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Bilingual Education | K
Kaagan, Stephen S. (1974). Executive Initiative Yields to Congressional Dictate: A Study of Educational Renewal, 1971-72.
Renewal was initially designed to consolidate certain of the Office of Education's categorical discretionary programs and put them to work in a limited number of local sites where educational needs of the Country were most pronounced. The Objectives of Renewal were later expanded to include specific performance or achievement gains by children from low income families, an information base sufficient for 100 percent of OE's decisionmaking needs and 50 percent of State needs, and a substantial degree of communication with local districts about promising innovations. In 1972, Renewal reached an impasse of sizable dimension -- Congressional opposition enacted into law. In this study, the author interviewed about 40 people, who were actors in the Renewal story, to determine the reasons for the demise of the endeavor. Interviewees came from three different segments of the education community: (1) the Office of Education and the Office of the Secretary of HEW, (2) Congress menbers and staff, and (3) education associations, and State and local education agencies. (Parts of pages 1 and 79 may reproduce poorly.) | [FULL TEXT]
Kabotie, Michael; And Others (1970). Community Background Reports: Second Mesa Day School; Hopi-Mishongnovi, Shipaulovi, Shungopavy Villages and Sunlight Baptist Mission. National Study of American Indian Education, Series I, No. 12, Final Report.
As part of the National Study of American Indian Education, this paper is a community and educational background report of the Hopi villages found on Second Mesa, Arizona. The report includes location and climate of the villages, village structure, population, economic factors, social and political structure, dress, transportation, and recent developments. The educational description includes the discussions of the physical plant, finance and administration, school staff, students, curriculum, new education programs, and school and community attitudes.
Kahn, Paul (1976). College Bound Program, 1975-76.
The College Bound Program was designed to help educationally disadvantaged and linguistically isolated 9th to 12th grade pupils improve their skills in reading and mathematics. Students were exposed to 40 minutes of daily instruction, five days per week, for a full year in both subject areas. Each day's exposure was remedial in orientation and served to supplement regular or tax-levy teaching. Instruction for all pupils was individualized, utilizing either standardized achievement or criterion-referenced instruments for diagnosis and evaluation. Instructional prescriptions to correct deficits were either commercial or teacher-prepared. Major findings of the program evaluation were: (1) students in grades 9 through 12 showed highly significant gains in both reading and mathematics, and (2) the bilingual students who were administered the criterion-referenced tests failed to realize the criterion level of mastery of at least five instructional objectives in both reading and mathematics. Among the factors that may have been contributed to the positive results of the program may be the use of individualized instruction as the chief teaching method, and the use of a diagnostic-prescriptive approach. | [FULL TEXT]
Kaldor, Susan (1976). Issues for Language Planning in Australia. Linguistic Communications: Working Papers of the Linguistic Society of Australia, No. 16.
While much attention has been given to the language problems of newly developing nations and to the various phases of planned language development such as graphization, standardization and modernization, not enough attention has been given to language planning that would serve the needs of minority groups in nations such as Australia where the national language, English, is a well-developed one. This paper looks at two major language planning programs in Australia: Migrant (Language) Education, or ME, and Aboriginal Bilingual Education, or ABE. The programs are compared to: (1) highlight the increasing dependence of planning authorities on Australian linguistics, (2) pinpoint matters requiring consideration in the early stages of the ABE program, and (3) indicate new directions for ME. The paper includes two tables which outline the programs and an appendix which summarizes points of comparison in terms of: policy goals; implementers; target population; specific aims, such as languages to be taught; sources of concepts, methods, and language materials; the programs in terms of teacher training, material preparation, administration, and language development; problems encountered; products such as teaching materials and linguistic descriptions; and by-products such as increased linguistic awareness, models for language education, changes in research trends, and an increased demand for training in linguistics.
Kalifornsky, Peter (1974). Ch'enlahi Sukdu (The Gambling Story).
This reader is intended for use in a bilingual education setting and is geared toward students who are competent speakers of Tanaina Athabaskan with a knowledge of the writing system. The story is about a favorite Tanaina game and the way it used to be played. The text is in an interlinear translation format and is followed by a free English translation. A table of the Tanaina alphabet and a display of the sound system are appended.
Kalifornsky, Peter (1977). Kahtnuht'ana Qenaga (The Kenai People's Language).
This collection of writings in and about the Kenai language is intended for students at the intermediate or advanced level. The volume is divided into five sections: (1) narratives about Dena'ina life; (2) traditional stories or "sukdu"; (3) prayers and songs; (4) literacy and grammar exercises; and (5) place names. The narratives, stories, prayers and songs are presented with interlinear and free English translations.
Kalmar, Rosalyn Rudolph (1975). The Culver City Schools' Spanish Immersion Program: Low Cost - High Yield. CATESOL Occasional Papers, No. 2.
The Culver City (Calif.) Schools' Spanish Immersion Program (SIP) offers an innovative and highly successful approach to the development of proficiency in a foreign language in the elementary grades. This approach differs from most bilingual programs in that for the first two years the students are completely immersed in Spanish. When the students reach second grade, an hour a day of English instruction is added to the program. Additional instruction in English is added each year until, by sixth grade, instruction time in the two languages will be approximately equal. Begun in 1971, the program is aimed primarily at the native English-speaking child, although a few Spanish-speaking children are also involved. The program has been inexpensive to operate because no extra staff has been required. The regular elementary program is taught by teachers who are themselves bilingual. They just happen to be teaching in Spanish, enabling the students to absorb the language in a way that is natural, almost casual. Test scores indicate that students also do as well as or better than the students in the regular English-speaking classrooms in their mastery of basic skills.
Kaminsky, Sally (1977). Language Dominance, Predicting Oral Language Sequences and Beginning Reading Acquisition: A Study of First Grade Bilingual Children.
Free speech samples and aural cloze test scores were collected from 24 Spanish-surnamed children at the beginning of first grade. The children were members of two classrooms, and each class received instruction from a Spanish-speaking bilingual teacher and an English-speaking monolingual teacher. The children were learning to read in Spanish and English. Spanish and English speech samples, which represented stories formulated by the children from picture books without words, were scored for grammaticality, verb tenses and sentence transformations. The scores were subsequently grouped into high, medium and low language control categories. Spanish and English cloze tests, administered in oral form, were scored for exact matching, appropriate synonyms and retention of appropriate syntax or meaning. A high relationship appeared to exist between the ability to perform predicting tasks, such as the cloze, and high control of language. When these language tasks were compared with teachers' estimates of reading success, a similar relationship existed; i.e., children with high or medium control of Spanish or English were more likely to be reading than children with low language control. Those children who showed adequate control in both languages were reading in both languages. Some children with high control in one language were learning to read in both languages.
Kanayurak, Barbara (1977). Uvva Sailaq (Here's Sailaq).
This illustrated reader in Inupiaq is intended for use in an elementary school bilingual education setting. An English translation is appended.
Kaneshiro, Vera (1977). Teacher's Guide to Accompany "Atightumun Liitusit."
This is an instruction book for the bilingual teacher of the St. Lawrence Island Yupik language. This guide accompanies the beginning primer, "Atightumun Liitusit" ("The First Letters"). Each sound in the language has a definite letter or combination of letters that represents it. The primer presents the alphabet letter by letter, starting with the most common and using only words with letters that have already been presented. Detailed instructions for the presentation of each letter are given.
Kaneshiro, Vera Oovi (1975). Piyaataalghiit (Going for a Walk).
This reader in the Siberian Yupik language is intended for beginning readers on the elementary school level. Pen-and-ink drawings illustrate the text and a free English translation is appended.
Kaneshiro, Vera, Ed. (1973). Lataput (Our Letters).
This volume is an introduction to the St. Lawrence Island Yupik alphabet. Each letter of the alphabet is shown as a capital and as a small letter. Illustrations are given for each letter.
Kaneshiro, Vera, Ed. (1975). Ayumiim Ungipaghaatangi, IV (Stories of Long Ago, IV).
This reader contains five traditional stories in St. Lawrence Island Yupik, and is intended for use in advanced levels of reading instruction. The book is part of a series of Siberian Yupik reading materials. | [FULL TEXT]
Kaneshiro, Vera, Ed. (1975). Ayumiim Ungipaghaatangi, III (Stories of Long Ago, III).
This reader contains three traditional stories in St. Lawrence Island Yupik, and is intended for use in advanced levels of reading instruction. The book is part of a series of Siberian Yupik reading materials. | [FULL TEXT]
Kaneshiro, Vera, Ed. (1975). Pangeghtellghet (Visits to Siberia).
This reader contains eight stories in St. Lawrence Island Yupik about visits by St. Lawrence Island people to their relatives and friends in Siberia over a quarter of a century ago. The book, which is intended for use in advanced levels of reading instruction, is part of a series of Siberian Yupik reading materials. | [FULL TEXT]
Kapfer, Sherry (1972). Report of First National Home Start Conference.
The proceedings of the First National Home Start Conference are presented, based on reports of the sessions and activities of the meeting which was aimed at strengthening and supplementing child development in the home. Topics discussed include parent education, toy lending libraries, use of television, contributions of Head Start, early reading, bilingual education, Montessori resources, nutrition and health, Home Start as a force for social change, and staff roles. Reactions to and evaluation of the conference are also included, along with citations of media coverage, exhibitions, films, the keynote address, and a list of participants. | [FULL TEXT]
Kaplan, Jerome (1973). The Triangle Program Planning Project. Final Report.
A set of guidelines for implementing an individualized mathematics program to be utilized in a bicultural/bilingual setting were developed. At first, the design team sought to develop an all-purpose model complete with specifications of particular objectives, but the team soon recognized this goal to be unrealistic, since different school districts and schools within the districts provide different mixes of bicultural/bilingual needs. As a result, the team came up with a spectrum of bilingual education patterns leading to various possible approaches for the implementation of an individualized mathematics program. These various possible approaches are described in this final report. Discussed in detail are the 3 key phases needed in building a new bilingual/bicultural program, including (1) the planning phase, (2) the development phase, and (3) the implementation phase. This report also discusses the necessary elements needed to implement a mathematics program with a major emphasis on local needs and the major subsystems dealing with the learner, instructional, and support components of the program. The steps for utilizing the model are highlighted, and key recommendations are given for determining need and securing support, establishing curriculum development capability, implementing the program, and evaluating and revising the program design.
Kaplan, Leonard, Ed. (1979). Some Views on Bilingual Education. Survival Talk for Educators. Journal of Teacher Education, 30, 4.
Differing views on the importance of bilingual education are presented.
Kaplan, Robert B. (1971). Composition at the Advanced Level: A Teacher's Guide to Connected Paragraph Construction for Advanced Level Foreign Students English Record, 21, 4.
Full-Text Availability Options: 3257.
Kaplan, Robert B. (1978). Language and Learning. Babel: Journal of the Australian Federation of Modern Language Teacher's Association, 14, 2.
Kari, James (1973). Navajo Language Bibliography. Preliminary Edition, September 1973. Navajo Reading Study Progress Report No. 22.
Over the years the Navajo language has received more attention than any other American Indian language. The grammatical work represents all traditions in American Indian linguistic research, from the earliest descriptivism to the latest generative grammar. In addition, there exists a large amount of material written in Navajo and a plethora of pedagogically oriented research. With a population of more than 130,000, Navajo has the best chance of survival of any Indian language north of Mexico. Most important, recent years have witnessed the development of a dynamic and professional Navajo bilingual education movement. The involvement of increasing numbers of Navajos in linguistics and language education makes this a field of special theoretical and practical relevance. A preliminary attempt to cover the field of Navajo language research, this bibliography cites 478 references that relate to the study of the Navajo language. Published between 1829 and 1973, these references cover grammatical research; dictionaries; vocabularies; taxonomies; texts; comparative Athapaskan research that includes significant Navajo work; language, culture, and sociolinguistic research; and language pedagogy studies. Also listed are historical and anthropological studies that contain some Navajo language forms. | [FULL TEXT]
Kari, James, Comp. (1977). Dena'ina (Tanaina) Noun Dictionary.
This noun dictionary of the Athapascan language covers all dialects of the Tanaina language of the Cook Inlet region. It has been prepared for the Dena'ina people to help maintain their language and culture. The introduction explains the Dena'ina dialects and the phonological system of the Dena'ina alphabet. The dictionary is organized into semantic categories and most words can be located by thinking about the subject area a word most naturally belongs to. A Dena'ina-English index is appended listing all the Dena'ina entries alphabetically along with the page number on which each word appears in the subject chapters. The dictionary contains 30 chapters and about 5,500 Dena'ina entries. | [FULL TEXT]
Kari, James; Spolsky, Bernard (1973). Trends in the Study of Athapaskan Language Maintenance and Bilingualism. Navajo Reading Study Progress Report No. 21.
This report discusses trends in the study of Athapaskan, concentrating on language maintenance and bilingualism. It presents both the potential richness and the actual poverty of studies of sociolinguistic aspects of the Athapaskan languages. Noted are two trends--(1) There is a greater interest among linguists in the studies of language in use: studies of context, of diversity, and of the sociological aspects of language which are no longer considered uninteresting; and (2) There is evidence of an increasing sense of responsibility toward the speakers of American Indian languages. The report anticipates rapid advances in the study of Athapaskan language maintenance and bilingualism. | [FULL TEXT]
Karmun, Mamie (1977). Ipnatchiami (Stories About Deering).
Intended for use in a bilingual education program, this document is printed in both Inupiat and English. It is a collection of 32 very short tales about life in Deering, Alaska, and was developed and prepared by Marie Karmun, an Inupiat language teacher. It is printed in large type, written in simple words, and illustrated. Most of the stories are presented from a child's point of view. Two of the stories tell of a landing field that was built near the village and of an airplane whose parts first came by ship and then were assembled. Other stories describe artifacts and fossils found in the area. The children also tell of making noise outside of a newlywed couple's home with the hope they will be given candy so they'll go away. Some of the tales are concerned with the mining history of the area and mention the abandoned town of Candle, an old dredge, and a gold mine that is worked each summer. Other tales deal with roadbuilding, diamond baseball, the supply boat, the railroad, the school, and an old superstition about the devil's light on the mountain.
Kashima, Tetsuden (1979). Washington's Asian American Studies: Today and Tomorrow.
An overview of Asian American studies in the State of Washington is provided in this report. Statistics on the number of Asian students in Washington's schools are used to illustrate the need for Asian American courses at all educational levels. The results of three questionnaires which were distributed to obtain information about respondents' opinions/perceptions of Asian American studies at his or her institution and information about Asian American course offerings and Asian American or related programs are summarized. The responses described came from educators and students in elementary and secondary schools, community colleges, and institutions of higher education. Brief descriptions of multicultural and bilingual courses or programs offered at the various institutions surveyed are also included. It is emphasized that existing programs are too few in number and too limited in scope to meet the needs of the State's Asian American population.
Kaufman, Judith; Zach, Lillian (1972). An Evaluation of the Bilingual Mini-School, J.H.S. 45, Community School District 4. Final Report.
The major instrument employed in the evaluation of the functioning of the bilingual mini-school was an observation schema developed by the evaluators over a two year period. The major purpose of the observation scale was to develop a dynamic feedback system or process. Second, it was felt that it was important to obtain a direct measure of the processes going on in the classroom. In such a way it appeared possible to evaluate pupil learning, teacher and pupil behavior and interaction, methods and techniques employed, and the utilization of paraprofessional time. It was hoped that observations of the teachers associated with the school would occur bi-weekly, where the observers would be in the classroom for an entire instructional period, and that the observations would be representatively placed. In summarizing the results of the evaluation for the 1971-72 academic year, the program has proved successful in many aspects of its functioning, while at the same time not meeting many of the specific objectives of the program. The area which proved most successful was classroom process and progress, which is the most crucial aspect of the program. Pupils learned, were motivated, and demonstrated concrete academic progress. On the other hand the program itself may have been overambitious in stating some of its objectives outside of the framework of the instructional component. | [FULL TEXT]
Keller, Anne; And Others (1978). Bilingual-Bicultural Curriculum for Social Studies: Grade 4.
Designed to assist bilingual teachers in providing a coordinated program of studies for students in the Connecticut Migratory Children's Program and others whose native language is Spanish, this social studies curriculum guide for fourth grade is one of a series for pre-school through fifth grade. The overall focus is on Puerto Rican history and culture, placing development of skills within the context of the experience and social identity of the child. A sequential approach is utilized. The guide contains seven units, related to those in the other fourth grade guides: Connecticut, Puerto Rico, Latin America, Europe, Asia, Eskimos, and American Indians. Appropriate skills are presented in each unit; for example, the skills in the unit on Eskimos are: describing a theory about Eskimo origins; understanding how climate affects social structure by causing migration; comparing different aspects of the Eskimo with the American Indian; describing historical changes affecting Eskimo life-style; understanding Eskimo arts, crafts and religion. Key vocabulary words are listed with each skill. Activities to motivate students to learn each new skill are described. The illustrations provided can be copied for instructional use. Much of the material for the teacher to use in class is given in Spanish.
Keller, Gary D.; Tilis, Howard S. (1979). Final Evaluation of Project Aprende, 1978-79. School District #6 ESEA Title VII Program.
Project Aprende is an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title VII bilingual-bicultural program established in three junior high schools in New York City. The program is intended to supplement and enrich basic tax levy bilingual instructional programs. The program includes five components: bilingual-bicultural instruction in reading, language arts, and selected content areas; a bilingual guidance program; a staff development program; a curriculum development project; and a parent involvement and education program. The program services a limited English speaking group of children and a group of non-Hispanics whose parents expressed an interest in having their children study Spanish as a second language. Students receive content area instruction in their native language and instruction in their second language depending upon need. Subjects such as art, music, and physical education are conducted bilingually. Program evaluation was completed employing classroom observation, questionnaires and pre/postest achievement measures. Data indicated that Project Aprende is functioning as intended. Recommendations are made for improvement of the basically sound program.
Kellerman, Eric (1978). Giving Learners a Break: Native Language Intuitions as a Source of Predictions about Transferability. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 15.
The strategy of "transfer" of native language (NL) items into target language (TL) expressions is considered here to be an active learner strategy dependent on the learner's notion of "distance" between the NL and the TL. Some NL items will be more liable to transfer than others to the extent that they are believed to be less native language-specific. For example, a polysemous lexical item will have a field of meaning in which the "core" meaning may be more likely to be transferred than more idiomatic or figurative meanings. This strategy is evidenced by Dutch learners of English (and German) in their judgments of acceptability of expressions using "break" (or "brechen") where Dutch can use the equivalent "breken."
Kelly, Peter (1977). Focus on Reading Skills--A Report on the 1977 TESOL Convention Babel: Journal of the Australian Federation of Modern Language Teachers' Associations, 13, 2.
A summary of presentations on the teaching of reading skills in English to speakers of other languages. Topics included the focus on different kinds of skills, use of discourse analysis, and reading as realization of an underlying communicative process.
Kern, Ann (1974). MAP: Materials Acquisition Project. CATESOL Occasional Papers, No. 1.
The Materials Acquisition Project was created by the Bilingual Education Programs Branch of the U.S. Office of Education to make available information concerning instructional materials currently published in Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries to teachers of elementary and secondary bilingual-bicultural education classes in the United States. The functions of the project are to: (1) identify and acquire from foreign countries copies of educational materials in Spanish and Portuguese, such as texts, supplements, posters, recordings, slides and tapes, for potential use in American bilingual education programs; (2) field-test materials in elementary and secondary bilingual-bicultural classes; (3) identify comparable concepts in texts in Spanish and Portuguese and in English texts and compile a parallel list of texts; (4) provide for the revision of outstanding materials that require little rewriting to make them relevant to Spanish-speaking students in the United States, and promote the publication of K-6 textbook sets in fine arts, language arts, math, and science; and (5) make information on the project's objectives and operation available. Means of fulfilling each of these functions are described.
Kessler, Carolyn (1972). Syntactic Contrasts in Child Bilingualism.
A Language-research experiment designed to examine the linguistic competence of bilingual Italian-American children demonstrates that structures shared by Italian and English are acquired in approximately the same order and at the same rate, and that the sequencing of specific structures reflects linguistic complexity. Structures appearing in both languages are believed to have a common underlying base and realized by the same set of transformational rules. The definite sequencing evident in child-language acquisition may have implications for second-language acquisition by adults; instructional materials and programs could be established with this in mind.
Kessler, Carolyn; Idar, Imelda (1979). Acquisition of English by a Vietnamese Mother and Child. Working Papers on Bilingualims, No. 18.
A longitudinal study of English acquisition by a Vietnamese mother and her daughter is reported. Subjects of this study are Lan, a young Vietnamese woman in her late twenties, and her daughter Than, who was four years old at the time this study began. Neither knew any English when they resettled in Texas in the summer of 1975 after fleeing from Vietnam in the spring of that year. English acquisition began through interaction with the American family sponsors, with whom they continue to maintain close social ties. Vietnamese continues to be the language of the home, but English is developing through the mother's contacts at work and frequent visits with the American sponsors. Than is enrolled in an English-speaking school. A wide range of syntactic structures are examined; the adult acquisition sequencing of the mother is compared with that of her child. Findings have implications for a theory of language acquisition, both first and second, as well as for pedagogical considerations in teaching English as a second language.
Kessler, Carolyn; Quinn, Mary Ellen (1978). Emergence of Semantic Notions in Child Bilingualism.
In order to examine the emergence of semantic notions and their interaction with the linguistic codes of bilingual children, this paper focuses on acquisition of a semantic field related to Piagetian tasks of conservation. The hypothesis examined in this study states that the manifestation of a concept will occur first in the bilingual's dominant language and only later in the weaker language. Subjects were two groups of Mexican-American children, first graders and sixth graders, bilingual in Spanish and English. In terms of the school setting, the older bilinguals had shifted language dominance from first to second language; the younger group was developmental, but dominant in first language. Using a cross-sectional approach, the study investigated some of the complex interactions between first and second language cognitive development. The view is taken that the manifestation of certain aspects of conceptual development in the bilingual child's two languages does not involve a simple lateral transfer of a particular concept from one language to the other but, rather, that both languages draw from a shared set of linguistic principles and conceptual notions. In addition to a discussion of the theoretical issues, practical implications for assessment and placement of children in bilingual programs are noted.
_____. (1979). Keys to Communication: English for Spanish Speakers. Teacher Edition, Level One.
This text is the first of four levels sequenced as a continuum of language skills for the Spanish speaker of limited English speaking ability in grades six through nine. Levels one and two emphasize oral skills and levels three and four emphasize written skills. The teacher's edition is designed to follow along with and complement exercises included in the student edition. Special instructions are directed to the teacher. Directions in Spanish may serve as a model for the teacher with limited Spanish proficiency. Each of the fourteen units consists of the exercises and glossary included in the student text along with descriptions of: (1) key concepts introduced in the unit; (2) objectives concerning the condition of performance, the resultant behavior, and the criterion level for evaluation; (3) materials or individuals needed to conduct the activities presented in the unit; (4) additional activities to reinforce and extend introduced skills; (5) evaluation tests; and (6) a list of references helpful in preparing the units. Student oral and written exercises are divided into three areas of concentration--oral practice, pronunciation, and structure--and are designed for group and/or individual use. Exercises consist of dialogues, reading selections, and pronunciation and vocabulary drills. | [FULL TEXT]
Khanh-Van, Tran Thi (1976). English-Vietnamese Scientific Terminology for High School and Junior College Students. Book 4: Chemistry = Danh Tu Khoa Hoc Anh-Viet Danh Cho Hoc Sinh Trung Hoc Va Sinh Vien Nam Thu Nhat Dai Hoc. Quyen 4: Hoa Hoc.
Vietnamese students now enrolled in American high schools incur an extremely special need in English. After being taught subject matter disciplines in Vietnamese for many years, and while English is still a foreign language for them, these students are bound to go through two linguistic processes. First, while reading or sitting through lectures conducted in English, they mentally translate ideas into Vietnamese, then think in Vietnamese and reason the Vietnamese way to understand them. Second, when doing homework or trying to say something, they think first in Vietnamese before mentally translating their thoughts into English. To help overcome these and other obstacles an English-Vietnamese scientific terminology series has been produced. This document, the fourth in the series, presents an alphabetical list of chemistry terms in English with corresponding terms in Vietnamese. In the translation of the English terms into Vietnamese, existing Vietnamese equivalents were kept and words based on Sino-Vietnamese linguistic root or outright phonetic transcription were adopted. The document is suitable for high school and college students and for individuals training for paramedical and laboratory occupations.
Khleif, Bud B. (1975). Ethnic Boundaries, Identity, and Schooling: A Socio-Cultural Study of Welsh-English Relations.
This report is concerned with the current Welsh cultural resurgence, with the focus of this resurgence on the Welsh language as a chief determinant of ethnicity, and with the efforts of the Welsh to obtain from those that govern them institutional supports for their language in schools, courts of law, and similar public and official establishments. This study is put in the context of relations with the English, the historical background of the Welsh, and the larger context of autonomist movements in Europe and North America, South America, Asia, and Africa. The questions explored here include: (1) what is the relationship between ethnicity, nationalism, and language; (2) under what circumstances do they fuse into one another; (3) to what extent do they have an underlying unity, yet can be discussed apart; and (4) what accounts for the persistence of ethnicity well into the twentieth century? The report is divided into the following sections: a brief history of European, Celtic, and Welsh nationalism; issues and development in Welsh nationalism; land, language, and community; language versus institutions; the school as an agency of regeneration; and the teaching of history in the schools. Implications of this study in relation to ethnicity, nationalism, and bilingualism are also discussed.
Khubchandani, Lachman (1977). Language Ideology and Language Development: An Appriasal of Indian Education Policy Linguistics, 193, 33-51.
A survey of the current language situation in India from a historical perspective, and an analysis of assumptions concerning language development. It is concluded that present government policies are ambivalent, giving lip-service to narrow definitions of mother tongues while directing resources toward the development of more broadly defined languages.
Khubchandani, Lachman (1978). Languages of Instruction in Plurilingual India. International Review of Education, 24, 3.
In multilingual India each state has the responsibility for providing education and determining the language(s) of instruction. This report describes some of the regional options provided for language(s) of instruction at various grade levels. The use frequency of major languages for university instruction is tabulated from a 1965 report.
Khubchandani, Lachman M. (1972). Planned Change in the Media of Instruction: Problems of Switch-Over Monda lingvo-problemo, 4, 12.
To keep the balance between internal and external needs in a modern world regional languages should be used as the media of instruction at the elementary level. Standardized link languages should be introduced at some point in the secondary level to ease the transition from monolingualism to multilingualism. Available from Humanities Press, Inc., Atlantic Highlands, NJ 07716.
Khubchandani, Lachman M. (1975). Dilemmas of Language Transition: Challenges to Language Planning in India. Topics in Culture Learning, Vol. 3.
This article discusses the language planning problems that India faces. The distribution and usage of the various languages are outlined. There is considerable linguistic heterogeneity, with 80 languages currently being used as media of instruction at least at an elementary level, and 14 languages being used at the secondary level. Since language has become a political issue, there is a need for legislation determining the role of language in public spheres of communication such as education and administration. The main problems revolve around a confrontation between tradition and modernity concerning the role of language in education. The basic issues concern: (1) the objectives of education, (2) the role of language in education, (3) the choice of the medium of instruction, (4) requirements qualifying a language as a medium of instruction, and (5) the pace of change. The established elite generally opposes the use of regional languages and mother tongues as media of instruction; it fears a lowering of standards and wants languages of wider communication for international interaction. Defenders of the use of regional languages are in favor of cultural regeneration and cohesion at a national level. It is suggested that the implementation of bilingual education at the secondary level would contribute to the solution of India's language problems. | [FULL TEXT]
Kim, Robert H. (1978). Understanding Korean People, Language and Culture. Bilingual Education Resource Series.
This manual provides teachers and administrators with information regarding Korean people, language and culture. Discussion of Korean culture includes these topics: (1) social and cultural changes; (2) family structure; (3) holidays and festivals; (4) discipline for children; (5) home customs; (6) educational system; and (7) learning and teaching styles. Characteristics of the Korean language are examined and English and Korean phonology are compared. The problems that Korean children might have with English articles, tenses, singular and plural nouns, auxiliaries, and comparative adjectives and adverbs are reviewed. Strategies for English as a Second Language instruction are offered along with a list of resource materials on ESL and Korean culture. | [FULL TEXT]
_____. (1971). Kindergarten Bilingual Resource Handbook.
This curriculum bulletin has been developed to assist kindergarten teachers who work with bilingual five-year-olds. It contains activities which are appropriate for this age which relate to his cultural background and which deal with concepts within his immediage range of experiences. The handbook includes details on such topics as early childhood education and the bilingual approach, curriculum design, characteristics of the five-year-old, activities of teacher aides, suggestions for bulletin boards and room arrangements, suggested daily schedules and plans, strategies and suggestions, resource and activity units, resource material in Spanish, and the construction of various teaching aids. A bibliography is included.
_____. (1976). Kindergarten Spanish Reading Criterion Referenced Test.
This volume contains criterion referenced reading tests for 12 objectives to be mastered in a Spanish-English bilingual kindergarten. The emphasis is on encoding and decoding tasks, vocabulary development and reading comprehension.
_____. (1976). Kindergarten Spanish Reading. Teacher's Manual.
This is a Spanish reading guide for the bilingual Spanish-English kindergarten teacher. Seventeen learning objectives which should be mastered are contained in the guide, along with learning activities and tests, although four of the tests are still being developed. The emphasis is on encoding and decoding tasks, vocabulary development and comprehension.
King, A. L.; Roberson, Don R. (1979). Project: Ways to Improve Education in Desegregated Schools (WIEDS)--Final Interim Report, June 1, 1978 to November 30, 1979.
The purpose of this project has been to develop an information base about successful desegregation/integration strategies for use in developing a set of models and guidelines to aid schools in planning staff development activities. Part of the development of the data base included interviews with administrators, teachers, students, and parents, and an analysis of selected staff development/inservice education (SD/IE) programs. This report describes the activities undertaken to accomplish the interviews and the analysis of SD/IE programs. Included are data on important desegregation related needs and ways to meet those needs. The need areas include (1) cultural awareness; (2) human relations; (3) curriculum integration; (4) pupil self-concept/motivation/discipline; (5) dropouts/suspensions/expulsions; (6) teaching methods and learning styles; (7) parental involvement; (8) resegregation; (9) segregation within the classroom and extracurricular activities; (10) the relationship between bilingual education and desegregation; and (11) effective SD/IE. Strategies to meet these needs are grouped and analyzed under eight goal areas. | [FULL TEXT]
King, A. Richard (1972). The Northwest Territories May Lead the Nation Northian, 9, 2.
Full-Text Availability Options: 3304.
King, Ann (1975). Sections Bilingues in Somerset (Bilingual Sections in Somerset) System, 3, 1.
Two experimental bilingual classes in French begun in Somerset, Scotland, in September 1973 are described. Included in the course are the study of the language itself and of geography and French civilization through the French language.
King, Ann (1975). The "Section Bilingue" Experiment at Haygrove School Audio-Visual Language Journal, 13, 2.
Describes an experiment in bilingual education whereby two classes, one selective in ability and the other representing varying degrees of ability, were taught Georgraphy through French, as a first step toward French-medium instruction for other subjects.
King, Edith W. (1977). Dealing With Difference: A Guide for Pluralistic Education.
A rationale for pluralistic education is presented in this paper. It discusses the meaning of the cultural, racial, and ethnic aspects of pluralism in American group life. The discussion addresses three issues: the persistence of ethnic groups in American society, the shared heritage of American traditions, and the importance of personal and group identity in the education of every American. Three criteria for pluralistic education or three major underlying assumptions about pluralistic education are delineated. These are: (1) knowledge and understanding of the heritage of other groups that make up the pluralistic culture of Americans, and (3) knowledge and understanding of the relationship between and among people that form and have formed the ethnic groups in the United States. Also presented is the rationale for a coalition of the movements that are represented in pluralistic education, namely, integration, bilingualism, ethnicity, and the women's movement. An annotated bibliography on ethnicity and ethnic heritage studies is included.
King, Paul; King, Eva (1972). Language-Through-Literature; A Literary Language/Language Arts Program for Bilingual Education, ESL and Other Activities in Early Childhood. Books 1 and 2.
This language-through-literature program is designed to be used as a native language program (language arts/reading readiness), as a second language program, or as a combined native and second language program in early childhood education. Sequentially developed over the year and within each unit, the program is subdivided into 14 units of about two weeks duration each. Each daily lesson is 15 to 20 minutes long and is planned for maximum participation by children and a high degree of individualization. The two volumes include 130 lessons focused around 12 selections of childhood literature, 5 lessons of language arts activities for special occasions such as holidays, and about 15 review lessons. The make-up of each story unit provides an introduction outlining the rationale and aims of the unit; suggestions pertaining to the particular unit, such as illustrations, sound effects, and realia; the text of the story and the text and music of the related songs and games in English, Spanish, and Chinese, with samples in French, German, Japanese, and Portuguese; daily lesson plans providing the structure necessary for language development and maximum freedom for the teacher; a set of slides; and a set of master tapes in English, Spanish, and Chinese.
King, Royce (1972). Another Texas First--Bilingual Television Instruction "Carrascolendas" Educational Resources and Techniques, 12, 2.
Hostos Community College offers bilingual health science education in South Bronx, New York.
Kingsbury, Ramona Lee Bent (1974). The Effects of the Las Cruces, New Mexico, Bilingual Program on Selected Aspects of English.
The study ascertained through standardized tests, if a bilingual educational program had an effect on spoken English proficiency of native Spanish speakers in Las Cruces, New Mexico. The sample consisted of 34 fourth grade children enrolled in the Sustained Primary Program for Bilingual Students in the Las Cruces Public School System. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: group I was taught in both English and Spanish; group II was taught in English only. Taken from the same cultural and socioeconomic background, subjects were tested in a quiet room. The methods used to measure English speaking proficiency were the Ammons Quick Picture Vocabulary Test; 3 subtests of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Ability taken from the representational level (Auditory Reception, Auditory Association, and Verbal Expression); and a nonverbal intelligence test (the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale). Mean scores were computed for all tests and groups were compared. To determine the significance of difference between scores, t tests were conducted on all tests. Findings were: (1) no significant differences were found between the 2 groups on English speaking proficiency in auditory reception, auditory association, verbal expression, and on the intelligence test; and (2) significant differences were found on the Ammons Quick Picture Vocabulary Test. English speaking proficiency was depressed for both groups when compared with norms for their chronological age.
Kirkness, Verna J. (1976). Manitoba Native Bilingual Program: A Handbook.
Aims, design, curriculum materials, and evaluation results of a bilingual education pilot project which began in 1971 in several Manitoba schools are presented in this handbook. Designed to instruct native children in their own language, the project was begun to combat high failure and dropout rates among native children being taught wholly in English. The handbook outlines the language shift pattern used during the five-year period from kindergarten one to grade three, beginning with total instruction in the native language and ending with all instruction in English except for a time space allotted for teaching of the native language as a second language. Brief descriptions of the approach used for each year are given, along with a listing of curriculum materials developed to meet the needs of native children as they relate to language and cultural heritage and those commercially developed materials which were also used. Results of an evaluation made during the fourth year of the pilot project are given, showing that attitudinal and self-concept scores were higher for pilot schools and that instructing English as a Second Language is as effective as a total English immersion program. The handbook contains a list of the Manitoba pilot schools and of other information available about the bilingual program.
_____. (1974). [Kit of Materials for Needs Assessment and Evaluation.]
The items included in this kit represent a variety of needs assessment instruments and evaluation designs and methods offered by school districts in their plans for implementation of Article 3.3, Education Code Sections 13344-13344.4, school staff preparation in the history, culture, and current problems of racial and ethnic minorities. Some are appropriate for large districts, some for small. They show diverse thinking about objectives and measurement. They deal variously with the assessment of staff needs, with patterns of attitude and opinion, and with the evaluation of inservice content, presentation methods, and outcomes. Contents include: (1) A Statement on the Goals of Multicultural Education; (2) Form IR-303, Progress Report, School Year 1973-4; (3) Staff Opinion Survey, (4) A Personal Questionnaire for Teachers of Chicano Students (Baldwin Park); (5) Pre-Program Survey of Course Expectations; Post-Course Survey of Expectations--Fulfillment (Santa Cruz); (6) Multicultural Inservice Training Institute Needs Assessment Inventory; Post-Institute Survey (Canada College); (7) Five Questions for Teachers in Evaluating Multicultural Inservice Activities; (8) Evaluation Design for 3.3 Inservice Training Program (Riverside); (9) Design for Evaluation of District Inservice Plan (Fresno); and, (10) Needs Assessment, Objectives, Activities, Assessment-Evaluation | [FULL TEXT]
Kittredge, Michael H. (1978). Newcomer Education at San Francisco's Chinese Education Center English Language Teaching Journal, 32, 3.
The components of newcomer education are explored as they were developed at San Francisco's Chinese Education Center.
_____. (1975). Kivalina Reader.
This elementary reader is written in both English and Inupiat. To avoid interference in reading, it is designed so that the Inupiat text is never directly opposite the English equivalent. The reader describes, in the form of a story about a little boy, the life of Alaska natives near Kivalina. The text is illustrated with black-and-white drawings.
Klein, Stephen P.; And Others (1975). A Progress Evaluation of Four Bilingual Children's Television Shows.
An evaluation of a bilingual education TV series was conducted involving 6-year-old English speaking, Spanish speaking, and bilingual children at four sites. Children were assigned to control and experimental groups with the latter group seeing four 30 minute shows. A pretest-posttest design was employed with the pretest serving as the covariate in the analyses of the data. Results indicated statistically but not educationally significant effects of the shows for certain objectives. The implications of these findings and the factors that may have influenced them are discussed.
Kloss, Heinz (1971). Laws and Legal Documents Relating to Problems of Bilingual Education in the United States.
This document is intended to provide information about the legal aspects of bilingual education through a general discussion of the problem, as well as through the presentation of laws and other legal documents concerned with the language of education in the schools. Part I, "Introductory Remarks," identifies the two traditions of "English Monolingualism" and the "American Bilingual Tradition" and then considers the legal manifestations of these traditions under the following headings: Federal Law and Bilingual Education, State Laws Concerning the Language of Instruction, The Situation in Polities Other than Compnent States, Marginal Laws, and Supplementary Schools. A brief discussion of the future prospects of bilingual education concludes this section. Part II, "Quotations," presents excerpts from various sources (federal laws, state laws, state constitutions, Supreme Court decisions, letters from state educational authorities) in order to document present official policy toward bilingual education in both public and private schools. All states and territories of the United States are considered. An appendix provides a survey of 19th century provisions concerning bilingual or non-English schools. | [FULL TEXT]
Kloss, Heinz (1977). The American Bilingual Tradition.
This volume, published on the occasion of the American Bicentennial, is based on a revision of a 1963 German-language publication describing and analyzing the phenomenon of cultural and linguistic pluralism in American society. It is part of a series on bilingual education, intended to inform the public about how people have used bilingual education to educate their children. Chapter one outlines the constitutional and ethnolingual background and gives an overview of the main categories of language rights in the United States. Chapter two describes the extent to which the central government has or has not promoted languages other than English. Chapter three discusses American achievements in the area of toleration-oriented minority rights, and chapter four the achievements concerning promotive minority rights, granted to post-independence immigrant groups. Chapters five and six describe the promotive language rights meted out in the mainland area of the United States to "old settler" groups. The two following chpaters deal with nationality rights in outlying areas and overseas possessions. The final chapter presents a summary. Appendices contain: (1) a 1970 survey of mother-tongue statistics, listed by state; and (2) a listing of languages other than Spanish and English used in BEA-funded bilingual education projects in 1974-1975.
Knoell, Dorothy M.; And Others (1979). Conference on Functional Literacy in the Community College Setting (Los Alamitos, California, July 1978).
The conference papers included in this collection address issues of concern to literacy development in the community college. "Functional Literacy and Persistence in the Community College," by Dorothy M. Knoell, raises questions about student persistence in the absence of requisite skills. "Training Perspective on Functional Literacy--Vocational-Occupational," by Sister Anne Joachim Moore, considers several topics pertaining to competency-based approaches to job training. Arthur M. Cohen's article, "Functional Literacy in Transfer Programs," gives particular emphasis to minority students. Next, Janice R. Kennedy examines "Technical/Occupational Training in the Community College" in terms of students' and the public's demands. "Functional Literacy as Related to Licensure of Health Professionals," by Betty Fowler Thompson, discusses the problems associated with the deficient reading skills of many associate degree nursing students. Pepe Barron's article, "Bilingual Education at the Community College and Functional Literacy," presents research needs and questions to be considered in several areas related to bilingual education. Next, M. J. Fujimoto provides "A Look at Counseling and Guidance in Promoting Basic Skills Instruction in the Community Colleges," and Richard E. Schutz proposes a plan for community college research and development investments in functional literacy. Finally, "Mathematics" by A. R. Trujillo defines minimum mathematical competency and assesses the community college role with regard to mathematical literacy.
Kobrick, Jeffrey W. (1972). The Compelling Case for Bilingual Education Saturday Review, 55, 18.
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Kocsis, Mitzie; And Others (1979). In, Out, and About the Classroom: A Collection of Activities. Resources for Schools. No. 15.
This booklet contains a collection of services available to professional educators in the state of Massachusetts. Services in the areas of curriculum materials, field trip sites, films, and training and support services are included. While services are broadly categorized under curriculum areas, an index to locate names of specific organizations is provided.
Koegel, Raymond Paul (1976). Coorientation and Identification: A Transactional Approach to the Formative Evaluation of Educational Television Programming.
This study provides a theoretical focus for evaluating media communication, a generic model which operationalizes this focus, and a case study which documents how this model was applied in the evaluation of the effectiveness of "Carrascolendas," a bilingual television program for children. The core of the model involves two indexes: "identification," which assesses viewers' affective involvement with characters, and "coorientation," which gauges viewers' understanding of a dramatic sequence, as well as the implications of this understanding for predicted viewer attention. These constructs are operationalized and integrated with a method of structurally analyzing the format of television programming. A multiple discriminant analysis of the coorientation and identification scores yielded significant intergroup differences across the variables of sex, grade, ethnicity, and city. Combined with the results of the structural analysis, these differences pinpointed desirable program modifications in the areas of character age and ethnicity, message complexity, and message format.
_____. (1972). Kolehion Mandikike Project.
This manual describes the Kolehion Mandikike English-Chamorro bilingual/bicultural education project in Guam. Begun in 1970, the project is located at Price Elementary School in Mangilao and Torres Elementary School in Santa Rita. A general overview of the project is presented here, along with a discussion of training for staff members, materials development, and parent involvement. The text is in English and Chamorro.
Kolm, Richard (1973). The Role of Ethnic Studies in Educational Equality.
The need for ethnicity to be recognized and accepted by American society is discussed in terms of the inequalities in American education with regard to ethnic children. Positive aspects and limitations of two educational approaches, Black Studies and the Bilingual Program, aimed at the amelioration of social needs caused by poverty, discrimination or cultural disadvantages are detailed. It is suggested that, while focus on racial minority groups and Mexican Americans is fully justified, there is a similar great need for extending these programs to white ethnic groups.
_____. (1976). K'ooltsaah Ts'in'.
This book of poetic riddles written in Alaskan Athabaskan is intended as supplementary reading for use in a bilingual education setting. The riddles, told as a pastime and as an art about the native culture, were recorded by a 90-year-old Koyukon leader. An English translation is included.
_____. (1975). Korean Thanksgiving. Chusongnal.
This bilingual reader in Korean and English is intended for elementary school children in a bilingual education setting. Pen-and-ink drawings illustrate the story about a family's celebration of a traditional Korean Thanksgiving.
Korn, Caroline A. (1977). Teaching Language through Science in a Primary Bilingual Classroom.
The purpose of this study was to develop and test the effectiveness of a program in which activity-based science was used as a conceptual basis for language instruction. A series of four instructional units were adapted for bilingual use. Students' written and oral observations were used in experience charts and other language development activities. In this study two bilingual second grades were compared. The comparison group was taught language and science separately in a traditional manner. Both classes were tested using the California Test of Basic Skills (CTBS) language test and a criterion-referenced test of written language. Among the conclusions were: (1) Students in the treatment group made statistically significant gains in all three areas of the CTBS language test. The comparison group made significant gains in two areas, spelling and language mechanics, but not in expression. (2) On the criterion-referenced test, the treatment group exhibited higher gains than the comparison group. (3) An increase in class interaction between students of different language abilities was noted.
Korn, Caroline A. (1978). Teaching Language Through Science.
This article presents a rationale for correlation of science with language instruction, whether English as a second language (ESL) or first language development. Science can provide a conceptual base for vocabulary and syntactic development. Numerous studies indicate that language ability can be significantly increased through participation in activity science programs. Units can be developed around students' previous experiences building upon their present knowledge and developing self-esteem. Focusing on behavioral objectives will help in planning science activities. Group work which will encourage student discussion and cooperation toward a goal should be planned. Suggested topics for units or learning centers include "Foods of Ancient America,""Mother's Medicines," and "Clay Like the Indians Used."
Kosky, Elizabeth (1979). Community School District 20K, Non Public School Bilingual Program, Title I--5071-91626. Final Evaluation Report, 1978-79.
A bilingual Title I program conducted for 251 Yiddish speaking students in grades 1-8 is evaluated in this report. The objectives of the program, which operated in six Yeshivas in Brooklyn, New York's District 20, are outlined. Staffing instructional patterns, student eligibility and participation, and student achievement evaluation procedures are described. A statistically significant improvement in language achievement is reported for all eight grades, although greatest gains are shown to have occurred among students in the lower grades. This is attributed to the more frequent instruction (minimum three days per week) provided to these students. Also commented upon in the report are the quality of instructional services provided by the bilingual teachers and paraprofessionals, the provision of inservice staff training, and the public availability of information regarding the Title I bilingual program. Based upon the evaluation, it is recommended that this program be recycled. Also presented is a series of recommendations regarding administrative procedures, evaluation instruments employed, the coordination of the bilingual program with other Title I services, and frequency of instruction.
Kotesky, Art (1979). Report on Community Needs Survey of the Hispanic-American Population of Elgin.
A telephone survey was undertaken of a random sample of 75 Hispanic-American family groups in Elgin, Illinois. The purpose was to learn the educational needs and characteristics of this and the large Hispanic-American group it represents in the community. Preferred courses were elicited, and the preferred method of instruction was in English with Spanish learning aids, a method used in Elgin Community College's Bilingual Access Program. Morning and evening scheduling of classes were preferred also. Only about two-thirds of the group would require financial aid, and most could provide their own transportation. The average schooling of the group was eight to nine years, most have Mexican and Puerto Rican background, and the average age was 34 years. No further analysis is given. The survey instrument, in Spanish, is appended.
Kotesky, Arturo A. (1979). Implementing College Regular Vocational Programs into a Bilingual Mode-- Two Instructional Design Models in Operation.
Prepared as a handout for a poster session at the 1979 convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, this set of materials includes descriptions of the Bilingual Access Programs at Elgin Community College, a general systems approach for bilingual access programs and Vocational English as a Second Language (VESL) materials, a bilingual access instructional delivery system, an instructional design model for developing bilingual access support materials, and an instructional design model for developing ESL/VESL components (two sequential models). Also included are a sample of instructional analysis sheets, a sample list of Spanish/bilingual instructional aids, a sequence of milestones within the bilingual access instructional design process, a list of programs to be implemented in a bilingual mode, a sample of bilingual learning aids, and a sample of a VESL lesson.
Kotesky, Arturo A.; Mrowicki, Linda G. (1979). System Approach Techniques for Developing Bilingual-Vocational and Vocational English as a Second Language Curriculum at the College Level.
This paper describes the instructional components of the Bilingual Access Program (BAP) at Elgin Illinois Community College, a federally funded 5-year project established to supplement regular vocational programs as a means to provide language training to limited English-speaking adults so that they leave with additional employable skills related to the employment opportunities in the nearby and Chicago metropolitan areas. Detailed descriptions are given of BAP's instructional delivery system, instructional materials, instructional design model for developing bilingual access support materials, instructional design model for developing instructional components, techniques for teaching the vocational class in an ESL context, and sequence of milestones within the BAP instructional design process. It is concluded that BAP is a very useful, cost-effective program with self-contained outputs which can be used anytime by an institution using its available human and non-human resources. Appendices include a list of regular vocational programs at the college, a list of instructional topics and objectives, an instructional analysis sheet, a list of Spanish instructional aids, a language skills assessment form, and material for vocabulary study.
_____. (1974). Koyuk Reader.
This elementary language text, designed for children in a bilingual Koyuk-English program, contains one story about the daily life of a family in Koyuk, Alaska. The material is presented in alternating pages of Koyuk and the English translation, with many illustrations depicting events in the story.
Krashen, Stephen D.; Pon, Pauline (1975). An Error Analysis of an Advanced Learner of ESL: The Importance of the Monitor. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 7.
This study focuses on a native speaker of Chinese, in her 40's, who began to learn English in her late 20's when she emigrated to the United States. It was discovered that the subject was able to self-correct nearly every error she made in casual speech when the errors were pointed out to her after their commission. Furthermore, in nearly every case she was able to describe the grammatical principle involved. It is speculated that if second language users are able to apply such conscious rules when sufficient processing time is available, perhaps conscious knowledge is applied only when sufficient processing time is available. There is at least suggestive evidence that subconscious "acquired" linguistic knowledge (that is, internalized before puberty) is involved in ordinary unmonitored speech, while consciously "learned" rules are available to the second-language speaker only as a monitor.
Krauss, Michael E., Comp. (1974). A Map of the Native Peoples and Languages of Alaska.
Recommended for use in classrooms (no specific grade level is assigned) throughout Alaska, this base E sized wall map (4 feet by 3 feet) is color coded (number coded for the ERIC system) to reflect the 20 Alaska Native languages. Designating language dialect areas and boundaries, this map details the language relationships of the four Eskimo languages; the Aleut, Tsimpshian, Haida, Tlingit, and Eyak languages; and the Athabascan languages. Two insets illustrate the spread of Athabascan and Eskimo throughout North America and designate Alaskan language relationships, populations, and numbers of speakers. A text at the bottom of the map presents a thumbnail sketch of the Native languages and the present bilingual movement. Since this map has been disassembled for purposes of ERIC reproduction, instructions for reassembling the map are included. Ordering information is also provided.
Kravetz, Nathan (1979). Education of Ethnic and National Minorities in the USSR: A Report on Current Development.
This report analyzes and compares information on educational achievements of minorities in the USSR. It also reviews and assesses Soviet educational policy for nationalities and suggests some areas for further study. Data are based on the USSR 1970 All-Union Census and later evidence. National minorities in the USSR have historically been guaranteed rights and freedom of choice in language of instruction. In 1970, Georgians and Jews had superior achievements, the Georgians because of favored status during Stalin's era, and Jews because of a high concentration in urban areas. Since 1970, the undergraduate level shows an increase in enrollment for all minorities except Georgians and Jews. At the graduate level there was a general decline but a larger percentage of Asian minorities enrolled. The drastic decline of Jews reflects Soviet educational policy and discriminatory quotas, causing them to seek emigration. Trends show increased opportunity for some groups. However, fewer specialists are being trained because of reduced enrollment of students from educationally motivated groups. In summary, there has been a major effort to provide education for non-Russian ethnic groups, with bilingual options available. Problems needing attention include the quality difference between urban and rural schools, cultural divisiveness within some groups leading to less schooling for women and a negative view of education, lack of trained technological manpower, severity of graduating and admissions exams, and a declining birth rate among well-educated groups coupled with an increase of those with less motivation.
Krear, Serafina (1971). Development of Pre-Reading Skills in a Second Language or Dialect.
The bilingual education program in a given community should be based on a sociolinguistic assessment of that community, and community members should be involved in assessing the surrounding bilingual reality and in deciding whether they wish to mirror that reality in the biliteracy program. This paper presents alternatives for bilingual programs based on the nature and objectives of the community. The program models presented illustrate the relative use of the native language or dialect and the second language or dialect in areas of concept development, prereading skills, written and oral language development, and reading instruction. | [FULL TEXT]
Krear, Serafina; Voci, Frank (1972). The Role of the Teacher Aide in Second Language Programs. [California Association TESOL Newsletter]
To investigate the role of the teacher aide in second language programs, the California Association of Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (CATESOL) has issued a questionnaire to teacher aides in the Title VII bilingual projects in California. The questionnaire and conclusions drawn from replies are presented here. Information is provided on the attitudes, background, and activities of teacher aides. An increasing number of paraprofessionals can be found in second language programs, but the oversupply of certified teachers is likely to curb the need for and the growing number of teacher aides.
Krug, Mark (1976). The Melting of the Ethnics: Education of the Immigrants, 1880-1914. Perspectives in American Education.
This book, one in a five-volume series dealing with perspectives in American education, discusses the education of ethnic groups in the United States. The purpose of the series is to create a better understanding of the education process and the relation of education to human welfare. Chapter one discusses multicultural education, examining the concept of the melting pot, the "Americanization" idea, and the theory of cultural pluralism. Chapter two relates the story of three major immigrant groups: Italians, Jews, and Poles. In chapter three ethnic loyalties and affiliations are investigated. Chapter four examines the educational philosophy of Jane Addams, founder of Chicago's Hull House. Public schools and the upward mobility of immigrant children through them is the theme of chapter five. Specifically examined are bilingual education programs, curriculum materials dealing with ethnic cultures, how public education did or did not meet the needs of ethnic groups, and the "mainstream" American culture. The book contains a selected bibliography. | [FULL TEXT]
Krug, Mark M. (1977). Cultural Pluralism--Its Origins and Aftermath Journal of Teacher Education, 28, 3.
After tracing the origins of cultural pluralism in America, it is noted that the American academic community is not on the whole sympathetic to the concept of cultural pluralism or bilingual education.
Krug, Mark M. (1979). Bilingual Education--Let Us Clarify the Issues. Social Education, 43 n2 p113, 115-16 Feb 1979.
Maintains that issues of cultural identification and self-concept are generally avoided by researchers and critics in discussions related to the goals of bilingual and multicultural education.
Kruger, W. Stanley (1970). Implications of Accountability for Educational Program Evaluation.
The concept of accountability in education has two primary concerns: the responsibility to provide effective educational programs and the responsibility to employ efficiently the resources allocated for this purpose. These concerns are fundamental to an evaluation procedure based on the principle of accountability. The establishment in 1967 of new Federal programs in Bilingual Education and Dropout Prevention provided the vehicle for an effort to establish accountability principles. Ten critical factors of program design, operation and management which could expand the dimensions of accountability were identified: community involvement, technical assistance, needs assessment, management systems, performance objectives, performance contracting, staff development, comprehensive evaluation, cost-effectiveness, and program audit. Their implications for program evaluation are discussed.
Kunkel, R. C.; Tucker, S. A. (1978). VALE: Value Assessment Latino Education, a Needs Assessment Model for Latino Children.
Over 2,000 interviews, questionnaires, and observations obtained needs assessment information from students, teachers, school administrators, and community members with the 4 major objectives being to help Latino children and parents articulate their educational needs, to help South Bend Community School Corporation interpret these needs in deliverable terms, to demonstrate to Latino people that their perceptions are valued, and to inform service providers of Latino needs. The assessment led to six general recommendations for meeting Latino needs: (1) improve language skills and school achievement, (2) decrease student dropout rate, (3) address educational problems related to family mobility, (4) increase compatibility between home culture and school experience, (5) alleviate stress generated by personal and family economics, and (6) coordinate state and local resources to meet student needs. The delivery strategy task force translated these general recommendations into specific actions in the areas of educational policy, curriculum, staffing, extra curricular activities, student services, community involvement, and program evaluation. For each area, recommendations were directed to the local school, community agencies (including churches), and state agencies (including the legislature).
Kunkle, John F. (1972). Now That FLES is Dead, What Next? Educational Leadership, 29, 5.
Gives reasons for the failure of FLES programs in most schools, and proposes the home-school language switch program in which English-speaking students are given their kindergarten, first grade, and most of second, third, and fourth grade instruction in a foreign language.
Kunkle, John F. (1977). The "L" Connection: The Interdependence of Second Language Programs. The Language Connection: From the Classroom to the World. ACTFL Foreign Language Education Series, Vol. 9.
A discussion of programs in foreign language, bilingual/bicultural education, and English as a second language (ESL) considers the unique aspects of each program, what they have in common, and areas in which closer cooperation might be developed. Foreign (or second) language programs are characterized by an attempt to give students some proficiency in one or more of the four language skills and also perhaps to increase their acquaintance with and appreciation for the populations that speak the target language. ESL programs are designed for those who do not speak or understand English well enough to perform at grade level in the classroom. In bilingual/bicultural education, two languages and cultures are developed simultaneously: English and the student's native tongue. Four distinctive types of bilingual/bicultural programs that have been delineated are transitional bilingualism, monoliterate bilingualism, partial bilingualism, and full bilingualism. Commonalities of the programs are specified for language skills, everyday culture, "belletristic" culture, and curriculum integration. Suggested areas in which cooperation is possible are in obtaining financial support, sharing resources, teacher training and personnel, material development and distribution, making use of research, sharing career education materials and testing materials, incorporating classroom techniques, and publicizing language programs. It is cautioned that a fusion of the programs may work to the disadvantage of one or more of the individual programs, particularly if there is a sudden decline in public support.
Kunkle, John F., Ed. (1974). FLES and Bilingual Education: Getting the Word Out. A Report by the 1974 FLES and Bilingual Education Section of the American Association of Teachers of French.
This annual report of the FLES-Bilingual Education Committee of the American Association of Teachers of French begins with a list of National FLES Committee publications. In the first article, C. K. Knop describes ways to publicize FLES and bilingual programs. E. Rainey discusses student produced television programming in her article "Rue Raisin - a Video Tape Experience for Older Children." A teaching unit by H. Odom, designed for use in a Louisiana bilingual program, is presented in part three of the report. Part four is the text of an interview with James Domengeaux, the chairman of the Council for the Development of French in Louisiana (CODOFIL). The last two articles of the report summarize the reactions of a Louisiana and a New England teacher after having visited each other's French-English bilingual classroom. A sampling of reactions to and attitudes about FLES programs is presented by G. Lipton of the New York City bureau of foreign languages. An extensive bibliography concludes the report.
Kunkle, John F., Ed. (1975). Bilingual Education and FLES: Keeping the Child in Focus. A Report by the 1974 FLES and Bilingual Education Section of the American Association of Teachers of French.
This report presents eight articles dealing with several aspects of foreign languages in the elementary schools (FLES) and bilingual education. "Why? What? How?" by M. Woodruff presents a view of the present situation of and future potential for FLES in the U.S. In "Reaction to: 'Why? What? How?'" R. Brooks raises questions regarding FLES's needs and the influence of professional organizations in this area. "Prescription for FLES: Positive Action" by V. Gramer makes a case for action by FLES teachers to develop positive attitudes toward and high standards for FLES. "Three Myths that Almost Killed FLES" by P. P. Parent discusses FLES viewed in the context of the child's whole education. "FLES Can Be ...." by G. C. Lipton advocates a flexible approach to defining FLES programs."FLES Supports Bilingual Education and Vice Versa in the Louisiana Experiment" by H. B. Dyess presents a history of FLES in Louisiana and its cooperation with bilingual education. "Community and Parent Involvement in Bilingual Education for the Disadvantaged" by C. Prudhomme discusses the needs and involvement of parents of disadvantaged children in bilingual education. "A Bilingual Program Grows Up" by J. McSpadden describes in allegory the 5-year growth of the Lafayette Parish Bilingual Program in Louisiana. A list of past chairmen of the National FLES Committee of the AATF completes the volume.
Kunkle, John F., Ed.; Cipriani, Anita A., Ed. (1973). Foreign Language Teaching Techniques in FLES and Bilingual Settings.
This report begins with a list of the publications of the national FLES Committee and an introduction in which T. Andersson describes how FLES programs can adopt bilingual education practices. Seventeen papers are included in the report. R. Bennett and M. Lala discuss how FLES programs can be individualized. Specific teaching techniques are suggested in articles by H. Barnett, J. Trahan, A. Jaffa, S. Louviere, and S. Schaps. Some recent articles regarding foreign language teaching are summarized by Y. Herbert, and R. Dominque reviews opinions about the necessity of a prereading period for FLES students. Ways in which FLES programs can be developed are discussed by M. Stelly, and C. Prudhomme, O. Domourelle, and L. Chary write about bilingual education and its relationship to FLES. H. Bluming gives details of the FLES program at his elementary school, and R. Authement discusses testing in FLES. Recent literature on ability levels and second language learning is reviewed by E. Broussard.
Kuo, Eddie C. Y. (1974). Language Status and Literacy Trend in a Multilingual Society - Singapore RELC Journal, 5, 1.
Using data from census reports and educational statistics, this paper analyzes the language status and literacy trends in multilingual Singapore, where the four official languages are Malay, Chinese, Tamil and English.
Kwok, Irene (1975). Chinese New Year Materials for Elementary Teachers.
This is a resource book designed to be used by teachers in Chinese bilingual bicultural programs. The materials in the book are based on Chinese New Year customs still observed in Chinese-American communities. The resource book contains five types of materials: (1) a general introduction to the Chinese New Year, including the Chinese Lunar Year and the Cycle of the Twelve Animals, (2) Chinese New Year stories, written in both Cantonese and English, (3) Chinese New Year songs, in both Cantonese and English, (4) recipes for the Chinese New Year, and (5) art projects.
Kwok, Irene (1976). Chinese Folktales for Children.
This bilingual text contains ten traditional Chinese folktales which have been rewritten for children. Each story deals with interpersonal relationships and/or stresses the Chinese way of life. Each page of text is given first in English and then in Chinese and is illustrated with a full-page drawing. The titles of the folktales are: (1) "One Winter Night"; (2) "The Story of a Tiger"; (3) "The Greedy Fly"; (4)"The Little Brother"; (5) "The Man Who Shot the Sun"; (6) "The Old Woman and the Chimpanzee"; (7) "The Stolen Duck"; (8) "The Story of a Smart Boy"; (9) "The Story of Ng Fung"; and (10) "The Story of the Sword."
Kwok, Irene (1976). Chinese Cultural Resource Book (For Elementary Bilingual Teachers).
In this resource book prepared for teachers of Chinese bilingual, bicultural education programs, traditional Chinese stories, myths, songs, rhymes, recipes, poems, riddles and games are included. All entries are written in both English and Chinese. Art projects to accompany some of the stories or to celebrate certain festivals of the Chinese year are described. A brief bibliography is appended.
Kwok, Irene, Comp. (1977). Chinese Children's Songs.
Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are illustrated with black-and-white drawings. A cassette of the songs was developed to accompany this booklet.
Kwok, Irene; Sung, Robert (1974). Practical Cantonese for Teachers. Level 1.
This handbook, the first of two levels, is designed to help teachers refine and expand their language skills in spoken Cantonese. The handbook is written in spoken Cantonese form, which means that many Chinese characters are included that represent Cantonese expressions not found in standard written Chinese. The handbook is divided into 15 units, each containing pattern drills, practice of common terms and expressions, and conversations. The contents include vocabulary items and dialogues useful in a school setting; the principal topics are names, the school building, classroom items, directions, colors, the playground, parent-teacher conferences, and Parts of the body. An outline of Cantonese phonetic symbols is provided. The appendix includes a list of classifiers, a list of the titles of school staff and officials, and a sample Progress report for evaluating individual students.
Kwok, Irene; Sung, Robert (1978). A Multicultural Social Studies Series. Book 2. Asia.
This text is designed for students continuing in the Chinese Bilingual Pilot Program, ESEA Title VII, at the seventh grade level. The text introduces different cultural aspects and general knowledge of Asia, and is divided into twenty-five lessons, having the following headings: Glimpses of Asia; Monsoon; Malaysia; Borneo; Asian Countries; Caste in India; The Women of Asia; Soul in Japanese; Law in Old China; Japan; The Changing World; New Days and Old; School Days in China; The Old and the New in Medicine; Confucius, The Great Philosopher; Han Fei Tzu; Siddhartha Gautama; Gandhi; Peaceful Patriot; A Cry for Change; Food or Famine; Changes in Chinese Farming; Poverty; The Olympic Ideal; Success or Failure. There is a maximum of 200 words per lesson. Each lesson includes main terms listed bilingually, explanations in Chinese, questions for discussion, and follow-up activities. Answers to questions are located in the back of the book.