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Educational Legislation | G
_____. (1986). Gainsharing. DOD Efforts Highlight an Effective Tool for Enhancing Federal Productivity. Briefing Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Defense, Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives.
Data were obtained from Department of Defense (DOD) officials and installations having experience with gainsharing programs. (Gainsharing programs measure gains in employee productivity and share the resulting savings between employees and the organization.) Analysis of private sector studies on gainsharing efforts identified three major trends in private sector efforts: (1) gainsharing by programs based on organization-wide productivity measurement are replacing those programs based on individuals or small group productivity measurements; (2) high success rates are being achieved by organizational-based programs; and (3) employee participation systems are being incorporated into gainsharing programs. All the gainsharing efforts in DOD reported cost savings. Some installations reported indirect benefits, including decreased sick leave usage and reductions in work backlogs and overtime costs. Major barriers to gainsharing programs were lack of specific legislation authorizing such programs and absence of Office of Personnel Management policies and guidance. Four principal elements critical to the success of gainsharing programs were identified: continuous and visible top management support, employee participation systems, definable and accurate performance measures, and adequate workloads to absorb productivity increases. (Following the four-page reporting letter are these appendixes: introduction, information on gainsharing trends in private industry, information on DOD gainsharing efforts, elements that facilitate success, and private sector organizational and DOD gainsharing examples.) | [FULL TEXT]
Gainer, William J. (1987). Summary of GAO Testimony by William J. Gainer on S. 249, The "Parental and Medical Leave Act of 1987." Statement before the Subcommittee on Children, Families, Drugs, and Alcoholism, Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate.
Estimates of the General Accounting Office (GAO) concerning the costs of S. 249, the "Parental and Medical Leave Act of 1987," differ substantially from estimates of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce. The legislation would provide job protection to employees while allowing them 18 weeks of unpaid leave to care for a newborn or seriously ill child and 26 weeks of unpaid leave for their own serious illness. Chamber and GAO estimates differ on costs of leave to care for new children, leave to care for seriously ill children, temporary medical leave, and lowered productivity. This document contains both summary and full-text versions of the differences in cost estimates, and a brief review of the key provisions of the bill and the methodology used to critique the Chamber's account. Supplementing the report is a table contrasting key assumptions of the Chamber of Commerce with GAO views on several issues related to determining costs of the three categories of leave. | [FULL TEXT]
Gainer, William J. (1987). GAO's Estimate of the Costs of the "Parental and Medical Leave Act of 1987" (S. 249). Testimony before the Subcommittee on Children, Families, Drugs, and Alcoholism, Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate.
The General Accounting Office (GAO) estimates that the cost of S.249, the Parental and Medical Leave Act of 1987, will be, at most, 500 million dollars annually, a figure which reflects the cost of continuing health insurance coverage for employees on unpaid leave. S.249 is legislation which aims to provide to workers at firms with 15 or more employees a form of job protection that permits employees to take 18 weeks of unpaid leave to care for a new or seriously ill child, and 26 weeks of unpaid leave for their own illness. The legislation requires that employers continue to offer health benefits for workers on unpaid leave on the same basis as if these employees were working. GAO believes that there will be few if any measurable net costs to employers resulting from a firm's method of adjusting to the temporary absence of a worker taking unpaid leave under this legislation. To the extent that workers are already provided parental and extended disability benefits by firms or have either disability or parental leave benefits under existing state law, the costs to employers would be less than GAO's estimate. Estimated and discussed are specific costs of leave to care for newborn children, leave to care for seriously ill children, temporary medical leave, and employee replacement costs and productivity losses. | [FULL TEXT]
Gainer, William J. (1989). Vocational Education: Opportunity To Prepare for the Future. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts, and the Humanities, Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate.
The General Accounting Office (GAO) studied the implementation of the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act in six states (Arkansas, California, Kansas, Maryland, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania) to determine if the funds are being used properly, to fulfill the objectives of providing vocational education to the disadvantaged and handicapped and encouraging program improvement. GAO found that, although Perkins Act funds, by and large, are being used appropriately to serve these populations, a number of problems exist in target funding allocations and data collection. For example, economically depressed areas in Arkansas, California, and Pennsylvania received less Perkins program improvement funding per vocational education student than do other local areas in those states. GAO also identified program allocation mechanisms that tend to direct funding to more affluent areas and away from poor communities. Relatively wealthy areas are sometimes designated "economically depressed" for Perkins Act purposes and therefore provide greater per-student funding than truly depressed areas. and the students are sometimes classified as "disadvantaged" when they are only academically disadvantaged but not poor, thus gaining a greater level of funding. Finally, disadvantaged and handicapped funds returned to states by poor communities can be reallocated to wealthier areas within the state. GAO also found that complete and reliable data on vocational education enrollment and spending were unavailable at either national or state levels. | [FULL TEXT]
Gainer, William J. (1989). Job Training Partnership Act: Comments on H.R. 2039, The JTPA Amendments of 1989. Testimony before the Committee on Education and Labor, United States House of Representatives.
The General Accounting Office (GAO) commented on H.R. 2039, which would amend both the adult and youth titles of the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA). GAO's analysis suggested the following: (1) although H.R. 2039 proposes to target greater resources to those who are hard to serve by requiring that 50 percent of adult JTPA participants have one of several employment barriers, it may not change things because 71 percent of adults served already fit that category--more effective would be to require multiple barriers; (2) the bill's proposal that participants' needs be assessed upon entry to the program has merit and would eliminate the practice of providing only job search assistance unless the assessment indicates that was all that was needed; (3) the bill would require placement in jobs with career potential--an improvement would be to measure the extent to which participants are provided higher and moderate skill training, since participants who are trained in those skills get better jobs; (4) some changes need to be made to the proposed definitions and reporting requirements; and (5) Congress should be cautious in increasing the limits on administrative and support service costs because JTPA's current successful emphasis on training could be altered. | [FULL TEXT]
Gaines, Margie; Schuyler, Nancy B. (1985). The Future Revisited: A Progress Report on Forming the Future, 1985.
This report summarized progress made since 1981-82 on 88 propositions and 292 related recommendations set forth by Forming the Future, a cooperative effort between the Austin (Texas) Independent School District and the Austin community to implement a 5-year program of broad school improvements. Of the 292 recommendations, approximately 86% were either completed or in progress, 9% were designated for future action, and 5% were found to be either not feasible or not necessary. Areas of major, moderate, and minor progress were discussed under three headings: (1) education; (2) resource management; and (3) community involvement. Highlights of major educational progress included provision of computers for instructional use; gifted and talented programs; educational programming on cable television; a longer elementary school day; magnet schools; expanded or revised offerings in science, health, and foreign languages; programs for the handicapped; texts for learning-disabled students; and improved discipline policy. Major progress in resource management included lower pupil-teacher ratio, approval of school bonds, and various facilities improvements. There was also major progress on nine community involvement goals. Areas of least progress were noted for future action. Appended summary tables outline progress on the 88 propositions, noting the outside impact of state legislation and community cooperation. | [FULL TEXT]
Gordon, Jack D. (1988). The Gordon Rule: A State Legislator Fulfills His Responsibility. New Directions for Community Colleges, 16, 4.
Suggests that legislative involvement in community college operations stems from fiscal responsibility. Describes the structure of higher education in Florida and the development of the College Level Academic Skills Test. Discusses the adoption and results of the Gordon Rule, which establishes English and mathematics requirements for the first two years of college.
Gordon, Jennifer L. (1989). Out of the Spotlight and into the Shadows. Migration World Magazine, 17, 5.
Discusses the effects of the employer sanctions provisions of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 on employers and undocumented immigrants. The following steps toward a just policy are considered: (1) repeal of employer sanctions; (2) fair treatment of Central Americans; and (3) recognition of the effect of U.S. foreign policy on immigration.
Gordon, Kenneth (1989). State Regulations in Telecommunications in the States. Introductory Remarks at the Plenary Session.
These introductory remarks presented at the plenary session of the 1989 Telecommunications Policy Research Conference outline major areas of concern to state regulators, including alternatives to rate of return legislation; open network architecture; content issues; technical standards and compatibility; optimal pricing; cross subsidies and dealing with bottlenecks; the spectrum issue; and recent developments in telecommunications policy and the diversity of state responses.
Gordon, Margaret T.; And Others (1982). Media Agendas: The Impact on Citizens and Policy Makers.
The effect of a televised investigative news report on opinions of members of the general public, interest group elites, and governmental policy makers and on eventual public policy was studied. By collaboration with an investigative news team, the researchers learned in advance of the subject and air time of an "NBC News Magazine" segment investigating fraud and abuse in federal home health care programs. The study was aimed at discovering if this program influenced the public policy agenda by making such fraud and abuse in health care more important, causing a shift in priorities. Results indicate that media presentations do influence general judgments of problem importance among the public. The presentation influenced governmental policy makers but not interest group elites by altering their perception of the issue's importance, their belief that policy action was necessary, and their perception of the public's view of issue importance. Although the program was found to have an impact on policy, it was not the actual airing of the program or resulting public pressure on legislative representatives which created the policy outcome, but rather the active collaboration between journalists and policy makers in the ongoing process of the media investigation. | [FULL TEXT]
Gorman, James (1982). Judgment Day for Creationism. Discover, 3, 2.
Reviews the issues behind, and proceedings of, the Arkansas court case in which the constitutionality of a law requiring a balanced treatment of creation science and evolution science in public schools was challenged. Summarizes testimony of key witnesses for both sides.
Gorman, Robert A. (1987). Copyright and the Professoriate: A Primer and Some Recent Developments. Academe, 73, 5.
Copyright branch of American law is summarized and two copyright issues of interest to academics are discussed. Ownership of copyright in works produced in the university and what "fair uses" of copyrighted works may be made by teacher-scholars are discussed. The Salinger v. Random House, Inc. case is described.
Gorny, Bethanie (1988). The Development and Implementation of a Training Program through Slides To Facilitate Parent Involvement in the IEP.
The practicum addressed the problem of lack of parent involvement in the development of IEPs (Individualized Education Programs) for their handicapped children, through development of a slide program and associated materials. The program attempted to educate parents regarding the IEP process, their role in it according to Public Law 94-142 (The Education for All Handicapped Children Act), and methods for best executing that role. The slide program and accompanying take-home workbooks were developed and presented to six child advocacy groups. A sample of 11 parents was drawn from volunteers attending the presentations and was followed by the investigator throughout a 5-month period of IEP development. Results indicated that all 11 parents increased their knowledge of PL 94-142, the IEP process, and their role in that process; and all successfully applied their new knowledge and advocacy skills during IEP development. Nine of the parents also reported increased feelings of satisfaction with their schools with no parents contemplating the initiation of due process actions. All the parents felt the slide presentation and workbook helped them to understand the special education process considerably better.
Gorospe, Kathy (1985). American Indian Cultural Resources: A Preservation Handbook.
Designed for use by American Indian tribes, archaeologists, law enforcement officials, local/state/federal administrators in charge of cultural resources management matters, and the general public, this handbook has been compiled to serve as a practical guide to protecting American Indian cultural resources in Oregon. The book brings together information on all major state and federal antiquities laws for review and comparison. Parts I and II contain descriptions of major provisions of significant state and federal cultural resources laws affecting Indian burial sites, archaeological sites and objects, classification of historic properties, scenic waterways, and conservation easements with suggestions for their practical application. Parts III and IV provide information which may facilitate cooperation and coordination between tribes, archaeologists, agencies, etc., including identification of Oregon tribes and tribal contacts. Part V details information helpful in reporting criminal violations of cultural resources protection laws. Part VI is a bibliography of resources which may be helpful in gaining further understanding of cultural resources protection laws and designing and managing protection systems. Part VII presents copies of most state and federal statutes discussed in this handbook. With the exception of the Oregon Indian Burial Law and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act, all laws are equally applicable to non-American Indian cultural resources.
Garb, Marcelle Robin; Blackmon, Alyce Akers (1986). Comparison of Opinions and Attitudes of Mothers of Preschool Children and Female College Students Toward Physical Child Abuse.
A total of 116 mothers of preschool children and 230 female college students responded to a 60-question survey designed to assess attitudes and opinions concerning physical child abuse in four categories: legal issues, treatment issues, behaviors constituting child abuse, and attitudes toward physical discipline. Students were significantly more lenient than mothers in attitudes and opinions in all four categories. Demographic variables, such as marital status and education, were significantly related to attitudes held by mothers. Students majoring in math-science, humanities, and professional studies were significantly more lenient than social science majors. Class level and family occupational level were also significant factors in students' opinions. Respondents generally supported current legislation and court interpretations of abuse and, to a lesser extent, current treatment practices. Responses indicated a consistency of opinions and attitudes across the four categories assessed.
Garber, Lee O.; And Others (1983). Law, Finance, and the Teacher in Illinois. A Handbook for Teachers, Administrators, and School Board Members. Third Edition.
This handbook explains the legal principles underlying the Illinois public education system, thereby providing teachers, administrators, and school board members with an understanding of the nature of the public school as a social and governmental institution. It also considers the legal status of Illinois teachers by defining their rights, duties, and obligations. After an introductory overview of school law, chapter 2, "Education in the Governmental Structure," addresses the responsibility of various levels of government for education. Chapter 3, "The Purpose of Public Education," delineates the respective responsibilities of parents and the state for the education of children and discusses the legal implications of the idea that education is a function of the state. Chapter 4 describes the organizational structure of the Illinois Public School System at the state, intermediate, and local levels. Chapter 5 specifically addresses the legal status of teachers under Illinois statutes, while chapters 6, 7, 8, and 9 delineate state laws governing teacher certification, teacher contracts, teacher tenure, and teacher retirement benefits, respectively. Chapter 10 is a discussion of tort liability of school districts and school employees, and chapter 11 lists miscellaneous statutory responsibilities, rights, and limitations of teachers. The final chapter addresses financial facts that teachers need to know, with respect to school budgets, taxes, school district bankruptcy, bonds, surplus funds, and state and federal financial support for schools. Appended is a resource equalizer formula for state financial aid.
Garcia, Jose Joel (1986). Health Policy and Cost Containment Laws: Lessons for Public Health Education in Social and Behavioral Change. Health Education Quarterly, 13, 3.
From a descriptive model of policy in health care delivery, the author theorizes that government has effectively attained economic and budgetary goals, but policy is creating displacements and attacking the national commitment to social welfare policy. Asserts that public health disciplines must collaborate to strengthen policy and empower individuals.
Garcia, Peter A. (1985). A Study on Teacher Competency Testing and Test Validity with Implications for Minorities and the Results and Implications of the Use of the Pre-Professional Skills Test (PPST) as a Screening Device for Entrance into Teacher Education Programs in Texas.
The educational reform movement has brought a mandate to test prospective teachers from training entry through exit and certification. Concentrating upon recent literature, this report explores current trends and policies in teacher testing. A review of what tests measure and how tests are being used is included. The negative impact of testing on the minority teaching populations is stressed. Underrepresented in the current teaching force, ethnic minorities are projected to become majority student populations in states like Texas and California. Causes of failure of ethnic minorities, remediation efforts in some states, and legal decisions which have played a major role in the reform movement and in testing are reviewed. Solutions being applied to the testing reform movement are discussed with futuristic planning which could bring about better cooperative efforts in a national climate of great diversity in the 50 states. The results of a national survey on the use of teacher tests and their impact on ethnic minorities are included. The final part of the study is a review and critique of the validation process done in Texas to support the use of the Pre-Professional Skills Test as an entrance examination for teacher education programs. Conclusions are drawn on legal and ethical issues in testing and the fairness of current tests in regard to minority teachers. A 17-page list of references, charts and graphs providing information on the current status of testing in the United States, and the survey instrument are appended. | [FULL TEXT]
Garcia, Robert (1982). Enterprise Zones: Restoring Economic Vitality to Inner-City Areas. USA Today, 111, 2450.
Discusses how the proposed urban enterprise zones would solve problems of inner-city areas. The zones are designed to provide tax incentives which would attract new businesses to the inner city, create new jobs, and revitalize urban centers.
Garcia, Robert; And Others (1985). Special Issue: Symposium on the Decennial Census, U.S. Bureau of the Census. Government Information Quarterly, 2, 4.
Seven articles by members of the Bureau of the Census discuss various aspects of the census process and uses of census figures. Areas which are discussed include the historical basis of the census; automation of the census process; access to census information and confidentiality; and census taking in developing nations.
Garcia, Sandra Anderson (1989). My Sister's Keeper: Negative Effects of Social Welfare and Affirmative Action Programs on Black Women. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 21, 1-2.
Discusses the struggles of middle- and lower-class black women to use social programs and affirmative action mandates to advance their status. Examines ways their struggles have affected their self-perceptions and relationships with each other.
Gardener, Clark; Quezada-Aragon, Manuela L. (1984). Undocumented Children: An Ongoing Issue for the Public Education System.
The issue of providing public education for undocumented students (children of foreign-born persons who reside and/or work in the United States without proper permission from immigration authorities) is receiving current attention for two major reasons: (1) fear that the financial burden on local taxpayers will increase in areas with increasing concentrations of undocumented students; and (2) Supreme Court declaration that Section 21.031 of Title I of the Texas Education Code, which denies reimbursement of funds to local school districts for educating undocumented children, is unconstitutional. While Texas estimates $85 million a year is spent to educate undocumented students and Los Angeles estimates annual expenditures of $415 million, the question of the actual cost of educating undocumented students continues because most states lack actual enrollment figures. The cost of developing and implementing programs for undocumented children depends upon district characteristics (numbers of students, taxable property per pupil, teacher linguistic characteristics, presence of programs for limited-English-speaking students, pupil-teacher ratios, historical enrollment patterns, status of physical facilities, and proximity to migration streams used by undocumented persons) and student characteristics (numbers, age dispersion, geographic dispersion, English fluency, prior educational experiences, length of presence in this country, and socioeconomic status). | [FULL TEXT]
Gardner, Dan; Buechler, Mark (1989). School Based Health Clinics. Policy Memo Series No. 4.
In response to a growing public awareness of health problems faced by America's teenagers, a number of high schools are establishing health clinics for students inside or near the school. School-based clinic staff and services vary depending on levels of funding, state laws, and community standard. To pay for services, clinics rely on both public funds and private financing. In 1986 and 1987, legislation was introduced in both houses of the U.S. Congress that would have provided direct federal aid to school-based health clinics. However, the legislation died in committee, and no new legislation was introduced in 1988. Like all other midwestern states except Iowa, Indiana is the home of several school-based clinics, four of which are described in the paper. School-based clinics often spark intense local controversy concerning the issue of family planning. Appended are 27 references. | [FULL TEXT]
Gardner, David W.; Sitton, Sarah C. (1987). Admission Requirements Mandated by States for Public Colleges. Spectrum, 5, 3.
Describes the results of a December 1986 telephone survey disclosing 19 states with mandated or recommended minimum high school course requirements for admission to public colleges and universities. An additional eight states are reported by the Educational Testing Service as having such requirements. Included are a table of mandated requirements and two references.
Gardner, Eileen M. (1984). The Education Crisis: Washington Shares the Blame. Heritage Foundation Backgrounder. No. 351.
This paper criticizes federal involvement in education in recent decades and asserts that control of education must be returned to the localities and parents. The document cites damaging effects of centralized education policy in Washington, D.C., noting a decline in academic standards and federal regulations that are ill-suited to local educational needs. False assumptions underlying advocacy of centralized education policies are reviewed, including the concept that the primary responsibility for dealing with an individual's disability lies with the larger political unit rather than with the family and immediate community. The paper points to the examples of Title I/Chapter 1 of the 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act and disability legislation, including P.L. 94-142, the Education For All Handicapped Children Act, as examples of expensive and ineffective federal initiatives. Recommendations include consideration of vouchers and tuition tax credits, repeal of Chapter 1, abolition of the Department of Education, and use of federal funds as the assistance of last resort rather than as a right. | [FULL TEXT]
Gardner, Eileen M., Ed. (1985). A New Agenda For Education. Critical Issues.
The recurring theme of this volume is that centralized control of education has failed and control of education should be returned to parents and the local community. Five papers are presented that clarify the conservative stance on public education and describe specific measures that could replace liberal concepts and programs: (1) "The Demise of the Teaching Profession" (Annette Kirk and Russell Kirk); (2) "Public and Private Schools" (K. Alan Snyder); (3) "The Growth of the Federal Role in Education" (Eileen M. Gardner); (4) "Higher Education Today" (Philip F. Lawler); and (5) "The Courts and Education" (Thomas R. Ascik). In a summary of the ideas set forth in these papers, a new agenda for education is proposed. Among the recommendations made are: accrediting Master Teachers to foster quality teaching, restoring educational choice to parents through tuition tax credits, establishing English as the sole teaching language, and allowing parents to deduct tuition from their taxes. All contributors recommend the elimination of centralization of educational direction at the federal level where, it is maintained, it falls into the hands of special interest groups and loses its ability to adapt to the diverse schooling needs of local communities throughout the United States. | [FULL TEXT]
Garfinkel, Irwin; Sorensen, Annemette (1982). Sweden's Child Support System: Lessons for the United States. Social Work, 27, 6.
Describes elements of Sweden's child support system, such as provisions relating to eligibility, benefits, absent parent liability, enforcement and financing. Analyzes the role of child support in the broader context of other kinds of aid to single-parent families. Considers prospects for child support reform in the United States.
Garfinkel, Irwin; Uhr, Elizabeth (1984). A New Approach to Child Support. Public Interest.
Proposes a social child-support program based on taxes on earnings (deductions from wages) of absent parent rather than voluntary or court-determined payments enforced by law. Summarizes principal benefits of such a system and notes that proposed system is being tried out in several Wisconsin counties now.
Garland, Peter H.; Martorana, S. V. (1988). The Interplay of Political Culture and Participant Behavior in Political Action to Enact Significant State Community College Legislation. Community College Review, 16, 2.
Discusses political factors affecting educational leaders' ability to alter the constitutional and statutory status of community colleges. Reviews literature on policy formation for higher education and community colleges, and political culture at the state and subsystem levels. Describes a study of the relationships between political behavior and culture, and policy subsystems.
Garner, Gerald J.; And Others (1987). Science Safety Handbook for California High Schools.
This document was prepared in an effort to help science teachers, administrators, and school staff members in California understand and avoid situations in which accidents could occur in the science laboratory or on field trips and outdoor education experiences. It contains major sections on: (1) first aid (including information on animal and insect bites, burns, eye treatment, exposure to potential poisons, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and the recognition and treatment of shock); (2) laboratory safety precautions (containing general information, along with safety suggestions for biology, chemistry, and physics laboratories), and (3) general laboratory practices (addressing fire prevention and control, the use of animals in the classroom, the use of goggles and safety shields, field trips, poisonous plants and plant parts, radiation-producing equipment and materials, radioactive materials, earthquake preparation, and the development of an earthquake response plan). The appendices include citations of state legislation and regulations dealing with school safety, and numerous checklists and student statement forms. | [FULL TEXT]
Garner, William L. (1983). Determining Where to Put Your Instructional Dollars.
This report suggests that state boards of education are best able to make budgetary cuts after consulting professional staff, identifying basic educational objectives and goals, and determining which programs contribute most to the largest number of students. A board's decisions are facilitated by such legislation as Utah's Special Purpose Optional Programs (such as career education and extended year), which allow local boards of education to move funds where they wish or to eliminate programs.
Garrett, Nina; And Others (1985). Foreign Language Teaching and the Computer. Foreign Language Annals, 18, 5.
Reviews some word processing programs that facilitate the writing task. These programs cover the following areas: 1) spelling; 2) punctuation and style; 3) thesauruses; 4) sexist language; 5) text and author statistics; 6) footnotes; 7) indexes; and 8) bibliography. Also provides an outline of the "Computer Education Assistance Act" of 1985 (S. 1276).
Garson, G. David (1986). The Role of Inductive Expert Systems Generators in the Social Science Research Process.
Most of what may be construed as political science has always proceeded through induction, which depends heavily on the insight, intuition, and personal brilliance of the particular author. Another approach that is closely associated with the early induction through examples is the expert system. The outcomes of this approach are not measures of the strength of association among variables, but are sets of rules which explain all or perhaps most of the given examples. Expert systems, however, are not a panacea. There is controversy about which algorithms are best and most efficient in automating the generation of expert rule sets. The computer software used in this essay to illustrate social science application of expert systems is based on classification and rule development procedures called "ID 3," developed by J. Ross Quinlan (1983) on the basis of work by Hunt and Stone (1966) on the "Concept of Learning System." It is 1st-Class, Version 3, from Programs in Motion, Inc., which runs on the IBM PC/XT/AT series. The example selected is a reanalysis of data presented by Wayne L. Francis on factors thought to determine the variance in the extent to which state legislators are satisfied with legislative outcomes. Expert systems suggest that it is appropriate to have a long time to consider bills and reject many of them. It is inappropriate to have a short time to consider bills and then accept most. If time is short, it is still inappropriate if one is being inundated with bills from the other chamber. | [FULL TEXT]
Gartner, Alan; Lipsky, Dorothy Kerzner (1987). Beyond Special Education: Toward a Quality System for All Students. Harvard Educational Review, 57, 4.
Reviews the first decade of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act and evaluates the process of providing education to handicapped students. Examines changes in the place of the disabled in American society. Argues that a single educational system, special for all students, is needed.
Gartner, Alan; Lipsky, Dorothy Kerzner (1989). The Yoke of Special Education: How To Break It. Working Paper.
This paper considers what can be done to shape an educational system that meets the needs of all students; it then recommends such a system to replace the existing situation in which certain students are labeled as "handicapped" and placed in separate programs. In evaluating the current situation, the paper examines existing educational practices for students with handicaps, focusing on provisions and implementation of Public Law 94-142, funding, referral and assessment, student placement in the least restrictive environment, and program outcomes. Intermediate strategies are presented for bridging the gap between special and general education to create a unified system. These strategies include, among others, strengthening the holding power of general education and making funds available to meet student needs, regardless of categorical labels or location of services provided. A vision of the future calls for such reforms as: viewing handicap as a social construct, recognizing various types of intelligences, framing the student's "problem" as a mismatch between learning needs and the instructional system, involving parents as partners, focusing on student achievement as the critical outcome, and improving educational productivity. Changes that can be accomplished within the present legislative situation are outlined. | [FULL TEXT]
Garwood, S. Gray (1987). Political, Economic, and Practical Issues Affecting the Development of Universal Early Intervention for Handicapped Infants. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 7, 2.
The paper reviews factors affecting development of early intervention programs for all handicapped infants including changing political and economic conditions and programmatic issues (setting, staffing, identification). Finally, the provisions of P.L. 99-457 creating a discretionary infant intervention program are outlined.
Garwood, S. Gray (1987). Political, Economic and Practical Issues Affecting the Development of Universal Early Intervention for Handicapped Infants.
The paper reviews factors affecting the success of handicapped infant intervention programs. The absence of political leadership and support at the federal level, caused by changing political and economic conditions, is discussed. The practical programmatic issues affecting infant intervention which are considered include setting, staffing, handicap identification, and eligibility. A strategy for achieving universal intervention for handicapped and at risk infants is proposed which builds on existing political culture and law, especially Public Law 98-199, an amendment to the Education for All Handicapped Children Act which provides money to the states to develop and implement special education and related services to handicapped children from birth through 5 years of age. Additionally, Public Law 99-457, the Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments, 1986, uses a "bottom-up" approach by providing states with financial assistance to implement early intervention services to handicapped infants birth to 2 and their families. Provisions of this law are outlined in a summary which defines and explains "early intervention services," general eligibility criteria, the individualized family service plan, procedural safeguards, use of funds by the state as payor of last resort, and the role of the State Interagency Coordinating Council.
Garwood, S. Gray; And Others (1988). Public Law 94-142: You Can Get There from Here! Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 8, 1.
This article discusses the newly enacted Public Law 99-457, which mandates preschool special education, in the historical context of the implementation of Public Law 94-142. Provisions of the new law are summarized, and a variety of issues (such as interagency coordination) that the field needs to address are discussed.
Garwood, S. Gray; And Others (1989). As the Pendulum Swings: Federal Agency Programs for Children. American Psychologist, 44, 2.
Provides a brief history of Federal agency involvement in programs for children and their families, examines factors that affect the development of Federal social policy, and suggests future trends. Includes a brief summary of the existing 93 programs operated by various agencies of the Federal government.
Gary, Lee P., Jr. (1988). Economic Prosperity and the Responsibility of Public Education in Metro New Orleans.
It is the theme of this paper that economic prosperity and public education are inseparable; yet, both are lacking in Louisiana. The lack of excellence in education is a liability for stimulating and accelerating the growth and diversification of business and industry. In particular, educational mediocrity is evidenced in the following: (1) staggering failure rates of male and black students in the first grade; and (2) low scores of high school seniors in the American College Testing Program (ACT). Recommendations for achievement improvements in these two areas are presented. The Governor-Elect, the Louisiana Legislature, and the State Board of Elementary and Secondary Education (BESE) must develop a team approach to ensure meaningful reform of the State's public education system. Key recommendations for improvement include the following: (1) compulsory state-funded pre-schooling for 4- and 5-year olds; (2) performance pay raises for classroom teachers; (3) funding for more textbooks and libraries; (4) privatization of the State vocational and technical schools; and (5) implementation of the already mandated exit exam for graduation from high school. Four tables of statistical data on student attrition rates and ACT scores are included.
_____. (1987). GI Bill Program. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education, Training and Employment of the Committee on Veterans' Affairs, House of Representatives, One-Hundredth Congress, First Session.
This congressional report contains the testimony given at a hearing that was convened to review a bill to make permanent the educational assistance provisions for members of the All-Volunteer Force and the Selected Reserve that are generally known as the New GI Bill. The report includes testimony that was given by representatives of the following agencies and organizations: the U.S. Coast Guard, the Reserve Forces Policy Board, the Naval Reserve Association, the U.S. Navy, the Air Force Association, the U.S. Marine Corps, the Air Force Sergeants Association, the Veterans of Foreign Wars, the Army National Guard, the U.S. Army, the Navy League of the United States, the Reserve Officers Association of the United States, the Non Commissioned Officers of the United States of America, the National Guard Association of the United States, the Air National Guard, the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, the American Legion, the Paralyzed Veterans of America, the Fleet Reserve Association, National Association for Uniformed Services, the National Association of Veterans Program Administrators, and the Disabled American Veterans. The text of the proposed bill, assorted charts and letters, various recruiting pamphlets explaining the GI Bill, and written committee questions and responses are also included. | [FULL TEXT]
Gibbs, Lois; And Others (1982). New Federal Rule Can Help You Fight Asbestos in Your Children's School. PTA Today, 8, 2.
This article alerts parents to the danger of asbestos exposure in schools and urges parent teacher associations to demand corrective action. It explains: (1) how to identify asbestos; (2) how to remove it; and (3) how to recover costs from the industry. A recently enacted rule by the Environmental Protection Agency is stated.
Gibson, Margaret A. (1988). Punjabi Orchard Farmers: An Immigrant Enclave in Rural California. International Migration Review, 22, 1.
Examines the adaptation patterns of Punjabi Sikh orchard farmers in rural California. Discusses the role of the following: (1) the historical context of immigration; (2) the immigrants' perceptions of their particular situation; (3) the group's cultural traditions; and (4) 1965 Immigration Act.
_____. (1982). Guide to the Job Training Partnership Act. Cumulative Analyses of the Law and Subsequent Policy Issuances. Installment #1.
This guide is the first in a series of interpretive explanations of the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA). It is designed to provide practitioners and business leaders involved in state and local employment and training programs with an understanding of how to implement the public-private partnership of JTPA. This first edition does the following: (1) explains the basic authorities and provisions of the JTPA; (2) outlines the timetable and process for implementing JTPA; and (3) identifies federal regulatory issues that will be addressed by the Department of Labor in developing regulations for JTPA. The guide is organized into five major sections. The first section contains an analysis of JTPA, including the provisions for state and local delivery systems, the public/private partnership, authorized activities and use of funds, auditing and reporting, employment service activities, and state and federal activities and programs authorized by the law. In the second section, the transition to the new system created by JPTA is explained, providing timetables and charts for the start-up period. The third section explores Department of Labor implementation plans and policy guidance and includes an implementation schedule. The fourth section raises key regulatory issues related to the implementation of JTPA. The final section of the document contains the complete text of JTPA.
_____. (1983). Guidelines for Local Educational Agencies for the Participation of Private School Students in ECIA, Chapter 1 Programs.
This document's purpose is to assist local educational agencies in providing compensatory education services to students in private schools and to provide clarification about compensatory education program responsibilities as mandated by the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act (ECIA) of 1981. The first of the document's two major parts juxtaposes sections of the federal law and its supporting regulations with state guidelines relating to policy, private school participation, fiscal records and constraints, and program planning and approval. The first part concludes with a summary of the responsiblilities of state and local educational agencies and individual private schools. The second part of the document contains five appendixes, including a copy of the "Private School Affidavit," portions of the California Education Code index referring to private schools, a summary of California laws relating to private schools, the full text of Chapter 1 of the ECIA from the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (Public Law 97-35) of 1981, and its supporting federal rules and regulations. | [FULL TEXT]
_____. (1983). Guidelines for Comprehensive Child Development Instruction and Services Programs.
Developed by a task force of child development personnel from colleges throughout California, these guidelines seek to establish a standard of excellence for new and existing child development centers and instructional programs in the state's community colleges. Introductory material provides information on the charge, role, members, and resource persons of the task force; the purpose of the guidelines; statements of philosophy and goals; an assessment of the need for community college child development centers, services and instructional programs; a look at community needs in child development; an examination of the child development centers and programs currently operating in California's community colleges; and a listing of 47 task force recommendations. The bulk of the report expands on and provides rationales for each of the recommendations, presenting guidelines for both colleges and the Chancellor's Office regarding: (1) comprehensive, coordinated child development instruction and services programs; (2) quality child development instruction programs; and (3) quality child development centers and services. Appendices include applicable laws, a history of child development programs in California, and a glossary.
_____. (1985). Guidelines for Staff Development Programs.
This document presents the revised guidelines for staff development in Mississippi, as mandated by the Education Reform Act of 1982, produced by the State Department of Education in consultation with various state-appointed commissions and 16 school districts that participated in a pilot testing program. These guidelines are to be used by all school districts in Mississippi for designing, developing, and implementing a comprehensive staff development program or modifying, if necessary, an ongoing staff development program. The document begins with a citation of pertinent state law from the 1983 Supplement of the Mississippi Code, followed by an explanatory preface. Thereafter, guidelines are provided for the following areas: definition of staff development, process of approval, funding, basic requirements, and criteria for reviewing plans. These criteria include: (1) goals and objectives, (2) assessment of needs, (3) collaborative structures, (4) staff reward system, (5) program implementation strategies (including staff training and staff support activities), (6) administrative support, (7) successful completion criteria, (8) program evaluation strategies, and (9) program review and revision. The guidelines conclude with a note on the amendment process.
_____. (1985). Guidance Grades K-12. Teacher Handbook. North Carolina Competency-Based Curriculum.
This handbook on guidance is one of several subject-area curriculum guides resulting from the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction's efforts to revise the "North Carolina Standard Course of Study" and to develop the "Teacher Handbook" for the competency-based curriculum. The background, overview, philosophy, and rationale of thse efforts are explained and sections are provided on thinking skills, programs for exceptional children, and notes for handbook users. The purpose and overview of the guidance curriculum is explained and four basic goals are identified as helping students to: (1) demonstrate a positive self-attitude; (2) gain life-planning skills consistent with needs, interests, and abilities; (3) develop responsible social skills; and (4) understand and appreciate lifelong learning, growth, and change. Descriptions of developmental tasks and coping behaviors are presented for early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence in the areas of educational/career, personal/emotional, and social maturation. Anticipated learning outcomes are listed. The remainder of this guide is divided into sections by grade level (K-3, 4-6, 7-8, 9-12). Major emphases of the program are given for each section. Outlines are provided individually for each grade, K-12. The program goals are again listed for each grade and, for each goal, objectives and measures are provided at each grade level. Materials related to educational policy in North Carolina--including legislation--are appended. | [FULL TEXT]
_____. (1985). Guidelines for Health Services for Migrant Students. 1984 Edition.
To promote uniformity and continuity, standards have been established for planning, implementing, and evaluating student health programs provided by grade K-12 migrant education programs throughout California. State mandated health requirements, the rationale for supplemental services, methods of providing supplemental services, and community resources are defined for physical examinations; hearing, vision, and scoliosis screenings; immunizations; dental screening; nutrition; child abuse; mental health and counseling; health education for students, staff, and parents; the Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS) medical record; and special education. To comply with enabling legislation, the California State Department of Education will assist local educational agencies to ensure that migrant children participate in all federal/state mandated school health services; identify physical, emotional, and social problems that interfere with the educational process; remediate identified health problems; maintain current medical information using MSRTS; provide preventive health awareness for migrant students, parents, and staff; refer handicapped students to local Department of Rehabilitation offices; and establish liaisons for local handicapped identification and referral. Portions of state education, health and safety, and penal codes and an example of the MSRTS migrant student health record are appended. | [FULL TEXT]
_____. (1985). Guide to the Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children.
This booklet describes aspects of the Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children, a uniform law establishing orderly procedures for the interstate placement of children and fixing responsibilities for those involved in placing a child. The law has been enacted by almost all of the states and jurisdictions of the United States. Contents focus on such issues as (1) why a Compact is needed; (2) how the Compact came about; (3) what the Compact does, including types of placements covered, who must use the Compact, and safeguards offered by the Compact; (4) procedures for making placement under the terms of the Compact, including administering the Compact, recognizing a placement covered by the Compact, processing referrals for interstate placements, recommended time needed to process requests, making arrangements for child placement, and the sending agency's responsibilities; (5) penalties for illegal placements; (6) related Compacts regulating interstate placement of children; and (7) sources of additional information. The text of the Compact, and examples of forms ICPC-100A, the Interstate Compact Placement Request, and ICPC-100B, the Interstate Compact Report on Child's Placement Status, are provided.
_____. (1986). Guidelines for Developing an Educational Program for Worker Literacy.
The guidelines in this paper were developed to assist Massachusetts Private Industry Councils, social agencies, unions, businesses, and education providers in designing educational programs appropriate to the workplace. The focus is on literacy education. The paper is organized in four sections. The first section briefly examines the background of adult literacy needs and problems. The second section, which makes up the bulk of the paper, provides suggestions for program development. Areas covered include publicity, building peer and supervisor support, class locations, educational approaches, student/teacher ratios, competency-based instruction, assessment tools, and curriculum development. The third section discusses performance goals and how they are affected by the level of learner, intensity of learning experience, availability of learning supports, and motivation of learner. Finally, the fourth section suggests contacting the Office of Training and Employment Policy (OTEP), Office of Economic Affairs, for information on curriculum development, competency-based education, and computer-assisted instruction.
_____. (1986). Guidelines for State Documents with Selected Commentary.
Designed to make state documents more easily accessible and more widely available to the general public, these guidelines focus on the responsibilities that should be assumed at the state level by the library community of each state. The first guideline, Minimum State Servicing, is the most general. The Checklist, Inputting into Data Bases, and Depository Legislation guidelines address specific activities pertinent to state documents within the state. The fifth guideline, Distribution Center Activities, supplements the first four guidelines by listing additional activities appropriate for state level action. It is noted that these guidelines have been adopted by the American Library Association (ALA) and represent ALA policy. They have also been endorsed by the Chief Officers of State Library Agencies (COSLA).
_____. (1986). Guidelines for Tobacco Use Prevention Programs in Minnesota Schools.
In 1985 the Minnesota Legislature passed legislation providing funds to local school districts for planning, implementing, and evaluating comprehensive tobacco use prevention programs. (A copy of the legislation is included in the Appendix.) The purpose of this document is to assist local school districts in planning effective K-12 curricula for tobacco use prevention. Specifically, the document assists districts in: (1) evaluating the status of current tobacco education curricula; (2) writing or revising the tobacco use prevention component of their health or chemical health curriculum to meet state criteria and improve effectiveness; and (3) evaluating and selecting available tobacco use prevention programs for incorporation into the district curriculum. The first section of the guidelines covers the topics: "Why Is Tobacco Use Prevention Important?"; "Can Classroom Education Alone Prevent Young People from Using Tobacco?"; and "A Comprehensive Approach to Tobacco Use Prevention." The second section outlines "Guidelines for a K-12 Curriculum Including Learner Outcomes, Strategies and Methods."
_____. (1987). Guidebook for Committees on Special Education in New York State.
Written for persons who serve as members of Committees on Special Education (CSE) in New York State, this guide reviews Committee responsibilities and various Committee management techniques. An introductory chapter outlines the impact of Federal, state, and local requirements and policies. The guide follows the sequence of Part 200 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education, which is the primary source for information on CSE responsibilities, required procedures, and due process. The chapters cover: (1) special education; (2) terminology; (3) Board of Education responsibilities; (4) membership of the CSE; (5) procedures for referral, evaluation, recommendation, implementation, planning conferences, annual reviews, and triennial evaluations; (6) due process; (7) the continuum of services; (8) sections of Part 200 that are further removed from CSE procedures, involving student identification, placement, evaluation, State assistance for special education and related services, coordination of delivery systems, and child abuse prevention; and (9) other considerations such as screening, diploma requirements, aging out, etc. Each chapter concludes with management strategies useful to the CSE in carrying out the responsibilities outlined in that chapter.
_____. (1987). Guidelines for Identifying Children and Youth with Specific Learning Disabilities.
The guidelines define procedures outlined by state (Kansas) and federal laws and regulations concerning the identification of students with specific learning disabilities. The first chapter gives the Kansas definition of a learning disability and then outlines the identification process. Chapter 2 provides guidelines for carrying out preassessment. Chapter 3 gives procedures for documenting the exclusionary factors which must be ruled out prior to identification as learning disabled. Chapter 4 offers general criteria for test selection and specific criteria for figuring a student's aptitude when determining whether or not a severe discrepancy exists. Chapter 5 describes the eight achievement areas in which a discrepancy may be established and lists tests appropriate for each. Chapter 6 provides step-by-step procedures for establishing whether or not a severe discrepancy exists. Finally, chapter 7 gives some guidelines for providing/obtaining career education, vocational education, and vocational rehabilitation services. Nine appendixes provide information on: regressed standard scores, standard score conversions from percentile ranks, criterion values for standard error of difference, median age by grade, technical data for the Kansas discrepancy procedures, and Kansas monitoring standards for specific learning disabilities.
_____. (1989). Guidelines for Serving At-Risk Students. A Publication To Assist School Districts in the Development of Local Plans Required by the Iowa Standard for At-Risk Students.
This guide presents the Iowa standard for developing a plan to provide at risk students with the additional help they need to succeed. The standard requires a linkage of local, state, and federal resources within each local education agency. Section 1 is an introduction. Section 2 presents a statement of the objectives and the specific provisions that the Iowa standard mandates. Section 3 consists of a diagram that provides a pictorial representation of Iowa's standard for at-risk students. Section 4 outlines the expectations for each local education agency plan, and includes an example of the process for local action. In Section 5, each of the following nine components of the at-risk standard is discussed: (1) strategies for identification of at-risk students; (2) special instructional support services; (3) coordination with community-based support services; (4) school-based support services; (5) appropriate counseling services; (6) strategies for involving parents; (7) involvement of all school personnel in the plan's implementation and in in-service training; (8) compliance with federal and state nondiscrimination legislation; and (9) provisions for monitoring behavior, social, and academic improvements. Questions and answers about this standard and provisions of the major educational equity legislation affecting Iowa schools are appended.
Guida, Richard A. (1989). The Costs of Free Information. Public Interest, 97.
Although the goal of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) is to make government more open and accountable, a number of unintended effects have resulted. Amendments are proposed to prevent the use of the FOIA by criminals and foreign agents and to place the cost of administering the law on the user.
Guimary, Donald L. (1989). The Philippine Press after Marcos: Restored Freedoms and New Problems.
With the overthrow of Ferdinand Marcos from his 20-year rule of the Philippines, the news media regained its freedom and its voice, and now faces a new set of problems: low circulation, questionable ethical standards of reporters and their lack of experience, and ominous indications from the Corazon Aquino government that the administration might take actions against the media. If Filipino journalists do not learn from history, and the perception of the press as sensationalistic and rumor based does not change, President Aquino may adopt legislation forcing the news media to be more responsive to the needs of a developing nation. (Twenty-eight notes are included.)
Goudy, Frank W. (1982). HEA, Title II-C Grant Awards: A Financial Overview from FY 1978-79 Through FY 1981-82. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 8, 5.
Goudy, Frank William (1982). General Revenue Sharing and Public Libraries: An Estimate of Fiscal Impact. Library Quarterly, 52, 1.
Presents the results of a study conducted to determine the allocation of general revenue sharing funds to libraries from 1973 through 1977 and to estimate the impact of these funds on library budgets around the country. Data are summarized in 6 tables and a reference list is included.
Gouran, Dennis S. (1987). Inferential Judgments Affecting the Decision-Making Process in the Attorney General's Commission on Pornography.
Although the Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, also known as the Meese Commission, has been criticized excessively at times for threatening freedom of speech and press and individual rights to privacy, an analysis of its "Final Report" reveals numerous deficiencies in the Commission's decision-making process. These deficiencies, apparently influenced by initial biases and strongly held beliefs about the ill effects of pornography, are evident in the Commission's conception of the problem, the unwarranted inferences from which it drew conclusions, and the reliance on questionable causal relationships as the source of many of its recommendations. The report suggests that the members were unable to keep values, tastes, and prior beliefs disentangled from facts. The Commission did not develop a definition of pornography, but rather divided offensive, sexually explicit material into four categories: (1) sexually violent; (2) nonviolent, but depicting degradation, domination, subordination, or humiliation; (3) nonviolent and nondegrading; and (4) nudity. The various classifications were considered in relation to evidence establishing harm, either of a primary or a secondary nature. These classifications suffered from at least as much ambiguity as the term pornography itself. The Commission was divided over the validity of the nonviolent and nondegrading category and dismissed the relevance of the nudity category. Thus, they were left with three categories, one of which was a question even in their own minds. Additionally, the Commission found no evidence of a direct cause and effect relationship between pornography and violence against women or children, but chose to infer one out of "common sense." The Commission's approach appears to have been based on a prior presumption of a need for certain legislative proposals, for which rationales in available information were then sought. (Eighteen references are included.) | [FULL TEXT]
Gourley, Mary E. (1989). Evaluation Criteria Recommended for the Assessment of Secondary Vocational and Technical Education Programs and Services. Final Report. Research Report No. 2. Supplementary Report. Research Report No. 2a.
A study was conducted to determine criteria for use in evaluating Indiana local school districts' delivery of programs and services in vocational and technical education and steps for the use of these criteria. Data were gathered by a review of the literature from 1983-1989 and telephone interviews with state agency personnel, concentrating on sets of criteria and their organizers and characteristics that are being used by states that have gained national recognition, that have been recommended by recognized experts in the field, and that are required by federal legislation. Six states were chosen for study: Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, North Carolina, and Wisconsin. Findings indicate that the major issue facing state-level decision makers is the lack of agreement on a clear definition of what vocational education should be. There is also evidence that policy-makers, advisory groups, and researchers consider effective evaluation to be a top priority for vocational education research and development activities. In addition, grassroots efforts are underway to find ways to assist practitioners in using criterion-referenced occupational tests for the measurement of student progress, with those criteria being directly linked to analyses of on-the-job tasks. Additional trends include the evaluation of student progress on both broad transferable skills and task specific skills, the use of individualized educational plans, and locally directed evaluation. (The four tables in this report show the results of an analysis of these findings. They display the characteristics of state evaluation systems, the categories of state criteria, 28 recommended sets of criteria, and recommended steps for criteria use. Seven appendices include a 133-item bibliography; a list of 105 selected references; a list of 18 resources persons with addresses; consultant vitae; project personnel, activities, and timeline; work session materials packet; and recommended program criteria. A supplemental report includes recommendations for the evaluation of vocational and technical education for higher education and employment and training programs.)
Galante, Susan (1983). Tenure Dismissal. Focus on School Law Series.
Tenured teaching staff member in New Jersey cannot be dismissed from their positions unless a board of education establishes just cause in a hearing before the Commissioner of Education. This pamphlet, designed to assist boards in filing dismissal proceedings for unsatisfactory tenured teachers, provides a comprehensive review of all recent tenure decisions of the commissioner, State Board of Education, and the courts. The first of two sections outlines the process for filing and certifying tenure charges and discusses suspension, salary payment, and other issues that arise during this process. It also provides information on the length of time necessary to complete the average tenure case, and it addresses procedural considerations pertaining to employees indicted for, or convicted of, criminal offenses. Two alternative processes for removing tenured teachers are also discussed--settlement of tenure charges and retirement. The second section reviews all the tenure cases decided from 1977 through April, 1983 in which a decision was rendered on substantive charges filed against a teacher. It also delineates the factors needed to establish each of the different charges and discusses those charges that are most likely to result in dismissal. The substantive grounds for dismissal that are discussed include (1) incapacity (chronic absenteeism); (2) inefficient or incompetent teaching performance; (3) corporal punishment; (4) insubordination; (5) unbecoming conduct (single incidents); (6) criminal conduct; and (7) "series" of incidents and "combinations of charges."
Galante, Susan; And Others (1984). Basic School Law. School Library Series, Volume 1.
This volume, a third edition updated and expanded from the two previous editions, is an introduction to the essentials of school law in New Jersey and a reference tool for readers experienced in educational law. Chapter 1 focuses on the legal structure of New Jersey public education, addressing such primary issues as the flow of authority to educate, state educational institutions, and the administration of school laws. Chapters 2 and 3 focus on the legal structure of local school districts and the authority of the local board of education. Chapter 4 addresses current legal issues in the relationship of school finance to educational quality. Chapter 5 addresses legal responsibilities with respect to the educational environment--school lands and buildings, attendance and transportation, pupil health and safety, the school program, and disabled pupils. Chapter 6 is a survey of students rights and responsibilities with respect to suspension and expulsion, grades, corporal punishment, freedom of speech, dress codes, student records, searches, student organizations, patriotic observances, and student vandalism. Chapters 7 and 8 discuss the legal rights and responsibilities of school management and staff personnel respectively, while chapter 9 describes the laws governing public participation in, and disclosure of, school board proceedings. Chapter 10 sets forth school budget guidelines for the two types of school districts. Chapter 11 sets forth procedures for school elections, and chapter 12 focuses on contract law and other statutory provisions as they affect school district business practices. Appended are an overview of the New Jersey and federal judicial systems and an index.
Galbraith, Michael W. (1983). The Older Employee as a Concern of Staff Developers.
Staff development concerns pertaining to older employees (65 years old or older) and implications for higher education are discussed. The demographic trends of this population and factors affecting labor force participation are considered, along with barriers for the older adult, and possible solutions. Factors affecting older employees' participation in the labor force include changes in the social security system, demographic shifts in the age distribution of the population, continued inflation, and age discrimination legislation. Stereotypes about the job performance of older workers and current retirement policies are also addressed. It is suggested that the older worker is an important resource in the nation's labor force, but they have not been given proper consideration. Staff development professionals can help change the situation by understanding the abilities and needs of the older worker and through: involvement with advocacy groups and organizations that represent the older person; counseling, referral, training, and placement of older workers; and working to develop retirement policies that encourage older worker employment. An attitudinal change among administrators toward older workers is important to eliminate barriers to career planning for the older worker. | [FULL TEXT]
Gale, Nancy, Comp. (1982). An Annotated Bibliography for Indian Child Welfare.
A bibliography and program listing surveys publications and programs dealing with welfare of American Indian children. Topics include child abuse/neglect, child development and health, parent education, counseling, social work practice among American Indians, legal/jurisdictional issues in delivering child welfare services to American Indians, foster care/adoption, legal services, social and family services, child welfare worker training programs, child rights and advocacy, and American Indian resource centers. The bibliography lists approximately 375 publications dating principally from the 1970's with some publications from the 1960's and early 1980's included. Entries are alphabetical by author and most contain annotation, availability information, and source of reference. Publication types include books, articles, Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) documents, research and project reports, unpublished reports, directories, state and federal government publications, Congressional hearings/reports, films, and audiotapes. The program directory lists approximately 80 program/projects arranged alphabetically by state. Entries typically include contact address and description of the program/project. Also included are 20 sources used to compile the bibliography and 4 sources used to compile the program listing.
Gale, Stephen B.; Harkins, Seth B. (1987). Disciplining Handicapped Students in a Comprehensive Secondary School Setting: Legal, Administrative, and Instructional Challenges.
Twelve years have elapsed since Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA), was passed by Congress. This paper accordingly reviews the far-reaching effects of EAHCA on the educational enterprise, focusing on the legal, administrative, and instructional challenges of disciplining handicapped students in a comprehensive secondary school setting. The first section reviews cases pertaining to a growing and complicated body of case law that directly affects the professional practice of disciplinary officers, special education administrators, parents, and students. The second section addresses the problems of translating case law into professional practice at the local school building level. The third section describes the way in which Glenbrook South High School in Glenview, Illinois has implemented diagnostically grounded discipline in its special education program through cooperation with the community. The fourth section presents three case studies involving diagnostically grounded discipline of handicapped students. The conclusion summarizes the disciplinary model set forth in the paper.
Galinsky, Ellen (1989). The Role of the Corporation in Promoting Early Childhood Education and Care and Family Support Systems.
Corporations have assumed many roles in promoting early childhood education and care and family support. To select services or programs to offer their employees, many companies go through a planning phase that involves an analysis of employees' needs and a review of community resources. The three most frequent solutions to helping employees solve problems of work and family have been the provision of information and financial assistance through corporate child care resource and referral programs, Flexible Spending Accounts, and parent seminars in the workplace. About 200 corporations have created child care centers. An increasing number of companies have developed initiatives to increase the supply and quality of child care services; individual or collaborative corporate contributions; special funds; and sponsorship of accreditation efforts. Four major groups convene the task forces on local child care problems with which businesses tend to be involved: the United Way; resource and referral agencies; chambers of commerce; and state executive offices. Corporations are also involved in legislation relating to child care. Questions concerning corporate endeavors to provide child care assistance center around the degree to which corporate programs: (1) are developed with thoughtfulness; (2) deplete the community of its best resources; (3) improve quality or endorse efforts to lower standards; and (4) are attracted to family support programs at the workplace or see them as peripheral.
Gallagher, James J. (1982). Present Trends and Future Challenges in American Education. Peabody Journal of Education, 59, 2.
Two major assumptions concerning the future of American education focus on the difficulty in achieving bureaucratic and corporate reform and the correlation between school problems and societal problems. Other noteworthy issues include: (1) productive roles for individuals; (2) changing roles of American families; (3) teaching of values; and (4) role of research.
Gallagher, James J. (1984). Policy Analyses and Program Implementation (P.L. 94-142). Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 4, 1.
The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (P.L. 94-142) is used to illustrate policy implementation analyses. Significant barriers to policy implementation for this law include power relationships between parents and schools, classroom teachers' feelings of uncertainty resulting from changed role expectations, and economic problems.
Gallagher, James J. (1989). The Impact of Policies for Handicapped Children on Future Early Education Policy. Phi Delta Kappan, 71, 2.
Changes in services to handicapped children have served as a legislative wedge for eventually providing services to all children. This article reviews recent federal legislative provisions and principles pertaining to young children, including the Education for All Handicapped Children Act and the Education of the Handicapped Amendments of 1986.
Gallagher, James J., Ed.; Weiner, Bluma B., Ed. (1986). Alternative Futures in Special Education.
Twelve author-contributed papers from a 1984 conference examine the future of special education. The following titles and authors are represented: "The Institute for Research on Exceptional Children at the University of Illinois" (S. Kirk and W. Spalding); "The Family with a Child Who Is Handicapped: Research Focus for the 1980's" (J. Gallagher); "Families with Mentally Retarded Members: An Agenda for Research 1985-2000" (B. Farber); "Future Directions in Early Childhood Education for Exceptional Children" (M. Karnes); "The Future of Early Childhood Special Education: A Perspective on Prevention" (K. Scott and D. Carran); "Technology and Special Education Futures: Paradigm Shift" (S. Ashcroft); "Technology: A Look Into the Future for Special Education" (L. Stolurow); "The Center for Studies in Education and Human Development: A Programmatic Approach to Research in the Area of Deafness" (D. Moores); "Leadership Training Models for the Future" (C. Howe); "A Proposed American Academy of Scholars in Education of the Handicapped" (L. Dunn); "The Future of Legislative Advocacy for Exceptional Children" (E. Boggs); "Public Policy and Special Education: An Unfinished Agenda" (E. Martin). | [FULL TEXT]
Gallagher, Susan S.; And Others (1987). State and Local Responses to Children's Injuries: The Massachusetts Statewide Childhood Injury Prevention Program. Journal of Social Issues, 43, 2.
Attention and efforts must be focused on the prevention of childhood injuries. Governmental agencies must increase their involvement. One model of such involvement is a program in Massachusetts which implemented a strategic injury prevention plan. Schools, health departments and other child service agencies must pool their resources for this cause.
Gallagher, Thomas (1989). Building a National Framework for Planning. Momentum, 20, 3.
Describes the efforts of the United States Catholic Conference (USCC) to provide a coherent, national vision for Catholic education and catechetics. Focuses on the USCC's efforts to support tax relief for Catholic education, monitor proposed legislation, and collaborate with other national, Catholic, and professional organizations.
Gallegos, Elena M. (1989). Beyond "Board of Education v. Rowley": Educational Benefit for the Handicapped? American Journal of Education, 97, 3.
Reviews 100 lower court decisions since the 1982 U.S. Supreme Court ruling that mandated access to education for handicapped students. Concludes that the courts have remained willing to support parents in obtaining services for their handicapped children.
Galligani, Dennis J. (1988). School/College Partnerships to Enhance Curriculum: A Statewide Qualitative Evaluation.
In the summer of 1987, a qualitative evaluation report was published regarding the outcomes from 20 school/college partnership projects for enhancement of college preparatory curricula sponsored by the California Academic Partnership Program (CAPP) between 1984 and 1987. Most CAPP projects involve college and university faculty working together with junior high and high school teachers in curriculum development, which is designed to provide students with skills and information needed for their success in college. This paper: (1) describes a qualitative approach to evaluate the effectiveness of school/college partnership curriculum enhancement efforts; (2) describes the findings and recommendations of the qualitative evaluation report; and (3) assesses the impact of the evaluation report on the development of seven new school/college partnership efforts that began in the summer of 1987. Findings indicate means by which the 20 project directors indicated that curriculum enhancement projects could best be enhanced. Specifically, the results suggest answers to questions concerning characteristics that make an effective partnership for curriculum enhancement, optimal administrative structures, promotion of post-secondary faculty working with schools, incentives for inter-institutional cooperation, targeting of academic preparation efforts for underrepresented students, and unintended outcomes of partnership projects. Appendixes include a transcript of relevant legislation, a list of CAPP projects, a chart of CAPP project characteristics; a plan for evaluation sessions; and a copy of the survey instrument used in the study.
Galloway, James R. (1984). Reauthorization: Defining the Federal Role. VocEd, 59, 1.
The new Job Training Partnership Act of 1983 represents a new era of collaboration between vocational education and the private sector in providing job training.
Galloway, Jennifer A. (1986). 1986-87 State Appropriations for Colleges: Highlights of Legislatures' Recent Actions. Chronicle of Higher Education, 32, 19.
Recent state appropriations for higher education in Arizona, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Nebraska, New York, Rhode Island, and Vermont are tabulated. Governors in all those states signed spending bills for higher education.
Gallagher, James J. (1989). A New Policy Initiative: Infants and Toddlers with Handicapping Conditions. American Psychologist, 44, 2.
Current legislation that improves services to target populations includes elements of mandated reform of certain professional practices. Such a mandate puts into practice changes that many have said were needed, but it also makes implementation of these policies more difficult.
Gallagher, James J.; And Others (1988). A Survey of Current Status on Implementation of Infants and Toddlers Legislation (P.L. 99-457, Part H).
This report was prepared as part of a 5-year study of the states' implementation of federal legislation regarding infants and toddlers (the Education of the Handicapped Act, Amendments 1986). In spring of 1988, a survey was made of key state personnel to assess current implementation status along a number of critical dimensions: definition and eligibility criteria, finance, family plans, interagency service coordination, and data systems. The survey found that 25 states had definitions for "developmentally delayed," while 20 states were considering or revising their definitions. From 4 to 15 different financial sources were being used to support programs for infants and toddlers; 14 states reported no coordination of funds, while 28 states reported efforts to coordinate sources. Nineteen states were using a former or existing interagency planning group to serve as the Interagency Coordinating Council, while 24 states formed new councils. Only five states reported having an Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP) meeting the requirements of the law, while 18 states were developing IFSP formats and 16 states were developing IFSP guidelines and policies. Forty-four states indicated that they had data available for at least one of the four required annual report categories. | [FULL TEXT]
Gallagher, James J.; And Others (1988). Major Policy Issues in Implementing Part H--P.L. 99-457 (Infants & Toddlers).
In Part H of Public Law 99-457, the Federal Government agrees to provide modest financial resources to aid the states in planning and developing comprehensive, multidisciplinary, coordinated services for young children with handicaps and their families, and presents mandates for reforms in the service delivery system. This paper identifies the major state policy issues presented by the legislation and some of the options for addressing these issues. General policy issues that are raised by the broad scope of the legislation include: state policy-making responsibilities; coping with the diversity of clients, professionals, agencies, and personnel; state readiness; and long-term financial support. Six specific policy areas dealing with various aspects of the law are also discussed: definition and eligibility criteria, meeting personnel requirements, assuring involvement of families, obtaining finances, coordinating services, and designing data systems. For each specific policy area, the issues involved are discussed and possible options are presented for solution of the issues. | [FULL TEXT]
Gallagher, James J.; And Others (1989). The Generation of Policy Options: The Family.
This report discusses family policy issues raised by the implementation of Public Law 99-457, Part H, the Infants and Toddlers section of the Education of the Handicapped Amendments of 1986. The report is the outcome of a policy options work conference in which a small group of knowledgeable parents and professionals identified key policy issues. The three issues selected as most important by the group are discussed. These issues are: (1) the definition of services to which children and families are entitled; (2) the role of the case manager; and (3) the identification of family strengths and needs. Policy options available to deal with each issue are outlined, along with the positive and negative consequences of each option. Includes 10 references.
Gallagher, Paul (1987). Community Colleges in Canada: A Current Profile.
Grubb, W. Norton (1987). Young Children Face the States: Issues and Options for Early Childhood Programs.
The growing demand for preschool education has prompted states to examine the feasibility of, and in some cases to enact legislation regarding, early childhood education programs. An effective policy must reconcile the following three primary issues: (1) the historical rift between the educational and custodial models of early childhood education; (2) conflicts between the elementary school and early childhood education communities over purposes, methods, and control; and (3) the necessary trade-offs between costs of programs and their quality. Legislators are in a unique position at this time to examine these issues in order to formulate early childhood policies and enact legislation for new programs. | [FULL TEXT]
Grubb, W. Norton; And Others (1985). The Initial Effects of House Bill 72 on Texas Public Schools: The Challenges of Equity and Effectiveness. Policy Research Project Report Number 70.
This report describes and evaluates the initial effects of the 1984 Texas Education Reform Bill (House Bill 72), in which the Texas legislature enacted a massive attempt to enhance both equity and effectiveness in the State's system of elementary and secondary education. Chapter 1 describes the Bill's various financing components and focuses on its initial effect on disparities in spending among rich and poor districts. Chapter 2 examines the various reforms aimed at improving the quality of teaching, and Chapter 3 focuses on the provisions that affect students. Chapters 4-7 deal with the effects of House Bill 72 on programs which seek to provide special educational services (compensatory education, bilingual education, special education, and vocational education). Chapter 8 describes the implementation of new prekindergarten and summer preschool programs. Chapter 9 discusses the difficulty of implementing curriculum reforms at the State and local levels, and focuses on the confusion that has resulted from House Bill 72's requirements and those of a 1981 law, House Bill 246, which called for different types of reform. Finally, Chapter 10 presents general conclusions and recommendations. The study uncovered widespread satisfaction with the general direction of reform, it is said, except in certain areas where implementation of the law has been difficult. The State, it is argued, must be willing to accept that education is likely to be more expensive in the future. | [FULL TEXT]
Grubb, W. Norton; And Others (1989). Innovation versus Turf: Coordination between Vocational Education and Job Training Partnership Act Programs.
Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) programs and vocational education programs in seven states (California, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Montana, North Carolina, and Wisconsin) were studied to find out to what degree the programs were cooperating and how much they were duplicating each other's services. The researchers found little evidence of duplication of efforts between the two programs in the seven states they visited. The differences between vocational programs and JTPA--in the populations they serve, the kinds of services they offer, and their approach to vocational preparation, make duplication unlikely. The researchers also found that states comply with the coordination requirements in the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act and JTPA. State and local officials said that the 8-percent set-aside funds provided for the in JTPA legislation have stimulated greater coordination by funding joint activities and innovations that could not exist without these funds. At the local level, a variety of innovative approaches were found. Several of the models--particularly the practice of contracting for JTPA services with postsecondary institutions and the efforts to allocate certain functions systematically to specific institutions--suggest efforts to determine a rational division of labor among the various institutions. Suggestions for increasing cooperation include clarifying the intent of the 8-percent funds and increasing concern for outcomes of education in both JTPA and vocational education. | [FULL TEXT]
Grubb, W. Norton; Stern, David (1989). Long Time 'A Coming': Options for Federal Financing of Postsecondary Vocational Education.
This document examines the options for federal financing of postsecondary vocational education. The first section describes the federal funds that now support public vocational education, emphasizing funds distributed to institutions through the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act and funds distributed to students via financial aid. The second section raises the question of what federal policy ought to accomplish, given the fact that federal funding is now and probably will continue to be a very small fraction of total support for public vocational education. The third section considers a series of potential federal goals for public vocational education and then analyzes the pros and cons of different ways of achieving them. The fourth section outlines several different ways in which the division of funds between the secondary and postsecondary levels can be determined. The fifth section presents several models of what federal programs are and can be and suggests federal approaches that are different from those embodied in the Perkins Act. | [FULL TEXT]
Grumet, Robert S. (1988). Archaeology in the National Historic Landmarks Program. Technical Brief No. 3, December 1988.
The National Park Service's National Historic Landmarks (NHL) Program plays a major role in preserving nationally significant cultural resources. National Historic Landmark designation increases public awareness of archaeology by highlighting the importance of the most significant prehistoric and historic archaeological resources. By disseminating information on threats to archaeological NHL's, the program draws attention to the worst problems confronting the finest sites. By sponsoring study of nationally significant archaeological resources, the NHL Program helps citizens better understand the past. And by increasing the number of archaeological NHLS, the Program publicizes the benefits and limitations of current laws and statutes meant to protect U.S. archaeological heritage. This publication explains the NHL Program; the process by which NHLS are identified, nominated, and designated; defines the major issues involving NHL prehistoric and historic archaeological resources; and shows how the NHL Program can help to meet the challenge confronting the national archaeological heritage. Several photographs of NHL sites are included. | [FULL TEXT]
Gruson, Pascale (1988). Reflections on the 1986 Student Movement: Some Paradoxes in France's System of Higher Education. International Journal of Institutional Management in Higher Education, 12, 1.
Events and factors leading to the 1986 uprising among French university students are outlined and discussed. The protest and its tragic results occurred because of a sometimes misunderstood new plan to restrict admissions and impose higher fees in order to make the system more efficient.
Grussing, Paul G.; And Others (1983). The Federal Drug Law Examination: Development, Performance, and Curricular Effects. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 47, 1.
The development of a national, standardized federal drug law examination is described, including its purpose, content, reliability, overall performance, and scoring method. Candidate performance for 3 years is reported, with variance by state, school, etc.
Gold, Howard, Ed. (1985). Making the Connection: Disarmament, Development and Economic Conversion. A Resource Guide.
This nine-part guide provides resources on various topics and issues related disarmament, development, and economic conversion. They include: (1) recent publications (with their tables of contents provided, when applicable); (2) research institutes; (3) non-governmental organizations with primary contacts for information; (4) research and information sources (arranged according to four areas, namely, disarmament-development, military issues and economics, economic conversion, and miscellaneous); (5) audio-visual materials; (6) proposed legislation; (7) sources of information on military spending and arms policy, presented in three sections, namely, the Bibliographic Survey from the International Institute for Strategic Studies (London), United States government, and military-industrial complex; (8) economic conversion conferences; and (9) two bibliographies. The first is an annotated bibliography of recent publications in five categories; the second is a two part bibliography of items related to economic consequences of armament and economic consequences of disarmament. The majority of the resources provided include descriptions and, when applicable, the names and addresses of contact persons.
Gold, Ruth; Spivack, Frieda (1983). Standards for Excellence: Recommendations for Preschool Special Education Teacher Competencies in New York State.
The report is designed as a guideline for preservice and inservice teacher education programs and the New York local education agencies providing preschool services to handicapped children. A set of competencies was reviewed, rated and discussed by professionals in the field at two workshops and in consultation with preschool program administrators. Competencies are listed for eight major areas (sample subtopics in parentheses): (1) personal qualities of teachers (warm and positive behavior); (2) knowledge of child development (integrated knowledge of child growth and development sequences); (3) knowledge of early childhood special education (legislation, impacts on the family); (4) identification, screening, and referral (due process and procedural safeguards); (5) assessment (preparation of written reports); (6) individual educational programs (IEP) and placement (effective work with parents); (7) curriculum (development and selection of appropriate materials); and (8) instruction and management (use of the IEP to plan instruction and implementation of the IEP in the classroom setting). | [FULL TEXT]
Goldberg, Steven S. (1986). Implementing Legal Change in the Schools: Recent Research and Comments. Planning and Changing, 17, 4.
Research suggests that federal legislation to resolve educational issues may be unrealistic and unworkable in practice. Parents and school officials accustomed to controlling educational decision making do not appreciate policy imposition from a distant bureaucracy; responses to policy may produce unequal or unfair outcomes when implemented at the district level. Includes 36 references.
Goldberg, Steven S. (1989). The Failure of Legalization in Education: Alternative Dispute Resolution and the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. Journal of Law and Education, 18, 3.
A federal statute provided that parents may use the judicial process to challenge educators' decisions. Describes the intent of legalization; how reaction to an adversarial system led to the use of mediation in most states; and why this alternative model is not appropriate for resolving education questions.
Goldblatt, Steven M.; Wood, R. Craig (1983). Financing Educational Facility Construction: Prevailing Wage Litigation.
This chapter presents an up-to-date analysis of prevailing state wage laws that affect educational facility construction or renovation and highlights relevant prevailing wage litigation in many states. Currently, 13 states have no prevailing wage laws for public works. The other 37 states and the District of Columbia do have prevailing wage laws for public works, but considerable inconsistency exists among the different statutes. The specific characteristics of some of these laws and the relevant court decisions are discussed. The analysis reveals that broadly-worded, vague guidelines subject themselves to the continual threat of a legal challenge; however, where state legislatures have enacted specific, nondiscriminatory prevailing wage rates, legal challenges and litigation are minimal.
Goldblatt, Steven M.; Wood, R. Craig (1985). Construction Management for Educational Facilities: Professional Services' Procurement and Competitive Bid Statutes.
Construction management is utilized when a school district engages a firm to coordinate a total project. The construction management seeks to save an owner time and cost primarily through better contractor coordination and project management. These services may include the planning and design phases of the project as well as the actual construction of the facility. State laws regarding construction management are placed in categories according to whether construction management is authorized, apparently authorized, not authorized, or not addressed. An examination of the status of construction management for public school districts throughout the country reveals a mixed picture. The construction of educational facilities is clearly within the purview of the state legislatures. Generally, this state responsibility is delegated to the local school districts. While the responsibility is delegated, so too is the observance of public bid statutes. Within the past few years, many states have moved toward more flexible approaches to how school districts may construct educational facilities. Public policy-makers are beginning to realize that the public may well be protected through a construction management project delivery system. | [FULL TEXT]
Golden, Lonnie; Danann, Sharon (1989). White Collar Displacement: Job Erosion in the Service Sector.
The National Commission for Employment Policy estimates that 19 million workers--17 percent of the work force--are in jobs directly threatened by office automation, and the consequences of the displacement of clerical workers due to increasing office computerization are as serious as those from manufacturing job loss. Between 1983 and 1988, almost half of displaced workers in the United States came from the service sector. Women, minorities, and older workers fare far worse than others. To prevent clerical dislocation and to mitigate turbulence from labor-saving technologies, the following policies must be adopted immediately: (1) a massive retraining effort targeting women clericals must be undertaken to upgrade workers for the relatively high-growth technical and professional positions; (2) private employers must retrain their current personnel rather than raise hiring standards and then hire externally for upgraded positions; (3) the federal law requiring early notification of impending layoffs must be extended to cover smaller companies or departments within companies; (4) union contracts must include job security clauses that guarantee employment over the life of a contract even in the face of automation and that guarantee replacements for significant numbers of positions now left vacant; and (5) the private and public sectors must fund more job retraining, worker upgrading, and adult education programs in conjunction with local education agencies. (247 references)
Goldenberg, Robert L.; Nelson, Kathleen G. (1983). Practice: Maternal and Child Health in America: Toward a Model Local Program. Journal of Children in Contemporary Society, 15, 4.
Describes important federal legislation impacting on child health. Examines problems in translating federal legislation into effective care for children. Working within the existing federal legislation framework, describes the components of a model health care system. Also discusses health care for pregnant women.
Goldman, Charles D. (1985). Disability Rights: A Perspective on Advocacy. Journal of Intergroup Relations, 13, 2.
Reviews Federal legislation since 1968 affecting disabled people and discusses political and bureaucratic inaction that compromised implementation. Suggests that the remainder of the 1980's will be a period when disabled persons must assert their rights, supposedly guaranteed by Federal and State laws, to participate fully in society.
Goldman, Harvey; Intriligator, Barbara A. (1988). A Profile of State Interagency Efforts for Children with Special Needs and Their Families.
This report presents findings from a study of the ways in which interagency efforts by State and local government agencies influence accessibility of services for children with handicapping conditions and their families. The research was designed as a case study of a mid-Atlantic State that has a wide range of demographic characteristics. Thirty state personnel involved with planning or programs for children with handicaps and their families were interviewed, and information from documents and meetings was examined. The organizational conditions and interpersonal relationships that determine whether an interagency effort is cooperative, coordinative, or collaborative are described in terms of the following features: interagency objective, interagency policies, interagency structure, resources, loyalty to the interagency effort, procedures to establish agreement, decisionmaking processes, and roles of key personnel. Three state interagency committees were studied: the State Coordinating Council for Residential Placement, the Interagency Planning Committee for Children, and the Interagency Coordinating Council. The report concludes with a discussion of the implications of study findings for interagency efforts associated with Part H of Public Law 99-457. (Nine references) | [FULL TEXT]
Goldman, Jeri J. (1982). Restitution for Damages to Public School Property. Journal of Law and Education, 11, 2.
Examines the conditions under which students and/or their parents can be required to make restitution for damages by the students to public school property.
Goldring, John (1987). Ombudsmen and Australian Universities. Australian Universities' Review, 30, 1.
A discussion of ombudsmen in Australian universities looks at their role, relevant legislation, problems arising from the limited powers of the position, and the initiation and investigation of complaints.
Goldschmidt, Steven M.; And Others (1989). School Characteristics and Contrary Educational Policies. Educational Research Quarterly, 12, 3.
This paper integrates the findings of three studies that each analyzed the content of collective bargaining agreements, state statutes, and other documents. Taken together, the studies suggest that school districts are incorporating policies into collective bargaining agreements that run counter to school reform initiatives.
Goldstein, Barry L.; Patterson, Patrick O. (1988). Turning Back the Title VII Clock: The Resegregation of the American Work Force through Validity Generalization. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 33, 3.
Refers to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Supreme Court's disparate impact interpretation of Title VII in Griggs versus Duke Power Company. Contends that attacks on the Griggs decision are legally unsound and that claims made by advocates of validity generalization are scientifically unsupported.
Goldstein, Cynthia (1985). The Radical Press and the Beginning of the Birth Control Movement in the United States.
The American birth control movement was born among radicals, mostly socialist women, early in the twentieth century. Although some information about birth control had circulated in medical journals, books and advertising in the nineteenth century, the passage in 1873 of a federal obscenity law known as the Comstock law resulted in the absence of information about birth control in nonmedical media. Birth control proponents, such as William and Margaret Sanger and Emma Goldman, then used and created their own publications by means of the radical press, which provided press coverage of birth control and the heroes and martyrs of the movement. A profound change in American attitudes toward birth control occurred in the early twentieth century. Late nineteenth century moral revulsion became disinterested acceptance. The true context of the movement received media attention only in the radical press, however. Progressivism, a product of Victorian values, did not go beyond those values. The progressive movement as inherently conservative in its attempts to make American institutions function properly served as a catalyst for the anarchistic rebellion of the birth control movement. The radical press recognized contraception as antagonistic to progressivism rather than accepting it as a delayed part or result of progressivism. That press perceived progressivism as dealing with only the symptoms, as opposed to the causes, of poverty. However, the radical press did function as both informer and persuader in its coverage of the birth control movement.
Goldstein, Michael B. (1984). Issues of Law and Policy Affecting Telecommunications-Based Distance Learning.
This study explores the degree to which the delivery of elementary and secondary instruction through the use of telecommunications is constrained by federal and state law, and examines the nature of the constraints and their implications for the present and future use of telecommunications-based delivery instruction to students within the age of compulsory education. The state and federal roles in the control and financing of elementary and secondary education are outlined, and state regulation of precollegiate education is discussed with particular regard to regulation of finance, institutional approval, and the concept of attendance. Issues are identified which concern the potential conflict between state control of education and federal preemption of most aspects of telecommunication. The effects of regulatory constraints on the uses of telecommunications-based instruction on the provision of postsecondary education are also discussed as an indication of what may be faced by the primary and secondary education sector. Conclusions and six tables are included. | [FULL TEXT]
Goldstein, Michael B. (1987). Equity Financing: Research Partnerships. New Directions for Higher Education, 58.
Intellectual property, the knowledge created within the institution in the course of research carried out by its faculty, students, and staff, is an asset unique to colleges and universities and represents a significant opportunity for enhancing the present and future economic position of an institution.
Goldwasser, Evelyn; And Others (1983). The Impact of PL 94-142 on the Practice of School Psychology: A National Survey. Psychology in the Schools, 20, 2.
Surveyed school psychologists (N=856) to determine the impact of PL 94-142. The results suggested that this legislation has had remarkably little impact on the evaluation procedures used or on the school psychologist's role. Two clear changes may have negative implications (e.g., an increased focus on handicapped children and increased paperwork).
Golembeski, Marcia; And Others (1984). Job Search Guide. Second Edition.
This workbook is designed to aid women in finding ways to prepare for work, deciding on the right work for them, and getting the job. Questionnaires and forms with instructions are provided in each section to aid the user in a job search. Section I is a preface. Section II concerns preparing for work. Questions elicit information on life and work experiences. A personal inventory form is provided to organize this information. Information on choosing the right job is then presented. Section III deals with questions of deciding on work suited to the individual. It includes sources for job ideas, guidelines for an occupational investigation, a worksheet for occupational research, information on job rights and discrimination, tips on long-term planning, a graph to match careers and needs and a career timetable. Obstacles are briefly considered. Section IV focuses on job search. It rates job search methods, provides a checklist for finding a job, and discusses how to prepare a resume, cover letter, and application. Outlines are presented for a resume and cover letter. Interview questions and interviewing guidelines are listed. Section V focuses on handling discrimination. Descriptions of legislation regarding discrimination, benefits, hours, and working conditions and addresses at which to file complaints are provided.
Gollobin, Ira (1988). Are Sanctions on Employers Constitutional? Migration World, 16, 1.
Questions the constitutional validity of employer sanctions used to deter illegal immigration under the Immigration Reform and Control Act. Points out the anomaly of using criminal penalties to deter a civil, administrative violation.
_____. (1989). Groundwater: Illinois' Buried Treasure. Education Activity Guide.
Groundwater is an extremely valuable resource that many feel has been too long neglected and taken for granted. There is growing recognition in Illinois and throughout the United States that comprehensive groundwater protection measures are vital. Illinois embarked on a course in protecting groundwater resources with the passage of the Illinois Groundwater Protection Act in 1987. The Interagency Coordinating Committee on Groundwater brought 10 state agencies together to solve problems related to groundwater contamination. The Department of Energy and Natural Resources' primary responsibilities under the act involve research, monitoring, technical assistance, and education. This activity guide was produced in response to groundwater legislation in Illinois and is correlated with state learning goals in biology and physical sciences. Ten activities include the water cycle, how different soils affect water movement, porosity and permeability, water filtering, water monopoly, hazardous substances, waste disposal, and decision making. Appendices include background information, activity sheets, a glossary, a list of agency resources, additional curricular resources, and a conceptual framework.
Groff, Patrick (1984). A Challenge to Reading Teacher Education. Journal of Reading Education, 10, 1.
The author explains why he supports the establishment of a National Commission on Teacher Education.
Grosenick, Judith; And Others (1982). Excerpts From: Disciplinary Exclusion of Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children from Public Schools: Monograph 7. Monograph Series in Behavior Disorders.
Issues surrounding disciplinary exclusion of seriously emotionally disturbed children from public schools are addressed, along with applicable federal legislation, court cases, and Office of Civil Rights (OCR) opinions. Exclusion is defined as the removal from, or the prohibition of, participating in the public school program in part or entirety, including suspension and explusion. Two overlapping pieces of federal legislation and their regulations are reviewed: Education of the Handicapped Act, as amended by P.L. 94-142, and Section 504 of P.L. 93-112, the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The following issues are examined: (1) What is the relationship of a child's behavior to his/her identification as being handicapped, particularly for the seriously emotionally disturbed? (2) Are there limits to a school's responsibility to provide a free appropriate public education to a handicapped child? (3) How should disciplinary matters related to handicapped children be decided? (4) What procedural safeguards are required if a school elects exclusion as an alternative? Court cases and OCR opinions are discussed that pertain to the concepts of the least restrictive environment for the child, the right to a free appropriate public education (FAPE), and due process. Based on directions suggested by the courts and OCR for school districts, it is concluded that any permanent exclusion of a handicapped student probably violates the FAPE requirement. Ten annotations of court cases are appended. | [FULL TEXT]
Gross, Bertram; Singh, Kusum (1985). Global Unemployment: Challenge to Futurists.
Creative actions toward preventing global unemployment seek to (1) uncover the painful realities of joblessness, (2) design better models for fruitful discourse and action, (3) climb the "commanding policy heights" of moral vision, (4) move from autocratic to democratic corporatism, (5) uncover the kind of information that may hold power holders more accountable, and (6) promote global dialogue on the hidden crisis of unemployment. Possible actions along these lines include confronting the "ostriches" who shun full employment commitments, hide un- and under-employment, and dodge the sources of bank crisis. Multidimensional models that build upon the best in different systems, practices, idealogies, and faiths and the development of a moral vision that weaves the highest human values together with the strands of specific micro- and macro-politics can provide a constructive approach to the unemployement challenge. Included in this morality is a commitment to designing future policies to bolster economic and political rights for everyone and to bringing about "power democratization"--the organization of the weak to counter overcentralization and breathe more life into the structure and procedures of constitutional democracy. Democratic corporatism, stronger transnational labor movements, and political leaders for economic rights are needed. Moreover, overall democratic planning for fuller employment requires a research program based on continuous improvement in concepts, definitions, collectives, analysis, and distribution of quantitative and qualitative data. Finally, countries dealing with the unemployment crisis should consider "people-to-people planning forums" legislation and a United Nations full employment-technology conference.
Gross, Harriet; Gipps, Caroline (1987). Supporting Warnock's Eighteen Per Cent: Six Case Studies.
Detailed case studies are presented of six local education authorities (LEAs) in England and Wales which participated in the Screening and Special Educational Provision Project, a project focusing on the estimated 18 percent of the primary school population who have mild learning difficulties in basic skills. Each LEA's approach to special needs identification and provision is described in terms of the following: support available before the 1981 Education Act, effect of the Act, and cuts in education expenditure; viewpoints of support services, schools, and class teachers; and what the approach offers to the child. Results indicated that all six LEAs had some form of support service, differing in size and prioritization of specific disabling conditions. Financial cuts required that LEA officers use resources more effectively and emphasize more advisory work. It was felt that the 1981 Education Act stressed the role of the class teacher in meeting special needs, increased the number of educational psychologists, and increased awareness of the extent of need. Half the LEAs had a screening program to identify children for special help. Inservice training concerning special needs students was poorly regarded by the teachers. Improved liaison between support services and class teachers was needed.
Grossman, Pam; And Others (1985). Curricular Change in California Comprehensive High Schools: 1982-83 to 1984-85.
Curricular changes among 20 public comprehensive high schools in California from 1982-83 to 1984-85 were analyzed. This report focuses primarily on changes in advanced placement courses in sample schools; it is accompanied by a discussion of policy implications and tables of demographic and course section data. The researchers discovered a substantial increase (34 percent) in advanced placement course sections, with the largest departmental increases occurring in math and science. Home economics and industrial arts offerings have dropped, 21 percent and 16 percent, respectively. Schools with lower parent education (utilized as a proxy measure of socioeconomic status) show the greatest increases in academic offerings. Schools in both high and low socioeconomic status categories display roughly equivalent losses in industrial arts and increases in foreign languages. The pattern of increase in traditional academic offerings indicates that curricular changes are consistent with objectives of recent reform efforts. Policy implications center around the finding that more academic offerings are available to advanced students but that the availability of nonacademic electives for general track students has declined. Also, math and science increases occur during a teacher shortage in those areas. Report findings are placed in the context of a review of related literature.
Grossman, Pamela L.; And Others (1986). On the Trail of the Omnibeast: Evaluating Omnibus Education Reforms in the 1980s. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 8, 3.
To explore the effects of educational reform legislation, curricular changes in California comprehensive high schools from 1982-83 to 1984-85 are investigated. Results mirrored statewide curricular changes documented in California Basic Education Data System data. The changes involved increased offerings in math, science, and advanced placement.
Grosz, Karen S. (1989). Meeting the Needs of the Disabled. [CAPED Journal]
With the increased funding made available by California Assembly Bill 1725, community college faculty members have the opportunity to inform themselves and make changes in policy regarding the disabled. The disabled are often overlooked as a special interest or underrepresented group in affirmative action plans. Individuals involved with the disabled can play critical roles in assisting local academic senates to make their schools aware of the need to recruit and hire the disabled. These specialists can help the senates by pointing out the poor representation of the disabled among faculty, staff, and administrators, and by influencing local policy development and hiring decisions. They should also serve on affirmative action committees as representatives, in order to further sensitize the campus community to the needs of the disabled. Districts and local senates should work together to review district affirmative action plans. Because our culture places extreme value on physical perfection, the disabled face formidable obstacles in becoming part of the community. Within the collegiate setting, these harmful perceptions can be changed. This legislation's focus on staff and faculty development will facilitate modifications in the curriculum and the teaching-learning environment in order to encourage greater recognition of and sensitivity toward the disabled. | [FULL TEXT]
Grosz, Karen Sue, Ed. (1989). Issues in California Community Colleges. [Forum]
This issue of Forum, a journal designed to permit California community college faculty to share ideas, contains six articles focusing on issues related to the enactment of Assembly Bill 1725 (AB 1725). The first article, "Your Father's Oldsmobile: The Uses of Tradition in Core Programs," by John McFarland, analyzes the development of general education programs in U.S. higher education. "Management Wisdom through the Ages," by Jack Scott, discusses management techniques throughout history, focusing on six main tenets: selecting effective personnel, listening carefully, anticipating problems, correcting mistakes, maintaining integrity, and persevering. Next, Cy Gulassa argues, in "Collaborative Governance in the Foothill-DeAnza Community College District," that the increased faculty and student roles in district governance mandated by AB 1725 can be achieved through the use of policy development groups, and provides a detailed description of the Foothill-DeAnza budget policy group. "Meeting the Needs of the Disabled," by Karen S. Grosz, argues that the failure to meet the needs of disabled students results in a college culture that overlooks the moral and intellectual worth of an individual, thus contradicting the aim of education. Finally, "Theory into Practice: Knowledge and Skills Gained in Graduate School Applied to College Administration," by Ann Stephenson and Jan Moser, applies skills and concepts which the authors learned in graduate school to college administration. The journal concludes with a model of contract faculty hiring procedures prepared by the Academic Senate Educational Policies Committee.
Grosz, Karen Sue, Ed.; Donaldson, Charles R., Ed. (1987). The Academic Senate for California Community Colleges. Eleventh Annual Report.
An overview is provided of the 1987 activities and positions of the Academic Senate for California Community Colleges. The annual report includes: (1) "The President's Report," by Mark G. Edelstein, which reviews the implications of California's Master Plan for Higher Education and the major activities of the Academic Senate; (2) "The President-Elect's Report," by Karen Sue Grosz, which offers brief comments on the future role of the Academic Senate; (3) "1986-87 Budget: Financial Report to Date, June 5, 1987," by Phil Hartley, which looks at income and expenditures; (4) a list of Senate committees, their role, and officers; (5) committee reports by the Accreditation Committee; the Annual Report, Rostrum and Forum Committee; Assembly Bill 3409 Task Force on Finance; the Coordinating Committee of the California Articulation Number System; California Articulation Partnership Project Advisory Committee; California State University General Education-Breadth Advisory Committee; Educational Policies Committee; English Council of California Two-Year Colleges; Faculty Development Committee; Intersegmental Committee of the Academic Senates; Operations Committee; Research Committee; Vocational Education Committee; and Intersegmental Committees focusing on the Biology Transfer Curriculum, General Education Transfer Core Curriculum, and Visual and Performing Arts; and (6) additional reports on the activities of the Sacramento office and archives, the California Great Teachers Seminar, Senate publications; the Curriculum Consultants Project; the Master Plan Commission, and spring and fall general sessions. | [FULL TEXT]
Grover, Herbert J. (1983). The 1981-1983 Biennial Report. Bulletin No. 4157.
This report describes the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction's activities and initiatives during the past 2 years and some of the major directions for the 1983-85 biennium. The department's five administrative divisions and selected corresponding subdivisions are presented as follows: (1) School Financial Resources and Management Services--(financial) aids administration, financial consultation, audits, processing sites, cost control administration, federal aid, pupil transportation, school district organization, private school liaison services, driver education, school facilities, community education, food and nutrition services, and educational opportunity program; (2) Handicapped Children and Pupil Services--performance and operation of the division, alcohol and other drug abuse, counseling and guidance, bureau for children with physical needs, Wisconsin school for the deaf; (3) Instructional Services--bureau for program development, bilingual-bicultural education programs, school improvement office, bureau for vocational education, bureau for teacher education and certification, competency-based testing, educational assessment; (4) Library Services--bureau for public and cooperative library services, bureau for instructional media and technology, bureau for interlibrary loan and resource sharing; (5) Management and Budget--personnel administration, fiscal services, policy and budget, general services, word processing systems and data processing, office of legal counsel, equal educational opportunity, and education information services.
Grover, Ranjeet; And Others (1983). Current Sickle Cell Screening Program for Newborns in New York City, 1979-1980. American Journal of Public Health, 73, 3.
Screening tests indicated that 141 out of 106,565 infants examined in New York City during 1979-80, had various forms of sickle cell anemia. Follow-up of 131 patients confirmed the original diagnoses, suggesting that the New York City Follow-up Program for Sickle Cell Screening of newborns was successful.
_____. (1987). Guaranteed Job Opportunity Act. Hearings on S. 777 to Guarantee a Work Opportunity for All Americans, and for Other Purposes before the Subcommittee on Employment and Productivity of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (Washington, D.C., March 23, 1987 and Moline, Illinois, April 3, 1987). Part 1.
The Guaranteed Job Opportunity Act would make major changes in federal policy on the unemployed. The bill would allow hard core unemployed persons to work on government projects until they find a job in the private sector. The participants would work four days per week for minimum wages or 10% more than welfare or 10% more than unemployment compensation. The testimony for this bill given to the Senate Subcommittee on Employment and Productivity in Washington, D.C., provided by government officials and leaders of civil rights and social justice organizations, covered the following issues: (1) maintenance of infrastructure as an appropriate project for these workers; (2) conditions of the labor market; (3) education and training considerations; (4) economic strategies for full employment; (5) the multi-billion dollar cost of the program; and (6) positive and negative aspects of creating public sector jobs. When the subcommittee reconvened in Illinois, testimony was given by unemployed workers, union members, and representatives of the private sector. | [FULL TEXT]
_____. (1987). Guaranteed Student Loans. Legislative and Regulatory Changes Needed to Reduce Default Costs. Report to Congressional Requesters.
The loan collection practices and procedures of guaranty agencies and ways to reduce default costs were assessed by the U.S. General Accounting Office at the request of Congress. Questionnaires were completed by 58 guaranty agencies and visits were made to eight agencies. Before revised regulations were issued by the U.S. Department of Education in November 1986, each guaranty agency was allowed to establish its own collection practices, and the agencies' collection practices varied. The revised regulations required all agencies to pursue five specific actions to collect defaulted loans. These steps, pertaining to the type and frequency of collection attempts, should help to reduce federal default costs. Legislative actions taken in 1986 include a requirement for defaulters to pay reasonable collection costs and reporting to credit bureaus about the borrowers' loans and repayment patterns. Additional suggestions concerning loan collection are presented. Appendices include: examples of major legislative changes to the Guaranteed Student Loan Program and comments from the Department of Education, the Internal Revenue Service, and the National Council of Higher Education Loan Programs, Inc. | [FULL TEXT]
_____. (1987). Guaranteed Job Opportunity Act. Joint Hearing on S. 777 to Guarantee a Work Opportunity for All Americans, and for Other Purposes before the Subcommittee on the Handicapped of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session. Part 2.
The Guaranteed Job Opportunity Act would make major changes in federal policy on the unemployed by guaranteeing a public sector job to hard core unemployed persons until they find a job in the private sector. Part two of the testimony for this bill was given to a joint session of the Senate Subcommittee on Employment and Productivity and the Subcommittee on the Handicapped. This testimony covered the following issues: (1) poor quality of life for the disabled; (2) training and employment of the handicapped; (3) models of successful job programs for the disabled; (4) special problems of blacks who are disabled; and (5) support services for disabled persons who work. | [FULL TEXT]
Giroux, Roy F. (1989). Human Resource Development at Humber College of Applied Arts and Technology.
An overview is provided of Humber College's Human Resource Development programs and activities. Sections I and II present a profile of Humber College, explain the mandate of the college's Human Resource Development Committee, and summarize the activities of the Professional Development Department. Section III describes the following components of the program: (1) faculty development, including orientation for new faculty, in-service education, faculty consultations, presentations of certificates, and mentorships; (2) management development, including professional development opportunities for chairs, academic administrator training, and in-house training; (3) support staff development, including orientations, workshops, and a support staff appreciation week; (4) leadership training for students; (5) cross-college activities, including committee participation, a showcase of innovative practices, and instructional development grants; (6) provincial, national, and international opportunities for conference participation and staff exchanges; and (7) training initiatives resulting from legislation. The awards program used by the college to recognize exemplary and innovative contributions to the field is explained in section VI, while section V describes the League for Innovation in the Community College and Humber College's participation in its activities. Section VI highlights activities undertaken by the Women's Educational Council to further the development of women on campus; and section VII reviews the charge of the Task Force on Human Resource Development in the Third Decade. The final sections look at campus-based undergraduate, graduate, and post-graduate studies, and professional affiliations. Appendixes contain a report on the "Scope of the Faculty Development Program at Humber" and sample brochures for human resource development programs.
Gnezda, M. Therese; Smith, Shelley L. (1987). Legislative Research Studies in State Education Policy. Selected Case Studies, 1983-1986.
Since 1976 the U.S. Department of Education has helped fund 60 education policies by state legislatures. These competitive matching grants, or cost-sharing awards, have laid the groundwork for significant education reforms. This report seeks to advance information-sharing among state legislatures and between policy makers and researchers. The report contains a list of 27 cost-sharing awards funded between 1983-86 and presents 4 case studies highlighting important issues confronting state legislatures today and illustrating the different methods that legislatures use to define issues and employ research in making changes in state education policies. In 1983, Tennessee's General Assembly was stalemated over the controversial issue of rewarding teachers with higher salaries. Finally, a Select Committee on Education used a cost-sharing award to commission papers from education researchers and provide expert testimony. The committee then drafted a bill underlying the state's landmark career ladder law. In 1985, the Maine Legislature used a cost-sharing award to conduct its own field research project on teachers' decisions to stay in the classroom or leave teaching. As a result, the legislature can deal realistically with teacher supply and demand by relying on state data. The two other case studies involve a Washington State higher education funding formula research project and a South Carolina project to monitor the progress of recent educational reform efforts. | [FULL TEXT]
Gnezda, M. Therese; Smith, Shelley L. (1989). Child Care and Early Childhood Education Policy: A Legislator's Guide.
This book discusses state child care and early childhood education policies, particularly their relationship to the economy. It provides a framework for policymakers who are deliberating child care and early childhood education policies; outlines the range of recent state legislation; describes initiatives of Massachusetts and Washington; and suggests ways of integrating child care and early childhood education policy approaches on the state level. State child care policies have been implemented for the purposes of reducing the cost of child care; contributing to the expansion, accessibility, and quality of child care; and providing support to parents in education and training programs. State funding of early childhood education has grown considerably over the past decade. But in most cases, state implementation of early childhood education programs is limited in scope and takes the form of half-day programs. State early childhood education programs seldom provide comprehensive services. Recently enacted state legislation illustrates an emerging trend toward expanded services. State policymakers are considering potential benefits of expanding child care and early childhood education policies under a comprehensive approach to a state's economy. Two tables provide state-by-state information on regulation of child care centers and family day care. Citations number 88.
Gnezda, Terry; Robison, Susan (1986). State Approaches to Early Childhood Education. [State Legislative Report]
This legislative report presents the findings of a 1986 telephone survey of states that have enacted state-funded pre-kindergarten early childhood education programs. The survey was designed to collect data related to the legislative authority, intent, and oversight of the early childhood education programs and to gain information on the characteristics of program implementation. Among the implementation factors included in the survey were administrative structure, funding mechanisms and levels, mandated program components, and teacher qualifications. In addition to the District of Columbia, the states surveyed were: California, Florida, Illinois, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsysvania, South Carolina, Texas, and Washington. At the time the survey was conducted, the extent of implementation of early childhood education programs varied considerably by state. A chart of the findings is appended along with a table indicating the variation in program implementation across states.
Gladieux, Lawrence E. (1983). The Use, Misuse, and Non-Use of Policy Research: Student Financial Aid.
The role of policy research on federal aid to college students is considered. Attention is directed to the contributions of research to the origins of federal policies in the 1960s and the later expansion of benefits to middle-income students. In addition, recent research on the effects of student aid is reviewed, and the outlook for reauthorization of the Higher Education Act in the mid-1980s is noted. Census and other survey data have documented the inequities in opportunities to attend college. The enactment of the Middle Income Student Assistance Act in 1978 permitted any student to quality for Guaranteed Student Loans (GSL). One function of the National Commission on Student Financial Assistance, which was established in 1980, was to study alternative proposals to reduce GSL costs. To date, the Commission's work has supported the status quo in federal student loan policies. There are limitations in the available data and analysis on the complex issue of whether student aid has made a difference in patterns of student access and choice. Although the results of policy research will be variously used, misused, and ignored in the political process, the information is important to policy decisions.
Gladieux, Lawrence E. (1985). Federal Student Aid and the Goal of Equal Opportunity: The Record and the Future.
The history of federal student financial aid legislation, 1965-1985, is traced, and problems faced in the mid-1980s, and possible future directions are considered. The Higher Education Act of 1965 was the first explicit federal commitment to equalizing college opportunities for needy students through grants and programs such as Talent Search. Some parts of the Higher Education Act, such as College Work-Study and Upward Bound, originated in the War on Poverty legislation. During the 1960s the emphasis was educational opportunity regardless of one's social or economic origins. The 1972 Amendments to the Higher Education Act expanded support to student aid and created a number of new programs; later aid to middle-income students was enacted. By 1980 the growth era for student aid was over. The traditional federal emphasis on subsidies for low-income students became diluted, and college enrollment rates among low-income and minority groups declined. While Guaranteed Student Loans (GSL) provide relief from the burden of costs, they may replace what families are capable of contributing. Two suggestions are offered: a fundamental change of student loan policy to relieve the demand on the highly subsidized, costly structure of the current GSL; and awarding student aid benefits in return for public and community service.
Gladin, Earl Wade (1987). Home Education: Characteristics of Its Families and Schools.
This study of the characteristics of home schooling is based on returned questionnaires of 37 questions each, mailed to a random sample of 416 drawn from 6,850 families listed in the Bob Jones University Press home school mailing list. The 253 returned questionnaires, representing a 62% reponse, provided data on the characteristics of these families, the characteristics of the home schools, the opinions of the families about their homes and schools, and the relationships between the characteristics and opinions. Questionnaires were analyzed using Rbase 5000, Lotus 1-2-3, and SPSS software. Based on analysis of the findings, the following conclusions were drawn about the typical home school: (1) these home school parents were college-trained young adult professionals who lived in the suburbs, had three children, earned above-average income, were religiously motivated, and monitored television-viewing closely; (2) the home school had operated less than 3 years, the mother was the primary teacher, the students (mostly elementary and middle-school level) had previously attended either a public or a Christian school and were enthusiastic about their home school, which emphasized language arts and arithmetic and used Christian instructional materials; (3) these families started home schooling based on religious convictions and concern about the effects of peer pressure on their children; and (4) these parents were satisfied with their home schools, were not influenced by home school organizations, and were not bothered by civil authorities. Tables and figures number 86; a 13-page bibliography and a list of 59 legal citations are provided. The questionnaire is appended, along with a tabulation of results and suggested legislation to facilitate home education.
Glantz, Larry (1988). Transition to Success in Maine's Communities: Moving Forward into the 1990's to Complete a Statewide Service Network for Students with Handicaps Who Leave Maine's Schools. The Final Report of the Two-Year Demonstration Project Phase.
The final report documents activities and presents recommendations of the 2-year demonstration phase of a project to coordinate school-to-community transition services at the state and local levels for students with disabilities. The critical importance of the transition period and passage by the Maine Legislation in 1986 of the Transitional Services Coordination Act are reviewed, the Interagency Committee on Transition and the seven local service coordination networks are briefly discussed. Final recommendations to the Legislature are presented and include 11 specific recommendations subsumed within the following 5 general recommendations: (1) establish a permanent statewide transition planning and coordination system; (2) support and stabilize successful local transition planning and coordination efforts; (3) expand local transition planning and coordination efforts to all areas of the state; (4) establish an ongoing state program to support local coordination efforts through increased training, technical assistance, and distribution of information on "best transition practices"; and (5) ensure linkages between the statewide transition system and other coordination systems in Maine and New England as well as the direct involvement of the staff of the interagency Committee on Transition. After a brief comment on future outlook, appendices provide the text of the 1986 law and more detailed project information. Eleven other Maine publications on transition are listed.
Glaser, Lewrene K. (1986). Provisions of the Food Security Act of 1985. Agricultural Information Bulletin Number 498.
This report summarizes the 18 titles of the Food Security Act of 1985 and compares it with previous legislation where applicable. It describes the act's provisions for dairy; wool and mohair; wheat; feed grains; cotton; rice; peanuts; soybeans; sugar; other general commodity provisions; trade; conservation; credit; agricultural research, extension, and teaching; food stamp and related programs; marketing; and related and miscellaneous matters. Title XVIII pertains to the general effective date. Appendixes include a chart of commodity program levels, crop years 1982-86; synposes of major agricultural legislation, 1933-86; a glossary of agricultural policy terms; selected references; and a summary of the Food Security Improvement Act of 1986. | [FULL TEXT]
Glasman, Naftaly S. (1988). Mandated Student Testing and the School Principal: An Emerging Case in California. Journal of Educational Administration and History, 20, 1.
Describes a study of 185 California principals' perceptions concerning eight state-mandated tests. Principals generally lack strong opinions about these tests and seem to accept responsibility for implementing and interpreting them without complaint. Other U.S. states and western nations with more mandated testing experience might help define new administrator responsibility issues for California principals. Includes seven references.
Glass, Becky L.; Stolee, Margaret K. (1987). Family Law in Soviet Russia, 1917-1945. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 49, 4.
Discusses the intent and consequences of family law codes decreed in Soviet Union between 1917 and 1945, examining whether postrevolutionary government intended to destroy the family. Notes that Soviet policymakers did not achieve consensus on the issue of the family's role in socialist state, and legislation did not successfully alter citizens' attitudes and behavior as envisioned.
Glass, Gene V.; Schon, Isabel (1988). Effects of an English-only Law on Public Library Acquisition Policies, Practices, and Librarians' Attitudes toward Books in Spanish for Children and Young Adults. Library and Information Science Research, 10, 4.
Reports the results of a quasi-experimental evaluation of the effects of the California English-only law on public librarians' acquisition policies and attitudes toward books in Spanish for children and young adults. The results, which showed no effects, are interpreted in terms of the symbolic functions of legislation and public policy. (seven references)
Glass, Thomas E. (1986). Indian Oasis V. Warner: A Case of Federal Supremacy in Public Education. Journal of American Indian Education, 26, 1.
The conclusion to the Impact Aid Usage controversy in the various states rests with Congress, which has the authority to amend Public Law 81-874 and the equalization process to ensure that financial inequalities are not thrust upon Indian-populated school districts located in rural and isolated areas experiencing extraordinary operating expenses.
Glauber, Joseph W. (1988). Generic Certificates. Agricultural Economic Report Number 594.
The Food Security Act of 1985 authorizes the U.S. Department of Agriculture to issue generic certificates in lieu of cash payments due to program participants and merchants of agricultural products under provisions of several programs. The certificates may be used to acquire stocks held as collateral on government loans or owned by the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC). These certificates offer producers and merchants advantages when they are exchanged for crops held under loan or owned by the CCC, and they have freed up stocks that might not have been marketed. Although the costs of using certificates likely exceeded the costs of issuing those payments in cash during fiscal 1987, generic certificate costs are projected to range between 93 and 99 percent of cash costs during fiscal year 1989. As of March 31, 1988, about $17.9 billion worth of certificates had been issued, with about $1.7 billion worth having been redeemed as of May 31, 1988. Approximately 72 percent of the exchanges have been for corn, 20 percent for wheat, and the remainder for various other commodities held under loan or owned by the CCC. One concern that has been raised is that, by freeing up government-owned stocks, certificates may dampen prices and thus increase deficiency payments. | [FULL TEXT]
_____. (1984). Good Practice in Childminding: A Conference on the Local Authority Role in Childminding (Bromley, Kent, England, November 7, 1984).
This report includes the opening address and a verbatim report of talks given by the two main speakers at a seminar organized by the National Childminding Association (NCMA) to facilitate further discussion of the document "The Law on Childminding: Guidelines for Good Practice." Also included are a summary of the points raised in discussion and reports from each of four discussion groups. The opening address by Member of Parliament Harriet Harman provides an overview of needs of childminders and the childminding profession and describes the politial/economic context in which those needs will be addressed. The talk by NCMA President Dorothy Day reviews the development of public awareness of the needs of under-fives and increasing professionalization of the childminding field. John Ransford's talk focuses on political, economic, and organizational problems of providing social services to young children and childminders. As he notes, steps taken to deal with these issues include such efforts as short-term funding and planning. Discussion groups focused on the registration process, an anti-racist perspective to childminding, support services, and subsidized childminding.
Goodall, Leonard E., Ed. (1987). When Colleges Lobby States: The Higher Education/State Government Connection.
An overview of the process of university participation in state politics is provided, including the way in which a university interacts with the governor's office and the way it competes with other universities and other agencies for budget dollars. The following 23 articles are included: "The Influence of State Constitutional Conventions on the Future of Higher Education" (Samuel K. Gove and Susan Welch); "State Constitutions--An Update" (Leonard E. Goodall); "Constitutional Autonomy for Universities: The Current State of Judicial Opinions" (Richard B. Crockett); "Governors and Higher Education" (Samuel K. Gove); "University Reorganization in Wisconsin" (Allen Rosenbaum); "The State Story: Administrative Centralization" (Malcolm Moos and Francis E. Rourke); "Legislators and Academicians" (Heinz Eulau and Harold Quinley); "Lobbying for Limited Resources" (John W. Hicks); "How To Play the State Capitol Game" (Dan Angel); "Public Universities and the New State Politics" (E. Terrence Jones); "Long-Term Expectations for Financing Higher Education" (M. M. Chambers);"State Tuition Policies and Public Higher Education" (Allan W. Ostar); "The Management of Universities of Constant or Decreasing Size" (Richard M. Cyert); "Should States Support Private Colleges--Yes!" (Steven Muller); "Should States Support Private Colleges--No!" (Bill J. Priest); "The Public-Private Debate" (Frank H. T. Rhodes); "Trends in Statewide Planning and Coordination" (Patrick M. Callan and Richard W. Jonsen); "Ambiguities in the Administration of Public University System: An Organizing Perspective" (Lawrence K. Pettit); "Who's Afraid of the Statewide Board?" (James A. Norton); "The Point of the Discourse" (M. M. Chambers); "Memo to a Multicampus Trustee from a Flagship CEO" (Barry Munitz); "The Future of the Land-Grant University" (Malcolm Moos); and "State Colleges: An Unsettled Quality" (Robert Birnbaum). References included with each chapter.
Gooder, Glenn G. (1984). California Community Colleges Differential Funding Study: Field Report #3.
As mandated by state finance legislation of 1983, this report provides a plan for differential funding for California's community college districts, and presents the results of a study of differential funding. Part 1 of the report presents the differential funding plan, including a summary of the study and its findings and the basic principles and elements of the proposed funding plan. Part 2, divided into six chapters, focuses on the differential funding study. Chapter 1 presents background to community college finances, including a history of funding in the system, analyses of the impacts of changing funding policy and reduced funding levels, and a discussion of the expectations of differential funding. After chapter 2 reviews the study plan and procedures, chapter 3 considers differential cost funding in terms of state and local district interests and advantages and disadvantages. In chapter 4, the data needs of the funding mechanism are considered with regard to available data and plans for developing needed data. Chapter 5 provides an analysis of a differential cost funding approach for the community colleges, considering elements such as support categories, workload measures, support levels, and impact on individual districts. Finally, chapter 6 offers a plan for implementation, which identifies elements of the plan, suggests a schedule, estimates costs, and considers the legislative authorization needed. Appendices include a summary and analysis of data.
Goodis, Tracy Ann (1986). A Layman's Guide to 1986 U.S. Immigration Reform. Policy Discussion Paper.
New immigration legislation imposes civil and criminal penalties on employers who knowingly hire undocumented workers, and requires employers to verify the legal status of every new hire. The law also extends amnesty to possibly millions of undocumented immigrants who entered the United States prior to 1982. In addition, undocumented immigrants who have worked in the United States perishable agriculture for at least 90 days between May 1, 1985 and May 1, 1986 will be granted legal status under the newly established seasonal agricultural worker program. This program also provides agricultural employers with access to "replenishment workers" if a worker shortage develops in perishable commodities. Replenishment workers will be granted temporary resident status, but must remain in agricultural jobs for at least three years to avoid deportation. Additional funding is authorized for the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) to carry out the additional responsibilities imposed by the new law. Effective control of illegal immigration will depend largely on enforcement, a burden which will rest on employers. Millions of new immigrant members of American society will require incorporation into the mainstream.
Goodis, Tracy Ann (1986). Adaptation Processes of Recent Immigrants to the United States: A Review of the Demographic and Social Aspects. Policy Discussion Paper.
This paper reviews the recent literature on the demographic and social aspects of immigrant adaptation. Demographic information includes age and family structure, fertility behavior, intermarriage, and residential segregation. Social dimensions refer to native-language retention, English-language acquisition, and educational attainment. Most studies conclude that there are few significant differences between the grandchildren of immigrants and the native population in the United States overall. For example, for third-generation Mexican-American women, current fertility converges to the levels for non-Hispanic White women. Also, English fluency among Hispanics and Asians increases dramatically for subsequent native-born generations, and in some cases the transition from an immigrant's native language to English is complete by the third generation. For the Japanese, English fluency increases from one-fifth among the immigrant generation to 100 percent for third-generation Japanese-Americans. There is also evidence that success of the immigrant generation in adjusting to life in this country increases with length of residence.
Goodis, Tracy Ann; Espenshade, Thomas J. (1986). Immigration to Southern California: Fact and Fiction. Impacts of Immigration in California.
In 1980, 25% of the 14 million foreign-born persons in the United States were in California; 1.7 million of these were in Los Angeles County. Half of the 2.1 million undocumented immigrants counted in the 1980 United States Census lived in California, and about 75% of these were of Mexican origin. Results of a 1983 Urban Institute poll revealed that almost 90% of the 1,031 southern California residents surveyed regarded illegal immigration as a serious problem. Nearly 50% of all respondents (and almost 60% of Blacks) believed that illegal immigrants took jobs from citizens and contributed to unemployment and 69% thought undocumented immigrants lowered the overall level of wages in some occupations, primarily low-skill jobs. Only 20% of those interviewed knew of the Simpson-Mazzoli bill, the major comprehensive immigration reform legislation that failed to pass in the 98th Congress, and nearly half (42%) of these knew only the bill's name. An Urban Institute study of Mexican immigration to southern California did not support the view that immigrants take jobs from, or seriously depress the wages of, native workers. Findings implied that California's major challenge in the future will be learning how to absorb its millions of immigrants into society's mainstream.
Goodison, Jules (1985). National Assessment of Educational Progress: An Update of the Data Collection Process.
Since 1969 the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has conducted annual assessments to determine, in the language of the current legislation, "the performance of children and young adults in the basic skills of reading, mathematics and communications" and to "report data periodically on changes in the knowledge and skills of such students over a period of time." Since 1983, when Educational Testing Service (ETS) received the grant to administer NAEP, some important changes have been made in the original NAEP design to increase its utility, including: (1) sampling by grade as well as age, thereby allowing schools and states to compare NAEP data with their own grade samples; and (2) Balanced Incomplete Block (BIP) spiralling. Sampling became more efficient in BIP spiralling, since particular blocks of exercises were given to fewer students within a school, but were administered in more schools. Computation of correlation coefficients between all exercises was made possible in that each pair of blocks received a response. Individual items were still reported, and correlations were estimated from comparatively small samples. Diagrams of the spiralling process and tables depicting school cooperation and student participation accompany the text.
Goodspeed, Jonathan (1988). Vendors' Summit '88: A Special Report on the Hardware Industry. Electronic Learning, 7, 5.
Presents report of the Hardware Vendors/Educators Forum, which was convened to discuss microcomputer hardware in elementary and secondary schools. Representatives from Commodore, IBM, Tandy/Radio Shack, and Apple Computer, addressed topics including sales and service, integrating technology into the curriculum, college versus secondary level research, inservice training, and federal legislation.
Goodwin, David (1989). Postsecondary Vocational Education. National Assessment of Vocational Education Final Report. Volume IV.
The National Assessment of Vocational Education (NAVE) examined how the federal law was implemented and federal funds were distributed under the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act of 1984. This part of the study examined the federal role in supporting vocational education at the postsecondary level. It examines enrollments, course-taking, educational attainments, and labor market outcomes associated with postsecondary vocational education. It compares different groups of students at various types of institutions and considers the relationship between the act and other policies, both federal and state, that also finance postsecondary vocational education. The study found that postsecondary education is a growing enterprise that is central to the educational mission of less-than-baccalaureate institutions. There are 4.3 million vocational students at these schools. The major problem facing postsecondary vocational education is that many students do not stay in school long enough to receive in-depth training. For students who accumulate substantial amounts of vocational credits or complete programs, postsecondary vocational education pays off in economic terms. These findings strongly indicate the need to help students choose a field of study, complete the program, and find a related job. Perkins Act support of postsecondary education is low compared to state and local support. Federal policy in postsecondary vocational education should aim to improve rates of program completion and placement in related jobs, to provide special assistance to at-risk populations, and to improve the transition from secondary to postsecondary vocational education.
Goodwin, Susan (1986). Child Support Law in Wisconsin. Information Memorandum 86-22.
This document provides information on the current status of Wisconsin's laws relating to child support. It describes current law incorporating changes enacted in 1985 Wisconsin Act 29 which have already taken effect, several changes enacted by Act 29 which do not take effect until July 1, 1987, changes which will take effect upon passage of a budget act, and proposed administrative rules establishing a percentage-of-income standard for determining levels of child support. Part I concerns child support orders, examining the definition of support, support orders, receipt of support, maintenance and family support payments, and modification of support order. Part II concentrates on determining the amount of support, examining both current and new methods of determining support. Part III looks at payment of child support under current law and contains sections on general payment, income assignment, a pilot program for automatic withholding of support, and mandatory income withholding under new legislation. Part IV describes enforcement of support orders, discussing preventive measures, civil remedies, criminal sanctions, and the revised Uniform Reciprocal Enforcement of Support Act.
Goodwin-Gill, Guy S. (1989). International Law and Human Rights: Trends concerning International Migrants and Refugees. International Migration Review, 23, 3.
Places migrants and refugees within the human rights context, contrasting inalienable rights with the demands of sovereignty, and juxtaposing the two in a context of existing and developing international standards. Shows how the law must evolve, responding coherently to contemporary problems, if the structure of rights is to be maintained.
Goonen, Norma M.; And Others (1983). Bilingual Education: Florida Administrator's Manual.
This manual, which is distributed to participants in a training program for school-level administrators associated with the management of bilingual education programs in Florida, contains a wide range of different types of material. The topics covered include the following: (1) a brief description of bilingual education and an outline of its historical development; (2) a summary of bilingual education legislation; (3) the needs and problems of limited English proficient students; (4) information to promote multi-cultural awareness and appreciation, with special focus on Hispanic, Indochinese, Haitian, and Mexican-American cultures; (5) a literature review of competencies for principals of bilingual schools; (6) information on staff selection and development; (7) descriptions of bilingual curriculum materials; (8) myths and facts about bilingual education; and (9) materials for community relations. | [FULL TEXT]
(1989). Graduating from High School: New Standards in the States. A "Bulletin" Special. NASSP Bulletin, 73, 515.
According to a recent study, state mandates for tougher academic standards do not necessarily lead to more and better course content. Although more lower- and middle-achieving students are enrolled in academic classes, these courses are at the basic, general, or remedial level and fail to meet reform commission goals.
_____. (1983). Grandparents Rights. Report Together with Additional Views [To Accompany H. Con. Res. 45 which on Feb. 7, 1983, Was Referred Jointly to the Committees on the Judiciary and Education and Labor] from the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, 98th Congress, 1st Session, Rept. 98-61, Part 1.
This very brief legislative report summarizes the House of Representatives Concurrent Resolution 45, a resolution calling for the development of a model Uniform Grandparents Visitation Act (UGVA). The UGVA would grant grandparents adequate rights to petition state courts for visitation privileges with their grandchildren following marriage dissolution of such grandchildren's parents. The legislative background of and justification for the resolution are stated, and its costs and inflationary impact are estimated. Additional views included in the report emphasize that the resolution does not mandate or require the development of such a model act and point out that realizing the aims of the resolution may take considerable time. | [FULL TEXT]
_____. (1985). Grandparents' Rights. Report from the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session. To Accompany H. Con. Res. 67.
This document is a report on a resolution recommending that states develop and adopt a Uniform Grandparent's Visitation Act which would allow grandparents to petition state courts for the right to visit their grandchildren after the dissolution of the grandchildren's parents' marriage (by divorce, separation, or death). The resolution calls for technical assistance in developing a Best Interest of the Child standard by the National Center for Child Abuse and Neglect and the Administration on Aging. The justification for this legislation is the lack of uniformity in existing state laws and the vagueness of these laws. It is further reported that this resolution entails no federal costs and thus no inflationary impact. | [FULL TEXT]
Grady, Dan (1985). Trustees as Advocates in State Legislatures. New Directions for Community Colleges, 13, 3.
Urges community colleges to reevaluate their relationship with the governor's office and state legislature. Offers suggestions for trustees regarding understanding the legislative process, organizing the lobbying team, involving state legislators in campus activities, assisting with reelection efforts, establishing a reputation for credibility, developing an imaginative approach.
Graff, Doralice McEuen; And Others (1988). Blair v. Washington State University: Making State ERA'a a Potent Remedy for Sex Discrimination in Athletics. Journal of College and University Law, 14, 4.
The case of Blair vs. Washington State University revives the state equal rights amendment as a feasible and powerful cause of action against sex-based discrimination, in college athletics and beyond. Washington's amendment mandated equality in funding, facilities, treatment, and opportunities for Washington State University's women's intercollegiate athletics program.
Graham, Anne (1982). Joining the Discussion: Tuition Tax Credits. American Education, 18, 6.
Supports tuition tax credits insofar as they enhance academic excellence and strengthen our society.
Graham, Harry; Wallace, Virginia (1982). Trends in Public Sector Arbitration. Personnel Administrator, 27, 4.
Presents developments in grievance arbitration in government employment by examining all public sector arbitration cases from 1971 through 1979. Predicts that issues of employee discipline and discharge will comprise the largest number of cases proceeding to arbitration.
Graham, Hugh Davis (1981). Short-Circuiting the Bureaucracy: Policy Origins in Education.
The Great Society's secret task forces created by Lyndon Johnson, particularly in the case-study area of federal education policy, show the use and misuse of the task force device. Modern use of it began with John F. Kennedy. Although he used the task force device effectively sometimes, he did not use it effectively in his educational programs in 1961 through 1963. The use of the task force device came to fruition under Johnson who initially designated 14 task forces that were to operate without publicity. The Gardner task force in education was typical. It is credited with innovating policy for Title III, IV, and V and the aid to developing colleges in the Higher Education Act. In assessing the relative contributions of task forces to education policy in 1964-65, it is necessary to consider some unique external circumstances. First, the Budget Bureau had a strategic position--it enjoyed a substantive measure of initiative and control over the agenda and information flow of the part-time Gardner task force. Second, there was a logic and rhythm of presidential budgetary and fiscal policymaking. Finally, there was a starving of Great Society programs even while Johnson and his task forces, which kept increasing in number, wanted more program legislation. By using task force policy recommendations the Johnson Administration was able to short-circuit bureaucracy and get passed a greater amount of Great Society legislation.
Graham, Hugh Davis (1983). The Transformation of Federal Education Policy: The Kennedy and Johnson Years.
Archive-based historical analysis brings a perspective to policy studies that is lacking in individual case studies. The recently opened Kennedy and Johnson archives facilitate an internal analysis of the evolution of education policy formulation in the 1960s from the perspective of the executive branch. The central thread of continuity for such an analysis is executive planning through presidential task forces, such as those coordinated in the mid-1960s by Bill Moyers and Joseph Califano. While task forcing was for Kennedy largely a one-shot campaign effort of dubious efficacy, it was crucial for Johnson's construction of the Great Society's programmatic base. Task forces provide both a window into the education policy processes of the 1960s and a point of entry into the surrounding political context. From the perspective of the 1980s, the escalation of the Vietnam War in 1966 and its budgetary consequences appear to mark a turning point away from Johnson's Great Society programs. Although the Kennedy-Johnson initiatives were overwhelmed by the social tides that flowed around them and did not successfully rescue the poor through education, they contributed to an interest in the quality of education that extends even into the Reagan era. | [FULL TEXT]
Graham, Robert (1984). Progress Report on Efforts to Reduce Delinquency Rate in the Health Professions Student Loan and Nursing Student Loan Programs.
Efforts of the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) to reduce the delinquency rate in the Health Professions and Nursing Student Loan programs are described. The following activities have been implemented: provision of technical assistance to schools, modifications of the loan program regulations, proposed legislative amendments, liaison with financial aid and fiscal officers to update them on regulation/legislation changes and program policy, a revision of "Student Financial Aid Guidelines," and identification of federal employees who have delinquent student loans. The Annual Operating Report for the period ending June 30, 1983, was revised to reflect changes in new regulations and program policy and to monitor more closely the progress of schools in their efforts to lower delinquency rates. DHHS is unwilling to impose on schools the penalty provided for them in the current regulations, until a policy decision is made as to how the delinquency rate will be calculated. Data are presented that show dollar delinquency rates in 1981 and 1982 when a loan was delinquent if a payment was 90 or more days overdue, and in 1983 when a loan was delinquent if a payment was 60 or more days overdue. The data indicate that considerable progress among the schools has been made in reducing their loan delinquency rates. | [FULL TEXT]
Grande, Carolyn Gerlock; Koorland, Mark A. (1988). A Complex Issue: Special Education in Corrections. Children and Youth Services Review, 10, 4.
The need to train correctional special educators to implement Public Law 94-142, The Education for All Handicapped Children Act, despite such difficulties as the uniqueness of the correctional setting, the lack of interagency cooperation, and the lack of trained correctional special educators, is stressed.
Grant, Christine H. B. (1989). Recapturing the Vision. Journal of Physical Education.
This article traces the formation, activities, and demise of the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women whose vision was to create an educationally sound and fiscally prudent model for women's intercollegiate athletic programs. The status of these programs during the 1970's and 1980's is discussed and future goals proposed.
Grant, Marcus, Ed. (1985). Alcohol Policies. European Series No. 18.
This book examines alcohol control policies in Europe in an effort to present an integrated approach to the question of policy formation; analyze the past; assess research priorities; suggest the logical sequence of stages in national policy development; examine the role of economics; and demonstrate that alcohol policies are practical, necessary, and comprehensive. It contains contributions, many of which were developed from working papers presented at a meeting on the control of alcohol consumption, organized in Paris, France in 1983 by the World Health Organization Regional Office. Included are: (1) "Establishing Priorities for Action" (M. Grant); (2) "Lessons from the Postwar Period" (K. Makela); (3) "Production of and International Trade in Alcoholic Drinks: Possible Public Health Implications" (B. M. Walsh); (4) "Public Health Aspects of the Marketing of Alcholic Drinks" (M. J. van Iwaarden); (5) "Using Health Promotion to Reduce Alcohol Problems" (I. Rootman); (6) "Four Country Profiles"; (7) "International Aspects of the Prevention of Alcohol Problems: Research Experiences and Perspectives" (P. Sulkunen); (8) "Formulating Comprehensive National Alcohol Policies" (K. E. Bruun); and (9) "National and International Approaches: Strengthening the Links" (M. Grant). The chapter on four country profiles includes information of Italy (A. Cottino and P. Morgan); Greece (J. N. Yfantopoulos); Poland (I. Wald, J. Morawski, and J. Moskalewicz); and Sweden (K. E. Bruun).
Gratz, Elizabeth W. (1986). Early Childhood/Elementary Essential Elements Texas Style.
In the 1980s, the passage of two laws--Chapter 75 of the Texas Education Code (providing for a well-balanced curriculum) and Texas Senate bill 50 (mandating teacher testing prior to certification)--has led to many changes in elementary and early childhood education as well as teacher education in Texas. In teacher education programs, course content is now geared toward helping students pass the Pre-Professional Skills Test (PPST), required since 1984, and the Examination for the Certification of Educators in Texas (ExCET), required since May, 1986. The number of areas of academic specialization for elementary education majors has also been reduced, and the amount of field experience required for all education majors has been increased. The inclusion of the essential elements from the State Board of Education Rules for Curriculum in the appropriate professional development education courses has served as further evidence of the implementation of the new standards. Students must master each essential element for each curricular area in their college coursework. This legislation will continue to generate curricular changes throughout Texas. Appendix titles include: (1) general provisions Chapter 75 of the Texas Education Code; (2) Elementary Well-Balanced Curriculum; (3) Essential Elements in English Language Arts, Grades 1-6; and (4) Two Reading Essential Elements and Descriptors by Grade Level.
Gravett, Marty; And Others (1986). State Plan for Child Day Care [Virginia].
Virginia's first state plan for child day care begins with 14 sections covering several aspects of child care. Section I reviews child care history and trends. Sections II, III, IV, and V argue, respectively, that child day care is important to government, business, families, and children. Elements of a comprehensive child day care delivery system are described in section VI. Sections VII, VIII, IX, and X argue that child day care should be affordable, available, accessible, and of high quality. Section XI provides a profile of child day care funding in Virginia. Elements of Virginia's master plan for child day care services, an action agenda for affordable child day care services in 1986, and a call for citizen action comprise sections XII, XIII, and XIV. Appended are an affordability survey by the Virginia Department for Children; sections of the Virginia Code affecting child day care; Department of Social Services policies relating to child day care; state initiatives related to child care; public comments on affordability, availability, accessibility, and quality of child day care in Virginia; and House Bill 1696, an act to amend the Code of Virginia by adding a section concerning child day care services.
Gray, Andrew (1987). The Amerindians of South America. Revised.
This report provides an overview of the threats facing indigenous peoples in South America today and their efforts to resist invasion, colonization, and extermination. The first two sections outline the history of South America with regard to indigenous peoples; and the predominant features of Andean and lowland communities, religion, settlement, production, and trade. A section on international economic and political factors discusses the effects on indigenous peoples of: multinational banks and their development projects; multinational corporations involved in mining, oil production, agriculture, and cattle ranching; cocaine production; and Catholic and fundamentalist Protestant missionaries. For each South American country, a survey provides information on area, population, indigenous nations, governmental organization, legislation affecting indigenous peoples, and the major problems facing them. Final sections discuss the nature of Amerindian resistance, the structure of indigenous organizations, indigenous leadership, strategies of resistance, and suggestions as to the way in which the indigenous peoples of South America can gain the support they need for self-determination. This report contains a map locating 108 indigenous peoples and the texts of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the United Nations Draft Declaration of Principles for Indigenous Rights.
Gray, Dorothy A. (1988). Wildlife Legislation before and after the Endangered Species Act of 1973. RSR Reference Services Review, 16, 3.
Reviews recent federal legislation on endangered species, the early history of wildlife legislation, and administration of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Annotated lists of congressional hearings and reports, laws, and comments on the laws are attached, as well as chronological listings of acts and court decisions.
Gray, G. Susan; Grajko, Philip F. (1982). Effects of New York State Handicapped Regulations on Small, Rural and Large School Districts. Survey Report.
Responses from 230 New York State school districts were analyzed to determine the impact of the new State handicapped regulations with regard to financial impact, meeting the 30-day time period between initial referral of a handicapped child and board action, variances, and programming and placement according to 4 criteria. In general, small, rural, and large school districts saw the new regulations as being more costly and time-consuming for completion of paperwork than the old regulations for districts already overtaxed and understaffed. In addition to increased program costs because of increased staff time to complete paperwork, many districts expected the costs of self-contained classes and related services to increase with the new regulations. Complying with the 30-day time limit between initial referral and placement of a handicapped student posed problems for the 68% of the districts responding. Close to 70% of the respondent districts may need variances to comply with the new regulations to maintain reasonable special education programs. School districts currently operating under the new regulations liked the flexibility of combining handicapping conditions but found the paperwork burdensome. Many districts viewed the placement criteria as ambiguous. Programming for related services was expected to necessitate increased costs. Survey forms are appended.
Gray, Peter J.; And Others (1982). A Study in Contrasts: Effects of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act of 1981 on SEA and LEA Evaluation. Paper and Report Series No. 79.
The intent of the investigation reported here was to study the impact of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act (ECIA) on educational evaluation at the state and local level. The study had three major purposes: (1) to investigate the state education agency (SEA) and local education agency (LEA) responses to changing evaluation requirements under Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 of ECIA, (2) to discover new evaluation-related methodological problems, and (3) to identify changing evaluation training and technical assistance needs. Through a 10-month, longitudinal interview study of evaluators in five western state departments and five large school districts, some preliminary results emerged. Reductions in money and staff have indeed brought about consolidation, but improvement is still an open question. Budget reductions are affecting educational programs more than the new Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 legislation. Much of the Chapter 2 money is being spent on materials and equipment, especially microcomputers. Evaluation units seem to be shifting away from monitoring and evaluation and focusing more on technical assistance and leadership. These and other findings are discussed in this report. | [FULL TEXT]
Gray, Peter J.; Smith, Nick L. (1983). Effect of ECIA on Evaluation Practice: Early Returns.
Over 30 professional evaluators in five state departments of education and 5 large school districts were interviewed periodically over a 10-month period in 1982 to find out how the Education Consolidation Improvement Act of 1981 (ECIA) was affecting program evaluation activities. Preliminary findings on the impact of ECIA Chapter 1 (compensatory education) indicated that the ECIA legislation had not significantly eliminated administrative load or paperwork. It was reported that there has been a relaxation in testing requirements under Chapter 1; more interest in sustained effects studies at both state and local levels; and a change in the forms of parental involvement. Chapter 1 budget cuts had a more dramatic impact than the new legislation, bringing about dramatic reductions in the number of children served. Preliminary findings on the impact of Chapter 2 (block grants) indicated that the legislation had increased flexibility and decentralization at the local level while reallocating some of the previous categorical funds to smaller districts. Most of Chapter 2 funds were being spent on materials and microcomputers, with evaluators primarily monitoring the flow and expenditure of funds. | [FULL TEXT]
Grayson, Dolores A. (1987). Emerging Equity Issues Related to Homosexuality in Education. Peabody Journal of Education, 64, 4.
This article offers a rationale for consideration of homosexuality in education as an equity issue; discusses ways in which homophobia creates inequities for homosexual and heterosexual females and males; identifies emerging equity issues; and recommends policy changes, counseling support, and action steps to be taken by educators and equity advocates.
Graystone, J. A. (1988). Education Reform Act 1988 and Further Education. General Background Information. Information Bank Working Paper Number 2706.
This paper analyzes the implications of the Education Reform Act of 1988 on further education in Great Britain. The six major sections of the paper examine the following: (1) the sections of the act; (2) major proposals in the Education Reform Act 1988; (3) other general information about the act; (4) summary of further education clauses of the act; (5) impact of the act on further education; and (6) some key issues for further education arising from the Education Reform Act. Three appendixes provide a timetable for implementation of the act, discuss some differences between the Education Reform Act 1988 and the Green Paper "Maintained Further Education: Financing Governance and the Law," and list some acronyms and abbreviations used.
Grebner, Florence D. (1989). Control of Special Education.
This literature-based paper attempts to delineate the role of various groups in controlling special education in public schools. The paper argues that historically education has been a local matter, but contemporary interpreation tends to view education as a societal issue, a view which provides the impetus for education to become a state function accompanied by vanishing local control. The paper then proposes that special education be controlled by a partnership of governmental agencies, state boards of education, local boards of education, parents, special education professional organizations, special education teachers, and school administrators. The suggested role of each group in the partnership is outlined. Recommendations are provided to local school boards to enable them to more fully exercise their role in the education of handicapped children. The recommendations include, among others, establishing a local partnership, developing an advisory board, clarifying special education legislation, ensuring a climate of quality control, and seeking modifications of funding formulas.
Grebner, Florence D.; And Others (1982). Physical Education Teacher Education: Curriculum, Pedagogy, Certification...History, Issues, Trends. Information Analysis Products.
This monograph relates the evolution, current status, issues, trends, and future perspective of undergraduate physical education teacher education (P.E.T.E.). The first section offers an historical overview of the profession. Preparation programs and curricula are described as they have progressed from the middle of the nineteenth century to the present, with a discussion of the increasing complexity of P.E.T.E. programs in response to changing educational philosophies. Societal influences on the development of curriculum for P.E.T.E. programs are considered in the second section, including government legislation, professional organizations, teacher preparation institutions, and employers and consumers. The third section deals with professional preparation curriculum in P.E.T.E. programs as it has been expanded and altered to meet not only more stringent certification requirements, but also the increasing trend toward specialization. The impact of the competency based teacher education movement on P.E.T.E. is also discussed. Contemporary views on the role and the responsibilities of the physical education teacher are considered in the fourth section. In the fifth section, a discussion is presented on the needs for further research in developing sound physical education curricula and the values of new teaching techniques in the field. The sixth section offers an overview of certification and accreditation of P.E.T.E. programs. In the final section, a discussion is presented on strategies for changing P.E.T.E., and recommendations are made for improving certification requirements, curriculum content, and process and methodology. Further recommendations are made for clarifying the role of professional physical education organizations and improving the administration of P.E.T.E. programs. | [FULL TEXT]
Green, Alan (1986). Gavel to Gavel: A Guide to the Televised Proceedings of Congress. [Revised Edition].
Daily sessions of the U.S. Congress are currently televised by satellite to viewers across the United States. This booklet provides information on the role of communication systems in educating about democratic processes and informing viewers about legislative procedures. Two chapters, entitled "The Electronic Eye: The Merger of Technology and Democracy" and "The Big Picture: The How and Why of Cameras in the Chambers," discuss the purposes and evolution of congressional television coverage. Specific information about the U.S. House of Representatives, the U.S. Senate, and congressional procedures is included in the chapters: "Behind the Scenes: A Brief Tour through the Halls of Congress"; "The Schedule on the Screen: A Guide To Order in Congress"; "The Legislative Labyrinth: How a Bill Becomes Law"; "Conference Committees: The Third House of Congress"; and "The Ayes Have It: How Members of Congress Vote." Resource lists, a glossary of congressional terms, and photographs and other graphics are included. | [FULL TEXT]
Green, Edward T. (1982). Law and the Handicapped with Emphasis on Related Services.
Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, defines "handicapped children," specifies the criteria that must be met before children are eligible for special education, and identifies the "related services" that handicapped children may be eligible to receive. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1973 also treats the provision of "related services" to handicapped children. Neither law, however, provides a conclusive definition of or precise regulations for delivering these related services. Considerable litigation has arisen as a result. This paper discusses cases, decisions, and memoranda pertaining to related services, noting where issues were resolved and where new issues were raised. Opinions handed down by the Bureau for Education of the Handicapped, decisions reached by state and federal courts, and analyses published in the Education of the Handicapped Law Review are cited. The document notes the importance of the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in "Board of Education of Hendrick Hudson Central School District, Westchester County v. Rowley."
Green, Howard, Comp.; Sawyer, Don, Comp. (1983). Native Adult Basic Education. An Instructor's Annotated Bibliography.
An annotated bibliography, designed for use with Vancouver Community College's Native Adult Basic Education program, lists resources relevant to all instructors of Native Indian adult students and to others developing course outlines and classroom material. Most items were published between 1972 and 1981; one dates from 1911. Each listing has a level of use, linked to school grade levels, based on readability, oral vocabulary, student experiences, and maturity of thought. The first major section, entitled "English," is divided into subsections on novels (37 entries), poetry (7), drama (7), short stories and legends (11), and non-fiction (4). The second section, on social studies, lists 40 books and 11 pamphlets, manuscripts and related documents. A section on science describes 11 books. The fourth section, covering art, has 10 entries. A section on multi-media resources gives producer and distributor for each entry, which include 58 films (most made between 1972 and 1978) and 17 video/audio tapes, records and film strips. The sixth section describes 9 newspapers and periodicals. A seventh section lists 22 professional references and 12 reference materials for special groups, the latter not annotated. A final section is an index of publishers and distributors of the material in the bibliography.
Green, John O. (1984). Tomorrow's Jobs for Today's Computer Specialist. Classroom Computer Learning, 4 n9 p14, 19-20 Apr-May 1984.
Discusses what computer technology means for teachers and their careers, focusing on how proposed legislation may affect individuals already teaching computer courses and the status of jobs in computer education in the District of Columbia, Virginia, Florida, California, and Illinois. Considers kinds of positions available now and in the future.
Green, Rosalie E. (1983). A Compilation of State Statutes That Include Education/Training Benefits for Senior Citizens.
This compilation, consisting primarily of state statutes providing education and training benefits for senior citizens, focuses on the accessibility of educational opportunities to older adults across the country. Included in the first part of the volume are excerpts from federal education laws dealing with education and training for older Americans as well as the text of the Older Americans Act of 1965. The next section of the compilation contains tables of data dealing with the educational attainment of the noninstitutional older adult population in basic and secondary education, adult illiteracy, the national distribution of older Americans, and states having statutes that contain adult education and senior citizen entitlements. Presented in the final portion of the compilation are the statutes providing education and training for senior citizens that exist in each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Marianas, Puerto Rico, the Trust Territories, and the Virgin Islands. | [FULL TEXT]
Green, Wanda Jean; Fleming, Margaret (1983). The Cleveland Competency Test in Reading. Working Paper.
To provide information for decision making related to competency testing in reading, the Cleveland School District developed a working paper for staff discussion. This paper presents information about the varied aspects of a competency testing program which will use locally developed test questions and be implemented in response to a Board of Education policy and a State mandate requiring such programs, and as a requirement for achieving compliance with a Federal Court Order for implementation of educational improvements in a district-wide desegregation plan. Drawing upon the performance of Cleveland students in a May 1982 pilot testing with a commercially produced test, the use of test data for improvement of student performance in reading is demonstrated. Contents include: advantages and disadvantages of competency testing, potential legal problems, expected outcomes, program implementation, major program elements, personnel involvement, progress, problems, remediation, district performance, requirements for graduation, how a competency test works, reporting to parents, and tables indicating the least able performance by Cleveland students on the May 1982 pilot test.
Greenan, James P.; Phelps, L. Allen (1982). Delivering Vocational Education to Handicapped Learners. Exceptional Children, 48, 5.
The state directors from each of the 50 states, District of Columbia, and surrounding territories identified eight problem areas: interagency cooperation and agreements; funding and fiscal policy; service delivery and program alternatives; personnel preparation; state legislation, plans, and policies; federal legislation and regulations; program evaluation and improvement; and attitudes.
Greenberg, David E. (1989). Preschool Special Education: New Responsibility for Schools. [Updating School Board Policies]
The Education of the Handicapped Act Amendment of 1986 extended the six basic rights established in the Education for All Handicapped Children Act to preschoolers. All preschool handicapped children (ages 3 to 5) will receive a free, appropriate public education in the same manner that the K-12 students benefit from federal law for the handicapped. Furthermore, by the 1991-92 school year, states accepting federal funds for handicapped preschoolers must guarantee a full range of services to 3- to 5-year-olds. Whether or not the state receives federal funds, schools with preschool classes must include special education in their planning. The legislation also calls for the development of a statewide interagency delivery system for services to handicapped infants and toddlers (birth to 2-years-old). The intent of the 1986 amendment is to reduce or to eliminate the number of special education placements and related services in later years. Although the benefit of these public services for obviously handicapped children is clear, the need to extend programs to children identified as "at risk" of future learning difficulties remains controversial.
Greenberg, Jack (1984). Civil Rights Law and the Brown Decision.
The Brown decision of 1954 was the product of a planned program of litigation begun in the late 1920s and the early 1930s by a group of Black lawyers. Their work would not have succeeded if the ethos of the United States had not been changing simultaneously. The growth of a climate more conducive to civil rights is reflected in the presidential administrations of Truman through Carter. The 1947 "Truman Committee Report" called for changes in American life and law, with regard for race relations, and under Truman, the national government supported civil rights lawyers in some of their most important litigation. Although Eisenhower was reportedly appalled by the Brown decision, he did nothing to hinder the implementation of the decision and sent military forces to Little Rock, Arkansas, when the first armed insurrection against Brown arose. Kennedy supported Brown both publicly and privately, and Johnson was a vigorous proponent of civil rights, who fought effectively for the Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1965 and created bureaucracies which have been necessary for executing national civil rights programs. Nixon openly opposed school integration. Still, he implemented the laws and more school desegregation took place during his administration than in any other. President Carter appointed more Blacks and women as judges than ever before in American history, and began a policy of international human rights. The Reagan administration, in sharp contrast, opposed school integration and tried to grant tax exemption to segregating academies. It is not yet clear whether these actions represent a temporary or permanent movement within the national attitude toward civil rights.
Greenberg, Joanne (1986). PL 94-142 at Age 10: Perspective. Unrealized Promises: Reflections on PL 94-142 and the Education of Deaf Children. Gallaudet Today, 6, 2.
The author describes her discussion with school personnel, administrators, tutor/interpreters, and deaf students, regarding the effects of mainstreaming and P.L. 94-142. She cites general dissatisfaction with both the social and intellectual progress made after 10 years of the legislation and notes difficulties with the concept of least restrictive environment.
Greenberg, Mark (1988). Family Support Act of 1988: JOBS Program and Related Amendments. Requirements, Issues and Options.
This document outlines all areas of the Family Support Act of 1988 that States should consider when implementing the mandated Jobs Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) Program to provide a work/education/training program for recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). The following areas are addressed: (1) time frames and planning; (2) participation; (3) range of services; (4) service provision; (5) selection of activities and services; (6) dispute resolution and sanctions; (7) general provisions for all components; (8) educational activities and requirements; (9) work supplementation; (10) the Community Work Experience Program (CWEP); (11) job search; (12) child care; (13) supportive services other than child care; (14) supplementing lost income for former recipients; (15) extended eligibility for child care; (16) extended eligibility for medical assistance; (17) Federal and State financial participation; (18) Indians; (19) performance standards, reporting requirements, and implementation and effectiveness studies; (20) new provisions for the AFDC-U program; (21) other AFDC Amendments; and (22) demonstration projects. Each section contains an overview of the law followed by a discussion of State options and a discussion of possible areas for regulation by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The child support provisions of the Act are not discussed, and the portions pertaining to Medicaid and demonstration projects are discussed very briefly.
Greenberger, Ellen (1983). A Researcher in the Policy Arena: The Case of Child Labor. American Psychologist, 38, 1.
A developmental psychologist describes her experience in testifying at Congressional hearings on proposed revisions in child labor legislation. The testimony argued that proposals to increase job opportunities for school-going teenagers are a threat to their development and to the job prospects of unemployed out-of-school youths and adults.
Greenberger, Marcia D.; Beier, C. A. (1987). Federal Funding of Discrimination: The Impact of Grove City College v. Bell.
Title IX, the only federal law intended to prohibit all aspects of sex discrimination in education, mandated that, if an institution received funds from the federal government, it could not discriminate in any of its activities. The Grove City v. Bell decision changed the focus of this law. Currently, an organization that receives federal funds in one department is free to discriminate in any other department that does not directly receive those funds. The government will not investigate claims of discrimination, and the courts will not decide if discrimination is actually occurring. Fourteen civil court cases are described in which claims were negatively affected or dismissed because of the Grove City decision. The Department of Education's Office of Civil Rights (OCR) has limited or suspended 63 claims because of the lack of direct federal funding and decreased its compliance reviews. Since the Grove City case, two key OCR administrative decisions have had negative effects on the following laws: (1) Title VI, race and national origin; (2) Title IX, sex discrimination; (3) Section 504 of the U.S. Code, handicapped students; and (4) the Age Discrimination Act. Nine of the 63 OCR claims are described, and a complete list of them is appended.
Greenburg, David (1989). The Tenth Annual Report to Congress: One More Ride on the Merry-Go-Round? Exceptional Children, 56, 1.
The United States Department of Education's tenth annual report on the implementation of Public Law 94-142 contains improvements but shows overdependence on reporting numbers of students without descriptions of evolutions in service delivery, and raises questions about the effectiveness of monitoring efforts carried out by the Office of Special Education Programs.
Greenburg, David E. (1984). The 1984 Annual Report to Congress: Are We Better Off? Exceptional Children, 51, 3.
Reviews Congress's annual report on the implementation of P.L. 94-142, The Education for All Handicapped Children Act, and notes questions of local practitioners regarding numbers of students served, personnel, least restrictive environment, procedural safeguards, evaluation, fiscal and technical assistance, and procedural changes. Concludes that there have been both substantive and substantial improvements in local special education programs and services.
Greendorfer, Susan L. (1989). Catch the Vision. Future Directions for Women in Sport. Journal of Physical Education.
This article briefly sketches the background and outcomes of national legislation to eliminate sex discrimination in sports at educational institutions. It calls upon those involved in women's athletics to work towards realizing the goal of bringing equal opportunity to girls and women in sports.
Greene, Bert I.; Pasch, Marvin (1986). Observing the Birth of the Hatch Amendment Regulations: Lessons for the Education Profession. Educational Leadership, 43, 4.
Reviews the history of the passage of the Hatch Amendment. Defines the regulations and examines testimony given during congressional hearings. Discusses the implications of the amendment.
Greene, Brenda Z. (1985). Protect Against Personal Injury to Limit Your Liability. [Updating School Board Policies]
Accidents and injuries involving students, employees, or others using school facilities or equipment can result in lengthy and costly litigation. A proven way to reduce potential accidents and injuries is to work to eliminate the circumstances in which accidents occur. It is important to identify risks; the areas with the highest accident potential are: playgrounds, gymnasiums and athletic fields, industrial art shops, science laboratories, theater stage areas, and lunchrooms. School systems can protect against negligence charges by identifying risks and giving high priority to preventing injuries through established policies and regulations addressing accident prevention. Failure to supervise properly is the basis for most negligence suits. Providing proper supervision gives the school system a defensible position. Before students can participate in sports, a physical examination should be required. Regular inspections for hazardous conditions are essential. Established special emergency procedures with alternative backup plans are essential. There should be a process established for documenting all accidents and injuries; board members should be notified of serious injuries. Periodic reports from legal counsel on legislation and court decisions that may influence local safety policies and procedures are also helpful.
Greene, Linda S. (1984). The New NCAA Rules of the Game: Academic Integrity or Racism? [Saint Louis University Law Journal]
The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) recently promulgated rules that make athletes' initial eligibility conditional upon the achievement of certain scores on college entrance examinations and completion of a specified high school curriculum with a minimum grade point average of 2.0 on a 4.0 scale. The changes were instituted to "assert the supremacy of academic values" in collegiate sports and to "preserve the integrity of the NCAA and of our [college] institutions." Some presidents of historically black colleges opposed the rules, claiming that they were "patently racist" and a "disservice to Blacks and other Americans who aspire to attain a higher education by participating in intercollegiate athletics." This article explores the serious factual, legal, and policy questions presented by the NCAA's action. It discusses the process in which the new initial eligibility changes were formulated; the specific rule changes that were made; the reaction to those changes; the potential impact they may have; the legal issues presented by the changes; and the future of integrity in college athletics. It is concluded that the adoption of the new requirements was a fine gesture in spirit, but poorly executed and inadequately reasoned, and further considerations are needed.
Greene, William (1982). The Florida Collegiate Consortium for International/Intercultural Education: Five Years of Progress.
In 1977, the Florida Collegiate Consortium for International/Intercultural Education was established to provide a coordinated approach to international education within the state. The consortium is governed by a board of directors, composed of the presidents of member institutions, and a steering committee, made up of representatives chosen by board members. The purposes of the consortium are to provide international/intercultural learning experiences for students in the participating colleges; to conserve limited resources through cooperative efforts and the maintenance of a common catalog of information on courses, programs, and activities; to facilitate the transfer of credits among member institutions; to increase awareness of international education and its quality; and to serve as liaison between national organizations and institutions. Between 1977 and 1982, the consortium expanded from 6 community colleges to 15 colleges and universities, which together enroll 60% of the college student population in the state. Major accomplishments of the consortium during this period included the development of a study abroad program in Jamaica, cooperative arrangements whereby programs sponsored by a member college are open to other members' students, and sponsorship of legislation in support of international education. A joint program with Quebec's government and a review of policies for overseas academic programs are among the activities planned by the consortium.
Greenwood, Judith (1987). Work Disability in Appalachia.
This paper begins by examining the history of disability payments to disabled workers, specifically disability payments to coal workers. Efforts by the United Mine Workers of America made mine health and safety an issue in the 1960s, and continuing liberalization of the law continued through the 1970s. The identification of coal miners with disability is compounded by geographical and cultural barriers. Currently underscoring disability as a social construct among underground miners is the declining regional economy and rising unemployment, brought on by technological improvements in mining. The paper examines research about the effects of early health intervention among underground coal miners and describes other studies of physical disability in Appalachia. All cited research supports the same general finding: disability is part of an Appalachian life pattern, a natural consequence of work occurring before old age. It is common for work to be punctuated with periods of temporary disability and to end in disability retirement. The uncertainty of mining as long-term employment makes benefits such as Social Security and Workers' Compensation a necessary station in the career course. There can be no solution to disability if disability itself is a solution to narrow socioeconomic choices. Only long-term improvements in basic education and the economy would reduce work disability patterns. | [FULL TEXT]
Greenwood, Katy; And Others (1981). An Assessment of Supplemental Vocational Education Assistance in Texas. Title II, Section 204, Comprehensive Employment and Training Amendments of 1978 (P. L. 94-524).
This report describes the ways in which the funds for supplemental vocational assistance provided by Title II, Part A, section 204 of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) amendments of 1978 have been used to provide services for eligible CETA participants in Texas. Outlined first are the climate and the background of CETA/education coordination and linkages. The intent and regulations pertaining to Title II, section 204 are explained. Reviewed next are previous studies on CETA/vocational education coordination. A framework is provided for assessing section 204 in Texas. In a discussion of the status of section 204 in Texas the following areas are covered: non-financial agreements, prime sponsor attitudes, and current and potential program/service deliverer attitudes. A national survey of state 204 programs is summarized, with particular attention to distribution and allocation of 204 funds, types and levels of education programs using 204 funds, scheduling patterns of 204 programs, monitoring/assessment of 204 programs, and significant aspects of individual programs. Conclusions and recommendations are made concerning legislative provisions, assumptions underlying section 204, communicating the opportunities of section 204, and attitudes concerning the section. (Other Education for Work Linkage Project reports are available separately--see note.)
Greer, Darryl (1984). Legal Issues in Truth-in-Testing Legislation. Review of Higher Education, 7, 4.
The legislative history of legislation concerning disclosure of standardized college admissions test items is reviewed, the effect of existing laws in California and New York is outlined, and public policy and legal questions leading to and resulting from the legislation are discussed.
Greer, David R.; And Others (1983). Cooperate with Governmental and Community Agencies. Module LT-F-4 of Category F--School-Community Relations. Competency-Based Vocational Education Administrator Module Series.
This module, one in a series of competency-based administrator instructional packages, focuses on a specific competency that vocational education administrators need to be successful in the area of school-community relations. The purpose of the module is to teach administrators how to cooperate with governmental and community agencies, including such tasks as complying with and influencing legislators, developing comprehensive plans, and submitting required forms to teach administrators techniques for fostering cooperative arrangements. An introduction provides terminal and enabling objectives, a list of resources needed, and a glossary of selected terms. The main portion of the module includes four sequential learning experiences. Overviews, which precede each learning experience, contain the objective for each experience and a brief description of what the learning experience involves. Each learning experience consists of a number of activities that may include information sheets, case studies, samples, checklists, and self-checks. Optional activities are provided. The final learning experience also provides an assessment form for administrator performance evaluation by a resource person. | [FULL TEXT]
Gregory, Donnelly A. (1985). Assessment of the Gifted. Diagnostique, 10, 1-4.
The beginnings of education and assessment for gifted students are traced, current practice summarized in terms of tests used, requirements of state legislation noted, critical issues (such as the lack of agreement about the nature of giftedness) discussed, and recommended practices identified (such as assessment through instruction).
Gregory, J. G. (1982). Freedom of Scientific Information. Science Information Paper No. 19.
This paper describes why freedom of information (FOI) is important to scientists, the restrictions which the Official Secrets Act of 1951 places upon release of information by public officials in New Zealand, reasons for covert official resistance to FOI as suggested by information science literature, and how changes in the economic management of science along with exemptions provided in a recently introduced Official Information Bill will undermine achievement of true FOI in New Zealand. Issues discussed include the importance of information in post-industrial societies, the effect of government policy on the free flow of scientific information, the relationship between power and control of information, the economics of information, and the implications of a trend toward privatization of government scientific activities as a means of insuring a return on taxpayer investment. It is concluded that prospects for true freedom of scientific information are poor unless New Zealand politicians see it as giving them greater control of government research accountability and unless they are willing to reduce the number of exemptions in proposed FOI legislation and to subject themselves and government scientists to independent judicial review.
Grembowski, David (1986). JTPA Evaluation at the State and Local Level. Volume VIII: MIS Issues in Evaluating JTPA.
This guide is intended to assist states and service delivery areas (SDAs) in addressing the new oversight responsibilities and opportunities stipulated by the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) with respect to management information system (MIS) issues in evaluating JTPA programs. The first chapter discusses the general requirements of a JTPA MIS to support evaluation (communications capability, data processing flexibility, skilled staff, statistical software, and a decentralized MIS structure) and contains a supplemental data dictionary (containing participant master, service, and follow-up files and employer and subcontractor master files). The second chapter covers the following six steps in handling survey data: preparing a codebook, preparing data for entry, coding, entering data, using a computer to edit, and analyzing data. A supplement dealing with employer reports concludes the second chapter. The third chapter deals with the following aspects of using statistical software: file preparation for using statistical software, statistical software for microcomputers, and procedures for using statistical software. A supplemental demonstration of statistical software concludes the guide. | [FULL TEXT]
Grenig, Jay E. (1989). When Can a Grievance Arbitrator Apply Outside Law? Journal of Law and Education, 18, 4.
Examines the question of when an arbitrator can consider external law in the arbitration of public education labor dispute. Cites ruling in "Roadmaster"--that an arbitrator's decision cannot be based solely on the arbitrator's view of the requirements of enacted legislation--as following nearly 30 years of Supreme Court precedent.
Greza, Gerhard (1987). The Right to Prevention, Early Detection and Medical Rehabilitation under National and International Aspects. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 10, 3.
Important aspects of legislation establishing the right of individuals to health protection and health promotion are highlighted. Examples from the Federal Republic of Germany are used to illustrate efforts to implement systematic measures for the prevention, early detection, early treatment, and medical rehabilitation of disabilities.
_____. (1985). Gifted and Talented Education in Vermont. Policy Statement of the Vermont State Board of Education.
The booklet presents Vermont's policy statements regarding the education of gifted and talented students. Reasons are offered for the lack of appropriate education for this populaton in Vermont, including lack of recognition of the need, and misunderstanding gifted programing as elitist. The current situation in the state is examined and local efforts briefly reviewed. Despite lack of legislation addressing the needs of gifted students, the state has begun to address gifted education through new standards. Growing concern for gifted education is cited. The booklet concludes with a listing of five policy initiatives, including support for intra-district, inter-district, and regional approaches in such areas as transportation systems, curriculum development, and training programs; support for the expansion of preschool screening; and establishment of certification regulations for teachers of gifted and talented.
_____. (1986). Gifted and Talented Children's Education Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, on H.R. 3263 and H.R. 2364.
Testimony given before the House of Representatives Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary and Vocational Education regarding the Gifted and Talented Children's Education Act (H.R. 3263) is presented. This legislation targets federal assistance to support state and local programs for gifted and talented students in the areas of personnel development, model programs, technical assistance, and research. Testimony was provided by the following individuals and organizations: Coalition for the Advancement of Gifted Education; Mario Biaggi (Congressional Representative); Council for Exceptional Children; Association for the Gifted; James J. Gallagher (professor, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill); Gifted Child Society, Inc.; Program in Gifted Education (University of Utah); Gifted and Talented Unit, New York City Board of Education; Nick J. Rahall, II (Congressional Representative); and Altamae Whitehill, the Coordinator of Gifted Programs, Cheney Public Schools, Washington. | [FULL TEXT]
_____. (1986). Geriatric Physicians Graduate Medical Education Act of 1986. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Aging of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate. Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session on S. 2489, To Improve the Training of Physicians in Geriatrics.
Increasingly, the health care needs of older people are dominating the field of medicine and the health care system. The supply of physician gerontologists and geriatricians, the attention they pay to the special needs of the elderly, and the adequacy of their training are addressed in these hearings, which consider a Senate bill to improve the education in geriatrics of primary care physicians. Attention is directed to four specific concerns: (1) whether older persons differ from younger people in ways that have implications for medical practice, and whether there is a body of knowledge about these differences; (2) whether the differences have implications for the training of medical practitioners; (3) the present and near-term future availability of appropriately trained medical personnel; and (4) feasible and reasonable ways to train additional numbers of such physicians, if more are needed. The bill, which would amend section 788 of the Public Health Service Act, would make available an additional $4 million to expand present programs and create new ones to train physicians who plan to teach geriatric medicine. Sponsors of the bill hope that by 1992 the program would produce an additional 900 physicians trained to teach residents and practicing physicians the essentials of geriatrics. | [FULL TEXT]
Gerber, Michael M. (1984). The Department of Education's Sixth Annual Report to Congress on P.L. 94-142: Is Congress Getting the Full Story? Exceptional Children, 51, 3.
The article points out the risk of erroneous classification and inequitable treatment for students who are difficult to teach and manage. Analysis of child count data highlights variability in identification and referral processes and suggests that attempts to tighten eligibility standards, especially for mildly handicapped students, is ill-advised.
Gerber, Michael M.; Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah (1989). Educating All Children: Ten Years Later. Exceptional Children, 56, 1.
In this review of the "Tenth Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Education of the Handicapped Act" (Public Law 94-142), data are cited concerning: current status of services, dropout rates from secondary special education, implementation of preschool special education services, and state variations in the classification of students with learning disabilities.
Gerebenics, Gail; And Others (1982). Under the Rule of Thumb: Battered Women and the Administration of Justice.
This report by the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights evaluates the treatment of adult women who are victims of domestic violence by the criminal and civil justice systems and by various service agencies. First, an overview of State domestic violence statutes and relief services is presented. The present responses and potential roles of police officers, prosecutors and judges are examined in subsequent chapters. In these chapters, the failure of police officers and judges to recognize the seriousness of domestic violence, and the tendency among prosecutors to treat such cases differently from those involving violence between stranqers are discussed. The failure of judges to impose sanctions commensurate with the offense and their emphasis on preservation of the marital relationship at the expense of a battered woman's life and limb are also examined. The use of diversionary programs such as counseling and mediation which channel complaints out of the criminal justice system as well as the social services, shelters, and legal services available to battered women are also covered in this report. The final chapter reiterates the Commission's findings and sets forth recommendations for reform. | [FULL TEXT]
Germanis, Peter, Ed.; Bavier, Richard, Ed. (1987). Up from Dependency: A New National Public Assistance Strategy. Supplement 1: The National Public Assistance System. Volume 2: A Compendium of Public Assistance Programs; Major Federal Cash, Food, and Housing Programs.
About half of the first part of a 4-part compendium of information about low income assistance programs is presented in this document (the rest of part 1 and the other 3 parts of the compendium are presented in volume 3 of supplement 1 of this series). Part 1 contains detailed information about 59 major federally supported public assistance programs, each of which spent annually over $20 million in fiscal year 1985, and applied a means-test to determine eligibility. Generally the means-test measured income, and sometimes other resources, against a maximum or ceiling. The 59 programs are divided into 7 categories, of which the first 3, Cash, Food, and Housing, make up the content of this volume. (The other 4 categories are Health, Services, Employment, and Education.) The introduction to part 1 contained in this volume provides various kinds of background information, including methods used to compile the data, the organization of the materials, and the structure of the program descriptions. The pattern is essentially the same in all cases, beginning with a program summary, going on to cover administration, objectives, eligibility, benefits and services, program linkage and overlap, and legislative environment, and ending with a series of data tables. The volume also contains a general introduction to the compendium as a whole. | [FULL TEXT]
Gerry, Martin (1987). Procedural Safeguards Insuring That Handicapped Children Receive a Free Appropriate Public Education. News Digest #7.
This edition of the newsletter of the National Information Center for Handicapped Children and Youth explains the procedural safeguards provided by Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, to insure that each eligible child receives a free appropriate public education. Individual sections have the following titles: "Procedural Safeguards Insuring that Handicapped Children Receive a Free Appropriate Public Education"; "How Parents and Educators Make Decisions Together and How Disputes Arise"; "Requirements for Parent Participation"; "Other Methods for Obtaining Compliance"; "Organization of the Due Process Hearing System"; "Requesting a Due Process Hearing"; "Designation of a Hearing Officer"; "Pre-Hearing Procedures"; "The Hearing"; "Hearing Decision";"State Educational Agency Impartial Review"; "Review by State and Federal Courts"; "Attorney's Fees"; and "Child's Status during Hearings." | [FULL TEXT]
Gugerty, John J.; And Others (1988). Profiles of Success Serving Secondary Special Education Students through the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act: 10 Creative Approaches.
The report presents detailed descriptions of 10 secondary vocational education programs selected as exemplifying creative approaches to serving the needs of students with special needs. Programs were selected by a panel of experts from among 250 nominees, of whom 96 completed a lengthy questionnaire. Site visits were made to each program. Criteria for selection included response to the mandates of the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act, as well as aspects of program delivery such as interagency linkages, inservice training, and program evaluation. Each profile begins with a summary of program objectives, key features, staffing patterns, financial data, and number of students served. The next section describes how the program met the mandates of the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act relating to secondary level special education students. Performance data supporting program effectiveness are presented next, while a subsequent section describes other significant program components including transcripts of interviews with local staff and information on replicable aspects of the program. Sample forms and related exhibits constitute the final section of each profile. Research on effective schools and themes common to the exemplary programs are discussed in the final pages of the document. | [FULL TEXT]
_____. (1984). Global Resources, Environment, and Population Act of 1983. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Census and Population of the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on H. R. 2491 (July 26, 1984). Serial No. 98-49.
These hearings focused on issues and topics related to House Resolution 2491. The major purposes of this proposed lesiglation are to: (1) establish in the federal government a global foresight capability with respect to natural resources, the environment, and population; (2) establish a national population policy; and (3) establish an interagency council on global resources, environment, and population. Included are the statements of: Representative Katie Hall (Indiana), chairman of the Subcommittee on Census and Population; Representative Richard Ottinger (New York), author of the legislation; Representative Bob Edgar (Pennsylvania); and representatives from the following: Organization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff; Bureau of the Census; Zero Population Growth; League of United Latin American Citizens; the Environmental Fund; and the National Audubon Society. Also included are statements submitted by: The National Wildlife Federation; the Sierra Club of San Francisco; Population Communication; the Society of American Foresters; four chapters of Zero Population Growth (Los Angeles, Minnesota, Seattle, and San Diego); as well as the Assistant Secretary of Agriculture for Economics. Among the areas addressed during the hearings were: the need for the legislation (including a need based on the purported relationship between population increase and specific American environmental problems); population trends; implications of continued population growth; and opposition to the legislation (such as the view that the legislation is biased against certain population groups). | [FULL TEXT]
Glock, Nancy Clover (1987). Course Standards Handbook.
This handbook is designed to facilitate the process of course classification in California community college districts under the revisions to the California Administrative Code, Title 5. Section 1 explains the purpose of the handbook and gives background on its development, the authority of the Chancellor's Office with respect to the approval of credit courses, and the process and forms to be used to certify the procedures currently being used at the districts to approve courses. Section 2 presents and explains Title 5 revisions in the areas of academic standards, repeatability of courses, disabled students, and minimum standards. Section 3 offers background on the Board of Governors' policies regarding the strengthening of academic standards and the reconciliation of civil rights and academic reform. Using a question-and-answer format, section 4 attempts to impart the clearest understanding of the regulations in such areas as course outlines, critical thinking, co- and pre-requisites, and non-degree credit versus noncredit. Sections 5 and 6 present model procedures and relevant forms for classifying courses for credit. Section 7 discusses issues related to student assessment; section 8 presents an article on public policy and educational reforms in the areas of "college-level" and "critical thinking"; and section 9 offers supplemental criteria for the classification of English as a Second Language Courses. Finally, section 10 offers guidance on the preparation of course outlines.
Gloeckler, Lawrence C. (1988). Residential Placement System: Procedures for the Residential Placement of Children with Handicapping Conditions in Approved In-State Private Schools, Special Act School Districts and Out-of-State Schools with which New York State Contracts.
The document details the procedures, effective in June 1988, for the residential placement of handicapped children in New York State private schools, special school districts, and selected out-of-state schools. The preface states that students may be placed in residential facilities only when such placements are determined to be the least restrictive environment appropriate to meet their educational needs. The newly developed Residential Placement System establishes a process which links eligible students in need of residential placement with available services via a computer assisted system. The residential placement system is detailed in sections on: district Residential Project programs. A Residential Placement System Checklist is provided which covers initial application, determination of eligibility, application for continuation, and the hard-to-place. Appendixes, the major portion of the document, include Residential Placement System Forms, Children's Residential Project program descriptions, a description of the Council on Children and Families Hard-to-Place Children's Activities Unit, and descriptions of the Commission for the Blind and Visually Handicapped, the Department of Social Services, the Office of Mental Health, and the Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities.
Gandy, Oscar H., Jr. (1989). The Surveillance Society: Information Technology and Bureaucratic Social Control. Journal of Communication, 39, 3.
Describes how communications and information technologies are being used to increase the reach and influence of bureaucratic surveillance, creating an increasing inequality between those who provide and those who gather personal information. Argues that the current legal system is hopelessly inadequate to the challenge of controlling the "technologies of control."
Gandy, Oscar H., Jr.; Simmons, Charles E. (1986). Technology, Privacy and the Democratic Process. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 3, 2.
Argues that advances in information technology, especially capacities to collect and combine data for marketing purposes, subvert protections of individual privacy and weaken the influence of the individual in democracy.
Gannett, Ellen (1989). State Initiatives on School-Age Child Care. Second Edition.
In recent years, the interest in how children spend their out-of-school time has resulted in program development projects at the local and state level and has influenced state and federal policymakers to propose legislation supportive of school-age child care programs. Gubernatorial and legislative efforts have succeeded in several states. Successful policy proposals involve enabling legislation that encourages public school space for before- and after-school programs in Massachusetts, Wisconsin, and Arizona, and full-scale funding programs for school-age child care in California, Indiana, and New York. Under the federal Dependent Care Grants Program (DCGP), states can apply for funds to set up school-age child care programs. The DCGP has been reauthorized by Congress at 20 million dollars per year for fiscal years 1987-1990. While there are many possibilities for policy initiatives, particular attention should be directed to the needs of children of minority families in poverty. This publication's working list of state policy initiatives on school-age child care provides brief summaries of state initiatives followed by more extensive state-by-state descriptions. | [FULL TEXT]
_____. (1984). Governor's Select Advsiory Commission for Primary and Secondary Education Final Report. 1984.
This report presents the 1984 recommendations of the Governor's Select Advisory Commission for Primary and Secondary Education for the state of Indiana. These recommendations emphasize four general areas: basic educational outcomes, the financing of schools, personnel efficiency and productivity for achieving excellence, and extensions of learning opportunities. After an executive summary and an introductory section describing procedures and basic assumptions, the report is divided into specific recommendations on the following: (1) state law and rule-making authority, (2) curriculum and program emphasis, (3) innovative educational programs, (4) teacher certification requirements, (5) continuing education requirements, (6) growth in administrative personnel, (7) public input process, (8) school finance and quality education, (9) cooperation with nonpublic educational programs, (10) programs for gifted and talented students, and (11) other needed improvements. A brief summary conclusion is followed by a set of eight appendixes providing the text of Public Law 229 (creating the commission and stipulating its objectives), minutes from commission meetings, and other assorted reference materials.
_____. (1984). Government Depository Libraries. The Present Law Governing Designated Depository Libraries. 98th Congress, 2nd Session.
To aid all interested persons in the use of Government depository libraries, the Joint Committee on Printing periodically publishes a committee print providing the addresses and telephone numbers of all libraries in the system. The 1984 committee print is divided into six sections: (1) an overview including subsections on authorization, types of libraries designated, regional depositories, discontinuance of despository designation, Government publications selection procedures, disposal of Government publications by depositories, and history of early depository library legislation; (2) sections of title 44 of the U.S. Code and the U.S. Statutes at Large relating to government depository libraries and the distribution, binding, and indexing of public documents, and a U.S. map showing the number of depository libraries in each state; (3) a list of depository libraries by state and city; (4) a list of regional depository libraries by state and city; (5) a list of depository libraries by state and congressional district; and (6) a list of Government Printing Office bookstores and distribution centers by state. | [FULL TEXT]
_____. (1984). Governor's Task Force on Immigration: Final Report.
Texas Governor Mark White established a 28-member Governor's Task Force on Immigration on March 24, 1983 to: (1) examine the impact on Texas and its citizens of the legislative issues in the proposed federal Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1983; (2) hold public hearings to gain input from citizens, business, industry, labor, ranching and farming; (3) develop a Texas position on the legislation; and (4) develop strategies for affecting the national legislation. In this final report of the task force, separate sections address each major component of the proposed legislation: employer sanctions, enforcement, legal immigration, temporary workers, legalization (amnesty), federal reimbursement, and asylum. Other sections offer suggestions regarding the United States-Mexico relationship and aspects of documentation not directly addressed in the bill. Each section includes a discussion of the issues, particularly as they affect Texas, a summary of testimony on the issue before the task force, and specific recommendations (with rationale for each) pertaining to the issue. The executive order establishing the task force is appended.
_____. (1986). Governance and Funding of Montana's Vo-Tech Centers: Options for Change. A Report to the 50th Legislature. Joint Interim Subcommittee on Vo-Techs/Job Training.
A Montana legislative committee surveyed the vocational education system in the state in order to draw up resolutions for legislation changing some of the administration and funding of the postsecondary part of the vocational system. This report presents an overview of the vocational education system, including the following: (1) a review of legislative involvement in vocational-technical governance and funding; (2) powers and duties of governance components and other agencies; (3) financial status of the vocational-technical system; (4) programs and services at the vocational-technical centers; (5) vocational-technical student profiles; and (6) the role and scope of vocational-technical education in Montana's education system. Based on this overview, recommendations were made that the state legislature enact laws to continue and intensify general support for postsecondary vocational-technical education in Montana and transfer the governance of the five vocational-technical centers from the Office of Public Instruction to the Board of Regents of Higher Education.
Govan, Reginald C., Ed.; Taylor, William L., Ed. (1989). One Nation, Indivisible: The Civil Rights Challenge for the 1990s.
This report reviews and summarizes 28 reports on the status and enforcement of civil rights legislation. All aspects of federal law and policy that deal with equal opportunity for racial and ethnic minorities, women and the elderly are investigated in the following areas: (1) administration of justice; (2) education; (3) employment rights; (4) health; (5) housing; (6) language rights; (7) minority business development; and (8) political rights. The rights of institutionalized persons and the rights of the disabled are treated in two separate sections. Each report focuses on the following major issues: (1) evidence of continuing inequality; (2) the role of the Federal Government in the development of proscriptions against discrimination as they existed in 1981; (3) the efforts of the Reagan Administration to modify or change longstanding interpretations of key protection and enforcement policies; (4) the enforcement record of agencies responsible for compliance; (5) emerging policy questions; and (6) recommendations to strengthen enforcement. The report concludes that the campaigns by the Reagan Administration to repeal fundamental policies providing for broad coverage of civil rights laws and affirmative remedies by and large were unsuccessful. However, there is confusion about the federal commitment to equality of opportunity, and the elimination of effective enforcement programs has resulted in the denial of opportunity to many. The Bush Administration must reaffirm its commitment to equal opportunity, reinstate enforcement programs, and restore the public's confidence in government's adherence to existing law. A total of 2,467 endnotes divided by chapter, information about the contributors, and a list of cases dealing with the civil rights of prisoners are appended. | [FULL TEXT]
Guralnick, Michael J. (1982). Pediatrics, Special Education, and Handicapped Children: New Relationships. Exceptional Children.
The introduction to the special issue on pediatrics and special education notes the increased interest of pediatricians in the handicapped, increased expectations for pediatric involvement due to federal legislation, and increased awareness of the training needs of pediatricians.
Guralnick, Michael J. (1989). Recent Developments in Early Intervention Efficacy Research: Implications for Family Involvement in P.L. 99-457. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 9, 3.
Contemporary developments concerning the effectiveness of family involvement in early intervention programs are described within the framework of Public Law 99-457 and illustrated with investigations focusing on children at biological risk, children with cerebral palsy, and children with general developmental delays.
Gunderson, Morley (1989). Implementation of Comparable Worth in Canada. Journal of Social Issues, 45, 4.
Describes issues involved in the implementation of comparable worth in Canada. Discusses the international relevance of Canada's experience because of its extensive coverage, application to private sector, integration with collective bargaining, and emphasis on proactive approach. Discusses issues of fairness concerning practical aspects of program design, implementation, and enforcement.
Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise (1989). Text Comprehensibility and the Writing Process: The Case of Laws and Lawmaking. Written Communication, 6, 1.
Relates problems of law text comprehensibility to the legislative writing process. Describes the drafting of three pieces of Swedish consumer legislation at different stages. Summarizes and analyzes the results in relation to rhetorical and sociolinguistic theories of writing.
Guthrie, James W. (1983). The Future of Federal Education Policy. Teachers College Record, 84, 3.
This article explores the evolution of federal government policy on education during the past 20 years, points out trends likely to influence future policy, and projects possible future responses to these trends. The roles of educational interest groups instrumental in passing the legislation are described.
Guthrie, James W. (1983). A New State Model of Teacher Education. Teacher Education Quarterly, 10, 4.
A new California law, Senate Bill 813, implies sweeping changes for teacher education in that state. The law permits districts to hire college graduates without teaching credentials and train them. It also requires all teachers to renew certification periodically. Implications for schools of education are discussed.
Guthrie, James W., Ed.; Kirst, Michael W., Ed. (1985). Conditions of Education in California, 1985.
This technical report is the second edition of "Conditions of Education in California," and contains 53 figures and tables of data that range from student test performances to state revenue projections. Following a summary of state education highlights, the section "The Evolving Context of California Education" presents past, present and future issues. Despite improvements resulting from recent major educational reform, school financing is returning to 1979-80 levels; the researchers argue that taxpayer sacrifices may be necessary. This section gives an overview of factors affecting the state's educational future. including teacher shortages and economic conditions. The next section, "Student Enrollment, Ethnicity, and Language" discusses enrollment projections and the roles of state ethnic populations and their languages. "Student Performance" analyzes test scores as reflections of achievement and minority student test performance. Measures include the California Assessment Program and the Scholastic Aptitude Test. Test scores are supplemented by such data as student absenteeism rates and admissions to postsecondary institutions. The section "Curriculum and School Reform" includes descriptions of teacher programs and salaries and the School Based Program Coordination Act. "Human Resources" evaluates teachers' salaries relative to workloads. The final section, "Fiscal Resources," offers national comparisons of funding, enrollment projections, and fiscal needs. Four pages of references are included. | [FULL TEXT]
Guthrie, Larry F.; And Others (1989). Principles of Successful Chapter 1 Programs: A Guidebook for Rural Educators.
This guide is intended to help districts and schools think about how their programs for educationally deprived children are designed and how they can be improved. In view of new Chapter 1 legislation (P.L. 100-297), which places strong emphasis on program improvement to disadvantaged students, practitioners need to internalize elements of new policy and integrate them with age-old principles of good teaching. In its first section, the guide describes five basic principles for successfully planning and implementing Chapter 1 programs: (1) acquisition of basic and advanced skills; (2) intensive early intervention; (3) staff coordination; (4) extra quality time for students to learn new concepts and skills; and (5) parent involvement. The second section of the guide describes Chapter 1 programs in three school districts, which differ in size and educational approach, to illustrate successful attention to the five principles. Chinle, Arizona, is located in the midst of a rural Indian reservation. Its program shows how the local Indian culture and environment can be used to make curriculum interesting and educationally relevant. Juab, Utah, is a small district that has undergone major school improvement efforts. It provides an example of how Chapter 1 services can be integrated into the regular instructional program. Long Beach, California, is an urban district that has successfully coordinated programs and added quality time to low-achieving students' instructional day. This document includes 16 references. | [FULL TEXT]
Gutstadt, Allan (1986). Statutory and Administrative Law for Geology Courses. Journal of Geological Education, 34, 1.
Federal, state, and local statutory law is created by legislative bodies, administrative law by government agencies. Describes the nature of these laws and recommends that both statutory and administrative law be included in courses on legal aspects of geology.
Gilbert, Susan F. (1982). Adaptive Re-Use of Public School Buildings: The "Community/School" Concept. Journal of Law and Education, 11, 3.
Examines the legal aspects and problems of school ownership, school closing, and reuse of school property. Proposes new legislation establishing "community/schools" that vests ownership of school property in the municipality in which the property is located.
Gilkerson, Linda; And Others (1987). Report Accompanying the Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1986. (House Report #99-860) and Commenting on P.L. 99-457.
The booklet contains the U.S. Government Report which accompanied the Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1986 (Public Law 99-457) and a commentary on the law written by the National Center for Clinical Infant Programs. The bill is intended to establish a federal discretionary program to assist states in developing and implementing an interdisciplinary program of early intervention services for handicapped infants, toddlers, and their families and to strengthen the incentive for states to serve handicapped children aged 3 to 5 years. The report contains: (1) a one paragraph summary of the bill; (2) a background statement explaining the need for the law; (3) cost estimates by the Congressional Budget Office; (4) a section by section statement of the intent of the law; and (5) the language of the law itself, with changes identified. The commentary article attempts to place the law in the broader context of current national initiatives on behalf of very young children and their families. The article stresses five points, including the need to move beyond complex service systems requiring parents to coordinate services, the importance of including health services as an integrated part of a early intervention system, and the need to avoid inappropriate assessment and premature labeling of children.
Gillespie, Ellen B. (1982). Implications of the Louisiana Basic Skills Test for Special Education Students.
The legislation mandating Louisiana's Basic Skills Test was consistent with federal legislation in specifically including special education students. The development of policy alternatives for the testing of these students, however, was a complex process. Related issues include: (1) inclusion/exclusion of special education students, (2) development of alternative standards for students not tested, (3) test procedural and format modifications, (4) issues involved in research based on the test performance of special education students, and (5) involvement of consumer advocacy organizations. Policy development in Louisiana has focused on individualizing decisions concerning test participation and modifications. Alternative standards have been developed for special education students not addressing state minimum skills. State Department of Education staff are working to solve difficulties in conducting research and reporting test scores of special education students. Consumer organizations are being involved in test development and implementation.
Gillespie, Robert G.; Gossman, Patrick J. (1989). Issues and Threats Affecting Timesharing and Microcomputer Sales. CAUSE/EFFECT, 12, 1.
National and state issues affecting university timesharing and personal computer resales are discussed. Background information on timesharing sales, microcomputer sales, and unrelated business income tax (UBIT) and unfair competition is presented. A checklist for actions college and university campuses can take to deal with these issues is provided.
Gilli, Angelo C., Sr. (1982). Higher Education's Current Involvement with and Future Responses to Occupational Training and Employment Programs and Services. Higher Education/CETA Project Monograph.
Higher education's past, current, and future responses to occupational training and employment programs and services are considered as part of the Council on Education's Higher Education/Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) program, which was supported by the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education. In addition, demographic factors and employment characteristics are examined since they provide a background for understanding college and university involvement with training and employment programs and services. Several case studies are included that illustrate successful occupational training and employment programs and services. Occupational education has been an established program in public education since before World War II, and during the 1960s and 1970s it grew steadily as college enrollments were increasing. A variety of occupational education programs and services that were more specialized than those available to traditional students in colleges and universities were developed to help those who were experiencing difficulty in entering the labor market. The case studies illustrate how two- and four-year colleges have responded in providing: classroom training in both academic and job-specific content skills in both blue-collar and white-collar occupations; employment services; employment and related research; program and policy evaluations; and continuing education for personnel specialists. Attention is focused on postsecondary programs and services funded under the CETA program. Recommendations for change are proposed in areas such as funding patterns, the structure and role of higher education, and the delivery of programs and services. | [FULL TEXT]
Gillis-Olion, Marion; Olion, LaDelle (1984). Providing Inservice Training to Paraprofessionals, Regular and Early Childhood Educators Who Are Unprepared to Work with Mainstreamed Handicapped Children.
A successful 3-year inservice training program for paraprofessionals, regular and early childhood educators was based on a modularized competency training model. Three modules were developed for each training group, with content including theoretical foundations, attitudes toward handicapped students, legislation, and planned observations of handicapped children in the classroom (module I); observation and recordkeeping, development of Individualized Education Programs, development of teaching strategies based on diagnostic profiles (module II); and behavior management, resources, team participation skills (module III). The program featured training activities as well as on-site visitations to program participants by the program coordinator. Participants were found to be more confident, made positive changes in their methods of discipline, improved in their ability to observe and informally diagnose, and increased their ability to design and implement educational programs for handicapped as well as normal students.
Gilmer, Jerry S. (1987). The Effects of Test Disclosure on Linear Equating Relationships under the Common Item Nonequivalent Groups Design.
The proponents of test disclosure argue that disclosure is a matter of fairness; the opponents argue that fairness is enhanced by score equating which is dependent on test security. This research simulated disclosure on a professional licensing examination by placing response keys to selected items in some examinees' records, and comparing their scores on a later form of the same test to scores of examinees who did not receive disclosure. Ten groups varied in number of items disclosed, number of examinees receiving disclosure, ability level of the subgroup receiving disclosure, and whether the items disclosed were anchor test or nonanchor test items. Results depended on the degree of exposure to test items; the greatest score differences were found in the group in which the greatest number of people received disclosure on the greatest number of test items. The effect of item disclosure on passing scores and passing rates was also examined. Results depended on whether the disclosed items were anchor or nonanchor items and whether the benefit of disclosure was direct or indirect. It was a concluded that there is currently no perfect equating method for test disclosure and that test fairness is more complicated than originally thought. Efforts to have fair disclosure in occupational licensing tests must be weighed against the need to protect the public. | [FULL TEXT]
Gaffney, Michael J. (1986). Chapter 1: The Choices for Educators. (Reactions).
The papers presented at this conference review current research on effective educational practices for low-achieving students and identify those that might be applied to programs funded under Chapter 1 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act of 1981. This report is a reaction to three papers which were presented at the final session of the conference and which provide, respectively, suggestions for how the effectiveness of Federal compensatory education efforts can be enhanced by increasing coordination among regular classroom reading programs and targeted support programs; redirecting the use of Chapter 1 staff development funds; and using a conceptual model to evaluate the achievement of Chapter 1 students. The report provides an overview of the range of discretion Chapter 1 gives school districts and then comments on the three papers from a legal and policy perspective. Much of the coordination research seems to have focused on problems caused when districts provide little or no coordination. Chapter 1 staff development funds cannot be used for regular classroom teachers or staff specialists who do not serve Chapter 1 students this school year and will not serve them next school year. The same applies to principals. Also the scope of the training does not include matters not "directly related" to the services to be provided. Regarding student achievement, it is important to remember that there is no national Chapter 1 instructional program that is uniform across districts and within districts. The paper concludes that problems of program quality and effectiveness are not the inevitable result of Federal legal provisions. Endnotes and a list of references are included.
Gaffney, Michael J.; Schember, Daniel M. (1982). Current Title I School and Student Selection Procedures and Implications for Implementing Chapter 1, ECIA. A Special Report from the Title I District Practices Study.
Drawing selectively on data from a study of Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) that included questionnaires sent to 2,000 randomly selected local Title I directors, structured interviews and document reviews in 100 representative Title I districts, and indepth studies in 40 specially selected Title I districts, this report describes the legal framework for school and student selection under both Title I of the ESEA and Chapter 1 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act (ECIA) of 1981. After discussing differences between these two sets of provisions, in the following section the author addresses two major issues: (1) the effects of Chapter 1 on school and student selection and the degree of concentration of services and (2) the likely effects of Chapter 1's elimination of school, attendance area, and student selection options previously available under Title I. Findings indicate that, although a majority of districts do not perceive a loss of flexibility under ECIA, most Title I directors believe services under ECIA will be less concentrated than services under Title I, resulting in an overall reduction of services to students currently in Title I programs. | [FULL TEXT]
Gaffney, Michael J.; Schember, Daniel M. (1982). The Effects of the Title I Supplement-Not-Supplant and Excess Costs Provisions on Program Design Decisions. A Special Report from the Title I District Practices Study.
Drawing on data from a study of Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), this report focuses on Title I's supplement-not-supplant and excess costs provisions and their effects on program design. Following discussions of the legal framework of Title I and Chapter 1 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act (ECIA), the report's central section details findings concerning current program design practices (pullout vs. inclass), school district rationales for program design choices, and the relationship of Title I programs to regular classroom instruction. The next section, "Continuing Misconceptions about the Supplement-Not-Supplant Provision," is followed by a summary and outline of implications, a selected bibliography, and appendixed providing (1)"Title I Excess Costs Models Applying the Supplement-Not-Supplant Concept to Program Design," (2) an excerpt from a United States Department of Education Title I evaluation report to Congress, (3) an excerpt from a school district's 1981 policy memorandum discussing alternatives to the pullout approach, and (4) a 1981 school district memorandum excerpt explaining the district's elementary level excess costs for reading and math programs. The report concludes by encouraging further examination of the implementation of the requirement that federally funded compensatory education provide supplemental rather than substitute services. | [FULL TEXT]
Gaffney, Michael J.; Schember, Daniel M. (1987). An Analysis of the Internal Consistency of Selected Aspects of the Legal Framework for Chapter 1, ECIA.
This paper describes and analyzes the internal consistency of the formal and informal legal frameworks governing certain aspects of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act of 1981 Chapter 1 Program. A major focus is how these frameworks differ from those of Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, the program which Chapter 1 superseded. The formal framework of Chapter 1 includes statutory provisions, federal regulations, Education Department guidelines, and congressional interpretations that are published and disseminated widely throughout the 14,000 participating school districts. Informal frameworks are Education Department correspondence and written instruments and instructions that the programs generate. The frameworks are discussed in the following three categories: (1) federal management and oversight; (2) state management and oversight; and (3) local implementation. In general the legal provisions were found to be consistent on all levels after technical amendments and other adjustments are considered. There has been some success in the efforts to reduce the length, prescriptiveness, and complexity of the legal framework. Some inconsistency was found in ensuring service equivalence, but the solution for this lies with administrators and the fairness with which personnel is assigned. | [FULL TEXT]
Gage, Jack; And Others (1989). The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act: A Chance for Families. Exceptional Parent, 19 n6 p38, 40-42 Sep 1989.
The article describes the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act which provides for recovery awards for vaccine-related injuries caused by diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines. A Vaccine Injury Table lists types of disabilities covered and time periods for first symptoms. The claims process, legal assistance, and technicalities are explained.
Godfrey, James T. (1989). What Created the Climate for the Growth of Cooperative Education? Journal of Cooperative Education, 25, 2.
Highlights the people and events that set the stage for the rapid growth of cooperative education that occurred during the sixties and early seventies.
Getman, Julius G.; Franke, Ann H. (1988). The 'Yeshiva' Case Revisited: Professors' Right to Bargain Is Entitled to Statutory Protection. Chronicle of Higher Education, 34, 21.
Employees and faculty members at private institutions, it is suggested, have the right to decide whether they wish to engage in collective bargaining. Faculty members should seek support for narrower legislation establishing that participation in institutional governance would not automatically confer managerial status on faculty members.
Gettman, Jon (1989). Decriminalizing Marijuana. American Behavioral Scientist, 32, 3.
Argues for the decriminalization of marijuana and claims this action would provide a number of policy options. Cautions that a policy of total prohibition has unattainable goals. Points to the failure of recriminalization policies of the past 10 years as the most persuasive argument for decriminalization.
Gattiker, Urs E. (1989). Technological Adoption and Organizational Adaptation: Developing a Model for Human Resource Management in an International Business Environment.
A model of technological training has two dimensions: level of cultural stability and employee's level of cognitive ability. Each dimension has two variables. The variables of cultural stability are (1) technological adoption and organizational adaptation and (2) structure of work and work processes. For cognitive ability, the variables are training and skills. This model suggests that successful technology adoption and organizational adaptation require a fit between culture and cognitive ability by the employees. Such a fit will enable the organization to offer the necessary training where it is needed most, thereby allowing employees to acquire the necessary skills to perform well with the new technology. The legal environment will affect the interrelationship between technology adoption and organizational adaptation profoundly. Culture may be an important factor since labor laws may differ across provinces and most certainly between countries. Thus, action strategies employed by a company must differ due to local labor laws. In less-developed countries, firms may introduce technology and automatically lay off redundant workers in large numbers. In Canada, if technology adoption results in more than 50 layoffs within any 4-week period, the group termination falls under the Canada Labour Code and a joint committee consisting of displaced workers and management must be established to determine severance pay, retraining support, and any other compensation. The practical implication for managers is the need for an integrated training strategy considering cultural factors. A firm must provide three types of training: job-specific training; training in company cultural habits and action strategies; and training for understanding and using the organizational culture to everyone's advantage. Sixty-two references are included and nine tables are appended. | [FULL TEXT]
Gattullo, Mario (1987). Marking Strategies in Italy. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 13, 1.
Three types of student evaluation strategies used in Italy are described: (1) teacher's free comments; (2) standardized adjectives used as rating scales; and (3) numeric scores based on tests and other evaluation criteria. Implications of the third approach, which was implemented according to legislation in 1977, are discussed.
Geldof, Dick J.; And Others (1985). Exemplary Youth Employment Programs Survey Report.
Service Delivery Areas (SDAs) and Private Industry Councils (PICs) were surveyed concerning their implementation of Exemplary Youth Employment Programs described in Section 205 of the Job Training Partnership Act. Surveys were mailed to over 500 agencies. Of the 219 responding agencies, 77 percent were operating at least one Exemplary Youth Employment Program and 37 percent of those not running such programs planned to do so. Of the respondents: 70 percent operated Pre-employment Skills Training (PST) programs; 27 percent operated Education for Employment (EE) programs; 26 percent operated School-to-Work Transition (SWT) programs; and 83 percent operated Entry Employment Experience (EEE) programs. High percentages felt their programs strongly resembled youth programs run under the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act--42 percent of PST, 53 percent of EE, 38 percent of SWT, and 44 percent of EEE. The numbers of clients served had increased for all programs. PIC-approved youth employment competencies were used among 81 percent of responding PST programs, 70 percent of EE, 61 percent of SWT, and 65 percent of EEE. Recommendations were for (1) policymakers to focus on skill development, not just placement; (2) legislation to provide support (technical assistance and training) for mandated program designs; and (3) examination of incentives to encourage model use.
Geller, Henry; Lampert, Donna (1989). Charging for Spectrum Use.
This paper, the third in a series exploring future options for public policy in the communications and information arenas, argues that the communications spectrum--e.g., public mobile service, private radio, and domestic satellites--is a valuable but limited resource that should benefit all Americans. After a background discussion, it is recommended that a spectrum-charging scheme be implemented. It contends that: (1) such a scheme would create an economic incentive for efficient use of the spectrum; (2) less time and money would be wasted in awarding a license; and (3) the most important, the U.S. public would benefit from the inherent value of the spectrum, with the monies then used to promote public telecommunications, public interest programming, and minority ownership of broadcast facilities. The paper concludes by suggesting that charging for the spectrum is particularly appropriate now in light of the weakness of traditional broadcast public trustee regulation and the growing demands on the spectrum overall.
Gabe, LiAnne C. (1989). The Projected Impact on Passing Rates of Proposed Changes to the CLAST Passing Standards and Increased CLAST Passing Standards: The Impact on Ethnic Groups. Institutional Research Report Abstracts Numbers RR89-15 and RR89-17.
When the College Level Academic Skills Test (CLAST) was mandated in Florida, a schedule of incremental increases in the required passing scores was legislated. The 1986 passing standards were scheduled to be increased in 1989. This change was projected to reduce by half the number of students admitted to upper-level status at Florida's colleges. A proposal was put forth by the Commissioner of Education to increase the standards on a more gradual basis. The two reports contained in this document analyze the potential impact of the various proposals on Broward Community College (BCC) students. The first report examines the passing rate of BCC students who took the CLAST in March 1989, utilizing 1986 standards, the Commissioner's proposed interim standards, and the standards originally scheduled for implementation in 1989. The report indicates that under 1986 standards the passing rate for BCC students was 79%. Under the originally proposed standards, this figure would drop to 36.5%, while under the Commissioner's proposal, the passing rate would be 58%. The second report examines the March 1986 CLAST scores by ethnic group. The report indicates that while 86% of BCC's White non-Hispanic students passed all four CLAST subtests, only 59% of the Black non-Hispanic students, 60% of the Hispanic students, and 44% of the Asian students did so. These figures dropped to 64%, 37%, 42%, and 28%, respectively, under the Commissioner's proposed standards and to 41%, 27%, 18%, and 12%, respectively, under the originally proposed 1989 standards. | [FULL TEXT]
Gee, Ellen M.; Boyce, A. Margery (1988). Veterans and Veterans Legislation in Canada: An Historical Overview. Canadian Journal on Aging, 7, 3.
The authors describe the history of Canadian veterans' legislation since 1866. Emphasis is placed on issues relating to aging and elderly persons, with particular concentration on pensions and health. They show that veterans' legislation and issues have played a role in the development of Canadian health and social services.
Gluckman, Ivan (1986). Statutory Protection for Principals: Tort Liability. [Legal Memorandum]
Due to increasing numbers of lawsuits, educators need protection against financial liability to persons claiming injury on school property or in school-related activities. This legal memorandum describes needed protections, discusses the National Association of Secondary School Principals' (NASSP) role in developing liability insurance, and compares statutory coverage by various states. Since 1969, all NASSP members have been entitled to broad-scale protection against damage awards; the current policy provides up to $400,000 in indemnity and civil legal defense claims. Many principals have additional coverage through state associations or school districts, but some district plans are not mandatory. Private coverage is either unavailable or extremely costly. At the present time, most states have mandatory safe-harmless statutes, but only six states offer mandatory liability insurance for educators. Highlights of Illinois, New Jersey, and Florida statutes are provided. NASSP members should find out what statutory protection against personal liability is provided in their individual states. Some statutes refer to "state employees" in general, not to educaators in particular. While a mandatory statute covering both damages and legal defense is ideal, even a permissive law offers a negotiation basis for employee benefits.
Gluckman, Ivan B. (1983). The Influence of the Law and the Courts on School-College Communication. NASSP Bulletin, 67, 460.
Describes the legal responsibilities of schools and colleges in the disclosure of student records, information, and evaluations, with particular reference to the impact of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974. Provides some guidelines to follow when maintaining or disclosing information concerning students.
Gluckman, Ivan B.; Koerner, Thomas J., Jr. (1988). Recording Conversations in Schools. West's Education Law Reporter, 45, 1.
In general, because of varying federal and state legislation and a paucity of court decisions, the law governing the recording of conversations is in considerable flux. School personnel desiring to record conversations in school without the consent or knowledge of all parties involved must proceed with considerable caution.
Grice, Michael (1986). Project Return: 1985-1986. Evaluation Report.
This evaluation report of an attendance project in Portland, Oregon, public schools describes goals, methods, and results for 1985-86. The introduction states objectives of identifying, contacting, and counseling students leaving school or attending irregularly, with the purpose of guiding them into school or alternative educational programs. A methodology section outlines data gathering, which involved collecting individual student information and responses of staff. Evaluation processes were designed to learn the following: how truant students are identified, school officials' perceptions of the project, and project influence on students' return. Findings are summarized in a project description, best and worst case scenarios, and placement and data analysis. Tables list referrals by grade and month, distribution by grade, grade and age, geographic region, ethnic group, sex, and reenrollment. Reenrollment rates and problems are discussed, including space and staff limitations. Conclusions report that the project's success was jeopardized by difficult home situations even when families were interested in cooperating, and also by ineffective legal enforcement. Recommendations include the following: (1) determination of adequate staff for projected cases, (2) revision of student data methods, and (3) reappraisal of the high school focus to include middle school dropout problems. Appendices provide Oregon Revised Statutes defining truancy and parental responsibilities, as well as copies of news and periodical articles.
Griffin, Howard (1982). Legal Issues Surrounding Section 504. [Business Officer]
Recent litigation under section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and unresolved issues in the application of section 504 to colleges and universities are examined. Section 504 is a federal statute expressing a national commitment to end discrimination against individuals on the basis of handicap. Three issues that currently confound efficient implementation of section 504 are as follows: (1) the meaning of "otherwise qualified" in the statutory text; (2) whether and to what extent affirmative steps must be taken by recipients of federal financial assistance to permit handicapped persons to participate in programs; and (3) whether section 504 applies only to those individual programs or activities that benefit directly from federal financial assistance, or to all programs and activities of an institution that receives federal financial assistance for any of its programs or activities. "Qualified handicapped person" is defined by the implementing regulations for section 504 as "a handicapped person who meets the academic and technical standards requisite to admission or participation in the recipients' education program or activity." The courts have not reached agreement on a standard for institutions to follow regarding accommodations for the handicapped. For the most part, institutions must rely on their own good-faith interpretations of the regulation in deciding whether an accommodation is required. Procedural issues regarding section 504 and the courts include: the students' private right of action against the university under the statute; whether damages are available under section 504; and whether section 504 forbids use of procedures or criteria that may unintentionally discriminate against handicapped persons.
Griffith, Susan R. (1986). Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as Amended: An Evaluation of Its Effectiveness in Terms of Access and Cost. Journal of Student Financial Aid, 16, 1.
An evaluation of the Title IV financial aid to students is provided, including the issues of minority access to higher education, the costs to the nation of that education, and the benefits accrued.
Grinde, Donald. (1987). Cherokee Removal and American Politics. New England Social Studies Bulletin, 44 n2 p28-45, 53 Win 1987.
Presents a brief history of the Cherokee Nation, from its first contact with De Soto in 1540 through Andrew Jackson's presidency. Concludes that the Cherokee removal clearly illustrates the shallowness of Jacksonian democratic principles.
Grinstead, Kenneth (1987). The Michigan Teacher and Tenure: A Study of the Michigan Teachers' Tenure Act. 1987 Edition.
Complete information about the Michigan Teachers' Tenure Act is presented in this 12-chapter volume. Tenure is an employment security device giving permanent status and protection against dismissal except for stated cause. An overview discusses tenure's advantages and disadvantages and legislation in Michigan that culminated in the 1964 Teachers' Tenure Act. Chapter 2 covers certification in relation to tenure rights. The probationary period and dismissal are analyzed in chapter 3. Tenure rights for nonclassroom positions are dealt with in chapter 4. In a discussion of layoff and recall, chapter 5 describes the local controlling boards' authority, notice requirements, and recall obligations and rights. Granting and denying leaves of absence is covered in chapter 6, and chapter 7 focuses on the discharge, suspension, and demotion of tenured teachers. Discontinuing service by resignation or abandonment is examined in chapter 8. Chapter 9 reports on discharge and demotion procedures. Chapter 10 sets forth appeal rights, including time limitations and hearing procedures. Remedies for wrongful suspension, demotion, or discharge are analyzed in chapter 11. The concluding chapter touches on such miscellaneous topics as transfer of tenured teachers and tenure rights under district reorganization. An appendix provides a reprint of the Tenure Act and tables of court decisions and attorney general opinions.
Goffin, Stacie G., Ed. (1988). Community Child Care Forum: From the Parents' Perspective. Conference Proceedings (Kansas City, Missouri, December 6, 1987).
These conference proceedings are based on an invitational community forum held in Kansas City, Missouri on December 6, 1987. The purpose of the forum was to provide an opportunity for people with different perspectives on child care to meet together. It was hoped that broadening participants' perspectives on child care issues might increase people's ability to work with each other on this complex enterprise. Participants were early childhood specialists; center and family child care providers from profit and not-for-profit suburban, urban, and inner-city programs; community decision-makers; employers; and parents from various income levels and family backgrounds working in jobs with varying degrees of flexibility. The forum was divided into two parts. First, a national overview on the child care issue was provided by Bernice Weissbourd, founder and president of Family Focus, Inc. and The Family Resource Coalition. She was followed by a panel of four parents who had each experienced child care in a different way. A second panel of presenters representing other constituencies in the child care arena then presented their perspectives. In the second part, six break-out groups held discussions. Transcripts of both parts are provided. | [FULL TEXT]
Goffin, Stacie G.; Lombardi, Joan (1988). Speaking Out: Early Childhood Advocacy.
This book, which is addressed to early childhood educators, offers a call to action that focuses on the whys and hows of advocacy, and provides strategies for selecting issues, building support, and joining with other advocates. Chapter 1 discusses the need for early childhood advocates, contributions advocates can make to the decision-making process, targets for advocacy, means of understanding how public policies make a difference, and development of an advocacy style. Chapter 2 concerns selecting a problem, gathering facts, focusing a response, and preparing for action. Building support, the topic of chapter 3, is discussed in terms of encouraging parents to speak out, informing public officials, responding to legislation, influencing administrative decisions, testifying at hearings, becoming involved in political campaigns, talking with employers, and contacting the media. In chapter 4, discussion centers on joining with others to reach goals, a topic that is explored in terms of collaboration with other groups, means of working effectively with others, and ways to reach out to the community. Chapter 5 covers the process of increasing the number of advocates and building power. Numerous practical suggestions and profiles of advocates in action are provided throughout the text. Related materials, such as guidelines for developing legislation to create or expand programs for young children, are appended. | [FULL TEXT]
Gonzales, Frank; Armendariz, Abe Lujan (1988). Federal Statutes & Directives Regarding Title IX Compliance. Technical Assistance Model.
Federal statutes and directives regarding Title IX compliance is the subject of this technical assistance module. It Collaborative. It is a guide for trainers who seek to familiarize educational personnel with the legal aspects of sex discrimination under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. Nine activities are described and materials, including five transparency masters, seven handouts, and a background reading for the presenter, are included within the module. Goals for the participants are the following: (1) to become familiar with the sex desegregation services available through Title IV Desegregation Assistance Centers; (2) to become familiar with the 11 areas of discrimination prohibited by Title IX; (3) to become familiar with the federal requirements for compliance with Title IX; and (4) to apply the information learned by resolving sex discrimination cases. The suggested time for completion of the module is 3 hours. Nine training modules and two more technical assistance modules are available on topics related to desegregation and equity. | [FULL TEXT]
Gonzalez, Juan C. (1984). The Need to Evaluate Special Education Programs Serving Bilingual Students.
The focus of this paper will be to argue for an effective and concise evaluation of special education programs serving bilingual or limited English proficient (LEP) students. Although Public Law 94-142 specifies that all children be provided with free appropriate education according to their individual needs, ensuring compliance with these requirements has been problematic, particularly in the provision and evaluation of appropriate programs and services to bilingual children. The future success of special education programs serving LEP students will largely depend on the ability to evaluate and communicate the ultimate successes and failures of such programs. In addition, while defining the overall worth of these programs, exemplary services and programs can be identified for dissemination. Advocates of special education for LEP students must engage in evaluation activity for the future of this population. Special educators must realize that evaluation is a requisite in the process of planning and delivering special education services to all populations. | [FULL TEXT]
Gonzalez, Roseann Duenas; And Others (1988). The English Language Amendment: Examining Myths. English Journal, 77, 3.
Claims three of the arguments advocated by proponents of the English Language Amendment (ELA) are myths, including (1) linguistic diversity causes political conflict; (2) an official language determines national unity; and (3) bilingual education decelerates the entrance of non-English speakers into the American mainstream. Argues that the ELA is politically oppressive.
Genovesi, Giovanni, Ed. (1986). Social-Economic Life and Compulsory Education. Conference Papers for the 8th Session of the International Standing Conference for the History of Education (Parma, Italy, September 3-6, 1986). Volume III.
Socioeconomic life is the theme of this third of four volumes on the history of compulsory education among the nations of Europe and the western hemisphere. Of the document's 18 articles, 15 are written in English and 3 are written in French. Most selections offer summaries; one of the three articles written in French provides a resume in English. Bibliographies accompany many articles. Titles and authors are as follows: "Mentalites et Experiences Sociales: Les Conditions Socio-Historiques de la Scolarisation Obligatoire en Europe" (Wolfgang Schmale); "Compulsory Schooling and Ethnic Acculturation in Alberta: A Case Study--1890s-1920s" (Nick Kach and Kasper Mazurek); "Attitudes to the Elementary Schools System among Copenhagen Working-Class Parents (1870-c.1900). Description of a Research Project" (Ning de Coninck-Smith); "The Introducation and Enforcement of Compulsory School Attendance in 19th Century Prussia" (Hans-Jurgen Apel); "Compulsory Education for German Immigrant Children in the United States of America during the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century: The Case of Rural Wisconsin" (Juliane Jacobi-Dittrich); "Le Recensement des Conscrits, le Reglement du Travail dans l'Industrie du Tabac et la Scolarite Obligatoire dans la Ville Hanseatique de Breme de 1841 a 1844" (Wiltrud Ulrich Drechsel and Franck Neumann); "A Social-Historical Approach Toward Mass Education in the Early 19th Century" (Klaus Wiese); "The Diminished Role of Formal Education in National Socialist Germany" (Geoffrey J. Giles); "Policy in Practice: Families and the Introduction of Compulsory Schooling in Essex Textile Districts" (Grace Belfiore); "Notes for a Pattern of Analysis of Compulsory Education in Latin America during the Nineteenth Century" (Gabriela Ossenbach-Sauter); "The Compulsory Education and the Mexican Revolution (1910-1924)" (Renate Marsiske); "Historical Context of Compulsory Education in Poland" (Jan Hellwig); "Social and Economic Aspects of Introducing Compulsory Education in the Czech Lands" (Dagmar Capkova); "The Political, Social and Economic Situation of Poland and Compulsory Education (to 1918)" (Lech Mokrzecki); "L'Obligation Scolaire au Portugal pendant la Premiere Moitie du XXe Siecle" (Aurea Adao); "Compulsory Schooling and Social Revolution in Spain 1936-1937: Considerations Concerning the Libertarian Position" (Pere Sola);"Compulsory Education and Child Labor in Spain in the Early 20th Century (Madrid, 1900-1920)" (Alejandro Tiana Ferrer); and "The Compulsory Curriculum in Industrial America: Connections Between Past and Present" (Thomas A. Mulkeen).
Genovesi, Giovanni, Ed. (1986). Introduction, Development and Extension of Compulsory Education. Conference Papers for the 8th Session of the International Standing Conference for the History of Education (Parma, Italy, September 3-6, 1986). Volume I.
This first of four volumes on the history of compulsory education among the nations of Europe and the Western hemisphere deals with historical antecedents and early development. Of the 29 total articles, 18 are in English and 2 have English summaries. Many selections include bibliographies. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Political Institutionalization of Compulsory Education" (Francisco O. Ramirez and John Boli); "L'Obbligo Scolastico e la Scuola di Base Nello Scritto d'un Pedagogista Cileno" (Alessandro Leonarduzzi); "Beginnings of Compulsory Education in the Republic of Columbia" (O. Negrin Fajardo and D. Soto Arango); "L'Obligation Educative en France des Origines a Nos Jours" (Paul Gerbod); "L'Introduction de l'Obligation Scolaire dans l'Allemagne Protestante du XVIe au XVIIIe Siecle" (Jean-Luc Le Cam); "Karl August Zeller (1774-1846). Aide-Camps pour la Prusse, Pays en Voie de Developpement en Matiere d'Education Nationale, dans le Contexte du Decalage Sud-Nord des Pays Germanophones" (Rudolf Koschnitzke); "The Historical Development of Compulsory Schooling in Germany" (Gabriele Weigand); "The History of Compulsory Education in Germany" (Karl-Heinz Guenther and Gert Geissler); "The Advent of Universal Compulsory Elementary Education in England and Wales" (D. K. Jones); "Gradual Regulation of Schooling Age and School Attendance in Hungary since 1777 up to Now" (Otto Vag); "The Debate about the Introduction of Compulsory Elementary Education of 1848 in Hungary" (Sandor Komlosi); "Compulsory Education in the Twenty Years after Italian Unification (1860-1880)" (Enzo Catarsi); "Chiesa e Obbligo Scolastico Nell'Italia Post-Unitaria (1860-1900)" (Carmela Covato); "Compulsory Education in The Netherlands" (J. F. A. Braster and N. L. Dodde); "School and Literacy. Introduction of the Elementary School in Norway in the 1730's and 1740's" (Knut Tveit); "The Idea of Unbroken Primary School in Norway" (Knut Jordheim); "L'Introduction de l'Obligation Scolaire dans la Pologne, la Prusse et l'Autriche" (Marianna Krupa); "Legal Foundation and Accomplishment of Compulsory Education in Poland in 1918-1939" (Jozef Zerko and Romuald Grzybowski); "L'Introduction et la Prolongation de la Scolarite Obligatoire au Portugal" (Joaquim Ferreira Gomes); "L'Enseignement Obligatoire dans les Constitutions Espagnoles due XIXe Siecle" (Federico Gomez Rodriguez de Castro); "Le Chemin Vers l'Enseignement Obligatoire en Espagne Avant 1857" (Anastasio Martinez Navarro); "Apport des Municipalites Constitutionnelles a l'Introduction de l'Enseignement Obligatoire en Espagne" (Julio Ruiz Berrio); "Compulsory Education in the Swiss Canton of Zurich from 1798 to 1859" (Fritz-Peter Hager); "La Reproclamation de l'Instruction Obligatoire, a Geneve, au XIXe Siecle: Du Refus de 1842 a l'Acceptation de 1872" (Charles Magnin); "Towards Compulsory Education: The School Revival Movement in the United States" (Jurgen Herbst); "The Roots of Compulsory Education in America" (L. Glenn Smith); "Compulsory Education in Utopia: Owen and Neef" (Dieter Jedan); "Compulsory Education in the Waldorf Schools in America" (Joseph A. Baust); and "Compulsory Education in Chicago" (Joan K. Smith).
Genovesi, Giovanni, Ed. (1986). Compulsory Education: Statistics, Methodology, Reforms and New Tendencies. Conference Papers for the 8th Session of the International Standing Conference for the History of Education (Parma, Italy, September 3-6, 1986). Volume IV.
This collection, the last of four volumes on the history of compulsory education among the nations of Europe and the western hemisphere, analyzes statistics, methodology, reforms, and new tendencies. Twelve of the document's 18 articles are written in English, 3 are written in French and 3 are in Italian. Summaries accompany most articles; three of the foreign language articles have English summaries. Bibliographies are included with many selections. Titles and authors are as follows: "From the Methodology of Pedagogical Study of Obligatory Education" (Wlodzimierz Goriszowski); "Les Peres de l'Ecole Obligatoire Pris au Piege de la Statistique Scolaire (1876-1906)" (Jean-Noel Luc); "Primary Compulsory School at Viareggio (1860-1900)" (Luciana Bettalla and Fanny Coli); "School Attendance in The Netherlands" (Th. F. M. Boekholt); "L'Offre d'Ecole Avant l'Obligation Scolaire: L'Enseignement des Premieres Enquetes Bataves (1799-1811)" (Willem Frijhoff); "A Danish Reform Concerning the First Years of School" (Hans Vejleskov); "The Vanloese Experiment: New Education in Compulsory Education in Denmark in the Twenties" (Ellen Norgaard); "Historical Development of Compulsory Education in Socialist Countries (1917-present time)" (Gottfried Uhlig); "Parents and Compulsory Education Laws in England & Wales (1880-1980)" (Geoffrey Stevenson); "Prospettive dell'Istruzione Obbligatoria in Italia" (Luigi Ambrosoli); "La Continuite Scolaire et 'l'Ecole de Base' en Italie: Aspects Historiques et Perspectives" (Giovanni Genovesi); "Formazione Generale, Orientamento per gli Studi e/o per la Professione nell'Elevazione dell'Obbligo Scholastico al 16 Anni: La Questione Italiana, Oggi" (Vittorio Telmon); "From Optional to Compulsory: The Introduction, Development and Extension of 'English' in Norwegian Compulsory Education" (B. Brandtzaeg Gundem); "Reforms and New Tendencies: Norwegian Compulsory Education (Olav Sunnana); "Compulsory Education in the Canary Islands" (Pedro Sosa Also); "Compulsory Education in the United States: Its development and Some Recent Considerations" (Erwin v. Johanningmeier); "La 'Compulsory Education' nel Contesto Sovietico" (Giorgio Vuoso); and "A New Look at the Act of Teaching FL Reading" (Yvonne Poser and Gunter G. Pfister). | [FULL TEXT]
Gentry, Larry; And Others (1986). Establishing Service Goals for School Dropouts under the Job Training Partnership Act. Final Report.
The State of Washington commissioned research into various issues involving services to school dropouts under the terms of the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA). Data suggested that each service delivery area (SDA) had its own set of internal dynamics (economic, cultural, demographic variables) that resulted in a characteristic pattern of educational attainment. National data were used in determining that years of school completed is a major determinant of both income and employment. Although Title II-A of JTPA was currently the largest federal program that specifically targets dropouts for participation, other federal and state programs also served dropouts. In addition, local agencies provided training and employment. A process for establishing goals for serving dropouts was implemented; this process defined and counted school dropouts, looked at use of census data, analyzed the data, adjusted baseline goals, and made adjustments for misreporting by participants. The model that was developed indicated that not all dropouts are equally likely to participate in JTPA programs and that SDAs should set goals that reflect the demographic composition of their region. (Appendixes include the demographic adjustment model, SDA adjustment data and goals, and a report on participant-reported education status.)
Gentry, Richard H. (1985). Broadcast Access and Reply Rights for Politicians and PACs: A Continuing Headache for the FCC.
The major policy issues raised by Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulations with regard to the year-round nature of political media campaigns and the emergence of political action committees (PACs) are explored in this paper. The first part of the paper introduces the major policy issues, specifically who should have an affirmative right of access to the airwaves, how the government can assure fair treatment of all politicians and parties by broadcasters, and how far the government can go to even out the financial resources used to buy air time. The second part of the paper discusses the equal opportunities section of the Communications Act; the "Cullman" policy, which deals with general fairness issues and not specifically with political campaigning; and the "Zapple" policy, an FCC ruling to the effect that it would not be reasonable for a licensee to refuse to sell time to a candidate comparable to that sold to another candidate. The third part of the paper discusses ineffective legislation and a Supreme Court ruling concerning limitations on campaign financing contributions from PACs, and whether the FCC is required to consider PACs as representatives of candidates in light of the PACs' occasional "search and destroy" conduct. The fourth part of the paper focuses on some recent political access cases as predictors of future policy, precedents determining who has access rights during political campaigns, whether the "Zapple" or"Cullman" policies are applicable to PACs asking for response time, and licensees' obligations and liabilities during noncampaign periods. The fifth part considers whether the PACs should be treated as a special case or if those regulations binding them during campaign periods should also do so during noncampaign periods. The paper concludes that the use of "Cullman" obligations would work affirmatively to redress imbalances in media access posed by PACs.
Gothard, Sol (1987). The Admissibility of Evidence in Child Sexual Abuse Cases. Child Welfare, 46, 1.
Discusses the liberalization of rules of evidence in child sexual abuse cases in order to protect the child victims and benefit families. Some states have enacted legislation simplifying introduction of the child's out-of-court statements, although constitutionality has yet to be tested.
Gottesman, Roberta (1982). Religion and the Schools. Principal, 61, 3.
Discusses court cases and proposed legislation dealing with such issues as school prayer and the right of parents to educate students at home for religious reasons.
Ghanatabadi, Jolyne; Saylor, Collette (1988). Design and Delivery of Customized Training Programs for New and Expanding Business and Industry. Journal of Studies in Technical Careers, 10, 3.
Discusses the six-step process the Des Moines Area Community College (Iowa) uses to design and deliver customized training for new and expanding businesses. Also discusses the New Jobs Training Act that provided tax incentives to those businesses and granted exclusive rights to the state's community colleges to contract for training with them.
Gittell, Marilyn (1985). The American City: A National Priority or an Expendable Population? Urban Affairs Quarterly, 21, 1.
Traces the decline of national interest in the problems of cities since the abundance of federal legislation passed in response to the urban crisis of the 1960's. Asserts that, by the 1980's, economic changes had stimulated a new era of private sector domination in American cities.
Gittins, Naomi E., Ed. (1988). Fighting Drugs in the Schools: A Legal Manual.
This book is intended to be used as a reference for schools that seek to create drug free educational environments and to discourage all forms of substance abuse by students and personnel. The publication examines pertinent legal principles, including search and seizure, drug testing (for students, athletes, and employees), due process and discipline, handicap law, privacy issues, potential areas of liability, and collective bargaining. The appendices contain 13 sample policies corresponding to these areas of discussion.
Ghobrial, Talaat Mansour; Vance, H. Robert (1988). Special Education in Egypt: An Overview.
During the past three decades, there has been a growing concern for handicapped children and youth in Egypt. Current legislation recognizes the rights of the handicapped, and the Egyptian government supports the care, education, rehabilitation, and personal/social adjustment of handicapped citizens. The responsibility for the disabled is divided among the Ministry of Education (concerned with the education of blind and partially sighted, deaf and partially deaf, and mentally retarded); the Ministry of Social Affairs (which provides rehabilitation services to all disabled persons), the Ministry of Health, and the Ministry of Manpower. Many problems still need to be addressed in the educational system. The position of special education teacher is viewed as a less than desirable position, socially and economically, and many low-achieving students are urged to enter the field. Preschool assessment procedures do not exist; and the system for identifying exceptional school-age children is antiquated, relying on outdated instruments which often have invalid norms. Special instructional needs of handicapped students are often not considered. Services need to be developed for severely emotionally disturbed children, preschool handicapped children, and disabled adults.
Gipps, Caroline; And Others (1987). Warnock's Eighteen Per Cent Children with Special Needs in Primary Schools.
This research project analyzed British screening and special educational provisions for the estimated 18 percent of the primary school population who have mild learning difficulties in the basic skills. The study sought to examine policy and practice at every level from the local education authority (LEA) to the child. Data sources included questionnaires from 90 LEA's in England and Wales; interviews with LEA staff in 10 local authorities; and case studies of six LEAs, which involved staff interviews and visits to five schools in each LEA. The issues of interest were: the usefulness of screening programs, the impact of changes in support services on teachers and children, the impact of cuts in educational expenditure and legislation on central and school-based provision, and withdrawal teaching versus other models of support. The study concluded that there is no one best approach for supporting children with special needs in primary school. There are a number of options which LEAs can take to improve support, and the choice depends on the LEA size, resources available, and previous arrangements. Teachers can make any system work well or badly. Cooperative partnerships between teachers and LEAs result in the best support for children.
Guenthner, Reuben T. (1983). Vocational Education: The Federal Role. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts and Humanities, Committee on Education and Labor, U.S. Senate.
The focus of federal involvement in vocational education should be to help enhance its quality and expand its capacity to meet work force needs in the future. Although success or failure of vocational education lies ultimately at the local level, there should be, from the federal level, motivation, support, and leadership to define the larger picture and serve as a catalyst for collective efforts. The Vocational Education Act of 1963 and the Amendments of 1968 and 1976 have succeeded in stimulating state and local dollars for expanding vocational education. The federal governments should, however, invest more in the vocational education system--at least as much as it invests in remedial job training programs. To continue the federal-state-local partnership that has made a substantial investment in building the capacity of vocational-technical education, this set of principles should be the basis for reauthorization of the Vocational Education Act: targeted priorities, economic development, addressing of needs of special populations, flexibility, planning and evaluation, determination of allocation of resources at the state level, retention of the sole state agency concept, and requirement of autonomous advisory councils.
Guerena, Salvador (1987). The "English-Only" Movement: A Selected Bibliography.
Over 200 news items, journal articles, position papers, and other citations concerning the issue of English as the official language of the United States are included in this bibliography. While information on state and federal legislative efforts is presented, testimony of congressional hearings is kept to a minimum, as are unpublished manuscripts. A list of key organizations in the debate, with addresses, is included. | [FULL TEXT]
Gleason, Sharon L. (1985). Review of the Alaska Statutes for Sex Discrimination.
Findings of a project to review Alaska statutes for evidence of sex discrimination is divided into 14 sections. An introduction provides an overview of the project scope, history, organization, and research procedure. A section on insurance looks at gender-based insurance rates and conversion and continuation of health benefits. Under the category of dissolution/divorce, the following types of statutes are examined: separate residences, name changes, interim spousal support and attorney's fees during divorce, grounds for divorce, child custody, and dissolution proceedings. Under the category of parent-child relationship, the study looks at statutes on parent responsibility, failure of custodial parent to permit visitations with child, out-of-wedlock children, and housing discrimination on the basis of parenthood. A section on pregnancy and related issues considers pregnancy leave for state employees, registration of fetal deaths, abortion, and prenatal blood tests. Statutes related to sexual assault and prostitution are treated in separate sections, as are inheritance and probate, partnerships, and public employee retirement benefits. A section on employment statutes considers wage discrimination and employment of the handicapped. A section on veteran's benefits examines civil service employment, veteran's preference statutes, loans, and related benefits. Additional sections look at the "head of family" designation and needy persons.
Gow, Lyn; And Others (1987). Contextual Influences on Integration in Australia: Overview of a Report to the Commonwealth Schools Commission. Part I. Exceptional Child, 34, 3.
The article presents findings of a study of integration of students with special needs in Australian schools. Considered are the philosophical, legislative, and policy bases; administrative organization; and funding structures from which the implementation of policy is proceeding. Differences and commonalities among Australian states are identified.
Goertz, Margaret E.; And Others (1984). The Impact of State Policy on Entrance into the Teaching Profession. Final Report.
Points at which state policies can control entry of individuals into the teaching profession were studied. A 50-state survey identified points of policy intervention and types of policies in effect in each state during 1983-84. Four in-depth case studies provided details about the political environment and rationale behind each policy, the extent of coordination among policies in each state, and the impact of state policies on teacher supply and equity. Findings indicated: (1) states vary considerably in the types of screening policies and testing requirements for teacher education candidates; (2) many areas covered in the assessment of individual teachers are not focused on in teacher education programs; (3) remediation is encouraged by many state policies but funding is often lacking; (4) states that have introduced new policies perceive them as strengthening teacher education programs; (5) passing rates for different ethnic groups show similar patterns in most states; (6) many states perceive their policies as affecting teacher supply; (7) data on individuals screened out of the profession by state policies suggest that shortages of certain types of teachers will continue to occur or be aggravated; and (8) current efforts are being directed toward enacting more or stricter standards. | [FULL TEXT]
Geismar, Shirley; And Others (1983). Through the Safety Net: A Citizen's Report on New Jersey Children and Families in Need.
In 1982, volunteers in eight New Jersey counties gathered information from 993 respondents through questionnaire-guided interviews about recent local developments in programs traditionally funded and supported by federal legislation. Program areas receiving attention included Aid to Families with Dependent Children; child care; health; the Women, Infants and Children's Supplemental Food Program; mental health; child welfare; education; and juvenile justice. Chapters of this report are organized in terms of the eight substantive areas. Short introductions open each section, explaining programs, current funding, and recent developments in service provision. Findings, as reported by volunteers, are reported next. Finally, examples derived from interviews with program participants, which make up a large portion of the text, are used to illustrate major points. Three issues surfaced when findings were compiled: (1) Cuts in one program invariably meant that difficulties were experienced in others; (2) In many instances, it was impossible to identify single causal factors related to specific problems; and (3) Although prevention programs often provided effective, cost-efficient ways of addressing social problems, these were the programs most likely to be reduced or eliminated when funds were cut. Numerous related materials are appended.
Geizer, Bernard P., Ed. (1984). The Mental Health Information Services. Program Audit.
This report presents the results of an evaluation of New York State's Mental Health Information Services (MHISs). The goals of the evaluation were to determine the effectiveness with which legislatively mandated information services to the mentally disabled and to the courts were carried out, and to evaluate MHIS workload and activity in order to assess their request for staffing increases. Following an executive summary, the introduction provides background information on the establishment of the four MHISs, and details the services they are required to provide, including those explicitly mandated and those which implicitly flow from the law. Chapter II describes the procedures used to evaluate the program's effectiveness, and provides a discussion of the results accompanied by 11 data tables. Chapter III reviews the program operation of the four MHISs, analyzes prior measures of MHIS workload, and presents the legislative committee's own survey of MHIS workload. Chapter summaries are provided for each area. The appendices include a list of those interviewed and contacted for the evaluation, samples of MHIS files used in the evaluation, classifications of sections of the law mandating or permitting information services, the MHIS workload form, and copies of the correspondence between the agencies involved in the evaluation and the legislative committee (responses and rebuttal).
Guzda, Henry P. (1983). The U.S. Employment Service at 50: It Too Had to Wait Its Turn. Monthly Labor Review, 106, 6.
On June 6, 1933 the U.S. Employment Service was established with the passage of the Wagner-Peyser Act. Earlier attempts to establish a labor exchange had been controversial and short-lived, but the legislation was virtually unopposed because of Depression-era problems.
Gude, Gilbert (1985). Congressional Research Service: The Research and Information Arm of Congress. Government Information Quarterly, 2, 1.
Chronicles the development of the legislative reference services of the Library of Congress and briefly describes the current Congressional Research Service, which resulted from legislative acts passed in 1946 and 1970.
Gavine, David J. (1985). Special Educational Needs--Fact or Friction? Scottish Educational Review, 17, 1.
Demonstrates that while the concept of special educational need as set forth in Scotland's 1981 Education Act may be useful in day-to-day decision-making, it is too vague and value-laden to sustain the extremely formal structure laid down in statute.
Ghimpu, Sanda (1985). Characteristic Traits of the Status of Higher Education Personnel in the Socialist Republic of Romania. Higher Education in Europe, 10, 2.
The provisions of Romanian law regarding college faculty employment policy, rights and responsibilities, leaves of absence, governance, development opportunities, resignation and dismissal, remuneration, discipline, awards, and social security are summarizd.
Gupta, Himanee (1985). Corridors of Power: The Ins and Outs of Washington's Education Lobby. Currents, 11, 1.
Higher education lobbyists in Washington work as liaisons between their institutions and the federal government. The experiences of several lobbyists are described. Lobbying is seen as a game of knowing the people who can help and showing the legislators how a side of an issue benefits them.
Gehring, Donald D. (1982). The Counselor's "Duty to Warn." Personnel and Guidance Journal, 61, 4.
Reviews and analyzes the counselor's "duty to warn" as it has been interpreted by the courts. If counselors have reasonable knowledge that a client's conduct may be harmful to another, then they have a legal duty to warn the intended victim.
Gehring, Donald D. (1983). The Dismissal of Students with Serious Emotional Problems: An Administrative Decision Model. NASPA Journal, 20, 3.
Presents guidelines for dealing with emotionally disturbed students on campus, illustrated by appropriate legal cases. Administrators and counselors must decide if the student poses a threat and may have the responsibility to warn a forseeable victim. Admissions and readmissions policies are also discussed in light of legal requirements.
Geoffroy, Marie; And Others (1984). Labour Education in the World. Labour Education.
The first article comments on workers' education courses in France, specifically the training of retired workers. The second article gives a brief, up-to-date survey of the Confederation of Venezuelan Workers' principal training activities. The last article examines programs at the George Meany Center for Labor Studies.
George, Linda K.; Winfield-Laird, Idee (1984). Implications of an Aging Faculty for the Quality of Higher Education and Academic Careers. New Directions for Teaching and Learning.
A discussion of the threat to instructional quality and the viability of academic careers posed by the aging of the academic labor force examines such issues as student-faculty ratios, tenure, federal legislation contributing to faculty aging, low out-migration, costs, reduction in administrative flexibility, effects on minorities and women, and interventions.
Gamble, Thomas J. (1984). The Foibles of Bureaucratic Control: A Response to Ginsberg. Evaluation and Program Planning: An International Journal, 7, 1.
Based on his experience as a youth planner, the author points out that the dysfunctional side effects of evaluation described by Ginsberg (TM 508 964) also apply to statewide efforts to deinstitutionalize status offenders.
Ginsberg, Pauline E. (1984). The Dysfunctional Side Effects of Quantitative Indicator Production: Illustration from Mental Health Care (A Message from Chicken Little.) Evaluation and Program Planning: An International Journal, 7, 1.
Premature application of quantitative indicators formerly used for individual assessment and research to bureaucratic decision making can produce side effects that are dysfunctional in nature. In order to illustrate this phenomenon, the author reviews a general literature and utilizes examples form mental health care.
Gubser, Lyn; Millard, Richard M. (1982). Academic Fraud: A Threat to Quality.
The issue of academic fraud is addressed in a transcript from a three-part series entitled "Degrees for Sale" from the "Donahue on Today" television show, and two essays drawn from presentations at the 1981 annual conference of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities. The essays are "Stopping Fraud and Ensuring Quality," by Lyn Gubser, and "Quality on Campus: Whose Responsibility?" by Richard M. Millard. The "Donahue on Today" segments concern mail-order degrees by accredited and nonaccredited institutions, responsibility for accreditation, and related legal and ethical issues. The interviewees in the segments were Lyn Gubser, Vannoy Thompson, and Richard Crews. The first essay concerns regulation of fraudulent and marginal institutions and degree-granting practices. Unprecedented challenges in educational quality control are foreseen in this technological age. The second essay addresses the question of who is responsible for educational quality control, and suggests that institutions and administrators, not accrediting agencies, should be. To strengthen accreditation and the credibility of the academic community, academe can do five things: (1) stop treating accrediting agencies as sources of harassment; (2) make self-study and peer review an integral part of ongoing self-assessment; (3) maintain consistency and support of agencies' work; (4) avoid selective use of accreditation process results; and (5) help make faculties, trustees, students, alumni, legislators, and the general public more aware of accreditation's role.