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Educational Legislation | W

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Wircenski, Jerry L. (1986).  Providing Support Services to Disadvantaged Youth and Adults in Vocational Education. 

As a part of its mandate for equal access to vocational training for special needs individuals, the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1984 stipulated that if disadvantaged individuals require separate programming to enable them to participate in vocational education, federal funds may be used to pay 50 percent of the cost of the program's services and activities that exceed the eligible recipient's average per pupil expenditure for regular services. Vocational education research has documented a set of special learning and environmental needs of disadvantaged youth and adults with broad implications for vocational education programming, guidance personnel, development of program quality indicators, and improvement of contemporary vocational programming for special needs clients. Special needs youths and adults must receive equal access in recruitment, enrollment, and placement activities and must be served within regular vocational programs. Although the Perkins Act has not significantly changed the role of guidance personnel in serving special needs clients, it has expanded their scope. Perhaps the best way to improve existing programming is to begin attacking the environmental problems that exist outside the educational environment. Disadvantaged students should be given a sound foundation in the basic skills and should be trained or retrained in the new or emerging technologies rather than in lower-paying, service-oriented jobs. Also vital to program improvement are more stress on mainstreaming, socialization, and adequate client assessment.

Wirt, John G. (1989).  Presentation to the American Vocational Education Research Association and the University Council on Vocational Education. Revised. 

This document, by the director of the National Assessment of Vocational Education, has the following purposes: (1) to explain proposed amendments to the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act; to relate any of the proposed changes to such issues as vocational teacher education, graduate education, and research on vocational education; and to point out any contributions to the proposed new policy that were the result of the National Assessment of Vocational Education; (2) to point out some of the implications of the Carnegie Corporation's National Board for Professional Teaching Standards for vocational teacher education and for research on vocational education; and (3) to discuss the idea of the federal government working with all state governors to set national goals for education. The first section explains the proposed federal legislation's impact on secondary vocational education, pointing out that it dramatically alters the structure of funding at that level. The second section addresses the proposed legislation's changes in postsecondary vocational education funding and draws attention to the fact that these changes represent a first-time recognition by Congress that the problems of postsecondary vocational education are different from those at the secondary level and that they require different solutions. The third and fourth sections discuss respectively the National Board of Professional Teaching Standards and the issue of national goal setting and performance accountability in education. | [FULL TEXT]

Wirt, John G.; And Others (1989).  Summary of Findings and Recommendations. National Assessment of Vocational Education Final Report. Volume I. 

The National Assessment of Vocational Education (NAVE) evaluated and described the vocational education services delivered to special populations under the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act, the effects of the act in modernizing the vocational education system, the impact of vocational education on academic skills and employment opportunities, and other topics. Some of the findings and recommendations of the NAVE are the following: (1) the Perkins Act is a weak mechanism for achieving its goals because little additional direction has been provided on federal or state levels on the targeting of federal funds for supplementary services to disadvantaged and handicapped students, nor has technical assistance been provided on effective practices for serving these populations; (2) secondary education greatly needs improvement, and six major objectives for federal policy in vocational education are proposed; (3) although postsecondary education is a growing enterprise, its major problem is that many students do not stay in it long enough to receive in-depth training, and federal policy changes should be made to improve rates of program completion, especially among targeted groups; and (4) the federal role in vocational education should be strengthened and changes should be made in the current legislation. | [FULL TEXT]

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_____. (1983).  What Changes Are Most Needed in the Procedures Used in the United States Justice System? National Debate Topic for High Schools, 1983-1984, Pursuant to Public Law 88-246. Senate, 98th Congress, 1st Session, Document No. 98-5. 

Designed to facilitate research on and the preparation and presentation of arguments for the national debate topic, this manual summarizes the present state of the judiciary and court reform issues. The volume begins with a collection of articles, statements, and reports that present a general background on the justice system and court reform. Subsequent parts are devoted to articles related to each of the three debate propositions: That the United States should (1) adopt uniform rules governing the criminal investigation procedure of all public law enforcement agencies; (2) establish uniform rules governing the procedures of all civil courts of the nation; and (3) establish uniform rules governing the procedures of all criminal courts in the nations. The manual concludes with a guide to information sources and brief bibliographies of selected additional readings and available government publications. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1989).  What Is the Penny Buying for South Carolina? Assessment of the Fifth Year of the South Carolina Education Improvement Act of 1984. 

The Education Improvement Act (EIA), legislated in 1984, was one of the steps South Carolina has undertaken to reform and improve its system of public education. The EIA contained provisions addressing seven major educational goals: (1) raising student performance; (2) teaching and testing basic skills; (3) elevating the teaching profession; (4) improving leadership, management, and fiscal efficiency of schools at all levels; (5) implementing quality controls and rewarding productivity; (6) creating more effective partnerships; and (7) providing school buildings. To fund the program, the state's sales tax was raised one cent on the dollar. This assessment provides information on all of the EIA provisions. Most programs were in operation statewide, although some continue to be phased in. On almost every quantifiable indicator of quality, the data reflect a marked increase since passage of the EIA. Results from opinion surveys of students, teachers, and administrators reflect an endorsement of 80% or higher of the impact of the EIA. Specific information is presented on each of the goals addressed to serve as a reference for readers desiring a comprehensive overview and to provide a basis for the recommendations presented. Educational reform plans for the next 5 years and the state's Target 2000 legislation are considered. Appendix A contains the procedures used to conduct the evaluation surveys, and Appendix B summarizes the status of program implementation. An index to the EIA provisions is provided. There are 88 graphs and 86 tables throughout the report.

Whalen, Garry M.; And Others (1983).  Negotiations '84. 

This document provides an update on legal developments affecting negotiations between school boards and school district employees in New Jersey and discusses trends in union and board proposals and tactics. In the opening section, the available literature on bargaining is briefly reviewed. Section 2 defines the scope of negotiations for New Jersey's public sector and lists both mandatory and illegal topics. Section 3 addresses the question of bargaining with principals and supervisors; section 4 offers a lengthy analysis of the New Jersey Principal and Supervisors Association's Model Agreement for Supervisory Personnel. Sections 5 through 10 cover the following areas: the sixth teaching period clause; a board policy on negotiations; the many dimensions of the merit pay issue; negotiating salary guides; collective bargaining and educational excellence; and decisions affecting negotiations. Section 11 contains a selected bibliography. The twelfth and final section--an article-by-article New Jersey School Boards Association analysis of the New Jersey Education Association's sample agreement for 1984-85--comprises over half the document. The agreement's 34 articles cover a wide range of issues, including grievance procedures, salaries, classroom control and discipline, and personal and academic freedom.

Whaley, George L. (1982).  Controversy Swirls Over Comparable Worth Issue.  Personnel Administrator, 27 n4 p51-56, 58-61 Apr 1982. 

Summarizes a workshop held to analyze the typical arguments for and against comparable worth, assess the practicality of implementing comparable worth should it become law, project the future direction of the controversy, and offer suggestions to employers regarding how to cope with this evolving employment concept.

Whaley, Margaret (1985).  The Status of Kindergarten: A Survey of the States. 

The purpose of this report, one of several prepared for a comprehensive study of early childhood education in Illinois, was to collect, compile, and analyze specific data concerning early childhood education policy and practices from all fifty states. Each state was queried regarding the following: (1) compulsory attendance age, (2) mandated age/cut-off date for entry into kindergarten, (3) local district criteria for entry into kindergarten (particularly where statutes permit local discretion), (4) screening/testing requirements, (5) mandated and/or recommended class size for kindergarten through third grade, (6) problems associated with entry age and screening, (7) competencies/testing requirements associated with promotion to first grade, and (8) recent or proposed legislation for changing kindergarten policies. Descriptions of each state's kindergarten requirements are provided. Problems associated with early childhood education and the resulting recent changes in kindergarten policies are indicated. Charts and graphs in the appendices show survey information for all fifty states, detailing each state's mandates and policies. | [FULL TEXT]

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_____. (1984).  Washington State Juvenile Justice Code: An Experiment in Justice. 

In the Washington State juvenile justice system, serious or repeat offenders receive the full panoply of due process rights and procedures, with the exception of jury trials; minor offenders are diverted to community boards that require community service or victim restitution; and status offenders are removed from the courts' jurisdiction and treated in a voluntary social service setting. Washington has adopted a presumptive sentencing scheme which allows juvenile court judges to step outside guidelines and invoke harsher or more lenient sanctions due to extraordinary circumstances. A 3-year assessment of the Washington juvenile code found that, with the exception of documented instances in which a delinquent's status offense records, sex, and/or race sometimes resulted in harsher sentences when judges invoked their right to step outside the sentencing scheme, the new law worked to keep both youths and the system accountable. The post-reform era had a substantially better record of holding juveniles accountable for their offenses. Although the overall level of severity of sanctions was reduced after the legislation went into effect, there was an increase in the certainty that a sanction of some kind would be imposed.

_____. (1988).  Washington State's Laws Regulating Home-Based Instruction. 

This brochure is a response to numerous questions that have been directed to the Superintendent of Public Instruction's Office since the passage of Chapter 441, Laws of 1985, (SSB 3279, the "Home Based Instruction" law). The following information is presented: (1) responses to questions relating to Chapter 28A.27 RCW (compulsory attendance and home-based instruction); (2) responses to questions relating to RCW 28A.02.201 (approved private schools: extension programs in home-based instruction); (3) responses to questions relating to RCW 28A.41.140 (part-time attendance in the public schools); (4) tables on parents (qualifications and duties), private school extension programs, common schools; (5) registration format (declaration of intent to provide home-based instruction); and (6) standardized tests approved by the State Board of Education for home-based instruction. | [FULL TEXT]

Wasem, Ruth Ellen (1989).  Programs Benefiting the Homeless: FY87-FY89 Appropriations Trends. CRS Report for Congress. 

This report reviews the three-year funding levels for the major Federal programs that primarily benefited the homeless from fiscal year 1987 through fiscal year 1989. Most of these programs were enacted by the Stewart B. McKinney Act and began receiving appropriations in fiscal year 1987. The following programs are described: (1) Emergency Food and Shelter Grants; (2) Emergency Shelter Grants Program; (3) Runaway and Homeless Youth Program; (4) Supportive (Transitional) Housing Demonstration Program; (5) Supplemental Assistance for Facilities to Assist the Homeless; (6) Domiciliary Care Program; (7) Adult Education for the Homeless; (8) Education for Homeless Children and Youth; (9) Job Training for the Homeless; (10) Homeless Veterans' Reintegration Projects; and (11) Emergency Community Services Homeless Grant Program. The legislative history of these programs is discussed and data are presented in tabular form. The three-year funding trends for these homeless programs are discussed and compared based on the type of service provided. | [FULL TEXT]

Wasem, Ruth Ellen (1989).  Homelessness: Issues and Legislation in the 101st Congress. Updated. 

This report discusses the nature of homelessness and the homeless in America, recent programs that have been implemented to help the homeless, and issues concerning the Federal government's role in helping these people. The following topics concerning the characteristics of the homeless and the causes of homelessness are covered: (1) "Mental Illness, Substance Abuse, and Health Problems"; (2) "Economic Circumstances"; (3) "Family Crisis"; and (4) "Interaction of Contributing Factors." The following topics of debate surrounding the Federal responsibility for the homeless are discussed: (1) "Federal Housing Policy"; (2) "Emergency Shelters"; (3) "Welfare Hotels"; (4) "Deinstitutionalization"; (5) "Health, Social, and Welfare Services"; and (6) "Overall Responsibility." Past legislation by the 100th Congress, the Stewart B. McKinney Act programs in particular, is discussed. Also covered are the issues that the 101st Congress is facing now in addressing the questions of whether to provide additional funding for programs benefiting the homeless and at what levels. Two tables of proposed and actual funding for the major McKinney Act programs are included. Descriptions of the following legislation designed to provide emergency and other funds for housing and other services for the homeless are included: (1) H.J. Res. 31 (Vento); (2) H.R. 140 (Vento); (3) H.R. 363 (Schumer); (4) H.R. 410 (Weiss); (5) S. 217 (Moynihan); and (6) S. 226 (Moynihan). A list of seven references is included. | [FULL TEXT]

Wasson, Frances R. (1984).  Advocacy for Gifted and Talented in Florida: Why It Works.  Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 7, 4. 

A Florida administrator for gifted students discusses the role of advocacy efforts in providing mandated programs for gifted students since 1976. He reviews the accomplishments of the Florida Coalition for the Education of Exceptional Students and The National Consortium for State Leadership in the Education of Gifted and Talented Children.

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Webb, L. Dean (1983).  Teacher Evaluation.  [Legal Memorandum] 

A growing emphasis on teacher accountability, coupled with declining enrollments and reduced revenues, has increased the importance of teacher evaluations as a basis for staffing decisions, even though there is no clear definition of teacher effectiveness. Accordingly, legal standards are provided for the procedural and substantive issues of due process that have arisen in connection with teacher evaluation. State courts have upheld decisions requiring (1) deadlines for completing evaluations, (2) advance notice to teachers of evaluation criteria and procedures, (3) notice of unsatisfactory evaluation and opportunity to defend against charges, (4) reasonable remediation period to correct alleged deficiencies, (5) specification of deficiencies to provide clear guidance for remediation, and (6) an opportunity to obtain assistance in correcting deficiencies. The substantive issues which the courts have addressed are not based on objective criteria for evaluating teacher performance, but rather on the relation of facts to standards individually applied. There must be just cause for dismissal, based on a rational relation between conduct complained of and duties to be performed. The other legal issue discussed involves the use of the National Teachers Examination (NTE) in employment decisions. Although the NTE has no predictive validity for teaching skill, the Supreme Court in "U.S. vs. South Carolina" found that it has content validity in assessing base knowledge and therefore is rationally related to legitimate state decisions.

Webb, Mel (1984).  Collective Bargaining and Higher Education: An Overview with Guidelines for the College Administrator. 

Designed to assist administrators faced with representing management's position in the collective bargaining process, this paper synthesizes information on the history, legal basis, processes, and trends of collective bargaining in the United States. Section I provides a brief history of collective bargaining, highlighting major federal and state laws and looking at changes in the number and proportion of union members in the U.S. labor force between 1900 and 1980. Section II discusses the legal basis for collective bargaining in the U.S. provided by the Wagner Act, which deals with rights to join a union and to bargain exclusively, and the Taft-Hartley Act, which covers unfair labor practices. Section III describes major features of the collective bargaining process; outlines the main concerns addressed in union-employer agreements; and identifies the stages involved in collective bargaining, as well as the steps leading up to the negotiation stages of the process. An overview of trends in collective bargaining in higher education between 1969 and 1980 is presented in section IV, which includes a comparison of the growth of the three major unions for higher education. Finally, section V provides suggestions for the college administrator to help eliminate or alleviate potential problems in collective bargaining.

Webb, Michael B. (1986).  Technology in the Schools: Serving All Students. 

Despite significant improvements in the acquisition and use of learning technologies by schools with large percentages of minority students, data collected by the New York State Education Department indicate that schools serving predominantly black and minority students--many of whom are economically disadvantaged--do not provide access to technology comparable to that provided by affluent schools. To maximize the benefits of technology in education, the following is necessary: (1) before policy formation and planning, it must be determined what technology would most effectively achieve instructional, management, administrative, and equity goals; (2) poorer districts should receive state funding; (3) state programs for hardware and software aid should be modified to provide flexibility and technical assistance. Further suggestions deal with eliminating bias in software, staff development, developing a center for advanced technology, and research activities. The report contains a list of references, and the following: (1) a list of State agencies concerned with educational technology in New York; (2) a copy of the State educational policy concerned with technology and recent initiatives; and (3) information on current legislation concerned with technology and education.

Weber, Isabelle P.; Wiltshire, Susan D. (1985).  Nuclear Waste Primer: A Handbook for Citizens. 

This publication was developed with the intention of offering the nonexpert a concise, balanced introduction to nuclear waste. It outlines the dimensions of the problem, discussing the types and quantities of waste. Included are the sources, types, and hazards of radiation, and some of the history, major legislation, and current status of both high level and low level waste management. Also described are some of the ways that citizens can participate in nuclear waste decision making and selected information sources. The booklet includes sections dealing with: (1) types of waste; (2) the nuclear fuel cycle; (3) decommissioning; (4) sources, types, measures, and the biological effects of radiation; (5) high-level wastes from reprocessing; (6) spent fuel; (7) low-level and transuranic wastes; (8) uranium mill tailings; (9) transporting nuclear wastes; (10) liability coverage for accidents; (11) high-level waste management; (12) low-level waste management; (13) searching for permanent solutions; and (14) the public's role in high-level and low-level waste management.

Weber, James M.; Puleo, Nancy F. (1988).  Dynamics of Secondary Programs Assisted under the Carl D. Perkins Act. Research and Development Series No. 269. 

A study was initiated in 1986 to collect systematic national data on the content and processes surrounding the delivery of vocational-technical education programs that could be used to help assess and describe the dynamics of high school vocational classrooms. The national database generated contained information from schools, classrooms, school personnel, and students in 120 high schools and 893 related classrooms. The schools offered two or more federally funded vocational classrooms. Data were secured through questionnaires, interviews, schools documents, and classroom observations. The topics addressed were shaped by 13 major policy issues: access and equity; adult training; articulation (secondary-postsecondary); at-risk students; basic skills; career guidance; currentness of vocational curricula, equipment, and materials; economic development; institutional characteristics; Job Training Partnership Act/community-based organization/vocational education linkages; private sector-vocational education linkages; teacher education; and transferable and higher-order skills. The research questions themselves focused on instruction in vocational classrooms, variations in vocational classrooms and in programs across different types of institutions, and addressing the needs of at-risk students in vocational classrooms/programs. Fifty-six references are listed. | [FULL TEXT]

Weber, Kenneth A. (1984).  State Public Records Acts: The Need to Exempt Scientific Research Belonging to State Universities from Indiscriminate Public Disclosure.  Journal of College and University Law, 10, 2. 

Public access to scientific research obtained by faculty employed at state universities, it is suggested, should be restricted until proprietary rights have been secured. Public access to a state university's research denies that institution a proprietary right, and severely discourages the promotion of high quality basic research.

Webster, Janet B. (1989).  Making a Statement: Assessment of Special Educational Needs in Great Britain.  International Journal of Special Education, 4, 1. 

The article describes the assessment procedure (statementing) to identify and plan for children with special educational needs in England and Wales as required by the Education Act of 1981 and the Education (Special Educational Needs) Regulations of 1983. The increased responsibilities of Local Education Authorities are outlined.

Webster, Jeff, Ed. (1988).  Annual NASSGP/NCHELP Research Network Conference Proceedings (5th, Denver, Colorado, May 25-27, 1988). 

This volume presents papers from a 1988 conference on collegiate student financial aid which focused on trends in the cost of higher education, student loan defaults, trends in borrowing, the impact of congressional legislation, and state-level financial aid research. The papers are grouped in five sections corresponding to the five topics, and each section begins with abstracts of the papers it contains. Section I: "Major Trends in the Cost of Higher Education and Student Aid" contains "College Costs and Student Aid" (Kenneth C. Green); "Pell Grant Program Changes and Their Effects on Applicant Eligibility, 1973-74 to 1988-89" (Tom G. Mortenson) and "Trends in Financial Aid Among Blacks and Non-Blacks in Maryland" (Michael J. Keller). Section II: "Understanding and Addressing Student Loan Defaults" contains "The Operation of the Guaranteed Student Loan Program in Minnesota, 1977-1985" (Saul Schwartz and Sandy Baum), "The Reduction of Student Loan Defaults in New Jersey" (Lutz K. Berkner), "Toward an Understanding of Why Defaulters Repay" (Marilyn Pedalino and Cynthia Chopick), "Student Loan Defaults: One State's Approach" (Robert Fomer), and "Identification of High Risk Borrowers" (Richard H. Wedemeyer). Section III: "Trends in Student Borrowing" contains "The Changing Patterns of Supplemental Borrowing: A Profile of Emerging Family Education Debt" (Thomas D. Parker); "The New England Student Loan Survey: The Impact of Student Loans on Borrowers" (Sandy Baum and Saul Schwartz), "Borrowing Patterns Among Graduate and Professional School Students" (James P. Honan). Section IV: "Projecting the Impact of Congressional Methodology" offers "The Impact of Congressional Methodology on New Jersey Dependent College Undergraduate Aid Eligibility" (Lutz K. Berkner), "The Impact of Congressional Methodology on the Minnesota State Scholarship and Grant Program" (Gerald L. Setter), "Impact of Congressional Methodology on University of Minnesota Twin Cities Campus Financial Aid Applicants" (Reed Carpenter). Section V presents "State-Level Options in Financial Aid Research" (Porfirio Diaz, John Klacik, and Marilyn Sango-Jordon). A final section lists conference attenders with addresses and telephone numbers. | [FULL TEXT]

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Walberg, Herbert J.; And Others (1989).  Reconstructing the Nation's Worst Schools.  Phi Delta Kappan, 70, 10. 

Shows how a grassroots, interracial coalition is working to restructure Chicago Public Schools. Under the new Illinois legislation, Chicago's present school board will be disbanded, teachers will be hired by merit, principals will lack tenure, and education rebates to facilitate school choice may be available. Includes three references.

Waldinger, Gloria (1982).  Subsidized Adoption: How Paid Parents View It.  Social Work, 27, 6. 

Discusses the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 which provides for subsidized adoption. Examines subsidized adoption from the perspectives of social policy and practice and draws on empirical findings to identify issues that need to be addressed.

Walford, Geoffrey (1988).  The Privatization of British Higher Education.  European Journal of Education, 23, 1-2. 

An official British white paper and a law creating broad reforms in higher education reflect the government's acceptance and promotion of the ideology of privatization and are part of a policy trend affecting all levels of the educational system.

Walker, Billy D. (1985).  Special Report: Texas School Finance Update.  Journal of Education Finance, 10, 4. 

This report updates developments relating to public school finance legislation in Texas during a special summer legislative session in 1984. Discussion focuses on House Bill 72, which increased teachers salaries, distributed state aid more equitably, increased equalization aid, mandated new programs, and increased state taxes.

Walker, Billy D. (1988).  Equity in Texas Public School Finance: Some Historical Perspectives. 

The history of equity concerns in Texas public school finance, spanning over a century, is reviewed in this report. Three issues related to three reform eras are discussed: equitable availability of public schooling, equal resources for schools, and school effectiveness. State responses to the issues included equalization of opportunities in rural districts, implementation of the foundation program concept, and legislative action. The most recent challenge to the school finance system--a state district court's declaration of the system's unconstitutionality in 1987--has generated research on alternative financial policies and theoretical models. (64 references) | [FULL TEXT]

Walker, Billy D. (1989).  Achieving Adequacy, Equity, and Efficiency in Texas Public School Finance: A Comprehensive Proposal and Analytical Model. 

A comprehensive program for finance reform of the Texas school system based on an analytical paradigm that encompasses adequacy, equity, and efficiency considerations is introduced. Topics such as the development of the Texas conceptual model, the structural elements of the allocation model, and the development of the revenue-raising system are also discussed. The analytical model based on core characteristics of a school finance program, a philosophical equity hierarchy, and the nexus of school finance goals and structural elements is compared with the proposed comprehensive model. Features of the proposed model include local property tax relief, implementation of a state income tax, and increased state revenues. Five tables are included in the text. (35 references) | [FULL TEXT]

Walker, Deborah (1984).  Value and Opportunity: Comparable Pay for Comparable Worth. Series on Public Issues No. 10. 

In this booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues, an argument is presented against comparable pay for comparable worth policies for women. Separate subsections present opposing viewpoints on this controversial issue as well as an examination of whether legislation has been a "friend" or"foe" to women's equality, a discussion of ways in which the government discriminates in the private and public sectors, and reasons why both feminists and women in general should encourage the reduction of government intervention. In conclusion it is argued that it is consumers who place a value on women's jobs and who thus ultimately decide their wages. It follows that women must be willing to gain skill and/or education required to move into the areas that consumers value more highly. | [FULL TEXT]

Walker, Deborah Klein; Jacobs, Francine H. (1984).  Chronically Ill Children in School.  Peabody Journal of Education, 61, 2. 

Attention to chronically ill children's educational needs is a relatively recent development. Historical and philosophical determinants of current school programs are traced in this article. The range of available educational options and placement patterns for students with individual chronic conditions are described, and suggestions for policy development are offered.

Walker, Gary; And Others (1986).  An Independent Sector Assessment of the Job Training Partnership Act. Final Report: Program Year 1985. 

This is the third and final report of a 2-year study analyzing implementation of Title II-A of the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) of 1982. Title II-A, which accounts for about 50 percent of the funds appropriated under JTPA, provides job training for the economically disadvantaged. The report is based on management information and direct observations from 25 local service delivery areas (SDAs) in 15 states, together with telephone interviews with key JTPA officials in a separate group of 32 SDAs. During the October 1983-June 1984 period of the study, the SDAs under study substantially outperformed the Federal standards regarding placement rates and cost per placement for adults and welfare recipients. Some 68 percent of adult enrollees obtained jobs, bettering the standard of 55 percent, as did 60 percent of welfare recipients, compared to a 39 percent standard. However, the average wage ae per adult placement of $4.80 fell below the Federal standard of $4.91. Moreover, the SDAs did not meet the Federal standards for positive terminations of youth, attaining 74 percent instead of the 82 percent called for. JTPA management practices generally led to a better public image for employment and training programs. However, SDAs were most likely to fund relatively simple and brief training programs and to have high-but-hidden administrative costs. The implementation of JTPA has resulted in an emphasis on helping those most likely to be employed to take the last few steps needed for placement. However, it has chosen to pay less attention to those who need the most help in finding work. The key role of business representatives resulted in more efficiency but removed attempts to help those most in need. | [FULL TEXT]

Walker, John H.; Woodson, Marvin C., Jr. (1983).  A Regional Study of Attitudes toward Public Schools, Private Schools and Tuition Tax Credits. 

A questionnaire survey of 982 people in 4 shopping malls in the Piedmont region of South Carolina sought to assess public attitudes about the quality of public and private schools, proposed federal tuition tax credit legislation, tax support for private schools, and outcomes should tuition tax credits be adopted. Respondents were asked to "grade" the schools in their community; data were also gathered on awareness of and attitudes toward tuition tax credits, attitudes toward public aid for private education, and social and demographic characteristics (including sex, age, race, religion, income, and political affiliation). Statistical analysis using frequencies, crosstabulations, and chi-squares yielded a number of findings. Among the results were that blacks expressed less confidence in private schools than whites, religious groups without private schools were more critical of public schools than religious groups with private schools, younger adults were more likely to support aid to private schools than were older adults, more males than females and more whites than blacks supported tuition tax credits, more respondents opposed such credits than favored them, and more whites than blacks believed such credits would increase private school enrollment. A copy of the questionnaire is appended.

Wallace, Joan (1986).  Part-Time Work: A New World.  Canadian Home Economics Journal, 36, 2. 

Part-time employment is becoming increasingly commonplace, necessitating new attitudes and better treatment from employers, unions, and in legislation. Three new types of part-time work are emerging: job sharing, phased retirement (gradual reduction of working hours), and paid leave.

Wallace, Steve; And Others (1988).  Vocational Preparation Teacher Manual. Missouri LINC. 

This document defines the role and responsibilities of Missouri's vocational preparation teachers as they work with disadvantaged and handicapped students in vocational education programs and offers advice on how they can fulfill their role and responsibilities. Following the introduction is the questionnaire used in a survey of vocational preparation teachers conducted in October 1987 through which five areas of responsibility were identified. The next section lists legislation and legislative guidelines (such as the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, and the Vocational Rehabilitation Act) that affects the responsibilities of vocational preparation teachers. The next five sections suggest what vocational preparation teachers can do to help students develop job and life skills, to help students obtain career information, access and evaluate students, plan programs and develop instruction, and participate successfully in meetings and cultivate contacts valuable to their programs. Each section includes an overview, content in question-and-answer format, and a resource list. The document concludes with a glossary and a 33-item bibliography.

Wallach, Paul (1987).  High-Stakes Gamble: Hazardous Waste.  Community, Junior and Technical College Journal, v57 n3 p30-32 Dec-Jan 1986-87

Urges colleges to develop cost-effective strategies for complying with environmental legislation and protect themselves and their employees from financial liability. Explains the personal liability of school officials for unsafe hazardous waste disposal practices. Reviews environmental laws, impacts of Right to Know legislation, the increase of toxic torts, and insurance issues.

Walsh, Bernadette (1989).  English: Key Stages 2 to 4.  British Journal of Special Education, 16, 4. 

The recent publication of attainment standards in English for British students under the 1988 Education Reform Act is critiqued. Provisions and the recommended course of study are excerpted from the report. The report is criticized for failing to recognize existing good practice and not acknowledging the paramount importance of the individual child.

Walsh, John (1983).  Science Education Redivivus.  Science, 219, 4589. 

A $400 million-plus measure (H.R. 1310) to improve mathematics and science education is moving rapidly through the House of Representatives. Highlights of the bill and issues related to improving science and mathematics education are discussed.

Walsh, Mary Ann (1985).  Ch. 688--Transitioning from Special Education into Human Services. 

The paper describes the development and implications of Chapter 688 in Massachusetts which which provides for a 2-year transitional process to plan for habilitative services for severely disabled young adults who will lose their entitlement to special education upon graduating or reaching the age of 22. The law requires an individualized transition plan (ITP) and mandates cooperative action among human services agencies. Following a brief discussion of eligibility, the paper examines the operation of the system, including initial referral for services beyond graduation or turning 22, and the development of the ITP. The function of the Bureau of Transitional Planning is described. The paper concludes with an analysis of the challenge posed by the new legislation.

Walsh, Sharon; And Others (1988).  First-Year Implementation of the Federal Program for Infants and Toddlers with Handicaps: A View from the States.  Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 8, 3. 

Fifty states and five territories were surveyed to determine implementation of the federal Program for Infants and Toddlers with Handicaps, established through Public Law 99-457. Questions focused on the states' interagency coordinating councils, definitions of developmental delay, and activities related to the required minimal components of statewide early intervention systems.

Walshak, Lynn G. (1982).  Accessing United States Government Publications in the Georgia Southern College Library. 

Developed for use in the library and in government documents classes, this paper provides instruction in the identification and location of U.S. government publications in a specific depository library. The importance of government documents is noted. An explanation of the Superintendent of Documents (SuDoc) classification scheme as found in the "Monthly Catalog of U.S. Government Publications" is given, as well as the means of determining whether a document is held by the library. The largest part of the paper describes the catalogs, indexes, and abstracts used to identify government documents. This discussion groups the reference tools according to whether a search is being conducted for current, retrospective, or specialized material. The numbering system of the SuDoc classification system is further examined as part of a section on the arrangement of the documents collection. Brief discussions of legislation and congressional publications, and the circulation of government documents conclude the paper.

Walshak, Lynn G. (1982).  Tracing the Passage and Implementation of Federal Legislation in Georgia Southern College Library. 

This paper provides guidelines for tracing the history and implementation of United States federal legislation in government and other publications located in the library of Georgia Southern College. Sources of background information on legislation are indicated as the "Congressional Quarterly" and "Major Legislation of the Congress." Location of information on Congressional action in the "Congressional Record,""Senate Journal," House Journal," and "House Calendars" is described, as is the location of the text of proposed legislation, bills, and resolutions and the use of the "Digest of Public General Bills and Resolutions." Location and use of Congressional committee hearings, committee reports, and committee prints in such publications as the "Congressional Information Service (CIS) Annual Index," and the "Monthly Catalog of United States Government Publications" is outlined as well as the location of laws in the "United States Statutes at Large," the "United States Code," and other publications. Finally location of regulations which implement these laws in the "Federal Register" (FR) and the "Code of Federal Regulations" (CFR) is described.

Walstad, William B. (1986).  The Federal Deficit and the National Debt.  Educational Leadership, 44, 2. 

National debts and deficits are not the curse on the economy that they might seem. The goal of establishing a balanced fiscal policy will not be obtained by simplistic legislation calling for an annual balanced budget or automatic (and harmful) spending cuts.

Walters, LeRoy (1988).  Ethical Issues in the Prevention and Treatment of HIV Infection and AIDS.  Science, 239, 4840. 

Poses questions about how we can control the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and the harm that it causes without unjustly discriminating against particular social groups and without unnecessarily infringing on the freedom of individuals.

Walters, Lex (1987).  Dollars Equal the Margin of Excellence. Southern Association of Community and Junior Colleges Occasional Paper, Volume 5, Number 2.

 

Walters, Lex D. (1987).  $ = +; The Margin of Excellence.

 

Walters, Norma J. (1986).  The Acts, Economic and Political Conditions and Committee Work That Led to the Passage of the Smith-Hughes Act of 1917. 

The Morrill Land Grant Act (1862) granted public land to the states to establish agricultural and mechanical colleges. The land grant concept of bringing the services of the colleges to the farmers and mechanics was implemented by the Hatch Act (1887). Other important acts were the Second Morrill Act (1890), which gave monetary supplements to established land-grant colleges, and the Smith-Lever Act (1914), which provided for a program of cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics. From 1914 to 1917 the economic and political conditions of the United States changed drastically. Craftsmen and leaders saw the necessity of promoting industrial education to meet societal demands caused by these conditions. The Douglas Commission (1906) was appointed to seek information concerning what was being done in Massachusetts public schools for manual training. Its report was responsible for legislation incorporating vocational education into the public school system. Another prime mover of vocational education into the public secondary school was the National Society for the Promotion of Vocational Education (1906). One effect resulting from the success of the leaders of the National Society was the development of a movement for more Federal aid for vocational programs--the Federal Commission on National Aid to Vocational Education (1914).

Walters, Norma J. (1986).  The Definitions, Purposes, and Objectives of Federal Funded Vocational Education through the Various Vocational Acts 1917-1976. 

This monograph sets forth the objectives and outlines the provisions of vocational acts (1917-1976) that provided for federally funded vocational education. An overview of the Smith-Hughes Act (1917) also considers changes made in vocational education after the act and amendments to the act. Other sections offer summaries of these acts: the George-Reed Act (1929) and resultant changes; the George Ellzey Act (1934) and resultant changes; the George-Deen Act (1936) and resultant changes; the George Barden Act (1946) and amendments, including Title I--Fishery Training Act, Title II--Health Amendments Acts of 1956, and Title III--National Defense Education Act; related acts passed to support vocational educaiton (Area Redevelopment Act and Manpower Development and Training Act); the Vocational Education Act (1963) and other changes; and amendments to the Smith-Hughes and George Barden Acts. The overview of the Vocational Education Amendments of 1968 outlines provisions of Title I--Amendments, Title II--Training of Vocational Education Personnel, and Title III--Miscellaneous Provisions. A summary of the Vocational Education Amendments of 1972 precedes the description of the Educational Amendments of 1976, specifically Title II--Vocational Education. National priority programs, categories for funding, and authorizations are outlined.

Walters, Norma J. (1986).  The Factors That Led to the Passage of the 1963 Vocational Education Act and How the 1968 and 1976 Amendments Changed This Act. 

This monograph discusses the Vocational Education Act of 1963 (VEA) and the factors that led to its passage. An introduction provides an overview of the changes brought about by supply and demand, which led to passage of the VEA. The impact of the Smith Hughes Act, effects of World War II, and the issue of unemployment in the 1950s are considered. Section II describes the findings of the Panel of Consultants convened by President Kennedy in 1961 regarding the failures of vocational education, its limitations, and the panel's impact on the VEA. In section III are reported the findings of the National Advisory Council on Vocational Education concerning implementation of the 1963 VEA. The Advisory Council's recommendations for amendments to the VEA are listed. Section IV outlines the changes that were made in the 1963 VEA by the 1968 Vocational Education Amendments, a result of the Advisory Council's recommendations. Provisions of Titles I, II, and III of the Amendments are cited. Section V describes changes made in the 1968 Act by the Educational Amendments of 1976, Title II--Vocational Education. National priority programs, categories for fundings, and authorizations are specifically addressed.

Walters, Norma J. (1986).  The Societal Influences That Have Brought about Changes in Vocational Education Practice As Well As Legislation through 1983. 

This monograph discusses the evolution of vocational instruction and how society plays a role in the training from early tribal customs in training to the apprenticeships and then to structuralized instruction in the trade schools, colleges, and universities due to legislation passed as late as 1983. Forces that influenced changes in vocational education and legislation are addressed individually. These include the change from an agrarian society in America into an industrial society, World War I, labor shortage, the economic depression of 1930, a broadening of the interpretation of the population for vocational education, World War II, war production plans, development of postwar activities, racial and language barriers of minority groups in inner cities, a demand for advanced skills and unemployment of unskilled workers, special needs in vocational education, improvement in working conditions, labor organizations, national education associations, other national agencies, state advisory councils, boards of education, teachers, students, parents and voters, community leaders, the state governments and vocational education, impact of Federal legislation, and student organizations. Challenges of the future for vocational education are then explored, including a total restructuring of the nation's social economic systems, the demand for accountability, and excellence in education.

Walters, Norma J. (1986).  Legislation Relating to the Handicapped and Vocational Education P.L. 94-142. 

This monograph provides information on the Education for All Handicapped Children Act as well as on vocational education for the handicapped. Following a brief introduction, Section II discusses the purpose of the Act. Section III offers definitions for classification of the handicapped. Legislation relating to vocational education and the handicapped is briefly discussed in section IV. Section V presents selected provisions of Public Law 94-142 and how they relate to vocational education and the handicapped. These provisions of the Act are explained: state plan, full services goal, due process safeguards, identification and evaluation of the handicapped, least restrictive environment, individualized educational programs, funding, curriculum development, accountability, and development of personnel. An overview of related acts and provisions such as the Rehabilitation Act (1973) and Vocational Education Act Amendments (1976) is also provided. Section VI specifies methods and techniques to improve vocational education and training for the handicapped, including counseling and individualized instruction, communication with parents, testing and evaluation, placement, local educational agencies, vocational administrators' responsibilities, workshops, resource guides, and Community, Organizations, Parents, and Educators (COPE). Appendixes summarize pertinent Federal legislation and procedures for their implementation.

Walters, Norma J. (1986).  Infanticide: A Critical Issue. 

Infanticide in the United States today usually happens in the hospital. Occasionally, handicapped infants are killed by a direct act, but more often infanticide is accomplished by withholding something (for example, food, medication, surgery) that babies need to survive. The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the Baby Doe regulations of May 1982, and the Child Abuse Amendment of 1984 are among the legislative measures that have attempted to protect handicapped infants' rights to medical treatment and general health care (including good nutrition). The decision whether to provide or withhold such services from handicapped infants has not been so clear-cut for health care practitioners and medical ethicists. Quality of life and the burdens on families and society posed by the responsibilities of raising and caring for handicapped individuals are issues that make suicide and mercy killing acceptable to many persons. Others believe that impaired infants are not human persons and hence not covered by legislation protecting individual rights. Doctors, nurses, and other health care professionals grapple with medical treatment decisions every day. They are pressured by a variety of factors including the catastrophic costs of care, and many health profesionals report being under increasing pressure to stop care when babies are irreversibly ill. Numerous case studies confirm that no religious, philosophical, or scientific consensus exists on the issue of infanticide, and for this reason, many hospitals have been spurred to form ethics panels or committees to address treatment dilemmas before they arise.

Walters, Norma J. (1988).  Curriculum Design: Nurse Educator's Role in Managing and Utilizing Various Teaching Methodologies. 

The role of the nurse educator in curriculum design in the future is considered. Changing technology, shifts in patient care agencies, legislation and long-term care specialties in nursing are all factors that will have a significant impact on curricula. Plans for managing and utilizing various teaching methodologies will be an important role for the nurse educator. The following roles are discussed and the literature reviewed: leadership, goal-setting, motivation, perception, communication, power and political involvement, learning styles, teaching methodologies, and research. An outline of the paper is attached. 56 references.

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_____. (1983).  Women and Minorities in California Public Postsecondary Education: Their Employment, Classification, and Compensation, 1977-1981. 

Information is presented on the employment, classification, and compensation of ethnic minorities and women in California public postsecondary institutions in 1977, 1979, and 1981. The report is divided into separate sections for the University of California, the State University, and the California community colleges. Within each section, data is provided on: classification/occupational activity; compensation; full-time faculty by tenure status and rank; and new hires, promotions, and separations. Primary emphasis in the textual discussion is placed on the top three occupational categories of Executive/Administrative/Managerial staff; Faculty; and Professional Non-Faculty. Conclusions about affirmative action for personnel in the three public segments since 1977 include the following: there have been modest increases in the percentages of women and minorities in the faculty and staff of the public institutions; in most employment categories, men are better represented than are women, regardless of ethnic group; and the representation of women and minorities in the tenure-track faculty, as well as in the tenured faculty is discouraging. Appendices include 1982 reports and statistical data from the three segments of postsecondary education; and the text of California Assembly Bill No. 105. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1983).  Women's Career Choice Equity Legislation. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Social Security and Income Maintenance Programs of the Committee on Finance. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session. 

These Congressional hearings contain testimony pertaining to the passage of women's career choice equity legislation. The hearings were convened to determine whether federal law, either directly or indirectly, regulates economic opportunities for women in such a way as to alter their career choice between paid employment and homemaking. During the hearings, testimony was provided by representatives from the Social Security Administration, the American Association of Retired Persons, and Eagle Forum. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1983).  Women in Transition, 1983. Hearing before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on Examination of Problems Faced by Women in Transition from Work without Pay to Economic Self-Sufficiency. 

This is a Congressional hearing on an examination of problems faced by women in transition from work without pay to economic self-sufficiency. Testimony includes statements from individuals representing the Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor; the Career Training Program, Women's Center, Enterprise State Junior College, Alabama; the National Displaced Homemakers Network; Project Move, Manatee County Schools, Bradenton, Florida; Wider Opportunities for Women; statements from graduates of displaced homemakers programs; and U.S. Senators. Additional information includes an executive summary of a Florida needs assessment study and questions and answers. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1984).  Women, Work and Age: Policy Challenges. Proceedings of the Conference (Lansing, Michigan, April 11-12, 1984). 

Proceedings of a conference on women, work, and age are presented. The introduction by Carol Hollenstead give background on the topic, identifies the conference's goals and objectives, and describes the rationale behind the published proceedings. The keynote address, "Age Discrimination: The Invisible Barriers" (Sandra V. Porter), discusses reasons why women experience aging differently than men and why their lives become harder as they get older. Twelve workshop reports are included which consider issues affecting middle aged and older women workers. The reports are: "Increasing Poverty Through Federal Policy Change" (Virginia duRivage); "Is Organizing the Answer?" (Barbara Barton); "Older Black Women as Workers" (Jeanne E. Miller); "Old Age Financial Security--Or Insecurity?" (Shirley K. Bentsen); "Age and Sex Discrimination in the Workplace" (Judy Hollister); "Fringe Benefits or Fringe Detriments?" (Georgia Harris); "Opportunities for Women in Employment and Training" (Joanne Grow); "Improving Life on the Job" (Ellen McKay); "Occupational Safety and Health"; (Gladys Benfield); "Less Than Full-Time Work: Opportunity or Exploitation?" (Hilda Patricia Curran); "Older Women and Work: Today and Tomorrow" (Mary Keither Ballantine); "Life Planning: Careers and Finances" (Irene Kazieczko). A bibliography is included with references from general sources and from 11 of the 12 workshop reports. The conference program and lists of conference sponsors, leaders, and the planning committee are also included.

_____. (1985).  Women and Alcohol Problems: Tools for Prevention. 

This report presents a practical guide to the prevention of women's alcohol problems. It is intended for use by individuals interested in incorporating prevention measures into the workplace, schools, treatment facilities, and other settings, and for women interested in reducing the risks of alcohol problems or preventing existing problems from developing further. A section on women's alcohol problems discusses social drinkers, problem drinkers, and alcoholics. Three levels of prevention are defined. The section on primary prevention presents five tools for reducing the incidence of alcohol problems in women and for stopping the problem before it starts: (1) risk factor recognition; (2) the media; (3) legislation and regulation; (4) community action groups; and (5) health education programs. The section on secondary prevention, early problem detection to prevent the disease from fully developing, presents four tools: alcohol programs for special risk groups, employee assistance programs, breaking the silence of denial, and assessment by physicians and other helping professionals. Tools identified in the section on tertiary prevention, designed to help alcoholics stop drinking, are denial syndrome recognition, direct alcoholism intervention, removal of treatment barriers, and provision for women's special treatment needs. The summary notes one final tool, removal of the misplaced stigma associated with alcoholic women. A brief list of references and a list of prevention messages for women are included. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1988).  Women, Violence, and the Law. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (September 16, 1987). 

This document contains witnesses' testimonies and prepared statement from the Congressional hearing called to examine the issues of violence against women, domestic violence, and the response of the justice system to such violence. In his opening statement, Representative George Miller presents a brief overview of the incidence of violence against women. Witnesses providing testimony include Rana Lee, community education developer for Marin Abused Women Services in Novato, California, and Sheila Martin, both testifying as abused wives and describing their personal experiences with violence and abuse. Scholars and legal experts providing testimony include: (1) Charles Patrick Ewing, associate professor of law and psychology at the State University of New York at Buffalo; (2) Barbara Hart, staff counsel, Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence; (3) Elizabeth Holtzman, district attorney, Kings County, New York; (4) Darrell Pope, commanding officer (retired), Sex Crime Unit, Michigan State Police; (5) Alan Sears, legal counsel, Citizens for Decency Through Law, Inc., Scottsdale, Arizona; and (6) Lenore Walker, president and psychologist, Walker & Associates. Prepared statements and supplemental materials submitted for the record are included. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1989).  Women Business Owners. Hispanic Origin Women Business Owners. Black Women Business Owners. Asian American Women Business Owners. American Indian/Alaska Native Women Business Owners. Facts on Working Women Nos. 89-5 to 89-9. 

Women-owned nonfarm sole proprietorships increased 62.5% between 1980 and 1986 (from 2.5 to 4.1 million). Women's share of total nonfarm sole proprietorships increased from 26.1% percent in 1980 to 29.9% in 1986. Compared with male-owned businesses, women-owned businesses are more likely to be home based, not have any paid employees, provide no income to the owner from the firm, be newly acquired, and be started or acquired with no capital required or borrowed. In 1982, Hispanic women owned 2.1% of all women-owned nonfarm sole proprietorships, Black women owned 2.7%, Asian American women owned 1.6%. American Indian women owned 19% of sole proprietorships in California, 11% in Oklahoma, 9% in North Carolina, 5% in Texas, and 4% in Colorado. Alaska Native women owned 6% of all sole proprietorships in Alaska. All women business owners, regardless of racial or ethnic group, are most likely to own sole proprietorships in the service industries and in retail trade. Opportunities for women business owners of all racial and ethnic groups should be enhanced by financial support made available under the Women's Business Ownership Act of 1988. | [FULL TEXT]

Womack, Karen King (1988).  Renewal And Restructuring. 

A discussion is presented of the work of the Educational Renewal Consortium, a national network for renewal in higher education and the public schools. The foremost characteristic of renewing institutions is recognizing the intractibility of some school problems and working collaboratively with other institutions to find solutions. Teachers in these institutions are involved in all goal setting for schools, programs, staffing, hiring of teachers and administrators and all other pertinent aspects of school management. A description is given of a joint project sponsored by the consortium involving the University of Central Arkansas and the Dardanelle School District. The project has three main parts: an administrative internship program, a sophomore field experience with "at-risk" students, and a mentor teacher project.

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_____. (1987).  White House Conference on Library and Information Services. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts and Humanities of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session. 

Held to authorize a White House Conference on Library and Information Services (WHCLIST) in 1989, this hearing focused on library services for literacy, productivity, and democracy as well as on the conference structure and costs. Statements and supporting information provided by the following individuals and institutions were presented: (1) Senator Claiborne Pell; (2) Senator Robert T. Stafford; (3) Senator Orrin S. Hatch; (4) Daniel J. Boorstin and Adoreen McCormick; (5) Bessie B. Moore, Daniel W. Casey, and Charles Benton; (6) Christie Vernon, John Ress Reeves, Alexander V. Nole, and Glen Wilde; (7) the Association of Connecticut Library Boards; (8) Patricia E. Klinck, Joseph F. Shubert, and Wayne H. Johnson; (9) Frederick Burkhardt; (10) Kenneth Y. Tomlinson; (11) Barbara Cooper; (12) Raymond A. Palmer; (13) Rae B. Cousins; (14) Page Putnam Miller; (15) Kay Vowvalidis; (16) David R. Bender; (17) Ann A. Lerew; (18) Nicholas A. Veliotes; (19) T. Alan Hurwitz; and (20) Margaret B. Howard. The responses of Bessie B. Moore, Glen Wilde, Patricia E. Klinck, and Joseph F. Shubert to questions submitted by Senator Pell are also included. Institutions, associations, and groups represented included the American Library Association; Association of American Publishers; Coalition of Library Advocates; Library of Congress; Medical Library Association; National Association of the Deaf; National Commission on Libraries and Information Science; National Coordinating Committee for the Promotion of History; Special Libraries Association; state libraries of Vermont, New York, and Wyoming; Utah State University, and Women's City Club of New York. | [FULL TEXT]

Whitcomb, Debra (1985).  Prosecution of Child Sexual Abuse: Innovations in Practice. Research in Brief Series. 

This Research in Brief report addresses the problem of dealing effectively with the crime of child sexual abuse. It is noted that child sexual abuse often goes unreported and unprosecuted. Problems faced and posed by child victims on the criminal justice system are reviewed. Legislative revisions, local reforms, and new techniques to alleviate these problems are discussed. The techniques discussed include: (1) enhancing a child's communication skills; (2) modifying the courtroom's physical environment to make it comfortable for the child; (3) preparing child victims to testify; (4) enactment of laws to permit child witnesses to have a supportive person present during court proceedings; (5) enactment of laws directing law enforcement, social service agencies, and prosecutors to conduct joint investigations; and (6) enactment of laws attempting to expedite the adjudication process by giving precedence in trial scheduling to child sexual offense cases. Tables of the 50 states' statutory provisions relevant to child witnesses in sexual abuse cases and statutory citations for selected issues in child witness testimony are included. | [FULL TEXT]

White, A. O. (1985).  The Proposition One Scare in Florida.  Urban Education, 20, 1. 

Describes the development of Proposition One, which threatened to drastically cut education and social services in Florida by reducing the State and local governments' purchasing power to below 1980 levels. Assesses the potential for resurgence of the legislation, following its removal from the ballot by the State Supreme Court.

White, Ernest R.; Lawrence, Paul R. (1986).  Educational Administration Reform in Kentucky: A Beginning. 

Prompted by the national educational reform movement, a Kentucky committee, mandated by the general assembly, called in 1983 for changes in the preparation and certification of school administrators. This study presents a background of the mandates, details of the certification changes, the board of education's study of administrative preparation and certification, and an advisory committee's recommendations for program implementation. Investigative committees in Kentucky responded to the 1983 "Nation at Risk" report by requesting changes which featured completion of a 1-year internship for evaluation during the first year of administrative employment and a testing program to ensure acceptable levels of communication skills, general knowledge, and professional education concepts. Changes included a two-level post-master's program for principals, supervisors, and superintendents that contains one generic instructional leadership core for all three positions. This core is designed around those competencies that practitioners considered critical in their role. The paper presents an outline of curriculum standards for principals, supervisors, and superintendents, including conditions under which endorsements from one level to another are allowed as well as renewal requirements for certificates. A committee of educators, meeting in 1986, is preparing regulations to implement the testing/internship program, with a target completion date of July 1987.

White, Ernest R.; Swezig, G. Wayne (1989).  The Kentucky Principal Testing and Internship Program.  Teacher Educator, 24, 4. 

This article describes changes mandated by the Kentucky General Assembly regarding training and induction of school principals. The changes include competency based training programs, testing and supervised internships.

White, G. Ray; Pruitt, Katy (1987).  Serving Parenting Teens through the Job Training Partnership Act. 

Job Training Partnership Act funds were provided for the Options for Young Mothers project in a mid-sized Texas community. The program was developed and 14 clients were selected. The main components of the program were life skills, General Educational Development (GED) training, counseling, and basic skills training and job placement (Jobs). The life skills component, a 10-week course, provided instruction in communication/assertiveness, family planning, child development, parenting, women at work/stress management, and community resources. The self-paced GED component was designed to teach specifically for the exam rather than to provide broad academic education. The Jobs component included career assessment and development activities, basic skill training, and job placement. The counseling component was based on the individual needs of the client. It proved to be rather impractical, and plans were made to revamp it into a guidance program. After six months of operation, 11 of the original participants had completed all segments of the program with the exception of the GED. Ten were employed--five in full-time employment, two in part-time employment, and three in full-time, temporary work. Eight of the clients were to take the GED in December 1987.

White, Janet M; Thomas, Stephen B. (1987).  Legal Forum: Drug Testing in Public Schools.  Journal of Educational Equity and Leadership, 7, 2. 

This article reviews court decisions concerning drug testing among prisoners, military personnel, public employees, and school employees. Fourth Amendment considerations of unreasonable search and seizure are discussed. In developing drug testing policies school districts must review these decisions in order to both protect individual rights and maintain a drugfree educational environment.

White, Lawrence (1989).  Complying with "Drug-Free Workplace" Laws on College and University Campuses. 

Beginning with the original executive order in 1986, drug-free workplace legislation has expanded its boundaries to include workers in private companies and state and local agencies and virtually all U.S. colleges and universities. This monograph reviews the Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 and its various implementing regulations from the standpoint not only of what the Act contains but also for what it omits. Noting that colleges and universities must comply if they accept funding under any federal grant or cooperative agreement, regardless of dollar amount, or federal contract of $25,000 or more, it spells out recipients' obligations to: (1) publish and circulate an anti-drug statement; (2) establish a drug-free awareness program; and (3) take certain steps to deal with employees convicted of drug-related, work-related crimes. The publication also notes that federal funding agencies can impose sanctions on contractors or grantees who file false certifications, fail to carry out measures defined by the terms of their contracts, or tolerate an unacceptably high employee conviction rate. Also briefly covered are the Department of Defense rules on the "drug-free work force." Appended is the text of Subtitle D of the Drug Free Workplace Act of 1988.

White, Patience, Ed. (1989).  Future Directions of Pediatric Rheumatology: A Consensus Conference (Arlington, VA, January 23-25, 1988). 

This report of a consensus conference on pediatric rheumatology deals with the complex nature of rheumatological conditions of children, which require diagnostic, therapeutic, and follow-up services for comprehensive care and demand the cooperation of medical, health, education, mental health, and social service professionals. Conference recommendations are presented in the areas of: networking; research; team care financing; community-based family-centered care; legislative advocacy; data collection and database development; and training for physicians, allied health professionals, and patients. The report includes a form for collecting data about pediatric rheumatology patients for a computerized database; and guidelines for pediatric rheumatology fellowship programs, prepared by Deborah Welt Kredich and approved by the Executive Council of the Pediatric Rheumatology Section of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Closing comments are provided by Susan Hurwitch and Frank Donivan. | [FULL TEXT]

White, Roger B.; And Others (1987).  Foster Child Health Care Supervision Policy.  Child Welfare, 66, 5. 

Reviews foster child health and the legal background for policy. Discusses components of a comprehensive child health care supervision program. Lack of continuity of care and lack of health information about foster children at time of intake are regarded as major problems contributing to high risk.

White, Stephen; And Others (1988).  Supervisor's Manual: Great Falls Transition Project, a Cooperative Model for Least Restrictive Employment. 

The manual is intended to provide employment supervisors with skills to enable them to motivate and provide any needed support to workers with disabilities. The material is organized into seven short sessions with most of the material consisting of basic principles for communicating and instructing persons with disabilities and case study problems for small group discussion. Session I focuses on awareness and covers famous people with disabilities, the difference between a disability and a handicap, normalization, and associations at work. Session II covers the learning curve and principles of training. Session III looks at personal issues in supported employment including explaining the job, one-way and two-way communication, advocacy and independence, and friendship. Management is considered in Session IV which covers behavior management, reinforcement, prompting, shaping, fading, collecting data, and resolving conflict. Consequences is the subject of the next session which looks at constructive criticism and positive feedback. Session VI considers collaboration including performance evaluation and who to contact with problems. The final session is on refocusing with sections on the least restrictive environment and ongoing advocacy. A glossary of 32 terms and appendixes (suggested evaluation forms, state and federal resources, pertinent federal legislation, and fact sheets covering the major disabilities) complete the document. | [FULL TEXT]

White, Stephen; Kiser, Paula (1988).  Job Coaching Manual. Great Falls Transition Project. 

The manual was used at a 1.5 day workshop for job coaches, individuals designated to train a disabled worker in the on-the-job setting. Each section usually provides basic information, opportunity for participation, and handouts summarizing techniques. The section on awareness covers normalization, expectation, and communication. Considered in the section on teaching strategies are: ABCs of behavior, prompting, shaping, fading, and trying another way (encouraging the worker to experiment). Additional brief sections give suggestions for data collection and assessment. Appended are a number of handouts on the following subjects: job coach duties; job coaching the mentally retarded; job coaching the chronically mentally ill; 40 ways to test for learning; behavior, ways to say "Good for You"; basic principles of behavioral change; fading job coach involvement; state and federal resources; and pertinent federal legislation. References and a glossary of approximately 32 related terms complete the document. | [FULL TEXT]

Whitebook, Marcy, Comp.; And Others (1989).  Working for Quality Child Care: An Early Childhood Education Text from the Child Care Employee Project. 

This early childhood education text was designed to help students and child care staff become effective advocates for the improvement of quality, salaries, and working conditions in child care programs. Unit I provides literature on the issues affecting the child care field and focuses on strategies to improve salaries and working conditions. Articles on the teacher shortage, the impact of high staff turnover on children, and employer-supported child care contribute to a picture of current child care. Unit II covers: (1) state and federal labor laws; (2) substitutes and in-home caregivers; (3) strategies for improving relationships among staff and between parents and staff; (4) the special stresses of various kinds of child care; (5) the health and safety concerns of child care staff; and (6) unions. Unit III provides information on salary schedules, health coverage, and pension plans. Also considered are various center policies, such as those regarding personnel, substitute and volunteer procedures, and evaluation, and ways to implement these policies. An instructor's guide outlines learning objectives and offers suggestions for class discussion and activities for each part of each unit. Organizational and information resources are listed. | [FULL TEXT]

Whitebook, Marcy; Ginsburg, Gerri (1985).  Comparable Worth: Questions and Answers for Early Childhood Staff. 

Intended to help child care advocates understand and use the concept of comparable worth, this guide book defines "comparable worth" as a movement to get wages in any one workplace to reflect a just assessment of the skills and responsibilities demanded by a job rather than false assumptions about the financial needs of the worker or racially or sexually biased assumptions about the skills involved in the job. The term also is known as pay equity, pay parity, wage justice, or job worth. The general discussion focuses on several questions, including "How do comparable worth efforts differ from attempts to secure equal pay for equal work?""What has been accomplished by comparable worth advocates?""Have comparable worth advocates encountered much resistance?""How do comparable worth advocates respond to these criticisms?" and "How does the comparable worth method work?" The discussion of the promises and pitfalls of comparable worth and child care work also answers several questions, including "How does comparable worth apply to family day care providers?""Has anyone used comparable worth evaluations to improve child care salaries?""Has comparable worth been used as a successful educational strategy for child care workers?" and "How can I determine which comparable worth strategy will be most effective in my center?" Resources for comparable worth advocates are listed. | [FULL TEXT]

Whitehead, John S. (1985).  The Democratization of Danish Higher Education: Causes, Responses and Adaptations.  Higher Education, 14, 1. 

In the early 1970s the Danish Parliament passed legislation that radically altered the governing structure of Danish universities. The causes that brought about the legislation are described and the ways in which Danish academics have responded and adapted to the new system are analyzed.

Whiteman, Henrietta (1986).  Historical Review of Indian Education: Cultural Policies United States Position.  [Wicazo Sa Review] 

Beginning in the year 1568, American Indians were thrust into an alien educational environment in which their languages--the very expressions of their tribal cultures--had no relevance or validity from the perspective of their teachers. The evolution of educational policy as it has affected Indians was initially tied to land transfer and acquisition, and it has been consistently assimilative in its orientation. The church, the federal government, and the schools could not and would not allow Indians to remain Indians. These three most powerful institutions in the United States all tried to change Indians, and they exerted intense pressure aimed at suppressing Indian cultures and Indian languages. The failure of the United States to educate Indian children continued until 1972 when Congress enacted the Indian Education Act specifically to meet the unique educational needs of American Indians at all levels of education. Indian involvement is a legislative mandate in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of all Indian education programs funded under the Act. This is also a key provision of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975. Indian involvement and self-determination have characterized federally funded education programs since the 1970s.

Whitney, Carol J. (1985).  Status Report on Male and Female Students and Employees in Ohio Vocational Education, 1983-1985. 

While this report is in response to legislation which requires sex equity personnel to gather, analyze, and disseminate data on the status of men and women in vocational education, it also is a means of informing educators and members of the community about the particpation of males and females in vocational education. The report provides enrollment data by sex of students enrolled in the Ohio vocational education programs. The first chart presents the enrollment data by sex of students enrolled in the major vocational education service areas. Both the number and percentage of male and female students enrolled during 1983, 1984, and 1985 are provided. The accompanying narrative reports that students continue to choose courses and make career decisions based on sex-stereotyped expectations. The second chart contains the percentages and numbers of males and females in the following areas of vocational education employment: instructors and personnel in local administrative/supervisory, local program/support, and state administrative/supervisory positions. The narrative states that the number and percentage of females in local administrative/supervisory, local program/support, and state administrative/supervisory positions increased from 1984 to 1985. The next two charts present the male and female enrollment in associate degree programs and in long-term adult programs during 1983, 1984, and 1985. The report concludes with summaries of 58 minigrants ($600) funded by the Office of Sex Equity, Division of Vocational and Career Education, Ohio Department of Education, during the 1984-85 school year. These activities of school districts, joint vocational schools, and other agencies are in response to the division's goal of improving sex equity in vocational and technical education programs. | [FULL TEXT]

Whittaker, David J. (1983).  Ten Years On: Progress and Problems in Finland's School Reform.  Comparative Education, 19, 1. 

Overviews Finnish schools before 1970 and highlights subsequent reforms. Groups reform problems under four headings: conceptual, attitudinal, administrative, and geographical.

Whitted, Brooke R.; And Others (1983).  Interagency Cooperation: Miracle or Mirage? A Study of Interagency Cooperation in the Delivery of Special Education and Related Services. 

The report examines systems developed by Indiana, Wisconsin, and Louisiana to monitor interagency coordination of educational related services for handicapped children. The background and development of special education legislation in each of the three states are reviewed along with the structure of the state education agency (SEA). Each state is also addressed in terms of the SEA's primary role, monitoring systems (largely on-site visits), and structures developed to promote interagency cooperation on both the state and local levels. The importance of interagency cooperation is highlighted by a discussion of residential placement decisions which are made by agencies other than the SEA in Wisconsin and Louisiana. Barriers (such as lack of guidance from state level agencies and budgetary concerns) to interagency cooperation are considered together with facilitators (including community involvement and local initiative). The report concludes with recommendations for improving cooperation at the state, state/local, and local levels. Some of the seven elements seen to be necessary for developing effective interagency cooperation include clear cut delineation of responsibility, continuing evaluation and identification of benefits for all participating agencies, and mechanisms for resolving disputes through minimizing confrontations and maximizing negotiations.

Whitten, Carol Pendas (1986).  Bilingual Education Policies: An Overview. 

Reforms in bilingual education currently sought by Secretary of Education Bennett would enable school districts to apply for and receive federal bilingual education funds regardless of the methodology they choose for those programs. The objective is to get the federal government out of the business of mandating curriculum to local schools. The rationale behind the reforms is based on the history of the federal role in bilingual education. Regulations issued in June 1986 for implementation of 1984 amendments to the Bilingual Education Act represent a major step in bringing about this reform. They have three main focuses: the autonomy of the local education agencies in deciding the amount of native language instruction to be used, recognition of the importance of parental involvement in the bilingual programs, and the need for local agencies to outline plans for managing and financing the instructional program when Title VII funds are reduced or are no longer available. These reforms recognize the major role of the local community in bilingual education. It is the responsibility of those who deal with the parents of limited-English-proficient students to carry the message to them about their role in the reform's success.

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Wendel, Josef; And Others (1986).  Home Schooling and Compulsory School Attendance.  School Law Bulletin, 17, 3. 

Parental rights and state compulsory school attendance requirements are limited by constitutional constraints, as shown in three benchmark cases. The article also cites cases to show the impact of compulsory education laws on home schooling, which is increasing. The state retains the power to impose minimum curriculum requirements. Cites references.

Wendling, Wayne R. (1984).  The Plant Closure Policy Dilemma. Labor, Law and Bargaining. 

In 1982 plant closings in the United States affected approximately 1 percent of the country's manufacturing facilities and 1 percent of its manufacturing labor force. Included among the reasons cited for plant closings were low productivity, high wages, and inflexible work rules. Given the nature of the reasons for plant closings and the magnitude of the problem, collective bargaining may be the most appropriate institution to solve the problem. Collective bargaining can address the specific issues in a plant and may lead to a solution to meet the needs of both management and labor. An examination of the case law that has evolved in the formulation of judicial interpretations of the duty to bargain and the actual contract provisions negotiated in major collective bargaining agreements helps to place into perspective the role that collective bargaining can play in averting plant closings. Assuming that plant closure is a mandatory topic of bargaining, it is recommended that bargaining occur in, and only in, those instances in which there is a real probability that bargaining could lead to a solution. In no instance, however, should more than 90 days be permitted to elapse between the notice of closure and the resolution of the problem, be it a new agreement permitting continued operations or closure of the plant. (Appended to this report is a discussion of the special impact of plant closings on older adults.) | [FULL TEXT]

Wendt, Janice C.; Carley, John M. (1983).  Resistance to Title IX in Physical Education--Legal, Institutional, and Individual.  Journal of Physical Education

Court rulings concerning compliance with Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 are reviewed. Resistance to the law in schools and colleges has, in some cases, intimidated teachers and coaches. Progress toward equal opportunity in athletics for women will be slow.

Wenger, Marta; And Others (1989).  Physician Involvement in Planning for P.L. 99-457 Part H: Interagency Coordinating Council Roles and System Planning Issues. 

The results of a survey of physicians actively involved at the state level in policy development for Part H of Public Law 99-457 are reported. A questionnaire was completed by a total of 125 physicians, including physicians identified as Interagency Coordinating Council (ICC) members and physicians who served as state chapter representatives to the American Academy of Pediatrics conference on Public Law 99-457. Examined are the roles physicians have taken in state planning for early intervention services for infants and toddlers with developmental delays, their attitudes toward the eligibility of at-risk children under Part H, their assessment of the relationship between the private health sector and the public human service system, and their perspectives on the major barriers to implementation. Findings included, among others, that six states had no physicians involved in the work of their ICCs; that there was strong consensus in favor of broad-based eligibility criteria; and that physicians reported modest improvement in the relationship between the private health care sector and the public human service system since enactment of the law. Policy implications are outlined. An appendix contains the survey form, and 15 references are cited.

Wentling, Tim L.; Piland, William E. (1982).  Assessing Access and Equity. Local Leader Guide VII. Locally-Directed Evaluation Handbook. Second Edition. 

This document, one of 12 guides that have been developed to facilitate evaluation by and for local education agency (LEA) personnel in Illinois, is designed to help local education agencies better serve special populations. This activity will help identify existing and potential problems hindering quality educational opportunities for "protected" populations. Further, this evaluation is designed to prepare the agency for an on-site visit by the Civil Rights Compliance review team of the Department of Adult Vocational and Technical Education (DAVTE). The guide has been designed to aid the person who has responsibility for leading this particular activity. It includes three sections. The first section on preliminary considerations contains a brief explanation of this evaluation activity and the necessary steps to prepare for the evaluation undertaking. Suggestions are included for holding a staff meeting to discuss the activity. The second section of the guide is a procedure/task breakdown, which outlines suggested tasks for conducting the evaluation activity. The third section of this guide contains supporting documents, including information handouts, example documents, and references. | [FULL TEXT]

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Wood, Christine T. (1985).  Policy Analysis of California's Program for Gifted and Talented Students.  Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 7, 3. 

This paper described findings from a three-year study on the impact of California legislation reforming the gifted and talented program. Results were concentrated in four areas: (1) population changes, (2) effect of new categories, (3) racial/ethnic changes, and (4) impact of funding formula.

Wood, Christine T.; And Others (1986).  A Study of Targeting Practices Used in the Chapter 1 Program: Final Report. 

This study examined the dynamics and outcomes of the selection procedures of Chapter 1 programs in order to provide information needed for program reauthorization. Of central concern was the reason for variation in the student and school selection characteristics across districts. As information was analyzed and compared for Chapter 1 and non-Chapter 1 students, the following policy implications emerged: (1) Chapter 1 participation should be reduced in districts with low poverty occurrences; (2) in districts with poverty levels above 25% more high poverty schools should be eligible; (3) the use of the high concentration of poverty option should be restricted to high poverty districts; (4) the selection measures for students within a district must be uniform; (5) uniform selection standards must be applied for students eligible for more than one program; (6) greater use should be made of the schoolwide project option plan; (7) districts with small concentrations of deprived students should reexamine their selection practices; and (8) districts should be permitted to continue targeting grade bands. Data are presented on 46 tables and one figure in this report. Six appendices contain additional statistics from the study. | [FULL TEXT]

Wood, David; And Others (1989).  Over the Brink: Homeless Families in Los Angeles. California Children, California Families. 

This report examines homeless families, isolates similarities and differences between homeless and poor but stably-housed families, identifies paths along which families slide into homelessness, and recommends policy changes. The report uses a body of data collected in 1987-1988 on two groups of poor families in Los Angeles (California) half of whom were stably-housed welfare (Aid to Families with Dependent Children) recipients and the other half of whom were currently homeless. The sample consisted of approximately 400 families each with at least a mother and 1 child. Following an introduction in Section I, Section II compares and contrasts the homeless and stably-housed poor families. In Section III, the study uses multivariate statistical techniques to address the question of why some poor people become homeless while others remain stably housed. An effort was made to reconstruct the "paths" by which families became homeless. Section IV discusses the policy implications of the findings and suggests several legislative measures to address the plight of homeless families in California. Appendices contain a description of the study design; a summary of the univariate analysis, multivariate analysis, and logistic regression conducted; results of the logistic regression; summary statistics; and an outline of the 1989 homeless-related legislation. Included are 16 tables, 12 figures, and a 72-item bibliography. | [FULL TEXT]

Wood, David; Bryant, Jeannette (1983).  Acid Rain. Activities for Grades 4 to 12. A Teacher's Guide. 

This teacher's guide on acid rain is divided into three study areas to explain: (1) what causes acid rain; (2) what problems acid rain has created; and (3) what teachers and students can do to help combat acid rain. Instructions for activities within the study areas include suggested grade levels, objectives, materials needed, and directions for the teacher. Many of the activities are science experiments or investigations. Experiments involve learning about acidity, the water cycle, sources of acid rain pollution, air-borne particles, acid rain's effects on aquatic life and plant seedlings, and the buffering capacity of types of soil. Other activities involve talking with people in the community, learning about the Clean Air Act, and writing letters to elected representatives. It is suggested that the activities could be incorporated into many subject areas and that a motivating study approach would be to organize the class into small study teams. A crossword puzzle, a glossary, and a bibliography of 17 journal articles, one filmstrip with cassette, one film, and one set of curriculum materials is included.

Wood, Frank H. (1989).  Students at Risk: Supporting the Growth of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.  Pointer, 33, 4. 

The role of teachers in assisting emotionally and behaviorally disordered students to develop full and happy lives is discussed. Described are factors in successful adaptation, liabilities and assets impacting the teachers' situation in supporting students, Public Law 94-142's influence in ensuring appropriate education, and the challenge of the Regular Education Initiative.

Wood, R. Craig (1983).  Future Tuition Tax Credit Legislation.  School Business Affairs, 49, 10. 

Analyzing the United States Supreme Court decision in "Mueller v. Allen" declaring that certain forms of tuition tax credit are not unconstitutional, the author points out that school administrators should monitor legislative activities and be active in state policymaking or the future may hold larger tax credits and direct financial subsidies.

Wood, R. Craig (1983).  Liability of School Business Administrators.  Planning and Changing, 14, 4. 

Citing the increasing litigation against school districts and officials, the author examines tort liability, damages, attorneys' fees, and liability insurance provisions under the Civil Rights Act of 1871. Additional attention is given to school officials' civil liability, "save harmless" provisions, proving liability, purchasing, transportation, unsafe school facilities, and criminal liability.

Wood, R. Craig (1985).  Competitive Bidding of Architectural Services.  School Business Affairs, 51, 7. 

An examination of statutes and case law reveals that in most states the employment of architects and engineers by public school districts is exempt from competitive bidding procedures.

Wood, R. Craig; Goldblatt, Steven M. (1988).  Access to Public Educational Facilities under the Equal Access Act.  Planning and Changing, 19, 2. 

Discussion centers on the legal bases by which school administrators permit access to public educational facilities by religiously and politically oriented student organizations. It concludes that access should be granted to students whose purposes do not disrupt teaching and learning.

Wood, R. Craig; Ruch, Robert W. (1986).  Challenges to Financing Education.  School Business Affairs, 52 n7 p22, 31-35 Jul 1986. 

Reviews court decisions involving challenges to state systems of financing education. The challenges have been based on Fourteenth Amendment rights to equal protection. To date 24 states have been involved with litigation. Systems that promote local control have been generally held to be constitutional. (42 references)

Woodfaulk, Courtney S. (1982).  An Investigation of the Current Practices for Preparing Florida Public Community College Students in Communication and Computation Skills. 

Recent efforts to identify and meet the needs for remedial education in Florida's public community colleges and universities are described in this paper. First, a synthesis of the literature on remedial education yields the following recommendations: (1) skills training must be integrated into other college experiences; (2) cognitive skills training must be combined with social and emotional development; (3) staff should be selected for their interest, commitment, and knowledge about learning problems; (4) degree credit should be granted for remedial classes; and (5) remediation should be approached with flexibility. The paper then reviews a variety of research, planning, and legislative activities concerned with postsecondary remediation efforts in Florida, including the inclusion of remedial programs in the statewide plan for postsecondary education; the assignment of specific responsibilities to Florida's public universities and community colleges; State Board Rule 6A-10.30, which requires college students to successfully complete 12 semester hours of course work in English and 6 hours in mathematics; a statewide review of basic skills preparation in Florida's community colleges; and a Florida Developmental Education Association survey of the effectiveness of remedial education at the community college level. Additional recommendations, incorporating L. R. Meeth's principles for quality in remediation, are included in the paper.

Woodruff, Jane Bruner (1986).  A Developmental Perspective of State Policy Initiatives in Instructional Management in the State of Mississippi. 

This paper traces the evolution of curriculum reform in Mississippi from a state level, norm-referenced accountability system to a performance-based, centralized accreditation system that integrates instructional management requirements into improvement standards. Accountability legislation has primarily been concerned with quality of student improvement and requires that curricular change bring about performance improvement. With the 1975 accountability law, Mississippi's department of education began building a statewide management system through a norm-referenced testing program. The department prepared guidelines for local accountability programs, but because curricular content varied, districts retained their autonomous character, in opposition to a small, relatively weak education department. The Education Reform Act of 1982 introduced a criterion-referenced program based on basic skills and a performance-based accreditation system, and the act abolished prior curricular requirements. Accreditation became the state's mechanism for implementing change. The education department identified principles of instructional accountability, including course definition through a set of objectives encompassing state-mandated content and adoption of objectives by local boards as basic curriculum requirements. In 1985-86, reforms identified basic skill areas and required that local administrators be held accountable for instructional management systems. Mississippi's programs thereby became part of a centralized management system over an 11-year period.

Woods, Diane E., Ed. (1989).  Building Non-Handicapping Environments: Policies and Problems Related to Accessibility. Special Edition.  [International Exchange of Experts and Information in Rehabilitation Interchange] 

The special newsletter edition features two articles on accessibility for the disabled. The first article, "Building Non-Handicapping Environments: CIB W84 Newsletter," by Adolph Ratzka, excerpts sections from the CIB W84 Newsletter of the International Council for Building Research, Working Commission for Disabilities. It is noted that CIB W84 places the highest priority on addressing accessibility issues in developing countries and on involving organizations of disabled people in its work. The article concludes by citing the text of 16 resolutions adopted by participants at a Prague (Czechoslovakia) seminar concerning the following roles: national and local governments; planners, builders and educators; researchers; consumer organizations; and supportive services. The second article, by Joseph Kwan, is titled "Examining Accessibility: The View From Hong Kong." It describes the successes and failures involved in attempting to implement standards for architectural and travel accessibility in the city of Hong Kong. Sections cover: Hong Kong architecture, rehabilitation initiatives, reasons building access is often not considered, early awareness of accessibility needs, the first code on building accessibility, the code as legislation, the situation today, access to transport, alternative modes of transport, and highway facilities. | [FULL TEXT]

Woodside, William S. (1986).  Business in Education--Is There Life after Partnerships?  NASSP Bulletin, 70, 490. 

Through greater involvement in local policy issues, business can influence public support for needed financing of education. Legislation that undercuts the next generation's employability should be challenged.

Woodward, Kate S. (1986).  Legal and Organizational History of School District Reorganization in New York State. 

The history of school district consolidation in New York State reveals that nearly every set of recommendations which has encouraged consolidation has brought about widespread negative reaction from the public. Reorganization is a highly political activity in which members of the State Legislature and the State Education Department have always been involved. While school district governance in a reorganized district (and the political reaction in the school district to that reorganization) may appear to be a singularly local issue, it is not. The State Education Department and its agents are involved at each stage of the reorganization process, and their involvement is not necessarily salutary. Reorganization efforts have slowed considerably in the past 15 years. In spite of increased financial incentives to reorganize and continued discussion on the benefits of reorganization, few districts have chosen to consolidate with others or to be annexed. While the promise of lower taxes and the prospect of improved educational opportunities continue to be compelling reasons for some districts to reorganize, districts are looking closely at the political issues. Districts considering reorganization today want guarantees that they will not lose local control and the opportunity to be directly involved in their children's education.

Woolfork, Kevin G. (1988).  The 1988-89 Governor's Budget: A Staff Report to the California Postsecondary Education Commission. Staff Report Series, Report 88-3. 

Information available in the 1988-89 California Governor's budget staff report includes an overview of the Governor's budget; an overview of the budget for higher education; proposed budgets for the University of California, the California State University, California community colleges, Hastings College of the Law, and the California Maritime Academy; capital outlay funding for the segments; the California Student Aid Commission; and areas of special interest to the commission (cooperative programs among educational institutions, student financial aid programs, future needs for educational facilities, and faculty salaries). The conclusions identify this budget as solid for postsecondary education, offering sufficient funding for enrollment growth, daily attendance growth, faculty salary increases, facilities needs, and new research. There is no money, however, to fund reform initiatives in the community colleges. | [FULL TEXT]

Woolfork, Kevin Gerard (1988).  Appropriations in the 1988-89 State Budget for the Public Segments of Higher Education. Staff Report Series. Report 88-33. 

The 1988-89 California budget and a description of provisions for postsecondary education are reported. The 1988 Budget Act was signed into law for the 1988-89 fiscal year. Its average increase in overall general fund expenditures over 1987-88 is 6.9%. State general fund expenditures for postsecondary education increased by just over 4% in the budget. An overview of the total budget is provided, and the budgets for each of the segments and agencies of postsecondary education are highlighted (for the University of California, California State University, California Community Colleges, Hastings College of the Law, California Maritime Academy, and California Student Aid Commission). Other topics of discussion are overall funding levels in the 1988 Budget Act, reasons for the budget reductions, and funding levels for public segments and the Student Aid Commission. The state's 1988-89 budget for higher education contains the smallest increases in state funding since the budgets in the recession years of the early 1980s. Many important initiatives in higher education are not funded in the current budget and must await later action. It is noted that if this year's revenue shortfall recurs next year, the effects on state-funded services could be substantial. | [FULL TEXT]

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_____. (1983).  Wisconsin Guidelines for Instructional Computer Use in Education, K-12. 1983-84. 

Based on needs expressed by representatives from many Wisconsin school districts, this publication presents guidelines for introducing, enhancing, and evaluating the use of computer technology in schools. The first chapter provides a brief overview of the impact of computers on education and a list of principles for promoting their use in schools. In the second chapter a model for computer use in education is presented, with guidelines for teaching about computers and programing, for computer assisted instruction (CAI), and for computer managed instruction and the utilization of computers in educational administration. Planning for the introduction of computers in K-12 instruction is generally outlined in the third chapter, while the fourth chapter describes the process for implementing a district plan, including guidelines for staff development; software and hardware selection, acquisition, and management; compliance with copyright legislation; and curriculum planning and development. A chart suggesting the scope and sequence of computer education is included, with an indication of possible grade spans for introductory, developmental, and review activities. A check list for assessing the implementation of computer education programs is also provided, and the final chapter presents a series of questions for use in developing a mode for evaluating the program model. Appendices include a list of sources to contact for further information, a summary of computer equity issues, sample courseware and hardware evaluation forms, and a position paper on the need for and methods of providing instruction in keyboarding.

_____. (1989).  Wisconsin State Plan for the Education of Homeless Children. Amended. Adopted by the Agency, June 16, 1989. 

This state plan (amended, and adopted June 16, 1989) describes Wisconsin's programs to address the educational needs of homeless children and youth, as mandated by provisions of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987. The plan is comprised of a preface and four sections. The preface reports that 17 counties have been targeted for immediate state action. The first section includes: (1) an introduction discussing McKinney Act requirements; (2) definitions of terms used in the plan; and (3) an index providing cross references between federal regulations and Wisconsin state plan provisions. The second section details state compliance with (1) McKinney Act requirements in the following categories: (1) public notice and opportunity to comment; (2) provision of educational programs for homeless children; (3) compulsory attendance; (4) educational standards; (5) school meals; (6) transportation; (7) pupil records; (8) data collection; (9) pupil discrimination; (10) school district compliance determination; and (11) resolution of disputes. The third section presents a timeline of nine major activities that led to the development of the Wisconsin state plan in 1989. The following documents are appended to comprise the fourth section: (1) text of the McKinney Act; (2) compulsory attendance statutes; (3) educational standards; (4) the compliance response form; (5) Chapter PI 1, Wisconsin Administrative Code; and (6) the interim report, final report, and revised final report.

Wise, Arthur E. (1983).  Educational Adequacy: A Concept in Search of Meaning.  Journal of Education Finance, 8, 3. 

Describes the origins of the "educational adequacy" concept, focusing particularly on state and federal court decisions and state legislation. Discusses problems involved in giving a concept an operational definition, especially the issues of adequate expenditure level, equity, adequacy measurement and certification, and intergovernmental financial relationships.

Wise, Arthur E. (1988).  The Two Conflicting Trends in School Reform: Legislated Learning Revisited.  Phi Delta Kappan, 69, 5. 

Responding to the past decade of educational reform, the author points out how state legislation in the 1970s tightened state control and now in the 1980s the Department of Education's educational reform implementations may increase federal control of education. Addresses the issue of educational quality in response to legislated reform. Includes 9 references.

Wise, Arthur E.; Darling-Hammond, Linda (1983).  Beyond Standardization: State Standards and School Improvement. 

This paper focuses on ways in which one state policy for improving education--standard-setting through testing mechanisms--affects the classroom teacher-learner relationship. That uniform policy-making is problematic is clear from observations of 43 Mid-Atlantic school district teachers. Responding to three types of standards, 45 percent found minimum competency testing objectionable because a single measure cannot allow for student, resource, and goal differences. Likewise, standardized testing for decision-making about students was typically viewed as curriculum narrowing. The strongest reaction stemmed from competency-based approaches to teaching and learning that require test-passing for each discrete skill before moving on. Teachers generally found it difficult to adapt standard policies to the disparate needs of students, though many recognized the usefulness of a common educational direction. The need for dual accountability--to students and administration--is a problem that could be partially rectified through ensuring competency among teachers. Nonetheless, teachers familiar with the competency-based teacher certification idea recently advanced by policy-makers again tended to oppose it: like teaching itself, learning to teach is a complex activity requiring behaviors varying from student to student, an attitude research confirms. Paper and pencil competency tests were also viewed skeptically; 60 percent of teachers opposed tests for recertification. In sum, policymakers must realize the collective impact of such policies since they may make teaching less attractive and thus work against themselves. | [FULL TEXT]

Wise, Arthur E.; Gendler, Tamar (1989).  Rich Schools, Poor Schools: The Persistence of Unequal Education.  College Board Review, 36-37 Spr 1989. 

Financial resources do affect educational quality. When the advantaged have the better-financed school, America will continue to provide unequal education to those who most need what school has to offer. Legislative responses to early litigation and the recent litigation in Montana, Texas, and New Jersey are discussed.

Wisensale, Steven K. (1988).  Generational Equity and Intergenerational Policies.  Gerontologist, 28, 6. 

Addresses the question of generational equity and discusses several intergenerational policies that have been proposed, including family leave and long-term home health care. Concludes that the aging lobby must adapt to a changing political landscape, view intergenerational policy proposals in a more favorable light, and devote more attention to legislative activity at the state level.

Wisensale, Steven K.; Allison, Michael D. (1988).  An Analysis of 1987 State Family Leave Legislation: Implications for Caregivers of the Elderly.  Gerontologist, 28, 6. 

Examined family leave legislation introduced in 28 states in 1987. Found that only 4 states had passed such bills, and that only 1 bill included elder care; advocates of the elderly did not participate in the policymaking. Recommended that more attention be devoted to proposals that are intergenerational in focus and designed to aid informal supports.

Wisensale, Steven K.; Allison, Michael D. (1989).  Family Leave Legislation: State and Federal Initiatives.  Family Relations, 38, 2. 

Surveyed the 28 states and the federal government that introduced parental and family leave bills during the 1987 legislative session. Found four states passed bills and Congress did not; results indicated much variation in issues raised and proposals reached.

Wisniewski, Richard (1981).  Oklahoma's Quest for Quality. 

The passage of Bill 1706 by the Oklahoma State Legislature is a major step toward building professional schools of education and a true profession. Through the specifications of this law, the total process is to be strengthened, since changes in teacher education are severely limited if done in a piecemeal fashion. There are five major points which address competency issues: (1) Admissions criteria for colleges of education will be strengthened by requiring a higher grade point average and by assessing competence in oral and written communication skills. (2) The quantity of clinical field experience will be increased and placed in settings which demonstrate first-rate educational practices. (3) The academic competence of teachers in their subject fields will be tested beginning in 1982 by required curriculum examinations. (4) A one-year internship or entry year is mandated, making teacher preparation a five-year process. At the end of the entry year, each beginning teacher is assessed by a three person committee, composed of a teacher, an administrator, and a teacher educator. (5) Continuing education activities will be planned by all boards of education, and participants rewarded in school system salary schedules. Colleges of education also come under this provision, in increased attention to faculty development.

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Watchke, Gary (1983).  Blueprints for Educational Reform. Informational Bulletin 83-IB-1. December 1983. 

Summaries are presented of recent study reports on the current status of education in the United States: (1) "A Nation at Risk" (National Commission on Excellence in Education); (2) "Action for Excellence" (Education Commission of the States); (3) "Educating Americans for the 21st Century" (Commission on Precollege Education in Mathematics, Science and Technlogy); (4) "High School: A Report on Secondary Education in America" (Carnegie Foundation for Advancement of Teaching); (5) "Making the Grade" (Twentieth Century Fund Task Force on Federal and Elementary and Secondary Education Policy); (6) "A Place Called School: Prospects for the Future" (John Goodlad); and (7) "The Troubled Crusade" (Diane Ravitch). Comparisons of the recommendations made in these studies are presented. The structure of education in the state of Wisconsin is described, and state mandates on educational standards are outlined. The response of the Wisconsin State Board of Education to recommendations of the various reports on education are discussed.

Watchke, Gary (1984).  State Steps toward Educational Improvements. Informational Bulletin 84-IB-3. 

This bulletin highlights state initiatives addressing education problems, examines new laws, updates the state of Wisconsin's activities to improve the quality of its education, and concludes with an annotated list of nine publications on educational reform that are available from the Wisconsin Legislative Reference Bureau. Information is included on: (1) educational changes in selected states (Arkansas, California, Florida, Tennessee, and New York); (2) authorization and appointment of education task forces in the states; (3) recent curriculum improvements in the states; (4) recent changes affecting teacher quality in the states; and (5) legislative actions and task forces created by the Wisconsin legislature in 1983. Focus in the report on Wisconsin is on the enactment of two laws: one mandating graduation credit requirements, the other on public school curriculum requirements.

Waterson, Margaret (1987).  A Manual for Title IX Coordinators: Sex Equity in New York State Schools. 

Recognizing the importance of compliance with Title IX, this manual provides an implementation guide for all members of the school community. The manual is organized into 16 topics including: (1) summarization of the Title IX legislation; (2) Title IX's importance to sound educational policy; (3) explanation of who is responsible for compliance; (4) the legislative requirement of a Title IX coordinator; (5) information for developing a district model to ensure compliance; (6) guidelines for establishing the position of Title IX coordinator; (7) competencies needed by individual filling that position; (8) a checklist for coordinators to ensure an ongoing program; (9) summarization of regulations; (10) evaluation procedure for assessing compliance; (11) a model for the Title IX grievance procedure; (12) methods for achieving sex equity in vocational education; (13) consideration of related issues such as unbiased instructional materials; (14) summarization of other federal anti-discrimination laws pertaining to schools; (15) a listing of national, state, and local agencies to consult for advice on implementation; and (16) recommended resources on Title IX and sex equity. Appendices include guidelines for notification of vocational education opportunities; a form for self-evaluation on Title IX compliance; and a sample notification of Title IX grievance procedures. | [FULL TEXT]

Watkins, Beverly T. (1984).  Bargaining Rights Denied Professors at Boston U.  The Chronicle of Higher Education, 28 n20 p1, 26 Jul 11 1984. 

The results are reported of court litigation in which Boston University faculty were denied the right to collective bargaining because faculty are considered supervisors. The role of the American Association of University Professors is also discussed and excerpts from the court's opinion are presented.

Watkins, Charles M. (1986).  Schools Must Provide Continuing Health Benefits.  School Business Affairs, 52, 11. 

New legislation requiring that continuing health insurance benefits be offered to employees and their families generally apply to all health care benefit plans maintained by school districts. The new regulations are explained.

Watson, Jennifer (1989).  Women, Work and the Future. Workforce 2000. 

The first section of this fact sheet reports that: from 1989 through the year 2000, two out of three new entrants into the work force will be women; in 1988, two-thirds of all women with children under 18 were in the work force; nearly 90 percent of jobs created between now and 2000 will be in the service sector; and part-time or temporary employment will comprise an increasing share of available jobs. These facts regarding education and training are presented: a majority of all new jobs will require education or training beyond high school; one in eight women workers has a less than high school education; and females continue to be disproportionately enrolled in education and training that prepares them for low-wage jobs in traditional female occupations. Examples are then provided of actions being taken to meet the challenge of preparing for a changing work force by businesses, unions, educators, and community-based organizations. The fact sheet suggests that public policy can improve the economic status of women and families. It describes briefly federal legislative initiatives in these areas: family and career support policies, education and training policies, and income and benefits policies.

Watson, Mary Ann (1983).  Children's Programming: An Industry Peace Offering to the New Frontier. 

Appointed chairman of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) by President Kennedy in 1960, Newton Minow disturbed the traditionally comfortable relationship between the commission and the broadcast industry. In his first major speech, he outraged industry officials by attacking television programming as "a vast wasteland" and indicated that he would support legislation for FCC supervision of the networks. When he later spoke of the industry's responsibility to children, a major broadcasting group quickly announced a plan to increase high quality children's programming. The three major networks were unable to reach an agreement, however, over Minow's plan to share the commercial disadvantages of high quality children's programming by rotating a program among the networks. In the fall of 1962, all three networks aired quality children's shows but were unable to attract commercial advertising. By the end of 1963, the absence of John Kennedy and Newton Minow lifted network fears of government regulation and the commitment to high quality but unprofitable children's shows died.

Watson, Wilbur H.; And Others (1987).  Health Policy and the Black Aged.  Urban League Review, 10, 2. 

The number of poor elderly Blacks and the cost of health care are increasing. Even with Medicare there are out of pocket expenses for those who are least able to pay. Since racial bias may be a factor in triage, the best approach to reducing medical costs is prevention.

Watt, Dan (1984).  The Feds Are Coming! Computer Education Could Be a Hot Federal Issue in an Election Year.  Popular Computing, 3 n8 p91-92, 94 Jun 1984. 

Discusses fluctuating federal support for education, and the recent renewed interest in education by support of emerging computer technologies via such congressional bills as the Computer Literacy Act and Computer Education Assistance Act. Provisions of several bills, their potential impact, and prognosis for their passage are also discussed.

Watt, Phyllis C. (1982).  Columbia Daily Tribune v. The Curators of the University of Missouri: A Case Study. 

The 1978 lawsuit between the Columbia, Missouri, "Daily Tribune" and the University of Missouri concerning Sunshine Laws, while singular and specific, is of concern to all news organizations. When "Tribune" reporter Randy McConnell was denied access to the University's audit reports and other documents and was forbidden to attend an informal dinner meeting of the University's governing Board of Curators, the "Tribune" filed a lawsuit against the University citing violation of the state's Sunshine Law. The lawsuit turned out to be a time-consuming challenge as the University delayed the litigation through a series of denials and appeals, citing exemption from the law. It was not until 4 years after the paper first filed suit that a circuit court judge upheld McConnell's belief in openness and Missouri's Sunshine Law. It was not until 3 months after that decision that the University, facing contempt charges and public pressure, began to open its meetings. That process, however, has been formally stayed pending appeal of the circuit court's decision. The Missouri state legislature has since approved a major rewrite of the Sunshine Law, which strengthened the law in several respects but exempted social meetings of public governmental bodies from its provisions. It is clear, however, that if a governmental body questions the applicability of such a law, the issue can be tied up in courts for an extended and costly length of time.

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_____. (1989).  West Virginia Department of Education Proposed Plan for Education of Homeless Children and Youth. 1989-1990. 

This proposed plan for the education of homeless children and youth in 1989-1990 is West Virginia's response to Title VII (B) of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987 (the McKinney Act). Section 1 is comprised of the following four parts: (1) an executive summary, describing background, purpose, and impact of the state plan; (2) background, detailing the homeless situation overall; (3) review of data, discussing existing information; and (4) definitions of terms relating to Section VII (B) of the McKinney Act. Section 2, detailing the body of the state plan, deals with the following issues: (1) creation of a Homeless Advisory Committee; (2) data collection; (3) dissemination of information; (4) transfer of records; (5) residency; (6) transportation; (7) professional development for school personnel; and (8) resolution of disputes, including a reprint of the West Virginia Board of Education appeals procedure and citizen's appeal forms for progressive appeal to the levels of the county superintendent, county board of education, and state superintendent of schools. Section 3 includes the following appendices pertaining to homeless education: (1) Survey of West Virginia School Districts; (2) Survey of Department of Human Services Area Offices; (3) Survey of West Virginia Shelters and Assistance Programs; (4) statistical summary forms; and (5) a flow chart of scheduled work activities. | [FULL TEXT]

Wesson, Caren; And Others (1982).  Teaching Structure and Student Achievement Effects of Curriculum-Based Measurement: A Causal (Structural) Analysis. 

To achieve substantive as well as procedural compliance with Public Law 94-142, it must be determined whether using the formative evaluation system which is useful for monitoring the effects of instruction, increases teacher success in developing student programs. Causal modeling techniques were used to examine the relationships among implementation of a formative evaluation system, structure of instructional programs, and achievement for 117 students in grades 1-7. The Accuracy of Implementation Rating Scale monitored implementation procedures and the Structure of Instruction Rating Scale measured the degree of instructional lesson structure students received. Reading achievement measures were collected three times over the 5-month period by 31 trained teachers. Measurement, structure, and achievement were stable across time and measurement had a short-lived effect on achievement. Measuring student performance had an early effect on achievement, as did silent reading practice. Determining the effect of implementation of an evaluation system or structure of lessons and student achievement was not realized via the present analysis. The appendices contain the Accuracy of Implementation Rating Scale and the Structure of Instruction Rating Scale.  | [FULL TEXT]

West, Judy Ferguson (1983).  Recent Federal Legislation Added Listening as a Determinant of Literacy: Educators Must Provide Listening Instruction. 

Listening skills are the most used and least taught of the communication skills. However, in 1978 the United States federal government, through the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, added listening and speaking to reading, writing, and arithmetic as determinants of literacy and needed basic competencies. Through the 1978 legislation, funds have been directed to states to develop programs in listening and speech, as well as in more traditional basic skills. Also, the number of universities offering separate listening courses has increased in response to demands from the business and professional community. Within recent years, several corporations, realizing the importance of effective listening, have provided formal training programs in listening. Communication authorities cite five purposes of effective listening: appreciative, discrimination, comprehensive, therapeutic, and critical. Eight factors critical to one's listening ability include willingness, attention, reception, concentration, perception, nonverbal, value moment, and feedback. Guidelines pertinent to improving listening skills can be classified as those more applicable to speakers than to the listeners, those more applicable to the listeners than to the speakers, and those applicable to speakers and listeners simultaneously.

West, Lynda L. (1988).  Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating Transition Programs: A Complex Task, but Not an Impossible One.  Journal for Vocational Special Needs Education, 11, 1. 

Designing, implementing, and evaluating transition programs is an extremely complex task, but not an impossible one. Legislation has given society the challenge and programs have begun to emerge.

West, Lynda; And Others (1986).  Missouri Transition Guide. Procedures & Resources. Missouri LINC. 

This guide is intended to provide persons involved in the transition of handicapped youth from school to work with a systematic means of implementing transition and disseminating information about resources that may assist the process. The guide is organized in six sections. The first section provides an overview of transition, while the second section describes Missouri LINC's transition model. The third section discusses program planning and evaluation. In the fourth section, information on transition is provided in five subsections dealing with legislation, independent living, parents, rural areas, and various transition options. Each subsection includes a bibliography and appendixes of resources. Transition resources on the national and Missouri state level and in local communities are listed in the fifth section. The final section of the guide is a glossary.

West, W. Richard, Jr.; Gover, Kevin (1988).  Indians in United States Civil Rights History.  Update on Law-Related Education, 12, 3. 

Discusses the unique legal status of American Indians as citizens of tribal governments, and traces their struggle for civil rights. Examines provisions for in the U.S. Constitution dealing with the Indians, the military conquest of Indian tribes, and Indian participation in the civil rights movement. Includes a list of books on American Indian law.

Weston, Mark (1988).  Home Schooling: A Primer for State Legislators.  [State Legislative Report] 

This primer for state legislators discusses reasons for the current increase in home schooling and describes legislative actions regulating home schooling. In regards to guidelines for making workable laws regarding home schooling, attention is given to: (1) requiring communication between parent and school; (2) establishing minimum standards for home schools; (3) establishing accountability procedures and mechanisms for evaluating a student's progress; and (4) imposing sanctions on home schools that fail to comply with the home schooling laws. Some additional provisions are specified. Instances of state legislation that illustrate the guidelines are described.

Weston, Mark; Walker, Karen (1988).  Emerging Issues: A Survey of Education Committee Chairs. State Issues Series.  [State Legislative Report] 

During fall 1987, the National Conference of State Legislatures contacted the education and higher education committee chairs in every state legislature to ask them about emerging issues. Financing education remains the paramount concern, and the teaching profession and governance are also guaranteed a place in legislative debate. Other areas identified through this survey have emerged during recent sessions. Legislators and the public want their tax dollars to produce a quality education system. Hence, the resulting interest in accountability will endure into the next decade, as will the emphasis on education reform even though it has shifted from passing reform legislation to maintaining legislated reforms and making them work. Issues to watch for during the upcoming sessions include restructuring schools, early childhood education, minority and disadvantaged youth, and money for technology in schools. Tables provide rankings of top issues by state as well as state listings of top issues in 1988.

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_____. (1987).  Welfare Eligibility: Deficit Reduction Act Income Verification Issues. Fact Sheet for the Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate. 

This income and eligibility verification system (IEVS) database was created to aid the implementation of data exchanges among federal and state agencies. These exchanges are important for income and eligibility verification of persons who receive benefits from welfare and unemployment programs. Attempts are being made to match the computer programs used by each state. State contact persons will be available to facilitate these exchanges. In order to obtain information on the progress of these exchange efforts, questionnaires were sent to states and U.S. territories. The responses of 53 participants are presented in three appendices. Analysis of the qualitative responses resulted in the following list of concerns: (1) additional state funding needed to complete the implementation; (2) the efficiency of the existing automated systems to process the data; (3) processing time frames; (4) possibility that the costs may exceed the benefits; (5) the age of the tax data; and (6) safeguarding the tax data as per IRS guidelines. For illustration, the complete responses from Alabama and North Dakota are provided. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1987).  Welfare Simplification: State's Views on Coordinating Services for Low-Income Families. Fact Sheet for Congressional Requesters. 

This fact sheet summarizes responses by 49 states (Massachusetts did not respond) to the General Accounting Office questionnaire on state efforts to integrate human services programs. The questionnaire focused on low income families. Responses to the questionnaire indicate the following: (1) 23 states have integrated all their service delivery units for the three major benefit programs: Aid to Families with Dependent Children, Medicaid for the Categorically Needy; and Food Stamps; (2) 48 states would like to achieve more service integration; (3) 30 states have started at least one service integration demonstration project since October 1, 1983; (4) 14 states have considered legislation related to service integration since January 1, 1985; (5) among the most frequent obstacles to integration of services are the number of regulations applying to the programs, and the fact that different programs use different financial eligibility requirements; (6) coordination among state officials is greater at the program level than at higher levels; and (7) the three reasons most often given by states for eligible families not receiving benefits are transportation difficulties, lack of local outreach services, and insufficient funds for limited-funding programs. The fact sheet presents state responses to the questionnaire in statistical form. Appendices include program descriptions, state questionnaire results for obstacle factors, and state questionnaire results for state and local actions. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1987).  Welfare Reform Proposals. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Domestic Marketing, Consumer Relations, and Nutrition of the Committee on Agriculture. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session. 

This hearing seeks to examine the Family Welfare Reform Act, H.R. 1720, now pending, and determine what changes in the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program and the Food Stamp Program are needed to ensure that the United States has an integrated welfare system. H.R. 1720 includes benefit reforms, a new employment and training program, and steps to ensure that absent parents meet their moral and legal obligations to provide financial support for their children. Included are the opening statements by Representatives on the House Committee on Agriculture; and testimony and prepared statements by witnesses from the Department of Agriculture and other Federal Agencies, and from the Food Research and Action Center, the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, and the National Council of State Human Service Administrators, American Public Welfare Association. Also included is a document, "Comparison of Food Stamp and AFDC Program Requirements with Recommendations for Change," submitted by the latter organization. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1988).  Welfare Reform. Bibliographies of Case Management and Agency/Client Contracting. Fact Sheet for the Chairman, Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate. 

This document, prepared for the use of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs in considering proposed welfare legislation, comprises annotated bibliographies, most with abstracts, the following subjects: (1) case management; and (2) agency/client contracting. The cited literature includes books, journal articles, research reports, and doctoral dissertations published during the period 1980 to mid-1987. The abstracts for many of the works included were culled from computerized databases--NTIS (National Technical Information Service), ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center), Sociological Abstracts, PSYCINFO, Family Resources, and the OCLC and SCORPIO systems-covering the sociological and welfare areas. The bibliographies identify 109 literature citations for case management as applied in the social services field, and 9 citations for agency/client contracting as applied to the delivery and receipt of such services. Each entry includes author, title, date, availability and copyright-information. A subject index, by abstract number, is included. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1988).  Welfare Eligibility: Programs Treat Indian Tribal Trust Fund Report to Congressional Committees. 

This report was sought by the Conference Committee on the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985, concerned that federal law allows payments from tribal trust funds to be excluded when determining eligibility for welfare benefits to American Indians. Applicable federal laws and eligibility policies were reviewed to determine the treatment of tribal trust fund distributions and purchases made with such distributions by six welfare programs: Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Supplemental Security Income (SSI); Food Stamps; Pensions for Needy Veterans, their Dependents and Survivors; the Indian housing component of Lower Income Housing Assistance; and the Bureau of Indian Affairs' General Assistance. It was found that for the four non-Social Security programs, guidance on a legislated $2,000 exclusion varied and was sometimes unclear. There was some inconsistency with federal laws in the treatment of such exclusions at the local level. The report recommended that Congress clarify the $2,000 exclusion required by the Judgment Funds Distribution Act and consider whether it is appropriate to require tribal trust fund awards and purchases to be treated differently under Social Security programs than under other welfare programs. The report also recommended that agency secretaries review welfare program policies to ensure consistent treatment of tribal trust fund distributions. The report includes tables, distribution figures and comments from affected agencies: the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Housing and Urban Development, Department of the Interior and the Veterans Administration. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1988).  Welfare Reform: Projected Effects of Requiring AFDC for Unemployed Parents Nationwide. Briefing report to the Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on Public Assistance and Unemployment Compensation, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives. 

Aid to Families with Dependent Children for Unemployed Parents (AFDC-UP) is a state option under which cash aid is provided to two-parent families whose principal earner is unemployed or employed less than 100 hours a month. As of January 1988, 27 states, the District of Columbia, and Guam had AFDC-UP. This report reviews the following: (1) available cost estimates of requiring states to adopt AFDC-UP; and (2) research on AFDC-UP's effect on families. The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) and Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) 1993 Federal and state cost estimates for requiring AFDC-UP under H.R. 1720--$945 million and $961 million, respectively--and S. 1511--$915 million and $1.090 billion--are similar. CBO's and HHS's estimates for H.R. 1720 differ mostly on food stamp costs; on S. 1511 they differ mostly on Medicaid costs. Mathematica Policy Research's estimates for H.R. 1831 and an identical bill, S. 862, are also reviewed. Very little information was found about AFDC-UP's family stability effects; the information found is of little relevance to the current proposals. Data are presented on three tables. One of the two appendixes lists the data bases reviewed in the literature search for this report; the other describes selected provisions of the welfare reform proposals discussed. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1988).  Welfare Reform. Hearings on S. 869, S. 1001, S. 1511, before the Committee on Finance. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (October 14 and 28, 1987). Part 2 of 3. 

This series of hearings, the second of three on welfare reform, focuses on the following legislation: (1) the Family Security Act (S. 1511); (2) child support enforcement bills (S. 1001 and S. 869); and (3) the Aid to Families with Dependent Children Employment and Training Reorganization Act. Among the speakers and witnesses were the following: (1) Lloyd Bentsen, Senator, Texas; (2) Barbara Mikulski, Senator, Maryland; (3) Terry Sanford, Senator, North Carolina; (4) Daniel J. Evans, Senator, Washington; (5) John G. Rowland, Congressman, Connecticut; (6) Jaime B. Fuster, Resident Commissioner, Puerto Rico; (7) Nancy Johnson, Congresswoman, Connecticut; (8) Bill Clinton, Governor, Arkansas; (9) Kevin B. Aslanian, Coalition of California Welfare Rights Organizations; (10) Stephen Heintz, Connecticut Department of Income Maintenance; (11) Marge Roukema, Congresswoman, New Jersey; (12) Linda A. Wilcox, Maine Department of Human Services; (13) Ann C. Helton, Maryland Department of Human Services; (14) Douglas G. Glasgow, National Urban League, Inc.; (15) Susan Rees, Coalition on Human Needs; (16) Arthur B. Keys and Ruth Flower, Interfaith Action for Economic Justice; and (17) Judith M. Gueron, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation. Appended are the prepared statements of the witnesses, and other material submitted for the record. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1988).  Welfare Reform. Hearing before the Committee on Finance. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session (February 4, 1988). Part 3 of 3. 

This hearing, the third of three on welfare reform, focuses on the problem of child support and ways to improve the current system. One child in four now lives with a single parent; these children must receive the support that they are due. The hearings also focused on the problems of unemployed parents, and how the welfare system can help prepare welfare recipients for the long term through training, education, and job placement. Among the witnesses were the following: (1) Jeff Bingham, Senator, New Mexico; (2) Thad Cochran, Senator, Mississippi; (3) Jim Mattox, Attorney General, Texas; (4) Pierce A. Quinlan; (5) Gerald W. McEntee, American Federation of State and County Municipal Employees; (6) Regina S. Lipscomb, West Virginia Department of Human Services; (7) Carl B. Williams, Greater Avenues for Independence; (8) Cindy C. Haag, Utah Department of Social Services; (9) Robert G. Williams, Policy Studies, Inc.; (10) Robert Greenstein, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities; (11) David L. Levy, National Council for Children's Rights; and (12) Margaret Prescod, Black Women for Wages for Housework. Also appended are the prepared statements of the witnesses and other material submitted for the record. | [FULL TEXT]

Welch, Charles E.; Price-Bonham, Sharon (1983).  A Decade of No-Fault Divorce Revisited: California, Georgia, and Washington.  Journal of Marriage and the Family, 45, 2. 

Surveyed divorce settlements in Georgia and Washington during 1970 and 1980 to replicate Seal's study of no-fault divorce in California. Findings indicate few substantive changes. With no-fault divorce, alimony was rare, child custody was awarded to mothers, assets tended to be shared, and child support had not decreased.

Wells, Amy Stuart (1989).  Educating Homeless Children. ERIC/CUE Digest No. 52. 

Despite numerous special problems, urban schools are attempting to develop programs to meet the needs of homeless children. National estimates of the number of homeless school-age children range as high as 440,000, at least one-half of whom do not attend school. The Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987 includes a section that addresses the educational needs of homeless children. Its provisions revise school residency and guardianship laws and require states to develop plans to assure that homeless children are provided the same services as other students. The following educational problems are most frequently cited: (1) transportation to and from school; (2) prompt transfer of student records from school to school; (3) incomplete or missing health records; (4) difficulty in assessing the needs of transient homeless students; (5) unavailability of a proper home study environment; (6) low parent involvement; (7) lack of community services to support attendance; and (8) emotional and socialization problems. The following programs could be provided given adequate funding and support: (1) school-shelter liaisons; (2) after school and extended day programs; (3) special tutoring programs; (4) preschool problems; (5) in-school social workers and counselors; and (6) in-service teacher training. A list of six references is appended. | [FULL TEXT]

Wells, Amy Stuart (1989).  Hispanic Education in America: Separate and Unequal. ERIC/CUE Digest No. 59. 

Despite the 1973 Supreme Court decision, Keyes v. Denver School District, Hispanic students are more segregated today than they were 20 years ago, and gaps between the educational attainment and earnings of Hispanics and non-Hispanics continue to widen. The nation's Hispanic population has grown almost five times faster than the non-Hispanic population and is heavily concentrated in certain regions and major cities. Recent enrollment studies show an increase in the number of Hispanics who attend heavily segregated schools, a fact attributed to rising Hispanic enrollment and the disproportionate concentration of Hispanics in urban school districts with large minority enrollments and a lack of any significant desegregation initiatives. Hispanic parents and leaders have not insisted on integration, as have many Blacks, because they believe that Hispanic children are better served in a predominantly Hispanic school with extensive bilingual services. The following trends indicate a need for desegregation: (1) many students in predominantly Hispanic schools are not receiving the bilingual education entitled to them under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; (2) Hispanics have the highest dropout rate of any minority group; and (3) few Hispanic students are prepared for college in the same way that White and Asian students are. A list of nine references is appended. | [FULL TEXT]

Wells, Gladys Ann, Comp. (1985).  Report from the States, 1985. White House Conference on Library and Information Services Task Force 6th Annual Report. 

This summary reports the results of the 1985 Survey of States and Territories gathered by the White House Conference on Library and Information Services Task Force (WHCLIST), which focused on library service activities, overall progress made toward the implementation of the resolutions adopted by the 1979 White House Conference on Library and Information Services, as well as the agenda for the proposed 1989 White House Conference. Individual questionnaires completed by respondents from 45 states and 3 territories make up the major part of the report. These questionnaires provide information on legislation authorizing state aid to libraries, other library-related legislation, library construction, resource sharing, literacy/education, school libraries and school library/public library cooperation, access to information, new state publications related to libraries, public awareness efforts, the extension of library services to nontraditional library users, statewide friends groups/citizens library councils, and agenda items for the proposed 1989 White House Conference. Appendices include the American Library Association (ALA) Resolution calling for a Second White House Conference on Library and Information Services; the ALA Resolution requesting UNESCO to declare an International Year of the Library; and a letter of reply from the Deputy Director-General of UNESCO proposing an International Congress on Library Promotion.

Wells, Gladys Ann, Comp. (1986).  Report from the States, 1986. White House Conference on Library and Information Services Task Force 7th Annual Report. 

This summary reports the results of the 1986 Survey of States and Territories conducted by the New York State Library for the White House Conference on Library and Information Services Task Force (WHCLIST). The survey focused on public awareness of library services, the importance of library cooperation and networking, the crucial need for literacy programs, and the role of libraries in safeguarding free, timely access to information for citizens and business. Individualized questionnaires completed by respondents from 37 states, 3 territories, and the American Indian nations make up the major part of the report. The questionnaires provide information on legislation authorizing state aid to libraries, other library-related legislation, resource sharing, literacy/education/job and career development, public awareness/publications/ and use of the national library symbol, target programs/special services, statewide friends groups/citizens library councils, and most important actions needed as a result of the 1989 White House Conference. The questionnaires from the states of Ohio and Arkansas, which were received too late for tabulation, are appended.

Wells, GladysAnn, Comp.; Chodos, Laura B., Comp. (1984).  Report from the States, 1984. White House Conference on Library and Information Services. 5th Annual Report. 

This report is a compilation of the actual completed questionnaires received from 44 states, 5 territories, and the District of Columbia in response to a survey conducted by the White House Conference on Library and Information Services (WHCLIST) Steering Committee in June 1984. A summary tabulates the responses: (1) legislation authorizing library aid increases or consideration of such legislation was reported by 17 states; (2) library-related legislation covering networking, multitype library cooperation, confidentiality of circulation records, automation, and library construction was reported by 12 states; (3) public awareness projects were reported by 43 states and territories; (4) activities of statewide friends groups/citizens library councils were reported by 30 states and territories; (5) extended services to special groups were reported by six states; (6) expanded library services were reported by 37 states and territories, including network development, multitype library cooperation, school/public library cooperation, and improved interlibrary loan efforts; (7) literacy and adult education programs were stressed as statewide priorities by 25 states; (8) statewide plans had been released or were under development in 42 states; (9) fiscal assistance for WHCLIST activities was reported by 37 states; and (10) positive comments on a 1989 White House Conference were received from 37 states and territories, with nine states uncertain about the usefulness of a second White House Conference. An appendix provides a review of the process and events that led to the first White House Conference on Library and Information Services in 1979, the establishment of an ad hoc committee to monitor implementation of the resolutions in 1980, and progress made towards priorities established at the conference.

Wells, Lawrence C. (1986).  Minnesota K-12 Education: A Catalogue of Reform Proposals. A Summary Version. A Report of the CURA/College of Education Project on the Future of K-12 Education in Minnesota. 

This document summarizes a catalogue report of major Minnesota proposals issued over the past two years (through the end of the 1985 legislative session) for improving the quality of K-12 public education in the State. The document provides an overview of the themes and highlights from the proposals, following the topical order used in the catalogue. Topic areas include: curriculum, pedagogy, student testing, reform of the teaching profession, and establishment of school-business partnerships. Three different types of reform measures are discussed in a section giving an account of legislation passed in the Education Finance Omnibus Bill during the June 1985 special session; these measures are: "access to excellence" legislation, student learning and testing legislation, and legislation relating to the teaching profession. Also included are a bibliography from the full report, presenting complete citations for all the reform proposals; and an appendix, providing information about the 18 different organizations and other sources of the reform proposals. These sources are categorized and briefly described; their addresses and phone numbers are supplied. | [FULL TEXT]

Wells, Ronald G. (1982).  Guidelines for Effective and Defensible Performance Appraisal Systems.  Personnel Journal, 61, 10. 

Areas to consider when conducting personnel performance evaluations are discussed. They include: job related criteria, subjective criteria, performance expectations, performance standards, regular scheduling of evaluations, and formal documentation. Guidelines to deal with problems in these areas are also presented.

Welsh, Patrick (1986).  What Reform?  Educational Leadership, 44, 1. 

A teacher explores the recent educational reform movement and discusses the studies of schools done by Sociologist Christopher Jencks in the 1970s. An important idea that can be extrapolated from Jencks' studies is that schools should function more like families than factories. This would empower teachers and make schooling more equitable, challenging, and humane.

Welton, John; Evans, Jennifer (1986).  Policy Implementation beyond the Management of Change: A Case Study in Managing the Policy Process. 

Using the 1981 Education Act of England and Wales as a case study, this paper develops a conceptual framework of education legislation as a significant reference point in the process of negotiation and bargaining that initiates legislation and continues throughout the period of policy implementation. A model of the policy process and the management of change must consider the impact of structural factors, the powers and duties of local authorities, and the influence of varying government policies together with the influence of local factors. A chart illustrates the dimensions and stages involved as new policies in special education emerged and were modified, clarified, and implemented from 1970-85. The bargaining power of groups affected by policy implementation is part of the wider structure of power relationships within central and local governments and local level agencies. Special education policy is realized by the actions of individual workers with implementive authority--doctors, teachers, psychologists--who together with local administrators make decisions about the way in which children's special needs are defined and met. This "action focus" approach considers the influence of the structure and context within which diverse interests operate. Twenty-five references are appended.

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(1987).  Working Paper on the Status of Tenure without Mandatory Retirement.  Academe, 73, 4. 

The American Association of University Professors' Committee A on Academic Freedom and Tenure examines the implications for tenure of federal legislation forbidding mandatory retirement because of age.

_____. (1982).  Workers' Compensation: Workers' Disability Compensation Act, P.A. 357 of 1980. Legal Modules for Vocational Cooperative Education. 

Intended for use by cooperative education program coordinators, this module deals with the way in which the Michigan workers' Disability Compensation Act (P.A. 357 of 1980) affects students enrolled in vocational cooperative education programs in Michigan. The module, which is designed to be a self-paced instructional package, contains a pre-test, answer key, scoring instructions, a reinforcement exercise, case studies with appropriate answers, and additional agency and printed resources.

_____. (1983).  Work Experience Education Manual. 

This manual was prepared to help work experience coordinators, school administrators, and counselors in Alberta organize and operate a program that provides meaningful learning experiences for high school students. The manual is organized in nine chapters. The first four chapters introduce the concept of work experience programs; state the objectives of work experience education; define terms used in work experience programs; and describe the benefits of work experience education for students, schools, business and industry, and communities. In the fifth chapter, the manual suggests ways to define needs, develop policy, and set up an advisory committee, while in the sixth chapter, legislation pertaining to work experience education in Canada is outlined. The next chapter provides guidelines from the Alberta Department of Education and the Employment Standards Branch concerning work experience programs. Chapter 8 explains program organization, covering such topics as the coordinator's responsibilities, organization and paperwork, developing work stations, and planning and carrying out effective in-school instruction. The final chapter contains forms needed for a work experience education program. Appendixes to the manual contain an example of a board policy statement, frequently asked questions and answers, and tips for students. A list of recommended readings completes the document.

_____. (1984).  Work Education. Guidelines for Teachers and Administrators. 

This guide for coordinating the efforts of teachers and administrators provides a framework for setting up and improving work education programs within the parameters of the legislation and definitions that apply in the Province of Manitoba. The first five sections discuss work education. Work education is defined, and programs that use work education are described; some objectives are listed; and the related in-school instruction is briefly addressed. The next two sections discuss the two basic principles of work education: cooperation and communication. The participants in work education are the focuses of the next seven sections--students, parents, employers, workers, teachers, administrators, and advisory committees. Five sections offer guidelines regarding the legal aspects of work education, specifically the Public Schools Act and regulations, Workers Compensation, student age limitations, liability, and use of forms. The mechanics of work education is addressed in four sections on: planning the use of work education in a program, recruiting and maintaining work stations, caring for the student in the workplace, and helpful hints from practitioners on a variety of topics. Appendixes include examples of forms, situations in which checklists are useful, suggested community resources, a listing of resource materials, and pertinent excerpts from Manitoba law.

_____. (1985).  Worker Retraining. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Employment Opportunities of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session on H.R. 26 and H.R. 1219. 

This Congressional report contains the testimony presented at a hearing focusing on two bills dealing with worker retraining. The two bills, H.R. 26 and H.R. 1219, are intended to establish a system of individual training accounts in the Unemployment Trust Fund, amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 to provide that certain contributions to such accounts shall be deductible from gross income, and for other purposes and to provide incentives for worker training through both employer and individual initiatives, and fund a study of the feasibility and cost of a National job bank. Included among those agencies and organizations represented at the hearing were the following: the American Society for Training and Development; the Committee for Economic Development; the New York State Department of Education; the Hay Group, Inc.; the Academy for Educational Development; and the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. The report also contains the texts of both bills, several prepared statements that were delivered at the hearings, and the texts of several newspaper articles on jobs programs and retraining that were entered into the record of the hearing. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1986).  Working Americans: Equality at Any Age. Hearing before the Special Committee on Aging, United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session. 

This report of a congressional hearing focuses on the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), which permits forced retirement of American workers solely on the basis of age, that is, mandatory retirement at age 70. Testimony includes statements and prepared statements from a United States Representative, individuals who have been forced to retire at age 70 or who are facing mandatory retirement including a representative of the American Association of Retired Persons, individuals representing the Grumman Corporation and the United States Chamber of Commerce, and an age discrimination lawyer. An appendix contains relevant reports, additional statements, letters, and a proposed bill to amend the ADEA. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1986).  Work in America: Implications for Families. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session. 

This hearing explored the value of work, and how changes in the economy and the composition of the work force have affected families. Witnesses (1) reported data on such topics as the kinds of jobs currently available, women's participation in the work force, unemployment, and labor force growth over the next decade; (2) argued that the economy is largely structured to complement the 19th century model of marriage, and that anti-discrimination and affirmative action legislation, along with upgrading of female-dominated jobs, is needed to facilitate the development of egalitarian marriages; (3) argued that the welfare poor do not work because of the permissive character of government policy; (4) discussed the economic contribution of women to family well-being, gender differencs in labor market positions and earnings, and the implications of research findings for policy; (5) reported on studies of black Americans and the relationship between rapid displacement of unskilled industrial jobs, growing role strains within black families, and related psychosocial consequences; (6) discussed the causes of poverty for single mothers, and the effect of welfare on work and dependency; (7) reported research on the effect of economic dislocation on children's lives; and (8) described experiences with and aspects of education and training programs around the country. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1986).  Work & Family: A Changing Dynamic. A BNA Special Report. 

Economic, social, and demographic changes in the last 30 years have resulted in a massive restructuring of the American work force. Consequently, increasing numbers of employees can be expected to experience difficulties balancing family-and-work concerns. There is no consensus in the United States today regarding the responsibility for helping employees balance work and family. Several states have created task forces to address family-and-work problems. Although studies have shown that certain family-oriented programs (such as flextime and employee assistance programs) can increase productivity and enhance the corporate bottom line, some corporate officials remain skeptical about the cost-effectiveness of such programs. In general, corporate America has not kept pace with the changing dynamics of work and family. Unions are expected to demand that employers strengthen their family-oriented programs. Occasionally, joint labor-management committees or collective bargaining procedures have resulted in the implemenation of creative workplace policies enabling employees to balance family and job responsibilities. The report's longest chapter provides over 30 case studies illustrating specific responses by employers and unions to family and work issues. Other chapters discuss developments and trends, labor-management approaches, and views of the experts. A listing of more than 60 resource organizations is also provided. Appendixes include the test of the Parental and Disability Leave Act of 1985; an interview with T. Berry Brazelton; AFL-CIO resolutions on part-time work, child care and social services, and work and the family; discussions of the tax aspects of dependent care assistance plans; selected corporate policy statements and collective bargaining agreements dealing with work and family issues; family employment and earnings statistics from the Bureau of Labor Statistics; and a 12-page bibliography.) | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1987).  Workplace Education. 

The Workplace Education Initiative was created in Massachusetts to provide workers with the opportunity to develop basic literacy skills, to increase employer and union awareness of the extent of functional illiteracy among workers as well as its cost, to develop a number of partnership models that link the acquisition of basic education skills with increased opportunities for workers, and to promote strong ties among the education, training, and employment sectors at local and state levels. The initiative was developed in response to a growing recognition of the extent and impact of functional illiteracy in an increasingly complex workplace. With many plant closings, workers may be required to change jobs five or more times in a work life. In order to adapt to such frequent changes, workers need transferable skills. These skills are also needed in order for entry-level workers to advance. Lack of such skills results in lost productivity, poor product quality, and more accidents. Three partnership models were proposed to work toward solution of the illiteracy problem: (1) partnership models between a local business and local adult learning center or volunteer program to develop educational programs specific to the needs of the work force of that business; (2) partnership models between one or more local businesses, their unions, and a local adult learning center to develop jointly sponsored educational programs specific to the needs of that work force; and (3) partnership models between a local union that represents workers from a number of different businesses and a local adult learning center to develop educational programs specific to the needs of that work force. (Six programs were funded in 1986 and are summarized briefly in this paper.)

_____. (1987).  Work and Welfare. Hearings on Reviewing the Extent of Long-Term Poverty and Dependence, Focusing on Job Training and Employment Services Provided by the Government before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (January 21, February 3-4, 1987). 

The poverty rate in America has increased during the Reagan Administration. Real welfare benefits have fallen sharply and people with jobs have been disqualified from government assistance. Using lessons from the public and private sectors, legislators are attempting to change the regulations of public assistance and welfare work programs to assure that work is always a viable and attractive alternative to people who receive public assistance and that job training and employment services are available to them. This document is the transcript of the first session of hearings held before the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources. Testimony is given by founders, administrators, and participants of work programs. Data are presented on unemployment, underemployment, welfare services, job training, and work incentives. The proposed legislation would give incentive bonuses to states which conduct job training programs which prove to be effective. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1988).  Working toward Equity. A Report on Implementation of the Sex Equity Provisions of the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act. 

This report examines how the sex equity provisions of the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act have been implemented in 16 states. It focuses on the implementation of the key provisions in the law that affect women and girls: the single parent and homemaker program (8.5 percent set-aside), and the sex equity program (3.5 percent set-aside). The provisions examined are as follows: (1) administration of the 8.5 percent and 3.5 percent set-aside funds; (2) distribution/allocation of the set-aside funds; (3) use of community-based organizations; and (4) support services. The report also includes specific examples of programs and practices that demonstrate positive uses of the set-aside funds and recommended legislative changes. The information in this report was collected by the Vocational Education Task Force from various sources including representatives from community colleges, secondary schools, community-based organizations, women's advocacy groups, sex equity coordinators, and state officials. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1988).  Workforce Reduction Committees. A Labor/Management Approach. 

This resource guide outlines the labor/management approach supported in the new legislation regarding worker dislocation and training. It provides companies and unions with the initial information necessary to establish a labor/management committee. Section 1 discusses the benefits to employees and employers of establishing a work force reduction committee in advance of worker layoffs. Section 2 focuses on the financial resources available to support the work of the committees and dislocated worker assistance services. They include federal/state funds, employer/union contractual funds, and funds for training and reemployment services that have been earmarked by many companies experiencing major reorganization. Section 3 presents a series of steps in a typical sequence for formation of a committee. It recommends the accomplishment of several steps during each meeting, so that the entire process can be completed in three or four short meetings. Section 4 outlines the essential elements of a committee and the specific duties (roles and responsibilities) of the chair and members. The final section addresses the first steps in developing a program plan and identifying services. A resource and contact list is appended. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1988).  Work-Ability. Special Abilities from Special Students. Volumes I-III, February 1986-June 1988. 

This document consists of a compilation of 12 issues of a newsletter for special education students enrolled in work experience programs in Fresno, California. The newsletter is intended to help them develop appropriate work attitudes and behaviors and master job-seeking and job-holding skills. The following are among the topics covered in individual issues of the newsletter: how to act in a job interview, negative interviewing factors, telephone techniques, cover letters, self-evaluation, well-paying jobs that do not require a college degree, fast-food jobs, jobs in national parks, classified ads and techniques for responding to them, self-employment, the importance of body language in job interviews, job skills that can be developed at home, tips on researching prospective employers, reasons why workers lose their jobs, work maturity traits, friends as a source of constructive criticism, work histories, employers' views on what constitutes a good employee, proposed minimum wage legislation, the importance of thank-you letters after interviews, nursing jobs, cashiering, and factors to consider when selecting a career. Each newsletter contains articles directed toward students, tips on available reference and resource material, short tips and/or facts related to job search and daily living, a question and answer column, and suggested activities for teachers to use with their students.

_____. (1988).  Workplace Literacy: Targeting the Future. A Report on the National Conference on Workplace Literacy (Washington, D.C., October 3-4, 1988). 

This summary reports on the proceedings of a conference that was convened to focus attention on the implications of inadequate literacy levels among present and future employees of small businesses and to share successful approaches to the task of helping these employees develop the literacy skills required to meet ever-changing job requirements. The summary begins with the conference agenda and a fact sheet on small business in the year 2000. Next, the conference proceedings are summarized. The next section discusses small business and training in the year 2000, with particular emphasis on the impact that projected demographic changes are likely to have on small business. The conference registrants, state adult literacy contacts, and U.S. Small Business Administration Regional Advocates are listed. The next section deals with employers and the legal aspects of literacy, and the final section outlines the major statutes containing workplace literacy and job training provisions. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1989).  Working It Out: Performance Management Strategies for Increasing Services to At-Risk Youth.  [Youth Programs: Practical Lessons from Research and Program Experience] 

This journal issue summarizes the main points of a two-volume guide to youth performance management: "Working It Out: An Anthology of State and Local Performance Management Strategies Designed to Increase Services to Youth at Risk of Chronic Unemployment." The guide draws on the experiences of state and local practitioners in identifying specific ways in which states can expand and improve services to youth through such key state-level policy actions as selecting and setting performance standards, establishing incentive policies, increasing coordination among youth-serving agencies, making effective use of Job Training Partnership Act discretionary grants, and providing technical assistance. This summary also highlights best practices and policy guidance for the local level on issues such as definitions of at-risk youth and employability, development of multitiered service delivery systems, youth-centered competency-based program designs, contracting methods to encourage high performance, and effective use of requests for proposals. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1989).  Working Capital: JTPA Investments for the 90's. A Report of the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) Advisory Committee. 

A 38-member Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) advisory committee was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Labor to review the country's employment and training policy, especially as focused in the JTPA, and to make recommendations for improvement. The committee found that two interdependent problems face the United States: a widening gap between the skills of the work force and the changing requirements of the economy and an opportunity to offer gainful employment to all citizens, especially those who formerly were marginally employed or on welfare. It also found that JTPA has strengths that should be retained, such as the public-private partnership, the pivotal role of the states in JTPA management, and a local system accountable to the public. However, it also found areas in which the JTPA could be strengthened and proposed 28 recommendations to that end. Of these, seven major proposals were advanced, concerning (1) targeting programs more directly on disadvantaged persons with serious skills deficiencies; (2) individualizing services; (3) consolidating youth services and increasing funding; (4) redesigning outcome measures to reflect the goal of long-term economic self-sufficiency for participants; (5) relaxing program constraints to increase the responsiveness of the system, especially to clients with serious employment barriers; (6) improving staff training; and (7) creating public-private partnerships between JTPA and other resource programs. | [FULL TEXT]

Worell, Judith (1986).  Single Mothers: Issues of Stigma. 

This paper examines psychological and social issues for single mothers in the context of therapeutic strategies for effective intervention. Never married, previously married, and Lesbian mothers are considered in terms of sociocultural myths and sources of stigma; research findings related to these myths; and interventions targeting the single-mother family, the community, and governmental policies that influence legislation affecting these families. Sources of societal stigma are discussed which are related to morality, sex-role violation, and victimization. Dispelling myths related to these areas requires careful consideration of the major sources of stress impinging on these families: economic stress, social isolation, and role-strain. It is suggested that mental health interventions treat these families in the context of the massive effects of poverty, societal oppression, and victimization. Therapeutic strategies that include only the psychological processes of the single mother will fail to address the larger context of her social situation and will further contribute to her victimization and despair. Interventions must be preventive, remediative, educative, and aimed at involving community resources. Therapists are encouraged to become knowledgeable about single mothers and the economic and legal issues facing them, and to take an active role as mediators and advocates. Research requirements discussed include increased attention to models of prevention and intervention into the factors that facilitate the strength and well-being of single-mother families. Forty references are included.  | [FULL TEXT]

Workman, Randall H. (1983).  Bilingual Education: Meeting the Needs of the Eighties. 

The National Advisory Council on Bilingual Education's seventh annual report outlines the Council's mandate and activities and looks at the current state and future needs of bilingual education in the United States. In a section on program implementation, the report outlines local, state, and federal support efforts, program design and effectiveness, and capacity building. A chapter on program needs addresses the specific needs of American Indian language groups, Alaskan language groups, Puerto Rican language groups, and rural populations, and the general need for public awareness of bilingual education practices and results. Bilingual education as a potential for economic development and legislative direction and reauthorization issues are discussed in separate chapters. Council recommendations are made in each of these areas of concern. The projected directions and general recommendations of the Council are outlined in a concluding section. Specific recommendations for initiatives in policy formation, program development, and research are made to the Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Language Affairs, the Secretary of the Department of Education, and the President of the United States. Appended materials include the Council's charter and the names and addresses of its members as of December 1982. | [FULL TEXT]

Worshtil, Marti (1988).  Prince George's County Response to HB 1071: School-Age Child Care Needs Assessment. 

The legislature of the State of Maryland enacted a bill that requires each county in the state to conduct a needs assessment for the delivery of before- and after-school child care services to children 4-14 years of age and offer recommendations for the delivery of care. This document provides Prince George's County's response to the legislation. Content includes discussion of current services, policies, a survey of parents' need for services, data compilation, survey results, and demographic data. Analyses of services, of policies, of the survey, and of the demographic data are also reported. Data indicated that Prince George's County has a critical need for school-age child care services for children between 4 and 14 years of age. A total of 32,944 children have no supervision before or after school. It is concluded that the county has appropriate service models in place. All that is required to meet children's needs is an expansion of current services. The survey instrument is included in the report, as is a copy of the bill (HB-1071). | [FULL TEXT]

Worthington, Robert M. (1981).  A New Direction for Vocational Education in the 1980s. 

There is a strong connection between the vitality of the nation's economy and the vitality of vocational education. The future of vocational education for the next 10 years lies in performing a key support role in economic development and in attacking national problems or preventing them from occurring. Reauthorization of the Vocational Education Act should emphasize a return of operational authority of educational services to the states and localities and redefine the federal role as one of support and facilitation. Two basic thrusts are maintained in drafts of the reauthorization--provision for enhancements of state and local vocational education and a new vehicle whereby vocational education can make a major contribution to a program of national economic revitalization and a program to reduce workforce shortages. Changes to be made in the Office of Vocational and Adult Education include deregulation (deletion or modification of regulations) of the 1976 Vocational Education Amendments and moving away from a compliance role to one of facilitation (provision of programmatic support services, national coordination, and support in developing information systems). Three key areas to which state directors should devote their efforts in the immediate future are program quality and technical scope, retraining adults, and closer collaboration with business, industry, and labor.

Worthington, Robert M. (1983).  The Federal Government's Perspective for Funding Consumer Education. 

According to a General Accounting Office study, virtually no money is being spent on consumer education, although consumer education has been authorized under the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act of 1981 and under the Education Amendments of 1976. The Education Consolidation and Improvement Act of 1981 authorizes state and local education agencies to use their block grants in accordance with educational needs and priorities. These agencies are free to keep such records as they determine are necessary for fiscal audits and program evaluation, since nothing in the statute or regulations indicates the types of records that must be maintained. The Education Amendments of 1976 also provide for funding of a consumer and homemaking education program. Federal funds are made available to states on a formula grant basis for educational and ancillary services. The United States Department of Education is also initiating an effort to promote adult literacy. Interest is being generated in the area of consumer rights and responsibilities for adult consumers who are functionally illiterate.

Worthington, Robert M. (1983).  Evaluation and Accountability in the Years Ahead. Perspectives from the Department of Education. 

Four of the policy statements for vocational education developed by the Wisconsin Board of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education reflect concerns shared in the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Vocational and Adult Education. First, vocational education is accountable to the publics, namely students, employers, and state, local, and federal governments. Second, evaluation systems for vocational education are the responsibility of state and local units. Third, planning and implementation of vocational education programs is carried out by the local district with the assistance of appropriate state leadership and federal agencies. Fourth, state agencies responsible for vocational education provide leadership for evaluation of vocational education. Evaluating vocational programs and measuring their effectiveness is difficult. Vocational programs have different purposes and are offered by diverse institutions. Four measures to evaluate vocational education--components and process, occupational impact, equity, and individual student development--all present similar complications. Two issues that will affect vocational programs are weighting evaluation measures and choosing which programs to improve. The proposed Vocational and Adult Education Consolidation Act of 1983 has these components: a simplification of the current Vocational Education Act and provision for a single consolidated grant to each state. | [FULL TEXT]

Worthington, Robert M. (1983).  The Future Role of Vocational Guidance: A National Perspective. 

Vocational guidance is a comprehensive, developmental program designed to meet the career development, vocational education, and employment needs of all ages in all communities. Federal legislation emphasizes vocational guidance and counseling programs as essential to the successful placement of individuals in careers. The Vocational Education Act of 1963 as amended in 1976 provides funding for vocational guidance programs; the Office of Vocational and Adult Education (OVAE) provides policy direction, coordination, and leadership in this field. Vocational guidance contributes to meeting both individual and societal needs. As American jobs change, counselors can help people meet the challenge of change. In the future, vocational guidance must assume leadership to ensure that comprehensive guidance programs, services, and activities are an integral part of the vocational education program and take an aggressive role to develop and enhance existing relationships with the private sector. In line with these needs, OVAE is providing leadership through supportive research, coordination, and various kinds of technical assistance. | [FULL TEXT]

Worthington, Robert M. (1984).  A Statement on Vocational Education.  VocEd, 59, 4. 

The Reagan administration's spokesman for vocational education responds to questions from the American Vocational Association on the following: (1) the level of federal support to assist states and local communities, (2) the continuing federal role regarding the nation's program of vocational and technical education, and (3) how legislation should be structured to accomplish federal objectives.

Worthington, Robert M. (1984).  Building Partnerships in Rural Education. 

In this keynote address, the Assistant Secretary for Vocational and Adult Education described federal efforts to foster partnerships in support of rural education. According to the 1980 Census, the country's rural non-farm population grew 11.1% between 1970 and 1980 but rural communities lagged behind the rest of the country in educational achievement and economic well-being. Because rural areas have fewer resources with which to buy more expensive services, educational partnerships between the private and public sectors are essential to quality rural education. The proceedings of the National Partnerships in Education Program, held October 13, 1983, outlined how such partnerships can work, noting that they can help schools get assistance with special resource needs; supplement classroom learning; understand the business world, its resources, its requirements, and its concerns; and gain expertise in technical and management areas. The private sector and community organizations can also provide rural schools with tutoring, apprenticeships, speakers, equipment, scholarships, and motivation. The Department of Education intends to further partnerships in rural education through its Intra-Agency Committee on Rural Education and through the Rural Education Subcommittee of the Federal Interagency Committee on Education. The Department has issued a national rural education policy statement, prepared annual comprehensive rural education reports, reviewed legislation and regulations for rural education equity, and planned a conference on rural education partnerships for June 1984.

Worthington, Robert M. (1984).  Report to the Secretary on the Department of Education's Rural Education Activities: Fiscal Year 1984. Volume I. 

Highlights listed for the Department of Education's Intra-Agency Committee on Education's third year include issuance of the national rural education policy statement (October 1984), sponsorship of a national forum on rural education with 697 attendees (June 1984), formation of a Subcommittee on Rural Education Data, continued liaison with other departments and organizations interested in rural education, and increased activities resulting from the Committee's leadership and the policy statement. This volume includes the policy statement, entitled "Rural Education and Rural Family Education Policy for the 80's," a list of Committee members, and minutes of FY84 Committee meetings. The major part of the document consists of reports from 15 Department of Education offices listing their rural education activities and including: the title of each activity and its purpose; the section(s) of the rural education policy statement addressed by the activity; the scope, starting/ending dates, target audience, and procedure; products; legislation/administrative authority; and funding sources. The offices represented are: vocational and adult education; elementary/secondary education; special education and rehabilitative services; bilingual education and minority languages affairs; educational research and improvement; postsecondary education; legislation and public affairs; The Under Secretary; management; planning, budget, and evaluation; FICE/Rural Education Subcommittee; private education; regional liaison unit; General Counsel; and civil rights. | [FULL TEXT]

Worthington, Robert M. (1984).  Federal and State Leadership in the Production and Delivery of Occupational Information. 

Because of their concern regarding vocational education programs not being responsive to labor market conditions, the Congress has established the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee (NOICC). The primary outcomes desired by Congress in creating NOICC were labor market supply and demand data for planning and occupational information for career and vocational decision making. These outcomes have remained essentially the same, although the participants, roles, and expectations of NOICC and the State Occupational Information Coordinating Committees (SOICCs) were greatly strengthened in 1982 and 1984. NOICC and SOICC accomplishments include SOICCs in every state and territory working with NOICC to develop and use labor market supply and demand information and access to the occupational information by millions of individuals making career decisions. The NOICC and SOICC network has developed a cooperative endeavor within and between states and among Federal agencies and worked toward standardization of occupational classification. States have become more successful in developing and implementing Career Information Delivery Systems and producing employment projections and/or supply estimates. The guidance and counseling community has the responsibility to guard the freedom of occupational and career choices and to help individuals make informed choices. Professional associations must work together to deliver occupational information effectively. | [FULL TEXT]

Worthington, Robert M. (1984).  Vocational Education in the United States: Retrospect and Prospect. Occasional Paper No. 101. 

The current state of vocational education is one of change and exceptional vitality, tempered by concern. In fiscal year 1983 vocational educators have continued to be concerned with National needs, vocational education has emphasized closer and more effective collaboration with private business and industry, and vocational education's national professional associations and centers of research have focused on keeping current and improving program quality. In the future, vocational education must face up to three categories of "dimensions of change": technological, economic, and demographic. Some areas of concern that need special emphasis by vocational education in the future are partnerships and collaboration; curriculum development; skilled work force development; a closer working relationship with the defense industrial base, active military, and reserve forces; equity and access; governance; dropouts; and educational reform. (Eleven pages within the paper present five tables, one figure, and narrative material on the status of vocational education for the period 1981-83. Topics include appropriations, enrollments, state and local administration of vocational programs, and outlays of Federal funds for such services as vocational instruction under contract, construction of area vocational schools, operation of residential vocational schools, vocational work study, placement, and stipends. Questions and answers are appended.) | [FULL TEXT]

Worthington, Robert M. (1984).  Apprenticeship Training and Vocational Education. 

A recent study concluded that the requirements for the completion of apprenticeship training programs should be based on competence rather than the period of participation in the programs. If providers of apprenticeship training programs are to be able to follow this recommendation and to effect other changes in the structure of apprenticeship training programs that have become necessary as a result of recent technological, demographic, and economic changes, then a strong collaborative partnership must be maintained between the vocational education and private sectors. The two sectors must provide joint support for the following: research and development, demonstration projects and activities, curriculum development and related instruction, and apprenticeship school linkage activities. In 1983, the U.S. Department of Education implemented several important projects in the areas of improvement of related instruction in apprenticeship training and improvement of linkages between vocational education and organized labor in the United States. Moreover, the new Federal legislation, the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act of 1984, contains several provisions geared toward improvinq the linkages and collaboration between apprenticeship and vocational education. | [FULL TEXT]

Worthington, Robert M. (1985).  Vocational Education Opportunities. 

Vocational education is a key to the education of the future, as the schools absorb more responsibility for preparing students to enter a rapidly expanding job market. Although there are great visions for the future of vocational education, there must be concern for daily details of financial management, personnel motivation, and administrative planning. The Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act is being implemented. The U.S. Department of Education is providing assistance in its implementation through the ADVOCNET electronic mail network in lieu of expensive travel. In the implementation of the Act, there are five key areas for regulations: (1) vocational education improvement, innovation, and expansion programs; (2) excess costs requirements for funding handicapped and disadvantaged student programs; (3) state administration--7 percent allocation; (4) expenditure formulas for programs for limited-English-speaking persons; and (5) Title III Consumer and Homemaking Education and Guidance and Counseling programs. Another key concern is the Federal budget. Some priorities for discretionary projects funding include bilingual vocational education, programs for Indians and Hawaiians, the correctional education program, the National Center for Research in Vocational Education, and the Curriculum Coordination Center. The key to all of these activities is industry-education partnerships. This is a time of great opportunity for education, time to go forward with not only the three R's but also the three C's--content, character, and choice.

Worthington, Robert M. (1985).  Bringing National Issues into Focus for Special Populations: The Assistant Secretary's Perspective. 

Vocational education has been greatly increasing its services to special needs populations. For example, the enrollments reported by the states for school year 1982-83 indicate a 38 percent increase in the number of handicapped persons served in vocational education, a 65 percent increase in the number of disadvantaged served, and a 163 percent increase in the number of limited English speaking (LEP) students served in vocational education since 1980-81. The Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act sets forth the following new emphases: (1) the provision of information to handicapped, disadvantaged, and LEP students regarding the opportunities available in vocational education; (2) the requirement that each handicapped, disadvantaged, or LEP student enrolling in vocational education receive an assessment of his or her interests, abilities, and special needs with respect to completing a vocational education program successfully; and (3) the mandate of counseling services to facilitate the transition of handicapped and disadvantaged students from school to employment. The Vocational Education Act also contains, for the first time, equal access language as it pertains to these populations. Special needs vocational educators have a tremendous responsibility in ensuring that these laws are followed and that vocational education is responsive to the special needs of handicapped, disadvantaged, and limited English proficiency students. | [FULL TEXT]

Worthington, Robert M. (1985).  Consumers Should Know. 

Consumer education can be defined as "a study of intelligent and effective methods of buying and using goods and services, competent money management, and the relationship of the consumer to the economy, the workplace, and the home." An important role of government is providing the individual with information so that the individual can exercise the option of choice provided by our system of government. On the Federal level, consumer education cuts across all departmental and agency lines. As a result of the Education Act of 1972, the Federal Government became involved in consumer education. Most junior and senior high schools today offer some courses in consumer economics as part of the home economics program or as part of marketing education, business education, or social studies. However, these programs are funded by a much larger percentage of state and local funds than Federal funds. The challenge today is to get consumer information to the people who need it the most, including those who are disadvantaged or illiterate. Efforts should be made to use television, outreach programs, newspapers, and basic education courses as vehicles to bring consumer education to a larger proportion of the population, especially to those who need it the most. Officials at the national level encourage activities to support strong private and voluntary activity and partnerships for consumer education. | [FULL TEXT]

Worthington, Robert M. (1985).  Vocational and Adult Education: Major Regulation Issues. 

Federal regulations for the Adult Education Act and the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act were revised in 1985. The following are the major changes to the Adult Education Act regulations: (1) the definition of "adult" was changed to permit services to persons under the age of 16 in some cases; (2) the definition of "expansion" has been modified to include "efforts" to increase enrollments, rather than just "results"; (3) the Act permits the Department of Education to collect demographic and statistical information as simply as possible; (4) the regulations governing state advisory councils are much less prescriptive; (5) expenditures for administration are not limited by a percentage; (6) for-profit agencies can apply for funds; (7) all applications for funding are to be reviewed; and (8) multi-year rather than annual projects are now allowed. The following are some of the issues being discussed concerning the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act: (1) the need to make vocational education programs accessible to all persons, and the need to improve the quality of vocational education programs in order to improve productivity and promote economic growth; (2) the problem of excess cost regulations, which reduce the amount spent on special populations; (3) an inequitable ratio for funding programs for persons with limited English proficiency; and (4) vague provisions. | [FULL TEXT]

Worthington, Robert M. (1985).  Collaboration with Vocational Education: A Potential New Role for O.I.C. in Expanding Youth Opportunities. 

The Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act authorizes the use of community-based organizations of proven effectiveness, such as Opportunities Industrialization Centers of America (OIC), to be involved in improving the overall vocational education delivery system. State assistance for vocational education support by community-based organizations is one of five special programs authorized by Title III of the Act. The Act encourages eligible recipients who are operating vocational education programs to develop relationships with community-based organizations. The Act requires each community-based organization that wants assistance under Title III to submit jointly with the appropriate eligible recipient a specified application to the state board. States will provide financial assistance to joint projects of community-based organizations within the state that provide the following special vocational education services and activities: outreach programs, prevocational educational preparation and basic skills development, special prevocational programs targeted to disadvantaged youth, career intern programs, student needs assessment, and guidance and counseling. Because of financial constraints and a shift in educational emphasis arising from the "A Nation at Risk" report, community-based organizations such as OIC will probably have more opportunity to be involved in vocational education in the future. | [FULL TEXT]

Worthington, Robert M. (1985).  Vocational Education for Displaced Homemakers and Single Heads of Households. 

The emphasis on achieving sex equity, begun under the Education Amendments of 1976, continues and expands with the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act. As in the 1976 amendments, the states are required to assign one person full-time responsibility for fulfilling mandated functions relative to sex equity. However, the new Act provides the financial resources necessary to meet the vocational needs of special populations and reduce sex stereotyping and bias in vocational education. The Act accomplishes this through two set-asides: one for single parents and homemakers, the other for young women and sex equity programs. The Act requires that the sex equity coordinator gather, analyze, and disseminate data on the adequacy and effectiveness of vocational education in meeting the educational and employment needs of women. The Act also provides for activities for displaced homemakers who want to develop home-based or small businesses; employer-linked training leading to placement of women in nontraditional jobs; a sex equity resources center; mini-grants to local school districts; and a statewide program to identify and tap the talents of women who have the potential for upward mobility. To implement these provisions, local planners can draw inspiration from exemplary programs such as those conducted in several states and localities. The role of the sex equity coordinator in all of these actions is extremely important. | [FULL TEXT]

Worthington, Robert M. (1985).  Update on the Condition of Vocational Education 1985. 

The U.S. Department of Education has shown support for vocational education through a number of initiatives. Task forces on, for example, defense preparedness and entrepreneurship education have been established at the national level. Two new programs--corrections education and rural education--have been established and have had a significant impact. In partnership with other organizations the Department has initiated a series of major development projects to enhance work force education and training. Major issues of importance to vocational education are lack of the basic academic skills in youth, international competitiveness, national defense, and productivity. Vocational education is related to many elements of change in society, including demographics (lower birth rates, an aging work force), students' lack of basic skills, national policy, and legislation. Vocational education is marked by progress at all levels. The Department has particularly focused on priority initiatives. Perhaps one of the brightest accomplishments of the vocational education field is its capacity for incorporating and demonstrating choice, content, and character. Careful, responsible research is the key to keeping vocational education on the cutting edge. For example, research has shown that vocational education plays a role in preventing dropouts, benefits graduates in the work force, and benefits employers. | [FULL TEXT]

Worthington, Robert M. (1985).  Public Sector Opportunities and Linkages with Vocational Education. 

The Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act reaffirms, expands, and strengthens the Federal commitment to quality vocational programs. As stated in the Act, vocational education programs are best administered by states and their communities; the Federal Government is a junior partner with a catalytic role. The law has two major purposes--to improve the quality of vocational education programs and to make vocational education programs accessible to all people. Five titles cover assistance to the states, basic grants, special programs, national programs, and definitions. The State Board of Vocational Education is the sole state agency responsible for administration and distribution of Federal funds. The State Council on Vocational Education advises the State Board on the State Plan and reports to the governor, business community, and general public. The apprenticeship provisions of the Act offer some important linkage opportunities with the home building industry. This legislation supports an even stronger alliance among vocational education, apprenticeship, and private industry. Specific key citations in the Act that offer meaningful opportunities for the home building industry include those on institutional and worksite programs, building more effective linkages between education and private sector employers, and related instruction for apprentices. | [FULL TEXT]

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Winborne, Claiborne R.; Stainback, George H. (1983).  The New Discipline Dilemma.  Educational Forum, 47, 4. 

The literature and court cases point to the need for discipline alternatives for handicapped students other than suspension and expulsion. As more cases come to court, and as more specific policies are formulated, the discipline dilemma between this need and actual practice should be resolved.

Winchester, Ian (1985).  Creation and Creativity in Art and Science.  Interchange, 16, 1. 

Legislation in Ontario to encourage early identification in school of those who will become future scientists, mathematicians, sculptors, composers, painters, dancers, etc. leads to the question of whether artistic and scientific achievement can be distinguished at an early age. Further investigation is needed, putting into question the desirability of classifying children for future abilities.

Windsor, Duane; Greanias, George (1982).  Is the Door in the Invisible Wall Closing? 

Several Supreme Court decisions in the 1970s have rejected constitutional arguments aimed at eliminating exclusionary zoning and growth management schemes which allegedly maintain existing problems of racial and income segregation in major metropolitan areas. These decisions have led observers to conclude that the Supreme Court has greatly narrowed the range of legal tools that can be used to strike down barriers to neighborhood integration. This conclusion ignores the facts that Federal legislation and State constitutions provide other usable legal remedies which may prove superior to the constitutional clauses on interstate commerce and equal protection as arguments for integration; furthermore, it is difficult to interpret education, housing, and travel as being "implicit rights" in the United States Constitution. In emphasizing legal technicalities, the controversy over recent trends in Federal court decisions on residential segregation fails to focus on the real issue, namely the difficulty of building low and moderate income housing in the suburbs. While the legal tools for doing so may be available, the political support and funds are not. Ultimately, the construction of such housing will depend on private builders and legislation rather than on judicial processes. The fundamental issue is the effect judicial removal of zoning barriers in suburban areas will have on the supply and cost of housing.

Winkfield, Patricia Worthy (1985).  Retirement Policy. Overview. ERIC Digest No. 38. 

While the Federal Government has been involved in the care of the elderly since the depression, a comprehensive and unified national retirement policy has never been established. Federal programs for the aged have avoided cutbacks, but adaptations in present retirement policy are required to meet the needs of young and old alike. Although public policy gives the elderly the right to work, it provides incentives for those who leave the labor force at or before age 65. The major criticism of present retirement policy is that it discourages labor force participation of older persons through economic disadvantages for continued work and mandatory retirement regulations. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act has been amended to raise the minimum retirement age from 65 to 70. Changes have also been enacted in the Social Security system. Vocational educators can take action to enhance the participation of older persons in the labor force by expanding public awareness of the needs and abilities of the elderly, examining the recruitment of elderly persons, obtaining training to implement effective vocational education programs, examining attitudes toward older people, reviewing the potential of programs to serve the elderly, and assisting older persons to remain productive in their retirement. | [FULL TEXT]

Winslow, Hal; And Others (1983).  State Desegregation Initiatives in a Period of Transition. ECS Working Paper LEC-83-12. 

This paper discusses the potential of individual States for encouraging voluntary desegregation at the local level. Desegregation history and State strategies in five States--California, Illinois, Massachusetts, Kentucky, and Washington--are closely examined. In all of the States studied, State laws provide the State agency with considerable power. Generally, these laws make racial imbalance actionable, even in the absence of an intentional violation. The examination reveals successes and failures within every State. Individuals within the State agencies responsible for school desegregation appear to be committed and vigorous, but reduced resources and competition with other State priorities threaten their capacity to pursue traditional strategies. As a result, these State agencies are searching for new strategies, particularly ones that directly combine a concern for racial balance with improving student achievement. While specific ways of accomplishing the twin goals of desegregation and quality education are far from clear, those involved believe that both can be met.  | [FULL TEXT]

Winter, Gene M.; Fadale, LaVerna M. (1988).  SUNY Youth Internship Program: A Summary Review. 

A Youth Internship Program (YIP) has been developed at seven community colleges of the State University of New York (SUNY) to improve the employability potential of unemployed, out-of-school, economically disadvantaged youth between 16 and 21 years of age. Components of the seven programs examined differ, but all address six main activities: recruitment and intake; instruction in academic, life, and/or employability skills; the provision of internships or work experience; program evaluation; financial accounting; and the development of links with other agencies providing similar services. An external evaluation was conducted in September of 1988 to provide a profile of the seven programs and to determine the extent to which program activities were achieving their objectives. For the program as a whole, over 2,500 youth have been served in some way by YIP. More than 1,500 of these were involved in one or more instructional components, nearly 1,000 participated in a subsidized internship, and 31% of the participants ultimately found employment or continued their education. The evaluation report recommends the following: (1) efforts should be made to obtain a state commitment for ongoing support of the program; (2) there should be an increase of opportunities for communication and sharing among local programs; (3) more specific guidelines should be provided by SUNY to enable more meaningful compilation of performance data across programs; and (4) consideration should be given to seeking follow-up data earlier than the one-year time period set forth in the legislation. Attachments include a YIP site interview schedule and a memo from the Office of Community Colleges to the presidents of the community colleges regarding a request for YIP proposals for 1988-89.

Winter, Gwen W. (1987).  Identifying Children in Grades 1-3 Who Are Gifted and Talented in Visual and Performing Arts Using Performance Rated Criterion. 

The state of South Carolina enacted the Educational Improvement Act of 1984 which mandated the identification of young students gifted in the visual and performing arts. This practicum sought to effectively identify South Carolina children in grades 1-3 who were gifted and talented in art, music, drama, and dance. The program used an interdisciplinary approach with an array of criterion-based procedures, such as written forms, student interviews, and student auditions, that were considered to be economically feasible, socially viable, practicable, and consistent with the legal mandate. The screening and evaluation process involved a nomination phase, an evaluation by art specialists who were on the school staff, and a rating by a panel of expert judges. The practicum identified 21 of 158 children (13%) as being gifted/talented, and achieved 98% agreement between art specialists' ratings and the experts' ratings.

Winter, Phoebe C. (1989).  Regulation of Home Schooling Parents in South Carolina: The State's Perspective. 

This paper includes a discussion of South Carolina's 1988 amendment to the law regulating home schooling instruction. A brief history of the law and the amendment is provided. Prior to the passage of the amendment, the State Board of Education approved home instruction programs. The amendment specifies: (1) procedures for application; (2) instructor qualifications; (3) minimum requirements for the instructional program; and (4) physical conditions of the place of instruction. Interpretation of the law regarding the home instruction issue appears to be a continuing problem.

Winters, Karen C.; And Others (1988).  An Investigation of Education Options for Youth-at-Risk, Ages 9 to 15: Demographics, Legislation, and Model Programs. Research Report No. 88-10. 

This paper is one component of a collaborative research project being conducted by the National Commission for Employment Policy to explore the education, training, and employment issues that affect at-risk youth, aged 9-15 years old. The paper begins with a description of the dropout problem in the United States, noting that although the dropout rate has remained steady at about 25 percent for the past 3 decades, the dropout rate has become a problem recently because of the increase in high technology jobs and a need for people with more skills in the labor force. The paper focuses on dropouts first because of the relatively higher incidence of unemployment among high school dropouts as compared with high school graduates. Next comes a discussion of how to identify at-risk students still in school and how to develop programs that meet the needs of these special populations. The paper then outlines the educational legislation that pertains to the needs of the groups, with a particular interest in whether the legislation reaches youth at risk, aged 9-15. The Education Consolidation and Improvement Act is reviewed. Finally, the paper evaluates model programs to identify local efforts to meet the needs of these at-risk youth. Examples show what has been tried and what has been successful. The report concludes with recommendations for programs and legislation to benefit the at-risk group. The document includes 149 references and appendices detailing limitations of the survey of Chapter I coordinators and providing descriptions of model programs. | [FULL TEXT]

Winters, Lynn (1985).  Technical Trouble Spots in the California High School Quality Indicator Program. 

The purpose of the California High School Performance Reports is to provide a means for the public to judge a school's progress towards: (1) implementing the educational reforms outlined in California State Legislature Senate Bill 813; (2) upgrading the quality of its instructional program; and (3) improving student achievement. This paper discusses the technical inadequacy of the reports. The most serious defects of the performance reports are that they do not measure what they purport to measure and the data provide no information for judging school quality. The quality indicators are uninterpretable, can be misleading, and are useless for determining how well schools are meeting the mandates of the reform legislation. Although the reports offer two standards against which the public is supposed to measure school quality (the state targets and comparison band percentile ranks) these standards have no relationship to the stated aims of the High School Accountability Program (HSAP). A review of these two indicators leads to the conclusion that each is an inappropriate measure of schooling. The need for HSAP to publish data related to worthwhile educational goals based upon a consensual definition of school excellence is emphasized.

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_____. (1987).  Williamsport Area Community College Long Range Planning: The Long Range Plan, Update 1987.

 

Wilchesky, Marc (1986).  Post-Secondary Programmes and Services for Exceptional Persons: North American Trends. 

This paper comments on the increasing numbers of handicapped individuals attending colleges and universities in the United States. The increase is attributed to federal legislation, pressures from self-help and advocacy groups, marketing efforts by universities suffering from declining enrollments, and increased recognition of the institutions' social mission. Learning-disabled students represent the newest and fastest growing handicapped constituency at colleges/universities. The number of handicapped students attending postsecondary institutions in Canada is likely to rise, in part due to two important pieces of legislation: Ontario Bill 82: An Act to Amend the Education Act, 1974; and Section 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms as set out in The Constitution Act, 1982. Critical issues which thus need to be resolved include: architectural barriers; attitudinal problems of university personnel, especially toward students whose handicap is "invisible"; the need to fairly and accurately assess the presence of learning disabilities and the student's ability to cope with the academic demands of higher education; and the need to determine what constitutes reasonable accommodations in teaching and evaluation of learning-disabled students. | [FULL TEXT]

Wildman, Louis (1987).  What Can Superintendents and Board Members Do To Help Each Other Be Successful? 

School board members with concerns for success benefit the entire school district. An ambiguity between administration and policy-making necessitates a clarification of the role of the school board. The board should care about the quality of education and the district, recognize the increasing complexity of education, and represent the goals of public education. In the state of Washington, a survey was administered to 750 board members to assess their most successful experiences as school board members and to determine how they thought superintendents could make board members more successful. Among the 249 respondents' successful school board experiences were board cooperation, the selection of an effective superintendent, involvement in building programs, solving personal problems, passing a school levy, instigating new curricula, increasing community input, and improving school financial methods. Responses regarding how superintendents can make board members more successful included keeping the board informed; working openly with the board; conducting orientation sessions for the board; keeping up with budget conditions, state laws, and legislation; encouraging board members to attend conferences; demonstrating appreciation for the board's efforts; and involving the board in the establishment of goals. Twenty-three footnotes are attached.

Wiley, Patricia Davis (1984).  Factors Which Will Change Because of CERA.  Tennessee Education, 14, 2. 

Summarizes factors within the state and school systems which may change with the implementation of Tennessee's Comprehensive Education Reform Act and identifies seven potential problems to full implementation. Concludes that, because of too many unknown variables, it is too early to predict the feasibility and success of full implementation.

Wilk, Valerie A. (1986).  The Occupational Health of Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers in the United States. Second Edition. 

Intended to provide a framework for a research agenda on migrant and seasonal farmworker health and to serve as a resource for all those concerned with farmworker health, this report examines farmworker health data gathered within the past 10-15 years. The document contains the following material: (1) an overview of the major occupational health problems reported by migrant health centers; (2) a summary of the literature on each agricultural health problem presented; (3) information on ongoing research projects on farmworker occupational health; (4) recommendations for research priorities on farmworker health; (5) information on occupational safety and health laws covering agricultural workers; and (6) a resource guide on farmworker occupational safety and health, including training materials. One-third of the report is devoted to specific occupational health problems including communicable diseases, urinary tract infections/kidney problems, heat stress, pesticide-related illness, dermatitis, eye problems, accidents, noninfectious respiratory diseases, cancer, hazards for children in the fields, and hazards for pregnant women and/or the newborn. | [FULL TEXT]

Wilkerson, Margaret B.; Gresham, Jewell Handy (1989).  Sexual Politics of Welfare: The Racialization of Poverty.  The Nation, 249 n4 p126-30, 132 Jul 24 1989. 

Examines the development of the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program and analyzes workfare reforms proposed by Senators Moynihan and Armstrong and the National Service program proposed by Senator Nunn. Argues that all of these programs are based on racism, sexism, and classism.

Wilkins, Amy; Blank, Helen (1986).  Public Policy Report. Child Care: Strategies To Move the Issue Forward  Young Children, 42, 1. 

Examines four key elements of successful advocacy present in states' efforts to improve levels of funding and standards for child care. Strategies used in these legislative campaigns include (1) selection and focus of the issue, (2) development of a core constituency, (3) work with the media, and (4) build-up of legislative support

Wilkins, Gail Kimmons (1983).  Parent Training as a Service Delivery Model for 12 Month Programming. 

Parent training as a service delivery model for 12-month programming is discussed. Legislation, litigation, and research concerning 12-month programming and parents as program implementers for handicapped students are reviewed. A parent training program is described, and results of a study using the program as a 12-month service delivery model showed less regression, shorter recoupment time, and increased skill levels for handicapped students over the summer break in programming. Comparison with students who did not have 12 month service delivery indicated more regression, a longer recoupment time, and fewer increases in skill levels.

Wilkinson, David; Luna, Natalia (1987).  A Study of the Referral Process for Special Education Service and Communication/Interaction between Regular and Special Education Teachers. Report to the Special Education Services Committee. Publication No. 86.23. 

The study evaluated the referral for special education services of the Austin (Texas) Independent School District. Recommendations were made for streamlining the process, for improving the communication/interaction between regular and special education teachers, and for classroom instruction. Study results included the finding that referral is a complex legal process that cannot be as quick and responsive as might be desirable, that teachers should receive systematic inservice training about referrals, and that the process is not monitored well. The communication process is seen by some regular and special education teachers to be the responsibility of special education, and procedures are unclear to regular teachers who receive little inservice training in special education processes. Among recommendations are: (1) forms be simpler and computer-printed with available information; (2) inservice training of teachers should explain the referral process, alternatives to special education, and communication with special education teachers; and (3) a structure should be created to ensure the ongoing monitoring and improvement of the referral process. Seven attachments include a special education assessment memo, legal requirements in the referral process, a flow chart of the referral process, referral forms, and the referral timeline. | [FULL TEXT]

Wilkinson, Etta Lou (1983).  Prevention of Discrimination in Selected Federal Block Grant Programs--Kansas. 

This report by the Kansas Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights reviews state enforcement of nondiscrimination provisions related to federally funded programs. The report looks at procedures used in fund allocation as well as public participation in the allocation decisions. It also looks at the extent to which minorities and women are beneficiaries of the services provided by the programs. Information . was provided by the Governor's office, the Kansas Department of Social Rehabilitation Services (SRS), the Kansas Department of Administration, and the United States Department of Health and Human Services/Office for Civil Rights (HHS/OCR). The programs studied were: Social Services Block Grant; Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Block Grant; Community Services Block Grant; and Low Income Energy Assistance. The advisory committee's review found that a compliance program has not been implemented. This may be based on the presumption that federal agencies would assume responsibility for compliance, as in the pre-block-grant period. The report concludes that it is difficult to know the true status of civil rights compliance. The report presents two recommendations: (1) the establishment of a state uniform policy and mechanism to assess compliance, and (2) the provision by HHS/OCR of technical assistance to SRS specifically geared to the establishment of a state compliance review system.

Wilkinson, Rosalyn, Ed. (1981).  Everything You Wanted to Know About Handicapped Students (And Were Not Afraid to Ask). 

Information for faculty members of the State University of New York, Buffalo, is presented to provide assistance in making accommodations for the handicapped student in the academic courses and programs. The primary objective of the university is to eliminate competitive disadvantages for the handicapped. A summary statement and excerpts from Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 are presented to clarify the university's responsibilities. The university is not required nor encouraged to lower academic standards or alter degree requirements for the handicapped students. However, depending on the student's handicapping condition, the university may be required to: extend the time allowed for the handicapped student to earn a degree, or substitute one elective course for another; modify teaching methods and examinations to permit the handicapped student full participation in a degree program; and provide taped texts or other academic aids as may be necessary for the handicapped student if they are not available from other community rehabilitation resources. Teaching strategies for the faculty for the following conditions are examined: deaf and hearing impaired, the less visibly handicapped students, the blind and visually impaired, and the mobility and dexterity impaired students. Specialized academic aids that are available from the Office of Services for the Handicapped at the University are defined, and organizations that serve as resources at the campus, local community, and national levels are identified in terms of name, address, telephone number, and contact persons.

Will, Madeleine (1987).  Report from Washington. Students and the Least Restrictive Environment: A Partnership of Federal and Local Governments.  PTA Today, 12, 7. 

The Education for All Handicapped Children Act established two basic principles concerned with educational placements of handicapped children that are known as the "least restrictive environment" principles. How the legislation is working is described.

Willette, Joanne L.; Fleischman, Howard L. (1982).  Federal Legislation Accountability: Designing an Evaluation System.  Evaluation Review, 6, 2. 

An evaluation system was designed which directly addresses federal legislation for accountability in vocational education programs. Six criteria were included; three focus on interim evidence of project success, and three address final evidence of project effectiveness.

Willey, Mavis (1989).  LMS: A Rising Sense of Alarm.  British Journal of Special Education, 16, 4. 

The head of a London primary school criticizes possible effects of the British Education Reform Act on the education of students with learning difficulties. Specifically noted are negative effects of local management of schools, reallocation of resources, formula funding, unequal ability by schools to raise funds, and destructive competition among schools.

Williams, Clacy E.; Earthman, Glen I. (1983).  The Impact of Selected Variables upon School Construction Costs. 

The purpose of this study was to test the relationship between the per pupil cost of new school construction in West Virginia and independent variables categorized as either financial, school district characteristics, or individual building characteristics. The study group consisted of 128 elementary, secondary, and vocational-technical school facilities constructed between 1974 and 1982. These were funded through West Virginia's Better School Buildings Amendment which provided for state funds on a grant basis and additional incentive money to help generate local revenues for school construction and improvement. A multiple regression analysis revealed that the per pupil cost of school construction is significantly affected by the assessed value of the school district, the local effort of the district in facility construction, the amount of money from the state level, and the type of facility. Variables found to be nonsignificant were total education expenditures, federal funds, size of the district, geographic location, rural- urban factor, the amount of instructional space, and the length of construction time. The authors recommend that new legislation be adopted to continue funding the construction of school facilities with money from the state level, and that a funding formula be developed that addresses the variables found to be significant in this study. | [FULL TEXT]

Williams, Frederick; And Others (1988).  Telecommunications and Economic Development: A New State Role. 

A year-long study of telecommunications policies and regulations in nine states--Texas, California, Florida, Illinois, Nebraska, New York, Vermont, Virginia, and Washington--found that these states tend to be more flexible in their telecommunications regulation than other states, although the process for achieving this flexibility has tended to reflect each state's individual "personality." While these different approaches might provide "experiments" from which to select the best policies, too much difference between state policies might also make it difficult for large telecommunications companies to coordinate their activities. It also found that, although telecommunications policy initiatives were often tied to economic development, the reverse was not always true; however, the direct relationship between the two conditions needs further research. Threats to universal service are often the major counterargument to regulatory flexibility, and further attempts should be made to reach agreement among telecommunications companies, consumer groups, and policymakers on a definition of basic service that would satisfy the goal of universal service in an efficient manner. The states which were studied have discovered, or are discovering their importance as telecommunications users, and these states should initiate, or continue to develop, long range plans for telecommunications use.

Williams, Jeffrey W.; And Others (1987).  Statistics of Public and Private School Library Media Centers, 1985-86 (with Historical Comparisons from 1958-1985). 

This report presents the results of a national survey on the status of the library media resources and services in elementary and secondary public and private schools in the United States in 1985. Also included are selected comparisons of survey results with the 1975 AASL (American Association of School Librarians)/AECT (Association for Educational Communications and Technology) Media Program Standards, and historical summary comparisons of public school statistics from 1958 to 1985 and private school statistics from 1979 to 1985. Data reported in 16 figures and 23 tables present survey findings on the growth of school library media centers; staff and volunteers; expenditures; collections; and services, usage, technology, and facilities. In addition, 39 reference tables provide data on public schools by level and size, public schools by state, and private schools by level, orientation, and size. Appendices include: (1) a description of the survey methodology; (2) tables of standard errors for selected items; (3) a summary of federal legislation in support of school library media centers; (4) a brief description of the methodologies of previous Office/Department of Education school library media center surveys; and (5) a summary comparison of the 1985 national survey with the 1983 survey of School Library Journal subscribers. The public and private school questionnaires are also provided. | [FULL TEXT]

Williams, Jerome A. (1982).  The South Carolina Basic Skills Assessment Program: A Description of the State Department of Education's Monitoring Process and Reports. 

The Basic Skills Assessment Act (631) is a law passed by the South Carolina General Assembly in 1978 which established the Basic Skills Assessment Program. This law requires the establishment of statewide educational objectives for reading, writing, and mathematics for each grade level, kindergarten through grade 12. The law also requires that a readiness test be given at the beginning of the school year to every student entering the first grade. The purpose of this program is to improve the quality of instruction in the basic skills of reading, writing, and mathematics. During 1981-82 the Southeastern Public Education Program conducted a project (Basic Skills Assessment Program - Parent Support Project) in South Carolina aimed at educating parents and other citizens about the Basic Skills Assessment Program. This report is an attempt to systematically review the monitoring process and the monitoring visits conducted in 1981-82 by the State Department of Education. It is also an attempt to provide information about the Basic Skills Assessment Program's implementation and the problems that school districts are encountering.

Williams, Joan M.; Hodinko, Bernard A. (1988).  Compliance of Postsecondary Institutions with Provisions for Disabled Students Mandated by the Architectural Barriers Act of 1968 and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. 

Perceptions were obtained from 480 college student services officers concerning compliance of their employing institutions with selected provisions of the Architectural Barriers Act of 1968 and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (specifically Section 504). The survey instrument presented a statement from each of 24 provisions of the two Acts. Significant differences in the extent of compliance by two-year and four-year institutions with selected provisions of both Acts were found. For both two-year and four-year colleges, the three provisions in the top four that had the greatest compliance were "ramps or curb ramps in pedestrian areas,""accessibility planned in future construction," and "route of entrance to each building." The provision of "accessible building main entrance to each floor" and "ratio of parking spaces" ranked fourth for two-year and four-year institutions, respectively. Both two-year and four-year colleges were in least compliance with the same four provisions of the Architectural Barriers Act of 1968: "elevators with special features,""appropriate alarm systems,""doors with tactile surface warnings," and "ratio of public telephones." It is suggested that governmental monetary aid would promote fuller compliance by institutions.

Williams, John B., III, Ed. (1988).  Desegregating America's Colleges and Universities. Title VI Regulation of Higher Education. 

Issues concerning desegregation of U.S. campuses and federal regulation of higher education under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 are considered in 12 essays. Titles and authors are as follows: "Title VI Regulation of Higher Education" (John B. Williams, III); "The Production of Black Doctoral Recipients: A Description of Five States' Progress" (William T. Trent, Elaine J. Copeland); "Title VI Issues as Viewed from a Chancellor's Office" (Barbara W. Newell); "'Adams' Litigation: One State's Unique Response for the Enhancement of Its Historically Black University" (Raymond M. Burse); "Desegregation of Higher Education: A Private/Public Cooperative Alternative" (Israel Tribble, Jr.); "Initiation of Desegregation Litigation: A Majority or Minority Responsibility" (Charles V. Willie); "Trends in Black Enrollment and Degree Attainment" (W. Trent, Jomills H. Braddock, III); "The Educational Attainment Process among Black Youth" (Edgar G. Epps, Kenneth W. Jackson); "Black and White Students' Academic Performance in Majority White and Majority Black College Settings" (Michael T. Nettles); "Determining Financial Inequities in Previously Segregated Public Systems of Higher Education" (Larry Leslie, Jay Heubert); "A Research Agenda in Support of Desegregation in Higher Education" (James E. Blackwell); and "The Future of Title VI Regulation of Higher Education" (J. B. Williams, III).

Williams, Kath; Petrie, Ian (1989).  Teacher Appraisal in Special Schools.  British Journal of Special Education, 16, 2. 

The article examines issues of concern to the introduction of required teacher appraisals in British special schools. A survey of 32 headteachers in special schools suggests some guidelines for an effective and fair system, including integrating appraisal with staff development, encouraging self evaluation, and improving inservice education.

Williams, Lea E. (1988).  Public Policies and Financial Exigencies: Black Colleges Twenty Years Later, 1965-1985.  Journal of Black Studies, 19, 2. 

Public Black colleges have managed to upgrade their campus facilities and create competitive programs as part of statewide higher education planning. Black private colleges have not found stable financial ground because they have been denied the commitment of Federal funds necessary for them to become self-sufficient.

Williams, Leonard E.; Karagianis, Leslie D. (1989).  Britain's Education Reform Act of 1987: Are There Implications for Canada?  Education Canada, 29, 1. 

Reviews key provisions of Great Britain's Education Reform Act of 1987: establishment of a national curriculum and national student assessment procedures, shifts in funding and financial control that should increase school autonomy, and lifting of restrictions on school choice. Considers the applicability of such reforms to Canadian education.

Williams, Mary Louise; And Others (1988).  The Evolving Constitution: Secondary School Strategies.  Update on Law-Related Education, 12, 3. 

Presents seven lesson plans for secondary school students. Titles include "Civil Rights in the 19th and 20th Centuries"; "Tyranny of the Majority"; "Equality Under Law"; "Voting Rights: Key to Equal Rights?"; "Hispanics! Immigration! Reform?"; "Unincorporation"; and "Indians and the Law."

Williams, O'Neal (1986).  A Follow-Up Evaluation Project to Establish an Employer Data Base of the Counties Served by St. Johns River Community College. Final Report from October 1, 1985, to June 30, 1986. 

Because of the poor response rate to St. Johns River Community College's follow-up surveys on program completers, the college decided to develop a postcard format survey form in the hope of improving survey response rates. After reviewing a similar follow-up survey postcard used by another two-year college in Florida, the project staff settled on a perforated postcard that contained a message to the program completer and the prestamped address of the school on one side and a set of survey questions and space for the completer's address on the other side. A 50 percent increase in the survey response rate was noted with the first mailing of the new postcard survey instrument. Data from the returned postcards were incorporated into a database of employers in the tricounty area that includes the types of degrees and certificates required for the jobs offered by the different employers. A computer program was developed to allow students to identify potential employers of specific program completers in the college's degree and certificate programs, and efforts to make the database available to students currently enrolled in programs at the college are underway. When completed, the database will allow students to enter a training program, search for potential employers one county at a time, and obtain a printout of employers identified during the search. (Appendixes to this report include the Florida state legislative mandate for placement standards and an employer data worksheet.)

Williams, Peyton, Jr. (1982).  Admission Policies and Practices of State Operated Residential Schools for the Deaf in the United States. 

Admission policies and practices for state-operated residential schools for the deaf were studied following the full implementation of Public Law 94-142. Questionnaires were returned by 56 school administrators representing 93 percent of the total number of residential schools for the deaf in the United States. Results include the following: 1) student referrals are based primarily on the degree of hearing loss; 2) 46% of the schools develop an individualized education plan (IEP) prior to placement; 3) local school districts are the major referral source, and 53% of the schools do not accept other sources of referrals; 4) there are no appreciable differences in admission policies/procedures in different regions and in schools with different types of governance; 5) parents are included, as required by P.L. 94-142, in placement and IEP development; and 6) the schools retain a high degree of autonomy in decisions to admit or deny admission to a prospective student. Recommendations include: the schools should clearly identify the type of disabilities, in addition to deafness, that can be served; the legality of the denial of admission should be reviewed; and the school should have the responsibility of evaluating prospective students and developing the IEP. Additional materials included in the document are: specifications for a model admission policy, recommendations for future research, a glossary, a questionnaire, and approximately 75 references. | [FULL TEXT]

Williams, Robert O. (1986).  Public School Funding and Legislated Policy-Making: A Case Study of the 1985 Indiana General Assembly. 

To generate a theoretical model for future interpretation, this study analyzed the 1985 Indiana Legislature concerning educational policymaking in public school funding. Previous research indicates that the classical rational actor model of policymaking inadequately addresses multidimensional pressures at work in state legislatures. A model is needed that would be useful in interpreting or giving meaning to policy decisions. This analysis of legislative actions, however, did not produce a clearly defined model. Instead, the analysis yielded generalizations that operate within a complex political setting, which include the following: (1) Indiana is a conservative state with beliefs in local control and a conviction against change initiated by outside forces. Policymaking is thereby insulated, and the legislature carries on a traditional treatment of the funding formula rather than assessing broader proposals. (2) Concerning Indiana's internal politics of education, key spokespersons (primarily superintendents) are heeded by legislators on educational matters. That many positions are based upon patronage brings little expertise and creates political factions. (3) The cumbersome funding formula, known to a powerful minority, prevents understanding of specific actions. Further research on Indiana's legislated educational policymaking is needed to sharpen the assertions in this study and to understand how policymaking influences public school practice. Appendices (consisting of interview questions and the Indiana formula for local tuition support) and two pages of references are included. | [FULL TEXT]

Williams, Russell B. (1988).  Copyrights in the Information Age: Betamax and the Congress. 

A question that now confronts producers, distributors, and consumers of information, as well as the manufacturers of information technology and the government is: what is the nature of copyright protection in the Information Age? Congress has a Constitutional mandate to protect the rights of innovators but has refused to act in the case of videocassette recorders (VCRs), and an analysis of the decision making process in the VCR situation, where progress in informational technology threatens the copyrights of information producers, may help explain Congressional unwillingness to exercise its power. The industries and copyright owners who have felt themselves most directly threatened by the VCR have pursued two primary routes to protect their interests, the Federal Courts and Congress. In both areas they have been opposed by the manufacturers of VCRs and by supporters of the individual's right to videotape at home. The Betamax decision by the United States Supreme Court in 1984 ruled that the sale of videotape recorders (VTRs) by the Sony corporation to the general public does not make the machines' manufacturers and marketers responsible for the potential infringement of Universal City Studios' and fellow respondents' copyrights. This case leads to the need for several policy decisions for the future of VCRs, information technologies in general, and the protection of copyrights: (1) legislation against "Black Boxes" (mechanisms designed for the sole purpose of defeating internal protection against unauthorized duplication); (2) the right of copyright owners to choose to encode any work they want to protect; and (3) the creation, by Congress, of a definition of fair use which considers the implications of new information technologies. (One hundred and twenty-three notes are included, and 25 references are appended.)

Williams, Walter E. (1982).  Tuition Tax Credits: Other Benefits.  American Education, 18, 6. 

Comments on educational issues which could be favorably affected by the passage of the Packwood-Moynihan Tuition Tax Credit bill. Indicates that tuition tax credits can help parents seek better schools and give those with low incomes a greater role in finding the best educational alternatives for their children.

Williamson, Jane (1982).  The Struggle against Sex Discrimination.  Wilson Library Bulletin, 57, 4.

 

Willie, Charles (1984).  Access and Achievement.  Currents, 3, 1. 

The history of school desegregation falls into four main stages: litigation (1930-54); demonstration (1955-64); legislation (1965-68); and implementation (1969 to the present). Desegregation has successfully enhanced education, benefited whites as well as blacks, and created a growing acceptance of blacks as leaders.

Willie, Charles V. (1984).  The Brown Decision and the Civil Rights Movement: An Historical Perspective. 

This paper presents a broad discussion of the historical, political, and philosophical aspects of school integration as embodied in the Brown decision of 1954. Segregated education is damaging to both whites and blacks. Thus, the Brown decision was beneficial for the majority group as well as for minorities. Historically, in fact, free public education in the South only came about because of the work of interracial State legislatures during Reconstruction, again demonstrating mutual benefits for blacks as well as whites. The Brown decision marked the culmination of the legal phase of the civil rights movement, but three additional phases--demonstration, legislation and implementation--have been necessary. The history of Brown and the civil rights movement indicates that: (1) the dominant people of power often lack the wisdom to know how and when to yield that which is not theirs to keep; (2) oppressed people seldom gain their freedom until they decide to cease cooperating in their own oppression; and (3) one negative adaptation tends to generate another negative adaptation until the group responsible for initiating the negative spiral of activity makes a positive statement.

Willigar, Teresa; Rempel, Judith (1987).  Mentally Handicapped Persons and Immigration: A Brief Review. 

The report is a critical evaluation of the Immigration Act of Canada and how it structurally and explicitly discriminates against the entry of persons with mental handicaps into Canada. Pertinent sections of the act and their application as described in selected appeal cases are analyzed. It is concluded that the Canadian immigration law actually discriminates behind a cloak of fair play. | [FULL TEXT]

Willis, Mary Jackson (1988).  School Improvement Councils and Parent Involvement: A Required Opportunity in South Carolina.  Equity and Choice, 4, 3. 

Legislation in 1977 strengthened the role of school councils, comprised of teachers, parents, and students, in South Carolina to increase community and parent participation in schools. Accomplishments achieved and obstacles encountered by school councils are discussed. Aspects of effective councils are identified.

Willis, Wayne (1988).  Liberating the Liberal Arts: An Interpretation of Aristotle.  Journal of General Education, 39, 4. 

Traces the history of the debate over the definition of liberal education and the extent to which education should be liberal. Contrasts the position of Aristotle with those of his teachers, and of later theorists, including John Dewey, Mortimer Adler, Robert Maynard Hutchins, Allan Bloom, and E. D. Hirsch.

Willner, Robin; Amlung, Susan, Ed. (1985).  Ten Years of Neglect: The Failure to Serve Language-Minority Students in the New York City Public Schools. 

Despite extensive legislation on the subject, more than 44,000 (40%) of the limited-English proficient (LEP) students in New York City are not receiving the legally required language instruction due to them, and only 30% of entitled students receive the full bilingual instructional program that is prescribed by law. Entitled LEP students constitute 14% of all district students and 10% of all high school students. Seventy-two percent of entitled students speak Spanish, while five other language groups make up another 20%. Funding for LEP programs in New York City schools was more than $62 million in 1985 from non-city sources alone, with the growth in funding increasing 14-fold since 1974; however, fund allocation does not reflect this financial input. Only approximately 4% of the licensed teaching staff is bilingual and is expected to serve 12% of all students who are bilingual. LEP services are limited and in many instances in flagrant violation of existing mandates. Recommendations for improving this situation include the creation of a plan with the following precepts: (1) expand the number of magnet bilingual programs in the districts so that there is one for each major language group at each level per district; (2) expand the number of high schools offering full bilingual programs; (3) enforce compliance with the requirement that every entitled student receive ESL instruction; (4) recruit adequate numbers of bilingual teachers and provide training for out-of-license teachers; and (5) track expenditures to insure that all funds meant for LEP services are used for that purpose in a manner consistent with their governing regulations. | [FULL TEXT]

Willson, Laura Faulk; Anderson, Bill (1986).  Study of Contractual Education Programs in the California Community Colleges.

 

Wilms, Wellford W. (1986).  Captured by the American Dream: Vocational Education in the United States. 

Since its creation by federal legislation in 1917, vocational education in U.S. high schools has enjoyed a high level of public support. Recently, an increasing number of studies have begun to question the degree to which vocational education in the United States has had an economic payoff for its students. The fact that vocational education continues to flourish while evidence of its shortcomings mounts is thus puzzling. One answer lies in the American belief system, which exerts powerful yet hidden influences on vocational education and thereby insulates it from social demands for change. From its beginning, vocational education has been a logical extension of the American dream of getting ahead by one's own hard work. Vocational education's promises of equality of opportunity, reaffirmation of individual effort and self-determination, and emphasis on hard work and material success have won it loyal support among Americans that persists despite research indicating that its job placement and wage rates are not as high as once thought. It thus appears that, although the country's fundamental belief in vocational education was originally instrumental in developing and popularizing it, today this same belief may actually be impeding the adaptation of vocational education to contemporary needs. As rigidity replaces innovation, programs become increasingly separate from the larger educational enterprise, and narrow skill training is substituted for general education for students who can least afford the costs of being ill prepared.

Wilms, Wellford W.; And Others (1984).  Occupational License Laws and the Creation of Educational Needs: A New Role for Community Colleges?  Community/Junior College Quarterly of Research and Practice, 8, 1-4. 

Describes how growing state occupational license laws that require passing examinations create a large demand for education. Reports on a study of the exam-preparation methods of applicants taking the California contractors' license examination. Sees a role for community colleges in preparing license candidates.

Wilson, Anne Keeton (1983).  A Consumer's Guide to Bill 82: Special Education in Ontario. Occasional Papers/22. 

The text provides an overview of the content and implications of Bill 82, Ontario's special education act. Chapter 1 reviews the bill's contents which emphasize five principles: universal access, education at public expense, the appeals process, appropriate programing, and ongoing identification and continuous assessment and review. Chapter 2 documents the identification and placement processes along with avenues of appeal. School board planning and implementation requirements and guidelines are considered in the fourth chapter. Chapter 5 analyzes the implications of the legislation on individual schools and teachers. The parent's role in placement is emphasized in the sixth chapter, which also discusses appeal procedures and more informal recourse methods. Teacher liability is the topic of chapter 7, followed by two case studies illustrating issues of access to school programs.

Wilson, James (1986).  The Original Americans: U.S. Indians. Third Edition. 

About 1.5 million people in the United States identify themselves as Indians. Despite great cultural diversity, all Native groups have a common feature: they suffer poverty and related problems stemming from their relationship to White America. For four generations, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) has exercised an incredible degree of economic and political control over Native communities, preventing the development of economic independence or true self-determination. The BIA is a rigid autocratic bureaucracy whose policies are formed in response to changing political fashions and whose institutional structure creates conflicts of interest over natural resources on Indian lands. The BIA's deficiencies are demonstrated in two case studies examining Northern Cheyenne coal resources and land rights and Paiute water rights near the Nevada/California border. This report then traces the history of Indian-White relations and developments in federal Indian policy, concentrating on the Dawes Act, the Meriam report, and policy changes from the Nixon to the Reagan presidency. Despite encouraging changes in governmental attitudes, as evidenced by Presidential proclamations and federal legislation, the majority of Americans continue to hold stereotypes that leave them unprepared for Indian demands and aspirations. The best hope of avoiding a backlash lies in educating non-Indians about the culture, history, and current predicament of Native peoples.

Wilson, James L. (1986).  Implementing State Standards and Assessment Programs Successfully--A Model for State Governments, Departments of Education and Local School Districts. 

This report describes how successful statewide programs of educational standards and assessment are established and briefly discusses causes of program failure. Four key stages characterize effective program establishment: (1) planning, (2) development, (3) implementation, and (4) monitoring. Planning involves interaction among all parties, for example, state government, state departments of education, and school districts. As many concerns as possible should be identified before development begins. Development follows the decision to create a program, standard, or test. The state departments of education should assume leadership at this time, though the origin of program mandate determines the level of state involvement. Local educational agencies must also be primary developers. Implementation rests with school districts, which are ultimately accountable for program success. If districts are unwilling to assume the major role or if the state is unwilling to allow them, resistance will plague the implementation stage. Monitoring is perhaps the most important program stage. The state educational department, not local districts, should monitor such frequently complex programs. Inconsistencies emerge with district monitoring, and districts are too involved to evaluate objectively; outside monitoring establishes credibility. Four figures illustrating program establishment stages are appended.

Wilson, Leslie R.; And Others (1988).  Determining Validity and Reliability of Locally Developed Assessments--1988. 

The three chapters of this handbook are designed to insure that any school can use teacher-made tests and performance assessments as components of a learning assessment plan. Focus is on criterion-referenced achievement tests developed in Illinois for assessing the cognitive and psychomotor domains of learning. The initial chapter is designed for classroom teachers and administrators in Illinois to translate the Illinois reform legislation on learning objectives and local systems into local practice. Good practices for paper-and-pencil testing are reviewed. The second chapter describes various methods of checking reliability and gives examples of each. The final chapter, on performance assessment, describes sample assignments and evaluative criteria for some performance areas, with considerations for scoring and a set of sample rating scales. These performance instruments are illustrative only. A locally made companion videotape was produced for use in local rater-training workshops.

Wilson, Reginald (1989).  Affirmative Action: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow.  CUPA Journal, 40, 3. 

Congress and collegiate institutions should be in the forefront of the struggle for new laws to diminish the restrictions of the Supreme Court rulings on affirmative action, and for new affirmative action plans. As leading intellectual institutions, colleges and universities must have the moral courage to do what is right.

Wilson, Richard E.; Davis, Dwight E. (1982).  Putting the Nation on Notice.  Community and Junior College Journal, 52, 7. 

Calls for federal legislation to support the role of community colleges in adult employment development. Advocates legislative support of private sector and community college cooperation and broad-based business/industry tax incentives. Identifies human resource development concerns; economic recovery and defense trends; areas for increased college contributions; and key considerations for legislation.

Wilson, Richard M.; Olswang, Steven G. (1983).  Student Religious Worship in the Public University: An Administrative Guide.  NASPA Journal, 20, 3. 

Examines access to facilities by student religious groups in light of Widmar v. Vincent and other cases. Concludes that free speech includes religion and that student religious groups should have equal access to campus facilities. However, the university has the right to regulate such activities and may not directly sponsor them.

Wilson, Robin (1986).  Happy Fiscal '87! Even as Federal New Year Begins, Education Dept. Is Busy on Spending Plans for '88.  Chronicle of Higher Education, 33 n5 p20-21, 24-25 Oct 1 1986. 

More than a year before the 1988 fiscal year begins, budget analysts have completed the difficult and complex process of interpreting administration policy, created detailed proposals for education spending for that year, and submitted the proposals to the White House Office of Management and Budget for review.

Wilson, Robin (1987).  How One Congressman, Fed Up with Hearings, Takes the Pulse of Campuses.  Chronicle of Higher Education, 33, 34. 

Rep. Pat Williams, the new chairman of the House Postsecondary Education Subcommittee, visits college campuses and observes what the problems are. A recent visit to Pennsylvania State is described in which he listened to students in the financial aid office, inspected research facilities, and talked with university administrators.

Wilson, Robin (1987).  Changes in Guaranteed-Loan Program Are Slashing Sizes of Loans and Number of Students Eligible.  Chronicle of Higher Education, 34, 2. 

Students from middle-income families are losing their Guaranteed Student Loans this fall as the changes in the Higher Education Act are implemented. The changes are aimed at making sure loans would be provided only to the lowest-income students.

Wilson, Robin (1987).  Lobbyists and College Presidents Debate Need for Political Action Committee.  Chronicle of Higher Education, 34, 11. 

Some influential members of Congress say colleges and universities need to take more seriously the political and financial needs of their advocates on Capitol Hill. College presidents feel that creating a PAC to give money to politicians would tarnish higher education's image and erode their political independence.

Wilson, Robin (1988).  Immigrants' College Aid May Imperil Citizenship.  Chronicle of Higher Education, 34 n38 pA1, 31 Jun 1 1988. 

An Immigration and Naturalization Services' interpretation of the 1986 immigration law says immigrants' use of federal aid for purposes other than for books, tuition, and fees, might put their ability to become citizens in jeopardy.

Wilson, Willie A., Jr. (1985).  Chapter 636 and the Brockton Public Schools.  Equity and Choice, 2, 1. 

Describes the involvement of Brockton Public Schools with the Massachusetts Racial Imbalance Law and its gradual development of equal educational opportunity. Emphasizes community involvement in planning educational policies that lead from desegregation to full integration of diverse populations.

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Wright, Anne R.; And Others (1982).  Local Implementation of PL 94-142: Final Report of a Longitudinal Study. 

Results are provided from a longitudinal study of 16 local education agencies (LEAs) implementing P.L. 94-142 (the Education for All Handicapped Children Act) over the past four school years. Findings are based primarily on interviews with LEA personnel and community professionals. Results are presented according to the following general topics (sample subtopics in parentheses); (1) procedures and training (child find activities, prereferral screening and intervention activities, parent notice and consent procedures, multidisciplinary evaluation and reevaluation, least restrictive environment, and procedures related to individualized education programs); (2) scope and comprehensiveness of special education and related services (changes in range of handicapping conditions served, and changes related to least restrictive environment provision); (3) sequence of implementation of P.L. 94-142 (procedural changes and variation in the sequence of implementing P.L. 94-142); (4) the overall effects of P.L. 94-142 (on local personnel, parents, and children); and (5) consideration of the factors affecting P.L. 94-142 implementation (including federal and state mandates and court cases). It is concluded that services have improved and that special education at the local level has increased in scope and comprehensiveness, but that lack of resources have hindered the full realization of P.L. 94-142. | [FULL TEXT]

Wright, Ian (1987).  Social Studies and Law-Related Education: A Case Study of the Japanese in British Columbia.  History and Social Science Teacher, 22, 4. 

Briefly reviews the purposes of law-related education in social studies and demonstrates how these may be achieved through historical case studies. Illustrates this point with various events surrounding the experience of Japanese Canadians during World War II. Includes primary source documents and two photographs.

Wrigley, Heide Spruck (1988).  Tell Me the Name of Grant's Horse: Language Issues in the 1986 Immigration Act, March 1988. 

The content of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act is described, its current interpretations are examined, and the implications for developing a responsible language and citizenship curriculum to conform to the legislation are discussed. Specific attention is focused on the law's requirement that illegal aliens applying for amnesty and permanent resident status must either demonstrate proficiency in English and have an understanding of United States history and government, or document satisfactory progress in a recognized course of study leading to that goal. Issues discussed include the standards for language proficiency levels, the definition of "satisfactorily pursuing a course of study," reliability and validity in testing knowledge of history and government, the potential for conflict between minimal proficiency in English and the need to express a knowledge of history and government, and the confidentiality of alien applicant information. It is concluded that educators can be instrumental in helping eligible aliens gain permanent resident status by advocating fairness in the regulations and designing appropriate curricula, looking beyond satisfying immediate requirements and offering a full spectrum of educational programs geared to helping this population gain access to all the services to which they are entitled. (MSE) (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Literacy Education)

Wrigley, Heide Spruck (1989).  One Hundred Questions. The Ongoing Debate over Language Issues in the 1986 Immigration Act, Part 2, March 1989. 

An analysis and discussion of regulations in the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act focus on policy issues concerning requirements for language proficiency and knowledge of United States history and government for immigrant amnesty. Five specific issues are addressed: 1) the discriminatory effect of requiring only amnesty applicants to demonstrate a knowledge of English and civics; 2) how much instruction is it reasonable to require of applicants and how are these requirements determined; 3) the standardization of the examination process and the suitability of test items; 4) the possible discrimination against applicants who are not literate; and 5) the status and future of ineligible immigrants. Greater care in addressing these aspects of federal regulation is recommended. (MSE) (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Literacy Education)

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Werner, Gabriele A. (1986).  Recent Developments of Vocational and Professional Continuing Education in West Germany: Trends and Prospects. 

German primary vocational training is characterized by the Dual System, a system of alternating education with two major partners--business and special vocational education. It coordinates and integrates both theoretical and practical training. Students who complete compulsory education at age 15 may choose this vocational alternating training instead of high school and university. Adult education represents vocational "continuing" education, since its main purpose is to adjust, update, and broaden the individual's already existing qualifications. The various institutions providing adult vocational education in Germany are business and industry, chambers of trade and commerce, trade unions, institutions for further education run by the employers' regional and state associations, private academies and schools, and Volkshochschulen (adult education centers). The Arbeitsfoerderungsgesetz, a law passed in 1969, is intended to provide financial support for courses in vocational training both for participants and institutions, especially for the unemployed. The courses and projects must meet certain conditions and participants must fulfil certain requirements to receive financial support from the state. Participants can demand support for their cost of living and reimbursement for all expenditures connected with the course. Such programs can prove useful for a large percentage of participants and heighten their chances in the job market. Additional qualifications cannot, however, guarantee constant employment.

Wertheimer, Albert I. (1987).  Evolving Health Care System: Social Perspectives of the Changing Scene.  Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 51, 4. 

Social and economic forces affecting the delivery of health care services are examined, including demographic change, population mobility, changes in the form of health care, health manpower legislation and supply economics, reactions to technology, the consumer movement, and the makeup of the health professions.

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_____. (1987).  Warehoused Apartments/Warehoused People. 

Between 45,000 and 90,000 habitable New York City apartments are being kept deliberately vacant ("warehoused") by the speculators who own them. Most of these apartments have reasonable rents, affordable by middle- and low-income families. Meanwhile, the housing crisis for poor New Yorkers has grown steadily worse. As many as 75,000 people are homeless, and another 100,000 families are at a severe risk of becoming homeless. Warehousing occurs most often in the following situations: (1) co-op and condominium conversion; and (2) sale or demolition, both of which are more lucrative than renting at low rates. Warehousing can be stopped by eliminating the financial incentive to warehouse. New York City needs an anti-warehousing law that will make it unprofitable for owners to keep apartments vacant. This law should do the following: (1) require landlords to make an effort to rent apartments within a reasonable period of time; and (2) to make it illegal to reduce building services, vandalize an apartment or building, or engage in other actions that may discourage new renters or drive away existing tenants. Seattle, Washington, and several cities in New Jersey have enacted anti-warehousing laws, and anti-warehousing bills have been pending before the State Legislature and the New York City Council for the past two years. Synopses and texts of these laws and pending bills are provided in appendices. Other appendices present "The Uses and Limits of Rent Regulation" by Peter Marcuse, and "Housing in New York, 1984" by Michael Stegman, both of which provide statistical data on charts and figures.

Ward, James Gordon; Hildebrand, Alexandra (1988).  Will Legislative Mandates for Instructional Leadership Improve the Schools?  NASSP Bulletin, 72, 510. 

This study concludes that a 1985 Illinois instructional leadership mandate does not provide enough incentive or necessary resources for school principals to change their behavior to comply with the legislation. Also, school realities make job changes difficult for principals desiring to adopt new behaviors.

Ware, Leland (1989).  The Discriminatory Implications of Teacher Competency Testing. 

Legal issues associated with competency testing of teachers are reviewed, with an emphasis on the problem of bias against minority examinees taking standardized tests. The central legislative foci of legal activity in this area are Titles VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Title VII requires employers to show, with validation studies, that occupational tests are predictive of the work behavior of the job for which the examinee is being considered. Title VI requires defendants to demonstrate a statistically significant correlation between the test and the examinees' success in a job training program. Cases reviewed include "Griggs v. Duke Power Co." (1971), "Ablemarle Paper Co. v. Moody" (1975), "Washington v. Davis" (1976), "United States v. State of South Carolina" (1977), "Debra P. v. Turlington" (1979), "United States v. "LULAC" (1986), and "Anderson v. City of Bessemer" (1985). Use of the National Teacher Examinations (NTE) and the Pre Professional Skills Test and the involvement of the Educational Testing Service (ETS) in test construction and validation efforts are outlined in the context of the case reviews. A new multiple-choice examination--to be developed by ETS to supersede the NTE--which concentrates on successful classroom performance, does not purport to be useful as the sole criterion for teacher certification. | [FULL TEXT]

Warnock, James R. (1988).  State Technical Committees: A Local Perspective.  Vocational Education Journal, 63, 4. 

The Vermont State Board of Education is required to approve competencies for each vocational program. This has resulted in a comprehensive, broad-based approach that can readily be adapted by local schools. Instructors' committees draft curriculum that reflects core competencies for entry-level employment in a given occupational area.

Warnock, Nancy (1982).  Technical Assistance Papers. A Series on PL 94-142 and Related Oregon Laws. Specific Learning Disabilities, Technical Assistance Paper 4. 

The paper is intended to provide Oregon schools with guidance on interpretations regarding evaluation of children with specific learning disabilities (LD), as required by the regulations for the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, P.L. 94-142. A list of definitions is followed by guidelines for protection in evaluation procedures with all handicapped children and for re-evaluation. Procedures for evaluating students with specific LD are then summarized, and components of the evaluation process (exclusion of other primary disabilities, criteria of academic achievement, discrepancy between the student's potential and actual levels of learning, psychological processes, and medical aspects) are discussed. Requirements regarding observations and written reports are specified. The final section consists of answers to 17 questions on such topics as student transfer, differences between slow learners and students with specific LD, re-evaluation frequency, timeliness on evaluation, multidisciplinary team processes, and determination of a discrepancy between expected and actual achievement level. Among four appendices are a suggested evaluation compliance checklist and an index of selected screening, intelligence, and diagnostic tests for use with the LD population. | [FULL TEXT]

Warren, Paul; Johnson, Hadley (1985).  Job Search, Training, and Work Experience: The Lessons for California from Eight Evaluations of the Work Incentive Program. 

As part of a review of California's strategy for helping recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) find jobs through the Work Incentive Program (WIN), eight demonstration programs were analyzed. There were four major findings. First, the Department of Social Services (DSS), which targets AFDC recipients with recent job experience for WIN employment and training services, should instead target AFDC recipients who lack recent work experience. To that end, legislation is needed to redesign State employment and training programs. Furthermore, increases in participant earnings, not placement rates, should be made the primary measure of the success of employment programs. Second, the most cost-effective services are job search and skill training services. Third, State and local coordination of WIN and Job Training Partnership Act services is essential if their impact on increasing participant earnings and reducing AFDC is to be maximized. Local WIN managers should be given responsibility for determining the types of services provided locally, and legislation should be created that requires DSS to develop guidelines and procedures for supplying local managers with the information needed to determine the types of services appropriate to different economic conditions. And fourth, the two primary goals of the WIN program are to reduce welfare dependency by increasing the earning power of AFDC recipients and to reduce AFDC grant expenditures. To address both goals, a two-tiered strategy is required. | [FULL TEXT]

Warren, Toni McCarty; And Others (1988).  Illinois Guidance by Objectives. Building Fairness: Creating and Implementing Equity Programs. A Guide for EFE Systems. 

This guide provides a basic understanding of sex equity concepts and Illinois' Building Fairness campaign. It identifies key issues and populations, raises awareness of applicable activities and resource assistance, and contributes to the knowledge base required for developing equity advocates. An introduction defines sex equity and "Building Fairness." Overviews are provided of the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act and other sex equity legislation. The next section discusses key Building Fairness personnel and resources: Vocational Education Program Improvement Building Fairness Plan, Building Fairness Needs Assessment, Building Fairness Coordinator, and Building Fairness Consultant. Identification of needs and use of information from the Building Fairness Needs Assessment are then addressed. The following section provides direction for initiating a plan for the target areas identified within the Needs Assessment. Specific methods for addressing equity issues are described, along with examples of activities for taking action. Questions addressing specific issues are provided; answers can be used as the basis for inservice training. The following areas are targeted: vocational instructors, administrators, counselors, evaluation of curriculum materials, students, parents, and the community. Eleven resources are listed. | [FULL TEXT]

Wary, Curt; And Others (1987).  Negotiations '86-'87. 

This is the 16th publication in an annual series intended to provide New Jersey board members and administrators who are representing their district in negotiations with the latest information on legal developments affecting negotiations, practical advice on bargaining strategy and tactics, and a handy source of reference for important case law. In this issue, the first feature article discusses the scope of negotiations, discipline, and agency shop, along with recent federal developments affecting the bargaining process, such as the Consolidated Omnibus Reconciliation Act of 1985 and the court-ordered extension of the Fair Labor Standards Act requirements to state and local government employers. The next article discusses the effects of New Jersey's Teacher Quality Employment Act on labor relations within the state. Following this are articles on the following topics: pitfalls of comparability data, the respective roles of the union and supervisory units at the bargaining table, and determination of the appropriate supervisory bargaining unit. The publication concludes with an annotated list of recent legal decisions affecting negotiations, a selected bibliography, and a revised critical analysis of the sample agreement provided for its members by the New Jersey Education Association.

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Wunderlich, Keith D. (1989).  2010 A.D.: The Death of Special Education.  Reading Improvement, 26, 2. 

Examines the impact of specific court cases, current and potential legislation, and educational trends on the predicted "death" of special education in the year 2010. Focuses on Michigan, once a leader among the states in special education.

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Wigand, Rolf T.; And Others (1983).  Transborder Data Flow, Informatics and National Policies: A Comparison among 22 Nations. 

The product of advanced information technology and digital transmission capabilities, transborder data flow (TDF)--the flow of information across national borders via computer and other electronic communications systems--has considerable political, social, economic, and legal implications. Important issues in TDF include (1) the regulation of telecommunication planning and development among various nations without stifling innovations; (2) the protection of personal privacy; (3) the impact of TDF on the cultural identity of information receiving nations; (4) the expatriation of national information; (5) the treatment of information as a commodity; (6) the impact of TDF on developing nations' balance of trade, employment, and infant information services; and (7) the restriction of competition and market entry of transnational corporations through such legislated and nonlegislated barriers as tariffs and prohibitive pricing. While current international legislation on TDF may appear excessive to those hoping to profit from expanding telecommunications systems, to people wanting to improve privacy protection or protect fledgling information economies, it seems minimal. Greater international cooperation is needed to balance the need for a free flow of information with other needs for personal and national protection and benefit.

Wiggs, Jon Lee (1989).  The Community College System in North Carolina: A Silver Anniversary History, 1963-1988. 

Documenting the 25-year history of the North Carolina Community College System (NCCCS), this book focuses on each of the successive academic terms from 1963-64 to 1987-88. The chapters are grouped into five sections, corresponding to the lengths of tenure of the five NCCCS presidents: the (Isaac) Ready years from 1963 to 1970; the (Ben) Fountain years from 1971 to 1978; the (Charles) Holloman transition during the 1978-79 academic year; the (Larry) Blake years from 1979 to 1983; and the (Robert) Scott years from 1983 to the present. Each chapter is divided into short, one- to two-paragraph descriptions of transitional events, decisions, board rulings, policies, and incidents that affected the college. Examples of topics covered in the history include the following: (1) the beginnings of an open door comprehensive community college; (2) college finances, including budgeting and budget cuts, financial support, allocation of funds, and related educational legislation; (3) difficulties with the growing system, including enrollment deficits and civil rights issues; (4) short-term goals and long-range planning activities; (5) accreditation; (6) school politics; (7) systemwide growth, fiscal cuts, and future plans; (8) the emphasis on skilled workers; (9) fiscal restraints; (10) special legislation; and (11) desegregation rulings and issues. The chapters are followed by the "Preliminary Report of the Commission on the Future [of the NCCCS]," by Sherwood H. Smith. A 104-item general bibliography and a 170-item bibliography of dissertations on topics related to North Carolina's community colleges and technical institutes are included.

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Wofford, Douglas (1987).  Mortgage-Backed Student Loans.  [Capital Ideas] 

Issues concerning mortgage-backed student loans are examined, with attention to the new tax law, policy and practical concerns that a college should address before starting this type of loan program, public policy issues, and two types of plans. The Tax Reform Act of 1986 phases out the deductibility of consumer interest charges and as a result will cause the expense of most loans to increase. However, loans secured by a home mortgage are fully deductible, and special consideration is offered for home loans used to finance educational and medical expenses. The following requirements that must be met are discussed: qualified residence interest, qualified indebtedness, and qualified educational expenses. Colleges should consider administrative and logistical problems before beginning a mortgaged-backed lending program, including title searching and mortgage recording. Public policy issues include: whether higher education may abuse the tax law for self-serving reasons, whether colleges will compete unfairly with the commercial sector, and whether the plans are fair to students and their families. Information is provided on two protypical programs offered by the University of Pennsylvania and the Massachusetts Education Loan Authority. | [FULL TEXT]

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Wolf, Brent P. (1985).  Preparing Vocational School Superintendents. 

A survey instrument containing 191 task statements was sent to Ohio's 49 joint vocational school superintendents in order to identify the competencies necessary in administering a joint vocational school. Forty-six superintendents responded, for a 93.88 percent response rate. Of the 191 tasks, 121 (63 percent) were deemed important to superintendents. Those surveyed felt adequate to perform only 18 (9 percent) of the identified tasks. Vocational education background was not a factor in either the perceived importance of tasks or the perceived adequacy of preparation to perform the specified tasks. Those superintendents who had earned an educational specialist degree or doctorate did not perceive themselves to be any more adequately prepared than did those with master's degrees. The following tasks were among those considered important by more than 95 percent of the respondents: developing overall vocational program goals, implementing local board and administrative policies, interpreting and applying state and federal vocational education legislation, preparing and recommending personnel policies, recruiting and interviewing potential staff and recommending them to administration and board, resolving staff grievances and complaints, recommending staff promotions and dismissals, maintaining ethical standards expected of a professional educator, developing and maintaining professional relationships with other administrators, developing and maintaining professional relationships with state department of education personnel, promoting professional image, and developing plans for promoting good public relations.

Wolf, David B., Ed.; Zoglin, Mary Lou, Ed. (1988).  External Influences on the Curriculum. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 64. 

This collection of articles examines the influences of the state and federal government, the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges (AACJC), universities, accrediting agencies, and other external forces on the community college curriculum. Articles which deal with the role of the government in curriculum development include: "An Interview with Former Congressman O'Hara," by David B. Wolf and Mary Lou Zoglin; "The Federal Imprint," by Terrel H. Bell; "The Gordon Rule: A State Legislator Fulfills His Responsibility," by Jack D. Gordon; "California's $30 Million Course Cuts," by Gerald C. Hayward; and "Curriculum as Public Policy," by Lee R. Kerschner. Additional influences are considered in "The AACJC and Curriculum Reform," by James F. Gollattscheck; "The University Perspective," by John E. Roueche; "Accreditation and Curricular Change," by Howard L. Simmons; "The Kellogg Foundation and Curriculum Reform," by James M. Richmond; and "Business and Education: Partners in Curriculum Development," by David E. Anderson. In "A Case of Incomplete Institutionalization," Marshall W. Meyer reviews several organizational theories to analyze why community colleges, more than any other segment of higher education, are subject to external influences. Finally, Anita Y. Colby reviews ERIC documents and journal articles on curricular influences. | [FULL TEXT]

Wolfe, Mary (1982).  Copyright and Machine Readable Databases.  Online, 6, 4. 

Briefly defines the concept of copyright, discusses the role of the National Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Works (CONTU) in studying the problems associated with copyrights and computer software, reviews the work undertaken by CONTU, and summarizes the changes in the Copyright Act of 1976 recommended by CONTU.

Wolff, Cynthia J. (1989).  Necessary Monuments: The Making of the Presidential Library System.  Government Publications Review, 16, 1. 

Discusses historical precedents that established presidential papers as the private property of presidents; the Historical Records Act of 1978 which assigned ownership of official presidential papers to the federal government; and the Presidential Library Act of 1986 which provides a uniform system of standards and access to presidential records and documents. (100 references)

Wolfthal, Maurice (1986).  Thinking the Unthinkable.  Urban Education, 21, 1. 

Arguments over student discipline tend to overlook that: most students are not at school because they choose to be. Compulsory education has not lived up to its promise. A viable alternative is to repeal coercive laws and to offer twelve years of free schooling, to be taken at any time.

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Weatherley, Richard A.; And Others (1987).  National Problems, Local Solutions: Comprehensive Services for Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents.  Youth and Society, 19, 1. 

Ten local communities and their programs for pregnant and parenting adolescents were studied. Only under exceptional circumstances could localities develop and maintain comprehensive service programs. In some cases no services were offered outside of school settings. Federal support through legislation and dollars is necessary to sustain such programs.

Weaver, Barbara F. (1989).  New Jersey Library Network Development.  Education Libraries, 14, 3. 

Describes the events that led to legislation in New Jersey authorizing the establishment of a statewide multitype library network. The discussion covers the two levels of service provided by the network (statewide and regional), specific services available at the regional level, state funding of network services, public response, and plans for automation.

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Wyche, Lamonte G., Sr. (1989).  The Tenth Annual Report to Congress: Taking a Significant Step in the Right Direction.  Exceptional Children, 56, 1. 

Findings from the United States Department of Education's tenth annual report on the implementation of Public Law 94-142 are extrapolated to characterize Black and Hispanic students in learning disability classes and the issue of minority student high-school completion rates. In light of the findings, a comprehensive follow-up study is recommended.

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_____. (1985).  With Consequences for All. A Report from the ASCD Task Force on Increased High School Graduation Requirements. 

Since the 1983 publication of "A Nation at Risk," most states have responded to public demand for educational improvement by enacting legislation increasing the number of units in academic subjects required for high school graduation. Required courses now consume three-quarters of the high school years, countering the former trend to large offerings of various elective courses. This task force report to the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development examines the observed and anticipated consequences of these requirements for the curriculum, for students, and for teachers. Major findings include: (1) students are required to make greater effort, and those going on to college will be better prepared to succeed; (2) negative consequences are more likely for those students not going to college as evidenced by the accelerating dropout rate; (3) inadequate attention has been paid to requiring carefully balanced programs; (4) time for elective courses has decreased, and increased requirements reinforce past artificial divisions of knowledge; and (5) teachers' professional latitude is being sharply curtailed. It is recommended that educators closely monitor, document, and evaluate actual consequences of increased graduation requirements on students and teachers, and that these findings be relayed to parents and legislators to ensure that future policy changes are enacted with wisdom. | [FULL TEXT]

Withers, Nancy A. (1987).  Sexual Harassment: An Overview. Monograph. Volume 2, Number 1. 

Sexual harassment is a problem in high schools, on college campuses, and in the workplace, although unclear definitions and misinterpretations of sexual harassment have led many to believe that the amount of sexual harassment that occurs is minimal. Sexual harassment has been defined as a continuum of behaviors, with physical sexual assault at one extreme and nonverbal, sexually suggestive behavior at the other extreme. Studies suggest that more females than males are victims of sexual harassment. Sexual harassers are usually males in a position of authority who can force the cooperation of the victim by coercion. Sexual harassment leads to fear, anxiety, guilt, and anger for the victims; many victims feel they should have done something to prevent the harassment. Persons who feel they are being harassed should take immediate, firm steps to stop the behavior. They should document the incidents in case a suit is filed. They can complain to the appropriate officers in their organization or to the state or federal agency that has jurisdiction in the matter. Some organizations have published written guidelines forbidding harassment and specifying the actions that should be taken by persons who feel they have been harassed. | [FULL TEXT]

Witt, Virginia, Ed. (1987).  A Children's Defense Budget: FY 1988. An Analysis of Our Nation's Investment in Children. 

This document provides an analysis of the federal government's funding of programs which aid children and families. The foreword begins by describing the crisis which children and families face in the U.S. and proceeds to outline a course of action to help correct the problems. Chapter 1 discusses the federal budget process and the changes in the process which have been brought about by Gramm-Rudman. Chapter 2 describes the Children's Defense Fund's Legislative Agenda for the 100th Congress. Chapter 3 covers the child-and-family-related legislation which was voted on in 1986 and the voting record of each member of Congress. Chapter 4 is a summary of chapters 5 through 16. These chapters each deal with a separate issue of concern to the CDF: health, family income, homelessness and housing, food assistance, education, youth employment, preventing adolescent pregnancy and building youth self-sufficiency, abused and neglected children and others with special needs, runaway youths and others in the juvenile justice system, child care, the Head Start Program, and civil rights. Each chapter includes an outline of the issue, an analysis of the federal government's response, the Reagan Administration's proposals for fiscal year 1988, and the CDF's legislative recommendations. The appendices include data on children, poverty, and federal programs; information about Congress; a list of child-and-family-related resource organizations; and a list of the CDF staff.

Witt, Virginia, Ed. (1988).  A Children's Defense Budget: FY 1989. An Analysis of Our Nation's Investment in Children. 

The introduction to this analysis of the federal budget and investment in children in 1988 argues that American children are not physically, educationally, economically, or spiritually safe. The introduction also describes characteristics of the children; specifies a five-point policy agenda for 1988 that emphasizes preventive measures; and discusses 10 steps advocates can take in implementing the new agenda. Subsequent sections provide a description of the legislative agenda of the Children's Defense Fund (CDF) for the 100th Congress, the CDF's nonpartisan voting record of 1987, and an executive summary. Other sections focus on health, family income, homelessness and housing, food assistance, education, youth employment, prevention of adolescent pregnancy and development of youths' self-sufficiency, child care, Head Start, abused and neglected children and others with special needs, runaway youths and others in the juvenile justice system, and civil rights. In each major section, substantive discussion depicts the scope, causes, and effects of the problem; describes positive and negative aspects of current Federal programs; critiques the Reagan administration's proposals for 1989; and states the CDF's recommendations for action. Appendices provide extensive data on children, poverty, and federal programs; information about Congress; and lists of resource organizations and the staff of the CDF.

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Weicker, Lowell P. (1985).  It's the Law: Attorneys' Fees Amendment to P.L. 94-142.  Exceptional Parent, 15, 7. 

Senator Weicker discusses an amendment to P.L. 94-142 (the Education For All Handicapped Children Act), to clarify that reasonable attorneys' fees be available to parents of disabled children who prevail in a court action to enforce their child's right to education.

Weicker, Lowell P., Jr. (1987).  A Look at Policy and Its Effect on Special Education and Vocational Rehabilitation Services.  Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 10, 1. 

The Chairman of the Senate Subcommittee on the Handicapped describes how both The Education of the Handicapped Amendments of 1986 and the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1986 advocate a partnership among schools, businesses, and the government for providing services and opportunities for disabled individuals.

Weicker, Lowell P., Jr. (1987).  Whither Special Education?  National Forum: Phi Kappa Phi Journal, 67, 3. 

While handicapped young people have greater access to educational opportunity, the educational community must now concern itself with issues of quality. One promising area for improved delivery of services is the application of technology to special education.

Weicker, Lowell, Jr. (1984).  Defining Liberty for Handicapped Americans.  American Psychologist, 39, 5. 

In the context of civil rights, discusses laws to reduce discrimination and provide access for handicapped. Notes opposition from the Reagan administration to currently proposed legislation.

Weil, Ben H.; And Others (1983).  Positions of the Major Players on Abstracts.  Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science, 9, 4.

 

Weil, Jane (1986).  One Third More: Maine Head Start Expansion with State Funds. 

The expansion of Project Head Start in Maine to the point of serving nearly 25 percent of eligible children is detailed in this report. Section I describes the expansion and some of its benefits, such as equalization of services across county boundaries and the establishment of a uniform unit cost-per-child for use in appropriating state funds. Section II reports on preschool legislative and funding actions as of 1985 in several other states. A brief summary of the research supporting increased comprehensive, high quality, early childhood programs for disadvantaged children is provided in section III. In section IV, many direct service and administrative issues faced by the states as they seek to meet the increasingly complex needs of young children and their families are addressed, including Head Start as a model, how early childhood programs should be delivered, day care, salaries and credentials, services to handicapped children, and interagency coordination. Five appendices provide background information about Maine's Head Start appropriation. Appendix 2, Fiscal Year 1985 Head Start Program Final Enrollment Allocation in the State of Maine, is thought to be particularly useful for other states attempting similar actions. | [FULL TEXT]

Weiland, Walter E. (1988).  The Changing Scene in Women's Intercollegiate Athletics: Point with Pride, View with Alarm, 1971-81.  Physical Educator, 45, 2. 

In response to Title IX legislation, the Association of Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) altered its philosophy and practice governing women's athletics to more closely reflect the values structuring men's athletic programs. Financial aid and recruitment are specifically discussed.

Weinberg, Meyer (1983).  The Search for Quality Integrated Education: Policy and Research on Minority Students in School and College. Contributions to the Study of Education, Number 7. 

Research undertaken during the 1970s and early 1980s on the education of poor and minority children and young adults in higher education is evaluated in this book. First, an overview is provided of recent research on the development of education for the Mexican-American and Black communities and a framework is established for the education of minority children in terms of community and institutional support for the implementation of legal decisions. Next, the controversy over genetic determination of intelligence among racial groups is analyzed along with the resistance by all races to court-ordered desegregation. The question of whether all Black or predominantly Black schools have provided high quality education is reviewed and variations in per pupil expenditures among schools within the same district are examined. The relationship between desegregation and increased educational achievement, the transformation of simple desegregation into true integration, and the impact of minority public opinion on desegregation and busing are then considered. A special comparative study of Mexican-Americans and Native Americans with respect to ethnic character and assimilation is provided. In the last chapters, research on minority students in higher education is reviewed and some ideas about the future of equal education are offered.

Weiner, Roberta (1985).  P.L. 94-142: Impact on the Schools. First Edition. 

The report presents an analysis of nearly 900 responses to surveys regarding the success and failure of P.L. 94-142, the Education For All Handicapped Children Act. Part 1 traces the legislative, regulatory, and litigation history of P.L. 94-142 and reviews the effects of the law on research, training, and instruction. Part 2 includes six chapters on future trends in special education. Subjects are: (1) money--the special education problem that won't go away; (2) the next 10 years in special education litigation; (3) misidentification of students; (4) problems of paperwork; (5) extensions of services to older and younger children; and (6) possible implications of medical and educational advances with high risk children. Part 3 presents views of administrators, advocates, and state officials regarding the effectiveness of the law. Appended materials include the text of the law and regulations.

Weiner, Roberta; Hume, Maggie (1987).  ...And Education for All--Public Policy and Handicapped Children. Second Edition. 

The book examines the history and speculates on the future of special education, particularly with reference to P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act and the Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments, P.L. 99-457. Part 1 focuses on the history of legislation (including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, amendments to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, and Senate and House action leading to P.L. 94-142); the history of regulations (proposed and final rules); and the history of litigation. Part 1 concludes with a review of advances in teaching methods, with a section on technology in the classroom. Addressing the future of special education, Part 2 begins with a discussion of money problems and questions about backlash. The future of special education litigation is addressed in terms of such issues as extended year programing, placement in the least restrictive environment, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, due process, mediation, the Medicaid conflict, and attorneys' fees. Placement problems are also explored, including overplacement of learning disabled students and the controversy over "slow learners." Problems of excessive paperwork are noted, and the possibility of computerized individualized education programs is examined. A final chapter focuses on the new mandate of P.L. 99-457, the 1986 amendments to the Education of the Handicapped Act, to serve handicapped infants and toddlers. Personnel and financial issues are considered. Among appended material is the text of the Education of the Handicapped Act.

Weiner, Roberta; Koppelman, Jane (1987).  From Birth to 5: Serving the Youngest Handicapped Children. 

The book examines the implications of P.L. 99-457, the 1986 amendments to the Education of the Handicapped Act, which mandates serving handicapped infants and toddlers. In chapter 1, the legislative history of P.L. 99-457 is reviewed along with associated funding issues. Chapter 2 focuses on the newest program, serving the birth to 2-year-old population, and considers program design and development strategies. In chapter 3, the challenges of serving handicapped preschoolers are discussed, and integration options such as Head Start are described. Personnel preparation issues are addressed in chapter 4, which portrays the ways in which four states have dealt with staff shortages. Chapters 5 and 6 focus on the family, specifically on child care and on the increasingly powerful role of parents in early intervention and preschool efforts. Case studies conclude each chapter and examples of innovative programs across the country are cited throughout. Six appendixes include the text of P.L. 99-457 and information on minimum age

Weinstein, Michael M. (1984).  Protecting the Victims of Congressional Job Legislation.  USA Today, 113, 2472. 

Congress has preserved the jobs of the relatively well-off but ravaged the livelihoods of some of the most disadvantaged workers. It should be required that all sizable economic policies be accompanied by job impact statements, which would estimate which groups, and in what likely numbers, would suffer from specific Congressional proposals.

Weinstock, Edward; Davis, Phillip (1985).  DMSO, Hobby Shops and the FDA: The Diffusion of a Health Policy Dilemma.  Health Education, 16, 3. 

Despite being banned by the FDA, DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) usage has spread rapidly among arthritic victims and weekend athletes. This study looked at current and past users to learn how they discovered DMSO, their reactions to buying an illegal drug, and possible implications for public health policy.

Weintraub, Frederick J.; Ramirez, Bruce A. (1985).  Progress in the Education of the Handicapped and Analysis of P.L. 98-199. The Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1983. Special Education in America: Its Legal and Governmental Foundations Series. 

The monograph examines the status of education for the handicapped and addresses the provisions of P.L. 98-199 The Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1983. Chapter 1, on progress in the education of the handicapped, presents information on the following topics: (1) the number of handicapped students receiving a free, appropriate public education; (2) special education and related services personnel; (3) least restrictive environment; (4) student evaluation; (5) individualized education programs; and (6) regressive trends, including the impact of fiscal restraint on actual appropriations. Chapter 2 outlines provisions of P.L. 98-199 regarding such aspects as centers and services to meet the special needs of the handicapped, personnel recruitment and training, research and demonstration projects, and special programs for children with specific learning disabilities. The text of the amended law is included as well as a list of public policy resources that are available through the Council for Exceptional Children. | [FULL TEXT]

Weiser, Margaret G. (1984).  Developments and Trends in Special Education. 

The paper traces the development of special education legislation beginning in the 1960's and describes trends in educational programing. The role of the civil rights movement in legislation is noted, as is the advocacy of professional and parent associations. Federal initiatives, especially P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, are discussed. The evaluation of special education programing is traced from its dependence on regular education instructional materials and infrequent reassessment of placement decisions to increased classroom participation of interdisciplinary staff and placement in the public schools of formerly institutionalized students. Future projections are considered: in answer to a survey completed by 43 state or territory special education directors in 1984, the respondents rated in-process or anticipated developments emphasizing those in career and/or independent living skills, early intervention, inservice education for regular teachers and principals, and computer-assisted instruction and/or management. The paper concludes with a focus on trends in early intervention and career education.

Weiss, John (1987).  Truth-in-Testing & the Golden Rule Principle: Two Practical Reforms. 

Two reforms are suggested as ways to improve standardized testing. They are Truth-in-Testing legislation and the Golden Rule bias reduction principle. Test publishers, state departments of education, and colleges who administer tests are often reluctant to provide statistical data on test results. It is also difficult for researchers to see test items. Truth-in-Testing legislation was enacted in California and New York to provide more information about college entrance examinations such as the Scholastic Aptitude Test. As a result, test items may be studied and challenged regarding their accuracy, validity, and cultural bias. The Golden Rule procedure is based on an out-of-court agreement between the Educational Testing Service, the State of Illinois and the Golden Rule Insurance Company concerning an insurance licensing examination. The agreement settled a lawsuit charging that ETS' Illinois Insurance Agent Licensing Exam unfairly discriminated against blacks and was not job-related. The National Center for Fair and Open Testing (FairTest) has endorsed the Golden Rule principle: "among questions of equal difficulty and validity in each content area, questions which display the least differences in passing rates between majority and minority test-takers should be used first." Safeguards need to be established to ensure that standardized tests measure relevant knowledge differences between test-takers and not irrelevant, culturally specific factors.

Weiss, Kenneth (1982).  FCC and the Sunshine Act. 

The Sunshine Act, designed to encourage open meetings to increase public understanding of the governmental decision-making process, went into effect in March 1977. A total of 50 agencies, including the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), are subject to the provisions of the Sunshine Act. The act lists 10 exemptions, any of which can result in a closed meeting. The FCC was not unique among agencies in its early overall opposition to the Sunshine Act, but it promised to comply. The FCC's plans for implementation of the Sunshine Act met with some public skepticism, particularly regarding how easy it would be for the Commission to close a meeting to the public. During the 2 years following the FCC's initial implementation plans, the commission adopted other Sunshine-related measures that earned it, in certain quarters, the label of exemplary agency, but data obtained from the FCC indicated that only a small percentage of meetings were open to the public for each year through 1980. During 1978-79, the exemption dealing with the agency's involvement in civil actions or proceedings was used one and one-half times more frequently than all other exemptions combined. The Act also still permits Ex Parte communication--policy by oral or written communication. With current budget cuts precluding advanced notice of FCC meetings by mail, the public must wait until the item appears in the "Federal Register," often on the very day of the meeting, to find out about it.

Weiss, Robert J. (1987).  Affirmative Action: A Brief History.  Journal of Intergroup Relations, 15, 2. 

Demonstrates how the concept of "affirmative action" evolved from a vague reference to remedial actions to specific programs involving numerical hiring and seniority arrangements. Focuses on the legal/governmental definition of affirmative action and indicates some of the reasons for the changing definitions.

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Wieler, Edith E. (1987).  Multicultural Education Theory, Policy, Practice & Issues: A Literature Review. 

This report summarizes literature that is pertinent to multicultural education, primarily in Canada, and to a lesser extent in the United States, Great Britain, and Australia. The purpose of the report is to: (1) clarify terms related to multiculturalism; (2) identify the ideological premises of multiculturalism and their implications for education; (3) review policies on multiculturalism; (4) summarize educational responses to multiculturalism; (5) review the major issues and concerns in multicultural education; and (6) provide a list of sources for further reference. Chapter 1, "Introduction," provides the following information: (1) parameters of the study; (2) sources of information; (3) context; and (4) definitions of multiculturalism, multicultural education, and ethnicity. It contains a glossary of key terms and a list of 13 sources. Chapter 2, "Foundations of Multicultural Education," provides the following information: (1) legislative foundations; (2) ideological premises including cultural pluralism, individualism, social justice, and cultural universals; and (3) educational approaches. It contains a list of 21 sources. Chapter 3, "Policies, Programs and Practices," provides information on the following topics: (1) federal policies and programs; (2) provincial programs and practices in various locations in Canada; and (3) policies in other nations including the United States, Australia, and Great Britain. It contains a list of 32 sources. Chapter 4, "Issues," covers the following topics: (1) cultural pluralism; (2) human rights; (3) language instruction; (4) native education; (5) pedagogical concerns; and (6) disciplinary concerns. It contains a list of 94 sources. Chapter 5, "Conclusion," contains a summary of theory, policy, programs, and issues concerning multicultural education, and a list of 60 additional sources.

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Won

Wong, Kenneth K. (1989).  Fiscal Support for Education in American States: The "Parity-to-Dominance" View Examined.  American Journal of Education, 97, 4. 

At the aggregate level it appears that the state share of public school financing has shifted from parity to dominance. However, there is substantial diversity among states. Through a synthesis of the literature on fiscal federalism, political culture, state politics, and public policy, explanations are offered for this interstate divergence.

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Wax

Waxman, Henry A. (1989).  National Policy Perspective: Future Health Opportunities--The 101st Congress.  Academic Medicine, 64, 1. 

Important issues facing the 101st Congress are discussed including: reform of the way Medicare pays for physician services; efforts to review the appropriateness and quality of care furnished; volume of services being furnished; long-term care; AIDS epidemic; and the needs of those who lack basic health insurance.

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Wee

Weeks, Arlene E. (1989).  America's Wild Horses. Five Day Lesson Plan and Workbook--4th Grade. Legend. 

This document contains a teaching guide and a children's activity book about the wild horses and burros living on Nevada public lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). In 1971 Congress passed legislation to protect, manage, and control wild horses and burros on public lands. The BLM maintains 270 herd management areas in 10 states. As part of its efforts to maintain a thriving ecological balance in these areas, the BLM offers excess horses and burros to the public for "adoption." The teacher's guide contains a fact sheet on wild horses and burros and adoption procedures; a glossary; and five lesson plans covering awareness of wild horses and burros and their origin, terminology concerning wild horses and burros and their natural environment, ecological facts, art activities, and learning activities. Student materials, aimed at approximately the 4th grade level, is a coloring book with text that includes word puzzles and drawings that illustrate parts of the horse and Indian markings used on prize war horses. This document contains numerous pictures. | [FULL TEXT]

Weeks, Kent M.; Organ, Jerome M. (1986).  Educational Institutions and Comparable Worth: A Doctrine in Search of Application.  Journal of Law and Education, 15, 2. 

Discusses legal and practical problems which prevent the full implementation of the concept of equal pay for jobs of comparable worth. Reviews legislative history of Title VII, the case of "County of Washington vs. Gunther," and other recent litigation, focusing on the impact of comparable worth on educational institutions.

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Woh

Wohlstetter, Priscilla (1989).  Oversight of State Education Reforms: The Motivations and Methods of Program "Fixers". 

The oversight of state education reforms is explored in this paper, with a focus on the motivations of program fixers and the strategies they use to guide implementation. Fifty-seven interviews were conducted with legislators, committee staff, and legislative agency staff to analyze the program fixing process in six states--Arizona, Louisiana, Florida, Georgia, Minnesota, and Pennsylvania. The first part reviews some institutional and political constraints to oversight performance, and the second part examines how oversight strategies minimized constraints and furthered program fixers' personal goals. Findings indicate that program fixers used a selective mixture of formal and informal monitoring that minimized time constraints and maximized their political benefits. Benefits for the reform process included the establishment of clearly defined goals and the promise that implementation would be in accordance with the spirit of the original mandates. A conclusion is that legislators' shared accountability with administrators necessitates participation by both groups for effective reform implementation. Two tables are included. (14 references) | [FULL TEXT]

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WuW

Wu, Wei (1987).  Educational Research in China: Guiding Principles and Major Tasks. 

This account of efforts to reconstruct educational research in China, guided by Marxist principles and reflective of a national policy of building a "socialist spiritual civilization," presents the major requirements of that endeavor. Educational sciences are to be guided by four understandings: correct theories; realistic policies; improved teaching methods; and necessary rules and regulations. In addition, China's research on educational sciences will abide by the following guidelines: orientation toward modernization, to the outside world, and to the future; adherence to the principle of integrating theory and practice; correct handling of relationships between national construction and education, between macro- and micro-research, between basic and applied sciences, between research and experimentation, and between criticism and appreciation of inheritance; and establishment of a "good style of learning" within the educational research community. China's educational research community has set for itself as the following major task goals during the Seventh Five-Year Plan period, to engage in research on: (1) general educational guidelines and major educational theories; (2) development strategy; (3) reforms of education; (4) ethics education; (5) comparative education; (6) evaluation and management; and (7) legislation. It is acknowledged that, in order to reach these goals, major efforts in coordination and funding are needed.

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Weg

Wegner, John M. (1985).  Home Interactive Media: An Analysis of Potential Abusers of Privacy.  Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 29, 1. 

Examines potential threats to privacy posed by development of unified interaction systems in the home. Applicability of existing federal laws, constitutional provisions, and regulatory actions, and the possible technical and legislative actions that may be useful in curtailing possible privacy abuses in these systems are analyzed.

Wegner, Judith Welch (1988).  Educational Rights of Handicapped Children: Three Federal Statutes and an Evolving Jurisprudence. Part I: The Statutory Maze.  Journal of Law and Education, 17, 3. 

The first of two articles considers the theoretical issues in special education litigation raised by overlapping federal statutes: civil rights legislation; Education for All Handicapped Children Act; and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.

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Wec

Wechsler, Harold, Ed. (1987).  The 1987 NEA Almanac of Higher Education. 

Statistics on higher education, a review of developments during 1985-1986, a list of resources and references, and information on the National Education Association (NEA) are presented. Information is included on: new books on higher education, federal legislation concerning higher education, federal higher education grants, and winners of college athletic games. Fellowship sources for college faculty, accrediting bodies in higher education, and higher education journals and reference aids are covered, along with NEA policy statements and committees on higher education. Statistical profiles covering 1985-1986 and previous years include: enrollments in U.S. colleges and universities by state or other areas; enrollments by level of instruction and type of control; enrollments of minority groups for two-year and four-year institutions; foreign student enrollments and majors; community college enrollments and tuition; popular majors by degree level; trends in scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Test and the American College Testing Program; state and federal higher education appropriations; salaries by academic rank and whether the faculty have unions; and endowments for specific institutions. | [FULL TEXT]

Wechsler, Harold, Ed. (1988).  The 1988 NEA Almanac of Higher Education. 

A statistical profile of higher education, a general review of developments during 1986-1987, and policy statements and activities of the National Education Association (NEA) are presented in this 1988 NEA Almanac. The statistical profile covers enrollment trends, degrees, faculty salaries, endowments, appropriations to community colleges, scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Test and the American College Testing assessments, and corporate gifts to education. Also addressed are: higher education legislation for 1986-1987, education provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, 1987 Higher Education Technical Amendments, Supreme Court decisions for the 1986-1987 term, recent growth in higher education enrollment, and academic freedom and censured institutions. In addition to a selected bibliography of higher education books, information is provided on higher education journals, fellowship sources for faculty, and academic meetings. NEA policy statements on higher education are provided, as well as information concerning NEA membership and benefits, grant programs, the NEA higher education journal, the National Council for Higher Education, and NEA higher education bargaining units. | [FULL TEXT]

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Whe

Wheeler, David L. (1987).  Grant Patents on Animals? An Ethical and Legal Battle Looms.  Chronicle of Higher Education, 33 n28 p1, 8 Mar 25 1987. 

Rulings on applications for animal patents being considered by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office could profoundly influence university patent and research income. Many animal-rights advocates have expressed philosophical objections to genetic engineering of animals.

Wheeler, David L. (1988).  Harvard U. Receives First U.S. Patent Issued on Animals.  Chronicle of Higher Education, 34 n32 pA1, 8 Apr 20 1988. 

A patent awarded to Harvard University for the genetic alteration of mice in cancer research is the first ever issued on an animal, at the same time that legislation putting a moratorium on animal patents is pending in Congress.

Wheeler, Jill (1987).  Transitioning Persons with Moderate and Severe Disabilities from School to Adulthood: What Makes It Work? 

This book is intended to assist anyone who is interested in the quality of life afforded persons with moderate and severe disabilities, including educators, residential providers, vocational rehabilitation personnel, social staff, parents, and advocates. The first section, which deals with the reasons why transition is needed, covers the following topics: major federal legislation addressing transition services provided under the auspices of special and vocational education and vocational rehabilitation, legislation and initiatives versus practice, ways of narrowing the gap between theory and practice, the role of transition services as the missing link between education and adulthood, and components of the transition model (residential environment, employment, and social and interpersonal networks). The second chapter examines ways of helping moderately and severely disabled persons increase their productivity, independence, and participation in the community and workplace. It includes information on high school programs, curriculum development models, integrated school systems, and community-based instruction. The third chapter covers the "players" and procedures entailed in planning the transition process, including the core transition team and methods of individualizing and evaluating the process. The array of available residential, vocational, recreation/leisure, and community-at-large services is described in the next chapter, which deals with the outcomes of the transition process. Finally, process and product/outcome barriers are addressed in a concluding chapter on barriers to transition planning. Appendixes include a parent/guardian transition questionnaire, follow-up survey, and format for organizing individual transition objectives. | [FULL TEXT]

Wheeler-Meehan, Linda; Hiatt, Diana Buell (1984).  Factors Related to Increase in Women Graduates from Professional Schools in U.S., 1960-1980. 

Changes in the percentage of women graduating from six male-intensive professions during 1960-1980 were analyzed, and the opinions of professional school deans about the causes of these changes were surveyed. The professions were medicine, veterinary medicine, dentistry, law, engineering, and architecture. Data were obtained from the National Center for Education Statistics regarding degrees conferred in these professions during 5-year increments. A 32-item questionnaire was developed and sent to deans at 464 professional schools. A total of 336 responses were obtained. In 1960 the percentage of women graduates for all six professions was 1.4 percent compared to 24 percent in 1980. The legal profession had the greatest increase in women graduates, graduating 2.5 percent women in 1960 and 41 percent in 1980. The greatest increase of women occurred during 1975-1980, after the enactment of legislation regarding women's rights. The most influential factors reported by deans included: increased number of female applicants, increased cultural acceptance of female professionals, increased social sanctions making the combination of a profession and family more acceptable, and positive female role models. The questionnaire items and responses are included. | [FULL TEXT]

Whelan, Raymond E. (1986).  Does the Commercial French Syllabus Reflect the Situation in France? A Re-Evaluation and Suggestions for Course Design. 

The ideal foreign language business course would be a cooperative effort between the business school and the foreign language department, prepare students for any of the five proficiency levels in the French Chambre de Commerce et d'Industrie de Paris test, be designed for the American working in France, and have a balanced international trade perspective. Certain inherent weaknesses can limit its success, including flawed or obsolete texts, blind adherence to the text design, and traditional foreign language teachers' lack of preparedness for business language instruction. Syllabus redesign can occur in three ways: greatly reduced emphasis on certain areas, such as geography, insurance, postal and telephone services, taxes, and the subway, political parties, news media, and culture not clearly related to business practices; more extensive coverage in other areas, including advertising, marketing, banking (systems, practices, and vocabulary), bureaucracy and its role, public and business community mentalities, the European Community, customs duties, the economic orientations of the union of the Right and the Socialists, the relationship of capitalism and legislation, and written and oral practice; and additions to the syllabus, including consumer behavior, labor-management relations, and the French labor movement. Appropriate ancillary materials are plentiful but must be sought out.

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Wid

Widlake, Paul (1988).  Support Teachers Must Enter the Competition for the Ownership of Innovations.  Support for Learning, 3, 3. 

New initiatives in British education including the Education Reform Act suggest that remedial teachers need to take a greater lead in educational innovation especially the acquisition and use of information technology in the schools.

Widmar, Gary; Ayres, Ted D. (1983).  Widmar v. Vincent: A Commentary by the Participants.  NASPA Journal, 20, 3. 

Comments on the Widmar v. Vincent Supreme Court decision dealing with the use of university buildings by student religious groups. Clarifies the University of Missouri-Kansas City position on the place of worship activities in campus facilities. Implications of the decision on the separation of church and state are discussed.

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Wed

Wedell, K.; And Others (1982).  Challenges in the 1981 Act.  Special Education: Forward Trends, 9, 2. 

Two educators discuss the potential impact of Britain's 1981 Education Act on special education, emphasizing four aspects: the concept of special educational need, the place of formal assessment procedures, formulation of children's special educational needs, and the choice of special placement.

Wedell, K.; And Others (1987).  Policy and Provision under the 1981 Act.  British Journal of Special Education, 14, 2. 

A case study approach focused on five local education agencies (LEAs) in England to study the implementation process of the 1981 Education Act. Interviews with professionals focused on such issues as the definition of special educational needs, recognition of child and parental rights, and effectiveness of special education provisions.

Wedell, Klaus (1983).  Assessing Special Education Needs.  B. C. Journal of Special Education, 7, 4. 

New special education legislation in Canada views the need for provisions as a relative and interactive concept between the child's problem and the resources available to progress. Local Education Authorities are required to produce a multiprofessional statement to ensure educational and financial accountability. The child's progress is to be reviewed annually.

Wedell, Klaus (1988).  The New Act: A Special Need for Vigilance.  British Journal of Special Education, 15, 3. 

Conflicts between the British Education Reform Act of 1988 and the 1981 Education Act as well as the Warnock Report (1978) are identified. Considered are ways the Act deals with the following issues: special educational needs, curriculum, and the process of integration.

Wedeman, Sara Capen; And Others (1985).  Education Block Grants: Introduction to the Debate.  Economics of Education Review, 4, 3. 

Discusses the significance of the shift in federal educational policies marked by the adoption of the block grant approach to federal aid in Chapter 2 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act. Reviews several general findings of case studies of the first year of Chapter 2 grant implementation.

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Wye

Wye, Christopher G., Ed.; Hatry, Harry P., Ed. (1988).  Timely, Low-Cost Evaluation in the Public Sector.  New Directions for Program Evaluation

Six papers on the use and usefulness of program evaluation conducted inside government institutions by government staff, rather than by outside contractors or university personnel, are presented. Federal, state, and local evaluation efforts in executive and legislative environments are analyzed.

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Wak

Waksman, Steven; Jones, Vern (1985).  A Suggested Procedure for the Identification of and Provision of Services to Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Students. Technical Assistance Paper 5. A Series on PL 94-142 and Related Oregon Laws. 

This technical assistance paper aims to help Oregon special education personnel to standardize the eligibility criteria for the category of seriously emotionally disturbed (SED) students and to assist Oregon educators in providing appropriate services to students experiencing serious school behavior problems. The paper reviews definitions, prevalence estimates, and legal requirements regarding the identification of seriously emotionally disturbed students and the provision of services for them, based on Public Law 94-142 and Oregon Administrative Rules 581-15-005 and 581-15-051. The paper recommends eligibility criteria, presents a rationale for the criteria, outlines a continuum of services to meet students' special needs, and provides an SED evaluation checklist. Also included are a glossary and lists of selected behavior rating scales, social skills training programs, and parent training programs that are commercially available. | [FULL TEXT]

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Wim

Wimmer, Kurt A.; Wright, Jay B. (1985).  An Interdisciplinary Look at Minorities and the Media: Implications for Deregulation. 

Two contradictory trends are developing in telecommunications. The first is increased viewing of television by minorities, while the second is decreased attention given to minority issues by the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) deregulatory stance. Minority groups consume more television than any other social groups, yet television's portrayals of minority groups are becoming increasingly underrepresentative. According to leading researchers, minorities use television for socialization as well as information. This use of a medium that seldom portrays minorities as socially significant poses many societal problems, including possible increases in stratification between races, anomie, and production of knowledge gaps between races. Although communications regulation has traditionally emphasized the importance of promoting minority viewpoints and minority ownership of broadcast outlets, current FCC policy favors deregulation. The FCC would then rely upon market forces to effectuate its public interest regulatory charter, which could be socially irresponsible if done without consideration for the evidence assembled by social science researchers.

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Wag

Wagner, Laura (1984).  Implementation of Teacher Education and Computer Centers in California: Results of a First Year Descriptive Study. 

This paper summarizes a 1982-83 descriptive evaluation of first year implementation of 15 regional teacher service agencies in California, referred to as Teacher Education and Computer Centers (TECCs). Self-report data and case studies from three regions were used to describe the configuration of the centers, their service delivery, and perceived success and problems. Implementation was powerfully affected by the environment of each agency. On the whole, service delivery was dominated by computer training, with an apparent reduced level of training in curriculum and instructional methodology. Scope of responsibility, governance issues, and relationships with business, industry, colleges, and universities are problematic, due in part to a lack of standard routines for sharing resources among agencies, and in part to ambiguity in the initial authorizing legislation. This paper includes four sections. Section I discusses the study methodology. Section II provides a summary of reported TECC services including: (1) service delivery; (2) resource brokerage and capacity building; (3) computer use; and (4) relationships with institutions of higher education and other agencies. In section III, three TECC case studies are offered, and section IV contains analysis and discussion. Three lengthy appendices are included: (1) Legislative Language: Budget Act 1982-83; (2) Self-Report Data Collection Instrument; and (3) case studies of the three TECCs. | [FULL TEXT]

Wagner, Laura A. (1984).  The California Mentor Teacher Program. 

The California Mentor Teacher Program, brought into being by California Senate Bill 813, is designed to retain and recognize excellent teachers and to improve the profession by enabling expert teachers to assist others. Four major issues to consider in developing mentor teacher programs are discussed. First is the importance of collaboration with appropriate groups in planning, including teachers, governing boards, and administrators. Second, program design should reflect local needs and priorities. Design possibilities include (1) a master teacher to provide staff development; (2) a mentor as a trainer of new teachers; (3) a mentor teacher as a "fellow" in a teacher training academy; or (4) a mentor teacher as a curriculum developer. Third, the criteria for the selection of mentor teachers in the California Mentor Teacher Program are set by the California Education Code, but they allow considerable flexibility to local districts. The Code stipulates only that mentor teachers should have credentials and permanent status, substantial classroom experience, and demonstrated teaching ability. Finally, mentor teachers in their new role may require training and support from site administrators and teachers. Partial state funding has been provided for stipends to mentors.

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Why

(1986).  Why a 1989 White House Conference on Library and Information Services?  Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science, 12, 3.

 

_____. (1984).  Why Not Me? Women in Non-Traditional Jobs. The WorkForce Series for Small Businesses. 

This guide presents ideas for dealing with women in nontraditional jobs for managers who work with young, entry-level workers in small businesses. The guide is designed to help managers (1) develop strategies to help them deal with workers' attitudes toward women in nontraditional jobs; (2) reduce adjustment problems; (3) build a cooperative, productive team of workers; and (4) solve problems of sex discrimination. The guide uses case studies to illustrate the techniques and ideas that are discussed. Key points are summarized at the end of the booklet, and a review quiz with answers is provided. A list of suggested resources completes the guide.

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Wii

Wiig, Elisabeth H. (1985).  Assessment of Communication Disorders.  Diagnostique, 10, 1-4. 

Current assessment models in communication disorders are reviewed, factors involved in meeting the demands of P.L. 94-142 are addressed, and recommended practices as well as future considerations are noted.

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Wex

Wexler, Henrietta; And Others (1985).  1985 Guide to Department of Education Programs.  American Education, 21, 2. 

This guide gives information necessary to begin the process of applying for funding under individual federal education programs. It contains a glossary of Education Department terms, program information (program title, purpose, authorizing legislation, who may apply, contact number, closing dates), and a list of regional representatives of the department.

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Wic

Wice, Betsy; Fernandez, Happy (1985).  Meeting the Bureaucracy Face to Face: Parent Power in the Philadelphia Schools.  Exceptional Parent, 15, 5. 

The Parents' Union of Philadelphia features a special education committee which offers parents of disabled children assistance in understanding and monitoring implementation of federal and state laws. Examples of the union's advocacy in placement, evaluation, and Individual Education Program matters are cited.

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Wan

Wang, Margaret C.; Reynolds, Maynard C. (1985).  Avoiding the "Catch 22" in Special Education Reform.  Exceptional Children, 51, 6. 

A brief review of the major recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences Panel on Selection and Placement of Students in Programs for the Mentally Retarded and a discussion of implications for current policy and funding practice in special education are provided.

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Wuh

Wuhs, Susan K.; Manatt, Richard P. (1983).  The Pace of Mandated Teacher Evaluation Picks Up.  American School Board Journal, 170, 5. 

In 1983, 26 states have statutes or regulations that require teachers to be evaluated, and 22 of these states also require administrators to be evaluated.

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Wur

Wurl, Joel (1983).  Libraries and Archives: Critical Distinctions, Mutual Concerns, and the Need for Increased Cooperation. 

This paper takes a historical and methodological approach to explain the gap of reciprocal awareness that exists between many archivists and librarians. It is argued that a much closer relationship between the two professions would enable them to confront common issues in the coordinated manner necessary for optimum benefits to society. The historical evolution of the disconnection between the archives and library fields is discussed, as is the recent development of the archives field and the common co-existence of libraries and archives, both administratively and physically, in universities today. Differences in methodologies between the two fields are discussed in terms of acquisition and appraisal, processing (arrangement and description), reference procedures, and educational preparation. Shared concerns are also discussed, including automation, legislative and legal issues, preservation, and the logic of confronting mutual problems by pooling resources.

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Who

_____. (1984).  Who's There? Interviewing Techniques for Small Businesses. The WorkForce Series for Small Businesses. 

This guide presents interviewing techniques for managers who hire young and/or entry-level workers in small businesses. The guide is designed to help managers (1) give the information the applicant needs in an employment interview; (2) keep personal biases from entering into the hiring process; (3) ask questions that will get the information they need to make a hiring decision; and (4) structure the interview so that they can establish rapport with the applicant, but still maintain control of the conversation. The guide uses case studies to illustrate the interviewing techniques that are suggested. Key points are summarized at the end of the booklet, and a review quiz with answers is provided. A list of suggested resources completes the guide.

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Wyl

Wylie, Ronald J. (1982).  The Handicapped Child and Private Education.  Education Digest, 47, 6. 

Raises legal issues for private schools, especially those with a religious affiliation, regarding the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (PL 94-142). Specifically discusses "least restrictive environment" concept, individualized educational program (IEP), competency testing, and procedural safeguards.

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