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American Indians | G

Gaj

Gajar, Anna; Matuszny, Rose Marie (2002).  A Comparison of American Indian and Non-American Indian Parental Involvement in the IEP Process: Perceived Needs for Involvement and Training. Final Report. 

This final report discusses the activities and outcomes of a study that investigated the involvement of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) and non-American Indian/Alaska Native parents of children with disabilities in the general educational and Individualized Education Program (IEP) processes, and the specific needs of parents that would encourage their greater participation in the IEP processes. A total of 132 parents responded to a parent involvement survey, including 34 AI/AN parents and 98 non-AI/AN parents. Results indicated that although AI/AN parents reported that they were not involved as members of a school committee, they were involved in the education of their children with disabilities by attending school events, helping their child complete teacher assigned home activities, establishing a home environment conducive to learning, receiving information from the school about their child, and volunteering at their childs school. Conversely, the data suggest that in the Individualized Education Program process, AI/AN parents were not involved to the same extent in the special education-specific parent roles. Few reported involvement in the roles of political advocate or member of family-directed or family-centered organizations. Finally, the majority of AI/AN parents reported that they always attend IEP meetings for their child. | [FULL TEXT]

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Gallagher-Hayashi, Diane (2004).  Connecting with Aboriginal Students  Teacher Librarian, 31, 5. 

In this article, the author stresses that teacher-librarians must make themselves aware of a variety of aspects of the local aboriginal culture as well as the differences in interpersonal interaction. Artwork, both student and professional, can make a library more beautiful. Posters or aboriginal role models should be mixed with non-aboriginal ones. Photographs of important members of the community can be displayed next to photographs of students. Select aboriginal resources--not just about aboriginal topics, but also by aboriginal authors. A wide selection of fiction by aboriginal authors should be available and be included in regular displays of new materials. Activities in the library should be inclusive of aboriginal students. Writing circles and literature circles can include aboriginal students, or, if they are hesitant about joining the larger group, smaller circles can be formed. Aboriginal practices such as the talking stick can be incorporated for discussion. Students should be given the opportunity to have pride in their work. Chapbooks (bound collections of student writing) can be developed from the writing circles. Invite parents to an evening circle reading, creating an opportunity for parents to celebrate the successes of the students.

Galliher, Renee V.; Evans, Colette M.; Weiser, Desmond (2007).  Social and Individual Predictors of Substance Use for Native American Youth  Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 16, 3. 

Substance abuse is a primary concern for youth worldwide and increasingly so for Native American youth. Guided by theoretical models of the socialization of substance use in children and adolescents, we conducted a preliminary examination of socialization factors specific to Native American youth. Strong, pro-social bonds with three primary socialization sources (family, school, and peer networks) were hypothesized to facilitate child self-efficacy and refusal skills and predict drug use. Participants were 84 Native American children between the ages of 9 and 11, living on or near a northern reservation. Structural path analysis results indicated that self-efficacy was predicted from school bonding and peer social skills, while refusal skills were predicted from parent support/involvement and school bonding. Both self-efficacy and refusal skills predicted child drug use/experimentation. This preliminary study expands the limited research available for substance abuse prevention projects specific to rural, reservation-based Native American communities.

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Gansworth, Eric (2006).  Thinking in Subversion  American Indian Quarterly, 30, 1-2. 

In this article, the author talks about his native language, the Tuscarora, and how he learned and developed it through a poem he wrote. He received an invitation to participate in a group poetry reading and panel on multilingual poets at a regional Modern Language Association conference. Being a member of the Onondaga Nation, raised on the Tuscarora Reservation, he replied that he had no poems in either Onondaga or Tuscarora, beyond occasional words or phrases in the middle of poems composed otherwise entirely in English. Here, he details how his teacher helped him develop his native language through a language recovery program, and how he ended writing a poem in Tuscarora. Among other things, he presents his poem in Tuscarora with its equivalent English translation.

Ganter, Granville (2007).  Red Jacket and the Decolonization of Republican Virtue  American Indian Quarterly, 31, 4. 

History has not always been kind to Sagoyewatha, or, as he is more commonly known, Red Jacket. One of the most eloquent spokesmen for Native sovereignty in the early national period, Sagoyewatha was nonetheless accused by his peers of cowardice, alcoholism, and egotism. Fortunately, this picture is beginning to change. Christopher Densmore's recent biography has helped to clear away the cloud of demonization that obscured Red Jacket's life. Literary scholars and historians have begun to frame Sagoyewatha's career as an influential contribution to discourse about Native sovereignty. In this article, the author focuses on one of Red Jacket's best-documented performances, the Ogden Council of July 1819, where the Senecas rejected the offer of the Ogden Land Company to buy most of their remaining reservations. In addition to being one of Sagoyewatha's finest performances--and most effective--it is also one of his least known, the text not seeing formal publication until more than ten years after his death in William Leete Stone's 1841 biography. The author argues that Red Jacket's accomplishment at the 1819 Ogden Council was to wear the ethos of republican virtue more effectively than his opponents, who initially claimed the same mantle. In this sense Red Jacket was one of many marginalized "others" of the early U.S. political and literary tradition, including oratorical African Americans and women, who extended the egalitarian promise of republican virtue to include those who were initially excluded from mainstream national thought. But rather than employing republicanism strictly as a political philosophy, Red Jacket interpreted and dramatized republicanism as a performative literary rhetoric. Sagoyewatha not only reminded his audiences of Washington's promises of fidelity to the Indians but also presented himself and his nation--not his Euroamerican auditors--as the fitting heirs of the tradition of virtue for which Washington stood.

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Garcia, David L. (2007).  Mixed Messages: American Indian Achievement before and since the Implementation of No Child Left Behind  Journal of American Indian Education, 46, 3. 

This article uses state-level achievement data to examine the academic progress of Arizona American Indian elementary public school students before and since the implementation of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act. In most subjects and grades, American Indian students are making greater progress since the implementation of NCLB. Generally, American Indian students outpace all other major racial/ethnic groups. Compared to their White counterparts, however, American Indian students are most often either falling further behind or are not making sufficient progress to close the achievement gap. Most of the progress since NCLB coincides with changes to Arizona's state assessments and once data from a one-time test score spike are omitted, the achievement rates of American Indian students drop precipitously. The volatility of these results raises concerns about the integrity of state assessments in high-stakes accountability systems. Finally, recommendations are made to improve the NCLB large-scale assessment and evaluation provisions.

Garcia, Florence McGeshick (2000).  Warriors in Education: Persistence among American Indian Doctoral Recipients.  Tribal College, 11, 3. 

Describes the results of a qualitative study in Montana of 12 American Indians with a doctoral degree. Finds that participants shared three characteristics that helped them navigate the academic pipeline: ability to function bi-culturally, spirituality, and a traditional understanding of reciprocity.

Garner, Pamela W. (2008).  The Challenge of Teaching for Diversity in the College Classroom when the Professor Is the "Other"  Teaching in Higher Education, 13, 1. 

In this essay, the author draws on her experience as a minority teacher conducting a course called "Neighborhood, Community, and Identity" to outline some important lessons for minority teachers attempting to teach diversity: (1) When teaching dissident material, it is especially important to create a classroom climate that encourages all students to bring their authentic selves to the classroom, and that the instructor work hard to bring his or her whole self to the classroom; (2) It is important to view any film scheduled to be shown in class ahead of time; and (3) Instructors must conceptualize themselves as people and not just facilitators of classroom discussions, and realize that if they are an "other" in any way, it may be difficult to ignore their own negative feelings in a classroom context.

Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Bellon-Harn, Monica L.; Torres-Rivera, Edil; Garrett, J. T.; Roberts, Lisen C. (2003).  Open Hands, Open Hearts: Working with Native Youth in the Schools.  Intervention in School and Clinic, 38, 4. 

A comprehensive discussion of the potential for cultural discontinuity experienced by native youth in the schools is offered with implications for culturally responsive service delivery. Practical recommendations are provided for special educators and related service professionals working with native youth to improve knowledge, awareness, and skills.

Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Carroll, Jane J. (2000).  Mending the Broken Circle: Treatment of Substance Dependence among Native Americans.  Journal of Counseling & Development, 78, 4. 

Issues surrounding substance dependence of Native Americans are examined through the cultural concept of the Broken Circle. Traditional cultural views of wellness and healing are described. Underlying factors in substance dependence of Native Americans are presented along with practical counseling recommendations and implications for treatment through both contemporary and traditional Native healing methods.

Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Garrett, J. T.; Torres-Rivera, Edil; Wilbur, Michael; Roberts-Wilbur, Janice (2005).  Laughing It Up: Native American Humor as Spiritual Tradition  Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 33, 4. 

Native American humor is explored through a brief discussion of the current literature regarding the use of humor in counseling and descriptions of various forms and communication styles of Native humor as spiritual tradition. Implications for multicultural awareness in the use of humor and possible use of Native humor in counseling with Native clients are offered.

Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Herring, Roger D. (2001).  Honoring the Power of Relation: Counseling Native Adults.  Journal of Humanistic Counseling

A comprehensive discussion of counseling Native adults is presented through historical overview, demographics, and exploration of Native culture. Implications for counseling Native adults are offered with humanistic emphasis on identity; humor; cultural considerations; career planning; proactive practice; creating trust; and practical recommendations for conducting sessions.

Garroutte, Eva Marie (2001).  The Racial Formation of American Indians: Negotiating Legitimate Identities within Tribal and Federal Law.  American Indian Quarterly, 25, 2. 

Tribal and federal definitions that regulate American Indian identity and eligibility for services are varied and inconsistent. Consequently, some people with full Indian blood, no Indian blood, or mixed tribal ancestry have had unexpected outcomes with regard to tribal membership claims and federal legal identity.

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_____. (2000).  Gathering Strength: Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan. A Progress Report = Rassembler nos forces: Le plan d'action du Canada pour les questions autochtones. Rapport d'etape. 

Gathering Strength is an integrated government-wide plan to address the key challenges facing Canada's Aboriginal people. Following an initial section on reconciliation of historic grievances, this report describes initiatives in the four areas addressed by the action plan: (1) partnerships (all schools received public awareness materials; students and teachers participated in cross-cultural programs; Aboriginal language and culture programs were funded and conducted; federal, provincial, and territorial ministers of Aboriginal affairs and five national Aboriginal organizations met for the first time in 2 years; and national and regional partnership think tanks were conducted); (2) governance (legislation for the Nisga'a Final Agreement was passed; 86 land claims were settled or negotiated; and over 100 professional development projects were completed for Aboriginal administrators); (3) new fiscal relationships (93 percent of First Nations communities completed community accountability and management assessments; a national model was completed for the Canada/First Nations Funding Agreement; the Aboriginal Financial Officers Association awarded its first Certified Aboriginal Financial Manager designations; and Canada, Saskatchewan, and the Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations completed exploratory fiscal relations and governance discussions); and (4) community, people, and economies (132 Income Security Reform demonstration projects were conducted in 354 First Nations communities, and numerous First Nations communities participated in initiatives related to community-based housing, water and sewer systems, and policing agreements). A final section describes progress on the Northern Agenda, including creation of Canada's third territory, Nunavut, in 1999, and various agreements related to land claims, self-government, transfer of programs and services, and job creation. | [FULL TEXT]

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Geckeler, Christian (2008).  Helping Community College Students Cope with Financial Emergencies: Lessons from the Dreamkeepers and Angel Fund Emergency Financial Aid Programs  [MDRC] 

Lumina Foundation for Education created the Dreamkeepers and Angel Fund Emergency Financial Aid Programs to assist community college students who are at risk of dropping out because of unexpected financial crises. Both programs are multiyear pilot projects that began in 2005 and are administered by Scholarship America and the American Indian College Fund, respectively. Eleven community colleges are participating in Dreamkeepers; 26 Tribal Colleges and Universities (TCUs) are participating in Angel Fund. Each Dreamkeepers college receives up to $100,000 over three years; each TCU receives nearly $26,000 over five years. The colleges are responsible for designing the programs and raising funds, both to sustain their programs and to continue receiving matching funds from the initiative. Lumina asked MDRC to evaluate these programs during their first two years of program design and implementation. This final report shares their findings on the design and implementation of the programs and draws lessons and recommendations from the colleges' experiences. The study found that Dreamkeepers award recipients were more likely than other students at their colleges to be older, parents, first-year students, enrolled full time, in vocational study, and recipients of other financial aid. At some Dreamkeepers colleges, women and African-American students were more likely to receive aid. According to recipients and administrators at both the Dreamkeepers and the Angel Fund colleges, the aid helped students remain in college. Because MDRC did not use an experimental research design to evaluate the programs, it cannot be concluded that the emergency aid alone was responsible. But the data does show that aid recipients reenrolled at rates roughly comparable to the average on their campuses. Moreover, nearly all of the colleges met or exceeded their fundraising goals, which means that the programs will be able to continue to help more students after Lumina's funding has ended. For colleges interested in starting similar programs, this report suggests several key challenges to address: defining what constitutes a financial emergency, building a flexible administrative structure that safeguards funds yet quickly responds to student needs, ensuring that all eligible students are aware of the program and have equal opportunities to access funds, finding sources of funding, working with technical assistance providers, and using data to evaluate programs. An appendix presents characteristics of Dreamkeepers and Angel Fund Colleges and Angel Fund College Survey Responses.  [This report was written with Carrie Beach, Michael Pih, and Leo Yan.] | [FULL TEXT]

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Geenen, Sarah; Powers, Laurie; Vasquez, Alfonso Lopez; Bersani, Hank (2003).  Understanding and Promoting the Transition of Minority Adolescents.  Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 26, 1. 

Focus groups or interviews with 31 family members and 8 adolescents from minority communities investigated barriers families encountered as their adolescent youth with disabilities move into adulthood. Barriers included insensitivity/discrimination, lack of accommodations, and unresponsive services. Survey findings from 308 parents were consistent with the qualitative findings. 

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Gere, Anne Ruggles (2004).  An Art of Survivance: Angel DeCora at Carlisle  American Indian Quarterly, 28, 3&4. 

"There is no doubt that the young Indian has a talent for the pictorial art, and the Indian's artistic conception is well worth recognition, and the school-trained Indians of Carlisle are developing it into possible use that it may become his contribution to American art." Throughout Angel DeCora's nine years of teaching at Carlisle Indian School, she repeated versions of this statement in speeches to the National Education Association, the Society of American Indians, the Lake Mohonk Conference of the Friends of the Indian, and Quebec's International Congress of Americanists. This document discusses DeCora's life and goes into detail about her teaching at the Carlisle Indian School.

Gere, Anne Ruggles (2005).  Indian Heart/White Man's Head: Native-American Teachers in Indian Schools, 1880-1930  History of Education Quarterly, 45, 1. 

The figure of the Native-American teacher remains largely absent in histories of the teaching profession in this country and of the government-operated Indian schools that emerged and flourished at the turn of the last century. At a time when a growing literature is enlarging the understanding of what schooling has meant and means to minority populations in American society, it is especially important to consider the experiences of these teachers, their effects on students, possible explanations for their relative invisibility, and the implications for historiography. This article addresses that absence by examining the ways several Native-American women, who returned from mission of government-sponsored schools to classrooms filled with youngsters of their own race, textualized--in fiction, essays, speeches, graphic design, and pageants--their experiences and perceptions as teachers. The schools considered here include day schools located in reservations, boarding schools on reservations, mission schools operating under government contract, and, especially, the twenty-five off-reservation boarding schools, which opened between 1878 and 1902.

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Ghere, David L.; Spreeman, Jan F. (2000).  U.S. Indian Policy, 1815-1860: Removal to Reservations. A Unit of Study for Grades 8-12. 

The cultural interaction between Euro-Americans and the original inhabitants of this country constitute one of the most compelling and defining conundrums in U.S. history. This unit explores 19th-century ideology as manifested in public attitudes, justifications for action, and the formation of government policy. The unit is based on primary source documents, such as newspapers, photographs, private correspondence, and artifacts. It presents specific issues and dramatic episodes in U.S. history from which teachers and students can explore the deeper meanings of these landmark events and their wider context in the historical narrative. The unit's premise is that by studying crucial turning points in history the student develops an awareness that choices had to be made by real human beings. The unit includes: "Introduction" (Approach and Rationale, Content and Organization); "Teacher Background Materials" (Unit Overview, Unit Context, Correlation to the National Standards for History, Unit Objectives, Historical Background); "Dramatic Moment"; and "Lessons" (The Role of Education, Euro-American Justifications and Indian Responses, Indian Removal Policy, The Case of the Cherokee, The Shift to Reservation Policy). Lesson plans contain student resources, source documents, handouts, and background materials.

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Gibbs, Hope J. (2006).  CTE: The First Resort for Success  Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers, 81, 3. 

In this article, the author stresses that effective partnerships between businesses and schools define the specific needs of both and succeed through their willingness to make the partnership work. She also states that there must be a mutual desire to improve the quality of education and a commitment of both time and effort from both parties. Working together, business and education can create an ideal environment for success. One such match can be found at East Central Community College (ECCC) located in Decatur, Mississippi. In May 2004, Pearl River Resort and ECCC announced a partnership to offer new educational opportunities at the Choctaw Hospitality Institute (CHI). CHI is part of Pearl River Resort and is owned and operated by the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. It now hosts ECCC's two-year program in Hotel and Restaurant Management Technology. The program provides specialized occupational instruction in all phases of hotel and restaurant management in preparation for careers as managers and/or supervisors in the hospitality and tourism industry. According to Phil Sutphin, president of ECCC, the partnership between ECCC and the Pearl River Resort is one that is a win-win for both organizations. They have the capability to deliver an approved curriculum in hotel/restaurant management, and the resort has a tremendous training facility in which to teach the curriculum. As a result, the students get a great opportunity to learn a much needed skill, and the resort gets a pool of trained prospective employees.

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Gilbert, W. Sakiestewa (2000).  Bridging the Gap between High School and College.  Journal of American Indian Education, 39, 3. 

University, tribal, and community partners developed a 5-week summer program called Nizhoni Academy to provide academic support services and culturally appropriate instruction to educationally disadvantaged secondary students attending rural schools on the Navajo and Hopi Reservations. Attending the academy had positive impacts on participants' mathematics and English achievement and career development.

Gilley, Brian Joseph (2004).  Making Traditional Spaces: Cultural Compromise at Two-Spirit Gatherings in Oklahoma  American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 28, 2. 

The ways in which men in the Green Country Two-Spirit Society of Oklahoma use the annual gathering to compensate for the lack of opportunities to express sexual identity and gender difference within mainstream Native cultural contexts is discussed. Two-spirit men have developed alternative communal spaces in which to express both their indigenous and their sexual and gender identities.

Gilley, Brian Joseph; Keesee, Marguerite (2007).  Linking 'White Oppression' and HIV/AIDS in American Indian Etiology: Conspiracy Beliefs among AI MSMs and Their Peers  American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research: The Journal of the National Center, 14, 1. 

This article presents the results of a pilot study on the use of conspiracy beliefs by American Indian (AI) men who have sex with men and their peers to explain the origins of HIV/AIDS. We found that one-third (N = 15) of the individuals surveyed believed that HIV/AIDS was intentionally created by "Whites, White Christians, or the Federal government" and purposely spread among minority populations. Conspiracy beliefs, we argue, should be looked at as a potential form of power recognition where AIs draw on their experiences of oppression to explain the presence of HIV/AIDS within their communities, at the same time that they draw on public health knowledge to explain how humans get HIV/AIDS. We advocate further research to better ascertain the effect that conspiracy beliefs have on HIV prevention and the treatment of individuals living with HIV/AIDS.  | [FULL TEXT]

Gilliard, Jennifer L.; Moore, Rita A. (2007).  An Investigation of How Culture Shapes Curriculum in Early Care and Education Programs on a Native American Indian Reservation: "The Drum Is Considered the Heartbeat of the Community"  Early Childhood Education Journal, 34, 4. 

This article investigates how culture shapes instruction in three early care and education programs on the Flathead Indian Reservation. Interviews with eight early childhood teachers as well as classroom observations were conducted. The investigation is framed by the following research question: How does the culture of the family and community shape curriculum? Data analysis suggested that ongoing communication with parents and community about teaching within a culturally relevant context, building a sense of belongingness and community through ritual, and respecting children, families, and community were essential to defining the Native American Indian culture within these early learning programs.

Gillis, Angelique; McDonald, J. Douglas; Weatherly, Jeffrey N. (2008).  American Indians and Non-Indians Playing a Slot-Machine Simulation: Effect of Sensation Seeking and Payback Percentage  American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research: The Journal of the National Center, 15, 1. 

The research literature on gambling behavior indicates that American Indians (AIs) suffer from pathological gambling at a greater rate than the majority population. The literature also suggests that dispositional factors, such as sensation seeking, can influence gambling. However, situational factors, such as the payback percentage of a slot machine, may not. The present study recruited 12 AI and 12 non-AI participants to play a simulated slot machine in three different sessions. Half of the participants in each group were high sensation seekers. The other half were low sensation seekers. Across the three gambling sessions, the simulation was programmed to pay back at a rate of 85, 95, or 105%. Results showed non-significant differences in gambling behavior between AIs and non-AIs and between high and low sensation seekers. Participants were, however, sensitive to percentage payback, playing more trials and betting more credits when the percentage was 105% than when it was 85 or 95%. The present results question whether ethnicity or certain personality characteristics, in and of themselves, are predictive of differences in individuals' gambling behavior. Results also suggest that people's gambling behavior is sensitive to winning and losing, but not to losing and losing even more. Implications for the study of gambling are discussed.  | [FULL TEXT]

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Gipp, Gerald (2003).  Chiefs & Visionaries: AIHEC Molds Leadership Initiative To Match Tribal Values.  Tribal College Journal, 15, 1. 

Compares and contrasts Native American and western leadership perspectives, underscoring the need to develop tribal college leaders capable of guiding institutions using traditional Native values and beliefs. Highlights a W.K. Kellogg Foundation initiative focused on developing and enhancing the leadership capacity of the Indian country.

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Giugale, Marcelo M., Ed.; Lafourcade, Olivier, Ed.; Luff, Connie, Ed. (2003).  Columbia: The Economic Foundation of Peace. Chapters 21-28. 

This document contains 8 chapters of a 35-chapter book that presents a comprehensive diagnosis of current economic, social, and educational conditions in Colombia and their importance to development prospects and the quest for peace. The eight chapters covered here are part of a section titled "Sharing the Fruits of Growth with All Colombians." Chapter 21, "Education" (Eduardo Velez), describes Colombia's education system and current enrollment trends and focuses on seven policy issues: highly inequitable access to schooling, excluding poor and rural children; low, perhaps deteriorating, educational quality; high grade repetition and dropout rates; allocation of public expenditures; growing household demand for schooling; inefficient and inequitable decentralization of education management; and negative impacts of violence and social displacement on schooling. Chapter 22, "Health" (Maria-Luisa Escobar, Panagiota Panopoulou), looks at recent reforms in the health care system affecting financing, management, quality, and access. Chapter 23, "The Social Safety Net" (Laura B. Rawlings), outlines poverty rates among rural and urban children and youth and among displaced persons, and discusses social welfare programs relevant to these groups. Chapter 24, "Higher Education" (Lauritz Holm-Nielsen), discusses enrollment trends in higher education; rising returns to education; and problems with financing, governance, efficiency, and unequal access. Chapter 25, "Science and Technology" (Lauritz Holm-Nielsen), examines strengths and weaknesses in Colombia's science and technology sector, state of the country's information infrastructure, and lack of advanced human capital. Chapter 26, "Enhancing Employment Opportunities through the Labor Markets" (Vicente Fretes Cibils, Vicente Paqueo), discusses the labor market, industrial relations, lack of skilled workers, and needs for technical education and vocational training. Chapter 27, "Gender" (Maria Correia), discusses gender issues related to educational attainment, poverty, reproductive health, wage gaps, rural development, and violence. Chapter 28, "Indigenous Peoples and Afro-Colombian Communities" (Shelton Davis, Enrique Sanchez), discusses indigenous land rights, human rights, deterioration of health and socioeconomic conditions, and educational programs and development policies directed toward these communities. Appendices lists all ethnic groups in Colombia, demographic data, and social indicators.

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Glatzmaier, Luann; Myers, Monique; Bordogna, Melissa A. (2000).  American Indians' Construction of Cultural Identity. 

This paper examines how American Indians construct and describe their own cultural identities. In particular, it focuses on cultural group identity from the perspective of three American Indians living in an urban setting, and on the ways that cultural identity can be communicated and enacted. Two American Indian women and one American Indian man, aged 25-40, were interviewed. Themes related to the construction of cultural identity were identified, and second interviews were conducted to confirm and enlarge those themes. Major themes were: (1) self-identification as Indian or as a member of a specific tribe versus identity imposed by others, particularly the federal government; (2) use of cultural practices and rituals to affirm identity, communicate it to others, and connect with other Indians; (3) story telling as a means of teaching and learning cultural values and heritage; (4) the tensions of balancing traditional Indian ways with living in the modern American world; (5) shared Native history of language loss; (6) silence as a way of communicating; (7) the importance of spirituality and respect for nature; and (8) perpetuating culture and transmitting it to children by modeling values and practices. | [FULL TEXT]

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A recent study of ninth- and tenth-grade dropouts in North Carolina shows that Hispanic adolescents have the highest early dropout rate among the state's largest ethnic groups. This relationship persists when boys and girls are analyzed separately: Hispanic boys are more likely to drop out early than other boys are, and Hispanic girls are more likely to drop out than other girls. Both Hispanic boys and girls are more likely than their ethnic counterparts to drop out because they move or because they are tending to family (marriage, pregnancy, or leaving to care for other children). Regardless of a student's ethnicity or gender, dropping out of school is likely to have negative consequences for individuals throughout their lives. On average, high school dropouts are less likely to be employed than other adults. High school dropouts tend to have poorer mental and physical health, a greater likelihood of committing criminal acts, and a higher likelihood of becoming dependent on welfare and other government programs than people with higher educational attainment. All of these consequences translate into high social costs in the form of costs for incarceration, income-transfer programs, and foregone tax income. Every year, states spend significant resources on dropout-prevention programs. As Hispanics have a high dropout rate and a unique dropout profile, current programs may not benefit them as much as they benefit other students. The report urges further analysis of the reasons behind the dropout rate of this relatively new group of North Carolinians in order to craft effective dropout-prevention programs for them.  [This brief was produced by the Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Terry Sanford Institute of Public Policy.] | [FULL TEXT]

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Glimps, Blanche Jackson; Ford, Theron (2006).  Culturally Responsive Instruction for Students with Multiple or Severe Physical Impairments  Physical Disabilities: Education and Related Services, 25, 1. 

Are there students with physical disabilities who are so severely impaired that their culture can not be taken into consideration? Growing numbers of preschool and school age children with such disabilities are from non-European countries including Africa, South America, East Asia, and the Caribbean Islands. In addition, children who are American Indian/Alaska Natives, African American, or Hispanic are also represented in special education programs. Psychologically, familiar food, music, and customs are important for these students as they may provide a comforting link between home and school. It is the cultural frame of reference that most often informs and shapes children. It is imperative that culturally responsive instructions be implemented for students with physical impairments that are multiple or severe. Such instruction involves teachers in cultural self awareness, establishes diversity as a foundation for the curriculum, and recognizes that language diversity impacts educational needs. | [FULL TEXT]

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Glo

Gloria, Alberta M.; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson (2001).  Influences of Self-Beliefs, Social Support, and Comfort in the University Environment on the Academic Nonpersistence Decisions of American Indian Undergraduates.  Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 7, 1. 

The decisions of 83 American Indian undergraduates to drop out of school were investigated based on the influence of their self-beliefs, social support, and comfort. Although all three accounted for academic nonpersistence decisions, social support was the strongest predictor. Discusses implications for increasing academic persistence of students, such as fostering mentoring relationships and providing interventions to increase social support.

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God

Godfrey, George; Wildcat, Daniel (2002).  Traveling 12 Time Zones.  Tribal College Journal, 14, 1. 

Describes a science and cultural exchange between Haskell Indian Nations University and Gorno Altaisk State University in the Federation of Russia. Reports that students and faculty focused on water quality and began development of a "train-the-trainers" program for sampling drinking water.

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Golaszewski, Thomas (2004).  The Proliferation of Legalized Gambling: Implications for Health Education  American Journal of Health Education, 35, 4. 

Legalized gambling is growing substantially and provides both a dilemma and an opportunity for those in the health promoting professions. Gambling represents a form of economic development and, for certain segments of society, improved health and quality of life. On the other hand, gambling is a known addiction, with a host of sociological problems associated with its practice. Consequently, a number of opportunities and responsibilities emerge for health educators. This paper provides both background information and suggestions for professional development, and begins a dialogue in the health education literature on this largely neglected and misunderstood topic.

Gold, Melanie (2002).  Recruiting for Results at HSIs and Tribal Schools.  Journal of Career Planning & Employment, 62, 3. 

To engage Hispanic and Native American students, employers may need to refine their recruitment strategies. Career services practitioners at Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) and tribal colleges advise employers of practices that lead to--or veer from--successful recruiting outcomes.

Golden, Margaret (2006).  Pocahontas: Comparing the Disney Image with Historical Evidence  Social Studies and the Young Learner, 18, 4. 

Fourth grade students "know about" Pocahontas, but is this knowledge based on historical fact, or on information from the media, specifically the Disney movies "Pocahontas" and "Pocahontas II"? To address this question within the context of the New York State Social Studies curriculum and the New York State English Language Arts standards, the author created a critical literacy and history unit of study in which students compared the fictionalized accounts of Native American life and the biography of Pocahontas as shown in the Disney movies with historical accounts from other sources, such as encyclopedia articles, websites, books, and magazine articles. The historical inaccuracies of the Disney movies are discussed in this article.

Goldston, David B.; Molock, Sherry Davis; Whitbeck, Leslie B.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Zayas, Luis H.; Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama (2008).  Cultural Considerations in Adolescent Suicide Prevention and Psychosocial Treatment  American Psychologist, 63, 1. 

Ethnic groups differ in rates of suicidal behaviors among youths, the context within which suicidal behavior occurs (e.g., different precipitants, vulnerability and protective factors, and reactions to suicidal behaviors), and patterns of help-seeking. In this article, the authors discuss the cultural context of suicidal behavior among African American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian American and Pacific Islander, and Latino adolescents, and the implications of these contexts for suicide prevention and treatment. Several cross-cutting issues are discussed, including acculturative stress and protective factors within cultures; the roles of religion and spirituality and the family in culturally sensitive interventions; different manifestations and interpretations of distress in different cultures; and the impact of stigma and cultural distrust on help-seeking. The needs for culturally sensitive and community- based interventions are discussed, along with future opportunities for research in intervention development and evaluation.

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Gone, Joseph P. (2006).  "As if Reviewing His Life": Bull Lodge's Narrative and the Mediation of Self-Representation  American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 30, 1. 

In 1980, on behalf of the Gros Ventre people, George P. Horse Capture published "The Seven Visions of Bull Lodge, as Told by His Daughter, Garter Snake." "The Seven Visions" describes a lifetime of personal encounters with Powerful other-than-human Persons by the noted Gros Ventre warrior and ritual leader, Bull Lodge (ca. 1802-86). Bull Lodge recounted his life experiences to his daughter during the latter half of the nineteenth century, who then "gave" her father's "life story" to tribal member Fred Gone during her own old age. The significance of "Bull Lodge's Life" for the study of pre-reservation northern plains Indian history and culture would seem self-evident on several grounds, not the least of which is the unusual ceremonial detail recounted through the life and times of one of the most accomplished and renowned religious leaders on the northern plains in the past two centuries. The author, as a research psychologist is interested in the cultural construction of self, identity, and personhood. Together with his colleagues, they have suggested within past personal (that is, autobiographical) narrative, the discursive fusion of constructed self and intentional world is evident: "the convergence of the individual actor engaged in meaningful activity and the constituent practices embraced by a cultural community is explicit in the narrative events themselves." The author details Bull Lodge's experiences as an ambitious youth, accomplished warrior, powerful healer, and an elderly holy man. This article attempts to recontextualize the mediated events of narration that ultimately gave rise to the text in an effort to trace the genealogy of Frederick Peter Gone's unusual literary contribution.

Gonzalez, Sara L.; Modzelewski, Darren; Panich, Lee M.; Schneider, Tsim D. (2006).  Archaeology for the Seventh Generation  American Indian Quarterly, 30, 3-4. 

This article describes the 2004 summer field program, the Kashaya Pomo Interpretive Trail Project (KPITP), which is an extension of the Fort Ross Archaeological Project (FRAP). Both are collaborative projects involving UC Berkeley, the California Department of Parks and Recreation, and the Kashaya Pomo tribe. The project attempts to integrate the results of the research by FRAP on the multi-ethnic colony of Fort Ross and present this information to the broader public through the creation of a walkable interpretive trail within Fort Ross State Historic Park. The project itself did not self-consciously attempt to decolonize archaeology, but at a vantage point, the Kashaya Pomo Interpretive Trail Project and summer field school contributed to these goals through the operation of the field school, implementation of archaeological methods, and the ongoing process of collaboration with Kashaya Pomo tribal elders and council members. Here, the authors address how each aspect of the project has contributed to a form of scholarship that attempts to blend Kashaya ceremony with the science of archaeology. They also discuss how this project has provided a venue for the training of archaeologists and served as a model for collaborative research. In this dual capacity the project and field school have provided students with a rare chance to learn firsthand the nature of archaeological collaboration and practice decolonizing archaeology.

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Goodfellow, Anne (2002).  The Development of "New" Languages in Native American Communities. 

This paper examines the belief that as English rapidly infiltrates Native American cultures, school programs for teaching and maintaining native languages are not working. It suggests that Native American children who learn English first and their heritage languages second have difficulty learning the structures of their ancestral languages because of their differences from English. However, because they learn vocabulary well, they develop a pidginized form, often with English grammatical and phonological structures and native language vocabulary. Many people do not consider this pidgin language the real language and assert that the language programs are not producing fluent speakers. This paper recommends that people accept the languages as they are spoken today as new forms of Native American languages. It summarizes research on the relationship between culture contact and linguistic change among British Columbia's Kwakwaka'wakw, who are experiencing a similar situation with their language, Kwak'wala. It asserts that although Kwak'wala appears to be a dying language, it is being maintained as a marker of cultural identity in certain contexts. After discussing dying languages and new languages (pidgins, creoles, and mixed languages) and suggesting that mixed languages are acceptable forms of language, the paper recommends focusing on language change rather than language death.

Goodluck, Mary Ann; Lockard, Louise; Yazzie, Darlene (2000).  Language Revitalization in Navajo/English Dual Language Classrooms. 

This paper describes the Chinle Primary School Dual Language Project in terms of both the activities of the project and the attitudes and aspirations of its bilingual teachers. Chinle Unified School District (Arizona) enrolls over 4,000 students in 7 schools; 99 percent are American Indians, and 62 percent are considered limited English proficient (LEP). In 1997, Chinle Primary School implemented dual language classrooms in which half of students were Navajo-dominant and LEP and the other half were English-proficient. Elements of the program include certified bilingual Navajo teachers, summer camp and other community-based learning activities, and development of a culturally relevant mathematics curriculum. During an inservice program, the bilingual teachers reflected on their roles as learners and teachers. Common themes in their writings included early negative experiences in school where the Navajo language was suppressed, early experiences of learning Navajo in community settings, their ongoing efforts to gain proficiency in oral and written Navajo, classroom links between language and culture, and their various classroom strategies. The learning experiences and teaching strategies of one dual-language teacher are discussed in detail. | [FULL TEXT]

Goodman, Doug; McCool, Daniel C.; Hebert, F. Ted (2005).  Local Governments, Tribal Governments and Service Delivery: A Unique Approach to Negotiated Problem Solving  American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 29, 2. 

A unique attempt made in San Juan Country, Utah, to resolve conflict over service delivery is examined and an outline of the conflict resolution process is presented and the contemporary relationship between tribes and states is described. The impact of the county division proposal and the way it fits into the larger framework of conflict resolution between states and tribes is analyzed.

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Gordon, June A. (2000).  The Color of Teaching. Educational Change and Development Series. 

This book presents interviews with people of color from four groups (African Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos), many of whom are teachers or education professionals, who express their attitudes toward teaching and understanding of why minority students are not choosing to become teachers. The book addresses the problem of increasing minority participation in teaching, using a comparative study of community forces that potentially influence the decision to teach. Community forces are ideas or images of teachers and teaching held by members of minority groups. The research suggests that community forces can influence the decision to become a teacher, and it demonstrates the importance of the comparative approach. Although the groups share several factors in the community forces, there are significant differences. Regardless of academic or socioeconomic standing, minority students tend not to be encouraged to enter the teaching profession by their own families, communities, and peers. The book's nine chapters examine: (1) "The Issues and the Research"; (2) "African American Teachers"; (3) "Latino Teachers"; (4) "Native American Teachers"; (5) "Asian American Teachers"; (6) "On Race-Matched Teaching"; (7) "Reforming Teacher Education"; (8) "Recommendations for Recruiting Students of Color Into the Profession"; and (9) "Interpretations."

Gordon, June A. (2005).  In Search of Educators of Color: If We Make School a More Positive Experience for Students of Color, They'll Be More Likely to Continue with Their Education, and Perhaps Select Teaching as a Profession  Leadership, 35, 2. 

One of the most common misunderstandings about the composition of the teaching profession, and hence, educational administration, is that it is merely a professional choice: someone chooses to be a teacher rather than a business person, a lawyer, a food service worker, a nurse, a truck driver. In reality, many decisions are made for young people long before they become aware that they even have a choice. The research completed for the book, "The Color of Teaching" (Gordon, 2000a), requires into the impediments students encounter along the way that might dissuade them from becoming a teacher. In discussions with more than 200 teachers of color in urban school districts across America, the author came to understand, from their perspective, how and why teachers are facing a serious crisis in the diversification of their teaching force and some possible ways to address the problem. The research presented here demonstrates that the images of teachers and the teaching profession as developed and sustained within various American cultural and economic communities are as much a contribution to any shortage of teachers of color as are the structural impediments so frequently cited.

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Gose, Ben (2007).  The Professoriate Is Increasingly Diverse, but that Didn't Happen by Accident  Chronicle of Higher Education, 54, 5. 

In 2005, 109,964 U.S. minority scholars held full-time faculty positions at American colleges and universities, up from 69,505 in 1995, according to the Education Department--a 58-percent increase. The proportion of minority scholars in the overall professoriate also rose, but not as much. The department found that 16.5 percent of scholars were from minority groups in 2005, up from 12.7 percent in 1995. Hispanics and Asians experienced the greatest percentage growth: Some 22,818 Hispanics and 48,457 Asians held full-time faculty positions in 2005, both up at least 75 percent from 1995. The growth over that decade for American Indians and black scholars was slightly lower: Some 35,458 black scholars had full-time positions in 2005 (up by nearly a third from 1995), as did 3,231 American Indians (a 50-percent increase). While much has been written about elite institutions' "buying" diversity by offering high salaries to minority professors from other institutions, many colleges and universities are also engaged in serious efforts to expand the pipeline of minority scholars entering academe, particularly in fields where they are most underrepresented.

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Gould, Kerin (2006).  Holistic Community Development: Wellness for the Collective Body  American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 30, 3. 

Indigenous peoples' current relationship to community development has evolved in connection to their places, cultures, and histories. Along with this experience, their own worldviews have adapted and shaped some outstanding strategies for surviving and thriving. In the very best of these cases, the communities are able to heal old social fractures, revitalize knowledge and practices, strengthen abilities, and restore the soul of the communities to foster long-term well-being. While some community-development plans may try to treat issues with a pharmaceutical approach, suppressing the symptoms or addressing isolated problems, a holistic approach drawing on indigenous cultural resources can revitalize, strengthen, and sustain the whole community body for many lifetimes to come. In this article, the author advocates for the use of holistic approaches in Native American community development, and discusses the long-standing economic and political forces that come into play.

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Gover, Kevin (2000).  Remarks of Kevin Gover, Assistant Secretary--Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior, at the Ceremony Acknowledging the 175th Anniversary of the Establishment of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 

Immediately upon its establishment in 1824, the Office of Indian Affairs was an instrument by which the United States enforced its ambition against the Indian nations. As the nation expanded West, the agency participated in the ethnic cleansing that befell the western tribes. War begets tragedy, but the deliberate spread of disease, the decimation of the bison herds, the use of alcohol to destroy mind and body, and the cowardly killing of women and children made for tragedy on a scale so ghastly that it cannot be dismissed as merely the inevitable consequence of the clash of competing ways of life. After the devastation of tribal economies, the BIA set out to destroy all things Indian by forbidding the speaking of Indian languages, prohibiting traditional religious activities, outlawing traditional government, and making Indians ashamed of who they were. Worst of all, the BIA committed these acts against the children entrusted to its boarding schools. The trauma of shame, fear, and anger has passed from one generation to the next, and manifests itself in the rampant alcoholism, drug abuse, and domestic violence that plague Indian country. The BIA expresses its profound sorrow for these wrongs, extends this formal apology to Indian people for its historical conduct, and makes promises for its future conduct. | [FULL TEXT]

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_____. (2008).  Grant and Award Opportunities  [Institute of Museum and Library Services] 

This publication provides an overview of the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), including programs, initiatives, research projects, publications, and strategic partnerships. It also provides tips for developing competitive grant applications and staff contacts for each program for the fiscal year beginning October 1, 2008. Once grant applications are received, the Institute's peer review process, including individual field review and/or panel review, ensures that applications are evaluated in a transparent and equitable manner. The process helps museums and libraries develop programs that will have the greatest impact on their communities and on the museum and library fields as a whole. Grant opportunities are listed in three categories: (1) Libraries and Museums; (2) Libraries Only; and (3) Museums Only.  | [FULL TEXT]

Grace, Cathy; Shores, Elizabeth F.; Zaslow, Martha; Brown, Brett; Aufseeser, Dena; Bell, Lynn (2006).  Rural Disparities in Baseline Data of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: A Chartbook  [National Center for Rural Early Childhood Learning Initiatives - Mississippi State University Early Childhood Institute] 

This report shows the rural disparities in the baseline data of the Birth and Kindergarten Cohorts of the national Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The National Center for Rural Early Childhood Learning Initiatives, known as Rural Early Childhood, commissioned Child Trends to perform the analysis of key indicators of child well-being and early childhood services. Child Trends is a nonpartisan, nonprofit research organization based in Washington, D.C. ECLS is a longitudinal study, by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), of two nationally representative samples of children, referred to as the Birth Cohort and Kindergarten Cohort. A program of the U.S. Department of Education, NCES makes the raw data collected in the study available to researchers who examine it in various ways. The study by Rural Early Childhood and Child Trends is the first to analyze the ECLS baseline data according to rurality. The chartbook contains a discussion of key findings related to child care use, early literacy skills, and mental health. It also contains sets of tables showing rural and non-rural rates for dozens of indicators, as well as rates within the rural and non-rural sub-groups by ethnicity, income range, and geographic region. This report provides rural to non-rural comparisons of selected indicators from the ECLS-K and ECLS-B baseline data focusing on three issues: school readiness, utilization of early care and education, the status of young American Indian and Alaska Native children, and the mental health and family life of young rural children.  [This publication was produced by Mississippi State, MS: National Center for Rural Early Childhood Learning Initiatives and Mississippi State University Early Childhood Institute.] | [FULL TEXT]

Grande, Sandy Marie Anglas (2000).  American Indian Geographies of Identity and Power: At the Crossroads of Indigena and Mestizaje.  Harvard Educational Review, 70, 4. 

Asserts that critical pedagogy fails to consider indigenous perspectives and calls for critical theorists to reexamine epistemological foundations. Urges American Indian scholars to bring their perspectives into this dialogue in order to redefine identity, democracy, and social justice.

Grant, Kenneth W., II; Spilde, Katherine A.; Taylor, Jonathan B. (2004).  Social and Economic Consequences of Indian Gaming in Oklahoma  American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 28, 2. 

The balancing framework of Indian gaming as it operates in Oklahoma constrains Oklahoma Indian nations from operating facilities according to the dictates of the marketplace on a large-scale Class III basis. Indian gaming actually brings substantial net economic benefits to the state, contrary to claims that Oklahoma Indian gaming benefits come at the expense of Oklahoma's economy.

Gray, Norma; Nye, Patricia S. (2001).  American Indian and Alaska Native Substance Abuse: Co-Morbidity and Cultural Issues  American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research: The Journal of the National Center, 10, 2. 

The devastating impact of substance abuse on American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) is reviewed with an emphasis on psychological and physical effects. Co-morbidity of substance abuse, trans-generational trauma, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and depression among AI/ANs is also discussed since each condition may cause, impact, and/or exacerbate the others. The Medicine Wheel, one respected and accepted treatment approach developed by AI/AN communities, is described in detail since it helps address all of the co-morbid issues discussed. | [FULL TEXT]

Graybill, Andrew R. (2004).  Rangers, Mounties, and the Subjugation of Indigenous Peoples, 1870-1885  Great Plains Quarterly, 24, 2. 

During the 1840s and 1850s, more than 300,000 traders and overland emigrants followed the Platte and Arkansas rivers westward across the Central Plains, the winter habitat of the bison. By the mid-1870s indigenous peoples at both ends of the grasslands, in places such as the Texas Panhandle and the upper Missouri River valley, fiercely defended the dwindling herds in an attempt to avoid starvation. The Indians' predicament was not theirs alone, however, as Native efforts at self-preservation posed a significant threat to Euro-American plans for the frontier. To that end, government officials on the peripheries of the Great Plains developed a remarkably similar strategy: the use of mounted constabularies to pacify indigenous peoples. Few scholars have situated the efforts of these constabularies within the context of the rapidly changing conditions for Indians on the Great Plains after 1865.

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Greene, Jay P.; Forster, Greg (2003).  Public High School Graduation and College Readiness Rates in the United States. Education Working Paper No. 3  [Manhattan Institute for Policy Research] 

Students who fail to graduate high school prepared to attend a four-year college are much less likely to gain full access to our country's economic, political, and social opportunities. In this study, the authors estimate the percentage of students in the public high school class of 2001 who actually possess the minimum qualifications for applying to four-year colleges. Estimates are broken down by racial and ethnic group, as well as by region and state. To be "college ready," students must pass three crucial hurdles: they must graduate from high school, they must have taken certain courses in high school that colleges require for the acquisition of necessary skills, and they must demonstrate basic literacy skills. Nationally, only 32% of students in the Class of 2001 were found to be college ready, with significantly lower rates for black and Hispanic students. This suggests that the main reason these groups are underrepresented in college admissions is that they are not acquiring college-ready skills in the K-12 system, rather than inadequate financial aid or affirmative action policies. Reform of the K-12 education system is essential to improving college access for these groups. The following tables are appended: (1) High School Graduation Rate by State and Race; (2) Ranking of States by High School Graduation Rate; (3) Ranking of States by White High School Graduation Rate; (4) Ranking of States by Black High School Graduation Rate; (5) Ranking of States by Hispanic High School Graduation Rate; (6) Ranking of States by Asian High School Graduation Rate; (7) Ranking of States by American Indian High School Graduation Rate; (8) Proportion of All Students Who Graduate with College-Ready Transcripts; (9) College Readiness Rate; and (10) Comparison of Overall, College-Ready, and College-Entering Populations in 2000.  | [FULL TEXT]

Greene, Jay P.; Winters, Marcus A. (2002).  Public School Graduation Rates in the United States. Civic Report. 

This report uses a newly defined version of the Greene Method to calculate graduation rates for the public school class of 2000, comparing results to those of 1998. It calculates state and national figures using data from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Common Core of Data. The 2000 national graduation rate was 69 percent (76 percent for whites, 79 percent for Asians, 55 percent for African Americans, 53 percent for Hispanics, and 57 percent for Native Americans). Florida had the lowest overall rate at 55 percent, and New Jersey had the highest rate at 87 percent. Wisconsin had the lowest rate among African Americans, Mississippi had the lowest rate among Hispanics, and Nebraska had the lowest rate among Native Americans. Graduation rates for African American, Hispanic, and Native American students were particularly low in several states. Rhode Island had the lowest graduation rate among Asian students, and Florida had the lowest rate among white students. The NCES reports a 2000 national high school completion rate of 86.5 percent. The discrepancy between NCES findings and these findings are due to NCES' counting recipients of General Educational Development certificates and other alternative credentials as high school graduates and its reliance on methodology that may undercount dropouts. | [FULL TEXT]

Greenwood, Margo; Shawana, Perry (2000).  Whispered Gently through Time. First Nations Quality Child Care: A National Study. 

Beginning in 1994, various national and First Nations initiatives in Canada have increased the availability of child care for Aboriginal children. However, the speed of these initiatives has not allowed time for First Nations communities to define their wishes for the care of their children. This report documents the opinions of First Nations communities on quality child care and presents recommendations for program development. An extensive literature review examines Canada's Aboriginal population, the historical context of Aboriginal-White relations in Canada, the need for Aboriginal child care services, traditional child-rearing practices, First Nations jurisdiction and authority in child care, research on quality child care, and diversity issues in child care. Interviews with key informants and focus groups in First Nations communities were conducted in British Columbia, Saskatchewan, and Ontario, which have very different contexts in terms of provincial legislation and licensing and the extent and duration of First Nations child care programs. Participants identified historical, social, and political influences affecting development of Aboriginal child care services; aspects of quality child care related to the physical environment, caregivers, caregiver training, educational and cultural programming, content of teaching, parent and community involvement, and child grouping; and supports and barriers created by child care regulatory schemes. Extensive recommendations are offered in each of these areas and are summarized in tabular form. Appendices include study questionnaires list of Steering Committee members, study permission forms and letters, and individual reports on the three provinces. | [FULL TEXT]

Greenwood, Margo; Shawana, Perry (2002).  Appropriateness of Outcome-Based Framework for Aboriginal Child Care. 

A study examined the appropriateness of outcome-based regulation for Aboriginal child care in British Columbia (BC). Interviews were conducted with 15 key informants selected from five BC regions. Focus groups held in four BC regions included Aboriginal leaders, Elders, policy makers, provincial licensing officers, frontline workers, and parents using child care services. Among the results and recommendations were that child care services for Native children should be holistic and age- and developmentally appropriate, reflect the children's home environment, help with the transition from home to school, transmit Native culture and language, and be accountable. Administration and delivery should be decided by First Nations communities and involve Elders, community members trained in early childhood education, and extended family. Although they represent a starting point, standards and regulations developed by the province have no cultural accountability and limit services in First Nations communities. First Nations people should develop First Nations standards and regulations that are culturally appropriate and reflect developmental principles. Monitoring should be an annual community process that involves regional and national bodies. Outcome-based regulations are subjective and require individuals that are knowledgeable of child development. Outcome-based regulations must be implemented respectfully, fairly, and equitably. They must be based on the needs and priorities of individual communities. Implementation begins with Chief and council and the community. Appendix A is an annotated bibliography containing 126 entries. Other appendices present participants and study materials. | [FULL TEXT]

Greymorning, Stephen (2000).  Observations on Response towards Indigenous Cultural Perspectives as Paradigms in the Classroom. 

An American Indian (Arapaho) educator portrays various levels of student response and receptivity toward teaching from an Indigenous perspective by recounting some of his teaching experiences at universities in Montana, Canada, and Australia. A class of Native students who had to negotiate for their grades in a treaty written in Arapaho and interpreted by the teacher's interpreter felt they better appreciated their ancestors' struggles. Some students that were given a quiz written from an Indigenous perspective became so frustrated when faced with a different world view that they chose to believe the test was composed of trick questions. An exercise in Arapaho language translation in a course on "Indian culture as expressed through language" elicited comments from some that it was a worthless exercise; few students were able to see that a radically different word order in a language indicates that the speakers possess different logical constructs and perceive the world differently from an English speaker. In several cases, perceived teacher deficits provided a rationale for those who did not want to consider issues presented from an Indigenous perspective that differed from their own. Non-Indigenous people have informed the teacher that his perspective is not Indigenous at all. A concluding story told from an Indigenous perspective expresses the hope that people will not become judgmental when faced with cultural differences and will listen to what Indigenous people say when invited to share their views. | [FULL TEXT]

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Grieco, Elizabeth M.; Cassidy, Rachel C. (2001).  Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: Census 2000 Brief. 

This report describes race and Hispanic origin in the United States and discusses their distributions at the national level. It is based on the Census 2000 Redistricting Summary File. Census 1990 questions on race and Hispanic origin were changed for Census 2000, because the federal government considers race and Hispanic origin to be two separate, distinct concepts. Census 2000 used established federal guidelines to collect and present data on race and Hispanic origin. In 2000, 281.4 million people resided in the United States, and 35.3 million were Latino. The race data collected by Census 2000 includes seven categories: White, African American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, some other race alone, and more than one race. The overwhelming majority of the U.S. population reported only one race. Only 2.4 percent reported two or more races. The Office of Management and Budget identified four combinations of two races for civil rights monitoring and enforcement. This report discusses Census 2000 results for the seven population categories. Overall, 9 out of 10 Hispanics reported White alone or some other race alone. | [FULL TEXT]

Griffin, Rachel E. G. (2007).  The Art of Native Life: Exhibiting Culture and Identity at the National Museum of the American Indian  American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 31, 3. 

Within its short history as an institution and as a site of multilayered display and examination, the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) has presented critical opportunities for the consideration of Native American art and material culture. Because NMAI is located at an important intersection between its audience of Native and non-Native individuals; its responsibility to Native communities and Native history; and its place within the Smithsonian Institution, it must strive toward complex, multifaceted goals and acknowledge Native and non-Native interests. To demonstrate these complexities, the author examines one of NMAI's recent exhibit projects, Listening to Our Ancestors: The Art of Native Life along the North Pacific Coast, in an effort to tease out the aesthetic and cultural composition of Native objects as perceived and promoted by Native and non-Native museum staff and Native community consultants. She reviews the operating philosophy and mission of NMAI and follows with a discussion of the object selection and presentation involved in Listening to Our Ancestors, an exhibit of which she was a museum-based cocurator and on which she has an intimate working perspective. Furthermore, the author aims to add to the understanding of the different approaches to visualizing and displaying culture through this firsthand account of exhibit development and display at NMAI.

Griffith, Nova M. (2000).  The Relationship between Biculturalism and Stress among Northern Plains American Indian College Students. 

This study examined the effect of biculturalism on stress in a proposed sample of 59 Northern Plains American Indian college students. Subjects completed the Northern Plains Biculturalism Inventory (NPBI) and the Hassles Scale. The subscales of the NPBI were used as predictor variables and the total score of the Hassles Scale as the criterion variable. Additionally, the one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was utilized to assess differences between biculturally-oriented groups. This design tested the applicability of the Orthogonal Theory of Biculturalism. It was predicted that higher combined scores on the NBPI subscales predicted lower Hassles Scale scores. Results of this study did not support the study hypothesis that American Indian college students who consider themselves to be more bicultural will report lower levels of stress than their marginal peers. Recommendations are that the area of cross-cultural research be further investigated and expanded. There is the possibility that more culturally specific measures need to be developed. It is hypothesized that an individual's level and degree of Biculturalism significantly affects his or her psychological well- being, and although this project did not clearly support the Orthogonal Theory of Biculturalism, it provides a basis for further research. No significant results were found in this study. Appended are: Informed Consent; Demographic Questionnaire; Hassles Scale; Northern Plain's Biculturalism Inventory; Figures; and a Table.   | [FULL TEXT]

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Gross, Lawrence W. (2007).  Silence as the Root of American Indian Humor: Further Meditations on the Comic Vision of Anishinaabe Culture and Religion  American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 31, 2. 

The literature on humor generally focuses on the nature of incongruities as the root of humor. In this article, the author takes the examination of humor one step further by meditating on the mental frame involved with humor. He is interested in what cultural experiences would predispose the individuals within a given culture to have a sense of humor in the first place. He applied Morreall's notion of the comic vision to Anishinaabe culture and religion in a previous study of Anishinaabe humor. Drawing on the work of a number of researchers, he argues for a connection between silence and humor in American Indian cultures, with the Anishinaabe serving as a case study.

Gross, Lawrence W. (2007).  Assisting American Indian Veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan Cope with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Lessons from Vietnam Veterans and the Writings of Jim Northrup  American Indian Quarterly, 31, 3. 

The country is at war in Iraq and Afghanistan, and, as has been the case throughout the history of the United States, American Indians have answered the call and are serving bravely in the armed forces. As in years past, there are also a cadre of American Indian veterans returning from the battlefield, scarred and wounded in body, heart, and mind. Of course, scientists and social scientists will be investigating ways they can assist these heroic men and women. Scholars in American Indian studies who work in the humanities should no less consider how they can apply their research and analytical skills to the same task. This paper, then, is a call for scholars to engage in a sustained, interdisciplinary conversation about practical suggestions for relieving the suffering of American Indian warriors. The author begins the discussion by examining the record of American Indian veterans who served in Vietnam. At this point, American Indian Vietnam veterans have enough history with healing to help point out, practically speaking, what has helped them recover and what mistakes should be avoided. He starts with a brief word on the methodology informing this piece and then examines the record dealing with American Indian Vietnam veterans, starting with some basic epidemiological data and barriers to treatment that they have suffered. From there the discussion turns to the various ways American Indian communities have assisted their veterans. First, cultural forms such as ceremonies and powwows are discussed. Next, the methods being developed by psychologists who are working in a culturally sensitive manner to treat American Indian veterans are presented. Finally, in order to cover the humanities aspect of this issue, he turns to the writings of Jim Northrup, an Anishinaabe Indian veteran who has written extensively and honestly about his own struggles dealing with his personal legacy of the Vietnam War. In effect the author covers the cultural, psychological, and literary components of the experiences of American Indian Vietnam veterans.

Grossman, Zoltan (2005).  Unlikely Alliances: Treaty Conflicts and Environmental Cooperation between Native American and Rural White Communities  American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 29, 4. 

Beginning in the 1970s, members of Native and rural white communities unexpectedly came together to protect the same natural resources from a perceived outside threat. Environmental alliances began to bring together Native Americans and rural white resource users in areas of the country where no one would have predicted or even imagined them. In an evolution that has continued into the 2000s, some Native and rural white communities formed grassroots alliances that have become a key element in the protection of natural resources. By comparing case studies of these "unlikely alliances" in the states of Washington, Oregon, Nevada, Montana, South Dakota, and Wisconsin, the author hoped to find reasons why these communities turned from conflict to cooperation.

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Gruber, Donald (2003).  Exploring American-Indian Art: Making a Parfleche.  Arts & Activities, 132 n5 p28-29, 49 Jan 2003. 

Provides background information on the Plains People. Describes an art project used with seventh- and eighth-grade students to introduce to a lesson on the Plains People in North America. Explains how the students created a parfleche in detail.

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Gubbins, E. Jean, Ed. (2002).  National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented Newsletter, 2002. 

These two newsletters on gifted education from spring and fall of 2000 include the following articles: (1) "NRC/GT: Developing Expertise Using the 'Big Red Notebook'" (E. Jean Gubbins), which discusses the creation of a professional development module as an intervention tool to foster expertise in using the pedagogy of gifted education in general education classrooms; (2) "Counseling Gifted and Talented Students" (Nicholas Colangelo), which explores the psychological characteristics of gifted students and suggests counseling techniques for promoting positive self-concept, reaching at-risk students, and helping with the transition from high school to college and career counseling; (3) "Challenging Schools' Expectations of Native American Students" (James Raborn), which examines the identification and placement of Native American students in gifted and talented programs; (4) "Assessing and Advocating for Gifted Students: Perspectives for School and Clinical Psychologists" (Nancy M. Robinson), which discusses the kinds of advocacy a psychologist can offer; (5) "NRC/GT Query: Are Programs and Services for Gifted and Talented Students Responsive to Beliefs?" (E. Jean Gubbins), which explores beliefs about abilities and the impact on gifted programming; (6) "Recurring Themes in Career Counseling of Gifted and Talented Students" (Meredith J. Greene), which discusses the specific challenges faced by gifted and talented females and unhealthy perfectionism; and (7) "Dealing with the Needs of Underachieving Gifted Students in a Suburban School District: What Works!" (Ceil Frey), which describes a program that targets underachieving gifted students. (Articles include references.) | [FULL TEXT]

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Guice, Abdul Azeez; McCoy, Leah P. (2001).  The Digital Divide in Native American Tribal Schools: Two Case Studies. 

This study examined utilization of digital resources at two different Native American tribal schools, one located in the Southwest and another in the Northwest. Ethnographic methods were employed in the study to explore the cultural issues involved in the use of computers in the tribal schools. Site visits were conducted of the two schools. Observations on the reservations and in the schools provided a picture of reservation life and current computer usage. Extensive interviews with administrators and teachers in the schools revealed information about the deeper cultural issues underlying the reasons for tribal choices relating to computer use. Findings indicated that the most important issue affecting technology use in these two tribal schools involved the tribes' attitudes toward education. The biggest difference between the two tribes was observed to be the commitment from the administrators and each tribe's value of education. Administrators in the tribal high school at the Southwest reservation were committed to improving and bringing more resources to the school. With the exception of the one technology instructor, the same observation was not made at the Northwest reservation. The author concludes that the digital divide is not so much caused by lack of funds and materials as it is by difference in cultural values. | [FULL TEXT]

Guillory, Raphael M.; Wolverton, Mimi (2008).  It's about Family: Native American Student Persistence in Higher Education  Journal of Higher Education, 79, 1. 

This article presents findings from a study examining the similarities and differences between Native American student perceptions and the perceptions of state representatives, university presidents, and faculty about persistence factors and barriers to degree completion specific to Native American students at three land-grant universities in Washington, Idaho, and Montana.

Guilmet, George M.; Whited, David L. (2000).  The Safe Futures Substance Abuse and Violence Prevention Program at Chief Leschi Elementary School, 1996-1999. 

A 3-year intervention project focused on preventing substance abuse, violence, gang violence, and truancy among K-12 students at the Chief Leschi School in Tacoma, Washington, a tribally controlled, urban school for high risk and adjudicated Native youth. This paper reports the elementary school results. The Positive Reinforcement in Drug Education (PRIDE) curriculum, a comprehensive plan that integrates school and tribal community efforts to address substance abuse, was enhanced by revising it for grades K-6 and integrating it with newly adopted essential learning standards. A series of teacher trainings was conducted to increase teacher effectiveness in dealing with violence and substance abuse by implementing social learning strategies with students across grade levels. Pre- and post-assessment included interviews with key staff and three sets of quantitative data: school attendance, behavior records, and six student questionnaires about tobacco and drug use and future intentions. Data for grades 4-6 showed a significant decrease in emergence of drug-using behavior and the existence of risk factors over the 3-year project. Reported rates of alcohol and drug use decreased significantly since the fall 1996 surveys, although they generally increased during each academic year in each grade level due to socialization effects. Data are presented on use of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and drugs and intentions of future drug use by grade, December 1996 through June 1999. | [FULL TEXT]

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Gupta, Saurabh; Tracey, Terence J. G.; Gore, Paul A., Jr. (2008).  Structural Examination of RIASEC Scales in High School Students: Variation across Ethnicity and Method  Journal of Vocational Behavior, 72, 1. 

The structural validity of Holland's model of vocational interests across racial/ethnic groups was examined in the population of high school juniors in two states. The fit of the circumplex model to Holland's RIASEC types as assessed by the UNIACT-R was evaluated for the general sample and five subgroups: Caucasian/Euro-Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans. Four different methods were used to test the proposed circumplex structure, each with various circumplex definitions. Results indicate that nonparametric methods generally showed good model-data fit, whereas SEM-based results indicated less support. No differences in fit were found across ethnicity supporting the usage with U.S. ethnic groups.

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Gurneau, Renee (2002).  Can We Free Our Minds and Liberate Our Thinking?  Native Americas, 19, 3-4. 

The U.S. education system promotes the values of the people who are dominant--Whites, males, Christians. The measurement of the success of oppressors is in the extent to which they can persuade others to think like them. The task for Native Americans in the new millennium is to shake off this internalized oppression and reclaim their true identity.

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Gutierrez-Gomez, Cathy; Pauly, Nancy (2006).  Early Childhood Curriculum Related to American Indians: Appropriate or Not?  Childhood Education, 82, 4. 

Curriculum activities related to American Indians, including the use of children's books, are common in many U.S. schools; while some are appropriate, many are not. Teachers implementing inappropriate curriculum may be inexperienced, lack professional training, or have been seriously misinformed. Sometimes, teachers want to make the necessary changes, but may not do so "simply because they have not had time to reflect, research, and restructure their teaching style." Perhaps they lack a strong cultural identity and cultural sensitivity. Inappropriate practices are perpetuated by a lack of culturally relevant curriculum materials and leadership that fails to support culturally respectful learning environments. Educators have a responsibility to incorporate material that is authentic as well as developmentally and culturally appropriate for the children they are teaching. This article presents several strategies for selecting and analyzing appropriate, respectful, and culturally sensitive children's studies about American Indians.

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2008-09-01T19:21-07:00