, 27 n24 p1, 22-23 Feb 2008. 

Buried deep within the campaign Web site of Senator John McCain, the Arizona Republican explains the principles that define his K-12 agenda: choice, accountability, and teacher quality. But his 25-year congressional record and statements in his current campaign do give a glimpse of what Senator McCain--better known for his views on defense and federal spending--might try to accomplish in education as president. For much of the past decade, he has sponsored bills to underwrite private school choice, including the 2004 passage of a voucher program for students in the District of Columbia. He has supported efforts to boost federal funding for special education programs. In 2001, he voted for the No Child Left Behind Act and has voiced his support for it during his presidential campaign.

Hoff, David J. (2008).  States Get Flexibility on Targets  Education Week, 27 n29 p1, 19 Mar 2008. 

As President Bush nears the end of his tenure, his administration is putting its final stamp on the No Child Left Behind Act and trying to lay the groundwork for the law's future. This article reports on the latest effort of President Bush's administration that will allow as many as 10 states to create alternative interventions for schools that have failed to meet their achievement targets under the 6-year-old law. Under the U.S. Department of Education's new "differential accountability" pilot project, eligible states will be allowed to overhaul the way in which they spend federal K-12 funds to intervene in low-performing schools and to implement their plans in the 2008-09 school year. U.S. Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings' goal is to offer states new flexibility in carrying out the NCLB law and to develop policies for Congress to consider if lawmakers do not renew the law this year. Although many observers and policymakers say that the NCLB law needs to refine its interventions based on the needs of individual schools, several questioned whether the U.S. Department of Education's proposal is the best approach. A critic of the law said that the pilot project will be too small and too limited to change the problems that schools are having in implementing the law or to improve the public perception of it.

Hoff, David J. (2008).  State Tests Not All OK under Law  Education Week, 27 n31 p1, 24 Apr 2008. 

Six years after the No Child Left Behind Act became law, many states still haven't completed one of its most important tasks: establishing a testing system that meets the law's requirement that they track all students' progress toward proficiency in reading and math. Although the progress has been slow, U.S. Department of Education officials and state leaders suggest that states have made adequate strides in meeting the formidable challenge of dramatically increasing the amount of testing and creating new exams that measure the success of students with disabilities. One critic of the pace said that states should be much further along in complying with the testing rules. The 1994 version of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, of which the NCLB law is the latest version, required states to assess students in key subjects at least three times during their K-12 careers--thus pointing the way, that critic suggested, to the more extensive NCLB mandate. The approval status of a state's testing plan has become especially important recently because a state must have such approval to participate in two federal projects intended to give states greater flexibility in implementing the NCLB law.

Hoff, David J. (2008).  States to Face Uniform Rules on Grad Data: Spellings to Propose Formula; Extent of Mandates Unclear  Education Week, 27 n32 p1, 21 Apr 2008. 

This article reports on plans by the Bush administration to set a uniform way for states to calculate and report their graduation rates, which could make it harder for high schools to avoid accountability measures under the No Child Left Behind Act. In the U.S. Department of Education's latest move to refine the implementation of the NCLB law, Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings said last week she would propose rules that would "ensure that all states use the same formula to calculate how many students graduate from high school on time." Secretary Spellings said that federal action is needed because states often publish graduation-rate that fail to accurately count all students who drop out of school. The secretary did not explain which formula she would propose for states to use, nor did she say whether high schools and school districts would be held accountable for their graduation rates for every subgroup of students. Ms. Spellings also did not say whether the Education Department would require states to set ambitious targets for improving graduation rates. Under plans previously approved by the department, most states' rules allow high schools and school districts to escape the NCLB law's accountability measures even though they make little or no progress in improving graduation rates, said Bethany Little, the vice president for policy at the Alliance for Excellent Education, a Washington advocacy group for high school improvement. Secretary Spellings' proposal follows an earlier national initiative to improve the quality of data on dropouts and graduates.

Hoff, David J. (2008).  In Pennsylvania Primary, AFT Hits the Streets  Education Week, 27 n33 p1, 19 Apr 2008. 

Every day, 14 retired teachers and other school employees arrive at the Philadelphia Federation of Teachers' headquarters and go to work for Hillary Rodham Clinton. The retirees--working with volunteers and union staff members from as far away as Alaska--are working to inform teachers' union members why the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) favors the New York senator for the Democratic presidential nomination over Senator Barack Obama of Illinois. According to Ted Kirsch, the president of the 36,000-member AFT Pennsylvania, Obama and Clinton are very close on most issues, however, there is a clear difference on the issue of education. Senator Clinton has been more emphatic about overhauling the No Child Left Behind Act and has opposed merit pay for teachers. On the other hand, Obama did not "have a clear position" on the federal law when AFT leaders interviewed him last year. Political experts question whether Obama's and Clinton's different take on education will matter much for teachers voting next week in the Pennsylvania primary. In Pennsylvania, polls are finding that voters are choosing the candidates based largely on personal appeal.

Hoff, David J. (2008).  NCLB Plan Would Add New Rules: Spellings Proposes Changes on Testing, Tutoring, Data  Education Week, 37 n35 p1, 25 Apr 2008. 

In a comprehensive action intended to change how the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) law is carried out, the U.S. Secretary of Education formally proposed a package of new regulations that would require state and local school officials to provide more and better information about high school graduation rates, student test performance, and the availability and quality of tutoring under the federal law. The proposed rules, which are now open for public comment, would standardize the definition states use in determining graduation rates, require schools to make extensive efforts to ensure eligible students know they can transfer to different schools or sign up for free tutoring, and force states to publish their scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress alongside their own test results. The rules also would clarify that state tests should assess students on more than basic skills. The Secretary said she is using her administrative powers because Congress and the Bush administration have been unable to agree on a reauthorized version of the NCLB law. Critics note that even with expedited review and publication, the proposed rules would not be in place until late August, charging that even if the regulations are in place in time for the coming school year, it would be unreasonable to expect districts and states to comply with them so soon, [Lynn Olson and Michele McNeil contributed to this report.]

Hoff, David J. (2008).  NCLB Tutoring outside the Box  Education Week, 27, 37. 

This article describes one community-based nonprofit group that provides free tutoring to poor children under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) law. Unlike most other tutoring sessions under the law, the one at Erie Neighborhood House, a social-services agency in Chicago, is not happening in a school building or at a corporate tutoring outlet. Those types of providers serve the vast majority of the students receiving tutoring--also known as supplementary educational services, or SES--under the federal law. Most of the debate over when and how to offer SES, in fact, has been over whether school districts or for-profit companies are better suited to help children from schools that are not making their annual achievement targets under the NCLB law. Community-based nonprofit organizations are small, but important participants in the supplementary market. In addition to Erie Neighborhood House, other nonprofit groups offering the tutoring include the Urban League in cities such as Memphis and Chattanooga, Tennessee, and the United Farm Workers union in Arizona, California, and New Mexico. Such nonprofit organizations are closely connected to their local community members and are trusted by them. They also can alter existing programs easily to add the tutoring that students need to improve their academic standing. At Erie Neighborhood House, the nonprofit group's leaders decided to offer NCLB-related tutoring as part of the after-school program that it has operated for more than 30 years. Unlike the competitive relationship between businesses and school districts, Erie has a long history of working with local elementary schools.

Hoff, David J.; Cavanagh, Sean (2007).  Math-Science Bills Advance in Congress  Education Week, 26 n35 p1, 23 May 2007. 

Improving K-12 instruction and student achievement in mathematics and science is at the heart of separate bills intended to bolster America's economic standing that won overwhelming approval in both houses of Congress last week. The House on April 24 approved the 10,000 Teachers, 10 Million Minds Science and Math Scholarship Act by a vote of 389-22. The House also approved a science and technology bill that day, and a bill to provide loans to small technology businesses the next day. Both those bills passed by large margins. The Senate passed its bill, 88-8, on April 25. "The American Competes Act is the best way to keep more of the jobs of the 21st century right here in America and the best way to ensure that the children have the skills to keep America at the forefront of innovations and discovery," Senator Mitch McConnell, R-Kentucky, the Senate minority leader. Both the House and the Senate bills would do more to attract new teachers to the profession and provide more in-service training to veteran educators who need to improve their expertise in various science subjects, said Gerald F. Wheeler, the executive director of the 56,000-member National Science Teachers Association.

Hoff, David J.; Keller, Bess (2007).  Draft Retains Quality Rules for Teachers  Education Week, 27 n3 p1, 23 Sep 2007. 

This article reports on the "discussion draft" released on September 6, about a week after a preliminary proposal to reauthorize the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) law's core Title I program was unveiled. Under the latest House proposal for reauthorizing the NCLB Act, the federal government would invest billions in improving the nation's teaching corps by offering professional development to teachers, recruiting new ones, and providing incentives to draw good teachers to the schools that need them the most. The draft proposal also would keep intact most of the current NCLB law's reporting requirements on whether teachers are "highly qualified" and add new requirements that states identify the districts and schools most in need of highly qualified teachers.

Hoff, David J.; Klein, Alyson (2008).  Democrats' K-12 Views Differ, Subtly  Education Week, 27 n25 p1, 21-22 Feb 2008. 

Throughout the presidential campaign, the leading Democrats have been speaking from a similar script on education--until this month, when U.S. Senator Barack Obama of Illinois suggested that he could be persuaded to support private school vouchers. "If there was any argument for vouchers, it was "Let's see if the experiment works"," Sen. Obama told the editorial board of the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel on Feb. 13. "And if it does, whatever my preconception, you do what's best for kids." The statement diverges from the stance of U.S. Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton of New York, who rejected any private-school-choice proposals in her interview with the same editors the next day. Although Sen. Obama's campaign has since downplayed his voucher comments, the exchange suggests that the two remaining Democratic contenders have subtle but important differences in their approaches to federal education policy, whether the topic is expanding school choice, rewriting the No Child Left Behind Act, or experimenting with new forms of teacher pay. The differences may not appear big to the typical voter, but they reflect the experiences of two candidates who have both been involved in education improvement efforts during their careers.

Hoff, David J.; Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy (2007).  Bush Claims about NCLB Questioned: Data on Gains in Achievement Remain Limited, Preliminary  Education Week, 26 n27 p1, 26-27 Mar 2007. 

President Bush says that the No Child Left Behind Act is working, pointing to student-achievement results from a single subsection of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and tentative Reading First data. But the evidence available to support his claim is questionable. The data Mr. Bush cited are from just the "long-term trend" NAEP in reading and math, researchers say. All available data, they add, show modest improvements that can't be attributed to the 5-year-old law. Instead, progress in achievement is more likely a continuation of trends that predate the law. In addition to speeches citing the NAEP long-term-trend data, members of the Bush administration have lauded the success of the $1 billion-a-year Reading First program, the largest new initiative in the NCLB law. Preliminary results show some gains in students' reading fluency. Those gains, however, are based on a compilation of all test results in annual state reports for Reading First. Although such an assemblage of test scores can provide a general view of student progress, some researchers question whether the compilation says much about reading proficiency. While most researchers say it's too early to measure the NCLB law's impact on achievement, many are beginning to see evidence that educators are changing their behavior as a result of both the federal law and policies that took root in the 1990s at the onset of the movement for higher standards and greater accountability in education.

Hoffman, Allan M., Ed.; Summers, Randal W., Ed. (2001).  Teen Violence: A Global View. A World View of Social Issues. 

Teen violence in 14 countries is examined to provide greater understanding of teen violence in the United States. An introduction provides an overview of similarities and differences in teen violence in the selected localities. Each chapter begins with a profile of the country and an overview of the impact of the problem, including basic policies, legislation, and demographic information. A brief historical perspective is provided; factors contributing to teen violence are explained; and the incidence or extent of teen violence is estimated for each country. Finally, the country's specific programs or strategies used to prevent or control teen violence are reviewed. The chapters are: (1) "Australia" (Christine Alder and Nichole Hunter); (2) "Canada" (Raymond R. Corrado, Irwin M. Cohen, and Candice Odgers); (3) "England and Wales" (Shirley Rawstorne); (4) "Germany" (Christopher R. Williams, Bruce Arrigo, and Stephanie Klaus); (5) "Israel" (Giora Rahav); (6) "Italy" (Anna Constanza Baldry); (7) "Jamaica" (Frederick Allen); (8) "Russia" (William E. Thornton and Lydia Voight); (9) "St. Lucia" (Victoria Bruner); (10) "Slovenia" (Gorazd Mesko, Branko Lobnikar, Milan Pagon, and Bojan Dekleva); (11) "South Africa" (Beaty Naude); (12) "Spain" (Javier Garcia-Perales); (13) "Thailand" (John C. Quicker); and (14) "United States" (Wayne N. Welsh).

Hoffman, Charlene M. (2000).  Federal Support for Education: Fiscal Years 1980 to 1999. 

This report attempts to provide a comprehensive picture of total federal financial support for education since fiscal year (FY) 1980, the year the U.S. Department of Education was created. Programs residing in other federal agencies are included in order to account fully for all federal education expenditures. Federal support for education, excluding estimated federal tax expenditures, was an estimated $115.6 billion in FY99, an increase of 84% since FY90. After adjustment for inflation, federal support for education increased 47% between FY90 and FY99. On-budget federal funds for education programs were estimated at $82.8 billion in FY99. Off-budget support and nonfederal funds generated by federal legislation were estimated at $32.8 billion, an increase of 193% in current dollars between FY90 and FY99 and 134% in constant dollars. Over 58% of federal education support, excluding estimated federal tax expenditures, went to educational institutions in FY99. Another 20% was used for student support. The remaining 22% went to banks and other lending agencies, libraries, museums, and federal institutions. Schools and colleges derive 11% of their FY99 revenues from the federal government, with the remaining revenues coming from state and local governments. The estimated federal share of expenditures of educational institutions declined from 14% in FY80 to 10% in FY90 and up to 11% in FY99. Seven appendixes contain detailed tables of financial information. | [FULL TEXT]

Hoffman, Lee (2004).  National Forum on Education Statistics History  [National Center for Education Statistics] 

The first task force meeting, co-organized by the Center for Education Statistics and CCSSO, was convened in Alexandria, Virginia, on March 13?15, 1988. The purpose of this meeting was to explore alternative strategies for a cooperative federal-state education statistics program that would be broad in scope, encompassing the Common Core of Data (CCD) and other surveys, as well as addressing the coordination of student achievement data collections. The task force accomplished the goal of the meeting by developing a conceptual framework for a cooperative system in terms of its approach, governance, mechanisms for operating the system, activities, and products in accord with the provisions of the proposed legislation. Using the proposed legislation as its guide, the task force focused on three major areas related to the development of a cooperative system: 1) administrative mechanisms for operating the cooperative system; 2) governance structure; and 3) activities and products. Appended are: (1) Proposal for Formal Working Relationship Between the National Forum on Education Statistics and the Education Information Advisory Committee; (2) Resolution, as Amended, Requesting Federal Coordination of Education Data Collection Efforts; (3) Resolution Recommending That the NCES Undertake Two Feasibility Studies Contained in A Guide to Improving the National Education Data System; (4) Resolution Requesting That NCES Propose a Plan and Budget for Activities Leading to the Implementation of the "Standards for Education Data Collection and Reporting" (SEDCAR); (5) Resolution Requesting That NCES Accept and Adopt the Recommendations of the Implementation Task Force Report ;(6) State of Nevada Department of Education; (7) Strategic Plan of the National Forum on Education Statistics Approved: January 27, 1993; (8) Resolutions Passed Relating to the Dropout Statistic Under the National Education Statistics Agenda Committee (NESAC) and; (9) Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Task Fa | [FULL TEXT]

Hoffman, Nancy (2005).  Add and Subtract: Dual Enrollment as a State Strategy to Increase Postsecondary Success for Underrepresented Students  [Jobs for the Future] 

Dual enrollment--the arrangements by which high school students take college courses during the junior and senior year--is a promising "next best thing" for states wishing to increase the number of underrepresented students gaining a postsecondary credential. Dual enrollment also has the potential to save money for families and taxpayers and shorten time to degree. To make dual enrollment a centerpiece of a strategy to improve college access and success, however, requires shifts in typical dual enrollment policy and legislation and a new way of thinking about its mission. By "adding" supports at the front end--in eleventh and twelfth grades--in order to enable young people to succeed in college-level courses in high school, states can potentially "subtract" from the total expense of educating a young person. "Add and Subtract" is a policy primer for states wishing to implement dual enrollment as a strategy for increasing college credentialing rates of underrepresented students. It provides: (1) An overview of dual enrollment and a rationale for its expansion; (2) Guidelines (including funding models) for states wishing to implement dual enrollment for a wider range of students; and (3) Brief case studies of substantial dual enrollment programs that serve a wide range of students--Florida and Utah and College Now at the City University of New York--and offer lessons for an expanded mission for dual enrollment.  ["Add and Subtract" is part of Double the Numbers, a Jobs for the Future Initiative.] | [FULL TEXT]

Hoffmann, Charlotte (2000).  Balancing Language Planning and Language Rights: Catalonia's Uneasy Juggling Act.  Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 21, 5. 

Focuses on issues raised in the late 1990's by the debate about the second major piece of language legislation in Catalonia. Catalonia is a region where devolution and language policies in favor of regional language may have reached limits that are not so much imposed by the national state as by demographic developments within Catalonia itself and the European Union, within which Catalans have aspired to gain influence.

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Holcomb, Edie L. (2004).  Getting Excited about Data: Combining People, Passion, and Proof to Maximize Student Achievement. Second Edition  [Corwin Press] 

This book builds upon the best-selling first edition to provide additional guidance and support for educators who are "ready, willing, and able" to explore more sophisticated uses of data. New tools and activities facilitate active engagement with data and a collaborative culture of collective responsibility for the learning of all students. Precise and on target, this excellent new resource enables educators to effectively use their schools' data to respond to the challenges of the No Child Left Behind Act, and provides: (1) A knowledge base emphasizing the role of data in school effectiveness and successful change; (2) A focus on tapping the professional passion of dedicated educators who want to work for the benefit of students from an intrinsic motivation perspective; (3) Group activities that energize people in collaborative efforts; (4) Key questions to identify sources of the proof of success necessary to stimulate confidence and further action; (5) A clear understanding of the need for "up close, in real time" assessment to balance high-stakes, external tests; and (6) Information on how to utilize data to establish priorities and integrate accountability requirements with goals that are data-based and grounded in school values. After a foreword by Tony Wagner and a preface, this book is divided into 16 sections: (1) Using Data for Alignment and Achievement; (2) Understanding the Importance of Proof; (3) Coping with the Barriers to Data Use; (4) Engaging the People; (5) Arousing the Passion; (6) Starting with the Significant; (7) Displaying the Data; (8) Interpreting the Results; (9) Designing a Data Day; (10) Establishing Priorities; (11) Drilling down the Priority Data; (12) Looking around and Locking Within: (13) Clarifying District, School, and Classroom Roles; (14) Planning Your Work and Working Your Plan; (15) Sustaining the Struggle; and (16) Leading with Relentless Resilience. A list of references; and an index are also included. [For the first edition of "Getting Excited about Data" (1999), see ED433373.]

Holder, K. C. (2004).  Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Can a Successful Program of Research Exist without Scientific-Based Research?  [Online Submission, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Diego, CA, Apr 12-16, 2004)] 

This study represents an attempt at determining if a construct, rather than an instructional method, is supported by scientifically-based research. The purpose of this study was to examine the credibility of evidence-based claims underlying the literature related to Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) (Shulman, 1986). Using a hybrid cross-validation method, and criteria from the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB, 2001), the National Research Council (NRC, 2002), and the Education Sciences Reform Act (ESRA, 2002), the study analyzed and evaluated 51 published journal articles containing PCK in the title. Findings indicate that PCK can be labeled a "successful program of research" and represent the intent of the "scientifically-based research standards"; however, no single published article meets all the criteria for "scientifically-based research." Thus, PCK as a construct defined by this sample of literature is not based upon scientifically-based research. This finding calls into question the application of PCK within the NCATE accreditation evaluation criteria and the applications of PCK within teacher education. Questions raised and implications for teacher education are addressed. Further, recommendations for re-examining both the ideology underlying PCK, as well as SBR, is presented. The following are appended: (1) Criteria Check Sheet for SBR; (2) PCK Research Question(s) Chart; and (3) Pedagogical Content Knowing - The Third Dimension | [FULL TEXT]

Holdnack, James A.; Weiss, Lawrence G. (2006).  IDEA 2004: Anticipated Implications for Clinical Practice--Integrating Assessment and Intervention  Psychology in the Schools, 43, 8. 

The renewal, modification, and ratification of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA; 2004) produced a number of changes in legislation, particularly in the identification for children with specific learning disabilities (SLDs). In particular, the requirement that a child must evidence a severe discrepancy between intellectual functioning and academic performance has been modified to allow for a more flexible approach to SLD determination. The rules and regulations providing guidelines for implementation have yet to be completed, leaving many administrators and psychologists speculating on how to incorporate the recommendation that response to intervention (RTI) procedures be incorporated into their current protocols. Given the substantial anti-assessment lobbying by RTI proponents, it may appear that the law has changed significantly to the point that comprehensive assessments are not required to determine eligibility for "any" disabling condition, particularly SLDs. This article reviews historical trends influencing the current legislation, from the inception of the use of ability-achievement discrepancy, the misconceptions that ability-achievement discrepancy and comprehensive assessment are equivalent, and vilification of intellectual assessment to the powerful, inside lobbying forces. In conclusion, we address what the law "really" says about assessment and RTI, and how these two procedures need to be integrated as a best practice for children but also to adhere to the legislative mandate of IDEA.

Holland, Holly (2007).  Can Educators Close the Achievement Gap? An Interview with Richard Rothstein and Kati Haycock  Journal of Staff Development, 28 n1 p54-58, 62 Win 2007. 

In this article, the author interviews two leading thinkers in the field of education. Richard Rothstein and Kati Haycock talk about the possibility of closing the achievement gap through education and face off on poverty, race, and school achievement. In his book, "Class and Schools" (Teachers College Press, 2004), Rothstein writes that "the influence of social class characteristics is probably so powerful that schools cannot overcome it, no matter how well trained are their teachers and no matter how well-designed are their instructional programs and climates." Rothstein, a research associate at the Economic Policy Institute and former education columnist at the "New York Times" suggests that policy makers would be more effective in closing the achievement gap if they focused on reforms such as income equality, school-community clinics, and early childhood education in addition to school improvement. Giving in to the common belief that schools cannot succeed with disadvantaged children belies the growing evidence that skilled and dedicated educators are doing so every day in schools around the country, says Kati Haycock, director of the Education Trust. Rather than blame factors outside their control, effective schools focus on what they can do to close the achievement gap, including providing consistent and rich curricula and instruction proven to raise achievement for all students. "Poor and minority children do not underachieve in school just because they often enter behind," Haycock writes in "Teaching Inequality", a new report from Education Trust. Education writer Holly Holland probes whether these seemingly opposing points of view have any commonalties, and whether two leading thinkers in the field of education can agree that teachers can truly make a difference in all children's lives.

Hollenbeck, Amy Feiker (2007).  From IDEA to Implementation: A Discussion of Foundational and Future Responsiveness-to-Intervention Research  Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 22, 2. 

The IDEA reauthorization of 2004 highlights the application of responsiveness to intervention (RTI) to both early intervention (EI) service delivery and learning disabilities (LD) identification practices, creating the potential for wide-scale execution. Implementation of any educational reform necessitates more than simply changing practices: It is important to understand the foundation upon which the reform stands, as well as the questions yet unanswered by research. This review of literature, therefore, emphasizes what is known about RTI as well as what remains to be learned, beginning with foundational concepts -- model iterations-- and moving to applications -- EI and LD identification. Ultimately, the complexities of the RTI construct, with its potential for systemic change, necessitate a partnership between researchers and practitioners to both implement and further investigate RTI on a wide scale.

Hollestelle, Kay; Koch, Pauline D. (2003).  Family Child Care Licensing Study, 2003. 

This report presents the findings of the 2003 national survey of state child care regulatory agencies to update and expand family child care regulatory information published in the 2002 study. Data on small family child care homes and group or large family child care homes are organized into the following 23 categories: (1) number of regulated homes; (2) definitions and regulatory requirements; (3) unannounced inspection procedures; (4) tracking of denials and revocations; (5) complaint procedures (6) provider qualifications; (7) provider training and orientation; (8) discipline policy; (9) emergency medical consent policy; (10) environmental policy; (11) immunization policy for children; (12) national life safety fire code policy; (13) nutrition policy; (14) smoking policy; (15) before and after school programs; (16) infant care programs; (17) programs for children with disabilities; (18) sick child care programs; (19) tiered reimbursement for subsidized children; (20) zoning regulations; (21) available resources; (22) local contact; and (23) pending and new legislation. The report's introduction describes the methodology; defines terms; and lists regulatory requirements for family child care homes for each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. This section also answers questions related to number of providers, methods of state regulation, exemptions, child caregiver requirements, caregiver/child ratios, and inspections. The bulk of the report then details data for each state, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. A list of regulatory agencies is appended.

Holliday, Terry K. (2008).  My Inner Conflict between Logic and Creativity  School Administrator, 65, 2. 

The author has lived in two worlds for many years. As a former band director and musician, he was constantly immersed in the world of creativity. Even today, after 36 years in educational administration, he spends his weekends judging band contests that require long hours at very low pay. He does so because he enjoys the creativity and enthusiasm of the students and the directors as they create a powerful art form. The other world he is immersed in is that of school superintendent. The two worlds seem to conflict, and he is often polarized between creativity and logic. As a superintendent, he is constantly pulled back into the logic of the real world of No Child Left Behind and accountability. This accountability manifests itself in standardized tests using a multiple-choice format that many researchers are saying is "dumbing down" or "narrowing" the curriculum. More than a few authors say this approach is stifling creativity in schools. In this article, the author suggests ways on how schools can continue to promote basic skills testing requirements that hamper creativity and limit the innovation of technology. Schools must ensure students have basic competency in math, science, reading, technology and citizenship. They also must figure out how to assess these skills in innovative and creative ways that use technology.

Holmes, C. Thomas; Sielke, Catherine C. (2000).  Legislative Update: Georgia School Funding Update.  Journal of Education Finance, 25, 3. 

Fully 40 percent ($5 billion) of Georgia's FY 2000 general funds budget is for K-12 education. There is increased funding for a homestead exemption, expansion of the HOPE (higher education) Scholarship Program, capital outlay projects, remedial assistance programs, and instruction of limited-English speaking students.

Holt, Judith M.; Sheen, Jeff; Chambless, Catherine (2003).  Work Incentives and the Transition to Work in Rural Areas. 

"Work incentives" encourage and support individuals with disabilities in their efforts to seek employment and have been formalized in federal legislation and regulations, including the Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act (TWWIIA). In October 2000, Utah received a 4-year federal grant to change the state's systems of work incentives and supports for individuals with significant disabilities, particularly those receiving Social Security benefits. A major effort under this grant involves providing consumers, state agency staff, and service providers with training and practical knowledge about the new Social Security and Medicaid work incentives authorized under TWWIIA. This training is particularly important in rural areas, where individuals with disabilities are impeded from work by fewer employment opportunities, lack of services and supports, and lack of transportation. This article describes the new work incentives resulting from TWWIIA, as well as previously existing Social Security incentives. Although presented with examples from rural Utah, most information is applicable nationwide. Sections cover Benefits Planning Assistance and Outreach, expanded Medicaid health coverage (Medicaid Work Incentive), Employment Related Personal Assistance, Ticket to Work, protection and advocacy systems, Plan for Achieving Self Support, Student Earned Income Exclusion, Impairment Related Work Expense, and "subsidies" to increase beneficiaries' monthly earnings while not reducing Social Security benefits. | [FULL TEXT]

Holt, Marilyn Irvin (2001).  Indian Orphanages. 

With their traditional tribal and kinship ties, Native Americans had lived for centuries without the concept of an unwanted child. But besieged by reservation life and boarding school acculturation, many tribes, with the encouragement of whites, came to accept the need for orphanages. This book tells the story of Indian orphanages within the larger context of the orphan asylum in America. The history of these orphanages and the cultural factors that produced and sustained them is related, showing how orphans became a part of Native experience after Euro-American contact, and how Indian societies addressed the issue of child dependency. A number of orphanages from the 1850s to the 1940s are examined in depth, particularly among the Five Civilized Tribes in Oklahoma, the Seneca in New York, and the Ojibway and Sioux in South Dakota. Federal policies during the Civil War, disease, and economic depression contributed to their establishment and white social workers and educational reformers helped undermine Native culture by supporting such institutions. Orphanages differed from boarding schools by being either tribally supported or funded by religious groups; how they fit into social welfare programs established by federal and state policies is explained. The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 overturned years of acculturation policy by allowing Native Americans to finally reclaim their children, and the importance of that legislation is explored.

Holt, Maurice (2002).  It's Time To Start the Slow School Movement.  Phi Delta Kappan, 84, 4. 

Argues in favor of the slow-school concept, an approach to education in the 21st century that emphasizes instruction and curriculum addressing the intellectual needs of students rather than focuses on curriculum and teaching driven by state and national standards-based testing.

Holub, Tamara (2002).  Credit Card Usage and Debt among College and University Students. ERIC Digest. 

Since the late 1990s, lawmakers, college officials, consumer advocacy groups, and higher education practitioners have become increasingly concerned about the rising use of credit cards among college students. Some recent studies have provided information about credit card use among college students. These studies include: (1) a study conducted by The Education Resources Institute and the Institute for Higher Education Policy; (2) a survey conducted by Nellie May (educational loan lender); and (3) a study by the U.S. General Accounting Office. In 1998, almost two-thirds of students had at least 1 credit card, and 1 in 5 of those had 4 or more cards. The majority of students (82%) reported an average balance of $1,000 or less. One study's results report 78% of undergraduates had credit cards, and the average balance of undergraduates was $2,748 in the year 2000. Most college administrators viewed having a credit card as something positive, but some disadvantages were evident, especially for students with student loans and credit card debt. Several institutions have made a practice of providing students with information about credit cards, and at least 24 states enacted legislation to study the effects of credit cards on college students or to limit credit card solicitations at higher education institutions. | [FULL TEXT]

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_____. (2002).  Homeland Security: Tracking International Students in Higher Education--Progress and Issues since 9/11. Hearing before the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness and the Subcommittee on Select Education of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session (September 24, 2002). 

This hearing was held to learn about the implementation of the Student Exchange and Visitor Information System (SEVIS), designed to monitor international students studying in the United States, and the interactions among institutions of higher education, the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), and the U.S. Department of State. Following opening statements by Representative Peter Hoekstra, Representative John Tierney, Representative Howard P. McKeon, and Representative Rush Holt, testimony was heard from these witnesses: (1) Glenn A. Fine, Inspector General, U.S. Department of Justice; (2) Stephen A. Edson, Acting Managing Director, Directorate of Visa Services, Bureau of Consular Affairs, Department of State; and (3) Janis Sposato, Assistant Deputy Executive Associated Commissioner, Immigration Services Division, INS. Eleven appendixes contain the written statements of these representatives and witnesses. | [FULL TEXT]

Hombo, Catherine M. (2003).  NAEP and No Child Left Behind: Technical Challenges and Practical Solutions.  Theory into Practice, 42, 1. 

The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has played a vital role in assessing and reporting on the state of U.S. education for more than 30 years. Under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, NAEP will play an even more prominent role in the evaluation of adequate yearly progress in the states, jurisdictions, and territories receiving Federal Title I assistance. NAEP procedures are appended.

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_____. (2003).  Honoring Work in Wisconsin: State Policies To Promote Self-Sufficiency for Working Families. 

Many of Wisconsin's working families face economic distress, living from paycheck to paycheck and being forced to choose between paying their rent or buying food for their children. Parents under stress often cannot support their children with time, energy or resources. In order to affirm the importance of children in the state, and to help build an economy based on high skill levels and productivity that will benefit both workers and firms, data were collected to look at the problems that confront Wisconsin's working poor families and how some of those problems can be solved. Wisconsin performs well when compared to the national average, but there is room for improvement. Data collected shows the following: 4.5% of working families do not earn enough to rise above the poverty line; while the majority of adults have a high school education, this no longer guarantees a high-paying job; workers tend to work more hours and hold multiple jobs, which suggests that many jobs do not pay a sustainable wage; and only 10% of workers do not receive health insurance from their employers. Suggestions for areas of policy improvement include the following: (1) improve low-income workers' access to education and training; (2) support sectorial initiatives that build Wisconsin's strongest industries; (3) create a system for monitoring corporate subsidies and measuring their effectiveness; (4) raise and index the state's minimum wage; and (5) increase the state's commitment to existing programs. | [FULL TEXT]

Honawar, Vaishali (2006).  Baltimore Takeovers Prevented: Maryland Lawmakers' Victory a Model for NCLB Foes?  Education Week, 25 n32 p1, 25 Apr 2006. 

The Maryland legislature's success in blocking a state takeover of low-performing schools in Baltimore under the No Child Left Behind Act raises the prospect of political resistance in other states that might attempt such intervention. While no other state has yet invoked the federal law to take control of a school, the experience in Maryland could be an indicator of things to come as state education officials try to implement the most dramatic sanctions called for in the 4-year-old law. The state board of education voted March 29 to approve the plan, acting on provisions of the NCLB law that outlines five options for state intervention in a school that has failed to meet annual performance goals for five consecutive years. Those options are: (1) converting the school to a charter school; (2) replacing all or most of the staff; (3) contracting with an independent entity to run the school; (4) a state takeover; or (5) changing the school's governance.

Honawar, Vaishali (2006).  "Adjunct Teachers" Could Do End Run Around NCLB Act  Education Week, 25 n25 p1, 24 Mar 2006. 

This article discusses a White House proposal that would bring math, science, and engineering professionals into public high schools to teach those subjects, thereby bypassing the "highly qualified" teacher mandate under the No Child Left Behind Act. Education observers consider this merely a temporary solution to easing the shortfall of mathematics and science teachers, and contend that, while an individual may be extremely knowledgeable about a particular subject, he or she may still not be able to impart that knowledge to children. Others, however, see the potential for great benefits from this program, particularly in the area of partnerships with businesses. IBM, for example, has initiated a pilot program offering support to employees who want to get certified to teach math and science. Details of the proposal are in short supply at present. A spokesman for the U.S. Department of Education said last week that it was too early to discuss further details. The spokesman, Chad Colby, said the department will work with Congress on specifics over the coming months.

Honawar, Vaishali (2006).  Supreme Court to Hear Case on Union Fees  Education Week, 26 n6 p1, 26 Oct 2006. 

The U.S. Supreme Court agreed last September 2006 to take up the issue of when a teachers' union may spend the money it collects in the form of "agency fees" from nonmembers on political causes. The justices said they would review a Washington state law that requires nonmembers to "affirmatively consent," or opt in, before a union may spend money from such fees on political campaigns and similar activism. On another education front, the court also agreed to take up a case involving the federal impact-aid statute and when states may reduce their funding to districts with large federal land holdings or installations by the same amount of aid provided by the federal government.

Honawar, Vaishali (2007).  AFT No Longer a Major Player in Reform Arena  Education Week, 26 n21 p1, 16-17 Jan 2007. 

The American Federation of Teachers (AFT) has lost several of its most prominent leaders over the past decade. It has struggled with scandals at major locals. An internal survey showed low morale among its own employees. The union itself insists it is still very much on the path blazed by Albert Shanker, the AFT's late, legendary president, under whom it forged a happy marriage between its labor agenda and education reform. In a political arena that has, for over a decade, been dominated by Republicans and the mandates of the federal No Child Left Behind Act, change has been inevitable for the nation's second-largest teachers' union which, like other labor groups, tends to heavily back, and be backed by, Democrats. Despite the setbacks and concerns over leadership--or perhaps because of them--the union appears to have embarked on a vigorous exercise to reposition itself within the Shanker halo.

Honawar, Vaishali (2007).  Accords Designed to Turn Around Troubled Schools  Education Week, 26 n41 p1, 15 Jun 2007. 

The school district in Anne Arundel County, Md., this spring entered into what appears to be a unique contract with the local teachers' union over struggling Annapolis High School: Teachers will work year-round and make a commitment to stay at the school for three years. Designed by Superintendent Kevin Maxwell to fend off a state takeover, the plan requires all 193 staff members to reapply for their jobs, a strategy he has described as "zero basing." The contract appears to be the first in the nation to focus on a single school and to require such sweeping changes. But it is the latest in a string of agreements designed by districts and unions to turn around failing schools as they struggle to fulfill federal mandates. This article talks about the agreements that districts and unions have forged to try to turn around troubled schools.

Honawar, Vaishali (2007).  New Teacher Project Brings Holistic Style to Urban Districts  Education Week, 27 n1 p1, 18-19 Aug 2007. 

Historically, it has been tough to get teachers for urban districts, but this is not the case in Baltimore, Maryland, anymore. Since 2002, the New Teacher Project has been finding at least 10 applicants for each teaching job it fills for the once hard-to-staff Baltimore district. Armed with unorthodox recruitment strategies, the group targets midcareer professionals who are looking for a career change and are willing to consider teaching. The Baltimore City Teaching Residency, as the program is known, has been so successful that the city now hires almost one-fifth of its new public school teachers through it. Experts attribute the organization's success to its holistic approach. Besides recruiting and training, it helps districts streamline and update antiquated hiring practices that, the project's officials say, keep new teachers away. It also offers certification programs in content areas in three states: Louisiana, Maryland, and Texas. The project has also partnered on a multidistrict basis with Arkansas, Texas, and Virginia to provide teachers for both urban and rural schools.

Honawar, Vaishali (2008).  Districts Take Action to Stem Violence Aimed at Teachers  Education Week, 27 n37 p1, 11 May 2008. 

Experts caution that reliable and up-to-date statistics on student violence against teachers can be hard to acquire. National and district data, however, show a drop in such violence over the past decade. The National Center for Education Statistics' 2007 school crime and safety report, the only known source for such data nationwide, says the proportion of public school teachers physically attacked by students dropped from 3.9 percent in the 1999-2000 school year to 3.4 percent in the 2003-04 school year. Some districts say their own, more recent figures mirror that nationwide decline. School districts cite a variety of steps they have taken, including training teachers to better handle angry students, adding security in schools, and improving the reporting of violent attacks. Still, given the stakes for schools that report high numbers of student violence under federal law, some safety experts voice skepticism about the downward trend.

Honawar, Vaishali; Keller, Bess (2008).  Election Year Hints at Shifts for Unions  Education Week, 27 n22 p1, 12 Feb 2008. 

The National Education Association is poised for a change in leadership this year as its president of six years, Reg Weaver, bumps up against term limits. Now, speculation is widespread that Edward J. McElroy, his counterpart at the American Federation of Teachers, might not seek re-election in July. The possible exit of Mr. McElroy--and the certain one of Mr. Weaver--comes at a crucial time for the two national teachers' unions, which together represent more than 4.5 million members: This is a presidential-election year, and Congress is working to renew the No Child Left Behind Act. Some observers are hoping that new leaders would be inclined to forge a closer relationship between the unions, which have drifted apart over the past several years after a close call with a merger in 1998. A merger would create, they believe, a stronger voice in opposition to proposals in the federal law that both unions have separately condemned. Others say this period is critical because the unions have shed nearly any vestige of a reputation for pushing to improve schools in ways that would require some lapse in teacher prerogatives. If the unions want a role in school improvement, these observers say, the new leaders should act soon.

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Hood, Suzanne (2001).  Home-School Agreements: A True Partnership?  School Leadership & Management, 21, 1. 

All British schools have been required since 1999 to have signed home-school agreements in place. Results of a national study that solicited stakeholders' responses failed to vindicate the government's view that such agreements provide a framework for improved home-school partnerships.

Hoon, Peggy E. (2003).  Who Woke the Sleeping Giant?: Libraries, Copyrights, and the Digital Age  Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 35, 6. 

In this article, the author provides a spirited defense of librarians' sometimes controversial role in public and legislative controversies over a wide array of topics including fair use, Internet filters, and digital rights to intellectual property. She argues that librarians cannot solve the copyright conundrum for their universities by themselves. Indeed, individual faculty and even individual universities cannot turn this tide alone. Effective change will not occur until scholars themselves, as a group, reclaim control of their intellectual output, and it will take a critical mass of them deciding to do so before that will happen.

Hoover, Eric (2001).  The Lure of Easy Credit Leaves More Students Struggling with Debt.  Chronicle of Higher Education, 47, 40. 

Discusses how more students are obtaining multiple credit cards and graduating with heavy consumer debt, and that Congressional legislation may make it more difficult for them to recover.

Hoover, John J.; Patton, James R. (2005).  Curriculum Adaptations for Students with Learning and Behavior Problems: Differentiating Instruction to Meet Diverse Needs. Third Edition  [PRO-ED, Inc.] 

This popular book in its third edition shows inclusive and special educators in elementary and special education how to adapt curricula for students with diverse needs. The contents of this updated and expanded edition reflect the most current and practical adaptation issues necessary to successfully differentiate curriculum and instruction for students with learning and behavior problems including adapting curriculum for English language learners (ELLs) with special needs; response to instruction and adaptations; NCLB; standards-based education and IEP development and implementation; and collaboration to differentiate instruction in inclusive settings. This book provides a process and specific techniques for selecting and implementing curricular adaptations for students who need accommodations in their programs. It was written for inclusive and special educators who face the daily challenges of implementing curriculum for students who require adaptations to differentiated learning in content, strategies, or management techniques.

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Hopkins, David (2000).  A Potential for Violent Injury: Guns and Knives in the Schools. Oregon Health Trends, Series No. 56. 

This report focuses on the causative factors of violence in school children. It summarizes information about the demographic and mental health characteristics of students who carry weapons to school and includes comments from students on the reasons why they carry them, as well as what the research says. Results of the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, administered to 109 high schools in the state of Oregon who voluntarily participated, are highlighted throughout the report. The influence of television on risky behaviors among youth is considered. Prevention programs are discussed, including family education about gun safety, gun availability, and national legislation to help keep guns away from students. The report includes Table One, "Percentage of Students Who Carried Weapons during the Previous 30 Days, by Demographic and Behavioral Characteristics," and Table Two, "Selected Demographic and Behavioral Characteristics by Hours of Television Watching." | [FULL TEXT]

Hopkins, Janet (2005).  Extending Inclusive Learning: Library and Special Education Collaboration  Library Media Connection, 23, 6. 

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires inclusive education to the maximum extent appropriate, students with special needs be educated in the "least restrictive environment" (LRE). The scope of inclusive education practice continues to evolve as new technologies and innovative instructional methods emerge.

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Hornberger, Nancy H.; Johnson, David Cassels (2007).  Slicing the Onion Ethnographically: Layers and Spaces in Multilingual Language Education Policy and Practice  TESOL Quarterly: A Journal for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages and of Standard English as a Second Dialect, 41, 3. 

In this article, we take up the call for more multilayered and ethnographic approaches to language policy and planning (LPP) research by sharing two examples of how ethnography can illuminate local interpretation and implementation. We offer ethnographic data collected in two very different institutions--the School District of Philadelphia and the Andean regional graduate program in bilingual intercultural education in Cochabamba, Bolivia--both of which act as intermediary agencies between national language policies and local educational initiatives. Drawing from long-term ethnographic work in each context, we present excerpts from spoken and written discourse that shed light on the opening up or closing down of ideological and implementational spaces for multilingual language education policy and practice. We illustrate through our examples that ethnographic research can, metaphorically speaking, slice through the layers of the LPP onion (Ricento & Hornberger, 1996) to reveal agentive spaces in which local actors implement, interpret, and perhaps resist policy initiatives in varying and unique ways.

Horner, Bruce (2001).  "Students' Right," English Only, and Re-imagining the Politics of Language.  College English, 63, 6. 

Argues that a lack of language legislation is indicative of a pervasive, tacit policy of "English Only" in composition and of a constellation of assumptions about languages, and language users that continues to cripple public debate on English Only and compositionists' approaches to matters of "error." Proposes an approach to language and "error" considering the relations of language to power.

Horner, Bruce; Trimbur, John (2002).  English Only and U.S. College Composition.  College Composition and Communication, 53, 4. 

Identifies in the formation of United States college composition courses a tacit policy of English monolingualism based on a chain of reifications of languages and social identity. Shows this policy continuing in assumptions underlying arguments for and against English Only legislation and basic writers.

Horowitz, David (2006).  From Left to Right: The Free Exchange of Ideas--Defending Academic Values  Presidency, 9 n2 p22, 24. 

In this article, the author discusses issues raised in the Academic Bill of Rights, which he defines as a lack of intellectual diversity on faculties and in curricula, abusive use of the classroom for nonacademic agendas, and lack of equity in the distribution of student activities funds. These issues drive his call for reform in the administration of America's university system. His reform efforts are about restoring to the university the liberal values and professional standards that have been eroded by political activists in the academy over the last several decades. One of his concerns is that this be accomplished without endangering the independence of the university, which is the cornerstone of academic freedom. However, opponents of the Academic Bill of Rights have misrepresented the author's agendas and thus misled many in the academic community into the position of defending an indefensible status quo. In this article, the author defends his Academic Bill of Rights, arguing that it is designed to help universities enforce professional standards and foster intellectual diversity in the liberal arts, humanities, and social sciences. Only then can universities win public support on both sides of the political and cultural divides.

Horwedel, Dina M. (2006).  For Illegal College Students, an Uncertain Future  Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 23, 6. 

With almost two million undocumented children in school and an estimated 65,000 graduating from high school every year, higher education is becoming the new frontier in the immigration debate. In 1982, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the children of illegal immigrants have a right to a free K-12 education. However, the court never extended that right to higher education. What has resulted is uncertainty state by state--and often case by case--about how to respond to undocumented students. Some institutions summarily reject such students while others accept them as international students. Still other institutions play a quiet game of "don't ask, don't tell." Multiple immigration bills that hope to clarify the situation are currently working their way through the U.S. Congress, including the DREAM Act. With a contentious debate about immigration raging, the future of the act is uncertain. Its proponents argue that it should be considered on its own merits because it concerns fairness and children's education, and ultimately impacts American competitiveness in the global marketplace. Until legislation is passed, however, undocumented students face an uncertain, obstacle-filled life. Their distant dreams of a better life are tinged with the hope that no one will catch them in the meantime.

Horwedel, Dina M. (2007).  Keeping the DREAM Alive  Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 24, 16. 

When Congress killed the immigration bill recently, the Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act was one casualty as a component of that bill. The DREAM Act is needed to allow the 65,000 American-raised, but undocumented students that graduate from high school each year to apply for conditional residence status. These students would be eligible for conditional residence for a maximum of six years after graduating from high school if they complete at least two years of college and work toward a four-year degree or commit to at least two years of military service. The DREAM Act would also eliminate a federal provision that discourages states from providing in-state tuition to undocumented immigrants. This provision has the potential to help undocumented students afford an education. Under federal law, undocumented students do not qualify for federal and, in some cases, state financial aid, including grants or loans. This article reports how Congress' decision on the Dream Act will impact the hundreds of thousands of undocumented students in the U.S.

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Hosley, Nathaniel S. (2003).  Survey and Analysis of Alternative Education Programs. 

A study of the status of alternative education (AE) in Pennsylvania surveyed 220 administrators and 234 teachers and counselors in AE settings. Results indicate that discipline programming was common to most programs, probably because Pennsylvania's AE legislation specifically states that AE programs are "designed to modify disruptive behavior." Rural programs reported more emphasis on discipline than did urban programs. The large majority of programs had teacher student ratios of 1:12 or fewer students. Career counseling and curricula had only modest priority. Full-time assignment of a program administrator was rare. The 5,540 AE students served in 2000-01 were predominantly White males, and student population had steadily increased in the past 5 years. Ninety-three percent of AE efforts targeted students in grades 7-12. Rural programs had more students with disabilities than did urban programs, perhaps excessively so. Forty-three percent of AE teachers had no or inadequate preservice training. More than one-third of AE teachers had fewer curriculum resources than did regular classroom teachers, and nearly 55 percent indicated that students in AE were excluded from parts of the curriculum that were available to regular education students. This raises questions of the right to equal education. Family involvement was only on an "as-needed" basis. Urban respondents viewed their programs as more effective in improving academic performance than did their rural counterparts and also reported having the same or more curriculum resources as regular classrooms than did rural respondents. Five policy recommendations are presented. | [FULL TEXT]

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Hotchkiss, Julie L. (2003).  The Labor Market Experience of Workers with Disabilities: The ADA and Beyond. 

This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the recent labor market experience of American workers with disabilities and an assessment of the impact the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) has had on that experience. Since one intention of the ADA is to break down barriers to employment for the disabled, the analyses focus on labor demand issues. Using datasets from the Current Population Survey and the Survey of Income and Program Participation, the book explores the employment outcomes among disabled and nondisabled workers between 1981-2000. It compares their levels of wages and benefits, focusing on how relative earnings for workers with disabilities have changed over time and whether any impact on those earnings coincided with implementation of the ADA. Next, it examines job quality issues, such as hours of work, including whether disabled workers' jobs are more or less likely to be full- or part-time, distribution of disabled and nondisabled workers across occupations and industries, and representation of disabled workers in "desirable" occupations. The book moves to job separations, unemployment, and job search experiences of the disabled, and the impact of state-level legislation on wages, employment, and hours of disabled workers in different states. It concludes with an overview of policy implications and recommendations. Appendixes include samples construction, supplemental tables, state disability legislation, 109 references, and index.

Hotchkiss, Julie L. (2004).  A Closer Look at the Employment Impact of the Americans with Disabilities Act  Journal of Human Resources, 39, 4. 

A replication of the findings regarding the decline in the employment among disabled people since the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is presented. The decline seems to result from a drop in the labor force participation rate among those classified as disabled.

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Hough, David L. (2005).  The Rise of the "Elemiddle" School: Not Every K-8 School Truly Applies Best Middle-Level Practices and Deserves the Designation  School Administrator, 62, 3. 

Renewed interest in the education of young adolescents has given credence to the "elemiddle" school approach to teaching and learning, which was first documented 15 years ago when David Hough coined the term. Yet much bias, misunderstanding and misinterpretation accompanies the most recent phenomenon compelling schools nationwide to adopt the K-8 elemiddle school concept. Many school systems conducting their own research are finding students in grades 6, 7 and 8 who attend K-8 schools, sometimes known as elemiddles, are scoring higher than their counterparts in other grade-span schools as measured by standardized achievement tests and state assessment exams. Spurred on by accountability requirements and data-driven reform initiatives such as the No Child Left Behind legislation, schools are searching for ways to improve teaching and learning at all levels. Over the past few years many districts have discovered students in elemiddle schools outperforming students in schools with other grade-span configurations, most notably grades 5-8 and 6-8 that may be incorrectly calling themselves "middle schools." Just as every 6-8 school is not a bona fide middle school, not every K-8 is an elemiddle. Only those schools configured with continuous grade spans that begin with kindergarten or pre-kindergarten and end after the 8th grade in which the upper grade spans are implementing middle-level best practices should be labeled elemiddles.

Houle, Judith C. (2006).  Professional Development for Urban Principals in Underperforming Schools  Education & Urban Society, 38, 2. 

Principals in America's lowest performing urban schools face many challenges, including public scrutiny as a consequence of being identified as such by state and federal legislation. These special circumstances have implications for the professional development of the leaders of these schools. This article chronicles the work of the Connecticut State Department of Education, local districts, faculty from a private university, and the principals of Connecticut's 28 priority schools as they created coherence from state-mandated and district-mandated programs intended to bring about school improvement. A yearlong Urban Principals' Academy (UPA) was devoted to addressing the instructional leadership, capacity building, and personal renewal needs of these principals. Details regarding the content of the UPA are presented with data gathered from the sessions. The article concludes with lessons learned regarding professional development for urban principals of underperforming schools in context of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.

Hourcade, Jack; Pilotte, Tami Everhart; West, Elizabeth; Parette, Phil (2004).  A History of Augmentative and Alternative Communication for Individuals with Severe and Profound Disabilities  Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 19, 4. 

Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) is a prominent component in the development of support services for individuals with disabilities, especially those with severe disabilities. In this article we provide an overview of the historical development of AAC services, tracing their evolution over the past half-century through four specific themes: social change and legislation, assessment, intervention, and family and cultural issues.

Houseman, Susan N. (2001).  The Benefit Implications of Recent Trends in Flexible Staffing Arrangements. Staff Working Paper. 

Workers in flexible staffing arrangementsincluding temporary agency, direct-hire temporary, on-call, and contract workersare much less likely than regular, direct-hire employees to be covered by laws mandating or regulating workplace benefits. They are also much less likely to receive pension, health insurance, and other benefits on the job. Several factors affect whether and how workers in flexible arrangements are covered by benefits regulations. The first is whether the worker is an employee or an independent contractor. Laws governing benefits pertain only to employees. If the worker is an employee, who is the statutory employer for the purposes of benefits regulation? This issue arises in the context of temporary agency workers, contract company workers, and leased employees who are paid by one employer but perform work for another. Finally, benefit laws typically include hours or earnings thresholds and thus exclude many temporary and part-time workers from coverage. Although reducing benefits costs is not the only reason employers use flexible staffing arrangements, it is an important factor motivating many employers to use them and the level of and growth in these arrangements would be lower in the absence of this incentive. (Appendixes include 29 references, 5 tables, and 1 figure.) | [FULL TEXT]

Houston, David J.; Richardson, Lilliard E., Jr. (2006).  Reducing Traffic Fatalities in the American States by Upgrading Seat Belt Use Laws to Primary Enforcement  Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 25, 3. 

A key component of crime deterrence is the certainty of detection, but in 2005 seat belt laws in 27 states prohibited law enforcement officers from ticketing an observed violation unless the driver is stopped for another offense, which is referred to as secondary enforcement. Thirteen states and the District of Columbia have upgraded from secondary to primary enforcement, which authorizes police to stop a motor vehicle if a driver or occupant covered by the law is observed not using a seat belt. To test the impact of seat belt enforcement provisions, cross-sectional time series regressions are estimated for annual driver and occupant fatality rates in the American states from 1990 to 2002. Using several control variables for other traffic policies and state demographics, the results indicate primary enforcement is more effective in saving lives than secondary enforcement. Furthermore, upgrading to a primary law enhances the effectiveness of an existing state mandatory use law.

Houston, Paul D. (2005).  Point of View--NCLB: Dreams and Nightmares  Phi Delta Kappan, 86, 6. 

The idea of leaving no child behind may sound like a noble dream. But the federal law intended to fulfill that dream is in Houston's opinion so flawed that it has become a nightmare for educators. Sadly, the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act is a nightmare in which everyone is naked while being pushed off a cliff because of poor test performance. This article examines the flaws behind the NCLB.

Houston, Paul D. (2005).  NCLB's Weapons of Mass Mis-Instruction  Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 70, 8. 

In this article, the author discusses the nightmare educators face due to the No Child Left Behind Act meaning of "highly qualified" teachers. But for NCLB, highly qualified doesn't necessarily mean good, for them it means the teacher took the right number of subject-area courses in college and is teaching only those subjects. And that, highly qualified teachers don't have to be good teachers pedagogically, nor certainly to be kind or compassionate toward children, just to show they mastered their subject areas. Furthermore, the author discusses that educators welcome responsible accountability, and public schools have been open to public scrutiny on a regular basis. They are the one place where one can call public officials to account in a very public manner. The author states that, it is not the goals of NCLB that are problematic, nor its implementation and funding since they are fixable. And that people can modify the law so accountability occurs in ways that actually make sense by using the right assessment tools and measurements. The fact is that the law has design flaws and the real reason why it resembles a group nightmare is the lack of truth that permeates it, which is a search for weapons of mass mis-instruction that is simply aren't there.

Houston, Paul D. (2007).  The Seven Deadly Sins of No Child Left Behind  Phi Delta Kappan, 88, 10. 

For five years the major school reform agenda in America has been the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, which was part of the most recent reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). Now ESEA is up for another reauthorization by Congress, and everyone is wondering what is going to happen next. One could argue that there is much in the U.S. education system that is not effective and needs to change and that NCLB's focus on accountability has helped to illuminate this need. NCLB, which adopts assessment as its key strategy, does not deal with education in a systemic way. The author believes that the law has been taking U.S. education in entirely the wrong direction and that a totally new agenda is needed. This article discusses the "seven deadly sins" of NCLB: (1) assuming that schools are broken; (2) conflating testing with education; (3) harming poor children and ignoring the realities of poverty; (4) relying on fear and coercion; (5) lacking clarity; (6) leaving out the experts; and (7) undermining our international competitiveness.

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How

_____. (2001).  How To Cope with the Frustrations of Having a Child with AD/HD. 

This guide is designed to assist parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It begins by explaining the neurological basis for ADHD and provides the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Conditions that may occur with ADHD are listed and the importance of nutrition is stressed. The following section focuses on special education services and provides information on student evaluation and eligibility for services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Eligibility under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act is also reviewed. Components of the Individualized Education Program (IEP) are explained, along with examples of good IEP goals and objectives. The guide addresses medications that a child with ADHD may take and some common side effects. The following sections of the guide discuss parental responsibility, functional behavioral assessments, intervention-based assessments, and sample interventions that can be used by teachers and can be written into the IEP or Section 504 plan. Sample letters are given for requesting an initial evaluation, requesting an independent educational evaluation, letting the school know you are not choosing from their list of independent evaluators, requesting prior written notice, and requesting a functional behavioral assessment.

_____. (2007).  How NCLB Affects Students with Disabilities. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary and Secondary Education, Committee on Education and Labor, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Tenth Congress, First Session (March, 29, 2007). Serial Number 108-54  [US House of Representatives] 

On March 29, 2007, the Committee on Education and the Workforce held a hearing in Washington, D.C., entitled, "How NCLB Affects Students with Disabilities." Specifically, this hearing was held to determine how the No Child Left Behind Act helps, hurts, or keeps about the same, what has been done for children with disabilities. The Subcommittee heard recommendations on how to improve both special and general education programs, the need to prepare all teachers to work with all students, and how to improve No Child Left Behind to ensure that it accounts for the complexities that states, school districts, and schools must address in educating and assessing students with disabilities. Testifying before the Subcommittee were Hon. Charles W. Boustany, Jr., a Representative in Congress from the State of Louisiana; Hon. Susan A. Davis, a Representative in Congress from the State of California; Hon. Luis G. Fortuno, a Resident Commissioner from the Territory of Puerto Rico; Alpidio Rolon, president, Puerto Rico chapter of the National Federation of the Blind; Maria Miranda, director of the technical assistance program, University of Puerto Rico; Hon. Phil Hare, a Representative in Congress from the State of Illinois; the Illinois Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Program (PBIS); the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA); Hon. Dale E. Kildee, Chairman, Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary and Secondary Education; and the National School Boards Association (NSBA). Witnesses were: Dr. Rebecca H. Cort, deputy commissioner, Office of Vocational and Educational Services for Individuals with Disabilities (VESID), New York State Education Department; Dr. Michael L. Hardman, dean-designate, College of Education, University of Utah; William Henderson, Ed.D., principal, the O'Hearn Elementary School; Rachael Quenemoen, senior research fellow, National Center on Education Outcomes, University of Minnesota; and Jane Rhyne, Ph.D., assistant superintendent, Programs for Exceptional Children of the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools. NCLB Issue Briefs are also included with the prepared statement of Dr. Corts. | [FULL TEXT]

Howard, J. Paul R. (2003).  Different Rights, Different Perspectives: Observations on the Same-Sex Marriage Debate.  Education Canada, 43, 4. 

The Ontario and British Columbia courts of appeal have held that the restriction of marriage to heterosexuals is unconstitutional. Opposing views in same-sex marriage litigation arise from different definitions of "marriage." Proposed federal legislation would legalize same-sex marriage but not resolve the larger, underlying issue of how educators and society reconcile conflicts between religious freedoms and equality rights.

Howard, Mimi (2006).  Early Education Legislation, 2005: Overview of Trends and Issues. Policy Brief  [Education Commission of the States] 

Bolstered by positive research findings and continued strong support from the economic and business communities, early care and education programming for young children in preschool and kindergarten continued to gain support and attention during the 2005 state legislative sessions. This Policy Brief reviews the work of state legislatures during 2005 and summarizes key policy decisions in four areas: (1) pre-kindergarten legislation; (2) kindergarten and full-day kindergarten legislation; (3) governance and coordination of early learning services and programs; and (4) program and personnel quality.  | [FULL TEXT]

Howard, Mimi (2006).  Emerging Issues, 2006. Policy Brief  [Education Commission of the States] 

The Education Commission of the States (ECS) recently conducted analyses, interviews and a survey for a study designed to identify the most pressing early learning issues facing policymakers. The goal was to hear both from those who are faced with making decisions and from those who are on the ground conducting research and developing programs. To that end, this report reflects both a policy and program perspective on emerging issues for early learning. The study included: a review of all early learning legislation enacted in states in 2005, an analysis of governors' 2006 State of the State addresses,2 a review of a 2005 survey of ECS commissioners, and interviews with both issue-specific national experts and state policymakers. Findings indicate that policymakers will or should be increasingly focused on the following emerging issues: (1) Sustaining program expansion and appropriately directing funds; (2) Strengthening the coordination, alignment and governance of programs and services for young children; (3) Making more purposeful, productive use of accountability and assessment mechanisms; (4) Ensuring quality--program and personnel; and (5) Engaging parents. This policy brief reviews these five key issues and related challenges faced by policymakers and identifies pertinent questions for which policymakers will need answers. These issue areas do not co-exist as separate and independent issues that can be tackled in isolation from other contributing factors, however, for the purpose of this review, they are presented and discussed separately.  | [FULL TEXT]

Howard, W. C.; Rice-Crenshaw, Mary (2006).  No Child Left Behind: A Successful Implementation  Education, 126, 3. 

The authors collaborated to create a model of school reform that has successfully transformed a failing school into a successful school. Working as a team, they have developed a research-based system to effectively improve school performance on the South Carolina School Report Card System. It enhanced the overall quality of a failing school in the Dorchester School District Four, located in Saint George, South Carolina. Their model, Turning Good Teachers into Great Teachers: Turning Green Apples into Red Apples, has been scientifically tested in a research study at H. R. Elementary School, a member school of Dorchester School District Four. Using a control and experimental school to conduct the study, this model transformed the experimental school, with an unsatisfactory rating by the South Carolina Department of Education, to an average rating in less than two years. The conclusion reached from this study is that a total commitment for change has to be made before innovative approaches and systems can replace traditional ways of leading, teaching, conducting staff development, enhancing and achieving student skill, and accountability of stakeholders. Turning Good Teachers into Great Teachers: Turning Green Apples into Red Apples provides a researched-based multi-system approach to develop holistic leaders. It creates an aligned curriculum with teacher ownership. It strengthens teachers' pedagogy skills, motivates teachers to teach State standards based upon lesson plans and homework that are aligned with State standards, and applies levels one to six of Bloom's Taxonomy for instruction and assessment. Last, it establishes and applies accountability for student learning outcomes to all stakeholders.

Howe, Kenneth R.; Welner, Kevin G. (2002).  School Choice and the Pressure To Perform: Deja Vu for Children with Disabilities?  Remedial and Special Education, 23, 4. 

This article examines the tension between the principles underlying the inclusion of students with disabilities and those underlying school choice, particularly market competition and parental autonomy. It examines findings from five states and a case study of a school-choice system that indicate the exclusion of students with disabilities.

Howell, James C. (2000).  Youth Gang Programs and Strategies. OJJDP Summary. 

This document draws on more than 50 years of gang program evaluations to summarize what has been learned about: (1) prevention programs, including early childhood, school-based, and afterschool initiatives; (2) intervention programs, including those that work to create violence-free zones, establish gang summits and truces, and rehabilitate gang members; (3) suppression programs, including those focused on prosecution, police response, geomapping, and other tracking systems; (4) strategies using multiple techniques, such as community policing; (5) multiagency initiatives; (6) comprehensive approaches to gang problems; and (7) federal, state, and local legislation. The summary also describes a nationwide assessment of youth gang prevention, intervention, and suppression programs sponsored by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. The summary debunks stereotypes surrounding youth gang members and provides research-based recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of youth gang programs and strategies. A directory of programs, strategies, and organizations, and an index are attached. | [FULL TEXT]

Howell, William (2006).  Switching Schools?: A Closer Look at Parents' Initial Interest in and Knowledge about the Choice Provisions of No Child Left Behind  Peabody Journal of Education, 81, 1. 

Whether public and private school choice initiatives usher in widespread enrollment changes or whether they cater to a small niche of students critically depends on the decisions that parents make on behalf of their children. Thus far, participation rates in most programs have proved disappointing. This article focuses on parents' knowledge of and interest in the choice provisions under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), for which a miniscule percentage of qualifying students nationwide have enlisted. Drawing from a survey of Massachusetts public school parents completed in the summer of 2003, 18 months after NCLB's enactment, two basic findings emerge. First, although parents claimed to be familiar with NCLB, the vast majority of those who in fact qualified for the act's choice provisions did not know that their child's school was on the state's list of underperforming schools. Second, parents with children in underperforming schools were especially interested in pursuing alternative schooling options. This interest, however, did not derive from pointed dissatisfaction with their current schools, and it was regularly directed toward options that NCLB does not afford-specifically, private schools. An essential point underscores these findings: If advocates of NCLB are to boost participation rates, and if scholars are to accurately predict the likely scope of other kinds of school choice programs, parents require considerably greater attention than they have received up until now.

Howell, William G. (2004).  One Child at a Time  Education Next, 4, 3. 

In this article, the author takes an inside look at efforts in Worcester, Massachusetts to offer families the opportunities promised by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). Worcester is the third largest school system in the state of Massachusetts, serving roughly 25,000 students in 46 public schools (36 elementary, 4 middle, 5 high, and one pre-K-12 school). The federal government provides just 10 percent of the district's $265 million annual budget, with state appropriations, local contributions, grants, and revolving funds covering the balance. The impact of NCLB, which James Caradonio, the superintendent of schools in Worcester, terms the No Teacher Left Standing Act, was supposed to be felt most strongly in urban centers with large minority and disadvantaged populations--places just like Worcester. Instead, during its first two years, NCLB appeared to have little impact at all. The author discusses some of the challenges that Worcester faces in implementing NCLB, such as the dizzying amount of movement in and out of its schools.

Howell, William G.; West, Martin R.; Peterson, Paul E. (2007).  What Americans Think about Their Schools: The 2007 "Education Next"-PEPG Survey  Education Next, 7, 4. 

Americans both care about their schools and want them to improve. Though adults give the nation's public schools only mediocre grades, they are willing to invest more money in public education and they are reasonably confident that doing so will improve student learning. They are also open to a host of school reforms ranging from high-stakes student accountability to merit pay for teachers to school vouchers and tax credits that would give low-income families greater access to private schools. By sizable margins, they back reauthorization of No Child Left Behind, the federal law that mandates school accountability. The public, however, also appears selective in its desire for change. Americans balk at some market-based reforms, such as paying more for teachers who work in fields like math and science, where quality teachers are in scarce supply. And substantial percentages remain undecided about charter schools and other reform initiatives, suggesting that the current national debate over school policy has the potential to sway public opinion in one direction or another. All this--and more--is indicated by a new national survey of U.S. adults conducted under the auspices of "Education Next" and the Program on Education Policy and Governance at Harvard University. Here, the authors report the opinions of both the public at large and three ethnic subgroups (whites, African Americans, and Hispanics). They also distinguish the views of those who have worked for the public schools from those who have not. Except for opinions on school choice issues, differences across ethnic groups are generally smaller than those between public school employees and those who have never been employed by the schools. Responses to survey questions are presented.

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Hox

Hoxby, Caroline M. (2005).  Inadequate Yearly Progress: Unlocking the Secrets of NCLB  Education Next, 5, 3. 

As almost everyone knows by now, the central aim of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) law is to make every public-school student proficient in reading and math by the year 2014. It is a laudable goal, as the overwhelmingly bipartisan congressional support for the legislation in 2001 proved. The law's drafters even had the foresight to know that fixing the deficits in student proficiency would be accomplished within the allotted time only if "each State" established "a timeline for adequate yearly progress" (AYP) that would steadily close the gap between current levels of performance and the ideal proficiency level each state established. Accordingly, AYP toward proficiency on the part of every student became the heart and soul of NCLB. Unfortunately, however, four years into the life of the law--and fewer than 10 years from 2014--there are signs of an irregular heartbeat. Though NCLB is absolutely correct in insisting that schools make measurable improvements on the way to the 2014 goal, those responsible for implementing the legislation have yet to find the best way of giving concrete meaning to each of the key words: proficiency, adequate, progress, every, yearly. In this essay, the author suggests five relatively easy ways of giving operational meaning to these important terms that are designed to fill the worst potholes on the current road. They can be implemented without new legislation, are respectful of the autonomy of the states, and are fairly easy for schools to understand. Just as important, they will neither penalize schools unfairly nor dilute NCLB goals and objectives.

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Hoy

Hoyt, Kenneth B. (2001).  A Reaction to Mark Pope's (2000) "A Brief History of Career Counseling in the United States."  Career Development Quarterly, 49, 4. 

Acknowledges the significance of the six steps presented by M. Pope (2000) in his article "A Brief History of Career Counseling in the United States." Proposes that the historical stages for each kind of career counselor are most appropriately organized around federal legislation that affects it.

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HRs

_____. (2001).  H.R. 1291, 21st Century Montgomery GI Bill Enhancement Act. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Benefits of the Committee on Veterans' Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (May 24, 2001 and June 7, 2001). 

These reports are of two congressional hearings on H.R. 1291, the 21st Century Montgomery GI Bill Enhancement Act (MGIB 21). They focus primarily on MGIB 21 as a recruiting tool. Testimony includes statements and prepared statements of representatives and witnesses representing the United States (U.S.) Commission on National Security in the 21st Century; Veterans of Foreign Wars of the U.S.; U.S. Army; The Retired Officers Association; The Retired Enlisted Association; U.S. Marine Corps; U.S. Air Force; U.S. Navy; U.S. Coast Guard; Deputy Secretary of Defense for Personnel; U.S. Commission on National Security in the 21st Century; National Economic Commission of The American Legion; Government Relations, Vietnam Veterans of America; Congressional Commission on Servicemembers and Veterans Transition Assistance; American Association of State Colleges and Universities; University of Southern Mississippi; National Association of Veterans' Programs Administrators; The College Board; U.S. General Accounting Office; Department of Veterans Affairs; Department of Labor; National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities. Material submitted for the record includes MGIB 21, statements, and written committee questions with responses. | [FULL TEXT]

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HRT

_____. (2000).  H.R. 4678, the Child Support Distribution Act of 2000, Includes Significant Child Support Changes Benefitting Low-Income Children. A Brief Explanation. 

H.R. 4678, the Child Support Distribution Act of 2000, was scheduled for debate and a vote in the House of Representatives in September 2000. This bill would help poor children escape poverty, strengthen families, and build on and enhance welfare reform. The support changes in this bill would allow more of the child support collected from noncustodial parents (the majority of whom are fathers) to reach the children on whose behalf the payments are made. It would ensure that once a family left welfare, the family would have first claim on all child support paid by the father, rather than having child support go first toward the debt to the state. The bill would also create incentives for states to allow families to benefit from child support paid on their behalf. The fatherhood provision of the bill would provide funding to community-based and state programs working directly with low-income noncustodial parents. H.R. 4678 includes a number of provisions that would be beneficial to low-income children, families, and noncustodial parents. These provisions represent an investment in stronger families that should make child support easier to administer as states become empowered to integrate collection and distribution of child support with welfare reform strategies. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (2002).  H.R. 1992, the Internet Equity and Education Act of 2001. Hearing before the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (June 20, 2001). 

The Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness, Committee on Education and the Workforce, U.S. House of Representatives met at 10:33 a.m. on Wednesday, June 20, 2001, in Room 2175, Rayburn House Office Building to hear testimony on H.R. 1992, the Internet Equity and Education Act of 2001. Chairman of the Subcommittee, Hon. Howard P. "Buck" McKeon presided, and limited the opening statements to the chairman, the ranking minority member, and a designee from each side. Contents include: Opening Statements of Chairman McKeon and Vice Chairman Johnny Isakson; Statement of Stanley O. Ikenberry, President, American Council on Education, Washington, D.C.; Statement of Lorraine Lewis, Inspector General, U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C.; Statement of Richard J. Gowen, President, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, South Dakota; Statement of Omer E. Waddles, Executive Vice President, ITT Educational Services, Inc., On Behalf of the Career College Association, Indianapolis, Indiana; and Statement of Joseph S. DiGregorio, Vice Provost for Distance Learning, Continuing Education and Outreach, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia. The following Statements are appended: Written Opening Statement of Chairman McKeon; Written Statement Submitted for the Record by Ranking Member Patsy Mink on Behalf of Congresswoman Betty McCollum, Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness, Committee on Education and the Workforce, from Steve Shank, Chancellor, Capella University, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Written Opening Statement of Vice Chairman Isakson; Written Statement of Stanley O. Ikenberry; Written Statement of Lorraine Lewis; Written Statement of Richard J. Gowen; Written Statement of Omer E. Waddles; Written Statement of Joseph S. DiGregorio; and Letter Submitted for the Record by Ranking Member Patsy Mink from Juliet Garza, Chairperson, Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, Washington, D.C.; Report to Congress on the Distance Education Demonstration Programs Submitted for the Record by Ranking Member Patsy Mink; and Questions Submitted for the Record to U.S.Secretary of Education Roderick Paige by Ranking Member Patsy Mink; Responses Submitted for the Record by U.S. Secretary of Education Roderick Paige to Questions Submitted by Ranking Member Patsy Mink; Letter Submitted for the Record by Chairman McKeon from Secretary of Education Roderick Paige; and Written Statement Submitted for the Record by Chairman McKeon from Dr. Ron Chenail, Vice President for Academic Affairs, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. A Table of Indexes is included. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (2005).  H.R. 366, The Vocational and Technical Education for the Future Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education Reform of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Ninth Congress, First Session (February 15, 2005). Serial Number 109-1  [US House of Representatives] 

H.R. 366, The Vocational and Technical Education for the Future Act, is intended to help states, community colleges, and other postsecondary education institutions and local educational agencies better utilize funds for vocational and technical education programs, increase accountability, emphasize student achievement, and strengthen opportunities for coordination. This document records testimony at the February 15, 2005 hearing on H.R. 366. It includes testimony and prepared statements from Representatives Michael N. Castle and Lynn C. Woolsey, and from the following witnesses: (1) Dr. Patrick Ainsworth (Assistant Superintendent and Director, Secondary, Postsecondary and Adult Leadership Division, California Department of Education); (2) Dr. Lewis L. Atkinson, III (Associate Secretary of Education, Adult Education & Workforce Development, Delaware Department of Education); (3) Dr. Joanna Kister (Educational Consultant); (4) Russ Moore (Chief Executive Officer, Central Educational Center); and (5) Emily Simons (vocational and technical education student, Eastern Technical School). | [FULL TEXT]

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Hse

Hser, Yih-Ing; Teruya, Cheryl; Evans, Elizabeth A.; Longshore, Douglas; Grella, Christine; Farabee, David (2003).  Treating Drug-Abusing Offenders: Initial Findings from a Five-County Study on the Impact of California's Proposition 36 on the Treatment System and Patient Outcomes  Evaluation Review, 27, 5. 

Five counties (Kern, Riverside, Sacramento, San Diego, San Francisco) that demonstrate both variations and similarities in their implementation of Proposition 36 (e.g., treatment approaches, urine testing) and patient mix have been selected to participate in a study assessing how California's Proposition 36 is affecting the drug treatment system and patient outcomes. Except for San Francisco, treatment admissions increased during the first year of Proposition 36 implementation over the prior year (27% in Kern, 21% in Riverside, 17% in Sacramento, and 16% in San Diego), mostly in outpatient drug-free programs. Compared to non-Proposition 36 patients, Proposition 36 patients were more likely to be men, first-time admissions, treated in outpatient drug-free programs, employed full-time, and users of methamphetamine or marijuana. They were less likely to be treated in residential programs or methadone maintenance programs and fewer reported heroin use or injection drug use. Guided by the multilevel open systems framework, the study examines key issues of Proposition 36 that influence treatment systems and outcomes and empirically identifies "best practice" approaches in treating drug-abusing offenders.

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Hsu

Hsu, Spencer S. (2004).  How Vouchers Came to D.C.: The Inside Story  Education Next, 4, 4. 

On May 23, 2001, the Republican-controlled House of Representatives had rejected a proposal to fund a pilot school voucher program that would have provided a token voucher of $1,500 to students in five schools nationwide. Less than three years later, President George W. Bush delivered a far different message to voucher supporters--a declaration of victory. In January 2004, Bush signed legislation providing grants worth as much as $7,500 each to children from dozens of public schools in the District of Columbia for their use at private or religious schools in a five-year experiment. The recipients of the first federal "opportunity scholarships," as advocates named them, were announced in June. The D.C. program is a landmark, representing the first federally funded school voucher program. Moreover, by design the D.C. vouchers are more generous than those approved in Milwaukee, Cleveland, Florida, and Colorado, although they are generally limited to fewer children. How school voucher advocates engineered the breakthrough is the story of a complex of alignment of interests among conservative education activists, the Republicans who control Washington, and the local leaders of a majority African-American city.

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Hua

Huang, Ann X.; Wheeler, John J. (2007).  Including Children with Autism in General Education in China  Childhood Education, 83, 6. 

In this article, the authors report that, although social attention to the education of children with special needs began in the late 1970s, education for children with autism is the greatest challenge in special education in China. They point out that most school-age children with autism are still kept out of both regular and special schools. In most places in China today, children with severe, multiple disabilities and mental retardation are still being institutionalized and kept away from community life. Since the publication of the 1986 Education Law (National People's Congress, 1986), the State Department of Education has made great efforts to increase the number of students with disabilities included in public education. Of these, Suiban Jiudu, the practice of inclusion, has become an important means to achieve this goal since 1994. Here, the authors discuss the background information on Suiban Jiudu, its legal issues and the current practices of inclusion. In addition, the authors identify current challenges and possible solutions for effective inclusion, which include (1) social awareness and acceptance; (2) teacher preparation; (3) special curriculum and assessment; and (4) legislative and financial support.

Huang, Chien-Chung (2001).  The Impact of Child Support Enforcement on Nonmarital and Marital Births: Does It Differ by Racial and Age Groups? JCPR Working Paper. 

Using data from the 1979-98 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this paper investigated the effect of child support enforcement on marital and nonmarital births, noting differences by age and race. The study examined 4,715 women who were followed from 1979 to their first birth or to 1998. Data also came from various years of the State Legislative Summary from the National Conference of State Legislatures and the Office of Child Support Enforcement Legislative Tracking System Report from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Data analysis provided evidence that women who lived in states with effective child support enforcement, measured by both strict child support legislation and high child support expenditure, were more likely to have marital births and less likely to have nonmarital births. The findings suggest that the deterrence effect of child support enforcement on men dominated the opposite effect on women. The impact of child support enforcement differed by racial and age groups. For African American women, effective child support enforcement had a strong effect on decreasing nonmarital births, but not for increasing marital births. The impact went the opposite way for white and/or post-teenage women. | [FULL TEXT]

Huang, Chien-Chung; Kunz, James; Garfinkel, Irwin (2002).  The Effect of Child Support on Welfare Exits and Re-Entries  Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 21, 4. 

Much of the literature on welfare dynamics has focused on the effects of recipient characteristics and state-level characteristics such as welfare benefits and economic conditions; there has been very little analysis on the effects of child support. This paper, using the 1979-1996 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, examines whether child support affects the likelihood of leaving and re-entering welfare. The results indicate that strong child support enforcement is important in helping young mothers exit and stay off welfare. Women with $1000 child support payments in the previous year were 18 percent more likely to exit welfare and 12 percent less likely to re-enter welfare. Compared with women in states that pursued child support least vigorously, women in states that had passed extensive child support enforcement legislation and that spent more money on child support enforcement were 79 percent more likely to exit welfare and about 60 percent less likely to re-enter welfare.

Huang, Grace Hui-Chen; Mason, Kimberly L. (2008).  Motivations of Parental Involvement in Children's Learning: Voices from Urban African American Families of Preschoolers  Multicultural Education, 15, 3. 

A growing body of research supports the view that parents' attitudes, behaviors, and activities related to children's education influences students' learning and educational success. To date, research studying parental involvement in their children's schooling included elementary through middle school aged populations. There have been a few studies that explored parental involvement of preschoolers. Yet relatively few studies have investigated the African American parents' motivation for involvement in their young children's education. This research intends to fill this gap. It explores parents' motivation to be involved in a family education program, and examines their views about their children's education. Because of the significance of parental involvement, it underscores the importance of continued attention to more research in this area and careful delineation of conceptual and theoretical foundations to inform educational practice. This research draws upon theory to support the findings. Recommendations are provided to further program effectiveness and practice, as well as encourage parental involvement, inform program development and strategic planning.

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Hudd, Suzanne S. (2004).  Character Education in Contemporary America: McMorals?  Taboo: The Journal of Culture and Education, 8, 2. 

Character education, the instruction of core ethical values and cultivation of good conduct in the classroom, is increasingly being incorporated in public school curricula across the country. Over the last few years, schools in 48 states have introduced programs in character education as a means to nurture moral behavior among the youth. Public support for the addition of character education to school curricula is the strongest it has been since the 1950s, and it is bolstered by a variety of statistics related to moral decline. In this essay, the author explores the extent to which contemporary character education programs are being provided through a "McDonaldization" model. Her thesis is that federal sponsorship of character education programs through "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" (NCLB) has the potential to lead people to what she defines as an era of "McMorals." Increasing pressure to fit character education into the national standards movement in education and to employ and fund only "effective" techniques poses a great risk because it ignores the complexity of character development and the importance of acknowledging and working within situational constraints and cultural complexities that naturally affect the process of character development. The author addresses some important questions in this essay: (1) What are the long-term consequences of altering the processes by which children learn character?; (2) Is it possible that the outcome of school-based character education instills children with a view of character that is situation-specific?; (3) Does school-based character education supplant or support moral conversations in the home?; and (4) What will the implications be as schools increasingly provide character education through models that emphasize efficiency, calculability, predictability and control?

Hudson, Christine (2006).  Regional Development Partnerships in Sweden: A Way for Higher Education Institutions to Develop their Role in the Processes of Regional Governance?  Higher Education: The International Journal of Higher Education and Educational Planning, 51, 3. 

This paper focuses on the multi-sectoral regional growth partnerships established as part of the new Swedish regional policy. It asks the question whether participation in these partnerships marks a closer involvement on the part of universities in the processes of regional governance. This paper argues that at least part of the explanation for this active role in the regional growth partnerships lies in the growing mutual dependency relationship between the university and its region. The significance placed on innovation, knowledge creation, human resource development and social capital in achieving regional growth and development accord the universities/higher education institutions a significant role in their regions. Thus there is a strong belief on the part of other actors (as well as on part of universities/higher education institutions themselves) in the ability of universities/higher education institutions to promote growth in their regions. Further, changes in higher education legislation during the 1990s which, whilst giving universities more autonomy over their internal affairs, placed greater responsibility on them to work with their communities (in particular industry and business). It is suggested here that these developments, coupled with the increasing importance of external financing, have encouraged the universities to participate in the regional partnerships/growth agreements for their respective regions.

Hudson, Christine (2007).  Governing the Governance of Education: The State Strikes Back?  European Educational Research Journal, 6, 3. 

In many countries, there have been changes in the way in which education is governed, with greater fragmentation of responsibility between the state, local government, schools, individuals and the market often accompanied by a move from detailed regulation to framework legislation. Previously, these developments have been seen as part of the move from government to governance whereby the state is forced to step back and allow other interests to play a role. However, in recent years more subtle theories of governance have been developed which argue that, rather than retreating, the state is adapting to changing circumstances and finding new ways of governing. The importance of education not only in terms of creating and maintaining national identity but also for economic development suggests that this is an area from which the state will not willingly abdicate its role. This article suggests that support for the new governance theories can be found in the field of education. It argues that the growth in the attempts to control educational outputs through, for example, demands for quality controls, standardized testing, evaluations and so on and the introduction of national bodies responsible for carrying out these controls can be interpreted as a sign that the state, far from relinquishing its role, is finding other ways of controlling education. A comparative approach is adopted and these ideas are explored in relation to education systems in the Nordic and British countries. The article draws on a qualitative analysis of official policy documents, legislation and official statements concerning education in the respective countries.

Hudson, Lisa; Shafer, Linda (2004).  Undergraduate Enrollments in Academic, Career, and Vocational Education. Issue Brief. NCES 2004?018  [US Department of Education] 

This Issue Brief examines postsecondary vocational education within the context of all undergraduate education. The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) has traditionally reported data on postsecondary vocational education using a taxonomy that divides subbaccalaureate postsecondary education into academic and vocational areas of study (Choy and Horn 1992; Levesque et al. 2000). To better reflect the correspondence between instructional fields and the educational requirements of careers in today's economy, NCES recently developed the new taxonomy described in this Issue Brief. The new taxonomy classifies all undergraduate majors as academic majors or career majors. Because federal law defines vocational education as instruction for careers below the baccalaureate level, the new taxonomy further divides career majors into subbaccalaureate and baccalaureate level majors. At the baccalaureate level, career majors are considered nonvocational and at the subbaccalaureate level they are considered vocational. | [FULL TEXT]

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Huefner, Dixie Snow (2000).  Getting Comfortable with Special Education Law: A Framework for Working with Children with Disabilities. 

Designed for special and regular education teachers, principals, directors, and others, this text provides information on special education law and children with disabilities who are of public school age. It provides a conceptual foundation for the explosion over the past 25 years of federal laws affecting children with disabilities and is intended to help practitioners become informed about their particular roles and the roles of others in educating children with disabilities. Specific chapters address: (1) special education law and how to read it; (2) the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA); (3) Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973; (4) the Americans with Disabilities Act; (5) disability evaluation, contagious diseases, appropriate education, placement, discipline, and due process under Section 504; and (6) eligibility, evaluation, Individualized Education Programs, due process, student records and privacy issues, appropriate education, related services, inclusion, placement, and discipline of students with disabilities under IDEA. The last chapter discusses remedies under IDEA. Appendices include U.S. Supreme Court decisions concerning services under IDEA and selected Internet sites with information on special education and disabilities. A glossary of legal terms and an index of cited court cases are also included. (Chapters include references.)

Huefner, Dixie Snow (2000).  The Risks and Opportunities of the IEP Requirements under IDEA '97.  Journal of Special Education, 33, 4. 

This article analyzes changes in Individualized Education Program (IEP) requirements under the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, implementation issues, and implications for FAPE (free and appropriate education) requirements. It suggests that, although these new requirements create increased opportunities for collaboration, they also create new risks of backlash. A table compares specific old and new components. 

Huerta, Luis A.; d'Entremont, Chad (2007).  Education Tax Credits in a Post-"Zelman" Era: Legal, Political, and Policy Alternatives to Vouchers?  Educational Policy, 21, 1. 

This article examines an emerging preference for education tax credit programs in a post-"Zelman" era. First, the authors detail the origin of tax credits and the types of existing plans. Second, they review the assumptions underlying the supposed advantages that may favor tax credits as a feasible alternative to vouchers. Third, they analyze legal, political, and policy implications of this form of school choice. They review evidence from recent research on tax credit programs and analyze new evidence collected for this article on the Minnesota Tax Credits and Deduction Program. They posit that although education tax credit plans may be more widely accepted than education vouchers, substantial obstacles may still restrict their implementation.

Huerta-Macias, Ana G. (2002).  Workforce Education for Latinos: Politics, Programs, and Practices. 

This book examines issues related to problems in workforce education for Latinos and Latinas in the United States. Chapter 1, "The Landscape of Latinos, Education, and Work," presents an introduction and background information. Chapter 2, "The Politics of Workforce Education," discusses current legislation that has negatively impacted Latinos and looks closely at a Borderland city in the southwest where the Latino workforce has suffered greatly from displacement and unemployment. Chapter 3, "Bilingual Programs for the Workforce," describes educational programs that are successfully helping Latino workers in their search for advancement, addressing the issue of language use in instruction. Chapter 4, "Principles and Practices in Educating the Latino Workforce," highlights exemplary instructional practices. Chapter 5, "Accountability and Assessment in Workforce Education," discusses the issues of accountability and assessment in adult education. Chapter 6, "Workforce Education for Latinos: Policy Recommendations" presents recommendations for changes in workforce education policies for Latinos.

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Huffman, Lynne C.; Mehlinger, Sarah L.; Kerivan, Amy S.; Cavanaugh, Doreen A.; Lippitt, John; Moyo, Otrude (2001).  Off to a Good Start: Research on the Risk Factors for Early School Problems and Selected Federal Policies Affecting Children's Social and Emotional Development and Their Readiness for School. 

In order to examine the responsiveness of federal policies to the known risk and protective factors for academic and behavior problems at the beginning of school, the Child Mental Health Foundations and Agencies Network commissioned the two papers that make up this publication. One paper reviews the last two decades of relevant scientific literature concerning the risk factors known to affect young children's social-emotional school readiness adversely and the gaps that exist in the research base. The other paper identifies the federal policies and programs that address these risk factors. Taken together, the two papers identify the gaps between what we know regarding risk and protective factors and the programs that are currently implemented to address them. Includes extensive references and data tables.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Hughes, Anne Fitzsimons; Adera, Beatrice (2006).  Education and Day Treatment Opportunities in Schools: Strategies that Work  Preventing School Failure, 51, 1. 

In recent years, the number of alternative schools has continued to grow and an increasingly large number of students at-risk for school failure have been enrolled in alternative settings. Critics blame this increase on the fact that the school-aged population has become increasingly diverse, presenting a broad range of issues that the schools have not been able to effectively address. Furthermore, with the renewed push for accountability and the mounting challenge of serving students who exhibit emotional and behavioral problems, schools have had little choice but to resort to enrolling these students in alternative educational settings. Federal legislation emphasizes that educational programs serving students at-risk for school failure should use strategies and procedures for which there is empirical support regarding their efficacy (F. A. Hughes, P. Baker, A. Criste, J. Huffy, M. Link, C. Piripavel, et al., 2006). C. A. Lehr and C. M. Lange (2003) argued that although it is clear that students with disabilities are attending alternative schools, the extent to which these students are being educated and the nature and quality of these educational programs is still unclear. In this article, the authors will provide an overview of strategies and practices that work in effective alternative and day treatment programs. The authors will examine research and pedagogical literature relevant to the aforementioned core characteristics and discuss practical recommendations for integrating these core characteristics into daily practices using specific examples from model programs.

Hughes, Georgia K. (2005).  Maximizing the Achievement of African American Children in Kanawha (MAACK): Assessing Laboratory Support of a Community Initiative  [Appalachia Educational Laboratory at Edvantia] 

The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) began, upon its institution in 2002, to hold states more directly accountable for the progress of all students, including students of color and students of low socioeconomic status (SES). These groups of students have historically performed less well than their White or upper-class peers. In 2001, prior to the passage of NCLB, officials from Kanawha County Schools (KCS) and local community members began addressing educational inequities for African American students. The district had not been successful in its attempts to help African American students make gains in achievement test and ACT scores, college preparedness, or high school graduation rates. Further, KCS had received a citation from the U.S. Office of Civil Rights because of the disproportional representation of African American students in certain special education categories. The intent of this study was to describe the perceptions and experiences of a particular group (MAACK Community Initiative leaders and participants). A qualitative research paradigm was selected for this study because it was largely an investigation of a social phenomenon, undertaken by intensively comparing, contrasting, and classifying participants' experiences, and perceptions (Yin, 2003). The data presented here paint a complex picture of the laboratory's role in the MAACK community initiative. However, some conclusions based on the data can be stated clearly: (1) Laboratory staff provided necessary structure and organization to MAACK meetings and activities; (2) Laboratory staff gathered and disseminated educational achievement data and other relevant school data; (3) Laboratory staff facilitated challenging and emotionally charged discussions between community members and school district personnel regarding the achievement gap; and (4) Laboratory staff collaborated with MAACK members to produce relevant print documents and online materials to educate and engage African Americans, but most people interviewed could not describe particular instances of collaboration. [Aaron A. Baker was a consultant for this study.] | [FULL TEXT]

Hughes, Georgia K.; Cowley, Kimberly S.; Copley, Lisa D.; Finch, Nicole L.; Meehan, Merrill L.; Burns, Rebecca C.; Kusimo, Patricia S.; Keyes, Marian C.; Orletsky, Sandra R.; Holdzkom, David (2004).  Effects of a Culturally Responsive Teaching Project on Teachers and Students in Selected Kanawha County, WV, Schools  [AEL] 

Differences in academic achievement among ethnic and socioeconomic groups, called achievement gaps, have been an issue in education for many years. Achievement gaps exist between upper- and lower-class students and between students of differing races and ethnic backgrounds. As a group, Black and Hispanic students perform less well on many standardized tests of academic achievement than do White and Asian American students. Following the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, many states and districts have made increased efforts to close the achievement gap. Appended are: (1) AEL's Framework for Maximizing the Achievement of African American Children in Kanawha; (2) Monthly Curriculum for MAACK Pilot Team Meetings; (3) Professional Development Materials for Principles of Culturally Responsive Instruction; (4) Lesson Plan Template; (5) Special Strategies Observation System (SSOS) Form; (6) Letter of Instruction for AEL CSIQ and AEL MSCI Administration; (7) Instructions for Administering the AEL MASC; (8) 2001 Focus Group Report; and (9) SEDCAR Checklist.  | [FULL TEXT]

Hughes, Katherine L.; Bailey, Thomas R.; Karp, Melinda Mechur (2002).  School-to-Work: Making a Difference in Education.  Phi Delta Kappan, 84, 4. 

Discusses generally positive findings of research studies of the School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994 related to academic achievement, career preparation, youth development, teachers' views, and employers' views.

Hughes, Katherine L.; Karp, Melinda Mechur (2004).  School-Based Career Development: A Synthesis of the Literature  [Institute on Education and the Economy, Columbia University] 

The Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Amendments of 1998 extended support for "career guidance and academic counseling." A wide variety of such interventions are in existence. Since the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 emphasizes evidence-based education, it is important to examine the research to determine the value of these programs. This synthesis of the research literature, covering meta-analyses and individual studies on comprehensive guidance programs, career courses, counseling interventions and computer-assisted career guidance, finds many benefits to students of career guidance and academic counseling interventions. On a variety of career-related and academic measures, student subjects did have increased outcomes. However, there are also limitations to the interventions and to the research methods studying them. Many of the interventions are short-term, low-dosage activities, with lasting benefits unclear. In addition, much of the research relies on self-reported responses to psychological inventories. Based on the findings of the research review, recommendations are to focus practice and research on middle-school students, and target resources towards ensuring that all middle- and high-school students have regular conferences with counselors to discuss their current and future academic programs. Finally, research should focus on exploring the relationships between guidance interventions and positive student behaviors, rather than attitudes. (Contains a Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Bibliography. [DTI Associates also contributed funds for this paper.] | [FULL TEXT]

Hughes, Katherine L.; Karp, Melinda Mechur (2006).  Strengthening Transitions by Encouraging Career Pathways: A Look at State Policies and Practices. CCRC Brief Number 30  [Community College Research Center, Columbia University] 

This Brief summarizes a report prepared to assist the U.S. Department of Education's College and Career Transitions Initiative (CCTI). The report presents a sample of state-level policies and legislation that support the implementation of career pathways and other strategies that facilitate educational and employment transitions. Data gathering for the investigation consisted of interviews with CCTI site contacts and other experts in education and workforce development, and web searches for information on legislation and regulation pertaining to career pathways. [This Brief was drawn from a longer report of the same title.] | [FULL TEXT]

Hughes, Kristine (2005).  Here and There. Some Homeschoolers Wanting to Sample a Class or Two Are Being Told They Have to Take the Whole Meal  Teacher Magazine, 17, 3. 

Now a growing number of Texas homeschoolers want to send their children off to class, if only a few hours a day. But as in other states, not all educators in the Lone Star State think students should be able to select just a course or two. A bill that would have encouraged schools to offer classes on an a la carte basis failed for the third time in the just-concluded legislative session despite the $5 million schools would have received annually for students' fractional-day attendance. Some homeschoolers see selective schooling as a way to enhance their children's educations, particularly in specialized subjects such as science, math, and foreign languages. They would also like to use schools' libraries, achievement testing, textbooks, and other resources. Others want their children to be able to participate in music programs and compete athletically alongside their public school peers--something they say is not likely to happen without legislative or court intervention.

Hughes, Teresa A. (2006).  The Advantages of Single-Sex Education  [Online Submission, National Forum of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal v23 n2 2006-2007] 

Traditionally, single-sex education has been provided in the form of private schooling. Title IX regulations have loosened as a result of the No Child Left Behind Legislation; therefore, public school districts now have the legal right to create single-sex classes or single-sex schools if they deem it to be in the best interest of their students. In public school single-sex environments, student achievement improves, especially for minority students or students in poverty, as a result of improved behaviors and teacher focus on learning-style differences. The author of this article concludes that school districts should give parents the choice of single-sex education or coeducation by offering single-sex classes or single-sex schools along with coeducation. | [FULL TEXT]

Hughes, Teresa A.; Kritsonis, William Allan (2006).  A National Perspective: An Exploration of Professional Learning Communities and the Impact on School Improvement Efforts  [Online Submission] 

A Nation at Risk, Goals 2000, and No Child Left Behind are examples of external factors that compel educational leaders at local schools and districts to explore reform initiatives in order to meet federally required results. Because of political mandates to improve student learning and instruction, educational leaders are searching for initiatives to ensure success for all children. A number of initiatives designed to improve student performance and the quality of teaching are available for educational leaders. One such initiative is professional learning communities. | [FULL TEXT]

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Humphrey, Justin (2005).  Subsidy Estimates for Guaranteed and Direct Student Loans. A CBO Paper  [Congressional Budget Office] 

The federal government assists students and their parents in meeting the costs of postsecondary education through two student loan programs, the Federal Family Education Loan Program and the William D. Ford Direct Loan Program. Although the two programs provide similar benefits to borrowers, their structures and operations differ greatly. As a result, the federal government's cash flows for the two programs differ, as do its net budgetary costs when calculated as specified in the Federal Credit Reform Act. This Congressional Budget Office (CBO) paper--prepared at the request of the Senate Budget Committee--describes how the agency estimates the budgetary costs of the two student loan programs and what factors account for the differences in those costs. The following are appended: (1) Sample Subsidy Rates When a Borrower Defaults or Consolidates Loans; (2) Examples of Subsidy Calculated Using Fixed Interest Rates That Take Effect in 2006; (3) CBO's Estimates of Subsidy Rates for Various Types of Guaranteed and Direct Student Loans Made in 2006; and (4) Recent Legislative and Administrative Actions Affecting the Student Loan Programs.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Hungerford, Thomas L. (2006).  The Role of Earnings and Financial Risk in Distributional Analyses of Social Security Reform Measures  Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 25, 2. 

The Social Security Trustees project that the Social Security program faces longterm financing difficulties. Several proposals that have been offered to shore-up the finances of the Social Security program would create individual retirement accounts funded with part of the payroll tax. The authors of many of these proposals claim that future beneficiaries will be better off under their new system than under the current system. This study examines the consequences of differing earnings patterns and year-to-year differences in asset returns have for Social Security retired worker benefits in three Social Security reform proposals. Incorporating both actual earnings histories and variation in asset returns shows that none of the three individual account plans can always deliver benefits that are higher than payable current-law benefits.

Hunsicker Jr., J. Freedley (2000).  Significant Labor and Employment Law Issues in Higher Education During the Past Decade and What To Look for Now: A Management Perspective.  Journal of Law and Education, 29, 3. 

A management perspective of major issues in higher education labor law in the 1990s addresses: sexual harassment; the Civil Rights Act of 1991; diversity on campus, elimination of mandatory retirement for faculty; development of contingent work force; and unionization of residents, interns, and graduate assistants. Predicts alternatives to litigation, inclusion of domestic partners in benefit programs, proliferation of campus speech codes, and women=s pay equity issues.

Hunt, James B., Jr. (2002).  Leadership in Education: A View from the States.  Phi Delta Kappan, 83, 9. 

Former Governor of North Carolina describes his efforts to improve the state's education system, to make it "First in America." Describes five educational goals related thereto: A smart start, excellent teaching, safe schools, high student performance, and business, community, and family support. Discusses implications of new federal education legislation for state education policy.

Hunt, John W. (2008).  "A Nation at Risk" and No Child Left Behind: Deja Vu for Administrators?  Phi Delta Kappan, 89, 8. 

When the National Commission on Excellence in Education submitted "A Nation at Risk" to Secretary of Education Terrel Bell on 26 April 1983, there was little to suggest that this report would shine a spotlight on education that would last a quarter of a century. Indeed, not long after the release of this document, critics were already downplaying its recommendations. "The truth is," wrote one, "that the public schools are doing the job well, the product is viable, and the public is receiving what they need from the schools." It was only natural for educators to defend their practice and their profession. Since the shock of Sputnik in 1957, the education establishment had apparently rebounded and, in the view of many Americans, had responded appropriately. In this article, the author examines the years between 1983 and NCLB in an effort to determine whether school administrators really are experiencing "deja vu all over again."

Hunter, Bonnie; Gehring, Donald D. (2005).  The Cost of Federal Legislation on Higher Education: The Hidden Tax on Tuition  NASPA Journal, 42, 4. 

This study focused on developing a conceptual framework for cost collection at colleges and universities and on assessing the cost impact of federal legislation on a representative midsize, private, 4-year institution in the Midwest. Additionally, a complete list of federal legislation affecting higher education had to be compiled before costs could be collected. The outcomes of this cost impact study included the development of a complete legislative typology for federal legislation affecting higher education, including more than 200 laws; a cost model framework and worksheet for data collection; and actual cost data of federal legislation implementation at an institution of higher education. Specific cost data at the institution under study demonstrated that the cost impact of federal legislation to the institution was 6.5% of the institution's operating budget for the 2000-2001 fiscal year.

Hunter, Jill (2005).  "Walk a Mile in my Shoes"  Childhood Education, 82, 1. 

The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), which is regarded as the most significant federal education policy initiative in a generation, was signed into law on January 8, 2002. The purpose of this law is to ensure that each child in America is able to meet the high learning standards set forth by the state in which he or she lives. One of the specific goals of the law, as reported in the Federal Register issued on March 6, 2002, is that "by 2005-2006, all students will be taught by highly qualified teachers." Even before NCLB was passed, research demonstrated the importance of teacher quality on student performance; passage of the law has caused state policymakers to revamp teacher preparation and licensure requirements to ensure that they are performance-based. For preservice teachers to begin the road to becoming "highly qualified," they must demonstrate competency in all of ACEI's Standards for Elementary Teachers. The use of portfolios at all levels of their preservice experiences provides the data to support performance-based competencies in all of these standards. Elementary preservice teachers in South Carolina also are required to demonstrate competence in appropriate subject matter knowledge and teaching skills by taking ETS's Praxis II tests--Elementary Education: Curriculum, Instruction & Assessment and Elementary Education: Content Area Exercises. Here, the author tells his experience of taking the test as well as his learnings. As a way to better prepare their pre-service teachers for taking these tests, faculty members in the elementary education department at her university were encouraged to take both tests. She had to study for a major test. She passed the test and is now "highly qualified," as defined by NCLB. But, by "walking a mile in their shoes," she learned to never take her students' concerns lightly. She also learned to be more understanding, especially during the time period when they are trying to juggle their student teaching and studying for the tests that will have such a major impact on their quest for becoming highly qualified teachers. She states that highly qualified teachers can learn from all of their experiences.

Hunter, John; O'Connor, Una (2006).  In Search of Inclusion  Support for Learning, 21, 2. 

This article provides a context within which other contributions to this issue might be read. It examines the position of special educational needs (SEN) within the evolving continuum of education in Northern Ireland, specifically within the context of educational inclusion. It describes recent changes in educational policy and legislation which are likely to impact on the inclusion of children with special educational needs, examines inclusion within the mainstream schools and the role of special schools.

Hunter, Richard C. (2000).  Will Accountability Systems Work in an Unequal Education System?  School Business Affairs, 66 n8 p7-10, 12. 

The input model of assessing public education must be clearly understood before educators embrace an output assessment model. Most school finance legislation has been inequitable, favoring students in predominantly white school districts. However, the disadvantaged suffer most when implementing state outcomes-based accountability systems.

Hunter, Richard C. (2002).  New Accountability Management by States.  School Business Affairs, 68, 4. 

Describes goals, advantages, standards, and missing components of state accountability systems. (25 references)

Hunter, Richard C. (2003).  State Accountability Systems That Hold Promise for Improving Equity in Education.  School Business Affairs, 69, 1. 

Discusses the potential of state accountability systems and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 to reduce the achievement gap and funding disparities, thus providing greater educational equality for poor and minority students.

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Hursh, David (2004).  Undermining Democratic Education in the USA: The Consequences of Global Capitalism and Neo-Liberal Policies for Education Policies at the Local, State and Federal Levels  Policy Futures in Education, 2, 3-4. 

In the USA, many of the recent education reforms have been implemented in response to calls from neo-liberal and conservative policy makers to improve education efficiency and reduce public expenditures within an increasingly globalized economy. Consequently, local, state, and federal education policies increasingly employ curricular standards and high-stakes testing as a means of introducing competition and markets into education. Moreover, for some policy makers such reforms are the first step towards privatizing education through charter schools and vouchers programs. In this article the author analyzes the consequences such policies have had on the education system on three scales: the city of Chicago, the state of New York, and the US federal government. In particular, the reforms have shifted the control over education from the local to the state and federal levels. Further, the reforms have increased inequality between the advantaged middle-class and White students and the disadvantaged working-class students and students of color.

Hursh, David (2005).  The Growth of High-Stakes Testing in the USA: Accountability, Markets and the Decline in Educational Equality  British Educational Research Journal, 31, 5. 

Over the last decade education in the United States has undergone perhaps its most significant transformation. Where in the past public schools have been primarily under the control of the local community, control has shifted to the state and federal levels. Furthermore, state and federal governments have introduced standardized testing and accountability as a means to hold teachers and students responsible. These reforms have been successfully introduced because reform proponents have provided three principal rationales for the reforms: they are necessary within an increasingly globalized economy, they will reduce educational inequality and they will increase assessment objectivity. After describing the reforms implemented in New York and Texas and by the federal government through the "No Child Left Behind" Act, the author discusses a range of evidence that the reforms have not achieved their ostensible goals and that resistance to the reforms is beginning to emerge from US educators and citizens.

Hursh, David (2007).  Exacerbating Inequality: The Failed Promise of the No Child Left behind Act  Race

The passage of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) marks the largest intervention of the federal government into education in the history of the United States. NCLB received and continues to receive support, in part because it promises to improve student learning and to close the achievement gap between White students and students of color. However, NCLB has failed to live up to its promises and may exacerbate inequality. Furthermore, by focusing on education as the solution to social and economic inequality, it diverts the public's attention away from the issues such as poverty, lack of decent paying jobs and health care, that need to be confronted if inequality is to be reduced.

Hursh, David (2007).  Assessing No Child Left Behind and the Rise of Neoliberal Education Policies  American Educational Research Journal, 44, 3. 

No Child Left Behind and other education reforms promoting high-stakes testing, accountability, and competitive markets continue to receive wide support from politicians and public figures. This support, the author suggests, has been achieved by situating education within neoliberal policies that argue that such reforms are necessary within an increasingly globalized economy, will increase academic achievement, and will close the achievement gap. However, the author offers preliminary data suggesting that the reforms are not achieving their stated goals. Consequently, educators need to question whether neoliberal approaches to education should replace the previously dominant social democratic approaches.

Hurth, Joicey; Goff, Paula (2002).  Assuring the Family's Role on the Early Intervention Team: Explaining Rights and Safeguards. Second Edition. 

The procedural safeguards required by the Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities Program (Part C) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) are intended to protect the interests of families with infants and toddlers with special needs and of the early intervention system. Early intervention system personnel are legally obligated to explain procedural safeguards to families and to support an active adherence to and understanding of these safeguards throughout the early intervention system. This paper presents a synthesis of innovative practices and ideas for explaining procedural safeguards to families in ways that are supportive of their role as partners in the early intervention process. The authors solicited information about practices and ideas for explaining procedural safeguards to families from early childhood projects funded by the Office of Special Education Programs of the U.S. Department of Education and from the state lead agencies for Part C. The paper includes a step-by step model explaining procedural safeguards that parallels the early intervention process. The authors intend to explore the implications of procedural safeguards for families, but not to analyze the Part C safeguards themselves. The paper has been developed for state Part C leaders, service providers, families, family advocates, and especially for those people who are involved in explaining procedural safeguards to families. | [FULL TEXT]

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Hus

Hussey, Michael (2008).  The Technology of Unequal Rights for Women: Patent Drawings of a Voting Machine  Social Education, 72, 3. 

In 1878, Senator Aaron A. Sargent of California introduced to the Senate an amendment to the Constitution "Conferring upon Women the Right of Suffrage." Drafted by Susan B. Anthony, this same amendment would be introduced on a near-yearly basis until its final passage by Congress on May 19, 1919. Varying degrees of voting rights presented an opportunity and challenge for a number of ambitious American inventors of voting machines. Depending on the election year and the state, women might be allowed to vote on certain issues and for certain offices but not others. This article describes the work of one such inventor, Lenna Ryland Winslow, whose voting machine in 1899 would not only count votes, but it would also contain a mechanism "automatically set to restrict certain classes of voters by and during their entrance to the booth." Three of Winslow's patent drawings of this voting machine are featured in this article. Winslow was not alone in his pursuit of constructing a voting machine that would be both accurate and reflect the restricted nature of American voting rights. This article also describes the work of other such early inventors as Ottmar A. Gatrell, Angus C. Gordon, Charles C. Abbott, and Syver Loe. These inventions would be relegated to the scrap heap when, on August 26, 1920, Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby certified the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment, which extended full voting rights to women. This article also includes "teaching suggestions" for use as classroom activities.

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Huy

Huynh, Huynh; Schneider, Christina (2005).  Vertically Moderated Standards: Background, Assumptions, and Practices  Applied Measurement in Education, 18, 1. 

Developmental (vertical) scales are often constructed for subject areas such as reading and mathematics that are taught continuously in elementary schools. In other subjects such as science, and across a wider grade span, such scales are hard to justify. For tracking student progress and school accountability (including the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001) purposes, it may be more feasible to rely on a system of vertically moderated standards (VMS). The purpose of this article is to (a) describe VMS, (b) present the assumptions that underline VMS, and (c) review the steps the National Assessment of Educational Progress took in regard to the decision to decrease reliance on across-grade scaling in a number of subject areas.

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Hyd

Hyde, M.; Ohna, S. E.; Hjulstadt, O. (2005).  Education of the Deaf in Australia and Norway: A Comparative Study of the Interpretations and Applications of Inclusion  American Annals of the Deaf, 150, 5. 

Inclusion is a Term and process that is culturally, politically, medically, philosophically, and historically relative in its interpretations in the education of the deaf. The present study is a comparative analysis of two substantially different education systems for deaf students, those of Norway and Australia. The study objective was to elucidate the sources of some of these differences and to examine the interpretations and applications of inclusion that are inherent in the two countries' policies and practices, and in recent research evaluations. Significant differences exist in the national contexts and in the manner in which inclusion is understood and applied in Norway and Australia; the study reports on recent research examinations of inclusion in the two countries and finds that the transitions from policy to practice seem questionable.

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Hyl

Hylbert, Danny (2002).  The Effects of the Property Tax Extension Limitation Law upon Revenue Growth, Bonded Debt, and School Business Leader Perceptions within Selected Illinois School Districts.  Journal of School Business Management, 14, 2. 

Examines the effects of the Illinois Property Tax Extension Limitation Law on the revenue growth of collar counties and suburban school districts in Cook County. Finds that the law negatively affects revenue growth. Also finds, for example, that a majority of school business officials are motivated to increase their districts' bonded indebtedness.

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