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Quality Indicators

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A

_____. (1993). Academic Outcomes and BehaviorIdentifying Quality Indicators. Brooks School District No. 2092. 90p. The Brooks Educational Quality Indicators project tested the premise that quality education in Brooks (Alberta) results from the right blend of attention to academics and developing character within a firm set of behavioral demands. The first stage of the study included data collection on district perceptions from teachers, staff, administrators, and trustees. The second stage of the study examined student perceptions through a former-student survey and telephone interviews, and student behavior using homework completion rates, vandalism, and discipline. Achievement tests, diploma exams, participation rates, and Rutherford Scholarships were used to measure student achievement. The findings of the first two stages were analyzed and potential conclusions were drawn. This led to the third stage in which community perceptions were evaluated through an action plan and community involvement. The Brooks indicator project blended academic, social, and behavioral data to provide indicators of students' character development. An indicator system for responsible student behavior included high expectations, mutual respect and recognition, pride, courteousness, caring and sharing, mutual trust, and open communication. The action plan produced a belief statement and followup action plans. Appendices A-E include data on district perceptions, student perceptions, student behavior, student achievement, and community perceptions. (Contains 19 references.) (Author/JPT) ED364954
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B

Bottani, N., Ed., & Delfau, I., Ed. (1990). Indicators of the Quality of Educational Systems: An International Perspective. International Journal of Educational Research, spec iss v14, 4, 321-408. Eight articles on international educational indicators (IEIs) are presented. Topics include functions and limitations of IEIs; science and math indicators and national welfare; higher education indicators; cost and resource indicators; and national perspectives from the United States, Australia, France, and England and Wales. (TJH) EJ412564
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C

_____. (1993). Child Care in Corporate America: Quality Indicators and Model Programs. 109p. A study examined issues of quality in corporate-sponsored child care centers for children up to the age of 6. The study used a combination of methods, including a literature review, telephone interviews with corporations sponsoring child care centers, and visits to 12 corporate-sponsored child care centers. The findings came under the four headings of issues related to quality, discussion with experts in the field, characteristics of corporate-sponsored programs, and case studies of six corporate-sponsored programs. The study determined that the quality of a center depends largely on the staff who provide the care. Specific indicators of quality include: (1) staffing patternsthe ratio of adults to children, group sizes, staff schedules, and staff turnover; (2) staff credentials- -educational background, experience, ongoing training; (3) wages and benefits for staff, which influence recruitment and retention of highly qualified staff; and (4) existence of an educational plan or philosophy that provides a framework for the teachers. Additional criteria that reflect a center's commitment to these quality indicators include licensing and accreditation, auspice (financial and legal ownership), and the operating budget allocation for staff. Contains 26 references. (TJQ) ED372830

Cheng, Y. C. (1997). A Framework of Indicators of Education Quality in Hong Kong Primary Schools: Development and Application. 50pp. Paper presented at the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Education Forum on School-Based Indicators of Effectiveness (Quilin, China, April 13-16, 1997). There is a strong need to understand, monitor, and enhance educational quality. This paper reports on a project that developed a framework of indicators for monitoring educational quality in Hong Kong primary schools. The framework was developed through various case studies and 2 large surveys of over 200 Hong Kong primary schools (involving over 650 classes, 3,800 teachers, and 20,000 students) during 1991-95. A preliminary framework, based on the research literature, included indicators at the student individual level, the classroom level, the teacher individual level, the teacher group level, and the organizational level. The framework was tested and developed through the 2 surveys (the first conducted in 1992 and the second in 1993-94) and a total of 12 case studies. Survey data was used to map the education profiles of Hong Kong primary schools by means on indicators; by percentage of schools in high, satisfactory, and low performance; by distribution of schools on each indicator; and by profiles of characteristics of effective and ineffective schools. Six tables and seven figures are included. (Contains 76 references.) (LMI) ED407729

Condelli, L. (1992). Primary and Secondary Indicators of Program Quality for Adult Education Programs. 11pp. For related documents, see ED 349 439-441, ED 352 499, and CE 064 612-614. This paper describes a list of quality indicators for adult education programs. The list was developed after consideration of background materials and input from four focus groups. The list is divided into two main areas: student outcomes and program process and content. Within each area, the primary indicators (those identified by at least three of the four focus groups) are presented by topic area, along with examples of measures for each indicator. The area of student outcomes includes two topic areas: educational gains and student personal-social development. The area of program process and content includes six topic areas: program planning; curriculum and instruction; staff development and characteristics; support services; recruitment; and retention. A list of secondary indicators, which are indicators identified by one or two focus groups, follows. For student outcomes, topic areas are as follows: educational gains, student personal-social development, employment-related gains, family literacy, and "other." Topics in the area of program process and content are: program planning, curriculum and instruction, staff development and characteristics, and organizational support. (YLB) ED361592

Condelli, L., & Kutner, M. (1992). Quality Indicators for Adult Education Programs: Lessons Learned from Other Programs. 20pp. For related documents, see CE 061 944-946. As a preliminary to developing criteria to meet quality control requirements of the National Literacy Act of 1991, a study examined federal and state development of measures of program quality and performance standards for programs funded under the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA), the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act, the Food Stamp Employment and Training Program (FSETP), and the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) program of the Family Support Act. The study found that JTPA implemented performance standards for employment and training programs at the inception of the program that measured cost per entered employment, entered employment rate, and average wage at placement. Reacting to criticism that these standards forced programs to neglect services to the hard-to-place, JTPA created new standards in 1990 stressing job retention. The Perkins Act reauthorization of 1990 requires states to develop performance standards that measure learning gains, competency or job skill attainment, placement into employment or other training programs, and retention in or completion of secondary school or its equivalent; about half the states are having considerable difficulty developing such standards. FSETP and JOBS programs are required to implement performance standards, but they have not yet been developed. Based on the experience of these other programs with performance indicators, the following lessons appear most relevant to adult education: (1) establish appropriate indicators and standards; (2) allow state and local flexibility; (3) develop management information systems; (4) provide states with technical assistance; and (5) take steps to avoid unintended effects of indicators. (11 references) (KC) ED349440

Cuttance, P. (1990). Performance Indicators and the Management of Quality in Education. 26pp. Keynote address prepared for the National Conference on Indicators in Education (3rd, Canberra, Australia, December 3-4, 1990). Issues that affect the use of performance indicators in managing educational quality are discussed in this paper. Recent changes in public-sector organizational management include the development of strategies for the management of change itself and the changing role of the public sector. A trend within the public sector is an increase in the level of devolution of authority and responsibility in public-sector organizations. A theoretical framework based on two different perspectivesthe assurance of quality and a multilevel systems perspectiveis presented. The quality management process used by the South Australian Education Department is described. The process assesses four domains of effective practice indicators: teaching and learning; management and organization; ethos and culture; and social justice. A conclusion is that the convergence of perspectives on corporate quality management with those on the organization of school systems offers a powerful approach for the assurance of educational quality. Two tables are included. Appendices contain information on performance indicator domains, examples of performance indicator statements, and assessments of schools' teaching and learning and management and organization practices. (3 references) (LMI) ED333575

Cuttance, P. (1991). Monitoring Educational Quality through Performance Indicators for School Practice. 23pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, April 3-7, 1991). Issues in the monitoring of educational quality through performance indicators are discussed in this paper. The first section discusses the management of quality in educational systems and identifies the general functions of performance indicators as quality assurance, development, and accountability. Indicator systems are discussed in the following sections, and the relationships among indicators, development, and accountability are addressed in the context of the South Australian educational review system. The primary purpose of the review is to report on performance with respect to specific practices across the system as a whole. Effective practice reviews are conducted in four domains: teaching and learning; organization and management; ethos and culture; and social justice. The final sections discuss the use of performance indicators for development and quality management purposes as part of a broad framework for monitoring educational quality. An educational review program based on group discussion, interviews, and observation assessed teaching and learning in 80 classrooms and management and organization in 17 schools. Findings indicate that the teaching and learning practices were stronger than those for management and organization. The recommendation is made for strengthening curriculum aspects of schooling, particularly planning, development, and review; delivery strategies; staff development; and management and review of development. Two figures are included. (8 references) (LMI) ED333574

Cuttance, P. (1994). Monitoring Educational Quality through Performance Indicators for School Practice. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 5, 2 p101-26. Discusses indicator systems and the relationship among indicators, development, and accountability for strategic management of school system improvement. Explains a system of indicators developed to monitor the effectiveness of practice, highlighting these indicators' dual purpose (school development and quality management). Areas requiring most comprehensive development across the system are curriculum review and relevance and program evaluation. (Contains 10 references.) (MLH) EJ487918
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D

Denoyer, R. A., & White, M. (1990). TestsFallible Indicators of Educational Quality. NASSP Bulletin, 74, 523, 49-52. Presuming that test scores can accurately reflect educational quality is naive and potentially dangerous. Sophisticated statistical procedures cannot fully separate the effects of confounding background variables (ethnicity, language proficiency, or poverty) from test scores. A broad-based assessment model relying on multiple indices and longitudinal design is proposed. Includes eight references. (MLH) EJ403788
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E

_____. (1990). Educational Quality Indicators: Annotated Bibliography. Supplement to the Second EditionDecember 1990. 64pp. For the Second Edition, see ED 320 596. This annotated bibliography of journal articles and documents on educational quality indicators contains approximately 120 entries arranged by the following topics: (1) Indicator Systems, including international, local/provincial/state, and national/federal systems; (2) Interpretive Framework (context, inputs, processes), including accountability, educational finance, educational reform and improvement, family/socioeconomic factors, school/school administration effectiveness, and teacher/teaching effectiveness; and (3) Outcomes, including cognitive testing and achievement, issues, outcomes/results of education, and standards. An author/institution index follows the bibliography. (MAB) ED342418

_____. (1993). Educational Quality Indicators in Art and Mathematics. Calgary School District No. 19 and Calgary RCSSD No. 1. 157pp. For a related document, see SP 034 936. The Calgary Board of Education and the Calgary Catholic Board of Education developed indicators of quality student performance for the assessment of school art composition and mathematical problem solving. Practicing teachers and school system specialists in art and mathematics developed and classroom-tested materials to identify and document educational quality indicators (EQIs). The resulting qualitative materials describe a performance assessment process which celebrates diversity in student responses. The process depends on informed professional judgment, shared exemplars and vocabulary, and student involvement in self-assessment. This report describes the beginning and development of the project, the rationale and literature that informed the work, and the apparent impact of the project, as it evolved from September 1989 to 1992. The project results to date indicate that performance assessment has positive effects on learning and teaching, and that further explorations and applications of the quality indicators project would be educationally significant. Appendixes provide the names of project participants; EQI-Art Materials and Reports; EQI-Math Materials and Reports; and an evaluation of project utility, management, and impact. (Contains 53 references.) (Author/LL) ED365651

_____. (1998). Early Childhood Family Education Program: Quality Indicators, Participant Questionnaire, Evaluation Forms and Resources. 45pp. Last page of document, reprinted from "Family Resource Coalition of America Report", 16, 4, 26. The Early Childhood Family Education (ECFE) program is a statewide parent education and support program for all families in Minnesota with children between birth and kindergarten. This document describes the program evaluation procedures and contains forms related to the evaluation. The program evaluation uses a multi-level approach incorporating needs assessment, monitoring and accountability, quality review and program clarification, and outcome evaluation. Included in the document is the "Early Childhood Family Education Program Quality Indicators," an instrument to assist ECFE programs in program planning and self-evaluation, listing quality indicators in the following program component areas: (1) community assessment, outreach, and input; (2) parent education; (3) early childhood education and parent-child interaction; and (4) program operations. The ECFE program's guiding principles, mission statement, and goals are delineated. Also included in the document are the Early Childhood Family Education Program Participant Questionnaire, a list of the evaluation forms for program evaluation data collection, a description of the needs assessment process, and the Early Childhood Family Education Annual Report form. (KB) ED423990

_____. (??). Educational Quality Indicators: Developing Indicator Systems in Alberta. The Educational Quality Indicators (EQI) initiative, a collaboration between Alberta Education and 12 school jurisdictions in the province, is described, and its implications are discussed. The EQIs developed are designed to provide information to assist practitioners in assessing the quality of educational programs and the delivery system by focusing on student outcomes. The fundamental principle of the EQI initiative is that no single indicator can fully describe the complexity of education. Many indicators, qualitative and quantitative, will be developed, guided by a four-dimensional model consisting of: partners (schooling, family, and society); conditions (context, inputs, and processes); student outcomes (cognitive, affective, and behavioral); and time (grades 3, 6, 9, and 12). The three criteria for a successful indicator are: (1) the interpretive framework; (2) student outcomes; and (3) points of reference. The modus operandi of the initiative is to sponsor 10 concurrent collaborative action research projects. The implications of the EQI initiative for student learning, system support, and shared responsibility are discussed. Two figures and one table complement the text. (SLD)

Ellefson, I. (1993). Academic Outcomes and Behavior. Theme issue with title "The Educational Quality Indicators Initiative: A Success Story.". As part of Alberta's provincial initiative, Brooks School District used administrator, teacher, and student input to develop quality indicators of responsible student behaviors and values that contribute to academic success. Baseline data were collected on homework completion, vandalism, disciplinary actions, and academic achievement. Community and school perceptions of appropriate student behavior were coordinated at community meetings. (SV) EJ469475
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F

Fabian, E. S. (1991). Using Quality-of-Life Indicators in Rehabilitation Program Evaluation. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 34, 4, 344-56. Discusses three measurement approaches to assessing quality of life for individuals with disabilities (quality of life as measure of life satisfaction across life domains, measure of adaptive functioning/environmental mastery, and measure of changes in response to services provided). Provides examples of approaches and discusses implications for practical use of quality-of-life indicators in rehabilitation program evaluation. (Author/NB) EJ432207
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G

_____. (1993). Guam Adult Education Quality Performance Indicators. 10p. This document presents the Guam Adult Education Quality Performance Indicators to enable Guam Community College to promote program improvements in the adult education programs it offers to Guam's educationally disadvantaged adult learners. Definitions are provided of these terms: quality performance indicator, performance measure, and performance standard. Four major components make up the quality performance indicators: educational gains, curriculum review, student recruitment, and student retention. Each component consists of an indicator, discussion, performance measures, performance standards, and reporting process. A glossary and a chart illustrating performance levels for English as a second language are appended. (YLB) ED359408

Gardner, D. (1994). State of Florida Indicators of Program Quality for Adult Education Programs. A Presentation Guide. 13p. This presentation guide consists of transparency masters displaying nine Florida indicators of program quality for adult education programs. Evaluation criteria related to the following indicators of program quality are detailed: educational gains, educational outcomes, retention, recruitment, program orientation, program planning and evaluation, curriculum and instruction, support services, and staff development. (MN) ED367813

Geddert, P. (1993). Student Success through Outcome-Based Education. Theme issue with title "The Educational Quality Indicators Initiative: A Success Story.". In response to Alberta's Educational Quality Indicators initiative, Fort McMurray Catholic Schools implemented outcome-based mathematics instruction in 30 classrooms, grades 2-10. Collaborative planning and implementation of outcome- based education principles led to improvements in student achievement, attitudes, and responsibility. (SV) EJ469473

Giacalone, J. A. (1998). Part-Time MBA Programs: Quality Indicators, Advantages, and Strategies. Journal of Education for Business, 73, 4, 241-45 Mar-Apr. Analysis of data from "Business Week" rankings of business schools revealed advantages to part-time graduate business programs. Students employed full time have relevant work experience that is a rich classroom resource and this more heterogenous population enriches teaching and learning. Time and stress management are important considerations for part-time students. (SK) EJ562171 This document is NOT available from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS).
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H

Himsl, R., & Lambert, E. (1993). Signs of Learning in the Affective Domain. Theme issue with title "The Educational Quality Indicators Initiative: A Success Story.". In response to Alberta's Educational Quality Indicators initiative, Lethbridge Catholic Schools developed and validated a taxonomy of student affective behaviors that reflect learning or development in the areas of self-esteem, interpersonal relationships, world awareness, motivation, and spiritual life. Measures developed include classroom checklists of 15 behaviors for teachers and self-evaluation sheets for students. (SV) EJ469477
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I

_____. (1996). Indicators of Quality: Guiding the Development and Improvement of Early Childhood Care and Education Programs. Second Edition. 35pp. This guide was revised by the Program Recognition Subcommittee of the Child Care and Early Childhood Education Coordinating Committee. For 1989 guide, see ED 313 164. Early childhood professionals Others concerned with the welfare of young children believe that voluntary quality guidelines can provide a model for program developers and current operators to use in assuring that program practices are age appropriate, that trained personnel are available, and that facilities are acceptable. These quality guidelines, which represent a standard of quality exceeding minimum licensing, approval, and accreditation requirements, were prepared for use by most types of public and private early childhood programschild care centers, family child care homes, early childhood special education programs, preschools, nursery schools, Head Start programs, kindergartens, and primary units. The guidelines have been grouped into seven major categories: Administration, Staffing, the Learning Environment, Health and Safety, Family Involvement and Parenting Education, Use of Community Resources, and Evaluation of Program and Staff. In each category, a statement of ideals and a rationale are followed by indicators that identify characteristics of quality programs. Also provided is a checklist that administrators, teachers, parents, Others can use to determine the extent to which their program meets the guidelines. It is emphasized that the guidelines are not requirements; they only describe a model of program quality. (HTH) ED418797
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Jongbloed, B. W. A., & Westerheijden, D. F. (1994). Performance Indicators and Quality Assessment in European Higher Education. Theme issue: "Using Performance Indicators to Guide Strategic Decision Making.". Examination of the history of use of performance indicators in three European national higher education systems (Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) suggests that their role at the national level is declining at the same time that institutions are moving toward more broad-based quality assessment strategies. (Author/MSE) EJ505364
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Kleinert, H. L., & Others. (1990). Quality Program Indicators Manual for Students with Moderate and Severe Handicaps. Kentucky Systems Change Project. 98p. This document presents a "Quality Program Indicators Checklist" developed with the goal of program improvement in classrooms for students in Kentucky with moderate and severe handicaps. The checklist evaluates program effectiveness in six component areas: (1) integration (interaction opportunities and teacher behaviors supportive of integration and individual integrated student outcomes); (2) functional curriculum (local catalog of age-appropriate activities, parent participation, assessment, and Individualized Education Program goals); (3) systematic instructional procedures (individualized instruction, program data analysis, social behavior change programs, program management and environmental design); (4) community-based instructional programs (goal selection, frequency, implementation, and emergency procedures); (5) transdisciplinary services and integrated therapy (block scheduling, assessment, embedded related services objectives, integrated service delivery, integration of adaptations, consultation and role release, information exchange and team meetings, and implementation issues); and (6) vocational instruction and Individual Transition Plans. For each component there is a brief introduction and rationale for that model component, followed by a set of best practice indicators or measures. Each measure has a data source and criteria for exemplary implementation. The quality indicators are correlated with established Kentucky curriculum goals and with findings of the school effectiveness movement for all students. (References are provided for each component area.) (JDD) ED354680
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La Paro, K. M., & Others. (1992). Using a Quality Indicator Checklist To Assess Technical Needs for Individuals and Families. 44p. This paper describes a needs assessment instrument that is intended to effectively communicate recommended practice ideas for serving children with disabilities to teachers, families, and service delivery personnel. The instrument is in the form of a quality indicators checklist and utilizes 143 statements of recommended practice. The inclusion of items is based upon 17 supporting principles and 7 student and family outcomes cited in the literature on serving children with severe disabilities. The checklist is attached and its indicators address the following six areas: (1) the school (setting, philosophy, personnel, service delivery, inclusion, and evaluation); (2) the classroom (organization, scheduling, and data collection); (3) the student (inclusion, adaptive/assistive devices, medical information, and positioning); (4) the family; (5) instruction (instructional strategies, communication, natural routines/settings, autonomy/competence, feedback, and evaluation); and (6) transition. The best practices quality indicators checklist is attached. (DB) ED373460

Lankard, B. A., Nixon-Ponder, S., & Imel, S. (1995). Beyond Ourselves: Activities for Implementing Ohio's Indicators of Adult Basic and Literacy Education Program Quality. 108p. This document is designed to help adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) practitioners develop programs that address Ohio's Indicators of Program Quality. The 47 activities included, which were identified through an extensive search of the literature on ABLE programs outside Ohio, were selected based on the following criteria: relevance to one or more of Ohio's quality indicators; focus on small group interaction; and adaptability to a variety of settings. The activities are categorized under Ohio's eight indicators of quality, which are as follows: learner achievement, program environment, program planning, curriculum and instruction, staff development, support services, recruitment, and retention. Included in each activity's description are some or all of the following: quality indicator addressed by the activity; title of the activity; description of the activity, including the steps for implementation; estimated time; effective environment for implementation; limitations; evidence of the activity's effectiveness in improving learner outcomes; required materials; recommended classroom arrangement; reference source; and cross reference to other quality indicators. Activities are indexed by the following: reference in which the activity is cited; quality indicator(s) addressed in the activity; and adaptability code. The bibliography contains 82 references. (MN) ED421620 Available from: Publications, Center on Education and Training for Employment, 1900 Kenny Road, Columbus, OH 43210-1090 (order no. SN70, $10.50).
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_____. (1992). Model Indicators of Program Quality for Adult Education Programs. 27p. This document suggests the following eight model indicators of quality in adult education programs: (1) learners demonstrate progress toward attainment of basic skills and competencies that support their educational needs; (2) learners advance in the program or complete program requirements that allow them to continue their education or training; (3) an ongoing, participatory planning process exists that is guided by evaluation and based on a written plan that considers community demographics, needs, resources, and economic and technological trends; (4) curriculum and instruction is geared to individual learning styles and levels of needs; (5) an ongoing staff development process exists that considers the specific needs of staff, offers training in instruction, and includes opportunities for practice and systematic follow-up; (6) students' needs for support services are identified and either provided for or referred to other agencies; (7) population in the community identified in the Adult Education Act as needing services is served; and (8) students remain in the program long enough to meet their education needs. The document also contains the following: an overview; definitions of quality indicators and performance standards; a description of the process used to develop the indicators; sample measures for each indicator; a list of six resources; and lists of focus group participants and state directors of adult education. (CML) ED352499

_____. (1997). Model Indicators of Program Quality for Adult Education Programs. 23p. This document details the Ohio Department of Education's Adult Basic Education and Literacy Education indicators of program quality. A chart details the measures and performance standards for the following quality indicators: learners will demonstrate progress toward attaining basic skills/competencies supporting their educational goals; learners will acquire life skills competencies and demonstrate enhancement of personal and social development; learners will advance in programs or complete requirements for further education/training; programs will be housed in physical environments that are safe, accessible, and appropriate for/conducive to teaching adults; the program planning process will be ongoing and participatory, guided by evaluation, and based on a written plan that considers community demographics, needs, resources, and economic and technological trends; curriculum and instruction will be geared to individual learning styles and needs; programs will have an ongoing professional development process that is based on staff needs and includes opportunities for follow-up; programs will identify and provide (either directly or through referral) support services needed by learners; programs will recruit from those populations identified in the Adult Education Act as needing literacy services; and learners will participate in programs until their learner-centered goals are met. (MN) ED407498

Maguire, T. O. (1993). Some Thoughts on the Alberta Version of Educational Quality Indicators. Theme issue with title "The Educational Quality Indicators Initiative: A Success Story.". Comments on the educational quality indicators projects undertaken by Alberta school districts, noting their dependence on process-product research; inclusion of social and affective aspects of education; use of provincial achievement tests as indicators; and emphases on accountability, teacher collaboration, and professional development. (SV) EJ469478

Mansoor, I. (1992). Indicators of Program Quality: An ESL Programming Perspective. 20p. Indicators of program quality for adult basic education programs, developed by consultants, are assessed as they might be applicable to English-as-a-Second- Language (ESL) program evaluation. Sample quality indicators were developed in the areas of program context (i.e., organizational structure of service delivery, participant characteristics), program process and content (including planning, curriculum and materials, staff qualifications), and program outcomes. This paper examines Pelavin Associates' sample outline of proposed areas in which indicators as well as sample data elements for the indicators will be offered. For each program area in which quality indicators are recommended, the following questions are addressed: (1) Are there unique aspects of ESL programs that should be taken into account in development of indicators, and what adjustments and adaptations to generic indicators be necessary?; (2) Are the indicators appropriate for ESL programs, unnecessary, incomplete?; and (3) What problems or other issues would confront ESL programs when using these or similar indicators? Responses to the questions are appended to the main text. (MSE) (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Literacy Education) ED374684

McEwen, N. (1990)., 21pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Boston, MA, April 16-20, 1990). ED320924

McEwen, N. (1993). Educational Quality Indicators. Theme issue with title "The Educational Quality Indicators Initiative: A Success Story.". The Educational Quality Indicators initiative, a 3-year collaboration between Alberta Education and 12 school districts, generated 10 action research projects that developed educational indicator systems with a broad range of student outcomes, methods of data collection and interpretation, and outcomes reporting. Field testing of these systems will lead to the development of a provincial indicator system. (SV) EJ469470

McEwen, N. (1993). Lessons from the Educational Quality Indicators Initiative. 31pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Educational Researchers' Association (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, June 12, 1993). The Educational Quality Indicators (EQI) initiative was a collaboration between Alberta Education (Alberta, Canada) and 12 school jurisdictions to develop and implement indicator systems to measure the success of the educational enterprise. Ten concurrent collaborative projects were conducted between 1989 and 1992 to develop indicator systems for a broad range of outcomes, data collection and analysis methods, and ways to report and communicate the information to different audiences. An overview confirms that EQI has had a positive impact on education in Alberta. Alberta superintendents have adopted the idea of indicator systems. Many are using the EQI materials, and the provincial department of education is also incorporating ideas and strategies into its information system. The EQI initiative has demonstrated that a large-scale reform initiative focused on producing better information about education can help improve education. While there is no single indicator system, and none is a panacea, a useful indicator system can be constructed to focus on student outcomes through multiple measures. Three tables present information about the projects. An appendix gives the table of contents from the final report on the project, "Achieving Quality," which is published separately. (Contains 19 references.) (SLD) ED368782

Mestinsek, R. (1993). District and School Profiles for Quality Education. Theme issue with title "The Educational Quality Indicators Initiative: A Success Story.". As part of Alberta's provincial initiative, stakeholders (staff, parents, students, and community members) at each school in Grande Prairie School District identified indicators of quality education in the areas of student achievement, school climate, instructional quality, and funding. Results were used to develop an individualized evaluative profile for each school that reflects stakeholder concerns. (SV) EJ469471

Moore, A. J. (1996). Improving Schools: Quality Indicators Used When Selecting K-12 Teachers. 63p. Within the education community there is a lack of consensus about how to define criteria to be used in assessing teacher qualifications. This report describes findings of a survey sent to all building administrators and district superintendents in the Kansas public schools (n=1,554). The survey elicited a total of 868 responses, 60 percent response rate. The instrument asked administrators which quality indicators they used in selecting K-12 teachers. The majority of respondents believed that today's first-year teachers were better prepared than those 5 years ago. Respondents ranked the following indicators of teacher quality as most important: unquestionable integrity and moral values, level of concern and caring for students, flexibility in working with students and colleagues, high energy and/or motivation level, oral communication skills, formal course work in computers and instructional technology, instructional creativity, willingness to consider divergent ideas, emotional stability, and superior ratings. The report offers the following recommendations for teacher selection: (1) Use objective information to supplement information on personal qualities; (2) broaden the concept of standards to include qualitative and personal characteristics; (3) examine selection criteria and practices to determine their impact on the K-12 teacher candidate pool; (4) make statements and policies more inclusive of all valid qualitative and quantitative indicators and personal attributes; and (5) share research information (between school administrators and teacher-preparation programs). The appendix contains a copy of the survey instrument. (Contains 54 references). (LMI) ED414642

Murphy, P. S. (1994). Research Quality, Peer Review and Performance Indicators. Australian Universities' Review, 37, 1, 14-18. It is suggested that approaches to research assessment vary according to national context. In the United States, higher education is dominated by market forces; in Britain and Australia, emphasis is on interinstitutional competitiveness; in northern Europe, focus is overall system efficiency. Performance indicators and peer review of research are compared. (MSE) EJ493194
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Nadeau, G. G. (1992). The Use of Quality and Excellence Indicators in Post-secondary Education. 20p. The search for indicators of quality for colleges and universities was initiated during the past decade and many variants of these efforts have emerged in Europe, Australia, and on the North American continent. In the financial squeeze of the 1980s and 1990s, demands for quality and excellence in the conduct of higher education have continued to increase. In Canada, demands for quality and excellence in colleges and universities have dealt with student access, educational programs, faculty, administration, and institutional support services. Little consensus, if any, has been achieved on criteria of quality and excellence, on the operational definition of these concepts, or on their use in the praxis of postsecondary education. This report discusses the many uses that could be made of quality indicators by all postsecondary education constituencies. The possible uses for indicators of quality and excellence that are discussed include the following: improving university/college dialogue with governments; accreditation criteria; defining criteria and faculty performance in teaching, research, and service assessment; the linking of resources, reputation, and talent development; and accessibility to assessment, quality, excellence, and improvement. Contains 64 references. (GLR) ED354824

Nederhof, A. J., & Zwaan, R. A. (1991). Quality Judgments of Journals as Indicators of Research Performance in the Humanities and the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, v42, 5, 332-40. Describes a study that was conducted in The Netherlands to construct and validate an indicator of research performance through collecting peer judgments of journals from 385 international scholars in the humanities and social sciences. Quality of coverage by the Social Science Citation Index and Arts and Humanities Citation Index is examined. (24 references) (LRW) EJ428887
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_____. (1993). Performance Indicators of Program Quality for Iowa's Adult Basic Education Programs. 66p. This report presents Iowa's performance indicators of program quality in adult basic education (ABE) programs and describes the process by which they were developed. The performance indicators fulfill the mandate of the National Literacy Act of 1991 to serve as indicators of program quality. They were developed through a comprehensive process that included the participation of adult education administrators and practitioners, adult learners, researchers, and other experts in the field, and they take into account the different conditions under which the broad array of local programs operate. The performance indicators fall under two general topic areas: program process and content, and student outcomes. Program process and content refers to components of the program that define how it operates, such as program planning, student recruitment, intake, assessment, staff characteristics, curriculum and instructional content, materials and equipment, assessment of student progress, evaluation, and follow- up. Student outcomes refers to the impact of the program on students, such as learning gains and goal attainment. The guide contains 9 indicators of program quality, 26 performance measures, and 33 performance standards. Six appendixes, which make up half the document, include the following: a description of the initial development of performance measures; a memorandum of approval of performance indicators by ABE coordinators; first draft of performance standards; ratification of performance standards by ABE coordinators and adult education deans and directors; a chronological listing of continuing education, ABE, and General Educational Development accountability studies; and a policy paper in support of regional delivery systems. (KC) ED357203

Patrick, W. J., & Stanley, E. C. (1998). Teaching and Research Quality Indicators and the Shaping of Higher Education. Research in Higher Education, 39, 1,. Research and teaching quality ratings have become established in the United Kingdom, influencing the level of government funding provided to higher education institutions. The correlation between the two indicators, and possible consequences of policies that reshape the higher education sector by concentrating research resources in a limited number of institutions, are considered. Comparisons are made with the United States. (Author/MSE) EJ562852 .

Phelps, L. A., & Others. (1995). Students' Indicators of Quality in Emerging School-to-Work Programs. Journal of Vocational Education Research, 20, 2, 75-101. Reasons for enrollment, perspectives on learning experiences, and postsecondary plans were identified by 133 secondary and postsecondary students. Most recognized the value of integrating authentic learning, relating work- and school- based learning, connecting learning and career development between levels, and having warm, supportive teacher-student relationships. (SK) EJ515565
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_____. (1991). Quality Indicators for California Community College Job Placement Programs. 77pp. For a related document, see JC 910 357. Designed to help California community colleges in assessing their job placement services, identifying strengths and needs for improvement, and establishing priorities for the future, this color-coded guide lists specific tasks and responsibilities within the four essential functional areas of job placement programs and includes quality indicators for each item. Introductory material explains the goals and activities of the job placement improvement project. Next, job placement activities and quality indicators are listed, covering: (1) planning, including needs assessment and the development of an operational plan; (2) commitment and resources, including institutional commitment, staff activities, staff development, facilities and equipment, and budget/funding; (3) activities and services, including job development, job advertisement, job seeking and retention skills, student placements, student follow-up, and internal/external coordination; and (4) marketing, including a marketing plan and increasing awareness of job placement services. Extensive appendixes include a sample organization chart, suggested definitions of responsibility, suggested job functions, staffing guidelines, placement services instructions, a sample referral results card and application form for student job placement services, a collection of sample placement report forms (e.g., monthly job placement statistics), sample marketing materials and brochures, and a job placement glossary. (PAA) ED333962
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_____. (1993). Recommended Practices: Indicators of Quality in Programs for Infants and Young Children with Special Needs and Their Families. 148pp. For each recommended practice, see EC 301 934-948. This document describes a set of indicators that the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) Task Force on Recommended Practices recommends for early intervention and early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) programs for infants and young children with special needs and their families. The indicators are designed to be used by professionals in examining practices currently employed in EI/ECSE programs and in developing programs, and for families to use in selecting a program. The indicators are research-based or value-based, family-centered, compatible with a multicultural perspective, involving members of various disciplines, developmentally and chronologically age appropriate, and normalized. Indicators address the following specific program areas: assessment, family participation, individualized family service plans and individualized education programs, service delivery models, general curriculum and intervention strategies, interventions to promote cognitive skills, interventions to promote communication skills, interventions to promote social skills and emotional development, interventions to promote adaptive behavior skills, interventions to promote motor skills, transition, personnel competence, program evaluation, and early intervention with children who are gifted. For each set of indicators, a narrative discussion outlines a rationale for inclusion and implications for intervention. References accompany each section. (JDD) ED370253

Ramsden, P. (1991). A Performance Indicator of Teaching Quality in Higher Education: The Course Experience Questionnaire. Studies in Higher Education, 16, 2, 129-50. This article describes the Course Experience Questionnaire, a student evaluation of teaching performance. The article discusses the instrument's theoretical basis, statistical qualities, and national trials in Australian higher education. The questionnaire is seen to offer a reliable, verifiable, and useful means of evaluating teaching quality in British-based higher education systems. (DB) EJ428820

Riley, K. A., Ed., & Nuttall, D. L., Ed. (1994). Measuring Quality: Education IndicatorsUnited Kingdom and International Perspectives. 148p. Nationally set indicators of performance have increasingly become a medium for exercising choice and decision making in the new education market place. Contributors to this book suggest that such a framework is not unproblematic. This book offers some insights into the general debate about performance indicators in education. It explores the background of the debate; the differing perspectives of policy makers and practitioners; and the purposes, audiences, and values of education indicators, both in the United Kingdom and international context. The chapters focus on four major themes: why policy makers require information about performance; how such information relates to national contexts; the limitations of performance measurement; and the challenges in applying such information at the district level. Chapters include the following: (1) "The Framework" (Kathryn A. Riley and Desmond L. Nuttall); (2) "Education Indicators: Officials, Ministers, and the Demand for Information" (Alan Ruby); (3) "Choosing Indicators" (Desmond L. Nuttall); (4) "How Indicators Have Been Used in the USA" (Ramsay Selden); (5) "Quality, Surveillance and Performance Measurement" (Kieron Walsh); (6) "Performance Indicators: Flourish or Perish?" (John Gray and Brian Wilcox); (7) "Following the Education Indicators Trail in the Pursuit of Quality" (Kathryn A. Riley); (8) "A Role for Parents, Students, and Teachers in School Self-Evaluation and Development Planning" (John MacBeath); and (9) "Measuring PerformanceNational Contexts and Local Realities" (Kathryn A. Riley and Desmond L. Nuttall). Notes on contributors and an index are included. (LMI) ED374559

Rivera, J. B. T., & Adera, T. (1991). Assessing Water Quality: Staphylococci as Microbial Indicators in Swimming Pools. Journal of Environmental Health, 53, 6, 29-32 May-Jun. This study suggests that staphylococci be the preferred microbial indicators of swimming pool water quality because these organisms met all criteria for best microbial indicators in terms of amount of recovery, resistance to disinfectants, and risk to bathers using water samples from nine swimming pools in Linn and Benton Counties, Oregon. (30 references) (Author/JJK) EJ436584

Rymhs, R., & Others. (1993). Effective Teaching Does Make a Difference. Theme issue with title "The Educational Quality Indicators Initiative: A Success Story.". As part of Alberta's Educational Quality Indicators initiative, Spirit River School Division used staff, parent, and student input to develop indicators of effective teaching: 26 teacher behaviors related to planning and preparation, communication skills, teacher-student relationship, and instructional strategies. The indicators provided a basis for a collegial, nonthreatening model for more effective teaching using formative supervision. (SV) EJ469472
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Schumacker, R. E. (1991). Rasch Rating Scale Analysis of Quality Indicators of Elementary and Secondary School Performance. 27pp. Paper presented at the Annual Texas Testing Conference (5th, Austin, TX, March 4, 1991). Types of quality indicators (QIs) for elementary schools and secondary schools in Texas, the selection of indicators by district superintendents in Texas, and the subsequent rating scale analysis using Rasch measurement procedures were studied. QIs were scaled from 1 to 7, with 1 representing "not important", and 7 representing "very important". Superintendents from 1,055 school districts in Texas received two separate 20-item QI rating scales for elementary schools and secondary schools. After a follow-up, the response rate was 71.5% (N=754). Results indicate that both the elementary school and secondary school rating scales were reliable. Item calibrations defined a continuum of important/not important variables, with item separation better defined for elementary school QIs as compared to secondary school QIs. The Rasch measurement model permitted comparisons of QI logits or standard scores (normal curve equivalents); consequently, it have practical value for comparing similar schools. Eleven data tables and a 13-item list of references are included. An appendix provides descriptions of selected terms. (SLD) ED336413

Schumacker, R. E. (1992). Rasch Rating Scale Analysis of Quality Indicators of Elementary and Secondary School Performance. Educational Research Quarterly, 15, 4, 11-20. This study reports findings on the types of quality indicators identified for elementary and secondary schools by 71.5% of school superintendents from 1,055 districts and the subsequent rating scale analysis using Rasch measurement procedures. The practical utility of such a scale is discussed. (SLD) EJ480428

Schumacker, R. E., & Brookshire, W. K. (1990). Defining Quality Indicators. 13p. A study sponsored by the Texas Education Agency was conducted to define qualitative and quantitative indicators of school district success. Efforts were focused on: viewpoints of administrators; quality indicators examined in other states; and a review of the literature. Results and recommendations are summarized into the following categories: basic model of schooling; indicator variables; educational comparisons; statewide indicator system; and that which is successful. Data indicate that multiple measures of school district performance should be used. It was apparent that using Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS) test scores as the sole measure of school district performance does not meet the needs of administrators. It is suggested that state- level reporting be quantitative in nature, but that school level measures be both qualitative and quantitative. A table summarizes the many indicators available for assessing educational inputs, processes, and outputs. Use of indicator variables is summarized as follows: (1) primary focus at the school level; (2) use of multiple output indicators of school performance; (3) use of multiple measurement and data collection strategies; (4) use of adaptive indicators that evolve over time; and (5) focus of the school on change and improvement over time. The bases for school comparisons are reviewed, and the utility and organization of a statewide indicator system are described. Recommendations are included for future efforts in developing a statewide indicator system. Two tables and two figures illustrate the conclusions of the study. (SLD) ED317568

Schumacker, R. E., & Brookshire, W. K. (1992). Defining Quality Indicators for Secondary Schools. Educational Research Quarterly, 15, 4, 5-10. Quality indicators of secondary schools were defined through ratings made by 754 school district superintendents in Texas. The top five indicators identified were attendance statistics; student attitude information; dropout rates; college placement; and computer literacy. Standardized testing criteria did not rate highly. (SLD) EJ480427

Sereda, J. (1993). Educational Quality Indicators in Art and Mathematics. Theme issue with title "The Educational Quality Indicators Initiative: A Success Story.". As part of Alberta's provincial initiative, teacher-researchers in two Calgary school districts developed and field-tested quality indicators for assessment of student artwork and mathematical problem solving. The resulting qualitative materials depend on informed professional judgment and student involvement in self-assessment; celebrate diversity in student responses; and have had positive effects on teaching and learning. (Author/SV) EJ469474

Stanley, E. C., & Patrick, W. J. (1997). Teaching and Research Quality Indicators and the Shaping of Higher Education. AIR 1997 Annual Forum Paper. 25pp. Paper presented at the Annual Forum of the Association for Institutional Research (37th, Orlando, FL, 18-21, 1997). Two important sets of performance indicators for institutions of higher education have become established in the United Kingdom: research quality ratings and teaching quality ratings. The research quality ratings and, to a lesser extent, the teaching quality ratings influence the level of government funding provided to higher education institutions. This paper considers the correlations between the two ratings and the possible consequences of policies which reshape the higher education sector by concentrating research resources in a limited number of institutions. Comparisons are made between quality assurance/assessment approaches in the United Kingdom and the United States, finding that U.S. higher education is much larger, more heterogeneous and has less government control than U.K. higher education, While the U.S. system of colleges and universities is generally unranked (by those responsible for accreditation), the UK system includes rankings. Use of use various analytical approaches to compare teaching and research ratings for both systems concluded that it remains unclear whether the measurement standards will lead to improvements in teaching and research. (Contains 38 references.) (Author/DM) ED410878

Stanley, G., & Reynolds, P. (1995). Performance Indicators and Quality Review in Australian Universities. Higher Education Research and Development, 14, 2, 245-53. A study examined the relationship between quantitative performance and diversity indicators and the quality rankings of Australian universities made by the Commission for Quality Assurance in Higher Education. Correlations between three performance factors (traditional research university performance, teaching performance, competitive research performance) and four diversity factors (size, equity, student-faculty ratio, access) are analyzed. (Author/MSE) EJ524703
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Van den Berghe, W. (1997). Indicators in Perspective. The Use of Quality Indicators in Vocational Education and Training. CEDEFOP Document. 77p. Indicators are used in quite different ways in vocational education and training, from control and accountability to performance and quality purposes. A classification model has been proposed in which many indicators can fit. It is based on two important dimensions of indicators: (1) the "message" relating to the information content, meaning, and signification of the indicator and (2) the "purpose" relating to the function and use of the indicator. Four main areas on the scale for the message dimension are as follows: exclusively descriptive, management and policy, performance, and quality. Three areas on the scale for the purpose dimension are indicators used for analysis, used for communication, and with a normative purpose. The two main driving forces for the use of indicators are public authorities and institutions. International and European achievements in the work on quality indicators are illustrated by the following: the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's INES (Indicators of National Education System) project, the Eurostat key data, and the European Training Foundation key indicators on vocational education and training (VET). At the level of VET institutions, a wide range of performance and quality indicators have been developed across Europe in the Netherlands, Italy, Portugal, Denmark, and Western Australia. The advantages of using quality indicators can be achieved only if 10 conditions5 design requirements and 5 requirements for processing and useare met. (Appendixes contain 77 references, design methodology for quality indicators, and glossary.) (YLB) ED417351
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Warren, J. (1992). Learning as an Indicator of Educational Quality. Studies in Higher Education, 17, 3, 337-48. After reviewing varous methods to evaluate college student learning, it is proposed that U.S. faculty at neighboring colleges could collaborate to construct tests, much like the external examinations used in the United Kingdom, to assess student learning and the quality of education more consistently. In the long term, this method would also enable translation of individual grades into aggregates. (MSE) EJ453142

Wilkinson, G. L., & Others. (1997). Evaluation Criteria and Indicators of Quality for Internet Resources. Special issue: Web-Based Learning. Most Web site rating systems overemphasize technological "bells and whistles." The University of Georgia's information quality criteria address site access and usability; resource identification and documentation; author identification; authority of author; information structure and design; relevance and scope, validity, and accuracy and balance of content; navigation within document; quality of links; and aesthetic and affective aspects. (PEN) EJ544841

Willard, L. A. (1993). Identifying and Measuring Desirable Student Social Outcomes. Theme issue with title "The Educational Quality Indicators Initiative: A Success Story.". As part of Alberta's Educational Quality Indicators initiative, Fort McMurray School District developed a three-level approach to measuring student social skills that includes teacher ratings on report cards, diagnostic screening, and referral to a counselor. The 44-item Social Skills Diagnostic Screen covers personal and interpersonal factors, social reasoning skills, and classroom behaviors. (SV)
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