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Educational Legislation | Z
Zoe, Lucinda R.; Kelly, Lynne S. (1988). Status of Child Care in Kentucky: A Comparative Analysis of Regulations, Expenditures, and Policies.
Providing comparative data on child care policies and programs in the State of Kentucky; this report presents an analysis of the issues, including regulation, licensing, tax and fiscal policies, subsidy programs, expenditures, availability, and quality. Data used in the study were the most current data available from the United States Department of Labor, the Kentucky Cabinet for Human Resources, and a thorough examination of the literature on day care. Comparisons were based on data from the adjacent states of Ohio, Tennessee, Virginia, North Carolina, and Indiana as well as several states having model child care programs, such as Massachusetts and Minnesota. Virginia and Massachusetts were included partly because those commonwealths have governmental structures similar to those of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Two major areas of interest emerged in the course of the study. One involves the shortage of child care subsidies for poor women; the second involves the enhancement of child day care availability for middle and lower income working families. Chapter 1 includes background information and an overview of child care as it has emerged as a social, economic, and business issue. Chapter 2 analyzes the specific issues related to child care and provides comparative information from other states. Chapter 3 reviews policy and legislative options and considerations. A bibliography provides 60 citations. | [FULL TEXT]
Zimlich, Norm; And Others (1985). Preventing Sexual Abuse in Day Care Programs: National Program Inspection.
In October 1984, a national program inspection on preventing child sexual abuse in day care programs was begun. Program inspections are short-term studies designed to provide qualitative information and quantitative data for use by the Department of Health and Human Services as an additional source of information. Participants in this study, from 49 states and the District of Columbia, included state child protective staff and social workers, state licensing officials, city and county licensing officials, state criminal identification system directors, physicians, sexual assault therapists, child psychologists, district attorneys, police investigators, other experts in the field of child sexual abuse, day care providers, parents of children in day care, and special interest organizations. Brief statements of major findings; recommendations for education, research, and screening; and cost implications are followed by a background discussion of child sexual abuse and additional discussions of (1) Public Law 98-473 and the FBI criminal record system; (2) current screening practices in the states; (3) the potential scope of screening; (4) the potential cost of screening; (5) the effectiveness of screening; (6) and education for prevention. | [FULL TEXT]
Zimmerman, Shirley L.; Owens, Phyllis (1989). Comparing the Family Policies of Three States: A Content Analysis. Family Relations, 38, 2.
Compared content of legislative summaries of family policies of Nevada, Minnesota, and South Carolina in 1979, 1982/83, and 1985. Found that the three states differed markedly in terms of quantity and substance of the explicit family legislation they enacted with Nevada individualistic, Minnesota moralistic, and South Carolina traditionalistic.
_____. (1987). Zero to Three: Bulletin of the National Center for Clinical Infant Programs. Volume VII, Nos. 1-5, September, 1986-June 1987.
Five bulletins of the National Center for Clinical Infant Programs include articles with the following titles and authors: "Infant Day Care: A Cause for Concern?" (Jay Belsky); "Model versus Modal Child Care for Children from Low-Income Families (Donna Wittmer); "Therapeutic Childcare at Merrywood School" (Maxine Siegel); "Individual Differences in Infants" (Lois Murphy et al.); "The 'Gourmet Baby' and the 'Little Wildflower'" (Edward Zigler and Mary Lang); "Infant-Parent Psychotherapy with an Autistic Toddler" (Barbara Kalmanson and Judith Pekarsky); "Parent Training with Young Autistic Children: A Report on the LEAP Model" (Philip Strain); "Point of View: Commenting on P.L. 99-457" (Linda Gilkerson et al.); "Selective Review of Infant Day Care Research: A Cause for Concern!" (Deborah Phillips et al.); "Risks Remain" (Jay Belsky); "Infant Mental Health and Child Abuse and Neglect: Reflections from an Infant Mental Health Practitioner" (Jeree Pawl); "Doll Play of Failure to Thrive Toddlers: Clues to Infant Experience" (Claire Haynes-Seman and Joan Suzuki Hart); "Abuse and Neglect in the Earliest Years: Groundwork for Vulnerability" (Brandt Steele); "Psychotherapy of the Violent Offender: A Recapitulation of Infant Development" (H. Joseph Horacek); "The Effectiveness of Crisis Intervention in Working with a Young Mother and Her Four Preschool Children" (Sarah Landy); "The Application of a Transactional Risk Model to Intervention with Multi-risk, Maltreating Families" (Dante Ciccheti and Sherre Toth); and "Toward Tenacity of Commitement: Understanding and Modifying Institutional Practices and Individual Responses that Impede Work with Multi-problem Families" (Barbara Fields). Issues typically also include publication reviews, program notes, and conference information.
Zerchykov, Ross (1985). Why School Councils? Equity and Choice, 2, 1.
Outlines the benefits of community and staff councils at school sites and their role in advancing equity in education. Councils can promote equity by broadening the base of citizen participation and enabling schools to mobilize other community resources. Realization of equity benefits depends on the talents of council leaders.
Zemlo, John S.; And Others (1989). Community Education: A New Generation. Community Education Journal, 17, 1.
The first of 3 stages of community education was a period of theoretical and conceptual development. The next 30 years saw the development of community school programs, leadership training, university centers, professional associations, and legislation. Recent trends include changes in organizational structures and management systems, increased citizen involvement, focus on lifelong education, year-round education, and process-oriented evaluation.
Zulich, Jan (1989). Hawaii's School System Is One of a Kind. Phi Delta Kappan, 70, 7.
Hawaii is the only state that addresses school inequities with a comprehensive, statewide system legislating the same educational opportunities for all students. This system is rooted in the Hawaiian monarchy's prestatehood practices and beliefs. Hawaiian schools are strongly multicultural, boast many Japanese teachers, and are uniquely organized into one unified district. Includes nine references.
Zola, Judith C.; And Others (1984). Animal Experimentation: Issues for the 1980s. Science.
Examines the extent to which issues related to animal experimentation are in conflict and proposes choices that might least comprise them. These issues include animal well-being, human well-being, self-interest of science, scientific validity and responsibility, progress in biomedical and behavioral science, and the future quality of medical care.
Zoller, Pierre-Henri (1986). The Swiss Broadcasting Corporation (1953-1985): From Virtue to Realism.
This discussion of the evolution of the Swiss Broadcasting Corporation (SSR) begins with a report issued in 1953 by a federal commission which strongly influenced the first 15 years of Swiss television. Noting that the Swiss government adopted most of the proposals made in the report, this paper indicates some of the decisions that the Federal Council took in the period from 1953 to 1981. A critique of a report issued in 1985, "The SSR on its way to the 90s," is then presented. This report is characterized as an essay in prospective strategy, which synthesizes in some 40 pages the thoughts of the General Director, Leo Schurmann, and concludes with four theses that purport to be a realistic and resolutely voluntaristic vision of the future of the SSR. Some hypotheses are offered on points that "SSR-90" does not address, and the paper concludes by situating the report in the wider ideological and technological context in which it takes its place. Most of the nine references provided are in French.
Zirkel, Perry A. (1983). The Law on Reduction In Force: An Overview and Update.
This chapter provides an overview of legislation and litigation relating to reduction in force (RIF) with a focus on cases decided since 1980. State statutes continue to be the primary source of the law concerning RIF, so a table is provided for these statutes and their various provisions. These statutes include the dismissla-type, and the less numerous layoff-type, with provisions for recall or restoration. The most common statutory reasons for RIF are enrollment decline, followed by fiscal or budgetary constraints, reorganization or consolidation of school districts, reduction in the number of teaching positions, curricular changes, and the catchall provision, "other good or just cause." Nonstatutory reasons for RIF may be included in collective bargaining agreements. Courts have made clear, however, that they will not tolerate school boards' use of RIF as a fictitious pretext for discharging a teacher on other grounds. Once a bona fide reason for RIF is established, the next decision is the proper order of RIF. Criteria in various statutes include tenure status, seniority, and other formulae such as seniority-plus-merit. Limits on these criteria include realignment clauses, sex balance, and affirmative action. Other issues discussed include due process requirements for RIF and recall rights. The chapter concludes with nine summary generalizations about the legal status of RIF. | [FULL TEXT]
Zirkel, Perry A. (1985). Personality as a Fourth Criterion for Tenure. National Forum: Phi Kappa Phi Journal, 65, 1.
A hypothetical case of denial of tenure by a public institution to a faculty member with persistent personality conflicts with colleagues is the context for a discussion of related legal issues and the results of previous court litigation.
Zirkel, Perry A. (1985). Be Prepared When Parents Complain. [Updating School Board Policies]
In 1978 Congress enacted an amendment to the General Education Provisions Act (the Hatch Amendment), which mandates two privacy-based safeguards in those federally funded programs "designed to explore or develop new or unproven teaching methods or techniques." Implementing regulations were issued last fall by the U.S. Department of Education. A number of broad-based attempts to apply the Hatch Amendment to instructional programs are happening nationwide. Several conservative organizations distributed to some 250,000 parents a "model letter" that enumerated activities comprising 34 topics that the groups believe parents are entitled to review and approve before their children participate in them. The National School Boards Association (NSBA) supports the objective that school systems inform parents of experimental programming and not engage in psychological testing and treatment without parental consent. The NSBA found that over three-quarters of 386 school systems surveyed already had such policies and is urging that the "confusing and unnecessary" Hatch regulations should be withdrawn and the legislation repealed. To be certain that school system policy conforms with the requirements of the Hatch Amendment, board members are advised to assess policy and see that it gives parents the legal right to inspect all instructional materials. The policy should contain a fair procedure for dealing with complaints and require that complaints, acknowledgments, and decisions all be in writing. | [FULL TEXT]
Zirkel, Perry A. (1985). An Instrument for a Legal Review of Public School Curriculum Policies and Procedures.
The "Legal Audit Instrument for Public School Curriculum" described in this paper is intended for those making decisions in curricular matters. The instrument has been derived from court decisions that are based on the Federal Constitution, legislation, and regulations. Corresponding cases and provisions within each state will require supplementary attention when the instrument is applied. Over 160 court decisions are identified in the areas of bilingual education; religious instruction; sex, health, and related education; special education; achievement and psychological testing; teaching methods or coverage; and library and instructional materials. Within each of these areas are yes-no questions targeted to local policy and practice. The full version of the instrument indicates the primary source or sources of federal law on which the related case law is based. Finally, the instrument indicates, given a circled response to that question, the probable vulnerability to a successful suit and the approximate assessment of compliance costs, each based on a 1-to-5 scale. On accompanying pages in each section, the instrument lists the corresponding case citations (largely post-1970) for each item. The "Religious Instruction" section is shown in the appendix. | [FULL TEXT]
Zirkel, Perry A. (1988). The Case Law concerning Home Instruction: An Update. Religion and Public Education, 15, 1.
Examines the status of home instruction relative to judicial interpretations of the U.S. Constitution and individual state statutes. Summarizes and classifies case law as a means of updating judicial action. Notes that the debate about home instruction has moved from the realm of the U.S. Constitution to that of state legislation.
Zirkel, Perry A.; Gluckman, Ivan B. (1983). Home Instruction: When It's Legal. Principal, 62, 3.
In "State v. Riddle," the West Virginia Supreme Court held illegal a family's religion-based home instruction of its children because, among other reasons, the family was not part of a self-sufficient religious community and had not followed state procedures on home schooling. Tells how to use legal citations.
Zirkel, Perry A.; Gluckman, Ivan B. (1984). Two Cases on Teacher Evaluation. Principal, 63, 3.
A comparison of teacher dismissal cases in West Virginia and Pennsylvania concludes with recommendations for administrators: closely following procedureal protection provisions in termination proceedings; adhering to evaluation requirements in dismissals for incompetency; and evaluating teachers honestly.
Zirkel, Perry A.; Gluckman, Ivan B. (1984). Liability for Off-Campus Injuries. NASSP Bulletin, 68, 470.
Liability in cases involving students injured off school property generally hinges on whether districts fail to exercise due care in supervising students while on school premises. Typical activities that may occasion liability for negligence and possible defenses are listed.
Zirkel, Perry A.; Gluckman, Ivan B. (1984). Silent Meditation. NASSP Bulletin, 68, 472.
Silent meditation in the schools has been rejected in recent court decisions, including "May vs. Cooperman," which held unconstitutional a New Jersey statute providing for a one-minute period of silence to be used at the discretion of the student. School administrators may be held liable for participating in such practices.
Zirkel, Perry A.; Gluckman, Ivan B. (1986). Reporting Child Abuse. NASSP Bulletin, 70, 486.
Child abuse is an issue of growing public concern. Seven questions and answers are presented pertaining to the legal risks and responsibilities of school personnel in reporting cases of child abuse.
Zirkel, Perry A.; Rutter, Thomas J. (1985). Prayer Groups in Public Schools: Legislation and Litigation. Clearing House, 58, 5.
Examines a number of questions relating to the use of school facilities for meetings of student prayer groups. Answers those questions with reference to legislation and court decisions.
Zirkel, Perry A.; Stevens, Paul L. (1987). The Law Concerning Public Education of Gifted Students. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 10, 4.
This comprehensive overview of state and federal legislation concerning gifted education demonstrates that the primary source of law relating to gifted students is at the state level. Several administrative appeal decisions have been made in Pennsylvania. Litigation to expand entitlement based on federal law has been less successful than state-based cases.
Zakariya, Sally Banks (1984). Don't Let Drinking and Driving Kill the Pleasure of the Prom. American School Board Journal, 171, 5.
This article describes programs successfully combating drunk driving among teenagers in Maine, Virginia, and New York, discusses the nationwide movement called Students Against Driving Drunk (SADD), anti-drunk driving legislation, and the need for increased alcohol eduction, and provides information on how to emphasize student sobriety and safety all year long.
Zakariya, Sally Banks (1985). Here's How Boards Are Coping with the Equal Access Act. American School Board Journal, 172, 5.
Two Constitutional principles--separation of church and state and freedom of speech--have been placed in conflict by the newly established Equal Access Act (1984). Some ways that school boards have found to deal with the confusion are presented.
Zakariya, Sally Banks (1985). A Comparable Worth Cyclone Is Swirling toward Your Schools. Executive Educator, 7 n7 p15-17, 19-20 Jul 1985.
Describes the concept of comparable worth, discusses opposing views concerning whether inequities in pay are results of discrimination, considers efforts to determine the comparability of jobs, including teaching, notes the possible impact of implementing comparable worth legislation, and cites developments in state legislation and local school district implementation.
Zakariya, Sally Banks (1988). Home Schooling Litigation Tests State Compulsory Education Laws. American School Board Journal, 175, 5.
Legal battles are being waged over standards and regulations governing home schooling. Boards of education are advised to work out any accommodations they can with parents but to be prepared to consult with the school attorney.
Zakariya, Sally Banks (1988). How You Can Identify People Who Shouldn't Work with Kids. Executive Educator, 10, 8.
To identify applicants with past criminal records, 22 states have passed laws making F.B.I. checks mandatory for teacher certification. Because many teachers are affronted by background checks and fingerprinting, unions often block this type of proposed legislation. Insets provide tips on avoiding defamation and negligent hiring charges and on doing background checks.
Zantal-Wiener, Kathy (1988). Preschool Services for Children with Handicaps. ERIC Digest #450.
Key aspects of P.L. 99-457, the Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1986, affecting handicapped infants, toddlers, and preschoolers from birth to age 5 are summarized. Presented in a question answer format the information digest addresses the following questions: What children are eligible for early intervention services? Are these services currently available? (a timeline for implementation is provided); What services must be provided? What must the Individual Family Service Plan include? How can a child be referred for early intervention services? When must states provide services to children ages 3 through 5? What type of services must be provided to children ages 3 through 5? How can a child be referred for preschool services? Also provided is a list, with telephone numbers, of the state lead agencies responsible for overall administration of the program. | [FULL TEXT]
Zelenski, Joseph F. (1988). Articulation between Colleges and High Schools: Something Old or Something New? A Historical Perspective, 1828-1987. Community College Review, 16, 1.
Examines the new high school course requirements for admittance to baccalaureate and community college transfer programs established by the Illinois Board of Higher Education. Reviews trends in admissions requirements nationwide.
Zagarri, Rosemarie (1988). Representation and the Removal of State Capitals, 1776-1812. Journal of American History, 74, 4.
Discusses the process of moving state capitals (between 1776 and 1812) to achieve equal representation through geographic centrality. Presents contemporary arguments for the process including the belief that central location of the capital promoted better attendance by all state representatives. Describes how the system was replaced by numerical representation and reapportionment.
Zuker, Marvin A. (1988). The Legal Context of Education. Monograph Series 19.
Designed to provide basic information on the evolution and current (1987) status of laws pertaining to public school administration, this book examines laws, regulations, judicial opinions, and their impact on Canadian educational institutions. Discussion focuses on the tension between academic autonomy and individual rights as they affect students' rights, faculty status, sanctions against discrimination, special education, and the AIDS controversy. Chapter 1 discusses "preventive" law and legal sources underlying educational administration, such as provincial legislation, applicable school board policies, and the role of case law in establishing educational policy. Chapter 2 examines the extent of provincial (Ontario) and local board authority when individuals disagree with educational policy. Chapter 3 introduces basic law library research tools. Chapter 4 treats the law of negligence and recovery. Chapter 5 presents material pertinent to student interest, including compulsory education, discipline, student records, child abuse, and the Young Offenders Act. Chapter 6 discusses several court decisions related to school attendance by students with AIDS. Chapter 7 treats special education in Ontario and in the United States, while chapter 8 reviews provincial requirements related to teacher employment constraints and tenure. Chapter 9 deals with the Canadian Constitution and its entrenched Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Chapter 10 contains the conclusion. The book contains a table of cases, chapter endnotes, a glossary of legal terms, and three appendices: (1) the Education Act (Ontario); (2) Young Offenders Act; and (3) the Canadian Constitution. | [FULL TEXT]
Zabel, Robert H. (1988). Emotional Disturbances. ERIC Digest #454.
The information digest on emotional disturbances provides basic information on definition, incidence, patterns of behavior, and educational implications as well as suggested additional resources. The definition of "emotional disturbances" in P.L. 94-142, The Education for All Handicapped Children Act, is given and briefly discussed. Incidence figures (2-3%) are given. Typical patterns of disordered behavior include "externalizers,""internalizers," conduct disorders, personality disorders, immaturity, socialized delinquency, pervasive developmental disorders, and learning disorders. Educational implications both in the mainstream and special classes are briefly considered. Additional resources are organized into resources for parents (three), general resources (seven references), additional resources (six organizations), and relevant publications of the Council for Exceptional Children. | [FULL TEXT]
Zweizig, Douglas; And Others (1984). Library Legislation. Final Report of the State Superintendent's Task Force.
Prepared by the Task Force on Library Legislation appointed by Wisconsin's State Superintendent of Public Instruction, this final report presents policy statements and action recommendations addressing issues related to the organizational and funding problems of public libraries, public library systems, and multitype library cooperation. The 19-member task force comprised a mixture of citizens and professional librarians, each representing informally one or a number of areas relevant to the concerns of local government, librarians, and users of libraries. The report provides specific suggestions on: (l) improvement in the quality and equity of library services available through public, school, and other types of libraries; (2) stabilization and improvement in access to public libraries across jurisdictional lines; (3) improvement in the equity of support for public libraries by different governmental jurisdictions; (4) improvement in cooperation and sharing of resources among all types of libraries; and (5) modification and improvement of legislation relating to libraries. Appendices contain a 1985-1987 Biennial Budget Summary for State Aid for Library Development; Section 121.02(1)(h), Wisconsin Statutes; a list of issue papers considered by the task force; Chapter 43, Wisconsin Statutes; and a new formula for Public Library System Aids Estimates.
Zucker, Stanley H. (1985). Assessment of Mental Retardation. Diagnostique, 10, 1-4.
The changing definitions of mental retardation are reviewed in terms of the implications for assessment, and difficulties in meeting the requirements of federal legislation and court litigation in assessment are considered. Critical issues, including instrumentation and adaptive behavior, are analyzed, and three recommendations for practice are offered.
Zucker, Stanley H.; Polloway, Edward A. (1987). Issues in Identification and Assessment in Mental Retardation. Education and Training in Mental Retardation, 22, 2.
The paper presents a rationale for and a discussion of the Council for Exceptional Children's Division on Mental Retardation's Board of Directors' position on assessment and identification in mental retardation, especially mild retardation. The historical foundations of identification and assessment, current practices, recommended practices, legal requirements, critical issues, and future perspectives are discussed.
Zucman, Elisabeth (1985). Early Childhood Program for the Handicapped in France. Journal of the Division for Early Childhood, 9, 3.
Early intervention in France begins with compulsory screening of all infants at birth, nine months, and at two years. Problems remain, especially in the availability of adequate support and of services for the handicapped child. Interdisciplinary teams operate from "early medico-social activity centers" to provide a variety of treatments, educational programs, and support within the home and natural environment.
Zusman, Ami (1984). The Legislature and the University: Conflict in Higher Education. ASHE 1984 Annual Meeting Paper.
Conflict over authority between the California Legislature and the University of California is examined. While the University of California has broad constitutional autonomy over academic matters, organization, and governance, the legislature has certain authority over the university under its own constitutional and budgetary powers. Attention is focused primarily on a particular conflict between the California Legislature and the University of California: the attempt to enact legislation to require the university to give faculty members access to their personnel files, including confidential letters of recommendation on which academic employment, tenure, and promotion decisions are based. In addition, four major conflicts between the university and the legislature that occurred between 1969 and 1978 are addressed: legislative response to campus disturbances (1969), establishment of a new state-level coordinating agency for higher education (1973), constitutional amendment for legislative control over competitive bidding procedures at the university (1976), and budget control language establishing criteria for faculty tenure and promotion (1977). Finally, implications for policy are briefly considered.
Zusman, Ami (1986). Legislature and University Conflict: The Case of California. Review of Higher Education, 9, 4.
Conflicts over authority between the California legislature and the University of California are examined. Compensatory strategies were adopted: authority was used in one area to gain control of a second. The outcomes of these conflicts and their policy implications for university independence and responsiveness are examined.
Zusy, Mary Lloyd (1986). RN to BSN: Fitting the Pieces Together. American Journal of Nursing, 86, 4.
Discusses why it has been so difficult to attain truly articulated nursing education, how several groups have succeeded at this task, how articulation has been achieved at Manoa School of Nursing (University of Hawaii), curriculum improvement at nursing schools in Maryland, and equivalent academic credit for diploma nursing in California.
Zacharias, Donald W. (1981). Federal Regulations: Perspective from the University Level.
Historical perspectives on federal regulations are examined since 1958 along with five dilemmas that cause universities to improve university operations by reforms in current federal regulations. The National Defense Education Act of 1958 and the Higher Education Act (NDEA) of 1965 are often identified as two of the major milestones in the development of federal involvement in contemporary higher education. The NDEA moved to guarantee opportunity for higher education to greater numbers of young people and increased the size and scope of the federal government's role in supplementing the states in the field of higher education. The 1965 Act provided educational opportunity grants and solidified the federal role in higher education. Despite the fact that universities must comply with federal regulations and bear the cost of operating a student financial aid office, the universities largely follow that course because of the dramatic need for student financial aid. Additionally, the shortage of funds for innovation in teaching and curriculum development has prompted universities to apply for federal funds, despite costs to prepare and administer grants. Doctoral institutions require research funds, and institutions generally need funding of special projects (e.g., public television stations). Finally, a question at issue is how often a university should challenge federal regulations that it feels are unduly restrictive. It is suggested that universities need to propose a plan to the Reagan Administration that would restore autonomy to the campus.
Zavitkovsky, Docia (1985). From Our President. Early Childhood Education--A Proud Profession. Young Children, 40 n5 p2, 20 Jul 1985.
National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) President reports on the primary issues discussed at two conferences held in April, 1985--the NAEYC leaders' conference in Washington, D.C. and the Midwest AEYC Annual Conference in Des Moines, Iowa. Pinpoints current key issues and legislation for NAEYC and encourages commitment to addressing those issues.
Zambelli, Grace C.; Lee, Sandra S. (1985). Reporting Child Sexual Abuse: Ethical Dilemmas, and Guidelines for Decision Making.
All states have laws mandating that certain individuals report suspected occurrences of child abuse. Mandatory reporting statutes, their administration, and their judicial interpretation have created many ethical, legal, and clinical dilemmas. The abrogation of the confidentiality in the therapeutic relationship is probably the foremost ethical dilemma created by the mandated reporting statutes. There may be specific problems involved when reporting instances of sexual molestation. Reports of physical or sexual abuse which lead to judicial proceedings are less frequent today than in the past, but the potential social injury to the family is still enormous. Few studies have compared the number of reports made with the number of cases of actual physical or sexual abuse in a given jurisdiction. There is no documented causal connection between mandatory reporting and a decrease in the amount of child abuse itself. In spite of the resulting ethical and clinical problems, mandatory reporting laws are valuable. What may be needed are revisions in the laws, a better and more uniform definition of what is reportable as suspected sexual abuse, uniform criteria to guide human services professionals in dealing with parents, and the establishment of minimal child welfare standards and decision-making guidelines. (A five-page bibliography is included. Tables list 20 reasons why human services professionals may avoid reporting sexual abuse and provide some guidelines for decision-making when reporting child sexual abuse.) | [FULL TEXT]
Zetterberg, J. Peter, Ed. (1983). Evolution versus Creationism: The Public Education Controversy.
The University of Minnesota organized a conference ("Evolution and Public Education," December 5, 1981) to help clarify issues in the creation/evolution controversy and to examine arguments of the proponents of scientific creationism. This six-part book, a revised version of a resource manual compiled for the conference: (1) discusses the theory of evolution and its place in science education; (2) examines the creationist movement; (3) states the position of scientific creationists; (4) responds to creationists' arguments against evolution; (5) explores legal issues in the controversy; and (6) provides some perspectives on attempts to treat the Genesis creation account as science. The fifth section, on legal issues, includes Judge Overton's decision striking down the Arkansas Creationism Act, as well as pieces of legislation which reveal the changing tactics of creationists, who first sought to ban the teaching of evolution in the 1920s, then sought equal time for biblical creationism in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and now seek a two-model approach to earth science/biology teaching (evolution as one model, scientific creationism as the other). A comprehensive bibliography lists most of the important works that directly address the controversy, as well as many publications on the philosophy of science and faith issues.
Zeitlin, June H.; Campbell, Nancy Duff (1982). Strategies to Address the Impact of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 and the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981 on the Availability of Child Care for Low-Income Families.
In 1981, Congress enacted major legislative changes that affect the availability of child care for low-income families. In the name of economic recovery, tax cuts were enacted, social service programs were merged into a block grant, and government benefits for poor families were substantially reduced. This article reviews these statutory changes for their impact on the availability of child care for low-income families and proposes strategies to address the changes. The article is divided into four sections. The first section describes the need for child care for low-income families and the child care arrangements that are available to these families today. The second section describes recent changes in the Internal Revenue Code that affect the availability of child care, focusing on the dependent care tax credit and its usefulness for low-income families. The third section describes the new Social Services Block Grant Program which replaced the social services provisions of Title XX of the Social Security Act. The last section describes changes in the Aid to Families with Dependent Children Program, focusing on the changes in the amount of earned income disregarded in determining eligibility and payment level for child care. The child care provisions of three new work programs are examined: the Work Incentive Demonstration Program, the Community Work Experience Program and the Work Supplementation Program.