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Bilingual Education | F
Facella, Melissa A.; Rampino, Kristen M.; Shea, Elizabeth K. (2005). Effective Teaching Strategies for English Language Learners Bilingual Research Journal, 29, 1.
This paper provides effective strategies for early childhood teachers to use with children who are English language learners (ELLs). The strategies were compiled from interviews with 20 early childhood educators from two culturally and linguistically diverse communities in Massachusetts. Emphasis was placed on the strategies that the greatest number of teachers from both school districts identified as effective. These teaching strategies seek to help ELL students make connections between content and language, and support their communication and social interactions.
Farghal, Mohammed; Haggan, Madeline (2006). Compliment Behaviour in Bilingual Kuwaiti College Students International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 9, 1.
The analysis of compliment responses in a number of languages has attracted a growing research interest and information is already available on how native speakers of English and Arabic respond. This allows for the prediction of certain cross-linguistic pragmatic differences that might characterise compliment responses in the case of Arabic-speaking EFL students. Rather than engage in speculation on the matter, the present study investigates this empirically by examining English compliments paid by Kuwaiti undergraduates to their peers and the responses these elicited. The corpus comprised 632 compliment responses, almost two thirds of which were in English, the remainder being nonverbal, Arabic or bilingual. Analysis was carried out to establish frequencies of simple (a single illocution) and complex (two or more illocutions) responses, the types and frequencies of different illocutions, and the influence of native language norms of expression. Results showed the latter to be very strong, detracting from the authentic nature of English responses. Discussion explores the cultural and linguistic bases underlying such responses. It is pointed out that such an analysis provides useful information for cross-linguistic pragmatics and foreign language pedagogy.
Feinberg, Rosa Castro (2002). Bilingual Education: A Reference Handbook. Contemporary Education Issues.
This book describes the evolution of bilingual education in the United States, emphasizing its relationship to educational and civil rights reform. Federal, state, and district policies affecting the implementation of bilingual programs are identified, along with related legal, political, demographic, and economic factors and controversies. International comparisons of bilingual education programs illustrate additional types of language education and policies that incorporate diverse groups into mainstream society. Eight chapters include the following: (1) "Introduction: What Is Bilingual Education?" (e.g., English language instruction, indigenous students, and submersion); (2) "Chronology: The Evolution of Teacher Education"; (3) "Local Bilingual Education Policies and Curriculum" (e.g., characteristics of language minority students, funding, and two-way programs); (4) "State Policies and Bilingual Education" (e.g., state action in education, bridge programs, and state profiles); (5) "Bilingual Education and Federal Law" (e.g., federal authorization, federal incentives, and federal requirements or prohibitions); (6) "Politics and the Challenge of Linguistic Diversity" (e.g., immigration, school finance reform, and identity politics); (7) "Directory of Agencies and Organizations Associated with Bilingual Education"; and (8) "Print and Nonprint Resources" (annotated bibliographies). (Chapters contain references.)
Feng, Anwei (2005). Bilingualism for the Minor or the Major? An Evaluative Analysis of Parallel Conceptions in China International Journal of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism, 8, 6.
This paper is an analysis of two conceptions of bilingualism that exist in parallel in China. One is traditional bilingualism referring to the use of a native minority language and standard Chinese by minority groups and the other, seen as bilingualism with modern characteristics, is a modern-day phenomenon in which the majority Han group aspire to produce bilinguals with a strong competence in mother tongue Chinese and a foreign language, primarily English, by using Chinese and the foreign language as mediums of instruction in teaching school subjects. The focus of the analysis is on the latter for the simple reason that current literature on the new phenomenon is mostly available only in Chinese. An equally important aim of this paper is to explore the impact of the new phenomenon on minority education and to examine the reason why this impact is largely ignored in bilingualism discussions, despite obvious consequences with respect to ethnic identity, personality development and academic performance of minority students. Thus, the traditional conception is briefly reviewed at the start.
Feng, Yuan (2005). The Similarities and Differences between the Goals of Bilingual Education in China and the United States [Online Submission]
This paper studies the similarities and differences between the goals of bilingual education in China and the United States. China and the U. S. have similar purposes in providing bilingual education to language minorities at the elementary-secondary school level. The Americans use bilingual education as a remedy, but most Chinese treat it as a tool for tangible interests. American colleges and universities provide monolingual instruction only, but their Chinese counterparts are promoting bilingual instruction today. Many have considered American bilingual education a failure. The validity of China's collegiate bilingual instruction is under debate. More research work must be done before we learn how bilingual education may be efficiently and effectively provided to different groups with various educational needs. | [FULL TEXT]
Fernandez, Roy Ceferino (2000). "No Hablo Ingles": Bilingualism and Multiculturalism in Preschool Settings. Early Childhood Education Journal, 27, 3.
Discusses the role and components of both bilingualism and multiculturalism in preschool settings. Notes implications for the preparation of teachers and suggests strategies that preschool administrators could utilize in meeting needs of bilingual communities.
Fernandez-Viader, Maria del Pilar; Fuentes, Mariana (2004). Education of Deaf Students in Spain: Legal and Educational Politics Developments Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 9, 3.
This article examines the legal instruments and educational politics affecting deaf persons' educational rights in Spain. We present a historical view of deaf education in Spain before and after the Congress of Milan (1880) and then introduce educational legislation and practices in recent decades. At present, Spanish legislation is moving toward recognition of sign languages and the suitability of bilingual education for deaf students at all educational levels. This is a consequence of taking into account the low academic achievement of two generations of deaf students educated in a monolingual model. Bilingual projects are now run throughout Spain. We emphasize that efforts must be made in the legal sphere to regulate the way in which professionals who know sign language and Deaf culture--teachers, interpreters, deaf adult models--are incorporated in bilingual deaf schools.
Ferrer, Ferran (2000). Languages, Minorities and Education in Spain: The Case of Catalonia. Comparative Education, 36, 2.
Examines Catalan's remarkable revival in Catalonia (Spain) in the past 20 years. Discusses the 1978 referendum designating "autonomous communities," their languages having co-official status with Spanish; increases in Catalan usage in many sectors and among the young; Catalan usage in education; and challenges related to bilingual education, cross-cultural issues, rights of Spanish-speaking students, and telecommunications technology.
Fiedler, Barbara Casson (2001). Considering Placement and Educational Approaches for Students Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 34, 2.
This article discusses placement and educational approaches for students with hearing impairments including what the law provides, what students need, what conflicts exist, and implications for practice. The major principles of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1997 amendments) are summarized. A continuum of placement options is explained as are three educational approaches--oralism, bilingual-bicultural, and total communication.
Fillerup, Michael (2000). Racing against Time: A Report on the Leupp Navajo Immersion Project.
This paper describes a federally funded language preservation program at Leupp Public School, part of Flagstaff (Arizona) Unified School District but located on the Navajo Reservation. Funded in 1997 for 5 years, this schoolwide project is designed to help elementary students become proficient speakers, readers, and writers of Navajo while enhancing their English language skills and preparing them to meet state academic standards. The program combines Navajo immersion with English-as-a-second-language inclusion, literacy initiatives, sheltered English/Navajo, parental involvement, and take-home technologies. Academic content and state standards are initially presented from a Navajo perspective via four global themes with a unifying concept of "hozho" or "peace, beauty, and harmony." By fall 2000, the immersion program had been implemented in grades K-2 and plans for a school-based cultural center had been presented to the school district. This paper examines the need for the program and how it was developed with staff, parental, and community involvement; presents a program overview; describes the Navajo culture-based curriculum; and discusses some of the inherent challenges in developing and sustaining a language preservation program based upon a Navajo-specific curriculum in the English-only era of high-stakes testing. | [FULL TEXT]
Fitts, Shanan (2006). Reconstructing the Status Quo: Linguistic Interaction in a Dual-Language School Bilingual Research Journal, 30, 2.
This paper investigates how bilingualism is understood and practiced by adults and students in a dual-language elementary school. In this dual-language program, native English speakers and native Spanish speakers receive language and content instruction in both languages in linguistically integrated settings. I examine the participants' use of "tactics of intersubjectivity" to understand how children use their two languages to ally themselves with and distance themselves from particular people, groups, and linguistic varieties. I ultimately argue that, while the program model is fundamentally based on the idea of the separation of languages and "parallel monolingualism", it does offer students opportunities to explore linguistic forms and their attendant social meanings. .
Fitzgerald, Jill; Garcia, Georgia Earnest; Jimenez, Robert T.; Barrera, Rosalinda (2000). How Will Bilingual/ESL Programs in Literacy Change in the Next Millennium? Reading Research Quarterly, 35, 4.
Presents three short essays on how bilingual/ESL programs in literacy will change in the next millennium. Discusses particular future reading instruction practices in two-way bilingual programs; what literacy instruction would look like based on second-language theory and bilingual research; and pressing needs in the literacy education of bilingual/ESL students.
Fix, Michael; Passel, Jeffrey S. (2003). U.S. Immigration: Trends and Implications for Schools.
This paper highlights three major aspects of recent trends in immigration and their impact on schools: high sustained flows, growing geographic dispersal, and an increase in undocumented immigration. It focuses on such topics as who comes to the United States (legal, humanitarian, and undocumented immigrants); demographic context (income level and wages and new immigration growth centers); the legal status of immigrants (dispersal of undocumented population, growth in the limited English proficient, or LEP, population, LEP immigrants are poorer on average, and children of immigrants and LEP children are concentrated in metro areas); immigrant students and English (immigrant children are a rising share of students, immigrant children are increasingly poor but trend reverses in late 1990s, and Spanish is increasingly prevalent and showing sharp increases in the 1990s); LEP declines by generation, with second generation LEP remaining high; more LEP children are native than foreign born; LEP students attend linguistically segregated schools; Hispanics and Asians are more likely to be in linguistically segregated schools; LEP children may not have parental English resources; No Child Left Behind Act grants to states; and school versus U.S. Census data. | [FULL TEXT]
Flores, Belinda Bustos (2001). Thinking Out of the Box: One University's Experience with Foreign-Trained Teachers. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 9, 18.
Analyzes the experiences of one Texas university with the integration of legally residing foreign-trained Mexican teachers in their bilingual teacher education program. The preliminary analysis reveals that a university can assist in the integration of foreign-trained teachers, but that thinking "out of the box" to alleviate the teacher shortage requires a dedicated effort.
Flores, Belinda Bustos (2001). Bilingual Education Teachers' Beliefs and Their Relation to Self-Reported Practices. Bilingual Research Journal, 25, 3.
Surveys of 176 bilingual preK-5 teachers in San Antonio (Texas) schools investigated bilingual teachers' beliefs about the nature of knowledge and the influence of those beliefs on teaching practices. Respondents had specific beliefs about how bilingual children learn, and their beliefs were influenced by prior experiences, especially professional teaching experiences.
Flores, Belinda Bustos; Keehn, Susan; Perez, Bertha (2002). Critical Need for Bilingual Education Teachers: The Potentiality of "Normalistas" and Paraprofessionals. Bilingual Research Journal, 26, 3.
A case study examined a Texas bilingual teacher education program that recruited local paraprofessionals and Mexican teachers (normalistas). Interviews, writing samples, and observations of seven students revealed that normalistas were open to seeing merit in U.S. educational methods, while paraprofessionals began to question the deficit model pervasive in the schools in which they had worked.
Flores, Susana Y.; Murillo, Enrique G., Jr. (2001). Power, Language, and Ideology: Historical and Contemporary Notes on the Dismantling of Bilingual Education. Urban Review, 33, 3.
Situates the politics of language surrounding the passage of California's Proposition 227, discussing historical and contemporary conditions leading to the recent dismantling of bilingual education. Reviews the dynamics of power, language, and ideology from precolonial times until the present, and uses them to suggest that the hegemonic bond of language is a continual thread that carries over to the new millennium.
Flores, Will A.; Arrasmith, Dean G. (2001). The Traits of Effective Spanish Writing = Las caracteristicas de la buena escritura en espanol. Second Edition.
This English-Spanish language report includes the rationale for creating an assessment model for Spanish writing, offering an overview of the components of high quality assessment for any subject area, particularly Spanish writing. It presents the characteristics of effective Spanish writing, rubrics for scoring student performance based on the characteristics, and student writing samples (all from the work of bilingual and English as a Second Language teachers in the field). The 13 sections look at the following: "Introduction"; "Changing Demographics"; "The History of Bilingual Education"; "The Benefits of Spanish Language Instruction"; "Characteristics of High-Quality Assessment"; "Assessment Options for Spanish Speaking ELLs"; "A Better Option: Dual Assessment Development";"The Traits of Effective Spanish Writing: Las caracteristicas"; "How the Spanish Traits Relate to the English 6+1 Traits"; "Rubricas para la evaluacion"; "Student Writing Samples" (tema e ideas, organizacion, tono y estilo, uso del lenguaje, fluidez, and gramatica y ortografia); "Classroom Applications and Strategies for Teaching Spanish Writing"; and "Conclusion." The appendixes present scoring guides for sample papers and project methodology. | [FULL TEXT]
Flores-Duenas, Leila (2005). Lessons From La Maestra Miriam: Developing Literate Identities through Early Critical Literacy Teaching Journal of Latinos and Education, 4, 4.
In the 1990s, teacher educators began to hear about the importance of studying and reporting on "best practices" in literacy learning to narrow the gap between high-and low-performing students. Of the studies produced, few of them looked to research in areas such as bilingual education for guidance on how to improve teaching reading for Spanish-dominant children. This year-long, qualitative study attempts to offer insight about how an exemplary Mexican bilingual teacher mobilizes her 1st-grade students' linguistic and cultural resources in Spanish to develop critical literacy skills that foster healthy literate identities and classroom communities for these Latino students.
Foley, Douglas (2005). Enrique Trueba: A Latino Critical Ethnographer for the Ages Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 36, 4.
This article chronicles the contributions of Enrique (Henry) Trueba to the field of educational anthropology, highlighting his emergence as one of the foremost critical ethnographers of his time, his collaborative manner of working, mentorship of colleagues, and "pedagogy of hope." Trueba skillfully combined ideas from Vygotsky, the Spindlers, and Freire into a perspective that seeks to build culturally and linguistically relevant learning contexts for Latino/a immigrant children. His many publications address issues of inequality and ways to empower students, parents, and communities.
Fradd, Sandra H.; Lee, Okhee; Sutman, Francis X.; Saxton, M. Kim (2001). Promoting Science Literacy with English Language Learners through Instructional Materials Development: A Case Study. Bilingual Research Journal, 25, 4.
Three studies examining the interrelationship of science, language, and cognitive strategies involved limited-English-speaking and mainstream fourth-grade students and culturally congruent teachers. Findings indicate that integrating science inquiry with literacy development required an explicit-to-inquiry continuum for promoting science inquiry, scaffolding to make the inquiry process explicit and accessible, and development of appropriate materials.
Francis, Norbert (2002). Modular Perspectives on Bilingualism. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 5, 3.
This research review traces the current discussion on models of bilingualism to the contributions of Vygotsky and Luria. Proposes that a modular approach to studying the different aspects of bilingual development promises to chart a course toward finding a broader common ground around research findings and interpretations that appear to be irreconcilable.
Francis, Norbert; Reyhner, Jon (2002). Language and Literacy Teaching for Indigenous Education: A Bilingual Approach. Bilingual Education and Bilingualism.
This book presents a proposal for the inclusion of indigenous languages in the classroom. Based on fieldwork in the United States and Mexico, it explores ways in which the cultural and linguistic resources of indigenous communities can enrich the language and literacy program. There are nine chapters in two parts. Part 1, "A Survey of Indigenous Languages in Education in the Americas," includes: (1) "Prospects for Learning and Teaching Indigenous Languages"; (2) "State of the Languages"; and (3) "Language Policy and Language Planning: The Role of the School and Indigenous Language Literacy." Part 2, "Curriculum and Materials, Classroom Strategies," includes: (4) "Promoting Additive Bilingual Development"; (5) "The Bilingual Classroom"; (6) "Biliteracy: Teaching Reading and Writing in the Indigenous Language"; (7) "Language Assessment"; (8) "Conclusion: A Teaching Model for Realizing the Potential of Additive Bilingualism"; and (9) "Resources for Schools and Communities." Five appendixes contain indigenous stories, sample cloze passages, the UNESCO 1953 Declaration on the use of vernacular languages in education, and sample plates from a bilingual interview.
Franquiz, Maria E.; Reyes, Maria de la Luz (2000). Examining the Relationship among Opportunity, Inclusion, and Choice. Primary Voices K-6, 8, 4.
Describes the multicultural language practices used at Western Hills Elementary School in Denver, Colorado. Discusses social and cultural dimensions of learning and their relationships to second language acquisition. Describes exploring cultural diversity through school-wide themes, encouraging second-language development for teachers and students, teacher "teaming" and forming friendships across language borders.
Freeland, Jane (2003). Intercultural-Bilingual Education for an Interethnic-Plurilingual Society? The Case of Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast. Comparative Education, 39, 2.
Latin American models of "intercultural-bilingual" education may be inappropriate for multilingual, interethnic regions such as Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast, where five indigenous and Afro-Caribbean minorities interact in overlapping territories. Examination of one such program and of Coast people's complex linguistic and cultural practices suggests that such programs' efficacy in promoting cultural/linguistic maintenance and "interculturality" is limited by their binary conception and design.
Freeman, David E.; Freeman, Yvonne S. (2000). Teaching Reading in Multilingual Classrooms.
This book focuses on teaching reading in a multilingual setting. The book introduces core principles of effective reading practice, beginning with a definitive checklist grounded in a theory of reading. As the chapters progress, each item on the checklist is explained and illustrated in detail with examples of eight exemplary teachers who work effectively with mainstream, English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL), and bilingual students. Daily schedules, sample strategies, and lists of literature at different grade levels--both elementary and secondary -- help readers put the principles into practice. Chapter titles refer to understanding, valuing, supporting, promoting, and assessing reading, as well as talking, writing, and answering hard questions about reading. In the final chapter, some of the difficult questions teachers, administrators, and parents raise about reading are addressed, including questions about phonics and phonemic awareness. Several charts appear throughout the text. Professional and literature references are included at the end of the book. An index is appended.
Freeman, David E.; Freeman, Yvonne S. (2001). Between Worlds: Access to Second Language Acquisition. Second Edition.
This book purports to expand the learning potential of students by considering how the world inside the school interacts with outside social contexts. As the schooling of English language learners becomes ever more complex and political, this book has been updated in a second edition to address new trends and issues related to the teaching of multilingual students. The book features the following: a clear, accessible review of second language acquisition theories and research in the fields of second language acquisition, bilingual education, and second language teaching methodology; new insight into the social and cultural factors that affect second language acquisition and related current research theory; discussion of the role of grammar in second language acquisition; the content teachers need for certification to teach second language learners; practical classroom examples, strategies, thematic units, student work, and language stories; ideas for promoting cultural sensitivity; logical organization that could easily serve as a basis for a course syllabus; and practical suggestions and useful resources for working with parents of language minority students. This book is intended for classroom teachers of all levels who are working with a few or many second language students. It is also written for second language educators, including those working with pre-service or in-service teachers as well as college instructors of undergraduate and graduate courses in second language, cross cultural communication, and bilingual education. A subject index and an appendix of Web sites for English-as-a-Second-Language teachers are included.
Freeman, David; Freeman, Yvonne (2000). Meeting the Needs of English Language Learners. Talking Points, 12, 1.
Presents key questions reflecting research in first/second language acquisition and whole language principles: is curriculum organized around "big" questions?; are students involved in authentic reading and writing?; are students given choices?; is content meaningful?; do students work collaboratively?; do students read, write, speak, and listen during learning?; are students' primary languages and cultures valued?; and do learning activities build self-esteem?
Freeman, Rebecca (2000). Contextual Challenges to Dual-Language Education: A Case Study of a Developing Middle School Program. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 31, 2.
Describes how a team of urban middle school educators developed a dual-language program to address the needs of their low-income, predominantly Puerto Rican students. Demonstrates how the structural, sociolinguistic, and ideological context influenced the way that this bilingual program functioned on the local level, challenging the dichotomous thinking that characterizes most discussions of bilingual education.
Freeman, Yvonne S.; Mercuri, Sandra; Freeman, David E. (2001). Keys to Success for Bilingual Students with Limited Formal Schooling. Bilingual Research Journal, 25, 1-2.
A bilingual teacher in a multiage 4th-6th-grade classroom has met the special academic needs of limited-English-speaking migrant students who immigrated from Mexico with little previous schooling. Her strategies and techniques include an accepting classroom environment, high expectations for every student, building on student background knowledge and experience, and use of culturally relevant materials.
Friedenberg, Joan E. (2002). The Linguistic Inaccessibility of U.S. Higher Education and the Inherent Inequity of U.S. IEPs: An Argument for Multilingual Higher Education. Bilingual Research Journal, 26, 2.
Suggests abandoning the inequitable practice of requiring language-minority and international students to demonstrate English proficiency before pursuing a U.S. college degree. Proposes a model that incorporates multilingual student recruitment, use of sheltered techniques and supported academic instruction, English for academic purposes (rather than current intensive English programs), and student support services.