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Bilingual Education | B

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Babcock, Marilyn (1979).  A Practical Guide to Commonly Used Standardized Achievement Tests. 

A guide to assist prospective test users in the selection of commonly used standardized achievement tests is presented. The tests include seven readiness tests (prekindergarten and kindergarten), 10 English reading and mathematics tests (grades 1 through 12), and two Spanish achievement tests (grades 1 through 12). Most of the readiness tests are available in either Spanish or English to permit testing of monolingual Spanish-speaking kindergarteners or first graders. The information presented in each test description includes: (1) the levels and forms of the test appropriate for each grade level; (2) normative information concerning the norming population and norming dates; (3) comments on the relative advantages or disadvantages of the norming procedure and other features of the test, for different types of testing programs; (4) types of scoring services; and (5) other evaluative services available through each publisher. Addresses and telephone numbers of the publishers are provided in a Publisher/Test listing. For each test, the levels and forms are listed for the appropriate grade levels. The normative data presented for each test are derived from information provided by the publisher on their standardization procedure for the tests.

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Baca, Orlando G. (1975).  Selected Characteristics of the Spanish-Origin Population in Illinois and Some Related Educational Trends With Reference to Northern Illinois University and Its Service Area. 

The document presents the beginnings of a data base for educational policy and program planning at Northern Illinois University regarding the Spanish-origin population of its service area, and was compiled from numerous surveys conducted by various agencies, groups, and individuals. The quantitative description of the Spanish speaking presented involves those of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central and South American heritage. Illinois is reported as having one of the largest Spanish-speaking populations in the nation, variously estimated from 393,347 to 515,000. Spanish surname students, however, comprise only about 1% of the total undergraduate student enrollment and only 0.8% at the graduate and professional student level. The text presents an introduction and rationale and discusses the population survey, selected population characteristics, the education gap, trends affecting the education of the Spanish speaking, existing educational barriers, and a summary demographic profile. Appendixes, making up two-thirds of the document, present the following data: 58 tables providing demographic information; Spanish-origin student enrollment figures in public schools in northern Illinois' 23 counties, Chicago Archdiocesan schools, and Rockford diocesan schools; downstate bilingual education programs, 1975; government funded bilingual-bicultural public school programs, 1974-75; and resource people and agencies utilized.

Backman, Nancy (1975).  Two Measures of Affective Factors as They Relate to Progress in Adult Second-Language Learning. Working Papers in Bilingualism, No. 10. 

The attitude and motivation of twenty-one Venezuelan students learning English at Boston University was assessed using two means: a controlled interview and a bilingual adaptation of the Gardner et al. 1974 Attitude Scales. Neither measure showed statistically significant correlations between positive attitude or strong motivation and progress in second-language learning over a three or six month period. However, interview scores for motivation and culture shock differentiated between the two best and two worst students, suggesting that further exploration of the interview technique would be of value in the assessment of affective factors.

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Badias, Bertha; And Others (1974).  Cantando y aprendiendo (Singing and Learning) 

This illustrated teacher's songbook contains eighteen songs and game songs to be used with the Spanish Curricula Development Center publications or with other bilingual instructional materials. The songs are based on the SCDC Reading Series for the Language Arts strand Kits 2-11. The objective of the book is to develop children's listening and comprehension skills, music appreciation and rhythmic expression.

Badillo, Herman (1972).  The Politics and Realities of Bilingual Education  Foreign Language Annals, 5, 3. 

Address given at the Fifth Annual Meeting of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL), in Chicago, Illinois, November 26, 1971.

Badillo, Herman (1972).  Politicas y realides de la educacion bilingue en Norteamerica (Politics and Realities of Bilingual Education in the United States)  Yelmo, 8, 38-40. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3313.

Badten, Adelinda (1972).  Ayumiim Ungipaghaatangi, I (Stories of Long Ago, I). 

This reader contains five traditional stories in St. Lawrence Island Yupik, and is intended for use in advanced levels of reading instruction. The book is part of a series of Siberian Yupik reading materials.

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Baetens Beardsmore, Hugo (1977).  An Investigation into Bilingual Education for Children from Favored Socio-Economic Backgrounds. Problemes linguistiques des enfants de travailleurs migrants (Linguistic Problems of the Children of Migrant Workers). 

The investigation reported sought to discover: (1) whether the problems faced by children of favored socio-economic backgrounds residing in countries other than those of origin are the same as or different from those faced by less favored groups, and (2) whether the techniques and programs provided for these privileged children can give any insights for similar programs adapted for children from less favored groups. Three schools in Belgium were selected as investigation sites, and an open-ended questionnaire was used for the basis of the enquiry. All questions were asked orally during interviews with staff members, and, where possible, interviews were followed up by observation of the teaching program. All three schools were attended by children from upper-middle and middle classes. For purposes of the report, a bilingual program is defined as one that gives more attention to a second language than is normally the case in school curricula. The program and curricula of each school are described, and solutions to bilingual education are seen to range from transitional programs to balanced bilingual programs to the use of the second language for social studies. All schools claimed that a greater tolerance for diversity developed as a result of bilingual programs. | [FULL TEXT]

Baetens Beardsmore, Hugo (1979).  The Recognition and Tolerance Level of Bilingual Speech. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 19. 

Two experiments, based on the semantic differential technique, were designed to measure the tolerance level of bilingually marked English in a functional bilingual's speech. In the first experiment, marked syntactic cues were rated by different groups of judges as generally indicative of non-bilingualism, although on the whole they were not considered as impairing intelligibility. The marked syntactic cues, when isolated from morphophonemic elements, did not allow for a clear distinction between the functional bilingual and native-speakers using similar non-standard features in monoglot English. In the second experiment centering on the same subject and based on recorded speech, clear gradations were noted in the level of recognition and tolerance level of bilingually marked English. This was generally rejected as not indicative of bilingual competence by other bilinguals, by native-speaker monoglots and by learners of English, even if found to be acceptable and reasonably comprehensible. The results imply an inherent disparity between certain linguistic or widely held definitions of bilingualism that do not correlate with sociolinguistic data and the reality of some types of bilingual cases.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Bagenstos, Naida Tushnet; Owoc, Paul (1977).  Analysis of Consumer Information Products Collected. 

Consumer information products were analysed in a project to provide objective, comparative information on such products. This list presents the analysis for each of 178 consumer information products in the areas of reading, mathematics, social studies, exceptional children/learning disabilities, career education/vocational education, English, exemplary practice, bilingual education, and general curriculum. Each entry includes information on these categories: (1) citation; (2) content and who produced the compilation; (3) method used to obtain the information; (4) item verification and description; (5) item format; and (6) compilation format.

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Bahowick, Jennifer E. (1979).  The Status of School Library Services to Bilingual Bicultural Programs in Illinois. 

The need for bilingual bicultural school library materials and services for schools with bilingual programs and limited English speaking students was investigated in the state of Illinois. The data were collected by means of questionnaires sent to bilingual program coordinators and school librarians at 140 schools throughout the state. Targeted areas of study were: the availability of bilingual school library services and staff, the nature and scope of bilingual school library services, problems of bilingual materials acquisition, the amount of cooperation and/or coordination between library and bilingual personnel, and, finally, the role of the school library in bilingual education as perceived by both school librarians and bilingual coordinators. The results of the study indicated a severe lack of bilingual staff, materials and resources in school libraries serving bilingual and limited English speaking children. The study also revealed a statistically significant difference in the attitudes of school librarians and bilingual coordinators with respect to the role of the school library in education. The implications of this difference suggest conflict regarding the library's present and future role in bilingual multicultural education. Statistical data and questionnaires are appended.

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Bain, Bruce (1975).  Toward an Integration of Piaget and Vygotsky: Bilingual Consideration  Linguistics, 160, 5-20. 

Two studies which examined the effect of bilingual cultural/educational experience on competence are presented. The language/educational matrix of the child is an influential factor in development. Bilingual children tended to have greater "cognitive plasticity" than monolingual children. A comprehensive theory of human development is sought.

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Baker, Frances S. (1978).  Taga the Great. 

Legends can be incorporated into elementary social studies curricula to help students understand how people transmitted history and culture from one generation to another before they learned to read and write. Taga the Great is a legend which helps explain the 16-feet high latte stones on the Mariana Islands, Tinian and Rota. According to legend, Taga was born on the island of Guam. Already in childhood, he exhibited supernatural powers such as the ability to uproot large trees and leap from one Pacific island to another. When Taga grew up and became chief of Rota, he engaged in and won numerous contests of wit and strength with other chiefs. Taga's fame spread throughout the Mariana islands and caused him to be the envy of all people, including his own children. To build a house great enough to please him, Taga quarried and carved very big stones and formed large pillars which he covered with wood and thatch. The house was very fine and admired by all who saw it. Taga's downfall began, however, as soon as his house was completed. His pride in his own superior strength prompted him to murder his little son, and his other children died soon afterwards out of remorse. As each child died, a pillar of Taga's home fell down. Soon only one pillar remained as a witness to Taga's glory. From the legend of Taga, students can gain insight into human strengths and weaknesses as well as into how the big latte stones of Rota and Tinian came into existence.

Baker, Jean M. (1971).  Bicultural Socialization Project: A Group Process Approach to Bilingual Instruction - Title VII. Final Report, 1970-71. 

This final report relates to student socialization through a bilingual (Spanish/English), bicultural program involving 6 second grades in 3 schools of Phoenix, Arizona, for the 1970-71 school year. As reported, the major objective of the program was to develop and implement a group process approach to bilingual education; in addition, classroom instructional personnel were trained by site coordinators. Program success was regarded as outstanding in classrooms having strong administrative support for the program; partial success was achieved in overall efforts to create classroom enviroments and appropriate activities to facilitate small group interaction. The relatively unsuccessful aspects of the program were attributed to lack of (1) bilingual teachers, (2) a true heterogeneous student population, and (3) supporting administration. The document contains discussions of program rationale, the group process approach and procedures for implementing it, training and research procedures, and bilingual and bicultural activities; results, evaluation, a summary, and recommendations are also provided; and appendices include tabular summaries of the training evaluations, a checklist for program classrooms, noted reactions to various program components, results of analysis of variance for the Peabody Vocabulary Test and the Artola-Stewart Spanish-English Vocabulary Test, selected language samples, a composite of the parent questionnaire; a description of the teacher's manual, and the Natural Method of Language Acquisition Checklist.

Baker, Jean M.; And Others (1971).  Bicultural Socialization: A Group Process Approach to Bilingual Instruction. Case Study Reports. 

Three studies were carried out to explore and evaluate alternative methods of meeting the objectives of a bilingual education project. The first study explored children's book usage behaviors and how these behaviors were influenced by the requirement to fill out book reports and a reward reinforcement. It was found (1) that fewer children sampled books as a result of the report requirement, but those who did tended to stick with one book and read it more thoroughly and (2) that the reward reinforcement system had a significant effect on encouraging reading and reporting. The second case study investigated a second-grade boy's extremely disruptive behavior in the classroom. Recorded data showed that when the teacher used positive social reinforcement and a token system to encourage good behaviors, frequency of the disruptive behavior dropped immensely, but it climbed up again when the token system was discontinued. The third study dealt with children's leadership behaviors. Data on children's behavior were collected at different phases before and after a training on group participation and leadership. Results showed that the training had positive effects on children's behavior and attitude. Tables and charts are included.

Baker, Jean M.; And Others (1971).  They Help Each Other Learn: A Group Participation and Leadership Training Manual. 

This manual was designed for second grade children learning in small groups under an open classroom approach in which leadership and active participation are encouraged. It was intended especially for bilingual classrooms where children have a good opportunity to learn a second language from one another. Some instructions appear in Spanish although the text is basically in English. The manual is divided into five lessons: Rationale for Small Group Instruction and Child Leaders, Reading and Understanding the Group Instructions, Distributing Materials and Cleaning Up the Work Area, Helping Each Other, and Evaluating the Group Activity. An appendix includes a report of reactions to the program.

Baker, Jean M.; And Others (1971).  Each One Learning. A Small Group Process Manual for Teachers. Third Printing. 

A bilingual-bicultural program was conducted in 6 second grade classrooms in 3 Phoenix, Arizona schools to develop and implement a small group process approach to bilingual education. This approach was described in the report, along with the skills required for it. Examples of room environment, grouping procedures, teaching techniques, activities, and necessary materials were given. Classroom floorplans, a bibliography, and a sample checklist were also provided. It was noted that the small group process approach does not guarantee greater student effectiveness and expression, but it does provide the environment and techniques for teaching and practicing new behaviors that ultimately improve group participation and awaken each child to more active participation in the learning process.

Baker, Jean M.; And Others (1972).  Things to Do....Activities for a Bilingual Classroom. 

This manual has been prepared for teachers who are using or wish to use small group organization in bilingual-bicultural programs at the primary grade level. The manual includes several daily schedules and a series of activities appropriate for small groups of children. The activities described are of varying levels of complexity in Spanish and English, and are organized around the content of several learning or interest centers, including a communications center (language arts, reading, writing), a math center, a science/social studies center, an art center, and a music/listening center.

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Balasubramonian, K. (1974).  Measurement, Evaluation and Accountability in Bilingual Education Programs. 

A case for evaluation is developed and procedures for evaluating bilingual education programs are suggested as a guide for the novice evaluator. The following areas are discussed from the point of view of an evaluator: (1) how to plan for evaluation; (2) how to use needs assessment data; (3) the relationship between formative and summative evaluation; (4) the instrumentation process; (5) data collection; (6) data analyses; and (7) production of final reports. A brief section on the more recent consciousness for accountability points out how each of the participants in a bilingual education program can contribute towards accountability. A distinction between research and evaluation is made in order to alert the administrator on the most appropriate use of the information obtained from each. A bibliography, suggesting other sources of information, is appended.

Balasubramonian, K.; And Others (1973).  Do Bilingual Education Programs Inhibit English Language Achievement? A Report on an Illinois Experiment. 

The English language achievement of 213 Spanish speaking students in grades K-3, who receive English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction in the context of a bilingual program, is compared to that of 104 similar students who receive ESL instruction within the traditional school program, in order to probe whether enrollment in a bilingual program retards the learning of English as a second language. ESL achievement, as measured by listening and reading comprehension tests, is compared through ANOVA and partial correlation analysis with a quasi-experimental evaluation design. Anlaysis of data indicates that students learning English in a bilingual program learn just as much English as students learning it through ESL classes within a traditional curriculum. Because the amount of measured English achievement in kindergarten and first grade is found disappointing compared to the substantial achievement measured in second and third grades, two questions are raised - that of the effectiveness of language instruction in K-1 and that of the appropriateness of the techniques used to measure achievement on these levels. Although the study needs replication with other age groups and other languages, the implication derived from the study is that half-day bilingual programs do not inhibit Engllish language achievement in primary-aged children.

Balasubramonian, K.; Frederickson, C. (1976).  Innovative Approaches to Multi-Cultural Programming. Multilingual Monographs No. 001. 

A well planned multicultural program can benefit every child within the school setting. A multicultural curriculum incorporates a systematic group of courses or sequence of subjects using text books, resource books, and other instructional tools that are appropriate and have no stereotyping and misconceptions. Instruction centers around the individual needs of students and, because of the wide range of abilities among children at all grade levels, the curriculum and approach are modified to meet varied needs. The advantage of a multicultural program is that it can avoid the risk of ethnocentrism and provide for the self-worth of each individual in the student population. Since language and culture are inextricably related, appropriate curriculum materials should be developed for the areas of language and cultural development. Within the framework of multilingual education, there are many possibilities for a multitude of programs and approaches, all of which require different strategy models. There are many types of bilingual education and many types of language situations with different linguistic cultural aims and objectives. What are needed, therefore, are descriptions of different types of bilingual alternatives to be adopted by local educators, considering the appropriate community, family, and school contextual settings.  | [FULL TEXT]

Balinsky, Warren (1975).  Integrated Bilingual Demonstration Project for High Schools; 1974-1975. 

This evaluation report is a description of an integrated bilingual-bicultural program which attempted to improve student achievement in oral and literate mastery of both Spanish and English. The program was funded under the Elementary Secondary Education Act, Title VII and was in its third year of operation in New York City. Two hundred ninth and tenth grade Spanish dominant students participated in the program. Students were selected for the program by both referral from guidance counselors and voluntary enrollment. The objectives of the program were to improve language proficiency and academic achievement in mathematics, social studies, and science bilingual curricula. Other program objectives were improvement in school attendance, decline of the number of dropouts, and a decrease of student referrals to the guidance office for disciplinary problems. Teacher-made tests in mathematics, social studies, and science were administered at the end of the school year. Speaking and comprehension in English, and reading in Spanish were assessed by standardized tests in Spanish. All students in the project demonstrated improvement in these areas. The students also had fewer disciplinary problems and guidance referrals than the school as a whole. Additionally, significant improvement in speaking and English comprehension was achieved by the students. | [FULL TEXT]

Balinsky, Warren L.; Peng, Samuel S. (1974).  An Evaluation of Bilingual Education for Spanish-Speaking Children  Urban Education, 9, 3. 

An evaluation of a bilingual education program for first and second-grade children in an urban public school suggested that teaching them in their native language will cause higher achievement than expected and that classification of Spanish-speaking pupils based on standardized tests (in English) is invalid.

Ball, Samuel (1979).  Evaluating Educational Programs. 

The activities of Educational Testing Service (ETS) in evaluating educational programs are described. Program evaluations are categorized as needs assessment, formative evaluation, or summative evaluation. Three classic efforts which illustrate the range of ETS' participation are the Pennsylvania Goals Study (1965), the Coleman Report--Equality of Educational Opportunity (1966), and the Encyclopedia of Educational Evaluation (1975). Principles used by ETS researchers in evaluating programs are described for each of the phases of evaluation: (1) making goals explicit; (2) measuring program impact; (3) working in field settings; (4) analyzing the data; and (5) interpreting the results. Appendices include a bibliography of 77 publications by ETS staff, and brief descriptions of ETS studies in the following areas: aesthetics and creativity, bilingual education, camping programs, career education, computer assisted instruction, drug programs, educational television, higher education, preschool programs, prison programs, reading programs, and special education. | [FULL TEXT]

Ballesteros, David (1970).  Toward an Advantaged Society: Bilingual Education in the 70's  National Elementary Principal, 50, 2. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2408.

Ballesteros, David (1973).  Meeting Instructional Needs of Chicano Students. NCRIEEO Newsletter, Volume 3, Number 3, February 1972. 

The black and brown minorities which constitute about 16 percent of the total U.S. population today are demanding equal opportunities and quality education. The fact that more and more of these students are attending high schools and colleges will accelerate these demands. The demands are not only to reinforce their own ethnic heritage, but also to educate the dominant majority in the realities of a true history; that is, through economic development and land expansion, the United States inherited a diverse citizenry whose potentials and contributions still require recognition. All institutions, particularly institutions of higher education, can either re-examine traditional white elitist beliefs and create real and equal opportunity, or risk that violence which increasingly has become the dominant instrument of social change. In meeting the instructional needs of Chicanos, both in the public schools and institutions of higher learning, standards must be reassessed regarding achievement and IQ test, admission and academic requirements, and teaching competencies for both pre- and in-service teachers. What is needed is not fewer standards but better standards. Teachers--particularly culturally deficient teachers--need training to work with linguistically and culturally distinct students.

Ballesteros, Octavio A. (1979).  Preparing Teachers for Bilingual Education: Basic Readings. 

Issues related to bilingual bicultural education of Mexican American students are discussed in this collection of 26 articles contributed by 12 authors. The anthology focuses on the Mexican American in the Southwest and is intended primarily, though not exclusively, for the reader who is unfamiliar with the Spanish language and culture. Selections provide information on basic concepts in bilingual education; historical, linguistic, psychological, and cultural perspectives; and teaching methodology. The selections include scholarly and informal essays, research, oral history, short stories, poetry, state-of-the-art reviews, and opinion papers. Topics include the causes and effects of poverty among Mexican Americans, definintion of and contrast between bilingualism and biculturalism, personal experiences in a monolingual first grade, the Mexican heritage of the Southwest, the need for applied linguistics in the education of bilingual teachers, the structure of the Chicano family, "machismo" and the implications of the terms "Chicano" and "Mexican American", the role of parents in student motivation; cultural understanding, integration of Mexican American heritage into U.S. history, cultural literacy, special Spanish for bilingual teachers, Mexican "dichos", and the "Little School of the 400". Each selection concludes with questions for discussion and a list of suggested readings.

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Bamgbose, Ayo, Ed. (1976).  Mother Tongue Education: The West African Experience. 

In the rapidly changing political, economic, and social life of West Africa, there is a renewed interest in cultural identity. This book describes the developments and the difficulties experienced by different West African countries in the use of mother tongues in multi-lingual society. The book was commissioned to give scholars, educators, and policy-makers concerned with mother tongue education an account of developments in selected countries. Three broad areas are covered: (1) situations where the mother tongue has not yet been introduced into the formal school system but where preparations are being made; (2) situations where there has been a long tradition of mother tongue education; and (3) special projects. An introduction discusses the role of the mother tongue in education, with particular reference to West Africa. This is followed by a historical sketch of developments in mother tongue education. Contributions from Sierra Leone and Dahomey cover the first of the areas mentioned. Ghana's report covers the second area. The last two reports, from Nigeria, fall into the third category. Finally, two projects are described: the Six-Year Primary Project on the use of a major language as a medium of instruction and the Rivers Readers Project on the introduction of smaller languages into the formal school system.

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_____. (1979).  Banking: Checking Accounts. Student Lesson #15. English for Living. 

To assist the learner of English as a second language in dealing with the various services provided by a bank, a series of dialogs, comprehension questions, readings, and points of discussion are presented. The text is illustrated with sample forms. | [FULL TEXT]

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Baptiste, H. Prentice, Jr. (1979).  Multiculturalizing Teacher Education at the University of Houston. 

The prime considerations used in developing a multicultural teacher education program are discussed. The assembling of a faculty not only knowledgeable in concepts and strategies of multiculturalism but also composed of individuals of different ethnic and racial backgrounds was the first priority. The curriculum was developed along state certification guidelines and was based on the competency based system. A description is given of how students move through this program and the philosophy underlying developmental decisions is presented.

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Baral, David P. (1979).  Academic Achievement of Recent Immigrants from Mexico.  NABE: The Journal for the National Association for Bilingual Education, 3, 3. 

Presents evidence contradicting previous findings regarding the relative academic superiority of recent Mexican immigrants over native-born Mexican Americans. Discusses the problem of the relative achievement levels of the two groups in the context of three possible explanations: socio-economic differences; teacher expectancy effect; and native language theory.

Baratz, Joan C.; And Others (1973).  Development of Bilingual/Bicultural Education Models. Final Report. 

This report discusses the development of bilingual/bicultural education models. Included is information concerning the goals of bilingual education, six models of program realization, and problems and possibilities in implementing the models. Also included are footnotes and a bibliography. The appendixes present various articles: "A Brief Survey of Selected Bilingual Programs and Curricula," by Judith Perez de Heredia; "The Descriptive Analysis, Establishment, and Measurement of "Bilingual" Verbal Behavior," by Stanley Sapon; "Bilingual Education: An International Perspective," by Charles Ferguson, Catherine Houghton, and Marie Wells; "Pedagogical Models of Bilingualism--A Sociolinguistic Appraisal," by William Stewart, and "Biculturalism-Bilingualism," by Harvey Sarles. [Not available in hard copy due to marginal legibility of original document.]

Barcinas, Jesus C.; Faustino, Rogelio G. (1973).  I Famagu'on Gi Hatdin (The Children in the Garden). 

This book, written in Chamorro, is part of a series used in the bilingual education program in Guam. It is an elementary reader with many illustrations.

Barcinas, Jesus C.; Faustino, Rogelio G. (1973).  I Estorian I Niyok (The Story of the Coconut). 

This book, written in Chamorro, is part of a series used in the bilingual education program in Guam. It is an elementary reader with many illustrations.

Barcinas, Jesus C.; Jesus, Ricardo T. (1972).  I Paluman Kunao (The Dove). 

This book, written in Chamorro, is part of a series used in the bilingual education program in Guam. It is an elementary reader with many illustrations.

Barcinas, Jesus C.; Jesus, Ricardo T. (1972).  Manhunta I Cha'ka (The Rats' Meeting). 

This book, written in Chamorro, is part of a series used in the bilingual education program in Guam. It is an elementary reader with many illustrations.

Barcinas, Jesus C.; Jesus, Ricardo T. (1972).  I Dukduk (The Hermit Crab). 

This book, written in Chamorro, is part of a series used in the bilingual education program in Guam. It is an elementary reader with many illustrations.

Barcinas, Jesus C.; Jesus, Ricardo T. (1972).  Pumeska Si Tony (Tony Went Fishing). 

This book, written in Chamorro, is part of a series used in the bilingual education program in Guam. It is an elementary reader with many illustrations.

Barcinas, Jesus C.; Jesus, Ricardo T. (1973).  Si Pepi Gi Lancho (Pepi at the Ranch). 

This book, written in Chamorro, is part of a series used in the bilingual education program in Guam. It is an elementary reader with many illustrations.

Barcinas, Jesus C.; Jesus, Ricardo T. (1973).  I Taron Donne' (The Pepper Jar). 

This book, written in Chamorro, is part of a series used in the bilingual education program in Guam. It is an elementary reader with many illustrations.

Barcinas, Jesus C.; Jesus, Ricardo T. (1973).  Si Sali Bongbong Yan Si Hilitai (The Blackbird and the Monitor Lizard). 

This book, written in Chamorro, is part of a series used in the bilingual education program in Guam. It is an elementary reader with many illustrations.

Barcinas, Jesus C.; Moreno, Janet P. (1973).  Hayi Hao (Who Are You)? 

This book, written in Chamorro, is part of a series used in the bilingual education program in Guam. It is an elementary reader with many illustrations.

Barcinas, Jesus C.; Wright, Terry (1973).  Hafa Papa'... (What's Under)? 

This book, written in Chamorro, is part of a series used in the bilingual education program in Guam. It is an elementary reader with many illustrations.

Barik, Henri C. (1974).  A Look at Simultaneous Interpretation. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 4. 

This paper summarizes the findings of an exploratory study concerned with certain temporal and qualitative aspects of simultaneous interpretation. Six French-English interpreters (2 professionals, 2 students and 2 amateurs) translated tape-recorded passages representing different types of materials from their weaker into their dominant language or vice-versa. As analyzed by computer, the translator's (T's) utterance generally shows the same pattern of temporal relationships as natural speech (by speaker S) but is less rhythmical. T speaks for a greater proportion of time than S and his speech rate vis-a-vis S's is greater in relation to prepared than to spontaneous texts. The synchronization of the 2 speech patterns suggests that T makes good use of S's pauses to deliver his version. Characteristically, T lags behind S by 2 to 3 seconds. Various types of translation departures occur (examples are given), and extent of omission is related to input factors such as S speech rate. A number of other observations are noted.

Barik, Henri C.; And Others (1977).  English-French Bilingual Education: The Elgin Study through Grade Five  Canadian Modern Language Review, 33, 4. 

Presents the results of the 1974-75 evaluation of the bilingual education program initiated in 1970 by the Elgin County Board of Education in St. Thomas, Ontario. The study covers grades 2 to 5 and is a follow-up to previous evaluations.

Barik, Henri C.; Swain, Merrill (1974).  English-French Bilingual Education in the Early Grades: The Elgin Study  Modern Language Journal, 58, 8. 

Presents findings of an evaluation of an English-French bilingual education program using partial instruction in the second language in St. Thomas, Ontario. The evaluation covers grades 1-3. The program operates in unilingual English environment.

Barik, Henri C.; Swain, Merrill (1974).  Bilingual Education Project: Evaluation of the 1973-74 French Immersion Program in Grades 1-3 in the Federal Capital's Public Schools. 

The school performance of pupils in grades 1-3 of the French immersion program in operation in Ottawa public schools is evaluated in comparison with that of pupils in the regular English program. The results indicate that by the end of grade 1 immersion program pupils taught reading in French are found to lag behind their peers in the regular program in English language skills involving English reading, but they show some ability to transfer reading skills from French to English. By the end of grade 2, following the introduction of English Language Arts into the curriculum for 60 minutes a day, immersion pupils still lag behind their regular program peers in most English language skills considered, although their level of performance is consistent with their grade level. By the end of grade 3, immersion pupils match regular program pupils in all English language skills tested except spelling. Throughout grades 1-3 pupils in the two programs perform equivalently in mathematical skills and show the same level of cognitive development. Immersion pupils reveal a considerably higher level of proficiency in French than pupils of corresponding or higher grade levels receiving daily instruction in French as a second language, and do reasonably well in comparison with native French-speaking pupils.

Barik, Henri C.; Swain, Merrill (1976).  A Canadian Experiment in Bilingual Education: The Peel Study  Foreign Language Annals, 9, 5. 

An evaluation of a bilingual program for native English speakers in Ontario that involves the use of French as the medium of instruction for 70 percent of the curriculum in grade 8 and 40 percent in grade 9.

Barik, Henri C.; Swain, Merrill (1978).  Evaluation of a Bilingual Education Program in Canada: The Elgin Study Through Grade Six. Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin, No. 27. 

This paper presents the findings of the last completed evaluation of a partial immersion program in St. Thomas, Ontario, which involves the use of French as the medium of instruction for half the school day and English for the other half, beginning in Grade One. Unlike the previous evaluation, in the current one a Canadian-normed instrument was used. As in the past, differences between the immersion and comparison groups at each grade level were analyzed through one-way analysis of variance as well as analysis of covariance using age and IQ as covariants. The results are specified and put in relation to previous findings in two ways: longitudinally, as they relate to data from previous evaluations for the same group at earlier grades, and where applicable, "replicationally," as they relate to data from previous evaluations for the same grade level. Findings are reported and interpreted for IQ scores, measures of English language skills, mathematical concepts and total mathematics scores, work-study skills, and the composite measure of skills tested, science achievement, and French performance. The results are generally positive with respect to the partial French immersion program.

Barik, Henri; And Others (1974).  Immersion Classes in an English Setting: One Way for les Anglais to Learn French. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 2. 

The results of the evaluation of the French immersion program at a school in a unilingual English environment are described. A battery of tests was administered to a random sample of children from the kindergarten and grade one experimental French immersion classes and to a comparison group composed of children following the regular English program. At both grade levels, there was no evidence of a treatment effect on cognitive development. Results of testing numerical and English pre-reading skills indicate that immersion children are as ready to enter an English grade one as are regular program pupils. Although the grade one immersion children are somewhat behind the comparison group in the English language skills tested, they do show some ability to transfer reading skills from French to English. The results for the two groups in arithmetic skills tested in English indicate that immersion children can also transfer mathematical knowledge successfully from French into English. Both kindergarten and grade one immersion children show a greater comprehension of French than children of the same grade levels who receive instruction in French as a second language in a regular English program. The grade one immersion children however do not show the same level of proficiency in French as native French-speaking peers.

Barik, Henri; Swain, Marrill (1975).  Three-Year Evaluation of a Large Scale Early Grade French Immersion Program: The Ottawa Study  Language Learning, 25, 1. 

The school performance of pupils in grades K-2 of the French immersion program in operation in Ottawa public schools is evaluated in comparison with that of pupils in the regular English program.

Barker, Marie E. (1979).  For the Bilingual Classroom: Intrinsic Culture through Literature.  Hispania, 62, 4. 

Suggests ways in which cultural values can be taught to young people in bilingual classrooms through literature and games.

Barlow, Earl J.; Billedeaux, Dwight A. (1970).  Indian Education; Johnson-O'Malley Activities: Annual Report, 1969-1970. 

Information is given on Johnson-O'Malley funds provided for education of Montana's Indians during 1969-70. After a summary of such Johnson-O'Malley activities as provision of foster homes, special transportation, and home-school liaison, excerpts from Johnson-O'Malley project reports are presented (by reservation). The number of Montana Indian high school graduates and names of Indian students attending institutions of higher education through the aid of Federal funds are given. Programs involving development of school programs relating to drug abuse education, the Teacher Corps and teacher aide training, Follow Through, bilingual education, and career opportunities are also discussed. Tables provide Johnson-O'Malley administrative expenditures, Indian enrollment and attendance figures, and breakdowns of funds (by reservation). In conclusion, the report lists funds allocated through Public Law 874 and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, as well as Johnson-O'Malley kindergarten, summer workshop, and higher education funds. Related documents are ED 041 651 and ED 041 653. | [FULL TEXT]

Barnes, Everett, Jr. (1976).  The Berlin--North Country Bilingual Program, Interim Evaluation Report. Third Operational Year 1976-1977. 

Approximately 217 students in grades 1 to 3 of the Berlin public and parochial school systems participated in this bilingual program. Seventy percent of the students were either from French speaking families or had a French ethnic and cultural background. The goals of the program were outlined as follows: (1) to continue to design, develop, and implement a bilingual program to meet the needs of the Franco-American population in the Berlin system in such a way that it can be replicated in other New Hampshire communities; (2) to continue the development, implementation and expansion of a comprehensive instructional program incorporating a bilingual cultural heritage model for the Berlin system and other communities; (3) to provide the necessary pre and inservice training, including materials development, to teachers and aides from kindergarten through grade 6; and (4) to encourage and improve relations between the American and Franco-American populations in northern New Hampshire and their Canadian and French neighbors. The evaluation of this project indicates that it is making excellent progress toward fulfilling its goals. Areas that deserve closer attention include: (1) more systematic reporting to the executive board regarding the progress of the project; (2) continuing efforts to increase staff involvement in planning and decisionmaking; and (3) increasing the emphasis on public relations.

Barnett, Nancy (1979).  The Analysis of Technical Validity and Reliability in Bilingual Language Assessment Instruments: The Language Assignment Umpire (L.A.U.) Language Dominance Test. 

Techniques for assessing test validity and reliability are applied to an analysis of an unpublished test, in order to familiarize test users in local bilingual programs with the technical evidence that should be available for instruments of potential use in placing limited English-speaking students. The instrument studied, the Language Assignment Umpire (L.A.U.), is designed to identify language dominance by means of four oral tasks of sentence memory, synonyms, antonyms, and digit-reversal. The validity of the L.A.U. is considered in determining language proficiency as well as language dominance. Lexical difficulty and counts of phonemes, syllables, words, and morphemes are examined for a linguistic analysis of the L.A.U. The sentence memory task is examined for the syntactic complexity of its items. Statistical analyses are reported for a variety of correlations at both the intra-test and external criteria levels. A brief discussion is included of the results of a study in which the L.A.U. and other language data were used to determine the effectiveness of the Rochester, New York bilingual program.  | [FULL TEXT]

Barnhard, Diana; And Others (1976).  Introduction to Life Science (Introduccion a la Ciencia Biologica). 

These materials were developed to meet an expressed need for bilingual materials for a secondary school Life Science Course. Eight units were prepared. These include the following topics: (1) Introduction to the Scientific Method; (2) The Microscope; (3) The Cell; (4) Single-celled Protists, Plants, and Animals; (5) Multicellular Living Things; (6) Plants; (7) Animals; and (8) Genetics. Included are objectives, background material, lesson plans, evaluation materials, and activities. Many of these can be duplicated for classroom use.

Barnhardt, Ray, Ed.; And Others (1977).  Cross-Cultural Issues in Alaskan Education. 

This collection of articles represents the state of the art with regard to understanding and attending to cross-cultural issues in Alaskan education. The views presented by the various authors indicate some of the approaches being taken to ameliorate what are probably the most vexing problems faced by educators anywhere in the country. The articles were selected to present a variety of views on a wide range of issues, all associated with the complex cross-cultural problems inherent in the delivery of educational services to Alaska's multicultural population. The authors are all active participants in the processes and programs they describe, though the views presented are their own. The book is divided into sections that deal with educational policy, educational development, community/school, teaching/learning, and language issues.

Barrera, Aida (1973).  Carrascolendas--KLRN's Bilingual Series  Educational and Industrial Television, 5, 1. 

A brief description of an award-winning television series which seeks to reinforce the Mexican-American child's sense of identity by reflecting his ethnic composition and cultural heritage as they relate to his image of himself as an American.''

Barron, Pepe (1972).  Counseling the Chicanito  Journal of Non-White Concerns in Personnel and Guidance, 1, 1. 

The author presents a case for finding and supporting a new educational approach that will assist Chicano youth

Barrutia, Richard (1979).  Some New Roles for Study Abroad in American Education.  ADFL Bulletin, 11, 2. 

Makes some recommendations for the establishment and certification of study abroad programs, and discusses study abroad requirements for future language and area studies teachers.

Barry, Tom (1979).  Navajo Education: Learning in the Navajo Language.  Edcentric

A two-year federally-funded center has set out to make school for Navajos "a place of success rather than a place of failure and frustration." A brief history of Navajo education and a discussion of community-based programs, Navajo curriculum, energy curriculum, and bilingual program success are provided.

Bartelt, Guillermo (1979).  Two Approaches to Acculturation: Bilingual Education and ESL.  Journal of American Indian Education, 18, 3. 

Explains how bilingual education programs and monolingual institutions with remedial English as a Second Language programs share the goal of acculturation. Describes resistance and opposition to bilingual education, as well as its goals, advantages, approaches, teachers, and problems.

Bartley, Diana E. (1971).  Soviet Approaches to Bilingual Education. Language and the Teacher: A Series in Applied Linguistics, Volume 10. 

This book reports on the Soviet Union's general, secondary, polytechnical schools which have been established recently to teach students to use one foreign language with fluency or near fluency. The author first discusses the long-range and immediate objectives of these special schools. Marxist-Leninist theory and its influence on contemporary Soviet thought are considered. There is a description of the course structure and organization of the school. The second chapter considers the curriculum, its purpose and teaching methodology, Soviet foreign language pedagogy, and Soviet approaches to several methodological principles. The third chapter examines some of the materials used in the English, French, and German classes in the special schools. The final chapter discusses teacher preparation and professional characteristics of teachers in the special schools. A summary, conclusions, and a bibliography are included. Implications for foreign-language education and bilingual education in the United States are offered.

Bartning, Dolores de la Torre; And Others (1979).  Desegregation of the Nation's Public Schools: A Status Report. 

This report summarizes the results of a survey on the status of school desegregation in 47 major school districts in the United States. A profile of each district is provided together with a report on the desegregation status of that district. Supreme Court decisions with regard to school desegregation from 1954 to the present, the history of Congressional legislation concerning school desegregation, Federal enforcement procedures and the role of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, and bilingual education as it relates to school desegregation are also discussed. Tables are included showing the extent of segregation for various minorities and regions in 1976. Sources for the 47 district surveys and a list of school superintendents are appended.  | [FULL TEXT]

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_____. (1973).  B.A.S.T.A. Bilingual Alternatives for Secondary Teachers and Aides. A Four District Secondary Bilingual Consortium. 

A multiple school district consortium in California, entitled "Bilingual Alternatives for Secondary Teachers and Aides" (B.A.S.T.A.), helps to implement secondary bilingual projects through training and technical support. The principal activities of the consortium are program development, curriculum development, staff development, and parent/community involvement. The four school districts involved are Berkeley, Dale City, Oakland, and Richmond.

_____. (1976).  Basic Skills Learning Centers Evaluation. Final Report 1 October 1976 - 30 September 1979. 

Detailed program descriptions and discussion of research methodology are included in this independent evaluation of the Basic Skills Learning Centers (BSLC) Projects implemented by Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL) and Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) and designed to improve basic reading and math instruction in nonurban elementary schools. Following an introductory statement of the scope and purpose of the evaluation, Chapter II describes the SEDL and SWRL-BSLC programs including materials, staff training and technical assistance components, and target populations (monolingual English-speaking students for SEDL, Spanish-speaking students for SWRL). Chapter III covers initial planning and development of the evaluation format, rationales for design decisions, and explanations of the methodological approach. Chapter IV contains extensive tabular and narrative analyses of test and survey data gathered during the evaluation. Program implementation and student test performance are discussed separately for SEDL and SWRL programs. Significant academic gains are shown for students in both programs. Chapter V discusses implications of the BSLC Project for future educational efforts, emphasizing the special features of bilingual programs. The appendices (RC 011 793) contain a wide array of supporting materials.

_____. (1978).  Basic Skills Learning Centers Project. Annual Report for the Period October 1, 1978 - September 30, 1979. 

Program implementation is stressed in this final report of a three-year Basic Skills Learning Centers (BSLC) Project designed (1) to improve basic skills in reading, math, and reasoning and (2) to serve a target population of Spanish-speaking children from nonurban schools in five southwestern states. Section I is the annual report for 1978-79 and summarizes the year's activities, with emphasis on field services, staff training, and communication with participating schools. Covering the entire period from 1976-1979, Section II includes an overview of the project, its goals and target audience; a description of the programs and materials and their method of implementation; and a summary of the major strategies used to help the schools implement the programs. Numbers of students participating and student characteristics are included in this section. Use of bilingual instructional staff is discussed, and some problems with student record keeping procedures and delivery of services to rural school districts are pointed out. Section III covers the three years of the Louisiana Component of the project, which served English-speaking children from 45 schools in 6 parishes. Appendices contain correspondence documenting the activities of the 1978-79 fourth quarter and tabular material showing pupil progress and projected use of BSLC materials in 1979-80, when federal support for the program will not be available. | [FULL TEXT]

Basa, Eniko Molnar; Nagy, Karoly (1979).  AHEA Statements on Foreign Language Education. 

Position statements and materials of the American Hungarian Educators' Association (AHEA) are presented. Contents are as follows: (1) statement to the President's Commission on Foreign Languages and International Studies: On the need to consider ethnic-oriented bilingual and multicultural education as a viable means of reaching greater language competency and international awareness (presented by Eniko Molnar Basa); (2) AHEA position on bilingual education; (3) AHEA position on multicultural education; (4) letter to the Commission from Judith Magyar, Secretary and Publication Editor of the American-Hungarian Folklore Centrum; (5) AHEA recommendations and comments to the President's Commission on Foreign Language and Area Studies; (6) Ethnic schools in the United States, A Case Study: Hungarian Schools; and (7) Bibliography: Materials on Bilingual and Bicultural Education. A bilingual person has command not only of the language but also of the cultural context of the two backgrounds. Thus the need to support the ethnic language and its speakers becomes a need to support multilingual skills. Multiculturalism is concerned with total cultural orientation rather than only language. International education is designed to transmit both language and cultural identity.

Bass de Martinez, Bernice (1977).  Poder es Saber. Workshop: Developing a Bilingual Curriculum (New Mexico Highlands University, Las Vegas, New Mexico, June 1977). 

Bilingual teachers and program directors of northern New Mexico attended a workshop at New Mexico Highlands University to examine the curriculum designed to meet the needs of students within the bilingual bicultural setting. Participants were asked to redefine curriculum within the "workshop" setting. Consultants assisted the group in establishing a more complete overview of bilingual bicultural curriculum. Components of particular interest were reading and language arts, math, science, social science, and fine arts. Throughout the workshop participants were asked to assist in the development of activities for each area. This booklet is designed to disseminate the information gathered by the participants under the direction of the selected consultants. The booklet contains graded (K-7) lesson plans, written in Spanish, in the areas of reading, math, science, social science, and fine arts for use in the bilingual classroom. Thirty-five annotated sources, 30 additional sources, and 32 publishers' addresses are listed.

Bass, Bernice Marie (1975).  Oral English Language Assessment of First Grade Children in Bilingual Bicultural Education: Emphasis on Phonology and Syntax. 

The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable instrument that could be used by teachers and staff in Colorado to assist in the assessment of oral English language, particularly the syntax and the phonology of first-grade children in bilingual bicultural education (BBE). The study also related the scores of the instrument to seven variables: intelligence, age, language spoken in the home, ethnicity, number of siblings, kindergarten attendance, and sex. Subjects were 78 first graders in BBE programs in Colorado during the 1974-1975 school year. Children were tested using the Bass Sentence Repetition Task (BSRT) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT). Correlation analysis showed that intelligence, language spoken in the home, and ethnicity were correlated to the BSRT pronunciation score at the .01 level, and the variables of intelligence and home language were significant at the .05 level to the BSRT structure score, with the sex variable at the .01 level. Multiple regression analysis showed intelligence, measured by the PPVT, to be a contributing factor to the measure of English pronunciation and oral structure, as measured by the BSRT. The number of siblings is considered a contributing factor in the prediction of oral English structure.

Bass, Jack (1978).  Widening the Mainstream of American Culture. A Ford Foundation Report on Ethnic Studies. 

This report describes the evolution of Afro-American, Hispanic, and American Indian studies supported by the Ford Foundation at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. An overview of the events which led to increased interest in minority/ethnic studies is provided. Specific undergraduate programs discussed include the Afro-American studies program at Yale, the Mexican American studies program at California State University, and programs for minority students at Oakes College. Aspects considered include vocational concerns of those in Afro-American studies, the demand for bilingual/bicultural education in Los Angeles, and the role ethnic studies has played in increasing minority student interest in science. Specific graduate programs referred to include the Afro-American Studies Programs at Boston University and Atlanta University, the Center for Puerto Rican Studies at the City University of New York, and the multi-ethnic program at the University of California at Los Angeles. Reviewed are strategies undertaken by these universities to develop and establish professional interest and concern for the respective minority/ethnic groups.

Bassett, G. W.; And Others (1976).  New Directions in Australian Education. 

This book consists of 16 selected papers that focus on the broad topic of new trends in Australian education. All the papers were originally presented at the Seventeenth Annual Conference of the Australian College of Education, which was held in May 1976. Titles of the papers include "Perspectives on Recent Changes in Australian Education,""Labor's Achievements in Australian Education 1972-1975,""The Political Economy of Educational Advancement,""Accountability in Australian Education,""Community Involvement in Education,""The School in the Community,""New World in the Morning?""The Dilemmas of Australian Preschool Education,""An Historical/Empirical Examination of the Effectiveness of Primary Teacher Preparation in Australia,""The Personal Development Programme in N.S.W. Secondary Schools: Rationale and Critique,""The 'Special Child' in Contemporary Australian Education,""Bilingual Education in the Northern Territory,""The Social Education Materials Project: A Review,""Directions in Advanced Education--Indicators and Influences,""A Model for Regional Tertiary Education," and "Policy Orientated Educational Research."

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Battiste, Marie A.; And Others (1975).  Study of Bilingual-Bicultural Projects Involving Native American, Indo-European, Asian and Pacific Language Groups. 

This is the final report of one of three studies in an overall project entitled "Evaluation of Bilingual Education Programs." This study was sponsored in response to a need for more information regarding bilingual-bicultural education for other than Spanish language groups. The study's objectives were to: (1) identify the major issues involved in bilingual-bicultural education for Native American, Indo-European Asian and Pacific language groups; (2) document the goals, approaches, resources or costs that have been affected by these issues; (3) assess the impact bilingual-bicultural education has had in their communities; and (4) recommend possible federal program changes. An in-depth study was conducted of 10 selected projects in Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Louisiana, Maine, Montana, New York, Rhode Island and Washington. The language groups included were Chinese, French, Inupiat Eskimo, Italian, Navajo, Northern Cheyenne, Passamaquoddy, Pilipino, Portuguese, Ute and Yupik Eskimo. The following are among the major conclusions and recommendations: (1) Some evidence exists that Title VII is having long-range benefits to the bilingual groups being served. (2) There is a general lack of materials, teaching skills, experties in planning materials development, and evaluation at the local project level. One suggested improvement is to provide continuous technical assistance and training throughout the life of projects.

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Bauder, Tom (1974).  Teacher-Training In-Service Packet. Individualizing Bilingual/ESL Instruction. 

This packet is designed to help give inservice training on the topic of individualizing bilingual and ESL instruction. It is hoped that the packet will minimize the preparation time needed and will allow inservice trainers to benefit from the experience of other staff members. The first section of the packet consists of an introduction to individualized instruction, and includes suggestions for familiarizing teachers with the topic. Independent Learning Activities (ILA's) and Learning Centers are defined and discussed in the second section, and the construction of an ILA is outlined in the third section. A bibliography citing books and articles in individualized instruction is included, as well as handouts to be used in inservice sessions. The latter are on the topics of the past tense of irregular verbs, telling time, and making change. Four transparencies to be used in inservice sessions conclude the packet.

Bauer, E. W. (1971).  The Migrant Child and His Psycho-linguistic Problems.  [AATEFL Newsletter] 

Present attempts to integrate migrants linguistically and culturally into Australian society need to be improved. The migrant child must be taught to learn how to learn, and learning experiences must be structured to promote education in school subjects and communication with peers. There is a problem of acculturation; migrant children must be taught to develop a differentiation mechanism to bridge two cultural systems and two language systems. There must be a systematic growth of cultural awareness, and the Australian community must also recognize and accept foreign cultures. The new concept of the pluralistic society should be adopted. Language-learning and teaching-research centers should be established to specialize in the study of problems in second language learning; applied linguistics; evaluation and development of curriculum, tests, and teaching materials; and information coordination and dissemination.

Bauer, Evelyn (1970).  Bilingual Education in BIA Schools  TESOL Quarterly, 4, 3. 

Briefly surveys the history of bilingualism in the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), including the program to promote native-tongue literacy and the Navajo Five-Year Programs, and describes present day programs such as the Rough Rock and Rock Point Schools.

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Beauchamp, Laura; Butler, David L. (1977).  Bilingual Bicultural Curriculum for Language Arts, Grade Four. Connecticut Migratory Children's Program. 

This is one of a series of curriculum guides designed to assist bilingual teachers in efforts to provide a coordinated program of studies for students in the Connecticut Migratory Children's Program and for any other students whose native language is Spanish. It is felt that an effort should be made to discover the skill level at which a child is functioning, to choose materials from curriculum guides at that skill level, and to move to more difficult materials when the child is ready. Skills are suggested at given grade levels to provide a logical sequence of skill development. The overall focus of the curriculum guides in the series is on Puerto Rican history and culture. The present guide is for the bilingual-bicultural curriculum for language arts at the fourth grade level, and is divided into seven units: (1) Connecticut, (2) Puerto Rico, (3) Latin America, (4) Europe, (5) Asia, (6) The Eskimo, and (7) The American Indian. Each unit is divided into skills, with activities prescribed for each skill. Each skill is accompanied by a reading selection. | [FULL TEXT]

Beauchamp, Laura; Butler, David L. (1979).  [Bilingual-Bicultural Curriculum for Language Arts: Grade 5.] 

Designed to assist bilingual teachers in providing a coordinated program of studies for students in the Connecticut Migratory Children's Program and others whose native language is Spanish, this language arts curriculum guide for fifth grade is one of a series for pre-school through fifth grade. The overall focus is on Puerto Rican history and culture, placing the development of skills within the context of the experience and social identity of the child. A sequential approach is utilized. Skills appropriate to the grade level are presented in eight units, with reading selections thematically linked to the corresponding social studies guide: environmental adaptation, migration, cultural contact, production, trade, stability and change, ideals, building a lifestyle. For example, the skills in the unit on trade are: interpreting proverbs and sayings, identifying the gender of irregular nouns, and making adjectives and nouns agree in gender and number. Key vocabulary words are listed with each skill, as are activities to motivate students to learn the new skill. The illustrations provided can be copied for instructional use. Much of the material for the teacher to use with the class is given in Spanish.

Beauchemin, Maurice O. (1978).  The Provision of Second Language Instruction--Financial Aspects.  Education Canada, 18, 4.

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_____. (1979).  Becoming a United States Citizen. Student Lesson #20. English for Living. 

To assist the learner of English as a second language in dealing with the procedures for becoming a United States citizen, a series of dialogs, comprehension questions, readings, and points of discussion are presented. The text is illustrated. | [FULL TEXT]

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Begay, Shirley M., Ed. (1976).  To Be A Navajo. Second Edition, 1976. 

Designed to provide culturally relevant and interesting reading material in Navajo for Navajo speaking children, this booklet presents 20 short stories written and illustrated by students at Rough Rock Demonstration School. Intended to encourage Navajo speaking children, and others, to read and to instill pride in being a Navajo, the stories pertain to the children's experience at home. The short stories, given in English and Navajo, cover such topics as horses, the seasons of spring and summer, the family, the rodeo, home, herding sheep, weaving a rug, and the student's surrounding environment.

Begin, Yves (1979).  Une experience d'enseignement individualise de l'anglais langue seconde a l'elementaire (An Experiment in Individualized Instruction in English as a Second Language in Elementary School). Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 18. 

The question of whether educational technology can be of assistance to the public school teacher who is in the position of having to teach the rudiments of a second language that he himself has not mastered is addresed in this paper. A series of teaching and learning units were constructed and experimented with for two years in teaching English as a second language to 10- and 11-year-old students. The technology that was used allowed for a high degree of individualization of instruction, due particularly to the use of the cassette tape-recorder. The results show that the 10-year-old students performed better than a control group in a similar context. The instructional method used also seems to increase the motivation and enjoyment of the students in relation to English as a school subject. However, the learning environment thus created retains a certain rigidity unless it is enlivened by a teacher capable of speaking the second language and promoting dynamic exchanges between students.

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Belding, Nancye; And Others (1972).  A Survey of the Literature Relevant to Spanish-Surname Rural Youth in the Southwestern States. Final Report of Phase 1. 

The objective of this study is to optimize the benefits of youth projects for Spanish-surname rural youth in the Southwest. A search of the literature published between 1965 and 1970 which is relevant to the problems of Spanish-surname rural youth in the Southwest is included. The survey population consists of Spanish-surname youth living in rural areas of the Southwest in 1963-68. The changing environment of these youth is described in terms of population trends, mobility, social and cultural environment, economic environment, and outmigration. The educational system of the rural Southwest, job opportunities, and the characteristics of the rural Spanish-surname youth are also described. Major recommendations for revisions in the rural educational system include improved teacher preparation, the use of Spanish literature, smaller student-teacher ratios, expanded counseling services, more community involvement, and additional social services.

Belendez, Pilar; Melendez, Sarah E. (1977).  El Efecto de la Educacion Bilingue Bicultural en los Autoconceptos y las Actitudes de Ninos Hispanicos  NABE: The Journal of the National Association for Bilingual Education, 1, 3. 

Written in Spanish, the article reports a study which compared the self concepts and attitudes toward their culture, the American culture, and school of Hispanic students in a maintenance and a transitional bilingual-bicultural program and in a monolingual school.

Bell, Paul W. (1971).  Bilingual Education - A Second Look  TESOL Newsletter, 5, 3-4. 

Paper presented at the TESOL Convention, New Orleans, Louisiana, March 1971.

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Ben-Zeev, Sandra (1977).  The Effect of Bilingualism in Children from Spanish-English Low Economic Neighborhoods on Cognitive Development and Cognitive Strategy. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 14. 

A previous study found that middle-class Hebrew-English bilingual children were characterized by distinctive perceptual strategies and more advanced processing in certain verbal tasks, as compared to similar monolinguals. The present study tested whether similar strategies and response patterns will appear when the children involved are from different language groups and from relatively disadvantaged inner-city neighborhoods. The results showed that Spanish-English bilingual children manifest similar strategies to those found in the previous study, although with some attenuation. The strategies apply to nonverbal as well as verbal material. These results appeared in spite of deficiencies in vocabulary and syntax usage for the Spanish-English bilinguals relative to their control group of similar ethnic and social background.

Benavides, Ezequiel (1976).  Una Crisis para la Educacion Bilingue en Nuevo Mexico. (A Crisis for Bilingual Education in New Mexico)  La Confluencia, 1, 2. 

Written in Spanish and English, this article briefly reviews the bilingual picture in New Mexico. If New Mexico is to succeed in attracting Federal monies for bilingual education, it must strive for unity in its efforts and objectives.

Benedict, Annette (1978).  Title VII Bilingual-Bicultural Program, Final Evaluation Report, 1977-1978. 

After reviewing recent legal decisions on bilingual education, this report describes the goals and requirements of a bilingual program in a New York City community school district with a large number of Spanish speaking pupils, and the methods by which these goals were to be attained. The training and responsibilities of staff are discussed, with particular attention to the participation of bilingual teachers in inservice workshops. The program is evaluated and the extent to which its objectives were fulfilled is discussed. Areas evaluated include student growth in verbal and mathematical skills and cultural history, cross-cultural activities for students, parent-school rapport, and the development of a multi-media laboratory. Tables are included.

Benedict, Annette (1979).  P.S. 332 Title VII Program, District Model for Bilingual Development. Final Evaluation Report, 1978-79. 

This is an evaluation of a Title VII bilingual education program carried out for Spanish and English dominant children in grades K-6 at Public School 332 in Brooklyn, New York. The aims of the program were to develop students' abilities to speak, read, and write English, to enable Spanish speaking children to interact with their English speaking peers, and to provide for bilingual staff development, parent and community involvement, and the development of instructional materials. In addition, goals were set for student achievement in the areas of mathematics, social studies, science, and cross cultural understanding. Staffing, instructional practices, and in-class and extracurricular activities are described in this report. Also presented are pre and post test scores, indicating achievement in reading, vocabulary, comprehension, mathematics, history, and culture for students at most grade levels. Brief recommendations are offered in the areas of classroom assignment of Spanish speaking pupils, outreach to surrounding schools, the incorporation of music and dancing into the curriculum, and the teaching of test-taking skills to participating students.

Benedict, Annette (1979).  Title VII--Individualized Bilingual Instructional System. Final Evaluation Report, 1978-1979. 

This is an evaluation of a Title VII bilingual education program carried out for Spanish speaking students in grades K-5 at Public School 155 (P.S. 155), Brooklyn, New York. A brief background of Title VII legislation is given. Instructional goals, staff development, parent involvement, and the development of a bilingual curriculum are listed as general objectives of the legislation. Specific objectives for the program at P.S. 155 are outlined. These include parent involvement and staff development, as well as student achievement in English and Spanish reading, mathematics, and bicultural education. Student progress is indicated by results from pre and post test scores. Other school and extracurricular activities undertaken as part of the program are also described. It is concluded that the P.S. 155 Title VII program was a general success, benefitting students, staff, and parents. Brief recommendations are offered in the areas of improved student records, expanded school activities, staff roles, and the extension of the program to a neighborhood parochial school.

Benitez, Mario (1971).  Bilingual Education: The What, the How, and the How Far  Hispania, 54, 3. 

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Benitez, Mario A.; Villarreal, Lupita G. (1979).  The Education of the Mexican American: A Selected Bibliography. 

The scope of this taxonomically structured research bibliography covers 3,244 significant works published from 1896 to 1976 directly related to the legal, demographic, sociocultural, and linguistic determinants of Mexican American education. Books, monographs, journal articles, government documents, federal laws and court rulings, doctoral dissertations, master's theses, and ERIC entries are selected from 170 bibliographies, 190 periodicals, and other educational sources based on availability, relevancy, completeness, length, objectivity, and accuracy. Entries are in chronological order within topics and subtopics. An alphabetical author index and a chronological index are provided. Topics and subtopics are: bibliographies; general--Mexican American demography, education, educational history, equal opportunity, conferences; Mexican American students--physical and cultural traits, health, language, intelligence, achievement, gifted, handicapped, delinquent, dropout; schools--administration, teachers, teacher training, counseling, libraries; curriculum--general, ethnic studies, preschool, elementary, secondary, vocational, compensatory, textbooks; migrant education--general, the migrant child, programs, conferences, administration, teacher training; bilingual education--general, theory, evaluation, effects; higher education; adult education; and community.

Benseler, David P., Comp. (1978).  ACTFL Annual Bibliography of Books and Articles on Pedagogy in Foreign Languages for the Years 1975 and 1976. 

This selected bibliography of books and articles related to foreign language pedagogy is compiled from a master list of over 300 journals and reference sources. This compilation, which lists publications that appeared during the two calendar years 1975 and 1976, contains 4,224 citations. They are divided into the following topics: "Festschriften" and Other Analyzed Collections; General; Bilingualism; Linguistics; Culture; Teaching the Foreign Language; Curricular Problems and Developments; Materials; Physiology and Psychology of Language Learning; Teacher Education and Certification; Methods; Equipment; and Testing. An author index is provided.

Benseller, David P., Editor (1977).  Proceedings, Pacific Northwest Council on Foreign Languages, Volume 28, Part 2: Second Language Teaching 77. 

The twenty-eight papers that make up the second part of the proceedings of the twenty-eighth annual meeting of the Pacific Northwest Council on Foreign Languages cover a wide range of topics relating to foreign language teaching and linguistic theory: German culture and civilization; sexism in language; bilingual education; bilingualism and language assessment; French language, history and culture; foreign languages and international education; study abroad; Hispanic culture, history, literature and civilization; English loanwords in the Couxhobor dialect; an interdisciplinary linguistics program; historical development of languages; semantics; teaching culture; use of audio visual aids in vocabulary building; micro-teaching; using the radio; testing techniques; and developing teacher competencies.

Bensimon, Estela, Ed.; And Others (1978).  First New Jersey Statewide Conference of Hispanics in Higher Education. Report of Proceedings. 

This document contains the proceedings of a conference held in December 1978 to discuss problems confronted by Hispanics in the higher education system of New Jersey. Presented are an opening statement by Chancellor T. Edward Hollander on the status of Hispanics in New Jersey higher education and the keynote address by Hilda Hidalgo focusing on landmark events in the education of Hispanics. Also included are the following papers: (1) "An Examination of the Implications of Current Trends and Issues in Policy and Planning for Hispanics in Higher Education," by Marcos Leiderman; (2) "Affirmative Action," by Alberto Montare; (3) "Admissions," by Diane S. Maldonado and Margaret Rosario Rivera; (4) "Issues in Bilingual Higher Education," by Rosa Maria Cotayo, Estela Bensimon, Yvonne Rodriguez; (5) "Academic Programs," by Leopoldo Rivera; (6) "Supportive Services," by Edward Morales; (7) "Political Dynamics in Higher Education," by Alfonso A. Roman; and (8) "Development of a Statewide Association," by Luis Soler-Baez. In addition, workshop reports and resolutions regarding future collective efforts in the areas outlined in the papers are presented in this document.

Benton, Richard A. (1979).  Policy Implications for English-Maori Bilingual Education in New Zealand. 

The development of Maori-English bilingual education programs in New Zealand will have these beneficial effects: (1) the educational needs of Maori children, who are likely to be bilingual when they start school, will be met; (2) the maintenance of the Maori language and culture will be fostered; and (3) the indigenous culture will win new appreciation from the English-speaking majority. A large-scale maintenance program will require a major political initiative prior to the development of curricula and teacher training programs. The Maori language is in decline and can be rescued only by a qeneral recognition that it is in the national interest to preserve this indigenous language and culture.

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Bequer, Marta M. (1978).  A Look at Bilingual Programs in Dade County: "Gateway to the Latin World"  Educational Leadership, 35, 8. 

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Berchuck, Irving; Tauss, Vita (1974).  Bi-Lingual Education: A Report on a Working Program. 

Community District Number 24 in New York City made successful inroads into meeting the educational needs of children learning English as a second language. Meeting such needs helped to contribute to the stabilization of this large residential area. Initially, the government responded to the needs of these students by providing funds for the establishment of bilingual and bicultural programs in three elementary schools at the primary level. All personnel in the program (teachers, assistant teachers, professional assistants, and resource staff) were bilingual. Native English-speaking and Hispanic children were grouped together in both English and Spanish classes. Spanish-speaking students were selected on the basis of performance on a rating scale. The curriculum consisted of reading, mathematics, and language instruction, with provisions also being made for the bilingual teaching of social studies, art, and science. With the aid of a strong curriculum, adequate staff, and community support, the bilingual program was evaluated as being successful on the basis of two major outcomes: (1) the rapid development of bilingual fluency in both the English- and Spanish-speaking groups and (2) the elimination of difficulties for non-English-speaking pupils, traditionally handicapped by a severe retardation in school achievement during the period of transition to the mastery of English.

Berendzen, Harry (1972).  The First Indian Bilingual Projects, Title VII Meeting: A Report.  [Language in American Indian Education] 

The purpose of the First Indian Bilingual Projects, Title VII Meeting was to discuss experiences and exchange ideas on the development of evaluation design and measurable objectives, the involvement of parents and community, and the development of materials. Sessions were held on unobtrusive measures, measuring language dominance, parent and community involvement, small group instruction for the classroom, and materials development. Suggestions included that at least 2 meetings be held per year; that the entire project staff be given an opportunity for input and agreement in the area of evaluation; that more community members be present for future meetings; that native speakers be trained to become bilingual teachers; and that presentation, display, and demonstration of project-developed materials be a major part of future meetings.

Berger, Dan (1975).  Corrective Reading, Corrective Mathematics and Bilingual Instruction of Pregnant School Age Girls; School Year 1974-1975. 

This program, funded under Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act was designed to provide continuity of instruction in reading and mathematics for eligible pregnant school age girls in New York City. It was also designed to provide bilingual English-Spanish instruction for eligible students. The target population for the program was pregnant girls who were in attendance during the regular school year at one of the six facilities for pregnant girls in New York City. Approximately 1900 pregnant secondary school age students participated during the school year. The corrective reading program was designed to foster independence in the use of word-attack and comprehension skills. Through testing, weaknesses were diagnosed and treatment recommended during the pupil teacher and teacher guidance counselor conferences. Students were selected for participation in the corrective reading and corrective mathematics programs on the basis of their being at least two years retarded in either subject, according to national norms, in attained grade equivalent scores. Each participant was to attend the program five days a week, five hours a day, from nine to three during the 1974-75 academic school year. Based on an analysis of test results and site visits it was determined that the program provided a vital service to pregnant school-age girls who were two or more years retarded in reading and/or math.  | [FULL TEXT]

Bergman, Coral (1975).  Louis, Hildegarde, and Mary: A Comparative Study in Infant Bilingualism. 

Studies of bilingual infants are in disagreement as to the point at which the child distinguishes two languages in his linguistic environment. In this paper, data from two classic works by linguist-parents on bilingual infants are compared with data collected from the author's own bilingual daughter. Five types of behavior are described which might provide evidence that the child is able to perceive the existence of two language systems earlier than has been proposed. In discussion of the possession of two "native" languages by the bilingual child, data from the author's daughter is presented, showing her to possess two coexisting grammars and social norms for the use of each. This data was collected by videotape when the child was 3 years old. This study is relevant to questions of the metalinguistic abilities of bilingual children and to educational programs which receive and educate the truly bilingual preschooler.

Berke, Iris; And Others (1976).  The Impact of State Mandated Evaluation Procedures upon the Educational Programs of Local School Districts in California. 

Data were collected from 15 school districts in northern California to assess three state-mandated evaluation procedures: (1) a comprehensive program planning report; (2) a year-end report on expenditures and attainment of objectives; and (3) a monitor and review visitation whose purpose was to monitor program compliance, observe improvements in instruction and school administration, and assess participation by school staff and parents in educational decision making generally. The participating schools received funds from at least two of the following state or federal programs: Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Educationally Disadvantaged Youth, Early Childhood Education, and Bilingual Education. The planning report and the site visit improved participation and awareness among staff and active parents; these two procedures also influenced instruction and management. The expenditure report, however, had little impact; it was regarded primarily as a requirement for further funding, but not perceived to be as helpful as the other two procedures. The state-mandated evaluation focused school site planning on the total educational program of the school, rather than on individual funding sources. (The site-visit interview form and the detailed questionnaire preceding the visit are appended).

Berlin, William (1977).  Ni Zhisinisszi. Nee Nahnah Aideenau (I Speak Cheyenne. I Speak Arapaho). 

This is a primary-level reader to be used in connection with a bilingual education program. The story is preceded by a pronunciation guide, which lists Cheyenne and Arapaho sound symbols and their approximate English equivalents. Each illustrated page contains a Cheyenne and an Arapaho caption with an English translation.

Berman, Paul; And Others (1975).  Federal Programs Supporting Educational Change, Vol. 5: Executive Summary. 

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Office of Education, Rand is conducting a several-year study of federally funded programs designed to introduce and spread innovative practices in public schools. These change agent programs normally offer temporary federal funding to school districts as "seed money" or "risk capital." If an innovation is successful, it is assumed that the district will continue part or all of the project using other sources of funds, and also disseminate it to other schools in the district, as well as to other districts that may be seeking change. The Rand study examines four such federal programs--Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title III, Innovative Projects; Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title VII, Bilingual Projects; Vocational Education Act, 1968 Amendments, Part D, Exemplary Programs; and the Right-To-Read Program. The study identifies what tends to promote various kinds of changes in the schools and what doesn't. In particular, the Rand study will identify for federal, state, and local policy makers the nature, permanence, and extent of dissemination of innovations that are associated with the various federal programs and with various federal, state, and local practices. This part tries to distill the study's methods and results for a general audience.

Berman, Ruth A. (1979).  The Re-Emergence of a Bilingual: A Case Study of a Hebrew-English Speaking Child. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 19. 

Insight into processes involved in child bilingualism is provided by this account of the "primary language acquisition" (in the sense of Lamendella, 1977) of two languages, English and Hebrew, by a 4 1/2 year old subject. The child's re-entry into her first language, Hebrew, after a year spent in an all-English environment, is traced. Of central concern to the discussion are the transitions between Stage I (understanding Hebrew and English but speaking only Hebrew), Stage II (all-English) and her emergence as a full bilingual after her return to the United States. This development is traced in terms of processes such as language-mixing and code-switching, with specific attention to the developmental errors in the subject's Hebrew. These errors are accompanied by increasing evidence of systematic transfer of syntactic patterns from Hebrew into English usage, but not vice versa. The overall pattern of development is analysed in terms of factors of personality and social situation as well as of the cognitive and linguistic tasks faced by the child in attaining bilingual competence in her two languages.  | [FULL TEXT]

Bermea, Maria Teresa Cruz (1974).  Training Migrant Paraprofessionals in Bilingual Mini Head Start. Mexican Cultural Heritage Materials for Preschool Children. 

Given in this manual are materials used in the Bilingual Mini Head Start Program to teach migrant preschool children about their Mexican cultural heritage. Presented in Spanish, the activities include pronunciation exercises, rhymes, tales, songs, dances, games, and manual activities. Materials are given for teaching about: (1) El Dia de la Bandera, (2) Don Benito Juarez, (3) Dia del Ejercito, (4) Dia del Carnaval, (5) La Primavera, (6) Dia de la Madre, (7) Dia del Padre, (8) La Navidad en Mexico, (9) Nuestros Amiguitos del Mundo, (10) frutas y verdural, and (11) La Estudiantina.

Bernal, Elias R., Comp. (1973).  A Report of the Final Session of the National Bilingual/Bicultural Institute (Albuquerque, New Mexico, November 28-December 1, 1973). 

Attending the National Bilingual Bicultural Education Institute in Albuquerque, New Mexico on November 28-December 1, 1973, were 1,300 representatives from 25 states. Among the institute's objectives were: (1) to review present and pending state bilingual bicultural education legislation and appropriations; and (2) to develop new directions for bilingual bicultural education for the 1970's which will lead to national legislation. This report presents the participants' final deliberations and recommendations at the concluding general session. Topics covered are: financial support; Title I of ESEA (Elementary and Secondary Education Act); research; evaluation; teacher training; migrant education; NIE's (National Institute for Education) philosophy and operational policy for career education; and the National Task Force de la Raza's mandate. Some recommendations are that: (1) the National Task Force de la Raza request NIE's director to freeze all top level positions until the time when the Spanish speaking people can be identified and be able to compete for said positions; (2) an institute for training parents of the bilingual community be funded and implemented; and (3) criterion reference testing be administered in the child's dominant language. The New Mexico Caucus resolutions are given.

Bernal, Ernest M., Jr. (1974).  Models of Bilingual Education, Grades K-3, for a Planned Variation Study. 

The Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) and, most recently, the National Institute of Education (NIE) have been involved in contemplating a national planned variation study of bilingual education. In order to determine the feasibility of such a massive study, several approaches to bilingual education, with emphasis on bicultural as well as bilingual considerations, were developed. Next, usable models were extracted and cast into a planned variation experimental design. It was specified that these models represent a theoretical or methodological base, embody an observably distinct approach to education, be operational long enough to make a difference in the children's academic competencies (in this case K-3), and have reasonable possibilities of acceptance by the professional and ethnic communities having to implement and support them. The four models delineated shared the following characteristics: (1) affective, academic, and linguistic objectives on which to base lesson sequences and content, student placement, and progress; (2) growth in both English and Spanish language proficiency; (3) provision for staff training, classroom materials, and community participation at each site; (4) specific strategies relating to awareness of and respect for the cultural, linguistic, and social variables of the installation site; and (5) specific methods for assessing these strategies and objectives and for monitoring the installation and its effects on the population. The models are: the Behaviorist Model, the Immersion Model, an Eclectic Model, and a Child-Centered Model. | [FULL TEXT]

Bernal, Joe J.; And Others (1979).  Bilingual Education at the Crossroads: A Rationale for Political Action.  NABE: The Journal for the National Association for Bilingual Education, 3, 2. 

The article presents a brief overview of the state of the art of bilingual education, provides a background on how the government system responds to the opinions of its many publics, and deals with the political implications for bilingual education, and the need to develop political efficacy through Political Action

Bernbaum, Gerald (1979).  Comparative Bilingualism. Bilingual Education Monographs, No. 1. 

The worldwide phenomenon of rising national and ethnic interest has manifested itself in the demand for bilingual education in North America and in the struggles over language usage, bilingualism, and the sense of nationhood in developing countries. In this context, some attempts at national solutions of the problem are discussed and the practicalities and dilemmas of bilingual education are outlined. Bilingual education issues in western societies are examined against the background of the social and political issues related to language usage in developing countries. Underlying the bilingual education question are issues that involve ethnicity, social class, and poverty, and the principles regulating life and opportunity in western societies. Some of the questions examined are: (1) the fact that non-English speaking groups in both England and America are generally poor; (2) the difficulty of establishing objectives and the shortage of revenues; and (3) the magnitude of the social problem. Attempts made in Toronto, New York, San Diego, and Salt Lake City to deal with bilingual education programs are examined. It is pointed out, in conclusion, that the purpose of the paper was to lay bare the issues and dilemmas and to show that what looks like a language issue is actually one aspect of deep-seated cultural and social problems.

Bernbaum, Gerald (1979).  Bilingualism in Society. Bilingual Education Monographs, No. 2. 

This paper continues the work undertaken in the first monograph on the complex issue of cultural pluralism and bilingualism. It explores two changes in perspective which have occurred since the late 1960's: (1) the establishment of other or second language schools as a response to the growing importance of language as a political issue and (2) the nature of the research effort in second language learning and new approaches to linguistic analysis. An attempt is made to assess the complex interrelationships of the component factors which influence the language learner in a range of bilingual situations. The theme is developed through a review of literature and empirical studies. First, a review is made of research into language learning, child language, cognitive development theories, and linguistic theory. Methods applying these theories to second language instruction are also reviewed. The second part of the paper is devoted to a review of studies of bilingual programs in societies in which the language groups exist in more or less equal social relationships. Studies are also reviewed that address the problem of language and identity, with special attention to communities or societies where two or more ethnolinguistic communities exist in unequal or unstable relationships.

Bernbaum, Marcia (1971).  Early Childhood Programs for Non-English Speaking Children. OCD Topical Paper. 

Guidelines based on research and reports from bilingual preschool programs are offered to assist teachers and administrators interested in the general problems of bilingualism and bilingual education. In addition to summarizing research and describing existing models for bilingual preschool programs (citing references to additional sources of information) this document lists recommended teacher-administrator handbooks and useful materials for teachers. Model bilingual programs are classified both as to composition of the classes (whether all are non-English speaking or not) and as to approach. Among the program approaches described are the Michigan Oral Language Program for Spanish-speaking migrant children, a nursery school on a Ute reservation in Utah, an elementary school which focuses equally on Navaho and English, and the Tucson Early Education Model of the University of Arizona. The document concludes with a list of reference sources developed during 1965-1970. | [FULL TEXT]

Bernbaum, Marcia, Comp. (1971).  Educational Television for Preschool and Kindergarten Children: An Abstract Bibliography. 

This bibliography has been compiled to alert educators to preschool educational television documents found in the ERIC microfiche collection and in journal literature. Abstracts of Selected documents have been taken from "Research in Education (RIE)" and journal citations from the "Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE)". Included are published and unpublished studies on educational TV. Abstracts of five volumes evaluating the first year of "Sesame Street," produced by the Children's Television Workshop, are included. Eight studies describe various aspects of the Appalachia Preschool Television Program. Among the other single citations are a report on a television series designed to teach English to Spanish-speaking preschoolers and a comparative study of current educational television programs for preschoolers.  | [FULL TEXT]

Bernstein, George (1977).  Historical and International Perspectives on Bilingualism.  Montclair Education Review, 7, 1. 

Bilingualism has developed in response to a great many social, economic, political, and cultural needs, and the responses have emerged in a variety of societies stretching back millenia. Recent bilingual programs in America continue this historical tradition of dealing with more than one language in a society or region.

Bernstein, Lewis; And Others (1974).  The Sesame Street Writers' Notebook. 

This manual outlines the instructional objectives for the children's television program "Sesame Street." The first section focuses on the child and his world with objectives related to: body part recognition; the child and his powers; reasoning and problem solving; emotions; career awareness; social groups and institutions; social interactions; and the environment. The second section deals with symbolic representation, including: letters recognition, letter sounds, rhyming, verbal blending, word recognition, numbers recognition, numeric operations, and geometric forms. Later sections state objectives in perceptual discrimination, relational concepts, classification skills, and bilingual bicultural awareness. In each area, concepts are defined, and suggestions are made for program content and format to communicate the concept. | [FULL TEXT]

Berry, Dale W.; And Others (1976).  Assessment of the Status of Bilingual Vocational Training for Adults. Final Report-Phase I. Volume II: Selected Annotated Bibliography. 

This selected bibliography is the second volume of a three-volume report on the status of bilingual vocational training (BVT) for adults in the United States. The basic finding of the literature search was that little effort has been devoted to the topic of BVT, per se. Thus, the bibliography is quite limited and the works selected for inclusion are among the most relevant ones for program planners and administrators. The works are arranged into the following groupings: "The Effects of Bilingual Instruction: Evaluation and Research Findings"; "Needs: General and Specific"; "General Background on Linguistics and Bilingualism"; "Legislation"; and "Bibliographies".

Berry-Caban, Cristobal S. (1977).  A Survey of the Puerto Rican Community on Milwaukee's Northeast Side in 1976. 

Based on a research study carried out in the mid-1970s, this paper traces the Puerto Rican immigration into Milwaukee and provides an overview of the economic and social conditions which fostered the growth of Milwaukee's Puerto Rican population. Also discussed are Puerto Rican family and household characteristics, religion, jobs and income, and health care. The Puerto Rican neighborhood is examined in terms of its housing, community organizations, recreation, and transportation. The political climate of the Puerto Rican community is described as being marked by indifference and disunity. The various stages that the educational process has undergone through the years in meeting the needs of Puerto Rican students are described, with particular attention given to the growth of bilingual/bicultural programs. In addition, the prospect of Puerto Ricans maintaining their ethnic identity into the 1980s is discussed. Appendices list comments by Puerto Rican individuals regarding such factors as language problems, health care, youth problems, neighborhood problems, recreation, transportation, and organization participation.

Berthoz-Proux, Michelle (1976).  L'enfant de travailleur migrant a l'ecole francaise (The Child of the Migrant Worker in the French School)  Langue Francaise, 29, 116-123. 

Discusses the problems faced by the French school system in educating non-French speaking children of non-homogeneous background at the elementary and secondary levels. Some experimental programs are described and bilingual education is proposed as a possible solution. (Text in French.)

Berwick, Richard; And Others (1978).  Beyond Chinatown: The English Language Needs of Vancouver's Chinese Community  TESL Talk, 9, 1. 

There are insufficient resources for providing instruction in English as a second or additional language for Vancouver's Chinese-speaking adult population. A pilot program designed to reach this population is described. The first volume of the series "Practical English," used in San Francisco, was revised for the pilot project.

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Best, Nancy Dougherty (1978).  Teaching English Vocabulary in Secondary Content-Area Classes. 

Content-specific vocabulary instruction was used in four seventh and eighth grade social studies and science classes as a method for improving the English language ability of non-native English speakers. A total of 52 monolingual English-speaking non-Hispanic students, 7 monolingual English-speaking Hispanic students, 6 Spanish-listening Hispanic students, and 7 Spanish-speaking Hispanic students participated in the project. The instruction consisted of brief English/Spanish vocabulary drills at the beginning and at the end of each class session. The students were administered the Spanish Written Vocabulary Test, Forms A and B, and the English Multiple-Choice Content Test, Forms A and B. The findings showed that, of the four groups, English/Spanish vocabulary instruction in content-area classes was most effective in increasing the English/Spanish vocabulary of those students who had some functional use of English. The Spanish-speaking Hispanic group also scored most poorly on the English-content tests.

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Bethke, Brian (1975).  The Illinois Bilingual Education Mandate: Serving the Needs of Limited-English Speaking Students  Illinois Career Education Journal, 33, 1. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2805.

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Bex, Tony, Ed.; And Others (1978).  ESPMENA Bulletin (English for Special Purposes in the Middle East and North Africa), No. 10, Spring 1978. 

This bulletin contains articles of interest to persons and institutions engaged in teaching English for special purposes (ESP) and allied activities. "Developments in ESP Courses and Centres" gives information on programs in specialized English and French. "Teaching and Learning Materials" presents techniques for teaching conceptual paragraphs, outlining, "if sentences" in instructions, and using lecturettes. "Problems and Puzzles" discusses footnotes, social language needs, sentence writing, and titles. "How Common are 'Common Core' Words?" by John Kirkman, raises questions about the probability of nouns in a ready-made general ESP program. "A Verb Frequency Count in Legal English," by Mike Friel, includes words from legal texts as well as samples of the students own writing. An"items received" section provides an annotated list of newsletters and books. Three reviews complete the issue: "25 Centuries of Language Teaching" by L. G. Kelly, reviewed by Ailsa Crofts: "New Orientations in the Teaching of English," by Peter Strevens, reviewed by Tony Bex; and "English for Careers: The Language of Accounting in English," by Sandra Costinett, reviewed by Andreas Lambrou.

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Bezanson, Keith A.; Hawkes, Nicolas (1976).  Bilingual Reading Skills of Primary Schoolchildren in Ghana. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 11. 

The medium of instruction in schools in most African countries is a second language (L2); less attention is focused on the first language (L1) at each successive level of formal schooling. Little attention, however, has been given in curriculum development and in research to the building up of the bilingual reading skills of children whose experience in the L2 is almost exclusively confined to its school use and whose L1 is relatively unavailable to them in its written form. A current theory of second language learning advances the thesis that reading and writing skills in L2 are dependent upon the attainment of oral proficiency in that language. The implication of this thesis is that superior reading and writing performance will be demonstrated in the language medium in which the child has gained the greater oral proficiency. This study examined this implication through an investigation of bilingual reading skills in Ghanaian primary schools. The results show that the nature of the child's bilingual experience, especially in the classroom, may be a far more important determinant of reading ability than the degree of oral proficiency attained, since the children in this study obtained similar mean reading scores in the two languages.

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Bialystok, Ellen; Froehlich, Maria (1978).  The Aural Grammar Test: Description and Implications. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 15. 

The Aural Grammar Test was designed to assess aural grammatical competence for language presented in a formal situation. The subjects used in this initial development of the test were 147 Toronto high school students learning French as a second language. The test is described and the results are interpreted in terms of both the explicit and intuitive knowledge students have of the grammatical forms tested. Responses indicated both the relative degree of mastery the students had of the target forms and the certainty, or explicitness, with which they were responding. Further, the results of the test are compared to the performance by the same students on a set of standardized International Educational Achievement Tests and to a set of predictor scores relating to individual learner characteristics. The implications of the results and some potential uses for the test are discussed.  | [FULL TEXT]

Bialystok, Ellen; Frohlich, Maria (1977).  Aspects of Second Language Learning in Classroom Settings. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 13. 

The present study offers a model of second language learning and examines aspects of the model in two experiments with high school students learning French. The model describes learning in terms of three parameters - learning processes, learning strategies, and learner characteristics. These three parameters together may be used to explain both the general process of second language learning as well as discrepancies in the competence achieved by particular language learners. In the first experiment, the relationship between individual learner characteristics and achievement is examined. Attitude and the use of certain learning strategies prove to be the most important predictors of proficiency. The second experiment investigates more precisely the role of inferencing, one of the learning strategies hypothesized in the model, in language learning. The opportunity to inference was found to improve reading comprehension scores. The results of both experiments are interpreted in terms of the model and suggestions for further research are discussed. | [FULL TEXT]

Bialystok, Ellen; Howard, Joan (1979).  Inferencing as an Aspect of Cloze Test Performance. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 17. 

This study investigates the role of inferencing in cloze test performance and the factors that facilitate that inferencing. Four groups of high school students learning French as a second language completed sets of cloze passages under four treatment conditions. Three conditions provided a potential cue to inferencing, while the fourth was a control condition with no additional aids. The results indicated significant differences in performance attributable to the four classes, the position of the story in the set of passages, and the inferencing treatment condition. A more detailed analysis examined the relationship between experimental condition, type of error committed, and the form class of the original word required by the text. Differences in these patterns were apparent, although non-significant. It was found that certain inferencing cues can have a facilitating effect on students' cloze performance although the pattern of facilitation is different from that found on other criterion tasks. Furthermore, it is possible to encourage students' inferencing behavior through classroom training, thereby improving cloze performance.  | [FULL TEXT]

Bianchi, Gary; Bianchi, Maria Eugenia Matute (1974).  Una Perspectiva de Mexico: Its People, Places and History. 

Evolving from a general commitment to the goals of cultural pluralism and bicultural education, this portfolio of 24 full color and halftone photographs aims to reinforce those curricular objectives which emphasize a respect for the value and individuality of different cultures and groups, affirm the right of an individual to maintain a bicultural identity, and encourage a respect for and cultivation of bilingualism and multiculturalism. Depicting both the timeless and modern aspects of Mexico, the series' conceptual framework deals with the complexities of the cultural and historical interactions of the Indian, Spaniard, and Mestizo in Mexico. Printed on heavy paper stock (11" x 14") and suitable for display purposes, each print includes a text in English and Spanish. Related historical themes and concepts and topics for discussion are suggested. Topics are: the Aztec Calendar; a Chamula weaver; selling gum and newspapers; a colonial kitchen; faces of Mexico; a family praying; the Fiesta of San Pedro; fishermen of Lake Patzcuaro; a flower vendor; a Hildago mural by Jose Clemente Orozco; the Liberty Market; life in a small town; Mexico City's cathedral; modern Mexico City; old ladies at market; the Plaza of Three Cultures; responsibilities; a Diego Rivera mural; the ancient cities of Tenochtitlan, Teotihuacan, Tepotzotlan, and Tlaloc; the University of Mexico library; and a Zinacanteco family.

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(1977).  Bibliography of Selected References.  Montclair Education Review, 7, 1. 

Eighty-seven books, periodicals, articles, and reports related to bilingual education and bilingualism are listed alphabetically.

_____. (1972).  Bibliography of Spanish Materials for Students, Grades Seven through Twelve. 

This annotated bibliography of Spanish materials for students in grades seven through twelve is divided into the following categories: (1) Art, Drama, Music, and Poetry; (2) Books in Series; (3) Culture; (4) Dictionaries and Encyclopedias; (5) Literature; (6) Mathematics; (7) Physical Education, Health, and Recreation; (8) Reading and Language Arts; (9) Science; (10) Social Science; (11) Spanish Textbooks; and (12) Vocational Education, Hobbies, and Industrial Arts. The appendixes include a directory of publishers in the United States and abroad, and a directory of distributors. The annotations are in English. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1975).  Bibliography of Audiovisual Instructional Materials for the Teaching of Spanish, Kindergarten through Grade Twelve. 

This annotated bibliography is a list of an assortment of audiovisual instructional materials primarily of interest in the elementary or secondary classroom. Many of the materials listed are produced in the Spanish language; others are included because of their possible use with Spanish-speaking students or because of their value in providing various types of information about Spanish-speaking peoples and cultures. The bibliographical entries are organized into 17 subject categories: art, bilingual education, career education, culture, driver education, games and puzzles, guidance, health, language arts, literature, mathematics, music, physical education, science, social science, supplementary materials, and vocational education. Appendixes provide an index to instructional materials by type and a directory of distributors, publishers and manufacturers.  | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1976).  Bibliography of Instructional Materials for the Teaching of Portuguese. 

The materials listed in this annotated bibliography of instructional materials for the instruction of Portuguese include: books, films, filmstrips, games, puzzles, records, tapes, slides, and visuals. The bibliography is divided into the following sections: Art, Audiovisual Materials, Bilingual-Bicultural Education, Culture, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias, Games, Homemaking Education, Language Arts, Literature, Mathematics, Music, Physical Education, Resource Materials, Science, and Social Science. Entries include the title, author, and date, publisher's name and place of publication when available, and a brief description of the material in question, including what age group the materials might be appropriate for. Information concerning bilingual-bicultural education projects in California, resource centers, dissemination and assessment centers, and Portuguese-language newspapers is provided in the appendixes, along with directories of publishers, producers, manufacturers, and distributors both in the United States and abroad. | [FULL TEXT]

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Bielawski, Joseph G.; Pickens, Marjorie (1976).  I Didn't Say a Word/No Dije una Palabra. 

This bilingual English/Spanish book of captioned photographs and its related teaching manual were created as a joyful experience in nonverbal communication for children and adults. It is intended to sharpen awareness of nonverbal messages expressed by children in their everyday environment. To help develop self-understanding and to encourage oral communication, each of 40 photos of children in various activities and situations and the accompanying four-line "stories" or captions present certain elements: (1) a common problem or situation; (2) how a child feels about it; (3) what a child might do about it; (4) what you would do about it. The photographs and text are designed to illustrate specific senses and emotions - taste, smell, touch, happiness, tiredness, fear, etc. English and Spanish vocabulary lists follow. The teacher's manual suggests best use of the book and recommends teaching procedures to develop various skills. These include discussion of background information, reading readiness, vocabulary enrichment, picture reading, discussion and independent thinking, and related activities.

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Bigney, Tracy B. (1978).  The Bilingual Human Services Educational Consortium of Bangor Community College. Third Year Evaluation. 

This third-party evaluation report, presented in six sections, begins with an introductory section on the procedures used to evaluate the Bilingual Human Services Educational Consortium. (The consortium, a one-year college level program, prepares underemployed and unemployed Franco-Americans for paraprofessional human service jobs.) Also described in the introduction is the summative evaluation design based on program participants' attitudes as assessed through questionnaires, interviews, and observations. In section 2 findings on students' perspectives are presented. In section 3 the faculty perspective is examined and in section 4 the practicum supervisor's perspective is investigated. In the fifth section, seventeen observations and recommendations resulting from site visits are presented in four categories: providing University access for non-traditional students, program atmosphere, vocational training, and academic considerations. The final section presents the results of each program objective: (1) to expand the bilingual certificate gerontology program, (2 and 3) to provide bilingual vocational education for Maine's high Franco-American populations and 100 unemployed and underemployed adults, and (4) to encourage consortia between the University of Maine system and community agencies in meeting the above objectives. The report concludes that the first three objectives were met, and the fourth was partially fulfilled. (See related document CE 017 481 which contains a comprehensive report of all project activities.)

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(1973).  Bilingual Education: A Reality for Indian Community Action  Education Journal of the Institute for the Development of Indian Law, 2, 2. 

The article briefly summarizes criteria established by law for those interested in the general procedure for instituting an American Indian bilingual education program. Title VII Elementary and Secondary Education Act projects serving American Indians and Alaskan Natives are also listed.

(1974).  Bilingualism: Two Languages Are Worth Two Men  Linguistic Reporter, 16, 7. 

A problem which is pinpointed is the lack of involvement and commitment of higher education institutions to bilingual and bicultural education. In the state of California no higher education institution is prepared to give a bilingual teaching credential.

(1975).  Bilingual Education Service Center  Illinois Career Education Journal, 32, 2. 

The Bilingual Education Service Center's function is to provide supportive services to all State-funded bilingual programs located outside the city of Chicago. These services include inservice training, curriculum materials acquisition, program development, community relations, and evaluation. nAuthor)

(1976).  Bilingual Education in Colorado: The Story of a Struggle  Agenda: National Council of La Raza, 25-8

Full-Text Availability Options: 2739.

(1976).  Bilingual Education Issues in the Community  Journal of the National Association for Bilingual Education, 1, 2. 

Provides a list of the national and regional Lau Centers which provide assistance to school districts in resolving desegregation problems related to English language ability of non-English speaking students.

(1979).  Bilingual Education: Texts and Supplements.  Curriculum Review, 18, 2. 

Describes and reviews 16 texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for bilingual education and English for foreign speakers. Nine items relate specifically to Spanish speakers.

(1979).  Bilingual Education and Desegregation.  University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 127, 6. 

Argues that integration and bilingual education are compatible and that, for a bilingual program to be constitutional, it should be both optional and open to all students. Available from University of Pennsylvania Law School, 3400 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104; sc $3.00.

_____. (1970).  Bilingual Conceptual Development Guide-Preschool. Michigan Oral Language Series. 

This guide for teachers of pre-school, Spanish-speaking children provides materials for conceptual development in the target languages. Some 120 structural Oral Language Circle lessons in Spanish and in English, each approximately 15 minutes in duration, represent the heart of this package. Used together, they develop in the child language and conceptual skills needed to benefit from a standard school setting. Unit topics include: (1) naming, (2) describing, (3) locating, (4) counting, (5 and 6) grouping, (7) sequencing, and (8) review. The introduction contains a description of the program, answers to common questions, sequence of language and conceptual development, equipment guide, and a suggested daily schedule. Numerous cutouts for specific Circle lessons are found in the art materials supplement. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1971).  Bilingualism: A Bibliography of 1000 References with Special Reference to Wales. Welsh Studies in Education, Vol. 3. 

The growth of interest in bilingualism since the 1960 edition of this bibliography has prompted this revision and update. Entries include scholarly articles, theses and dissertations, newspaper articles and books, and concern numerous aspects of bilingualism as it relates to education, intelligence, government and social relations. Publications are mainly in English or Welsh, and the list includes references from the end of the 19th century to 1970. A subject index is provided, for which the headings are: bilingualism in Wales, bilingualism in universities and colleges, other bibliographies, bilingualism in general (including research studies and methodology, intelligence, educational progress, and school programs and policies).

_____. (1972).  Bilingual Program Application for Continuation Proposal: Compton Unified School District. 

This document contains the continuation proposal for the fourth grade Compton bilingual education program. A review of the third year is included with details on process evaluation, project personnel and duties, new vocabulary developed by the project for lexical references, and inservice training of teachers. Information concerning the proposed fourth year covers personnel, long range program goals, immediate fourth-year goals, audit planning, details on program management, budget requirements, curriculum, instructional materials, behavioral objectives, and evaluation design. Appendixes include related documents, many in Spanish, on a variety of topics: program philosophy and principles, reading instruction and testing, vocabulary, instructional materials, inservice training for teachers and paraprofessional school personnel, and a plan for parent participation.

_____. (1972).  Bilingual Testing and Assessment, Proceedings of Bay Area Bilingual Education League (BABEL) Workshop and Preliminary Findings, Multilingual Assessment Program (Berkeley, California, January 27-28, 1969). 

The results and proceedings of the first annual Bilingual/Bicultural Testing and Assessment Workshop, held in Berkeley, California, on January 27-28, 1972, are presented in this publication. Approximately 150 bilingual psychologists and evaluators, educators working in bilingual/bicultural programs, and community representatives from California and Texas attended. Evaluations were made and the summaries are included of 8 tests used extensively in bilingual programs: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills, the Cooperative Primary, the Lorge-Thorndike, the Inter-American Series--General Ability, the Culture-Fair Intelligence Test, the Michigan Oral Production Test, and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Also included in this publication are (1) an overview of the problem of assessment and evaluation in bilingual education, (2) a professional critique of the Inter-American series by Dr. Barbara Havassy, (3) a brief description of a Criterion Referenced System developed by Eduardo Apodaca, and (4) an article by Dr. Edward A. DeAvila discussing some of the complexities involved in testing and assessment of bilingual/bicultural children.

_____. (1972).  Bilingual Education Project, Santa Clara County, California. Final Report, 1972. 

The Spanish Dame Bilingual Education Project, located in Santa Clara County, California, served 190 children who came from homes where the primary language was Spanish and who resided within the target area schools of the Alum Rock School District. The objectives of the preschool project were (1) to demonstrate a home-teaching procedure designed to improve the concept formation and language development environment of 80 children, ages 3-4; (2) to train 16 women from the community as home tutors; and (3) to give training to the mothers of the project children for improvement of their teaching techniques with their own children. The in-school project, for children in grades K-2, attempted to improve their language skills in Spanish and to provide a basic level of fluency in English. Some topics discussed are the training of paraprofessionals as home tutors; the development of a 1st and 2nd year curriculum in English and Spanish with the activities taught in Spanish; the instructional equipment and materials used; the parent-community involvement; the responsibilities of the project manager, preschool coordinator, in-school coordinator, and community resource assistant; and the implementation of a home intervention program, to include funding, personnel, training center, fringe benefits, substitutes, and evaluation instruments. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1972).  Bilingual Education: A Statement of Policy and Proposed Action of the Regents of the University of the State of New York. Position Paper Series, Number 16. 

The primary goal of the Regents in their bilingual education program is to provide equal educational opportunity for non-English-speaking children through activities capitalizing on their proficiency in their native language and developing competency in English. Two complementary goals are inherent: (1) a vitally needed national resource, the bilingual adult, will be developed and (2) the total learning community--pupils, lay persons, teachers, administrators--will profit from the contribution of bilingual education to promotion of better understanding among people. The Regents direct that such priorities as the following be established: (1) develop individualized teaching strategies and supportive curriculums that reflect the particular needs of the bilingual-bicultural child; (2) reallocate present funds for programs for non-English-speaking pupils in the areas of occupational education, general education, higher education, early childhood education, adult education, drug education, and education of the handicapped; and, (3) require increased use of E.S.E.A Title I and Urban Education funds for bilingual and English as a second language programs. [Spanish translation of this document is available from the New York State Education Department, Albany.]

_____. (1973).  Bilingual ERIC Reprints. 

This list, prepared by the Bilingual Resource Center in New York City, is intended to serve as a sample of the many valuable bilingual reports and studies available through the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). Included are nine abstracts and three articles reproduced in full. The titles of the articles are: (1) "Bilingualism in Puerto Rico: A History of Frustration," by John C. Fisher, (2) "Para-Professionals: Their Role in ESOL and Bilingual Education," by Hernan LaFontaine, and (3) "Second Language Learning in Bilingual Communities," by Sylvia Rothfarb.

_____. (1973).  Bilingual Training Sessions. (A Partial Listing Including Staff Development Components under Title VII, ESEA). 

This partial list, prepared by the Bilingual Resource Center in New York City, of bilingual training sessions includes staff development components under Title VII, ESEA. Among the projects are the In-Migrant School Community Project, Project BEST (Bilingual Education Skills Training), P.S. 25 (The Bilingual School), and the Integrated Bilingual Demonstration Project.

_____. (1973).  Bilingual Program in School and Community Relations of Office of Bilingual Education. 

This information dissemination kit presents an introduction to the Bilingual Program in School and Community Relations of the Central Board of Education of the City of New York. Included are a program description, program objectives, duties of the bilingual teacher in school and community relations, and a list of schools involved in the program.

_____. (1973).  Bilingual ERIC Publications. 

The Bilingual Resource Center has begun to acquire on microfiche what it hopes will soon be an extensive collection of educational documents concerning bilingual education. This current bibliography of ERIC-processed documents on bilingual education gives an indication of the amount of resources still to be retrieved for the center and its users. The bibliography is divided into four sections: Introduction, documents of general interest, English as a second language, and Spanish speakers.

_____. (1973).  Bilingual Newspapers, Newsletters, and Periodicals. 

This booklet presents a list of 34 Spanish-language newspapers published in the United States and Latin America, 23 newsletters with information in the field of bilingual education, and 42 magazines published in Spanish and available in the U.S. Information includes the name of the publication, the city or country of origin, the address of the distributor, the publication schedule, and the potential level of appeal for use in the classroom.

_____. (1973).  Bilingual Audiovisual Materials. 

This booklet contains an annotated list of bilingual audiovisual materials. It discusses films, records, cassettes, and tapes. Other information includes periodicals, a list of distributors, and bibliographies.

_____. (1973).  Bilingual Education, Health, and Manpower Programs, 1973. Joint Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Education and the Special Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, 93rd Congress, First Session on Examination of the Problems of Bilingual Education, Health, and Manpower Programs (Los Angeles, Calif., February 26, 1973). 

The Joint Hearing before the U.S. Senate's Subcommittee on Education and the Special Subcommittee on Human Resources was particulary concerned with the problems of bilingual education. The hearing, held February 1973 in Los Angeles, California, focused on the Southwest in general and on California in particular because of the greater bilingual needs in these areas. The Bilingual Act first became law as a part of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act Amendments (ESEA) of 1967. Now, however, since nearly $100 million has been spent under the bilingual education program during the past 5 years, the time has come for an assessment of the needs of bilingual education and the ability of the act to meet those needs. Statements on the needs of Mexican Americans in both California and the Southwest as a whole were presented by community representatives, manpower development personnel, Southwestern and Los Angeles educators, U.S. Representatives from California, and members of the California State Department of Education. Additional information was covered by articles and publications, such as "Bienvenidos: Mexican Americans Hail Opening of Occupational Center", and "The Excluded Student: Educational Practices Affecting Mexican Americans in the Southwest". Selected tables detail: California -- total and Spanish language population by county (1970); Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Budget (fiscal 1972, 1973); Spanish surnamed students -- University of Southern California; and U.S. Government employment statistics (1970).

_____. (1973).  Bilingual Education for American Indians. Vol. II--Navajo. Curriculum Bulletin 13. 

Bilingual education for Navajos is the central element in changing education from an alien function to one shared and controlled by the community. A number of community-controlled educational systems have become the driving force in Navajo bilingual education, and the past three years have produced not just higher quanitity, but considerably improved quality, according to Dr. Bernard Spolsky, director of the Navajo Reading Study at the University of New Mexico (UNM). Spolsky's paper "Advances in Navajo Bilingual Education, 1969-72" is featured in this curriculum bulletin, which seeks to enlarge the case for Navajo bilingual education and update the state of the art. Three conference reports are also included. The first, which covers a Navajo bilingual-bicultural materials conference held in Albuquerque in October, 1972, discusses curriculum ideas shared by persons involved with Navajo language teaching. The second report includes a student proposal requesting implementation of a Navajo bilingual education program at UNM along with a description of the faculty-student meeting that responded to the proposal. The third paper summarizes proceedings of a November, 1972, conference at UNM which examined questions relating to the training of Navajo bilingual teachers. Final portion of the document is a supplement to the 1970 "Analytical Bibliography of Navajo Reading Materials". It features 49 listings, most of which were published between 1970-72, and includes information on author, title, publisher, source, and educational level, along with a brief description of the publication's content. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1974).  Bilingual Bicultural Materials; A Listing for Library Resource Centers. 

This listing of Spanish-English bilingual/bicultural materials for the elementary level is the end result of a materials evaluation conducted by the El Paso Public Schools. The catalog is divided into sections by type of media: kits, sound filmstrips, filmstrips, recordings, slides and transparencies, games and models, and books are discussed. Each entry contains information as to title, producer, date of publication, type of medium, contents, price, suggested Dewey classification, and grade level. Along with information as to the suitability of the contents of each entry, a recommendation is made in regard to acquisition based on classroom use of the material in more than one of the participating El Paso Elementary Schools. Appendices list sources and addresses as of January, 1974, a copy of the materials evaluation form used in the project, and the names of the evaluating teachers, listed by school.

_____. (1974).  Bilingual Education Act; Hearings Before the General Subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, Ninety-Third Congress, Second Session. 

Three bills concerning training teachers for bilingual education programs, qualifications for schools receiving Federal aid for bilingual education, and expansion of programs of bilingual education, teacher training and child development were the subjects of these hearings. The texts of the bills precede the hearing transcripts. Testimony was given by government officials from the Departments of Justice and Health, Education and Welfare, educators, legislators, and other concerned individuals.

_____. (1974).  Bilingual-Bicultural Teacher Education Program. 

The Bilingual-Bicultural Teacher Education program at St. Edward's University in Austin, Texas was developed in response to the needs of the Spanish-speaking children in Texas schools. The ultimate goal of the program is the amelioration of the educational achievement of Mexican-American children in elementary schools by preparing teachers who will be able to effect change through their ability to: (a) assess needs, and (b) develop teaching strategies that will enable Mexican-American children to realize their fullest potential. The program is competency-based and comprised of four major components: Spanish language, linguistics, behavioral and social sciences, and professional education. Program graduates complete an interdisciplinary major in cross-cultural studies and receive a B.S. degree in elementary education and elementary provisional certification in Texas, with endorsement to teach in bilingual elementary schools. (The document includes a program summary and appendixes with supplementary material.)

_____. (1974).  Bilingual/Bicultural Education Program Evaluation Report 1973-1974, with a Five-Year Summary. 

In order to meet the needs of an increasing population of Spanish-speaking pupils who, because of their language handicap, had a difficult time in school, the Milwaukee Bilingual Education Program was developed. It provided a systematic bilingual program for Spanish-background pupils who lacked experiential background and who needed special attention with basic content at the same time they were developing language skills in English and Spanish. In the program, all subjects were taught in both English and Spanish to enable the pupil to learn subject matter in the comfort of his dominant language. Teachers were bilingual and of Latin heritage. Pupils who started the program in kindergarten or first grade were expected to be at least average for their grade level. At the secondary level, bilingual reading and social studies courses were developed and bilingual students' advisors and counselors assisted with education and personal problems. Biculturalism was a twin goal with bilingualism. Spanish-American culture was emphasized to replace negative self-image with ethnic pride.

_____. (1974).  Bilingualism and Multilingualism, with a Section on Bilingual Education. Specialised Bibliography A2. 

This bibliography is divided into three main sections. The first section lists bibliographies relevant to bilingualism and multilingualism. The second section cites books and anthologies dealing with bilingualism and multilingualism, while the third section gives references for books dealing with bilingual education. Entries include both American and European publications, and most have been published since 1970.

_____. (1974).  Bilingual Bicultural is Two Way Education. 

This manual is said to be intended to bring together under one cover the fundamental documents relating to the landmark legislation, the Transitional Bilingual Education Act. A general synopsis of Chapter 71A of the Act includes what a program in transitional bilingual education consists of, who has the right to it, and what the obligations of the local school committees and the department of education are. The five sections of that chapter, declaration of policy, amendment of chapter, authorization for reimbursement, establishment of bureau of transitional bilingual education-its powers and duties, and repeal of Chapter 852, are outlined and briefly discussed. Criteria set down to determine bilingual teacher competencies in language skills and culture include requirements of foreign service institute native or bilingual proficiency rating, requirements of foreign service institute minimum professional proficiency in English, and requirements of culture competency in English and other languages. Approval procedures are also outlined. Several guidelines for parental involvement in transitional bilingual education programs are provided that address the "when", "how", "why", "who", and "what" of the programs. Appendixes include parent participation regulations.

_____. (1974).  Bilingual-Bicultural Education and English-as-a-Second-Language Education: A Framework for Elementary and Secondary Schools. 

Introductory sections of these guidelines give the point of view and goals of bilingual-bicultural education. Definitions of some terms commonly used in this area follow. A section on program organization gives guidelines for assessment, staff, staff development, instruction, methodology, instructional materials, community involvement and evaluation. Guidelines for alternative designs for elementary and secondary programs are also provided. An appendix lists the members of the Framework Advisory Committee for Bilingual-Bicultural Education and English as a Second Language.

_____. (1975).  Bilingual/Bicultural Education. Inequality in Education. Number 19, February 1975. 

The combined effect of the articles in this issue of "Inequality in Education" is to offer the reader a primer in bilingual/bicultural education. The articles which follow indicate that neither legislation nor court orders, correctly or incorrectly interpreted, can bring about effect change in this field on their own. What the bilingual movement needs at this point is the collective energy of advocates, parents, students, teachers, administrators, legislators, law enforcers, and other citizens. The research reported in the following articles was performed pursuant to a grant from the Office of Economic Opportunity: "Coming of Age in Bilingual/Bicultural Education: A Historical Perspective," Josue Gonzales; "Bilingual Education, Segregation, and a Third Alternative," Jose Cardenas; "Organizing for Bilingual Education: One Community's Experience," Aida Waserstein; "The Massachusetts Transitional Bilingual Education Act" Two Years After," Frederick P. Lewis; "The Massachusetts Transitional Bilingual Education Act" Problems in the Classroom and Possible Legislative Responses," Peter Roos and Emma Chavez Roos; "Training Teachers for Bilingual/Bicultural Education," Nelson Vieira; "Fox Point: The History of a Portuguses Bilingual Program," Laura Hersh Salganik; "Recent Legal Developments in Bilingual/Bicultural Education," Roger Rice.

_____. (1975).  Bilingual Education for Children: An Abstract Bibliography. 

This selective abstract bibliography prepared by ERIC Clearinghouse on Early Childhood Education is a guide to recent ERIC documents on bilingual education of children. Citations have been divided into four sections: (1) selected ethnic groups (Spanish speaking, native Americans, Chinese, Portuguese and Filipino); (2) migrants; (3) second language learning; and (4) general (bibliographies, legislation, media, multicultural research, teacher training). Citations included are from "Resources in Education (RIE)," January 1974 through March 1975, and from "Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE)," August 1971 through October 1974. There are 116 abstracts from "RIE " and 74 citations from "CIJE." Descriptor (subject index) terms are included for all citations. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1975).  Bilingual Education in P. L. 93-380. 

Based on an analysis of the Education Amendments of 1974 (P.L. 93-380), this paper provides an overview of the more than 20 different types of bilingual educational activity found in the law and raises some of the issues of management, policy, and coordination. Issues tend to cluster around interface areas in which there is inherent institutional, programmatic, or organizational stress. An analysis of the problem of developing a nationally coordinated bilingual education program suggests 5 potential areas of major stress: (1) the "continuity" issue characterized by stress between new and existing programs and products; (2) the "communication" issue resulting from expanded internal, as well as, external linkages; (3) the "cooperation" issue arising from new interface areas at the local, state, and national level; (4) the "coordination" issue involving interaction between Federal and non-Federal activity, among funded bilingual centers and clearinghouses, and with related state and local efforts; and (5) the "compliance" issue involving adherence to laws, rules, and regulations. Some unresolved questions regarding further implementation of the law are presented. The appendices include a listing of: (1) legislation amended by P.L. 93-380, (2) new acts or legislation embodied in P. L. 93-380, and (3) implications in bilingual education and for American Indian Education.  | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1975).  Bi-lingual Bi-Cultural Program, Title VII, ESEA. Final Evaluation [San Luis Valley Schools, 1974-75]. 

Primary objectives of the program were: (1) to meet the educational needs of those children who experience learning difficulties because of the inability to understand or speak the language of instruction, and (2) to maintain a sense of pride in the student's language and culture. During 1974-75, the program's 4th year of operation, there were 1,483 students enrolled in grades K-3. Of these 64 percent were Spanish surnamed, 35.8 percent were Anglo surnamed, and .20 percent were Japanese Americans. Student needs were met through the use of more individualized instruction, and more precise evaluation procedures for assessing student progress. Factors which influenced and enhanced the student's learning styles were achieved through an extensive presentation of oral language development in both English and Spanish, music appreciation (both listening and oral exposition), ethnic dances, and art. The project staff consisted of a director, a materials specialist, 63 certified personnel, 49 paraprofessionals, 9 community representatives, a curriculum specialist, and an internal evaluator. Focusing mainly on the up-to-date process evaluation findings in each of the program's operational components, this report presents data obtained from in-service meetings, pupil progress reports, Test of Basic Experiences, workshop evaluation scale, supply inventory, material development and management. Findings indicated that most activities for the year were conducted effectively.

_____. (1975).  Bilingual-Bicultural Program for Elementary Teachers. 

Since 1968, Goshen College has been offering a program in international education. Called the Study-Service Trimester (SST), the program provides the geographic setting for direct experience in culture shock by exposing students to first-hand, live experiences and confrontations in unfamiliar environments. As part of their general education, elementary education students participate in SST assignments specially fitted for the future teacher in the classroom. Scheduled during the sophomore or junior year of college, SST combines the general studies component with early field work in the middle college years of professional studies. Students generally locate in Caribbean or Central American countries, where they study, work, and interact as a unit, while living in the homes of nationals. The faculty director coordinates a seven-week study program in language study, field trips, and readings and lectures in history, the arts, government, and education. During the second half of the term, students are assigned to Peace Corps-like projects where they work side by side with nationals. Elementary education students are assigned to schools and children's homes for their work experience. Students keep daily journals, stimulating them to interpret and reflect upon the total experience. The college grants each student who satisfactorily completes SST ten credits in language, social science, and humanities. Additional credits may be earned for language proficiency.

_____. (1975).  Bilingual-Bicultural Education: A Handbook for Attorneys and Community Workers. 

The 1967 Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title VII generated national attention to the demands of Chicano, Puerto Rican, Chinese, Native American, and other groups for bilingual-bicultural education. The May 1970 Memorandum clarified the availability of the 1964 Civil Rights Act Title VI to advocates seeking such programs. In Lau v. Nichols, the Supreme Court left open the question of what kind of programs would meet Title VI standards. Thus legal advocates for bilingual-bicultural education have to be knowledgeable in the elements of bilingual-bicultural education philosophy, program and planning. Intended for use by legal service lawyers and other community advocates requiring quick access to the basic law of bilingual-bicultural education, these materials suggest various ways to obtain such programs. Topics covered are: the nature and effects of language exclusion, complaints and other litigation materials, relief, desegregation and bilingual-bicultural education, Federal and State laws, and types of programs. The 11 court decisions covered are: Lau v. Nichols, Serna v. Portales, U.S. v. Texas, Bradley v. Milliken, Martinez v. Santa Maria Independent School District, Morgan v. Kerrigan, Evans v. Buchanan, Morales v. Shannon, Aspira v. Board of Education of the City of New York, U.S. v. Board of Education of Waterbury, and Keyes v. School District No. 1 Denver.

_____. (1975).  Bilingual Education in the United States. 

Topics discussed include the following: the world-wide prevalence of bilingual education, the need for bilingual education in the U.S., a definition of bilingual education, the official status of bilingual education in the U.S., the target audience of bilingual education in the U.S., definitions of terms commonly used in bilingual education, the aims of bilingual education, the "maintenance" and "transitional" approaches to bilingual education, instructional staff in bilingual education, bilingual instruction in subject matter other than language arts, format and content of lessons, the role of English as a Second Language in bilingual education, an example of a lesson integrating ESL with science in bilingual education, history and culture in bilingual education, instructional personnel in bilingual education, teacher preparation in bilingual education (including language preparation, culture-history preparation, and professional preparation), instructional materials in bilingual education, evaluation in bilingual education, and, misinformation and problems in bilingual education.

_____. (1976).  Bilingual Vocational Curriculum and Instruction Center. 

The Bilingual Vocational Curriculum and Instructional Center Program, initiated in the Los Angeles City Schools in 1975, was established to provide supportive services for limited English speaking students enrolled in district vocational programs. The program provides instructional aides to assist disadvantaged students in vocational classes in order to improve the educational performance and enhance the employability potential of students assisted. The program handbook was developed by teachers and designed for use by administrators, teachers, and instructional aides. It provides information in four areas: (1) background (defining bilingual education, goals, and project scope); (2) descriptions of disadvantaged vocational students (academic, social, economic, and cultural) and characteristics of the disadvantaged (attitude, education, and social); (3) the roles and delineation of roles of teachers and aides in the program; and (4) program accountability and evaluation. The handbook also provides supplementary material which includes information on audiovisual techniques, relevant laws affecting aides and teacher preparation, DHEW policy statements, and the text of the Lou V. Nichols Supreme Court Decision.

_____. (1976).  Bilingual Education Models. 

There is some disagreement among educators and theoreticians concerning the definition of bilingual education. The Department of Education of the State of New Mexico has set forth two plans designed to establish a clear position for any local school district in the matter of bilingual education. The first model, full acculturation, represents a transitional program which uses the child's language and culture as "conceptual bridges" for an all-English curriculum. This plan is not used to maintain and expand the home language or culture of the non-Anglo American community. The second model, language and cultural maintenance, has as its purpose the maintenance and further development of the non-English language and culture of the students. It offers a richer education for the English-speaking student, as well. The importance of community involvement is emphasized no matter which bilingual model is chosen. This report includes suggestions for curriculum components and four time and content models.

_____. (1976).  Bilingual Bicultural Delivery of Human Services to Elderly Franco-Americans through Vocational Education. Final Report. 

This project was an attempt to provide bilingual vocational education to elderly Franco-Americans on a cooperative basis among three Maine universities. Seventy-seven adult unemployed or underemployed Franco-Americans participated in a human services worker training program based on the Bangor-based certificate level curriculum in gerontology. Part 1 of the report is a compilation of programmatic and administrative information concerning recruitment, curriculum, support services, objectives, and administration. Part 2 is an independent evaluation of the project which consisted of onsite visits and surveys of faculty, staff, students, and practicum supervisors. Data from onsite visits are summarized and presented according to the role of bilingualism, effects of bicultural emphasis, adequacy of human services training, practicum placements, students, faculty, staff, consortium approach, and the one-year certificate. The surveys included questions on most of the same topics addressed by the onsite visit evaluation. Survey responses, received from approximately one-half of each group, indicated high levels of satisfaction among all groups. Sample instruments are included.

_____. (1976).  Bilingual/Bicultural Education Program; Programa De Educacion Bilingue/ Bicultural, 1975-1976. 

A description and evaluation of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title VII-funded Bilingual/Bicultural Education Program in Milwaukee, Wisconsin is provided in this report. A developmental system of bilingual education enabled kindergarten through twelfth grade pupils to learn all subject content in both English and Spanish in the context of Hispanic culture. The bilingual/bicultural teaching and supervisory staff developed curricula to implement program goals aimed at educating students to feel at home in both the English and Spanish language and the American and Hispanic cultures. When Bilingual Project participants were compared with national norms and Title I or Spanish-surnamed comparison groups, standardized test results demonstrated that the goal of grade level progress was achieved at kindergarten, lower and upper primary levels in readiness, English reading, and mathematics. Equivalent progress was not demonstrated at middle primary grades, but at the upper primary level, Bilingual Program achievement exceeded that of the Title I reading and mathematics programs.

_____. (1976).  Bilingual Multicultural Education. 

This collection was prepared with the purpose of making National Education Association members more aware of the current issues and efforts in bilingual/ multicultural education. It consists of an introduction by Carmel E. Sandoval and the following chapters: (1) "Bilingual Education in Public Law 93-380," by the U.S. Office of Education, Region VI; (2) "State Bilingual Education Programs: A New Front," by the National Conference of State Legislators; (3) "Outline for a Comprehensive Education Plan," by the Cultural Awareness Center and Trilingual Institute (CACTI) of the University of New Mexico; (4) "Background Leading to "Lau vs. Nichols," by CACTI; (5) "CACTI Advisory/Evaluative Committee Directory and Activities"; (6) "ESAA Funding of Bilingual Programming," by the National Association of Educational Broadcasters; (7) "Bilingual Programs and Grants in Institutions of Higher Education," by the Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education (DACBE); (8) "General Assistance Centers, Type A and Type B (Lau)"; (9) "A Selective Educational Bibliography of Information and Resources Useful in Bilingual/Multicultural Education," by the Southwest Bilingual Education Resource Center; (10) "Guide to Teacher Education Programs for Bilingual/Bicultural Education in U.S. Colleges and Universities," by DACBE. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1976).  Bilingual/Bicultural Early Childhood Development Research Workshop Proceedings. 

This workshop was convened by the Office of Child Development (OCD) to identify research issues and to set priorities for research related to bilingual/bicultural early childhood development programs proposed by OCD. Workshop participants were researchers and persons with expertise in the development of bilingual/bicultural preschool programs. The report includes the proceedings of the workshop and appendices which include a list of conference participants and invitees, the workshop agenda, and the text of the keynote speech on Bilingual/Bicultural Early Childhood Development. The main body of the paper includes presentations and worksession notes and recommendations on socialization, parent involvement, language development, cognitive development, and evaluation/assessment as these issues relate to bicultural children and programs. Also included are presentations on Head Start strategies for Spanish-speaking children, OCD's research priorities for 1976, conference expectations, and a brief summation.

_____. (1976).  Bilingualism and British Education: The Dimensions of Diversity. 

This compilation of articles deals with practical questions of bilingualism that appear to be important to the development of education in Britain. The conference for which the papers were originally prepared concentrated on three general aspects: the existence of many thousands of bilingual children in Britain whose native languages are largely ignored educationally; the examples of planned or structured bilingual education offered in Wales; and the relationship between the techniques of foreign language teaching and the notion and reality of bilingualism. The articles include: (1) "Bilingualism and British Education," by G.E. Perren; (2) "Distribution of Linguistic Minorities in Britain," by Kiran Campbell-Platt; (3) "Provision by Minorities for Language Maintenance," by Verity Khan; (4) "Bilingualism in the Schools of Wales," by Derrick Sharp; (5) "Bilingual Education in Wales," by Eric Evans; (6) "Bilingual Education in Wales: Secondary School Organisation," by Gerald R. Morgan; (7) "Bilingualism in Bradford," by Eunice B. Beaumont; (8) "Bilingualism in Birmingham," by R.D. Chapman; (9) "Foreign Language Teaching and Bilingualism," by C.J. Dodson; and (10) "Some Conclusions: Reports by Working Parties." Appended are a list of current research in Britain on bilingualism, multilingualism, and bilingual education; a selected bibliography; a list of conference participants; and a list of other publications by CILT.

_____. (1977).  Bilingual Occupational Education--Adult. Evaluation Report. 

The overall objective of the program was to provide 200 Spanish-speaking adults and out-of-school youth, 16 years of age or older, with occupational instruction and English language skills which would enhance the enrollees' opportunities to acquire entry level job skills or upgrade the enrollees' present occupational status. The program began with 86 enrollees actively participating in one out of nine of the following courses: Cosmetology, automotive mechanic, electricity, commercial photography, nursing science, office skills, automotive body and painting, and basic adult education. The courses were made available at four school districts' facilities easily accessible to the target population. The program content consisted of: (1) Actual instruction of courses (provided both in Spanish and English), (2) three hours per week of instruction in English as a second language (ESL), and (3) counseling, as a supplement to instructional quality, in career and occupational areas. Second semester enrollment increased by 149 new enrollees with courses in accounting and welding being added to the program curriculum. Positive comments were received from community agencies on the operation of the program.

_____. (1977).  Bilingual-Bicultural Curriculum, Pre-Kindergarten (4 Years). Connecticut Migratory Children's Program. 

This is one of a series of curriculum guides designed to assist bilingual teachers to provide a coordinated program of studies for students in the Connecticut Migratory Children's Program and for any other students whose native language is Spanish. It is felt that an effort should be made to discover the skill level at which a child is functioning, to choose materials from curriculum guides at that skill level, and to move to more difficult materials when the child is ready. Skills are suggested at given grade levels to provide a logical sequence of skill development. The overall focus of the curriculum guides in the series is on Puerto Rican history and culture. The present guide is designed to aid teachers of preschool children. It is divided into three units: (1) Sensory Education Curriculum; (2) Psychomotor Education Curriculum; and (3) Language and Number Readiness Curriculum. Each unit states goals and concepts and suggests activities. The guide is illustrated with black-and-white drawings of the materials to be made.

_____. (1977).  Bilingual-Bicultural Curriculum for Grade 2 Social Studies. Connecticut Migratory Children's Program. 

This is one of a series of curriculum guides designed to assist bilingual teachers to provide a coordinated program of studies for students in the Connecticut Migratory Children's Program and for any other students whose native language is Spanish. It is felt that an effort should be made to discover the skill level at which a child is functioning, to choose materials from curriculum guides at that skill level, and to move to more difficult materials when the child is ready. Skills are suggested at given grade levels to provide a logical sequence of skill development. The overall focus of the curriculum guides in the series is on Puerto Rican history and culture. The present guide is for social studies instruction at the second grade level, and is divided into eight units: (1) Myself; (2) My School; (3) My Family; (4) My Home; (5) My Community; (6) Transportation; (7) Communication; and (8) Animals. Each unit is further divided into skills which combine the topic of the unit with basic concepts that the child must master. Activities for each skill are suggested. A vocabulary list is provided in each unit, and the guide is illustrated with black-and-white drawings.

_____. (1977).  Bilingual-Bicultural Curriculum for Social Studies, Grade 3. Connecticut Migratory Children's Program. 

This is one of a series of curriculum guides designed to assist bilingual teachers to provide a coordinated program of studies for students in the Connecticut Migratory Children's Program and for any other students whose native language is Spanish. It is felt that an effort should be made to discover the skill level at which a child is functioning, to choose materials from curriculum guides at that skill level, and to move to more difficult materials when the child is ready. Skills are suggested at given grade levels to provide a logical sequence of skill development. The overall focus of the curriculum guides in the series is on Puerto Rican history and culture. The present guide is for social studies instruction at the third grade level, and is divided into seven units: (1) Connecticut; (2) Puerto Rico; (3) Latin America; (4) Europe (5) Asia; (6) Eskimos; and (7) American Indian. Each unit is further divided into skills which combine the topic of the unit with basic concepts that the child must master. Activities for each skill are suggested. A vocabulary list is provided in each unit, and the guide is illustrated with black-and-white drawings.

_____. (1977).  Bilingual-Bicultural Curriculum for Kindergarten Children (5 years old). Connecticut Migratory Children's Program. 

This is one of a series of curriculum guides designed to assist bilingual teachers to provide a coordinated program of studies for students in the Connecticut Migratory Children's Program and for any other students whose native language is Spanish. The overall focus of the curriculum guides in the series is on Puerto Rican history and culture. The present guide for kindergarten children is divided into three units: (1) sensory education curriculum; (2) psychomotor education curriculum; and (3) language and number readiness curriculum. The educational goals and concepts for each unit are stated and activities which will achieve these goals are listed. Black-and-white drawings accompany the explanation of the materials to be used.

_____. (1977).  Bilingual Education: A Position Paper. 

This paper states the position of the National Council of State Supervisors of Foreign Languages (NCSSFL) in regard to bilingual education. The Council feels that the ethnic languages and cultures of the people living in the United States should be preserved in order to strengthen and enrich the total American society. It therefore favors maintenance rather than transitional bilingual programs. The following eight points are considered integral parts of an effective bilingual program: (1) scholastic achievement in two languages is commensurate with the age, ability, and grade level of students; (2) bilingual education is an integral part of the school's regular program; (3) development of a positive self-image in students is a primary consideration; (4) fluency and literacy in two languages are expected; (5) professional staff development is included; (6) cross-cultural understanding is stressed; (7) educators in all types of language programs make efforts toward common goals; and (8) provisions are made to allow all students the opportunity to develop bilingual/multicultural proficiencies to a high degree in a well-ordered program.

_____. (1977).  Bilingual Education Plan of the Navajo Nation. 

Representing the efforts of the Navajo Division of Education in the initial phase of planning and developing the Bilingual/Bicultural Education Program for the Navajo Nation, this document includes rationale, educational philosophy, and program goals. Additionally, it addresses procedures regarding: implementation (needs assessment coupled with commitment to the law); language policy (literacy, status of proposed Navajo Office of Education, staff development, "university of competence", and the Navajo Community College); Navajo area/local communities' assessment; needs assessment and external and internal program evaluation; educational program development (curriculum component, curriculum materials development from schools and centers, field testing, curriculum development center vs local in-school development, and instructional model characteristics--planning and instructional methods); staff development component (personnel training, targeted personnel for training, types of training, orientation, training workshops, cultural awareness workshops, university education--standard, and competency based training). The appendices present: proposed resolution of the Navajo Tribal Council regarding the Navajo language; a language action plan; bilingual definitions; needs assessment; objectives; models (I, II, III, and IV); cooperating agencies; and a time line. As described here, this program is grounded in the belief that language is the key to the preservation of a culture and that firm command of one culture is a prerequisite to successful comprehension of another.

_____. (1977).  Bilingual Instruction in Michigan: A Position Statement by the State Board of Education. 

This paper sets forth the position of the Michigan State Board of Education regarding bilingual instruction. First is a summary of policies already established as a result of the adoption of "The Common Goals of Michigan Education," the rulings of the U.S. Supreme Court as enunciated in Lau vs Nichols, federal legislation (ESEA Title VII, 1965 and Civil Rights Act, 1964) and state law (Public Act 294, 1974). The second part is a position statement containing seven guides for action which should fully implement Act 294 and encourage bilingual education to become an integral part of a program of quality education. It attempts to achieve a balance between the traditional American educational institution's assimilationist view and the right of individuals and groups to maintain their particular identities within a pluralistic society.

_____. (1977).  Bilingual Resources, Vol. 1, No. 1, Fall 1977. 

This journal, the first in a new series of publications, consists of guides to instructional materials and articles on subjects of interest to teachers in bilingual education programs. The following articles and regular features appear in this issue: (1) Publications of the National Dissemination and Assessment Center, Los Angeles, a list of selected bilingual curricular and testing materials; (2) Instructional and Resource Materials: Annotations; (3) "Reading and the Bilingual Child," by Doris Ching, an excerpt; (4) The Misinterpretation of Grade Equivalents; (5) Selected Principles on Culture-Fairness in Testing; (6) Test Review: SWRL Proficiency Verification Systems in Mathematics; (7) A Feature Review, Chinese Cultural Heritage in America: Children's Readers of Festivals, includes brief descriptions of the individual booklets in the series; and (8) National Network Highlights, discussing the Asian American Bilingual Center, Berkeley.

_____. (1977).  Bilingual/Bicultural Preschool Projects Conference (San Antonio, Texas, November 15-18, 1977). Conference Proceedings. 

This volume presents a number of articles on different aspects of the Head Start Strategy for Spanish-Speaking Children written by participants in that effort. The first section describes Bilingual-Bicultural Curriculum Development and Evaluation projects and includes descriptions of four curriculum development projects and an evaluation of the initial phase of the Head Start curriculum development project. The second section focuses on the Bilingual-Bicultural Child Development Associate (CDA) Training Program. This section begins with an overview of the CDA program and contains (1) descriptions of CDA staff training projects, (2) an outline of the CDA competency-based curriculum to assist in curriculum revision and evaluation and (3) tips about program implementation. The third section briefly reports the operation of a network of human and material resources for Head Start programs in six Western states. Section 4 presents some recent research on bilingual-bicultural preschool child development. Section 5 provides information about a graduate fellowship program initiated to promote research on the early childhood development of the Spanish-speaking child. In the final section, suggestions are made for disseminating the results of the Head Start programs. A summary of the opinions of the conference participants about how dissemination should proceed is included.

_____. (1977).  Bilingual-Bicultural Education Regulations. 

Regulations adopted in 1977 by the Alaska State Board of Education governing bilingual-bicultural education in Alaska are presented. The procedure for the initial identification of language dominance in students is set forth. Obligations of school districts toward their non-English-speaking students are detailed. Parental and community involvement is specified. Six types of bilingual/bicultural programs are mandated, and criteria for establishing the appropriateness of given programs for a given district are determined. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1978).  Bilingual Human Services Educational Consortium. Final Report. 

This report presents results of the third year of a project designed to enhance employability and career mobility of limited English speaking Franco-American adults in jobs providing services for the elderly. The first section states project objectives of the college-level, credit-bearing program conducted at five university campuses: (1) to expand the bilingual certificate gerontology program; (2 and 3) to provide bilingual vocational education for Maine's high Franco-American populations and 100 unemployed and underemployed adults; and (4) to encourage the consortium between the University of Maine system and community agencies in meeting the above objectives. Section 2 includes reports from five University of Maine project sites (Fort Kent/St. John Valley, Lewiston-Auburn, Augusta-Waterville, Presque Isle-Caribou, and Biddleford/York County) which contain information on recruitment, orientation, student profile, faculty, curriculum, student and university support services, community involvement, personal assessment, and conclusions. In the third section, conclusions and recommendations are reported based on the project results and follow-up data from the nearly 200 program graduates. (Of the initial 1975 graduates, approximately 40% are employed in human services. Follow-up of 1977 graduates indicates nearly 40% are enrolled in formal educational programs.) In the final section, eleven appendices include information on sites, students, courses, etc. (See related document CE 017 480, a third-year, third-party evaluation report.)

_____. (1978).  Bilingual Resources, Vol. 1, No. 2, Winter 1978. 

This journal consists of guides to instructional materials and articles on subjects of interest to teachers in bilingual education programs. The following articles and regular features appear in this issue: (1) "Evaluation of the Impact of ESEA Title VII Spanish/English Bilingual Education Program: Abstract and Summary of Findings"; (2) A review of "Evaluation of the Impact of ESEA Title VII Spanish/English Bilingual Education Program," by Michael O'Malley; (3) "English Reading for Asian Students," by Grace E. Lee, a discussion of cultural variables and their influence on language acquisition among Asian students; (4) "Opening the Classroom to Indian Students (Head 'em Off at the Pass)," by Dwight A. Billedeaux, a discussion of the systematic stereotyping of American Indians and their exclusion from quality education because of this; (5) "Instructional and Resource Materials: Annotations"; (6) "Publications of the National Dissemination and Assessment Center, Los Angeles," brief descriptions of recently published and forthcoming material; (7) "Issues in Language Testing," a discussion of some of the problems teachers face when assessing child language usage problems; and (8) "Test Reviews: Spanish/English Language Performance Screening (S/Elps) and the Austin Spanish Articulation Test (ASAT)."

_____. (1978).  Bilingual Resources, Vol. 1, No. 3 Spring 1978. 

This journal consists of guides to instructional materials and articles on subjects of interest to teachers in bilingual education programs. The following articles and regular features appear in this issue: (1) "Social Class or Culture? -- A Fundamental Issue in the Education of Culturally Different Students," by Frank Angel, an excerpt from a discussion of the confusion of the two concepts of social class and culture; (2) "Behavior Modification Perspective and Bilingual/ Bicultural Education Models," by Todd R. Risley, an excerpt; (3) "A Re-Appraisal of Spanish-English Bilingualism for Bilingual Education in the U.S.A.," by Atilano A. Valencia, a discussion of different perspectives of bilingualism and the resulting orientations; (4) "Supply and Demand Factors Related to Bilingual Spanish Teaching Candidates Emerging from Public and Private Colleges and Universities in California, 1976-1977," by Robert Forbes and Berenice Haley; (5) "Instructional and Resource Materials: Annotations"; (6) "Literacy for America's Spanish Speaking Children," by Eleanor Wall Thonis, an excerpt; (7) "Publications of the National Dissemination and Assessment Center, Los Angeles," brief descriptions of recently published and forthcoming material; (8) "Test Review: Basic Inventory of Natural Language (BINL);" and (9) "Selections from Native American Poetry."

_____. (1978).  Bilingual Bicultural Child Development Associate Training Program: A Competency Based Training Program for Preschool Child Care Givers. Introduction. 

This introduction to the Texas A & I Bilingual Bicultural Child Development Associate (CDA) Training Program curriculum, a competency based early childhood training program for teachers in bilingual-bicultural preschool education, explains the rationale for the curriculum, describes the curriculum, and provides a brief teacher trainer's guide. The curriculum, contained in six supplementary volumes, was developed for training child care workers teaching Spanish dominant migrant children, age 3 to school entrance age, in South Texas. The need for bilingual-bicultural preschool education for this population is discussed. An overview of the curriculum, consisting of 18 modules organized around the six major CDA competencies, is given. Learning modules are described, and the kinds of skills to be learned by the teacher in each module are outlined. A brief guide explaining how the trainer is to use the curriculum and samples the curriculum and samples of forms to assess the trainee's progress are included.

_____. (1978).  Bilingual/Bicultural Education: Titles and Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations. 

Dissertation abstracts describing research on a wide variety of topics in bilingual education are presented. This publication is designed to provide background material for bilingual educators as well as practical procedures for bilingual teachers, administrators, counselors, and evaluators. The titles were acquired by using the two broad descriptors of bilingual and bicultural. The dissertations are presented under the following divisions: program management, assessment, language curriculum, and affective domain. The following topics are covered: scope, history, and legislation; development; bilingual program models; comparative studies (bilingual/monolingual); teacher education; investigations beyond North America; language proficiency; intelligence; acquisition and development; concept and development; language and culture; linguistics; sociolinguistics; reading and language arts; content fields; special education; career education; audio-visual media; self-concept; and attitudes toward bilingual education.

_____. (1978).  [Bilingual Metric Education Modules for Postsecondary and Adult Vocational Education.] Applying the Metric System (SI) in Business and Office Education. 

This set of seven instructional units on the metric system application in business and office occupations is one of three metric education modules designed for use with bilingual (Spanish and English) students in postsecondary and adult vocational programs. (Both the Spanish and English versions of this set are provided in the document.) Each unit focuses on one of seven occupational fields: mail clerk, proofreader, clerk-typist, secretary, bookkeeper, office manager, and word processor. Contained in each unit is a statement of objectives, suggested activities for instructor and student, information sheets, assignment and job sheets, transparency masters, and a unit test with answer key. The appendices contain a matrix of common metric multiples and submultiples, a list of common terms and definitions, and brief descriptions of the seven occupational areas. (The first section of this document, entitled "Metric Systems of Weights and Measures," is available as CE 022 166. It contains five core units on the metric system and is designed to be used as the first section of each set of instructional units.)

_____. (1978).  [Bilingual Metric Education Module for Postsecondary and Adult Vocational Education.] Applying the Metric System (SI) in Trade and Industrial Education. 

This set of six instructional units on applying the metric system in trade and industrial education is one of three metric education modules designed for use with bilingual (Spanish and English) students in postsecondary and adult vocational programs. (Both the Spanish and English versions of this set are provided in the document.) Each unit focuses on one of six occupational fields: draftsman, machinist, welder, automotive tune-up mechanic, electrician, and electronics service technician. Contained in each unit is a statement of objectives, suggested activities for instructor and student, information sheets, assignment and job sheets, transparency masters, and a unit test with answer key. The appendices contain a matrix of common metric multiples and submultiples, a list of common terms and definitions, and brief descriptions of the six occupational areas. (The first section of this document, entitled "Metric Systems of Weights and Measures," is available as CE 022 166. It contains five core units on the metric system and is designed to be used as the first section of each set of instructional units.)

_____. (1978).  Bi-lingual Learning in Multi-Racial Societies. Selected Titles. 

This bibliography is intended to help people who are concerned with bilingual, bicultural situations and particularly with the educational aspects of these situations. Reflecting a variety of viewpoints, it contains studies on all aspects of bilingualism. In addition to the 2,363 titles, there is a subject index and two appendices. Appendix I presents a list of institutions and/or periodicals in the field of bilingual, bicultural, and migrant education. Appendix II provides information on obtaining materials from data bases in many countries. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1978).  Bilingual Higher Education Resources in New Jersey Colleges and Universities 1978. NJDHE Survey 77-13. 

This directory of teacher education programs in bilingual education within the New Jersey higher education system includes programs at public two-year colleges, public four-year and graduate colleges, and independent colleges. Program offerings at each of these institutions are presented in tabular form. A profile of each institution indicates language of instruction, courses offered in program, student selection criteria, bilingual and ESL (English as a second language) resources, and personnel resources. Program course offerings are also tabulated separately. The survey form which was sent out prior to compilation of the directory is appended. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1979).  Bilingual Metric Education Modules for Postsecondary and Adult Vocational Education. Core Units, I - V (English and Spanish). 

Five instructional units on the metric system of weights and measures are provided in this document designed for use with bilingual (English and Spanish) students in postsecondary and adult vocational education programs. (This document, divided into Spanish and English versions, is designed to be used with three documents--CE 022 167, CE 022 168, and CE 022 169.) The unit titles are (1) measuring length and finding area, (2) measuring volume, (3) measuring time and finding speed and acceleration rates, (4) measuring mass and power, and (5) measuring temperature and energy. Each unit uses the common reference point approach to instruction and includes these elements: a statement of objectives, suggested activities for instructor and student, information sheets, assignment and job sheets, transparency masters, and a unit test with answer key.

_____. (1979).  Bilingual Vocational Education: An Assessment of Needs. Final Report. 

A study was conducted to determine the need for bilingual vocational education and the extent bilingual vocational education programs are being implemented throughout the state of Colorado. Specific objectives were (1) to assess jobs that would be addressed through traditional vocational programs in Colorado which require bilingual employees now and in the future; (2) to assess all bilingual vocational education programs offered in Colorado regarding the type and adequacy of training as well as perform a follow-up of graduates involved in vocational training; and (3) to formulate recommendations concerning bilingual occupational programs based on objectives 1 and 2. To accomplish these objectives, six activities were completed, including a collection of data from existing files, a Delphi study, a survey of vocational programs, employer interviews, case studies, and a task force review. Some of the findings indicated that the majority of the jobs requiring bilingualism were in the professions (particularly teaching and social welfare) and in the service industries. Ten vocational education programs in Colorado were identified as having some bilingual characteristics; however, a follow-up revealed that only two of these programs might be considered bilingual vocational education programs. Finally, it was recommended that bilingual vocational education be defined as those programs that provide training for limited English-speaking students for employment in traditional and non-traditional occupational settings. (Specific findings for each objective are included.)

_____. (1979).  Bilingual, Bicultural, and Bidialectal Studies Related to Reading and Communication Skills: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1979 (Vol. 40 Nos. 1 through 6). 

This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. Among the topics covered in the 31 titles are the following: the oral English syntax of bilingual Indian children in Manitoba, Canada; linguistic style shifting in black English; oral language assessment by sentence repetition; environmental influences on patterns of communication in a black community; second language acquisition among Hispanic children in a bilingual program; language dominance and bilingual education; reading and dialect; dialect speaking children's use of contextual and graphic information in learning to read; oral English proficiency of Mexican-American migrant students; the acquisition of four black English morphological rules by black preschool children; Afro-American culture/cognition relations; techniques for teaching English to non-English speaking elementary school children; black American children's signing games; expressed reading preferences of Mexican-American children; the interpretation of verb tense in written passages by black English-speaking and standard-English-speaking children; black students' and white faculty members' perceptions of black students' classroom communication; oral language gains in a French-English bilingual education program; reading interests expressed by black adolescents in response to a biracial annotated fictitious titles survey; and reading miscues of Spanish-surnamed readers. | [FULL TEXT]

_____. (1979).  Bilingual Education. Special Bulletin No. 2. 

This is a report on a research project which developed an evaluative model for a Kindergarten through Grade 2 bilingual education program in the Prosser School District in the state of Washington, a program that had been in operation for three years. The report is divided as follows: (1) background information on the program; (2) a summary of the project goals; (3) the model of classroom instruction; (4) a general summary of the gains in language proficiency among the groups evaluated; (5) the groups tested; (6) the characteristics of the evaluative model, a "norm-referenced model"; (7) results of the analyses; and (8) recommendations. The groups tested were currently enrolled second, third and fourth grade Hispanic and non-Hispanic students. The results are organized according to the three basic skill areas: reading, language arts and mathematics. Results indicated gains in all groups in reading and language arts achievement. Hispanic students showed little or no gain in mathematical achievement; all groups of non-Hispanic students did show progress in mathematical achievement. The recommendation was that the district should continue the project and seriously consider extending it upward.

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Birdsong, David, Comp. (1976).  American Doctoral Dissertations in Foreign Language Education, 1965-1974: An Annotated Bibliography. CAL-ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics, No. 36. 

This nonselective, nonevaluative annotated bibliography compiles and synopsizes the mass of American doctoral dissertations written in the field of foreign language education between 1965 and 1974. Dissertations dealing primarily with allied fields such as bilingual education and English as a second language are excluded from this listing, but will be included in a later bibliography in the same series. | [FULL TEXT]

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Bisagna, Joanne (1978).  Materials Development and Lesson Planning for Elementary School ESL Instruction. 

This paper is the narrative portion of a workshop presentation on lesson planning and materials development for ESL instruction. The specific materials and lessons which were demonstrated and which are discussed in this paper, had been designed and used in English as a Second Language classes for students ranging from Kindergarten to eighth grade in a Title I program in New York City. Six areas are dealt with: (1) Lesson Planning; (2) Classroom Routines; (3) Independent Activities; (4) Games; (5) Poems, Rhymes and Songs, and (6) Creating and Adapting Materials. The suggestions emphasize the development of communicative competence by the use of functional language in meaningful settings. Activities are discussed which facilitate the use of communicative language in the classroom. Materials are recognized to be most effective when they are prepared or adapted for a particular group of students with particular language needs. All the areas discussed are accompanied by sample exercises, dialogues, games, songs and other activities.

Bishop, Arthur, Ed. (1976).  Focus 2 Bilingual Education. 

With the passing of Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act in 1968, a number of school districts turned to the Educational Testing Service (ETS) for help in the area of bilingual education. ETS bilingual specialists began to offer advice and assistance in planning new programs, inservice training, evaluating curricula, and measuring different aspects of bilingual programs. Explained in this document are some of the problems ETS had to consider in providing this assistance: the type of bilingual program best suited to a particular school; the need to establish a program that would receive the necessary local support; and the shortage of qualified teachers. Specific strategies and programs developed, implemented and/or conducted by ETS are detailed. These include language tests, surveys of inservice training programs, minimum proficiency tests for teachers, screening and achievement tests for children, instructional program evaluation, and the development of process and outcome objectives for students in different grades. Some of the established bilingual programs referred to are "Mano a Mano," the Targeted Achievement Reading Program (TARP), Better Understanding of Educational Needs of Others (BUENO), and CIRCUS (EL CIRCO). | [FULL TEXT]

Bishop, Russell H.; And Others (1979).  Assessing Bilingual Instructional Practices and Outcomes: A Precision Approach to an Old Dilemma. 

This research report reflects the use of precision teaching techniques incorporated into a microcomputerized observational system to assess bilingual instructional practices and student outcomes. Three local educational agencies were monitored to assess the relationship between the demographic background of the student and the interactive profile of the teacher in relation to instruction, equity of attention, and teacher mobility. Outcomes included the student response types and his self report on understanding instructions and language used to process information. Findings suggest that the research procedures and technology used provide a broad evaluation base built upon a substantial amount of quality data.

Bissell, Joan S. (1979).  Program Impact Evaluations: An Introduction for Managers of Title VII Projects. A Draft Guidebook. 

Intended to assist administrators in the planning, management, and utilization of evaluation, this guidebook is designed as an introduction and supplement to other evaluation materials for bilingual education programs being developed under federal sponsorship, including evaluation models for Title VII projects. General information is provided on the conduct of evaluations, the variety of evaluation methods, and ideas for evaluating both the progress and impact of Title VII programs. This guidebook is an introductory evaluation tool which builds upon ideas generated by project administrators, developers, and evaluation specialists. The contents reflect reactions made by bilingual education experts during a workshop on Title VII Management and Evaluation (September 1979). Specifically, the following are dealt with: Planning and Organizing for Effective Evaluation; Designing the Evaluation; Measuring Project Implementation; Measuring Student Performance; Measuring School, Family, and Community Factors; Analyzing and Reporting Evaluation Results; and, Using the Evaluation Findings.

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Bjerstedt, Ake, Ed.; Gustafsson, Evy, Ed. (1978).  Towards Intergroup and Global Solidarity Via Teacher Training. Teacher Training as a Vehicle in Fostering Intercultural Awareness, Intergroup Understanding, and Global Solidarity: A Collection of Abstracts. No. 60. 

This annotated bibliography identifies over 100 resources available through the ERIC system. It focuses on the improvement of inservice or preservice teacher training for the purpose of fostering intercultural awareness, intergroup understanding, and global solidarity. Topics listed include international understanding via student teaching abroad, developing creative materials for teaching the culturally different child, evaluation of curriculum materials, and reviews of literature related to segregation and racism. Some descriptions of training institutes for teachers and school administrators are also included. Entries for the bibliography were located in the ERIC system from 1966-1976. Information is included on author, title, institutional source, publication date, number of pages, ERIC accession number, and availability from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service. A 200-word abstract and ERIC descriptors are included.

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Black, D. Eric (1971).  Bilingual Education for Nation's Spanish Speaking  InterAmerican Scene, 3, 1-2. 

Article presented in Spanish and English versions.

Blanc, Doreen V. (1976).  Training Manual: Job and Social Skills. Vocational Strategies for Special Needs Students. 

Curriculum materials presented in this Spanish-English guide, one of five developed as part of the vocational strategies project, are intended to provide vocational services to mildly handicapped special needs students mainstreamed into regular high schools. Material is sequentially arranged, emphasizing those skills which a student needs to know initially, and those which become critical as the time of actual employment nears. The first unit, "Your Name and Some Important Things You Should Know," concerns basic knowledge and can be used as early as the first year in high school. Exercises are provided for budgeting time, learning to use public transportation, answering questions, and obtaining a Social Security card. The second unit, "Finding Jobs," covers processes for finding work through the media, the Yellow Pages of the telephone book, the employment ads, and the State employment office. The third unit, "Applying for Jobs," gives students practice in filling out actual job applications and in mastering the job interview. Contents for each of the 11 lessons in the three units include lists of learning objectives and needed materials, notes to the teacher, and copies of student written exercises (in both English and Spanish). A pamphlet on applying for a Social Security card is included.

Blanco, George M. (1976).  Role of Foreign Language Educators in Bilingual Education. 

Foreign language educators should make themselves known in the field of bilingual education because they have a good deal to offer. While bilingual education differs basically from foreign language programs in that it entails the use of two languages for all or part of the curriculum and not simply instruction in the language as such, it does include some very important elements of foreign language instruction. One of the disappointing features of some bilingual education programs in Texas is that people who do not have a strong background in Spanish are making many mistakes and the children are perpetuating these errors. Bilingual teachers must have preparation in language teaching and linguistics, and the teacher preparation program at the University of Texas is attempting to give teachers this preparation. The expertise that the foreign language field has acquired over the years can be shared effectively with people in bilingual education. Foreign language educators should find out what services they can render the language component. They should be sympathetic and of service to the concept of bilingual education.

Blanco, George M. (1976).  Spanish-Language Assessment in a Bilingual Teacher Education Program. 

A diagnostic Spanish proficiency exam for a bilingual education teacher preparation program was pilot tested with 38 students, both native and non-native speakers. Other standardized proficiency exams were considered but judged inappropriate. The Modern Language Association Cooperative Foreign Language Proficiency Test: Spanish seemed more useful for Spanish literature majors because of its literary orientation and use of peninsular dialect. The College Board's Spanish Proficiency Exam assesses only a passive knowledge of Spanish listening comprehension and reading. Accordingly, a test was developed specifically for the teacher preparation program. Its purposes were (1) to objectively assess listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills; (2) to assess phonological, grammatical, and lexical items; (3) to recommend remedial courses, if necessary; (4) to document linguistic growth; and (5) to make this assessment in a relatively reasonable period of time. The locally popular Northern Mexican dialect was used in preference to the peninsular dialect. The test consisted of a conversational oral interview and four other subtests--speaking, listening comprehension, reading, and writing. Results of the pilot testing indicated a positive correlation between proficiency ratings on the interview and the speaking and listening comprehension scores. Native speakers' ratings on the interview correlated positively with every subtest except reading; however, non-native speakers showed no clear correlation trends. The test is being modified to reduce administration time from four to two hours.

Blanco, George M. (1977).  Competencies Needed by Bilingual Education Teachers  Educational Leadership, 35, 2. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2663.

Blanco, George; And Others (1977).  Bilingual Education: Current Perspectives. Volume 4: Education. 

The Office of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Center for Applied Linguistics cooperated in a state-of-the-art study of the field of bilingual education. State-of-the-art papers were commissioned in four general areas concerning bilingual education: social science, languages and linguistics, law, and education. Each paper formed the central focus for a separate conference at which it was discussed and elaborated upon by specialists from various fields within a given discipline. This volume is the fourth in a series of four volumes that present the major papers and viewpoints of discussants. The focus of this volume is education. One major paper is presented, "The Education Perspective," by George Blanco, and the viewpoints include: "Budgeting for Bilingual Education," by Jose A. Cardenas; "Psycholinguistic Evidence," by James Cummins; "Analyzing Bilingual Education Costs," by Joseph D. Garcia; "Cross-Cultural Research," by William Hall; "Meeting the Needs," by Byron W. Hansford; and "The Importance of Testing," by Protase Woodford.

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Bloom, Irving (1975).  Bilingual Pupil Services; Summer, 1975. 

This paper describes and evaluates the Bilingual Pupil Services Program in New York City. This program provided small group instructional services in reading and mathematics to students of Hispanic background whose regular teachers and bilingual coordinators identified them as requiring supplementary instruction because of language difficulties or other related educational handicaps. These services were provided to groups of about seven children to each bilingual professional assistant, educational assistant, or educational associate assigned to the classroom. The number of pupils served was approximately 410 at 19 sites in grades one through nine. The stress in the bilingual program was placed on language development skills and reading skills used to learn mathematical concepts and computations. The evaluation indicated that on the Cooper-McGuire criterion referenced tests which were used in most of the districts, the students at all age levels achieved 70% mastery of the identified reading objectives. Mathematics results are not reported since a standardized instrument in mathematics was not used.  | [FULL TEXT]

Bloom, Irving; Conte, Anthony E. (1970).  The Non-English Speaking  NJEA Rev, 43, 8. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3003.

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Bobby, Pete; And Others (1978).  K'qizaghetnu Ht'ana (Stories from Lime Village). 

A cross section of Athabascan life as related by eight inhabitants of Lime Village, Alaska, is given in this document. The short narratives are printed in English and in Dena'ina. Illustrations accompany the text. The stories tell of making eagle feather robes, birchbark or mooseskin boats, a raincoat from black bear intestines, and boots from fish skins. Another story describes how to make a birch bark basket and then brew tea in it by dropping hot stones into the water. A recipe for Indian ice cream includes such ingredients as cooked salmon, moose grease, berries and sugar. Fishing methods include blackfish traps, dipnets, spears for whitefish, and nets for salmon. Wormwood soaks and hot packs are listed as native remedies for blood poisoning, with blackberry tea as a cure for stomach ache or constipation, and red currant bark tea as an aid for those with tuberculosis. The stories also tell of hunting sheep, seals, mountain squirrels, ducks, and black bear.

Bobson, Sarah, Comp. (1975).  The Education of Puerto Ricans on the Mainland: An Annotated Bibliography. 

Responding to the special educational needs presented by an increasing number of Puerto Ricans residing in the U.S. mainland, this ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education annotated bibliography covers a span of 442 documents directed to educators concerned with meeting the critical pedagogical needs of children and youth from this ethnic minority. Seven sections, whose assigned titles adequately convey their individual contents, comprise the body of the bibliography. The sections are as follows: General Information, Historical Perspective/Background Information on Puerto Rico, Inservice Education/Inservice Workshops, Puerto Ricans and the Schools, Sociological Analysis, Spanish Language Texts, and Bibliographies. The sections on (1) Puerto Ricans and the Schools, and (II) Sociological Analysis are further divided into subsections; the former delimits the topic into General Information, Bilingualism/Bilingual Education Programs/TESL, Reading Instructions, Compensatory Education, Ethnic Studies, Curriculum Guides/Resource Units, and Counseling and Personnel Services, while the latter subdivides its area into General Information, Socioeconomic Status, Census Reports, Racism/Race Relations, Rural Populations Migrants, and Politics/Political Activism. | [FULL TEXT]

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Boehmler, Eileen (1979).  Blackfeet Language Survey.  [Montana Association of Language Teachers Bulletin] 

A survey is presented of the Blackfeet language that is used in the Browning area of Montana. The purpose of the survey is to determine the extent to which the language is spoken and passed on at home, and the degree of interest in the language among the young people. The results are presented along with comments where appropriate. Generally, it is noted that the grandmother is the strongest family influence regarding the use of the language. Also, it is clear that most students feel their language is important and would like to see it taught in the schools. In the two schools that have a Blackfeet language program, it is evident that the teacher has an important role in the students' attitude toward Blackfeet.

Boelens, Kr. (1976).  Frisian-Dutch Bilingual Primary Schools. 

To establish a framework for surveying the bilingual situation in the Netherlands and especially in Friesland, bilingualism is viewed from four angles: linguistically, psycholinguistically, sociolinguistically in the micro-environment (the speaker's community), and sociolinguistically in the macro-environment (the state). The background of bilingual education is sketched, and five widely differing types of bilingual schools from around the world are described. An attempt is then made at a comprehensive survey of foreign languages encountered in the Netherlands primary schools. With a basis thus built for the recognition of bilingual education in Friesland, the language situation in that province is described. Language ideology is discussed with reference to the language attitudes of first-year college students. The history of Frisian education is juxtaposed with the teaching situation today. The Flexible Education system in use in Friesland is elucidated. A consideration of the future of Frisian education revolves around the role of government as determined by statutory measures and the report of a government commission. It is concluded that, ideologically, bilingual education has a firm hold in Friesland, though its practical implementation is a continuing concern.

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Bonn, Robert L.; Bonn, Ethel V. (1979).  Project ABLE--Achieving Through Bilingual Education. Final Report. 

Project ABLE (Achieving Through Bilingual Education) operated in six public and nonpublic schools in Brooklyn, New York, during the 1978-1979 school year. Approximately 250 students from four language groups (Hebrew, Italian, Russian, and Spanish) received ABLE services. The program focused on the maintenance of bilingual resource centers and on working with tax levy bilingual teachers to enhance the quality of their instructional efforts. Special emphases were given to instruction, curriculum and materials, parental involvement, staff development, and impact on student achievement. Program evaluation was accomplished through classroom observation; teacher, administrator, and project director interviews; and pre/posttest student achievement data from the Bilingual Syntax Measure, the New York City Language Assessment Battery, and the Stanford Achievement Test. Findings indicated that: the project was strong in the areas of curriculum and materials, parental involvement, and staff development; instruction took a variety of forms in both the foreign languages and English; and a significant impact was made on student achievement in a number of areas.

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Bordie, John G. (1971).  When Should Instruction in a Second Language or Dialect Begin?  Elementary English, 48, 5. 

A preprint from a forthcoming pamphlet of the National Conference on Research in English.

Borga, Charlotte, Ed. (1978).  L'education bilingue: Pour quoi faire? (Bilingual Education: For What Purpose?). Cahiers du CMIEB, Number 11. 

This issue contains five articles on aspects of bilingualism and bilingual education, as well as documentation on the "Centre Mondial d'Information sur l'Education Bilingue" (CMIEB). The introductory article presents reasons for being able to communicate in more than one language in the world as it is today, and proposes that bilingual education is a means toward overcoming the language barrier. The other articles deal with: (1) a definition of bilingual education as teaching in two languages as required by political, geographic, or social conditions in a given country; (2) a history of "Le Monde Bilingue," the parent organization to CMIEB; (3) passage from "Le Monde Bilingue" to bilingual education in the interest of greater international comprehension; and (4) majority and minority languages and the necessity of bilingual education. In addition to these articles, there is some documentation on the purpose and activities of CMIEB and communication between "twin cities" and bilingual education. An appendix consisting of questionnaires and a list of addresses concludes the issue.

Born, Warren C., Ed. (1973).  Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting of the New York State Association of Foreign Language Teachers (55th, Kiamesha Lake, N.Y., October 9-11, 1972). 

Papers compiled in this publication focus on creativity and foreign language instruction, the "less-able" student, and curricular innovation. Representatives papers include: "Is Creativity in the Eye of the Beholder?,""How to Increase Latin Enrollments,""Mini-Courses,""Focus on Bilingual Education and TESOL,""Instructional Techniques for the Upper-Level High School Language Course,""Speech Perception and Auditory Cognition,""The Plight of AP Courses: A Partial Solution,""Some Guidelines for the Development of a Foreign Language Test Plan Matrix with Special Reference to Testing Reading Comprehension,""Culture, Creativity, and Foreign Language Magazines,""Articulation from College into the Graduate School of Education,""Kinesics in the French Class,""Determinants for Curricular Content,""The Do's and Don't's of Public Relations and Parents," and "Advanced Language Courses--Total Immersion." | [FULL TEXT]

Bortin, Barbara H. (1970).  Bilingual Education Program Evaluation Report, 1969-1970. 

The Milwaukee Bilingual Program was initiated in September, 1969 and funded under ESEA Titles VII and I and under Milwaukee Public Schools' Local Funds to develop a curriculum taught in both Spanish and English in order to prevent the hindering of learning and lowering of self-esteem often experienced by newly arrived or recently arrived pupils of Latin-American heritage. Oral and written course work was presented in Spanish and English by a bilingual staff, mainly Latin American. First grade pupils learned to read in their mother tongue; reading in the other language began in the second semester. The curriculum was evolved through a search for existing bilingual materials and staff development of new media. Parents and community were represented by members of an Advisory Committee which met regularly with the project director. During the school year, a total of 256 pupils participated at various times. There were 125 comparison pupils in three of the four schools. Findings at the elementary level at the end of the year conclude that kindergarten bilingual program and comparison pupils did not differ in achievement, as measured by the Test of General Ability and the Metropolitan Readiness Test. However, Oral English tests indicated 45 to 85 percent improvement by the end of the year in the bilingual kindergarten, first, and second grades.

Bortin, Barbara H. (1971).  Milwaukee Bilingual Education Program 1970-1971. Evaluation Report. 

Spanish/English bilingualism, grade-level academic achievement, and ethnic pride remained the goals of the bilingual education program in its second year of operation. A number of positive outcomes justify its continued operation and vertical expansion. Specific recommendations are made for continuation of staff training, development of bilingual curricula, improvements in the instructional process, and strengthening of the school-home relationship.

Bortin, Barbara H. (1977).  Bilingual Program Evaluation: Processes and Problems. 

This paper is addressed to administrators and evaluators in school districts which are initiating bilingual education programs in compliance with a U.S. Supreme Court decision. Major evaluation problems are described and remedies suggested. Each step in the sequence, from needs assessment through final report, is discussed and illustrated. The objective is to share Milwaukee's long experience (since 1969) in bilingual program evaluation with other districts, and to forearm by forewarning.

Bortin, Barbara H. (1979).  Procedures for the Identification of Limited English Skills Ability Students and Development of Entrance and Exit Criteria for Bilingual/Bicultural Programs. 

The development of data collection methods and selection criteria to identify and place Milwaukee students with limited English skills (LESA) is described for the period from 1974 to 1979. The various steps taken to implement federal and state regulations designed to meet the needs of the LESA students are set forth for each of the six years in question. It is concluded that the slow evolution of a system of identification and assessment for LESA students is due to difficulty in meeting the sometimes conflicting requirements of state and federal agencies, and to the lack of funds to implement such a system. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the goals of the data collection program are in sight and that Milwaukee will remain a leader in bilingual/bicultural education. Accompanying figures reproduce various forms used to collect data prior to identification and assessment.

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_____. (1979).  Boston Public High Schools--A Guide for Parents and Students. 

This guide provides information about high school level programs in the Boston Public Schools. Included are descriptions of general and special high school programs and cooperative vocational education and postgraduate programs. Descriptions of the high school and special programs include a general statement of the philosophy and/or general nature of the school and information about magnet and bilingual programs, the range of elective courses, career exploration activities, the school buildings' facilities, student activities, and parent involvement. Teacher and student comments concerning the school and/or program are also included. Descriptions of the cooperative vocational education and postgraduate programs include general information and objectives and a listing of courses offered. All descriptions include administrator statements and editorial comments concerning the quality of the school and the effectiveness of the program.

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Botana, Joseph (1975).  Community Involvement in Bilingual Programs  Illinois Career Education Journal, 33, 1. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3934.

Bothwell, Robert O.; And Others (1976).  State Funding of Urban Education Under the Modern School Finance Reform Movement. 

In Serrano v. Priest, the California Supreme Court in 1971 initiated a modern era of elementary and secondary school finance reform. This paper first examines the present problems of urban school finance to ascertain why urban adjustments are necessary today in the new school finance formulas. All urban school finance adjustments in use at the time of Serrano and since Serrano are described and policy problems related to these adjustments are discussed. The final section analyzes school finance reform in ten states concerning fiscal impact on key urban school districts. Tables and text demonstrate that urban school districts have had state aid redistributed in their favor as often as it has been shifted the other way.

Bottenfield, James F.; And Others (1979).  Iowa Annual Evaluation Report for Migrant Programs. Fiscal Year 1979. 

Tabular data and narrative evaluations describe the goals and achievements of Iowa's migrant education programs (three summer session and five regular session programs) operated during fiscal year 1979. A program overview provides summary information on staff utilization, numbers of students served, inservice training activities, medical services provided for students, parent involvement, procedures for recruiting students and establishing their educational needs, cooperation between schools and other agencies, and methods of disseminating information about migrant program activities. Statewide instructional information is presented in tables showing curriculum areas, ages and numbers of students participating, and numbers of students meeting the standards of success in each area. Student success was measured by standardized tests, teacher-made tests, criterion referenced tests, checklists, and observation. Narrative evaluations for three programs provide a brief program description, a summary of objectives and success in meeting objectives, and recommendations based on program strengths and weaknesses. Information about academic gains, enrollment, and attendance is provided in tables. Serving predominately Spanish-speaking students, the programs stressed language development and employed bilingual, bicultural methods.

Bottoms, Gene; And Others (1977).  Challenges in Leadership in Vocational Education. National EPD Leadership Development Seminar Proceedings (Atlantic City, New Jersey, December 2, 1977). Final Report. 

Current delivery systems for vocational education and their implications for the future is the topic of presentations included in this report of an EPDA (Educational Professions Development Act) leadership development seminar. Major contents are an evaluation summary, texts of the three major speeches, and outlines of afternoon interaction sessions designed for maximum involvement of EPDA awardees attending. Major speeches are "Present and Future Challenges in Leadership in Vocational Education," by Gene Bottoms; "Youth Employment Act," by Robert Taggart; and "What to Look for in a Good Graduate School," by Henry Brickell. Topics of the interactive sessions outlined include (1) eradication of sex bias and stereotyping in vocational education programs; (2) legislative impact on guidance and counseling; (3) sociological influences on vocational education; (4) emerging evaluation systems; (5) vocational education delivery systems of the future; (6) cooperative education: the emerging bridge between education and work; and (7) political influences on vocational education and the practitioner's response to them.

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Bouffler, Chrystine M. (1978).  Bilingual Education in Australia--An Overview  Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 3, 1. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2434.

Bourgoin, Edward (1978).  Foreign Languages and Your Career. 

Divided into two major parts, this book is intended to indicate careers in which people need foreign languages in their work and to provide suggestions and sources of further information for those who already have foreign language skills and those who are planning to acquire them. Part 1 discusses careers in which a foreign language is needed as a complement to other skills. The author covers the following fields: business, industry, and commerce; government and international organizations; education; library science; physical and social sciences; law; media; travel and tourism; and services. Part 2 deals with foreign language as primary skill and includes teaching, interpreting, and translating. The following lists are appended: related publications; agencies and organizations concerned with overseas teaching and research; sources of information on bilingual education and teaching of English to speakers of other languages; directors of education in U.S. territories and possessions; organizations utilizing health workers and social services volunteers abroad; professional associations of translators and interpreters; and schools and colleges offering courses in interpretation and translation.

Bourque, Jane M.; And Others (1978).  Foreign Languages and the Basics. 

This brochure is presented in the context of the "back to basics" movement to draw attention to the fact that the basics of a good education are skills that will enable people to live more effectively in the world of the future and that study of a foreign language contributes to the development of these skills. Basics are defined as abilities, such as problem-solving, coping and learning to learn, and human qualities, such as understanding, respect for others and self-respect. A community's brief description in terms of these "basics" is given of four innovative foreign language programs: career education, exploratory language, bilingual education and immersion programs. Other evidence is also offered in support of the value of foreign language education, namely, facts about increased foreign travel, an excerpt from the executive order of the President's Commission on Foreign Language and International Studies and a table showing results of research on the relationship between foreign languages and basic skills and attitudes.

Bousquet, Robert (1979).  French Immersion Classes in the Montreal Region.  French Review, 52, 4. 

Describes the birth of French immersion programs in the Montreal elementary schools.

Bouton, Lawrence F. (1975).  Meeting Needs of Children with Diverse Linguistic and Ethnic Backgrounds  Foreign Language Annals, 8, 4. 

A program at one elementary school served foreign students' needs by teaching language arts, as well as tutoring in other subjects, in their native language. Native English speakers studied a second language, and varying cultural backgrounds of teachers and students were emphasized and studied.

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Bowen, J. Donald; And Others (1972).  Workpapers; Teaching English as a Second Language, Volume VI. 

Twelve workpapers on the teaching of English as a second language presented during the 1971-72 school year on the University of California at Los Angeles campus are compiled in this booklet. They include: (1) "The Designs for Intermediate and Advanced Second-Language Classes, " (2) "The Universalist Hypothesis: Some Implications for Contrastive Syntax and Language Teaching," (3) "British and American Intelligibility for Non-Native Students of English," (4) "Language Allocation and Language Planning in a Developing Nation," (5) "Some Studies in Language LEARNING,- (6) "Produced by People: An Experiment in Film Making," (7) "Controversies in Linguistics and Language Teaching," (8) "Walter Mitty: The All-American Hero," (9) "Objectives in TELF/TESL," (10) "Integrative and Discrete-Point Tests at UCLA," (11) "A Schema for Pedagogical Insights," and (12) "Bilingual Education in Culver City." The final section contains abstracts of 39 degree theses focusing on the teaching of English as a second language.

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Bracy, Maryruth, Ed. (1970).  Workpapers ]in[ Teaching English as a Second Language, Volume IV. 

This is the 1970 volume of working papers related to the field of teaching English as a second language (TESL). Several articles concern topics on language instruction: the art of language teaching, bilingual education, literature study, composition writing, testing by dictation, problems of elementary school teachers, English curriculums for non-English speakers, computer applications and second language learning. Other articles concern language-teacher preparation: suggested areas of research by Masters-Degree students, programs for specializing in teaching English to the disadvantaged in American schools, and staffing schools in developing countries. Papers on linguistic theory include diacritics in modern English graphology and the pragmatics of communication. Abstracts of masters theses approved during the year are also included.

Braggett, E. J. (1977).  Continuity and Integration in Early Childhood Education: PDC  Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 2, 2. 

Gives an overview of the United States' Project Developmental Continuity. Discussed are administration, education, preservice and inservice training, developmental support services, parent involvement, handicapped, and bilingual/bicultural components.

Brainin, Sema (1976).  A New Concept for Compensatory Learning. 

The fundamental features of a bilingual after-school program designed to raise the level of and improve the attitudes toward school achievement on the part of a group of elementary school youngsters is presented in this document. The description traces the evolution of design and practice in the programs' structure methodology, in its training and supervision of both professional and para professional staff, and in its criteria for the evaluation of the children's progress. It also explores the lessons learned from the trial and error, review, and redirection that took place during the Learning Center's first two years of growth. In addition to its soundness of structure, its high quality of leadership and its practices and supervision, the center also contributes in the following areas: it demonstrates the degree to which structure and leadership are essential to the success of a community-based education program, it explores and modifies the Open Classroom form for severely deprived children, it provides experiences relating to the development of revised evaluation criteria for childrens progress in learning, and it embodies a high level of service, unique for a social agency, in an all embracing educational therapy flowing from ongoing diagnostic prescriptive assessments.

Brann, C. M. B. (1978).  An Annotated List of Some Bibliographic Sources.  International Review of Education, 24, 3. 

A selected international bibliography of bibliographies on bilingualism/biculturalism in education.

Brannan, Robert (1979).  Correspondencia (Correspondence). 

The language of Spanish correspondence possesses particular characteristics that lie somewhere between the everyday conversational style and the more formal literary style. This minicourse contains three lessons intended to enable the student to learn the letter-writing style and to write letters in Spanish. It is also intended to encourage and develop interest in Spanish. There are three lessons in the mini-course dealing with the following topics: (1) terminology; (2) letter elements and their placement in the letter; and (3) types of letters such as business, personal, and miscellaneous, with emphasis on the personal correspondence. A filmstrip with reel to reel tape is available to accompany the lessons.

Braude, Kathryn, Comp.; And Others (1979).  The Arts and the U.S. Department of Education: A List of Funded Projects and Activities, 1979. 

This booklet lists approximately 600 arts-related projects and activities which were funded by the approximately 150 separate funding programs in the U.S. Department of Education in 1979. A total appropriation figure of approximately $30 million is presented. The list includes funding for projects that focus on arts education specifically (ESEA-Title IV-C, the Arts Education Program, the Institute of Museum Studies), use the arts as vehicles or tools to help achieve broad educational goals (compensatory education, desegregation, basic skills, community education), and/or include the arts as a component part of a larger program (teacher inservice or curriculum improvement in a variety of educational areas). Entries are presented in 34 categories including adult education, arts education, bilingual education, career education, citizen education for cultural understanding, college work-study, cooperative education, desegregation assistance, ethnic heritage studies, gifted and talented, public library services, and teacher exchange. For each entry, information is presented on the name and address of the project developer, the title of the project, a brief project description, the total dollar amount of funding, and the reference number in the Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA). | [FULL TEXT]

Braun, Shirley W. (1975).  Bilingual Education, Old and New Style, in a New York School District  Bilingual Review, 2, 3. 

This article presents impressions following an evaluation of bilingual-bicultural education programs in a New York school district. Different approaches to bilingual education are compared and contrasted.

Brawer, Florence M. (1979).  Trends in Ethnic Enrollments. Junior College Resource Review. 

Some of the issues relating to ethnic enrollments in community and junior colleges are discussed in terms of the recent literature on recruitment, access, finances, effects, and, to a lesser extent, in terms of the development of special programs and curriculums for special students. Brief summaries are provided of reports focusing on practical and financial aspects of recruiting students, program evaluations, and of descriptions of bilingual programs. Allusions are made to general reports providing information on program development, questions of bias, the assessment of student populations in terms of ethnicity, descriptions of methods of recruiting and retaining minority faculty, and reviews of court cases relating to Title IV of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. A bibliography listing the ERIC documents cited in this review is included.  | [FULL TEXT]

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(1972).  Breaking the Linguistic Barrier  Reading Newsreport, 6, 7. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 3317.

Brent-Palmer, Cora (1979).  A Sociolinguistic Assessment of the Notion 'Im/migrant Semilingualism' from a Social Conflict Perspective. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 17. 

This study challenges the Toukamaa and Skutnabb-Kangas theory of semilingualism and suggests that an integrated set of sociological and sociolinguistic factors can predict the performance of minority bilinguals in school. Semilingualism is described as a low level of competence in the minority language, a linguistic handicap that prevents the individual from acquiring the linguistic skills appropriate to his original language capacity in any language. Within the framework of a social conflict theory of power, sanctions, and conflict, where there are subordinate and dominant language groups, numerous examples are presented of social class and language-related differences that suggest that existing bilingual education programs neither provide for nor test for ethnolinguistic differences. Because subordinate immigrant language groups develop contact-dialects and non-standard varieties of both the native and the dominant language, instruction in the schools could be built around the vernacular and allow for gradual transition to standard versions of either the native or the dominant language. Conventional researchers from dominant language groups need to take into account sociological and sociolinguistic factors that contribute to subordinate language groups' use of the dominant language. Information is needed for: (1) support for the subordinate languages in education; (2) degree of language shift in the subordinate language community; (3) the contrast between the home language code/performance style and that of the school; and (4) ways that teaching and testing can be changed to accommodate subordinate language-group children.

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Briere, Eugene J. (1974).  TOPESL Interpretive Manual. 

This is an interpretive manual designed to accompany the Test of Proficiency in English as a Second Language, a comprehensive test assessing production and perception skills in written and spoken English and intended for use in Grades 4-6 in Bureau of Indian Affairs schools. The manual is divided into three sections. Section one discusses English proficiency and the ways in which information from test results is best incorporated into decisions affecting individuals and Groups. Section two contains the information about TOPESL, TOPESL scores, and the norms population necessary for interpretation of scores and differences between scores. Section three contains detailed information about the development of TOPESL, and about the development of statistical information for TOPESL. Statistical data are presented in tables, and appendices list participating schools.

Briere, Eugene J., Ed.; And Others (1979).  Language Development in a Bilingual Setting. 

The publication brings together the latest thinking in five areas important to bilingual education. Part one, legal aspects, deals with limitations and capabilities of the judicial process, interpretations of major court decisions, and implications of these decisions in terms of community members, educators, and school boards. Philosophies, discussed in part two, encompasses the need for philosophical diversity to account for the needs of marked and unmarked population differences, clarification of philosophical disagreements, and suggests bilingual education will contribute to the assimilation process rather than to cultural and linguistic pluralism. The third part deals with social factors: sociology of language, ethnography of speaking, and pragmatics of natural languages; ethnographic monitoring, and bilingualism and biculturalism in education. Part four covers language and content in bilingual education: language acquisition and language learning in late-entry programs, a Canadian bilingual education program, curriculum development in L1 and L2 in a maintenance program, and curriculum/language contexts. Part five, assessment, encompasses: problems in assessment of the effect of language education policies in a multilingual society; language dominance and pedagogical considerations; and criteria to assess Spanish reading instructional materials. The last section describes the activities of the National Network of Centers for Bilingual Education.

Brisk, Maria E. (1977).  The Role of the Bilingual Community in Mandated Bilingual Education. CAL-ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics, No. 49. 

It is the purpose of the present report to alert community organizers, school officials, and scholars to their mutual interest in securing community involvement in the planning and execution of bilingual programs. Strategies are proposed for bilingual communities to follow when confronted with mandated bilingual education. The proposed process is not a theoretical model based on studies in community organization, but rather a summary of successful strategies. The report focuses on the structure of the community and other interested parties, on the type of community organization required for effective action, and on the role of the community in setting goals for implementing and monitoring bilingual programs. Specific aspects of the planning of a bilingual program are discussed such as needs assessment including a survey of school children, the setting of goals, and technical issues such as language type to be used, materials, accurate assessment of language proficiency, and teaching personnel.  | [FULL TEXT]

Brisk, Maria Estela (1974).  A Preliminary Study of the Syntax of Five-Year-Old Spanish Speakers of New Mexico  International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 2, 69-78. 

Spanish-speaking children of Northern New Mexico exhibit varying degrees of interference and integration of English in their speech.

Brisk, Maria Estela (1975).  Bilingual Education and School Desegregation: The Case of Boston. 

The concerns of a linguistic minority in Boston during the period when their school district was ordered to desegregate due to the existence of a dual school system are shared in this paper. Two factors characterize the Boston case: first, the plaintiffs are representatives of the black community concerned with the unfair treatment of black children. This means that the interest of the Hispanic children had to be defended within the context of integrating black and white Americans. Second, bilingual education was in existence, and a judge will more readily defend bilingual education in the context of existing legislation rather than force it as a new educational idea when the issue in question is desegregation and not bilingual education. Among the issues presented to the courts in the bilingual education plan are the following: the formation of at least four clusters of one language group in any given school at the elementary and middle school levels and seven to eight clusters in high school; the need for specialized teachers at the high school level; and, the necessity for accurate information on the number of school age children and out of school and the section of the city where they live. Issues concerning the value of bilingual education and desegregation are also questioned and discussed. For the most part the results of parent involvement in the decisions are positive.  | [FULL TEXT]

Brisk, Maria Estela; And Others (1979).  Working with the Bilingual Community. 

A collection of five papers dealing with parental/community involvement in bilingual education is presented. Maria Estela Brisk discusses the role of the community in bilingual education in light of legislative and judicial issues. Maria B. Cerda and Jean J. Schensul describe in detail a Chicago program designed to train parental leaders in the Hispanic community. Kennith York discusses the Mississippi Choctaw Bilingual Education Program and how parents and community members have contributed to its initiation, growth, and success. Norberto Cruz summarizes his recent research identifying roles and functions of parent advisiory councils serving Title VII Spanish-English programs. Alberto Ochoa examines the need for parental participation, presents three approaches for involving the community, and suggests activities for generating parental interest and support.  | [FULL TEXT]

Brisk, Maria Estela; Wurzel, Jaime (1979).  An Integrated Bilingual Curriculum Model.  NABE: The Journal for the National Association for Bilingual Education, 3, 2. 

The article offers a theoretical framework including a brief review of the literature on the importance of attitudes and second language learning, bilingualism and cognition, and bilingualism and language acquisition. Based on this theoretical framework, an integrated bilingual kindergarten curriculum model is presented.

Brislin, Richard W., Ed. (1975).  Topics in Culture Learning, Volume 3, 1975. 

This publication includes the following articles: Introduction to Issues in Culture and Learning; The House Form as a Cornerstone of Culture; Music for Multi-cultural Students; Creative Writing in English: Problems Faced by Undergraduates in the English Department, University of Hong Kong; Re-entry/Transition Seminars for Overseas Sojourners: Report on the Wingspread Colloquium; Personal Problems Solving Resources Used by University of Minnesota Foreign Students; Identification of Cross-Cultural Talent: The Empirical Approach of the Peace Corps; Description of Peace Corps Volunteers Experience in Afghanistan; Roots of Bilingual/Bicultural Education in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands; An Overview of Alaska Native Bilingual Education; In Search of a Home: Colonial Education in Micronesia; Teaching English in Asia--An Overview; International Educational Cooperation and the World's Future; and, Dilemmas of Language Transition: Challenges to Language Planning in India.

Britti, Nirmala G., Comp. (1979).  Reading and the Bilingual Learner: A Functional Annotated Bibliography. 

Intended for use by teachers, teacher trainers, supervisors, administrators, researchers, and others concerned with reading and the bilingual learner, this bibliography contains annotations of 136 journal articles and ERIC documents pertaining to the subject. The materials cited in the bibliography were drawn from those placed in the ERIC system between January 1971 and June 1977, and are arranged into three sections according to the educational level with which they deal: (1) elementary, (2) secondary, and (3) elementary and secondary or adult education.

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Brod, Richard I. (1973).  A National Foreign Language Program for the 1970's. 

Responding to a need expressed by a number of active foreign language teaching professionals, the Modern Language Association of America (MLA) began in 1972 to explore the possibility of a new national foreign language program. A steering committee was appointed by the MLA Executive Council to draft an outline of such a program. The present work is the final report of that committee. The report begins with a description of the steering committee and its goals and a brief history of foreign language teaching in America. The necessity of viewing language study as a humanistic endeavor with a vital humanizing power is discussed in Section 3. In Section 4, called "An Outline for Action," specific suggestions are made concerning: (1) public awarness of the importance of language study, (2) professional awareness and coordination, (3) classroom organization and techniques, (4) extracurricular programs, (5) bilingual education, (6) the uncommonly taught languages, and (7) quality control and national standards for language teaching and teacher training.

Brooks, Norma; Lew, San-Ling (1974).  Native Imagery  Urban Review, 7, 4. 

A report of an oral literature project in which elementary school students of different ethnic backgrounds collected original stories in their native tongues that were transformed into bilingual classroom readers.A Chinese-American fairy tale is presented as an illustration.

Brout, Betty Lea; Krabbenhoft, Ken (1977).  The Red Hook Family Day Care Training Program  Young Children, 32, 5. 

Describes a family day care training program that offers workshops leading to college credit for providers.

Brown, Emily Ivanoff (1975).  Qanuq Nigisunnam Uumikkutiruat Ilauragiiksilhat (How Hunger Made Enemies into Friends). 

This illustrated reader consists of a traditional historical narrative in Inupiaq Athabascan. It is intended for use in a bilingual education setting and is geared toward competent speakers of the language with knowledge of the writing system. | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, Emily Ivanoff (1975).  Silam Irrusia (Weather Conditions). 

This illustrated reader in Inupiaq Athabascan is intended for use in a bilingual education setting and is geared toward readers, especially schoolchildren, who have a good grasp of the language. It consists of a story about traditional Inupiaq beliefs concerning the weather, stars, etc. | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, H. Douglas, Ed.; And Others (1977).  On TESOL '77: Teaching and Learning English As a Second Language: Trends in Research and Practice. 

A selection of 27 papers presented at the 1977 TESOL convention is presented. Part one contains the four plenary-session papers which present: a comprehensive view of the teaching-learning process and related interdisciplinary research; the scope of research on language teaching; some of the larger issues in bilingual education; and a perspective on sociocultural variables in the education of black children. Part two, on the theory and practice of teaching, contains eight articles on classroom teaching procedures. Topics concern: a rationale for classroom grammatical explanations, a systematic outline of article usage in English, listening skills, tagmemic theory applied to teaching speaking skills, creative materials development for the language laboratory, reading skills, and understanding the reading process. Part three presents nine articles on recent trends in second language acquisition research. Topics include: an overview of recent trends and models, universal processes and second language data, discourse analyis and English as a Second Language, communicative strategies, and a Spanish immersion program. Part four includes six papers on organizing and evaluating teaching and learning. | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, Kenneth L. (1979).  Assessment of Basic Oral Communication Skills. 

This bibliography includes materials for educators who are concerned with assessment of basic speaking and listening skills and is categorized as follows: (1) speech rating scales; (2) listening; (3) functional communication; (4) bilingual education; (5) reviews of tests and instruments; (6) materials on practices in states and local districts; (7) writing assessment; and (8) testing in general. | [FULL TEXT]

Brown, Mark E.; Zirkel, Perry A. (1977).  Emerging Instrumentation for Assessing Language Dominance. Occasional Papers on Linguistics, No. 1. 

This paper offers a two-step review to be used in designing dominance assessment plans and in determining appropriate instrumentation. The first step provides a classification system of dominance instruments according to testing specificity and strategy. The second step suggests criteria by which such instruments can be evaluated and selected. Selected dominance assessment instruments are categorized in a three-way descriptive matrix. The global/specific dimension distinguishes instruments which tend toward generic screening of gross language behavior from those which tend toward a refined classification of specific language indicators. Within the global and specific modalities, oral and aural performance subclasses are designated. The third dimension consists of four major strategies: rating, home interview, indirect, and parallel instruments. Specific examples of instruments are given to clarify how the classification matrix operates. Criteria for evaluating and selecting tests include examinee factors relating to developmental and cultural appropriateness, administrative and logistic factors, and psychometric considerations. A sample evaluation of Burt's Bilingual Syntax Measure is provided. | [FULL TEXT]

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Bruck, Maggie; And Others (1975).  The Effects of French Immersion Programs on Children with Language Disabilities. A Preliminary REport. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 5. 

This preliminary report describes an ongoing investigation begun in September 1970 of how Anglophone children with language-learning disabilities fare in French immersion programs. Their progress has been followed from Kindergarten to Grade 3, with positive preliminary results. The children have learned to read in both English and French; their school achievement is adequate; and they can understand as well as communicate in their second language with some facility. Furthermore, their first language acquisition does not appear to have been retarded by this educational experience. This report is considered preliminary due to the small number of children studied. But it is hoped that in several years the size of the experimental group will have increased enough to warrant drawing more general conclusions than is presently possible.

Bruck, Maggie; Swain, Merrill (1976).  Research Conference on Immersion Education for the Majority Child: Introduction  Canadian Modern Language Review, 32, 5. 

A conference was held in Montreal in November 1975 which focused on research related to the immersion approach to second language teaching. Background information and purposes of the conference are given.

Bruck, Margaret (1978).  Switching Out of French Immersion.  Interchange on Educational Policy, 9, 4. 

Three case studies of children with specific learning disabilities who were switched out of French immersion programs are presented to provide background for the development of hypotheses for future study regarding the advisability of switching.

Bruck, Margaret (1978).  The Suitability of Early French Immersion Programs for the Language Disabled Child. 

This is the second report of a longitudinal project, initiated in 1970, in which children with and without language problems are identified in French immersion and English kindergartens and closely monitored to the end of grade 3. This study investigates the desirability of early French immersion program for English-speaking children with language learning disabilities. The primary focus of the research is to determine whether these children should be left in the French immersion program or be transferred to an all-English program. The four groups selected for study comprise children with language disabilities in French immersion programs (FP) and in English classes (EP), children with normal language development in French immersion programs (FC) and in English classes (EC). A comparison of the performance of the FP children on a number of academic, cognitive and linguistic tests to that of the EP children and to the two normal control groups indicates that the FP children acquire the basics of their native language, learn the fundamental aspects of reading, spelling and math, and acquire proficiency in their second language. The results are discussed in terms of not switching children with problems out of immersion programs, but rather of providing them with appropriate remedial services in the program. Statistical data and a copy of the screening test and the teacher rating scale are provided.

Bruck, Margaret; And Others (1974).  Bilingual Schooling Through the Elementary Grades: the St. Lambert Project at Grade Seven  Language Learning, 24, 2. 

In this longitudinal study in which a second language was used as the sole or major medium of instruction, the experimental group performed as well as or better than the control groups with respect to language skills, academic skills and cognitive development. Pupils could also communicate effectively in their second language.

Bruck, Margaret; And Others (1975).  Alternative Forms of Immersion for Second Language Teaching. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 10. 

This study focuses on the consequences of immersion experience as a means of developing second language skills. The students involved are 13 to 14 years of age, finishing grade 7 in the public school system. Two forms of immersion are compared, "early" and "late." Early immersion means that students had followed an immersion program from kindergarten on, while late immersion means that students had followed a French-as-a-second language program during elementary school, and taken a one-year French immersion program at grade 7. An analysis of the comparative abilities of the two groups leads to the general conclusions that there were differences in second language proficiency between early and late immersion students. These differences appeared on tests of reading, writing, speaking and listening where the early immersion students generally performed better than the later immersion students. However, neither group of students performed at the same level as the francophone students.

Bruck, Margaret; And Others (1977).  Cognitive Consequences of Bilingual Schooling: The St. Lambert Project through Grade Six  Linguistics, 187, 13-33. 

The cognitive, linguistic, and academic skills of two groups of children were examined following an innovative bilingual education program. Results indicate that the Experimental children are similar to their English-speaking controls in terms of academic, linguistic and cognitive skills. They function well in French, although without native proficiency.

Bruck, Margaret; Shultz, Jeffrey (1977).  An Ethnographic Analysis of the Language Use Patterns of Bilingually Schooled Children. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 13. 

Language use patterns of two grade one children in a Spanish-English half-day pull-out transitional bilingual program were examined. Videotape data were collected three times throughout the school year in both the bilingual and regular English classrooms. Over the year there were two teachers in the bilingual class: one English dominant, the second Spanish dominant. Analyses focused on the amount of language used in different settings and the conditions under which each language was used for teacher-child and child-child interactions. The data were analyzed to examine the effects that time and teacher language dominance had on these patterns. Results of the study indicate that the use of English increases throughout the year, and that teacher's language dominance has a pervasive effect on language use patterns. The contribution of this study to bilingual education, sociolinguistics and evaluation methodology is discussed.  | [FULL TEXT]

Brumberg, Stephan F.; Toledo, Victor (1979).  Final Evaluation Report for the C.S. 211 Bilingual Gifted and Talented Program 1978-1979. 

This report provides a program description and evaluation findings of a bilingual program for gifted and talented children conducted at C.S. 211, an elementary school serving black and Hispanic children in an economically deprived area of the Bronx, New York. The program's goals, which included above grade level reading and mathematics performance in the children's native language and acquisition of the second language, are reviewed. Instructional practices, curriculum and materials development, and staff development designed to accomplish these goals are described. Program activities for the 1978-79 academic year, including classroom and performing arts activities, are reviewed. The Bilingual Gifted and Talented Program is positively evaluated, with particular praise given to the teaching staff of C.S. 211. Based on observations, on comparisons of achievement test data with the District average, and on results from a student ouestionnaire, it is recommended that funding for the program be continued. Problem areas relating to the program's scope, administration, selection and testing procedures, and staff utilization are also identified and discussed.

Brunstein, James J., Comp. (1972).  The Somerton Story: Part III. A Progress Report on the Somerton Demonstration School for Migrant Child Education. 

Again, welcome back to the Somerton School District, Somerton, Arizona. Five years have passed since the Somerton Demonstration School for Migrant Child Education was first begun, and it has now reached maturity. Five years have been long enough for Somerton to see that its educational programs for migrant children have attained a new level of maturity. In Parts I and II of "The Somerton Story" (ED 044 187 and ED 044 226), many of the attempts, the achievements, the progress, and the problems were related. This document relates in 3 sections exactly what is the current story of migrant education in Somerton (1971). Discussed in these 3 sections are (1) parent involvement, which has been stressed in Somerton for the past 3 years and is considered a vital link to reaching migrant children, (2) the role of a demonstration school in providing services to other school districts and educators, and (3) 10 new programs in Somerton which are presently in use and show promise of being beneficial.

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Bryson, Juanita (1970).  Comparison of Bilingual Vs. Single Language Instruction in Concept Learning in Mexican-American Four Year Olds. 

Bilingual vs. unilingual instruction was studied in the teaching of 5 positional-preposition concepts (e.g., under) to Mexican American Headstart 4-year-olds. Treatments consisted of instruction in Spanish only, English only, or bilingually to the 48 subjects exposed to the prepositional concepts via tape-recorded programmed instruction given daily for 10 minutes. Assignment to control and treatment groups was randomly stratified by sex, and subjects were pretested the first day of instruction and posttested on the final (3rd) day. These tests, administered in English and Spanish, included a transfer test consisting of a 2-dimensional presentation of the same prepositions and a learning task in the language opposite from instruction. All criterion tests required verbal labeling and demonstration. Analysis of covariance and Newman-Keuls comparisons indicated that posttest scores of the treatment groups were higher than those of the control group, reflecting the effect of instruction vs. no instruction. Significant differences were found as a function of language exposure in the home, but no significant differences were found between treatment groups. The study is limited by sampling practices and restricted treatment time. An appendix contains the instructional treatments used.

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Budke, Wesley E., Comp.; Gordon, Ruth, Comp. (1977).  Current Projects in Vocational Education-FY 1976. Abstracts of Projects Supported in Fiscal Year 1976 and the Transition Quarter under the Vocational Education Amendments of 1968 (Parts C, D, I and J). 

This compilation presents abstracts of 221 new and continuing projects funded by the Division of Research and Demonstration (USOE/BOAE) in fiscal year 1976 and the transition quarter (July 1 - September 30, 1976). Following a narrative introduction and list of project titles, the abstracts are arranged alphabetically by State within each of the four sections that pertain to the part of the Vocational Education Amendments of 1968 under which funding was obtained: Part C, research (124 projects); part D, demonstration (60 projects); part I, curriculum development (15 projects); and Part J, bilingual vocational training (22 projects). The part C projects are grouped according to the following priority areas: Adult vocational education, postsecondary vocational education, individualization and modularization of instructional materials, special needs populations, and special projects of national significance; part D projects by experience-based career education, cluster projects, work experience and cooperative vocational education, and continuing K-14 career education and cluster projects. The information provided for each project includes application number, contract or grant number, title, principal investigator and organization, funding period, and an abstract summarizing project objectives, procedures, and expected contribution to education. The projects are indexed by application number, principal investigator, and State. | [FULL TEXT]

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(1973).  Building a Cultural Bridge  Instructor, 82, 7. 

Discusses the education of Indian children (Navajo) in kindergarten who learn in a bilingual-bicultural program. Their instruction begins in Navajo, with English taught as a second language.

_____. (1973).  Building Bridges to Better Bilingual Education. 

This information dissemination report presents a brief introduction to the Building Bridges to Better Bilingual Education Program of the Central Board of Education of the City of New York. The primary aim of the program is to promote the linguistic and academic progress of those Title I eligible Spanish-speaking children whose achievement levels are below the grade level of the district and city as a whole. For this purpose it has initiated a teacher-preparation program specifically designed to meet their instructional needs. This training includes courses in the methodology of bilingual instruction, Puerto Rican and Hispanic culture, and language proficiency in English and Spanish. Also included is information on the various components of the program.

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Burkhard, Marianne (1974).  Switzerland: Economy, Language and Politics. 

An overview of the economic policy, political structure, and four official languages of Switzerland is presented. The following topics are discussed: (1) economic expansion without natural resources, (2) linguistic diversity, (3) Swiss-German, and (4) politics and governmental organization.

Burnaby, Barbara (1979).  Writing in Recently Alphabetized Languages. 

The teaching of writing in the American Indian-English bilingual classroom is hampered in that most Amerindian languages have only recently been alphabetized. There are two problems: (1) What standard or orthography will be adopted? (2) What standards of style will be developed? Usually, there are several different writing systems for any one Amerindian language, and it will be up to the schools to develop standards of spelling and punctuation. The second problem is more closely related to the bilingual education issue. Given the lack of literature in Amerindian languages, a model for developing writing style in a native language is needed. In an ideal bilingual education system, the child learns all cognitive skills, including writing, in the native language while studying English as a second language. Eventually, the skills developed in the native language can be transferred to English. The positive reinforcement of the native language can also promote the child's self-image as a speaker of it. The lack of materials in American Indian languages makes this difficult, but it is felt that the children themselves will eventually determine, through their output, acceptable writing style in their native tongues. English writing style would then be taught separately. | [FULL TEXT]

Burnaby, Barbara J.; Anthony, Robert J. (1979).  Orthography Choice for Cree Language in Education. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 17. 

This study examined the psycholinguistic implications of using either of two different types of orthography--syllabic and roman--in Native language programs for Cree children with regard to readability, learnability, and the transfer of reading skills to and from reading in an official language (English or French). This study can also be applied to Ojibwa and Montagnais languages, which share structural features and orthographic problems with Cree. Elementary school children in Ontario of Cree background were studied both through limited research conducted on a psychological level and more broadly through reading instruction classes in bilingual education programs. While the orthographies of the official languages represent a more abstract level, both types of Cree orthographies tend to represent the phonemic level and generally operate similarly. Results show the following differences: (1) it may be easier for very young children to manipulate syllables rather than phonemes; (2) words written in syllabics may be shorter and less complex than those written in the roman script; (3) certain grapheme reversals may cause more problems for learners of syllabics than of the roman system; and (4) if students are going from one orthography to a different type (syllabics to official language and vice versa), they will have to learn new materials and concepts. However, if the transfer is made from a Native roman orthography to an official language or vice versa, the risk of confusion of the two systems is much greater. Implications for further research are discussed.  | [FULL TEXT]

Burnett, Robert W. (1979).  National Estimates of Bilingual Education Teachers. 

A program of research to determine the need for teachers to carry out programs of bilingual education is outlined. The first component of the program deals with the need for bilingual personnel and addresses such policy issues as eligibility for bilingual education, regional concentration of eligibles, participation of non-eligibles, and teacher-pupil ratios. The second component is concerned with the supply of qualified bilingual education teachers, and covers teacher qualification criteria and participation of potential teachers in the labor force. It is estimated that by the end of 1979 data will be available on the need for teachers which will indicate a critical shortage of available teachers. Steps in a procedure of bilingual policy decision-making are presented schematically.

Burns, Allan F. (1979).  From Rural School Project to Rural School Problem: Willcox, Arizona. 

The planned Experimental Schools (ES) project changed drastically before it was implemented in Willcox, Arizona, a diverse, multicultural community open to new ideas and outside innovations. As planned by a core of interested principals, teachers, and staff, with help from federal personnel, the project originally called for changes (in curriculum; staff training and utilization; use of time and facilities; administration, organization, and governance; community-schools partnership) and local evaluation. A changing relationship with Washington, significant personnel changes, community dissatisfaction, and confusion as to who "owned" the project transformed the plan into something far different. The implemented ES project consisted of isolated projects in early childhood education, bilingual education, media use, reading, counseling and guidance, and community schools. The positive and exciting planning year was followed by numerous faculty and administrative resignations. The first year of implementation was largely dependent on the personality of the new superintendent, who also resigned at the end of that year, due to increasing disagreement between Washington and Willcox. During the next three years, the increasingly limited project remained a mystery to most teachers, whose interest went to other projects. When the project was terminated a year early, neither the schools nor the community were suprised.

Burry, James (1979).  Evaluation in Bilingual Education. Desegregation and the Rights of Hispanic Students: the Los Angeles Case.  [Evaluation Comment] 

Two topics are discussed in this publication: evaluation needs in bilingual education, and desegregation and the rights of Hispanic students. Evaluation needs in bilingual education were identified from three sources; a review of federal and state legislation for the design and evaluation of bilingual education, including program implementation and evaluation; a literature review of bilingual education evaluation, including testing problems and design problems; and a survey of bilingual education administrators on evaluation practices and training needs. The following topics are discussed in the article on desegregation and the rights of Hispanic students: an overview of desegregation litigation in Los Angeles; linguistic needs of limited-English speaking students in Los Angeles; the conflict between a desegregation plan and provision of bilingual education programs; the establishment of a critical mass of bilingual students; availability of teachers; curricular planning and corrdination; and Anglo participation in bilingual programs.

Burt, Marina K., Ed.; Dulay, Heidi C., Ed. (1975).  On TESOL '75: New Directions in Second Language Learning, Teaching and Bilingual Education. Selected Papers from the Annual TESOL Convention (9th, Los Angeles, CA, March 4-9, 1975) 

This volume consists of 35 papers divided into the following 12 sections: (1) organizational policy: a dialogue between TESOL and bilingual education--two papers on compatibility and cooperation; (2) second language acquisition--six papers dealing with language learning and teaching, effect of background on learning, order of acquisition, overgeneralization, error analysis and some future trends; (3) research on teaching behavior and curriculum--two papers dealing with delayed oral practice and teachers' treatment of error; (4) two papers on bilingual education: issues in program planning; (5) regional dialects in bilingual education and ESOL--three papers dealing with the speech of Spanish-speaking Americans, language contact and dialect; (6) two papers on nonverbal communication in the classroom; (7) human relations, affect, and communicative competence--four papers on developing communicative competence through humanism and group work; (8) general ESOL teaching techniques--four papers about communicative starters, games, mini-lessons and television commercials; (9) teaching specific aspects of English--two papers on numbers and passive voice at beginning levels; (10) teaching writing skills--three papers on composition courses, sentence combining and collective storywriting; (11) teaching reading skills--three papers on advanced reading, teaching of literature and reading the news; and (12) new developments in testing--two papers on intercultural acceptance and the cloze procedure. The cross-referenced ED numbers, above, refer to papers from this collection already in the ERIC system. | [FULL TEXT]

Burt, Marina; Dulay, Heidi (1978).  Some Guidelines for the Assessment of Oral Language Proficiency and Dominance  TESOL Quarterly, 12, 2. 

Four dimensions of bilingual measurement are defined, and three major topics in the assessment of language proficiency and language dominance are discussed: selection of the language components to be assessed; appropriateness of certain elicitation tasks used; and general checkpoints that can be used to evaluate language proficiency dominance instruments.

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_____. (1978).  Buscando Hallaras. Que Bonito Es Leer, II. Libro II. Libro de Lectura (Looking You Will Find. How Nice Reading Is, II. Book II. Reading Book). 

The Spanish reader, which has an accompanying workbook and teacher's guide, is the second in a series of readers designed for second grade supplementary Spanish reading instruction. The book contains eight stories, each about fifteen pages long. The first four have cultural themes and the last four, animal themes. There are black and white illustrations on almost every page.

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Butler, Jacqueline; McGinty, John (1976).  Bilingual Instructional Materials Dissemination Project. Report I: A Follow-Up Survey of SEDL Product Adopters. 

The Southwest Evaluation and Research Division conducted a survey of 165 purchasers of bilingual instructional materials produced by SEDL to determine which information channels predominate in the curriculum adoption-decision process. The findings of this survey may be useful in the selection of the most efficient ways to communicate information to educators about new instructional products and practices. A survey form was distributed which asked the purchasers to indicate the following: (1) how they first became aware of the SEDL bilingual instructional materials; (2) other sources by which they obtained information; (3) what single information source was most influential; (4) the degree of their personal involvement in this decision; (5) others within their school district or agency who participated in the decision making; (6) availability for further survey information-gathering assistance; (7) current use of the purchased SEDL materials in the classroom; (8) general comments regarding the purchase of the materials. Results and discussion with respect to each of the eight issues are reviewed in turn. The major conclusions were: (1) adopters most often obtain initial information about new instructional products from personal information sources; (2) few purchasers based their adoption-decision on the single initial product information source; (3) the most influential factors were observation of the products in use and personal communication with SEDL personnel; and (4) decisions are most often group decisions.  | [FULL TEXT]

Buto, Kathleen A.; And Others (1975).  A Better Chance to Learn: Bilingual-Bicultural Education. Clearinghouse Publication No. 51. 

School districts are compelled by the 1964 Civil Rights Act Title VI to provide special language programs for those children speaking a non-English native language and belonging to an identifiable minority group, generally of low socioeconomic status, including Mexican Americans, Native Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Asian Americans. The form such assistance should take is the subject of debate among educators, concerned language minority parents, and others. The most widely discussed approach is bilingual bicultural education. In this report, the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights examines the extent to which this approach is an effective educational approach for increasing these students' opportunities. Due to the commission's civil rights jurisdiction, the report concentrates primarily on bilingual bicultural education as a means for overcoming a denial of equal educational opportunity. For comparative purposes, the English as a Second Language (ESL) approach which for many years has been the only special program used to teach these students English is examined. Educational principles underlying bilingual bicultural education are discussed. To clarify what bilingual bicultural programs are and how they work, selected programs are described. Information is provided on evaluation procedures for such programs. Federal and State policy on bilingual education is also discussed.

Butrym, Liette (1978).  Programme d'enseignement par immersion partielle 4e, 5e et 6e annees (The Partial Immersion Academic Program in 4th, 5th and 6th Grades)  Canadian Modern Language Review, 34, 5. 

A further development of the preceding article outlining the general objectives of the program, the learning activity approach used, and the division of time. A brief description is given of the five kinds of learning activities in the program. The source for further information is given. (Text is in French.)

Butzkamm, Wolfgang (1975).  Die bilinguale Schule. Untersuchungen und Berichte (The Bilingual School. Investigations and Reports)  Neusprachliche Mitteilungen, 28, 4. 

Reviews 3 books (1 German, 2 English) on bilingual schools. Reports on plans, goals, and results of the research and experiments carried out in schools where the bilingual program was introduced at an early level. Results are evaluated for their bearing on further bilingual schooling. (Text is in German.)

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Bye, Thomas J. (1977).  Tests that Measure Language Ability: A Descriptive Compilation. 

A collection of tests measuring language proficiency and/or language dominance is described; twenty-eight of the tests are commercially available and twelve are available from non-commercial sources. There are no evaluative judgments made. The descriptive information for each test includes: title; author; where to order (or where to inquire, for non-commercial tests); price (for commercial tests); date of publication; language versions available; age and/or grade level for which the test is appropriate; type of language proficiency measured; language skills which are tested; test administration, including materials needed, group or individual test, length of time to administer, and specific tasks to be performed; scoring, including method, time required, information on interpretation; and field testing information.

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Byrd, Suzanne (1974).  Bilingual Education: Report on the International Bilingual-Bicultural Conference  Bulletin of the Association of Departments of Foreign Languages, 6, 1. 

Full-Text Availability Options: 2552.

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