Translations
Caution: Machine generated language translations may contain significant errors. Use with discretion.

Latino Americans | K

Kaf

Kafry, Ditsa (1980).  Fire-Play and Fire-Setting of Young Children. 

Variables related to children's interest in and play experiences with fire and fire-producing materials were explored in this study. Information for the study was obtained from samples of public school children and their parents. The samples were drawn from the communities of Oakland and Hayward, California, and included 70 boys and 69 girls and their parents. Data were assembled through interviews and evaluations. Findings indicate that 37 children had played with fire and had burnt different items. Half of the burning behavior was done intentionally. About half of the children had been involved in play with matches, and several more reported playing with lighters or firecrackers. In order to analyze fire-play in detail, five categories of reported involvement in fire-play episodes were formed. Categories ranged in frequency of involvement from no episodes to many episodes. The five groups were then compared in terms of family background, child characteristics and child preference (for example their attraction to fire variables). Children who most frequently played with fire were rated higher in 20 mischievous behaviors than children less frequently involved in fire-play. Play with matches was found to be related to problem areas in children's lives. Findings further indicate that fire-playing, fire-setting, accident-prone, hyperactive and delinquent children show very similar behavioral and personality patterns to each other as well as similar family conditions.  | [FULL TEXT]

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kah

Kahn, Gerald (1980).  School Enrollment of 3- and 4-Year-Olds, by Race/Ethnic Category. 

Based on data collected by the U.S. Bureau of the Census in its October 1980 Current Population Survey, this report examines school enrollment rates of 3- and 4-year-olds from three major ethnic groups (black, white, and Spanish origin) and relates this information to characteristics of the children's schools and households. Variables covered in the document's 10 tables include race or ethnic group, age, geographic region, metropolitan or nonmetropolitan location, family income, educational attainment of the household head and the mother, sex and occupation of the household head, mother's marital and labor force status, number of other children under 14 in the household, the school's educational level and public or private status, and the child's full- or part-time enrollment. Also noted is the impact of the federal Head Start program. Among the findings of the survey are that overall preprimary enrollment rates were roughly the same for whites and blacks but were lower for children of Spanish origin, and that blacks were far more likely than whites to be enrolled in full-day programs and in public schools. Two appendices present definitions of variables and discuss data sources and reliability. | [FULL TEXT]

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kal

Kalmar, Tomas Mario (1982).  The Voice of Fulano. 

In poetry, prose, and correspondence, a collection of writings chronicles the development of a literacy campaign and educational program in Cobden, Illinois. The program--the Bilingual Literacy Campaign--evolved to respond to the need for literacy education among "fulanos," Hispanic-American farm laborers. The papers include the following: a 24-verse poem on the dialogue model of instruction; a report by the co-founder of the campaign (Rob Tate); a poem and description of a method used to teach one man to read and write and a learner-developed English-Spanish dictionary; a description of the events leading to the Cobden literacy campaign; a poem in Spanish about language interference and communication; a list of eight principles to guide adult literacy education; newspaper articles and a letter about the death of a local migrant worker; notes and letters on program costs and administration; miscellaneous field notes; and a creative piece on literacy and the feelings of farm laborers. (MSE) (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Literacy Education) | [FULL TEXT]

Kalmar, Tomas Mario; de Tal, Fulano (1988).  Working Papers from the Lawrence Literacy Coalition. 

Four papers concerning the Lawrence (Massachusetts) Literacy Coalition, a consortium of 12 two- and four-year colleges supporting adult literacy activities in the region, are presented. The first paper offers an overview of the coalition, including the reasons for its formation, a definition of literacy, the scope of the coalition's work, and possible directions for the future. An institutional registration form is included. The second paper consists of a poem about literacy and the Hispanic community of Lawrence. The third paper discusses the need for a language minority task force, emphasizing that grantsmanship alone can not create a successful English-as-a-Second-Language literacy program, but that minority language community input is essential to guide program design and content. The final paper is a 5-year comprehensive literacy plan for the Lower Merrimack Valley, which outlines program organization, needs and resources, the process of identifying key issues, recommendations for implementation, and five broad, specific objectives for implementation in the near future and by 1993. (MSE) (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Literacy Education)

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kam

Kamasaki, Charles (1986).  Action Needed To Educate Hispanics, Employers about Implications of New Immigration Legislation. 

Designed to inform key members of La Raza about practical implications of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, this bulletin outlines immediate action that should be taken to educate the Hispanic community and employers about the legislation. Brief summaries are provided for four critical provisions of the legislation: (1) a legalization program that permits certain individuals to become permanent resident aliens; (2) farmworker provisions; (3) a requirement that non-citizen applicants for federal benefit programs be screened to insure legal entitlement; and (4) employer sanctions that make it illegal for employers to knowingly hire undocumented persons. The following section sets out actions that should be taken and actions that should be avoided by employers as well as individual Hispanics. Employers are cautioned against firing any current employees regardless of their immigration status or discriminating against individuals on the basis of national origin. Undocumented immigrants are cautioned against going to the Immigration and Naturalization Service to apply for legalization or paying anyone who purports to be able to help with applications for legalization. A press release is attached containing the views of Raul Yzaguirre, president of the National Council of La Raza, on the new immigration legislation.

Kamasaki, Charles (1987).  Testimony on Implementation of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-603). Presented before the Subcommitee on Immigration and Refugee Policy, Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate. 

Hispanics--affected more than any other ethnic group by immigration laws--have a profound interest in the implementation of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. The National Council of La Raza holds the following views: (1) the proposed regulations implementing the Act are unacceptable; (2) the capacity and resources necessary for effective implementation are insufficient; and (3) the lack of public education efforts is aggravating widespread confusion and misunderstanding of the law. Without major changes in the regulations, it is clear that many eligible persons will be deterred from applying; many others will apply only to have their applications denied--not because they fail to meet the statutory critera, but because of unduly restrictive regulations. The National Council of La Raza urges that the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) remove the unnecessarily restrictive and burdensome aspects of the proposed regulations, negotiate in good faith with potential "Qualified Designated Entities," expand the scope of the proposed public information campaign, and immediately cease the dissemination of misleading or inaccurate information. In order for legalization to succeed, the INS must determine that legalization is in the public interest and that maximum participation of the eligible population is essential.

Kamasaki, Charles; Briceno, Rose (1986).  Issue Update: An Overview of the Immigration Reform Act. 

An overview of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 summarizes legislative developments prior to passage of the bill, describes major elements of the legislation, discusses the activities of the National Council of La Raza in monitoring implementation of the law, and emphasizes the necessary role of the network of Hispanic community-based organizations. The report provides a legislative history from September 19, 1985 to final passage of the bill. A description of the bill summarizes employer sanctions, anti-discrimination provisions, legalization, H-2 and special seasonal agricultural workers, and the Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements (SAVE) Program. A list of four objectives of the Hispanic community in implementing the immigration bill includes: minimizing discrimination, maximizing participation in the legalization program, preventing abuse/exploitation of native and foreign agricultural workers, and eliminating wrongful denial of benefits to eligible persons. A summary of National Council of La Raza activities includes preparation of press statements, convening task forces to work closely with federal agencies to draft regulations to implement provisions of the new law, coordinating information dissemination to the public, and identifying problem areas requiring remedial legislation or Congressional oversight. Suggestions for types of information needed from local groups are included. House and Senate voting records are attached.

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kan

Kan, Stephen H.; Liu, William T. (1984).  The Educational Status of Asian Americans: An Update from the 1980 Census. 

Using 1980 Census data, a general profile of the educational attainment of six Asian American groups is given here. Data are compared with similar information on Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics, and racial/ethnic differences in the proportion of families with school-age children at the poverty level are described. The six Asian American groups considered are Chinese, Vietnamese, Japanese, Filipinos, Koreans, and Indians. For 1980, all these except the Vietnamese exceeded Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics in the proportion of the population with a college education; the Vietnamese compared favorably with Blacks and Hispanics. Yet several Asian groups still had substantial proportions with no education or with minimum education (of all, Hispanics had the highest proportion in this category). Asian Americans had the greatest increase in overall educational level during the 1970s, a significant part of this increase being attributable to selective immigration. A much higher proportion of Asian Americans had occupation-education mismatches. And finally, perhaps the most significant finding was that, except for the Japanese, Asian Americans had higher proportions of families with school-age children in the poverty class as compared to Whites. Overall, the superior school achievement of Asian Americans is not associated with their economic milieus.

Kanter, Martha (1989).  Assessment in the California Community Colleges. 

An overview of assessment practices in the 107 California community colleges (CCCs) in 71 community college districts is presented. Nearly 1.4 million students are now enrolled in CCCs, and 40,000 full- and part-time faculty work in CCCs. The primary mission of CCCs is the provision of rigorous, high-quality lower division instruction for students who wish to obtain associate degrees, transfer to a 4-year institution, or prepare for an occupation. Changing demographic trends in the state have resulted in a large proportion of Black and Hispanic students enrolling in CCCs. Matriculation, academic standards, and accountability are discussed, including the assessment component of matriculation and the establishment of course prerequisites. Problems involved in implementation of policies on matriculation and academic standards receive special attention, as do student access and measurement of levels of success in CCCs. An institutional research and evaluation component of matriculation provides for both local and statewide evaluation of the program. CCCs are using a variety of measures to show the skill gains of students, their retention and persistence rates, their goal achievement success, and their satisfaction with the educational process. The changing demography, the raising of academic standards, and the lack of pre-college preparation of many students are also considered.

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kas

Kassebaum, Peter A. (1981).  Affirmative Action at College of Marin: A Demographic Analysis of Faculty and Students. 

A study was conducted to compare the College of Marin's (CM's) ethnic profile for fall 1979 credit students and for full-time tenured or tenure track faculty employed in spring 1980 with local, regional, and state census data for 1980. The number and percentage of Blacks, Hispanics, Asian-Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans were tabulated for the college as a whole and for six academic departments (i.e., physical education, vocational education, social science, natural science, humanities, and instructional/student services). In addition, the student population at CM was contrasted with state and Bay Area patterns of student enrollment. Study findings included the following: (1) Black faculty accounted for 3.14% of the instructors at CM, compared to a 2.46% Black representation in Marin County, a 9.01% distribution in the Bay area, and a 6.35% representation in the state; (2) Hispanic faculty accounted for 1.89% and Asian-Pacific Islanders 3.14% of the college total; (3) there were no Native American faculty members at CM, although the county representation was 0.35%, Bay Area 0.63%, and state 0.7%; (4) of the students at CM, 2.8% were Black, 3.2% were Hispanic, 3.2% were Asian-Pacific Islander, and 0.9% were Native American; (5) within Marin County, 2.46% of the population was Black, 4.14% Hispanic, 2.44% Asian-Pacific Islander, and 0.35% Native American. The study report includes a literature review and a discussion of the implications of the findings for affirmative action at CM.

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kat

Katsinas, Stephen G. (1989).  Educational Arrears: Addressing the Underenrollment of Hispanics in Illinois Higher Education.  Urban Review, 21, 1. 

Suggests ways to improve educational access and choice for Hispanics on the elementary and secondary levels that will increase the number of Hispanics enrolled in Illinois colleges. Analyzes research by a State task force, as well as quantitative and qualitative data from other studies.

Katsinas, Steve (1984).  Hispanic Student and Staffing Patterns in Community Colleges. 

An overview is provided of Hispanic enrollment and staffing patterns in U.S. community colleges. After an initial discussion of changes taking place in postsecondary education, information on the low participation rates of Hispanics in higher education is presented; e.g., in 1978 Hispanics made up 6% of the population of the mainland United States, but only 3.4% of the nation's undergraduate students; and Hispanic college enrollments as a percentage of high school graduates declined from 35.4% in 1975 to 19.9% in 1980. The next section looks at the high concentration of Hispanics in community colleges, which enroll 45% of all Hispanic full-time college students. Information on the exceptionally high concentration of Hispanics in central city community colleges and on enrollment patterns is followed by a discussion of reasons for the relatively high participation rate of Hispanics in community colleges (e.g., the indifference of four-year institutions, the open admissions policies and lower costs of community colleges, the programs and policies of two-year institutions, and the availability of language skills remediation at community colleges). The final sections focus on the lack of information structures concerning what educational opportunities are available and what aid programs apply; the lower number of Hispanics pursuing degrees in engineering and science compared to non-Hispanics; and the large number of Hispanics engaged in transfer curricula and adult basic education programs.

Katz, Phyllis A., Ed.; Taylor, Dalmas A., Ed. (1988).  Eliminating Racism: Profiles in Controversy. 

Dialogue and research on racism since the mid-1970s have yielded increased controversy over the theories, foundation, and continued existence of racism. The chapters presented in this book provide various divergent views of what constitutes racism and frameworks for reducing it. The following chapters (and their authors) are included: (1) "Introduction" (Phyllis A. Katz and Dalmas A. Taylor); (2) "Integration and Pluralism" (Thomas F. Pettigrew); (3) "The Future of Pluralism Revisited" (Harry C. Triandis); (4) "Symbolic Racism" (David O. Sears); (5) "Group Conflict, Prejudice, and the Paradox of Contemporary Racial Attitudes" (Lawrence Bobo); (6) "Racism in Black and White: A Bicultural Model of Reaction and Evolution" (James M. Jones); (7) "Racism toward Hispanics: The Culturally Monolithic Society" (Albert Ramirez); (8) "Seeking Convergence in Race Relations Research: Japanese-Americans and the Resurgence of the Internment" (Don T. Nakanishi); (9) "Stereotypical Images, American Indians, and Prejudice" (Joseph E. Trimble); (10) "Racism and Sexism: Comparisons and Conflicts" (Pamela Trotman Reid); (11) "School Desegregation: The Social Science Role" (Harold B. Gerard); (12) The 1954 Social Science Statement and School Desegregation: A Reply to Gerard" (Stuart W. Cook); (13) "School Busing: A Time for Change" (David J. Armor); (14) "The Contribution of School Desegregation to Academic Achievement and Racial Integration" (Willis D. Hawley and Mark A. Smylie); (15) "Desegregation, Jigsaw, and the Mexican-American Experience" (Elliot Aronson and Alex Gonzalez); (16) "Contact and Cooperation: When Do They Work?" (Marilynn B. Brewer and Norman Miller); (17) "The Future of Preferential Affirmative Action" (Nathan Glazer); (18) "Affirmative Action and the Legacy of Racial Injustice" (Ira Glasser); and (19) "Conclusion" (Dalmas A. Taylor and Phyllis A. Katz). Each chapter provides a list of references. The book is indexed by author and subject.

Katzman, Martin T.; Vandell, Deborah (1981).  Societal Trends Affecting the Environment of Early Childhood Education. Follow Through Planning Project. Final Report. 

This monograph documents the magnitude and likely prognosis of demographic changes in the 1970's and suggests the impact of these trends on the problems of early childhood education. The implications of this changing environment for designing a new Follow Through program are also examined. With respect to the changing demographic environment, information regarding fertility, adolescent childbearing, proportion of working mothers, single parent households, and international immigration is presented. The consequences of changing demographics are discussed in relation to reduced fertility, children of adolescent and working mothers, single parent households and immigrant and foreign language status. Such changes are seen as having several implications for designing new Follow Through options; specifically, these concern the declining size of the traditional pool of applicants, increase in applicants for whom English is a second language, and substantial demand for custodial services for "latchkey" children of all social and ethnic backgrounds. It is suggested that the assumption of new purposes and functions by Follow Through implies the need for new models of evaluation using broader criteria. | [FULL TEXT]

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kaz

Kazlauskas, Edward John; Yanez, Elva Kocalis (1980).  The Spanish-Speaking Mental Health Research Center Bibliographic Data Base.  RQ, 19, 4. 

Describes the machine readable database of bibliographic information pertaining to the mental health of Hispanics living in the United States, developed by the Spanish Speaking Mental Health Research Center of the University of California, Los Angeles. Topics covered include the system's history, citation sources, vocabulary control, and services.

Kazlow, Carole; Lachman, Susan (1980).  Bilingual Program-District 13. Funded under ESEA Title VII. Final Report, September 1, 1979-August 31, 1980. 

This report is an evaluation of a Title VII Bilingual Program conducted in New York City in 1979-1980 for Spanish speaking students. A program description outlines the methods used for selecting students for the bilingual program. A discussion of the evaluation's design and objectives is also included. The report presents student test scores in Spanish and English reading achievement along with explanatory notes. The evaluation considered the following facets of the program: (1) rooms and materials; (2) class structure and departmentalized instruction; (3) language use; (4) bicultural aspects; (5) parental involvement; (6) staff development; and (7) curriculum development. The report concludes with a series of recommendations regarding testing, grouping, staff development, resources, and student placement. | [FULL TEXT]

Kazlow, Carole; Lachman, Susan (1980).  District 13 Haitian-Spanish Bilingual Program. Funded under ESEA Title VII. Final Evaluation, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980. 

This report is an evaluation of a Title VII Bilingual Program conducted in two New York junior high schools in 1979-1980 for Spanish speaking and Haitian students. A program description outlines the methods used for selecting students for the bilingual program. A discussion of the evaluation's design and objectives is also included. The evaluation considered the following aspects of the program: (1) room and materials; (2) general pedagogy; (3) language use; (4) bicultural aspects; (5) parental involvement; (6) staff development; and (7) curriculum development. The report presents student tests scores in Spanish and English reading achievement. It concludes with recommendations regarding testing, staff, bicultural activities, truancy, and student placement. | [FULL TEXT]

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kei

Keith, Timothy Z. (1984).  Does Bilingual Education Improve Hispanics' Achievement? A Large-Sample Path Analysis. 

This study concerns the influence of native language instruction in grades one through six on bilingual Hispanics' high school achievement. A nationally representative sample of 58,000 high school sophomores and seniors (the High School and Beyond data set) was used as the data source. Path analytic techniques were used to determine the magnitude of the effect of early native language instruction, while controlling for other relevant influences which included ethnic origin, mother's years in the United States, family background, intellectual ability, Hispanicity, English proficiency, and extent of native language instruction. Results suggest that the extent of native language instruction a bilingual Hispanic student receives has a negative influence on his or her later achievement. Other direct influences were ability, English proficiency, family background, mother's years in the United States (negative) and Hispanicity (negative). Results were consistent across different measures of extent of native language instruction. These preliminary and tentative results suggest that a transitional approach to bilingual education may be more fruitful than a maintenance approach. | [FULL TEXT]

Keith, Timothy Z.; Page, Ellis B. (1985).  Do Catholic High Schools Improve Minority Student Achievement?  American Educational Research Journal, 22, 3. 

High School and Beyond data set and path analytic techniques were used to compare Black and Hispanic high school seniors' achievement in public and in Catholic schools. When better ability measures were added to the causal models the apparent effect of Catholic schooling on minority achievement was greatly reduced.

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kel

Keller, Gary D.; Sullivan, Michael J. (1988).  Project 1000: Recruiting, Admitting, and Graduating an Additional 1000 U.S. Hispanic Graduate Students. Student Information Booklet. 

Project 1000 is a program to help United States citizens or permanent residents of the United States of Hispanic ethnic origin to make application for graduate study in those fields and disciplines where the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) normally is used to help assess an applicant's admission potential (i.e., the arts and sciences generally and most fields of education but not medicine, business, law, and other fields where tests other than the GRE are used). Hispanic American students submit a Project 1000 application, free of charge, for admission to and financial aid from selected graduate schools. Project 1000 staff consult with the student on selecting graduate programs, completing the application, and other matters. This booklet describes the project's functioning, including its eligibility requirements. It provides information about applying for financial aid and about the use of standardized tests (particularly the GRE) with Hispanic students. Instructions are provided for completing the Project 1000 application for graduate study and financial support in a way that will enhance the applicant's qualifications and personal qualities. Descriptions are offered of the 50 graduate schools participating in Project 1000. Includes 13 references.

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Ken

Kent, Laura (1982).  Puerto Ricans in U.S. Higher Education: Current Status and Recent Progress. 

The status of Puerto Ricans in U.S. higher education was studied as part of an investigation of four disadvantaged racial/ethnic groups. Attention was directed to: rates of educational access and attainment and factors influencing educational outcomes; trends in choice of majors and careers; representation in various fields; perspectives and employment experience of Puerto Rican faculty members; trends in the characteristics of Puerto Rican freshmen; and institutional and program-related factors affecting the progress of Puerto Ricans. A statistical profile of Puerto Ricans in the United States is presented, along with information on the history of Puerto Rico, schooling in New York, and Puerto Rican students in mainland colleges. Findings of a 9-year Cooperative Institutional Research Program study of 1971 freshmen are presented, along with results of surveys of faculty, Ford Foundation Fellows, and women scientists. Recommendations are offered regarding: data collection and reporting, precollegiate education, implementation of a "value-added" model, financial aid, bilingualism, graduate and professional education, minority faculty and administrators, minority women, and government programs. A 10-page bibliography is appended. | [FULL TEXT]

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Ker

Kerst, Catherine Hiebert (1986).  Ethnic Folklife Dissertations from the United States and Canada, 1960-1980. A Selected, Annotated Bibliography. 

This annotated bibliography lists over 220 multi-disciplinary Ph.D. dissertations written between 1960 and 1980 on the subject of indigenous and immigrant ethnic folklife in the United States and Canada. Only dissertations providing substantial attention to traditional forms of ethnic folk culture in context were considered. The concept of "folklife" governing the selection process was guided by the definition used in the American Folklife Preservation Act (P.L. 94-201) which states that folklife is "the traditional expressive culture shared within the various groups...familial, ethnic, occupational, religious, regional; expressive culture includes a wide range of creative and symbolic forms such as custom, belief, technical skill, language, literature, art, architecture, music, play, dance, drama, ritual, pageantry, handicraft; these expressions are mainly learned orally, by imitation, or in performance, and are generally maintained without benefit of formal instruction or institutional direction." Dissertations are organized alphabetically by the author's last name. Each entry includes author's name, complete dissertation title, name of university granting the Ph.D., academic department/field for which the dissertaion was written, year the degree was granted, pagination, order number from University Microfilms International, abstract citation, bibliographic reference to published edition (when applicable), and condensed version of author's abstract. | [FULL TEXT]

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kes

Kessler, Carolyn (1986).  Mathematics and Language Intersections for Hispanic Bilingual Students. 

This paper examines intersections between mathematical and language performance in light of data collected from Hispanic students at varying stages of acquiring English as a second language at school. Emphasis is on aspects of the developing linguistic system as it affects underlying metacognitive processes related to mathematical performance. Sections of the report consider metacognition and bilingual learners; cognitive/academic language proficiency (CAL) and cognitive, analytic, mathematical proficiency (CAMP) intersections; the language of mathematics and metacognition; and the learning of mathematics in terms of person, task, strategy, and the regulation of cognition. Finally, implications for mathematics education are presented. Illustrations of behaviors of learners from primary grades to adults are interspersed.

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Key

Keyes, Jose Luis; And Others (1983).  Evander Childs High School. Career Exploration Opportunities for Bilingual Students, 1981-1982. O.E.E. Evaluation Report. 

The Career Exploration Opportunities for Bilingual Students (C.E.O.B.S.) program at Evander Childs High School in the Bronx, New York City, served 100 ninth and tenth grade Spanish speaking students of limited English proficiency during 1981-82. The project provided instruction in English as a second language and Spanish language skills; bilingual instruction in science, mathematics, and social studies; and career education lessons integrated into all major curriculum areas. This report describes the objectives; student participants; organization; instructional, non-instructional, and career exploration components; and evaluation of the program. Evaluation results indicate that: (1) the program is meeting its objectives; (2) participants demonstrated significant gains in English reading skills, and Spanish reading skills; (3) program participants showed a higher passing rate in biology, history, and mathematics than a comparison group of nonparticipants; and (4) participants had a higher attendance rate than students in the school as a whole. Recommendations for planning future programs are presented. Some documents and materials used in implementing the program are presented in the appendices. | [FULL TEXT]

Keyes, Jose Luis; And Others (1983).  DeWitt Clinton High School. Bilingual-Bicultural Program. O.E.E. Evaluation Report, 1981-1982. 

The Bilingual-Bicultural Program at DeWitt Clinton High School, Bronx, New York, was designed to provide support services to students with problems in reading and writing skills, and in linguistic, academic, and classroom adjustment. The program offered instruction in English as a Second language (ESL), Spanish for native speakers, Spanish as a second language (SSL), and bicultural content area courses to 214 students in 1982. An evaluation of the program, based on students' achievement in English language development, mastery of their native language, mathematics, social studies, and science showed: (1) levels 9 and 10 students demonstrated a moderate improvement in English, while level 11 students showed a slight decline; (2) the performance of students at all levels and grades improved in Spanish; (3) level 11 students showed a moderate improvement in mathematics, while level 9 and 10 students showed a slight decline; (4) the majority of the students who received instruction in English did well in teacher made tests in mathematics, science, social studies, and native language; and (5) student attendance objectives for the program were met. Recruitment of more bilingual personnel was recommended. Statistical data on staff development is appended to this evaluation report. Also appended are lists of services and cultural activities for bilingual students, and records of parental involvement. | [FULL TEXT]

Keyes, Jose Luis; And Others (1983).  Native Language Reading Approach Program, 1982-1983. O.E.E. Final Evaluation Report. 

The Native Language Reading Approach Program in New York City was designed as an exemplary approach to on-site training of classroom teachers and their assistants in how to help students transfer reading skills from their native language to English. Program components included support services, teacher training, material/curriculum development, and parental involvement activities. In 1981-82, 43 teachers and 6 professional and paraprofessional specialists and 1314 students (Haitian, Greek, Italian, and Hispanic) in grades K-6 participated in the program. Evaluation showed that the main difficulties encountered in the first two years of the program were, in this the third and final year, resolved. Individualized services were provided to the different sites, and an integrated, overall approach was developed. Excellent rapport was achieved within the program itself and between the program staff and personnel at the sites. Program resource specialists developed expertise and two manuals that may have citywide application. Teachers at the sites developed an awareness of how to transfer reading skills and of the interrelationships between language development and reading. They also developed related teaching and management skills. The program researched and developed various techniques to train experienced and inexperienced faculty. School personnel, at every level interviewed, regretted that the services were being terminated. Materials and resources used for this program appear in several appendices to this report. | [FULL TEXT]

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kim

Kim, Young Yun, Ed.; Gudykunst, William B., Ed. (1988).  Cross-Cultural Adaptation: Current Approaches.  [International and Intercultural Communication Annual] 

Reflecting multidisciplinary and multisocietal approaches, this collection presents 14 theoretical or research-based essays dealing with cross-cultural adaptation of individuals who are born and raised in one culture and find themselves in need of modifying their customary life patterns in a foreign culture. Papers in the collection are: "Conceptual Migrations: Understanding 'Travelers' Tales' for Cross-Cultural Adaptation" (W. Barnett Pearce and Kyung-Wha Kang); "The Adjustment of Sojourners" (Adrian Furnham); "Psychological Acculturation of Immigrants" (John W. Berry and others); "Communication in Assimilation, Deviance, and Alienation States" (Michael McGuire and Steven McDermott); "Strangers and Hosts: An Uncertainty Reduction Based Theory of Intercultural Adaptation" (William B. Gudykunst and Mitchell R. Hammer); "Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Perceptual Development" (Muneo Jay Yoshikawa); "The Psychological Adaptation of Soviet Immigrants in Australia" (Ronald Taft); "Culture Barriers as a Social Psychological Construct: An Empirical Validation" (Ingemar Torbiorn); "Locus of Control and Communication Patterns of Immigrants" (June O. Yum); "Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Diversity: Hispanic Americans" (Lorand B. Szalay and Andres Inn); "Changes in the Lateralization Pattern of Two Immigrant Groups in Sweden" (Edith Magiste); "Interethnic Perceptions and Relative Deprivation: British Data" (Deepa Punetha and others); "Common Ethnicity and Separate identities: Interaction between Jewish Immigrant Groups" (Walter P. Zenner); and "Refugee Resource Acquisition: The Invisible Communication System" (Carol A. Mortland and Judy Ledgerwood). (Chapters include references.)

Kimmel, Howard; And Others (1988).  Ideas in Practice (2)--An Approach to Increasing the Representation of Minorities in Engineering and Science.  Engineering Education, 78, 11. 

Describes the comprehensive approach taken by the Center for Pre-College Programs at New Jersey Institute of Technology to motivate and prepare students for higher education. Discusses precollege programs, secondary school programs, and elementary school programs. Explores the impact of the program on the success of the students.

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kin

King, A. L. (1981).  Integration, Inservice Education, and the Impact of Desegregation. 

The staff of the Ways To Improve Education In Desegregated Schools (WIEDS) project set out to collect information regarding successful desegregation practices in order to conceptualize, develop, test, and refine an inservice model and training guidelines for use in desegregated schools. The information was gathered by: (1) analyzing the United States Commission on Civil Rights Case Studies and the National Institute of Education's School Desegregation Ethnographies; (2) reviewing the desegregation literature; (3) surveying 149 central office administrators and Desegregation Assistance Center personnel; (4) interviewing 193 administrators, teachers, students, and parent/community representatives; and (5) analyzing the inservice education programs of fifteen selected desegregated school districts. The WIEDS investigation focused on the impact of desegregation on racial relations, student discipline policy (especially suspensions and expulsions), and student, teacher, administrator and parent attitudes.  | [FULL TEXT]

King, George (1987).  Minority Attrition and Retention in Higher Education: Strategies for Change. Report of a Conference (San Francisco, California, May 2-3, 1986). 

The conference reported in this document provided a forum for California's public postsecondary education officials to address issues related to the underrepresentation of ethnic minority students. An introduction provides statements on the nature of the problem, reasons for the problem, possible solutions, conference objectives, and conference format. The body of the report is divided into five sections giving the conference findings on each of the main topics of discussion. Section 1 covers organizational environment including the need for culturally diverse campus climates, improved program integration and coordination, and the need for data collection. Section 2 discusses academic support services calling for increased service evaluation, establishment of goals, ethnically diverse staff, and service coordination. Section 3 addresses student support services and focuses on the need for cooperative approaches, more role models, and increased financial aid. Section 4 covers early outreach and student preparation; and calls for improved academic preparation, plan coordination, and greater effectiveness. Section 5 discusses faculty and curriculum and the need for minority faculty recruitment and culturally diverse subject matter. Each section lists forces identified as driving or restraining the issue under discussion. Also included in each section are explanatory discussions and policy recommendations. | [FULL TEXT]

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kir

Kirsch, Irwin S.; Mosenthal, Peter B. (1988).  Understanding Document Literacy: Variables Underlying the Performance of Young Adults. 

Critical variables that underlie the performance of a national sample of young adults on a diverse set of document literacy tasks were identified. The final sample was 3,618 adults. The identification of these variables provides an important first step toward building a theoretical model that would systematically account for the constructs of document processing. The 61 tasks and their associated documents that make up the document scale of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Young Adult Literacy assessment were parsed using a specially devised grammar. Based on the parsings, variables were identified to account for the probability of success for the total population and for major subgroups of interest. The identified variables accounted for 89% of the variance for the total population. Among racial and ethnic groups, these variables accounted for 89% of the variance for White, 81% for Black, and 87% for Hispanic young adults. Among levels of education, these variables accounted for 56% of the variance for young adults with 0 to 8 years of schooling, 81% for young adults with 9 to 12 years of schooling, 88% for young adults with high-school degrees, and 84% for young adults with post-high-school degrees. Findings are discussed in terms of the need to provide a more general framework for describing, comparing, and researching documents. Five appendixes discuss parsing and scoring.   | [FULL TEXT]

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kli

Klitz, Sally Innis (1980).  Crosscultural Communication: The Hispanic Community of Connecticut. A Human Services Staff Development Training Manual. A TITLE XX Project. 

This manual was designed for use by Title XX field training personnel involved in providing services for Puerto Ricans in Connecticut. The manual is intended to develop cross cultural awareness by introducing the reader to the cultural orientations, social systems, and values of Puerto Ricans and other Hispanics. Included are background information on Puerto Rican geography, history, economy, and politics; a description of Hispanic value systems, family structure, religion, courtship and marriage practices, and health practices; a discussion of the Puerto Rican experience in the United States in politics, housing, employment and education; and a community social and health service model for Puerto Ricans. Also included are sample lessons for a Spanish language curriculum and a directory of Spanish speaking resource organizations in Connecticut. | [FULL TEXT]

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kna

Knafle, June D.; And Others (1989).  Values in American and Hispanic Children's Readers. 

A study was conducted to assess the values presented in American and Hispanic-American children's readers. The categories of primary interest on the value scale used include: positive behavior, positive feelings, negative behavior, negative feelings, traditional values, Judeo-Christian religious values, other religious values, and neutral values. The values scale was applied to two widely used basal reader series, Scott Foresman and Houghton Mifflin, grades one-four and to seven Hispanic basal reader series of variable grade level through grade four presently used in the Chicago area. An examination of the findings revealed noticeable differences between the two American series in the categories of neutral values, positive feelings, positive behavior, and negative feelings. The stories found in the Hispanic basal readers included values that have religious and traditional moralistic overtones along with very idealistic family values and roles. On the other hand, negative behavior was also presented, such as being drunk, fighting, and treating people cruelly. The Hispanic series examined were very much in accord with Hispanic culture, especially concerning Judeo-Christian religious values and traditional values, so these values are much more prescriptive in the Hispanic series than in the American series. While it seems that the American publishers have gone to a great deal of trouble not to be offensive to any group in a pluralistic society, such is not the case with the Hispanic basal readers. (Five tables of data are included and 18 references are attached.) | [FULL TEXT]

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kno

Knop, Constance K. (1982).  Limited English Proficiency Students in Wisconsin: Cultural Background and Educational Needs. Part I: Hispanic Students (Mexican and Puerto Rican). 

A training manual was developed to acquaint teachers and administrators with the history and culture of Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans in Wisconsin so that they can better meet the educational needs of their limited English proficient students. This manual is one of three such manuals intended for use with allied audiovisual materials. Historical attempts to meet the needs of bilingual students in Wisconsin and the United States are reviewed, and aspects of different types of educational programs for minority students in Wisconsin are outlined. Information is provided on such topics as the history of Hispanics in the Midwest, language use and attitudes, cultural identity, Mexican migration to Milwaukee, Mexican family structure and values, Puerto Rican migration, and educational needs of Puerto Rican students. Videotapes and suggested readings concerning aspects of Hispanic culture and approaches to teaching English to Hispanic students are listed. | [FULL TEXT]

Knop, Sheila A. (1983).  Colorado Population Changes: A Source Book for Education Planners and Policy Makers. 

The statewide population data presented in this document should assist education program planners and policymakers in making judgments about the priority educational needs of adults in different areas of Colorado. Arranged into 4 major sections, the document presents over 35 statistical tables about Colorado's population size and growth, age and sex characteristics, urban and rural distribution, race and Spanish-origin, family and household size, marital status, household income, educational characteristics, labor force characteristics, and in-migration. The first section provides background information for users of Census and Source Book data. The second section examines Colorado's population as a whole, with comparisons between 1970 and 1980, and between Colorado and nationwide data. The third section allows comparisons to be made within the state, by presenting population characteristics of people living in eight multi-county areas. The appendices include data for each of Colorado's 63 counties and 4 geographic regions, and a sample survey questionnaire. According to the data, two rural regions, the San Luis Valley and the South East, are less affluent than their urban and metropolitan counterparts, with greater proportions of agricultural and government workers, young children and older people, and adults with less than 12 years of schooling.

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Koe

Koeller, Shirley; And Others (1989).  School/Community Interaction.  Social Studies, 80, 1. 

Looks at the way community interaction with students developed from the "The McWhorter Book" project at McWhorter Elementary School (Lubbock, Texas). States that the project was designed to respond to drop-out problems. Preparing advertisements for local businesses helped students develop a deeper understanding of the community and of their value to the community.

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kol

Kolasa, Bernard (1989).  Student Retention and the Omaha Public Schools: Performance and Challenge. 

This study examines patterns of student attrition and retention in the Omaha (Nebraska) Public Schools (OPS). The following dropout characteristics were studied: (1) low socioeconomic status (SES); (2) minority group membership; (3) low achievement test scores; (4) low academic grades; (5) enrollment in a nonacademic (vocational or general) high school program; and (6) problem behaviors, including delinquency and truancy. The following findings are presented: (1) minority group students comprise 32.8 percent of the student population; (2) minority group student attendance rates at traditional schools are markedly higher than at Individualized Study Centers (ISCs), which serve students with behavior problems; (2) parental influence, lack of interest, and poor attendance (in that order) were cited by dropouts as reasons for leaving school; (3) suspension rates for Black and Hispanic American OPS students were higher than national averages; and (4) minority group high school students, with the exception of Asian Americans, demonstrate significantly higher attrition rates than White students. Statistical data are presented in five tables. A list of eight references is appended.

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kom

Kominski, Robert (1988).  Educational Attainment in the United States: March 1987 and 1986.  [Current Population Reports] 

Data from the Current Population Surveys (CPS) conducted by the Bureau of the Census in March 1986 and 1987 are presented, with tabulations and a short discussion of the basic trends provided. Summary data on years of school completed by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin are shown for 1986 and 1987. The detailed tables present data on years of school completed by persons 15-years-old and over by age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, type of residence, region of residence occupation, marital status, and education of spouse. Also, summary data are presented for the 15 largest states and metropolitan areas. The educational level of the adult population continued to move upwards in 1987, continuing the general trend that has been noted consistently in the CPS data since first produced in 1947. Educational attainment in 1987 reached a peak level not only for the entire population, but also for both sexes and White and Hispanic persons. Two appendices are (1) definitions and explanations and (2) source and reliability of estimates. Six appendix tables include information on generalized standard errors for estimated numbers of persons (total or White, Black and other), generalized standard errors of estimated percentages (total or White, Black and other), parameters and factors for calculating approximate standard errors of estimated numbers and percentages, and factors to be applied to standard errors. | [FULL TEXT]

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kor

Korzenny, Felipe; And Others (1983).  Cultural Identification as Predictor of Content Preferences of Hispanics.  Journalism Quarterly, 60 n4 p677-85, 770 Win 1983. 

Concludes that cultural identity does not seem to differentiate newspaper readership or time spent with newspapers among Hispanics.

Korzenny, Felipe; Dollinger, Patricia (1987).  Stranger Ethnicity and Communication. 

A study examined the degree to which members of different ethnic groups--Whites/Anglos, Hispanic/Latinos, Asians, and Blacks--vary in (1) the reasons they adopt for communicating or not communicating with strangers, (2) the situations in which they choose to interact with strangers, and (3) the types of strangers with whom they feel comfortable communicating. Subjects, 237 well-to-do male and female adults living in a large multicultural city on the West Coast and self-identified as to ethnic group, responded to an instrument administered by trained interviewers. Results indicated that Blacks were more likely than other ethnic groups to interact with strangers, and that Asians were the least likely. The four groups did not differ in their reasons for interaction with strangers, which included interest, companionship and help, but rather in their reasons for not interacting, which included shyness and enculturation. Results also indicated that Whites and Hispanics were more likely to communicate with strangers at parties, on vacation, or at bars, but Blacks were more likely to interact with strangers in public places such as stores, the street, and public transportation. As expected, each ethnic group was likely to feel more comfortable communicating with strangers of like ethnicity except for Asians, who were neither more nor less likely to communicate with Asian strangers. Findings suggest that Blacks delineate an outgoing profile, while the Asian profile is reserved and cautious. (A table of data is included, and references are appended.) | [FULL TEXT]

Korzenny, Felipe; Schiff, Elizabeth (1987).  Hispanic Perceptions of Communication Discrimination.  Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 9, 1. 

Telephone interviews with 112 Hispanics gathered information about four dimensions of perceived social discrimination: (1) contexts/situations where Hispanics perceive discrimination to take place; (2) attributes perceived as elicitors of discriminatory behaviors; (3) characteristics of Anglos perceived more likely to discriminate; and (4) behaviors which are interpreted as being discriminatory.

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kow

Kowalski, Bruce W. (1981).  Voluntary Desegregation: Objective Accomplishment and Racial Group Perceptions.  Journal of Negro Education, 50, 2. 

Describes a voluntary desegregation program implemented in West Chester, Pennsylvania. Presents results of a study designed to relate program compliance with parent racial/ethnic group perceptions regarding accomplishments of specific program objectives, including racial balance, provision of remedial services, basic skills centers, and provision of home and school liaison services.

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kra

Kraig, Glen M. (1989).  A Study Comparing the Differences in the Levels of Achievement of Tenth Grade Students in One and Two Parent Homes. 

This study sought to determine if significant differences exist between the degree of academic achievement of 10th grade students who currently reside in one-parent/guardian homes as compared to those who reside in two-parent/guardian homes when students are grouped by sex, total family income, and ethnicity. Academic success was determined by the mean scores on the California Test of Basic Skills in the areas of total reading, total language, and total mathematics. The data were collected at Fontana High School in Fontana, California using the entire population of 10th grade students for whom test scores were available and who were enrolled in a regular English class. The results indicated that: (1) when family income was controlled, there were no significant differences in academic achievement between male and female students of white or Hispanic origin; (2) there were no significant differences in academic achievement levels for white or Hispanic students residing in one- or two-parent families; (3) family income level was a significant factor in the academic achievement of Hispanic students with the exception of females from a one-parent family; and (4) family income was a significant factor in the academic achievement of white males who resided in a two-parent family, wherein the higher income students outperformed the lower income students.

Krajewski, Robert J.; Simmons, Barbara J. (1988).  The Role of Colleges of Education in the Recruitment and Retention of Minorities.  Teacher Education & Practice, 4, 1. 

If minorities are to participate fully in education, universities and colleges of education must take specific, concerted steps to recruit and retain minority students. This article outlines strategies colleges of education should follow to achieve this goal and offers suggestions and recommendations.

Krajewski, Robert; And Others (1988).  University-School Relationships: Building Bridges for Minorities.  Teacher Education & Practice, 4, 1. 

This is the transcript of a roundtable discussion between James Vasquez, superintendent of the Edgewood Independence School District (TX) and James Wagener, President, University of Texas at San Antonio. Their conversation centers on ways in which schools and universities may cooperate to improve education for minorities and to encourage them to pursue higher education.

Kranau, Edgar J.; And Others (1982).  Acculturation and the Hispanic Woman: Attitudes toward Women, Sex-Role Attribution, Sex-Role Behavior, and Demographics.  Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 4, 1. 

Investigates 60 female Hispanics to determine the relationship of acculturation to the variables of attitudes toward women, sex-role attribution, sex-role behaviors, and demographics. Positively correlates greater acculturation with more liberal attitudes toward women, single status, more education and younger age. Negatively correlates greater acculturation with more feminine household behaviors.

Kraus, Richard; Lewis, Charles (1989).  Research Related to Ethnic and Racial Minorities in Urban Recreation.  Leisure Information Quarterly, 15, 3. 

This article examines research related to the recreational needs and participation patterns of ethnic and racial minority groups in cities in the United States.

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kre

Kreuze, Jerry G.; Payne, Deborah D. (1989).  The Learning Style Preferences of Hispanic and Anglo College Students: A Comparison.  Reading Improvement, 26, 2. 

Compares preferred learning styles of Anglo and Hispanic college students. Finds no significant differences in learning style preferences. Argues that while no particular teaching methods are especially appropriate for Hispanics, teachers should be aware of the mixture of learning styles and use a variety of teaching methods.

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kri

Krivo, Laura J.; Mutchler, Jan E. (1986).  Housing Constraint and Household Complexity in Metropolitan America: Black and Spanish-Origin Minorities.  Urban Affairs Quarterly, 21, 3. 

Examined the effects of residential segregation, income, new housing, and housing vacancy on a measure of the tendency for adults to live in households in which they are nonnuclear members. Results suggested that factors other than choice help to determine the household structure of Black and Hispanic populations.

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kuc

Kucer, Stephen B. (1989).  Understanding Literacy Lessons: Do Teachers and Students Talk the Same Language? 

This study examined the relationship between teacher and student understandings. Subjects consisted of 26 third-grade students, of whom six were chosen for case studies, in a school in a large metropolitan area. All students were Latino, bilingual, and from working class homes. Modified cloze lessons were taught, and three types of data were collected with regard to the lessons: video tapes and field notes of the lessons observed, literacy artifacts, and teacher and student interviews. The focus of the data analysis was to discern how the various participants in the lesson (students, teachers, and ethnographer) understood the activity and the degree to which these understandings were shared across participants. Field notes indicated that the only issue which emerged was that at times the children had difficulty in using the information presented after the blank to judge the meaningfulness of their responses. Literacy artifacts indicated that 93% of all student responses were meaningful. Student and teacher interviews indicated there was a large degree of misunderstanding between the teacher and the case-study students. It was the nature of school as an institution in general, and the lack of authenticity in the lesson in particular, which accounted for the discrepancy between teacher and student understandings. (Four tables of data and two figures are included, and 36 references are attached.) | [FULL TEXT]

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kuh

Kuhlman, Natalie A. (1980).  Writing Level Competencies of Hispanic Students. 

A pilot study was conducted to identify a viable method for analyzing the distinctive characteristics of the English writing of Hispanic students while retaining the consistency of diagnosis of the holistic method. Forty Hispanic students from the eighth and tenth grades were chosen as subjects. Some were fluent in both languages; others were limited in English with strong Spanish skills. A control group of 48 monolingual English speakers at both grade levels was also included. Subjects were asked to write an essay of one to five paragraphs on a choice of four topics. Analysis of the essays was based on two scoring systems: a holistic system which used a 6-point scale, and an itemized or analytic scoring system that was based on a 12-point scale. The itemized system, developed by the researcher, reflected an emphasis on the structure and organization of the essay with points earned or taken away in such areas as introduction, body, conclusion, syntax, devices, format, and fluency. Eighth grade Hispanic students scored an average of 2.45 on the holistic scale, and the English-speaking students scored an average of 4.05. Tenth grade Hispanics averaged 4.15 compared with 4.60 for the control group. Under the itemized scoring system, eighth grade Hispanics averaged 7.9 compared to the control group's 12.96; tenth grade Hispanics averaged 12.15 compared to the control group's 11.25. Although the holistic scoring system did not provide sufficient information for diagnosing writing skills for Hispanics, it did indicate, however, that the itemized scale had validity in terms of consistency while also providing more specific information for the teacher.  | [FULL TEXT]

  • image for prev
  • image for next
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Kul

Kulick, Edward; Hu, P. Gillian (1989).  Examining the Relationship between Differential Item Functioning and Item Difficulty. College Board Report No. 89-5. 

The relationship of differential item functioning (DIF) to item difficulty on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) was examined, based on data from nine recent administrations of the test from June 1986 through December 1987. This pool of information includes item statistics on 765 verbal and 540 mathematical items computed for subgroups of White, Hispanic, Black, Asian American, male, and female examinees. In general, item difficulty is related to DIF. The nature of the relationship appears to be independent of the choice of DIF indices (either the Mantel-Haenszel or the standardization approach). The relationship was not dependent on test form. However, the relationship was dependent on the particular group comparison and on both the test sections and the item type being analyzed. The relationship was strong for each of the racial and ethnic group contrasts (in which Black, Hispanic, and Asian American examinees were compared in turn with White examinees), but was weak for the female and male examinee contrast. The relationship also appeared stronger on the verbal than on the mathematical sections. The relationship is such that more difficult items tended to exhibit positive DIF (the DIF favored the focal group over the White reference group). On the verbal sections, only the reading comprehension item type failed to exhibit a strong relationship. An index of the relative difference in omit rates between groups matched in ability correlated very highly (negatively) with DIF. Although DIF and this latter index are mathematically dependent measures, it was proposed that the latter index may be partly responsible for the relationship between DIF and item difficulty. Hispanic and Black focal groups tended to omit differentially less than did the White reference groups; for Asian Americans the opposite held. Eight figures and 17 data tables are provided.

  • image for prev
  • image for bottom
  • image for top

Email this page

Enter recipient's email address:
Enter your name (optional):
Enter your email address (optional):
Send this page.

Contact Us

Enter your name:
Enter email address (if you have one):
Send us your comments.

Valid XHTML 1.0 StrictValid CSS!

2008-09-02T14:51-07:00