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Index: College Preparation

College Bound Students (2001)

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A

_____. (1994). A Statewide Evaluation of Florida's College Reach-Out Program. Annual Report: 1992-93 Cohort. Report and Recommendations. ED382753 This report presents an evaluation of Florida's College Reach-Out Program (CROP) and data on the 1992-93 cohort of institutions and students that the program serves. CROP is a state-wide program designed to increase the number of students successfully completing postsecondary education by providing academic enrichment opportunities and career counseling to students in grades 6 through 12. The program served 5,146 students in the school year, 84 percent of whom were black. Five percent were Hispanic American, two percent were Asian, and one percent were Native American. CROP students graduated at a much higher rate than did students in the random comparison sample. They performed at higher levels for reading, mathematics, and science, but performed less well on the state's foreign language indicator. Among participants in the two graduating classes, 54 percent were found to be continuing their educations. Recommendations are made for program improvement. Twelve figures present study data. Four appendixes provide supplementary information, including nine tables of data and a list of pertinent state laws. (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED382753

_____. (1994). ACT Assessment Results, 1994: Summary Report. National. ED378205 This report presents information about the performance of the 1994 graduating seniors nationwide who took the ACT Assessment as juniors or seniors. Average scores are on the scale for the Enhanced ACT Assessment, which was introduced in 1989. It must be recalled that ACT-tested seniors not be representative of the total population of graduating seniors. Results are given according to type of high school program completed. They demonstrate that students who prepare by taking a core high school program score consistently higher than those who do not. Regardless of ethnic group, the average composite score for those who complete a core program of 4 or more years of English, 3 or more years of mathematics, 3 or more years of social studies, and 3 or more years of natural science, is higher than for those who do not take these courses. Analysis of score trends reveals little change in recent years, with the average composite score improving 0.2 of a scale score over 5 years. Seven tables present test results and illustrate some trends. (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED378205

_____. (1996). Academic Characteristics of the 1994-95 Freshman Class: University System of Georgia Normative Data. ED400758 This report provides summary statistics on the entering freshmen classes of the 34 state institutions of higher education in the University System of Georgia, and is intended to assist in advising prospective students concerning their probable success in college. The formulas for predicting average freshmen grades (AFG) are intended primarily for use by admissions officers as aids in identifying and admitting those students most likely to succeed at their institutions. Three groups of students are included: (1) all entering freshmen, i.e., all students new to the institutions with no previous college credit; (2) freshmen attempting at least five hours; and (3) freshmen attempting at least 25 hours. Data are provided for the overall Georgia system and for each of its 33 institutions which enrolled a total of 29,268 freshmen students in 1994-95. The following data are given for each group of freshmen, at each institution: average Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) scores, correlation between pre-admission indices and first year average grades, entering freshmen SAT verbal and mathematics scores, and high school average grades. (JLS) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED400758

_____. (1996). ACT Assessment 1996 Results, Summary Report. National. ED405347 The news release and other documents in this packet report information about the nation's 1996 high school graduates who took the American College Testing Program (ACT) Assessment. The packet contains, in addition to the news release, the 1996 Summary Report of national data, "The High School Profile Report, Normative Data: A Description of the Academic Abilities and Nonacademic Characteristics of Your ACT Tested 1996 Graduates" (national report only), and "Cautions on the Use of State Aggregate ACT Scores." The national average composite score on the ACT, a college entrance examination taken by nearly 60% of America's entering college freshmen, increased to 20.9 in 1996, from 20.8 in 1995. This is the third year of the last four in which the national average has increased. This average was derived from the scores of the 925,000 high school graduates who took the ACT Assessment. The increase in the national average score for 1996 can be attributed in large part to the performance of female students. In addition, research has consistently shown that higher level preparation in the core courses is very strongly associated with higher achievement on the ACT Assessment. In turn, ACT scores relate directly to students' postsecondary performance. The relationship between increases in preparation and higher average scores can be clearly seen in the recent performance of Native American students. Although they have not caught up to the scores of the majority population, their increased core course completion is reflected in the largest overall gain among ACT-tested groups. Hispanic students, Mexican American students, and Asian American students increased their scores in 1996. African American students held their scores steady, with the exception of a slight decline in science reasoning. The relationship between advanced courses and overall performance on the ACT is especially apparent when the sequence of mathematics courses is examined. (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED405347

_____. (1996). ACT Assessment 1996-1997: Preparing for the ACT Assessment. ED411285 The ACT Assessment is a measure of skills in English, mathematics, reading, and science reasoning necessary for college coursework. This booklet is intended to help students do their best on the ACT. It summarizes general test-taking strategies, describes the content of each of the tests, provides specific tips for each, and lets students know what they can expect on test day. The following sections are included: (1) "General Preparation for the ACT"; (2) "Strategies for Taking the ACT Tests"; (3) "What To Expect on the Test Day"; (4) "Taking the Practice Test" (with answer document and practice test); (5) "Scoring Your Practice Test"; and (6) "To Register for the ACT." The English test is a 75- question, 45-minute test that measures understanding of the conventions of standard written English and rhetorical skills. Calculator use is now allowed on the Mathematics test, which is a 60-question test that assesses mathematical skills typically acquired up to the beginning of grade 12. The Reading test is a 40-question test of reading comprehension, and the science reasoning test is a 40- question test that measures the interpretation, analysis, evaluation, reasoning, and problem-solving skills required in the natural sciences. (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED411285

_____. (1996). ACT Assessment 1996-1997: User Handbook. ED411286 The ACT Assessment is a measure of skills in English, mathematics, reading, and science reasoning necessary for college coursework. This booklet includes four sections designed to help the assessment user. Section 1, "Components of the ACT Assessment," contains general information about the assessment for counselors and college advisors and other staff. Section 2, "ACT Assessment Reports and Data Services," is designed for the high school and college users. Section 3, "Using ACT Assessment Student Data," is also for both high school and college users. In Section 4, "ACT Assessment Participation," the information is mostly for high schools, although colleges might be interested in the material about college testing. The ACT Assessment includes four curriculum-based tests that measure students' educational development in English, mathematics, reading, and science reasoning. The tests are based on the major areas of instruction in U.S. high schools and colleges, so that a student's performance on the test has a direct and obvious relationship to his or her academic development. The Assessment also includes a High School Course/Grade Information questionnaire, an interest inventory, and the Student Profile section. (Contains 6 tables, 16 figures, and 38 references.) (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED411286

_____. (1996). Admission Standards: Content & Process Areas Proficiencies and Indicators. PASS Project. Proficiency-based Admission Standards System Project. ED403312 The Oregon State System of Higher Education is developing a new approach to admission to any of the state's seven public baccalaureate granting institutions. This approach replaces the grade point average with proficiencies, clearly specified statements of the knowledge and skills students must master. The new system is known as the Proficiency-based Admission Standards System (PASS). This document contains the current version of the proficiencies and more detailed descriptions of each proficiency, called indicators. These proficiencies are to be presented to the State Board of Higher Education in July 1996 and will then remain in the form approved at that time for 2 years for review and public response. There are 6 content and 9 process proficiency areas, with 44 proficiencies in the 6 content areas. Performance levels are being developed and piloted by teachers at 30 partnership high schools. Proficiency will be assessed through criterion-referenced tests, common assessment tasks, and teacher verifications of student proficiency. The content proficiencies are listed for mathematics, science, social science, second languages, humanities and literature, and visual and performing arts. Process proficiencies are defined for: (1) reading; (2) writing; (3) listening and speaking skills; (4) analytic thinking; (5) integrative thinking; (6) problem solving; (7) technology as a learning tool; (8) teamwork; and (9) quality work. (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED403312

_____. (1997). ACT Assessment 1997 Results. Summary Report. National. ED413357 This report provides information about the performance of 1997 graduating seniors nationwide who took the American College Testing Program (ACT) Assessment as sophomores, juniors, or seniors. These students not be representative of the total population of graduating seniors at a given school, depending on patterns of students taking the ACT. Average scores are reported for graduating seniors who completed a core high school program (typical college preparatory program) and for those who did not. The core program is defined as 4 or more years of English, 3 of more years of mathematics, 3 or more years of social studies, and 3 or more years of natural sciences. In general, those who complete a core program tend to earn higher average scores than students who do not. This association holds true without regard to ethnic group. In addition, the percentage of ACT- tested students who would be likely to receive at least a "B" in identified college courses is higher for those who completed the core curriculum. Over the last 5 years, the national average composite score for all graduates has increased from 20.7 to 21.0. African-American and Asian-American scores have remained stable while American Indian/Alaskan native scores have increased from 18.4 to 19.0. (Contains seven tables.) (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED413357

_____. (1997). ACT High School Profile Report: HS Graduating Class 1997, HS Graduating Class of 1997 National Report. The High School Profile Report. Normative Data. A Description of the Academic Abilities and Nonacademic Characteristics of Your ACT Tested 1997 Graduates. ED413356 This document is a sample of the report the American College Testing Program (ACT) sends individual high schools. Statistics in this report reflect the characteristics of students from the school who took the ACT Assessment during their sophomore, junior, or senior year and graduated in 1997. Depending on the proportion of students from the school who took the assessment, data or not reflect the characteristics of the school's college-bound students. National average scores are also provided for the school's use. These scores include information by gender and ethnic group. Information about student characteristics includes reported course taking and information about career plans and plans for postsecondary education. An appendix contains suggestions about using these scores and describes the core curriculum recommended by the ACT. (Contains 15 tables.) (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED413356

_____. (1998). ACT Assessment. 1998 Results. National. Summary Report. ED424305 This report provides information about the performance of 1998 graduating seniors nationwide who took the ACT Assessment as sophomores, juniors, or seniors. Caution in applying these results is advised because these ACT- tested seniors not be representative of the total population of graduating seniors. Information is provided according to the level of high school coursework completed. Average scores are reported for students who reported completing a core high school program of recommended courses and for students who did not complete a core program. Core or more is defined as 4 years of English or more, 3 or more years of mathematics, 3 or more years of social studies, and 3 or more years of natural sciences. In general, students who complete a core curriculum tend to earn higher average scores (average Composite score of 22.1) than students who do not complete core coursework (average Composite score of 19.3). This association holds true across racial and ethnic groups. Tables present trends in ACT composite scores. African American and Asian American scores have remained relatively stable over the last 5 years, but American Indian/Alaskan Native scores have steadily increased, from 18.5 to 19.0, and Caucasian American scores have increased from 21.4 to 21.7. Mexican American and Puerto Rican/Cuban/Other Hispanic scores have varied as the size of the tested group has increased or declined. (Contains seven tables.) (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED424305

_____. (1998). ACT High School Profile Report: HS Graduating Class 1998, HS Graduating Class of 1998 National Report. The High School Profile Report. Normative Data. A Description of the Academic Abilities and Nonacademic Characteristics of Your ACT Tested 1998 Graduates. ED424264 This document is a sample of the type of report the American College Testing Program sends high schools reflecting the characteristics of students from the school who took the ACT Assessment during their sophomore, junior, or senior years and who graduated in 1998. Depending on the proportion of students at the school who took the ACT Assessment, the report or not reflect the characteristics of the school's college bound students. The report begins with a discussion of the 5-year trend history of college-bound students who took the ACT. Tables compare the average ACT scores of students who took the recommended core curriculum with those of students who did not. Tables then provide average ACT scores by academic preparation for different ethnic groups and by ability level for different ethnic groups. Student satisfaction with the individual high school is reported. Other tables report mean scores and standard deviations for males and females and for different patterns of academic preparation. Information is also provided about student background characteristics, planned educational majors, and vocational choices. An appendix provides additional information about the testing program and the recommended core curriculum. Included with this document are a press release, a summary national report, and a cautionary note about the use of state aggregate ACT scores. The press release emphasizes that, while the national average composite score on the ACT remained at 21.0, most subgroups of students made modest gains this year on one or more of the ACT tests in English, mathematics, reading, and science reasoning. The national report summarizes in seven tables national information about graduating seniors who took the ACT. The cautionary note stresses that the accompanying list of average scores should not be interpreted as providing grounds for an explicit or implicit ranking of the various states' educational systems. (The sample report contains 15 tables.) (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED424264

_____. (1999). ACT Assessment 1999 Results. National. Summary Report. ED434914 This report provides information about the performance of 1998 graduating seniors nationwide in the United States who took the ACT Assessment as sophomores, juniors, or seniors. Caution in applying these results is advised because these ACT-tested seniors not be representative of the total population of graduating seniors. Information is provided according to the level of high school course work completed. Average scores are reported for students who reported completing a core high school program of recommended courses and for students who did not complete a core program. In general, students who completed a core program tended to earn higher average scores (average composite score of 22.0) than students who did not complete core courses (average composite score of 19.1). This association holds true across racial and ethnic groups. Tables present trends in ACT composite scores for all students and for ethnic groups. (Contains seven tables.) (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED434914

_____. (1999). ACT High School Profile Report: HS Graduating Class 1999, HS Graduating Class of 1999 National Report. The High School Profile Report. Normative Data. A Description of the Academic Abilities and Nonacademic Characteristics of Your ACT Tested 1999 Graduates. ED434913 This document is a sample of the type of report the American College Testing Program sends high schools reflecting the characteristics of students from the school who took the ACT Assessment during their sophomore, junior, or senior years and who graduated in 1998. Depending on the proportion of students at the school who took the ACT Assessment, the report or not reflect the characteristics of the school's college bound students. The report begins with a summary of the 5-year trend history of college-bound students who took the ACT Assessment. Tables compare the average ACT scores of students who took the recommended core curriculum with those of students who did not. Other tables provide average ACT scores by academic preparation for different ethnic groups and by ability level for difference ethnic groups. Student satisfaction with the individual high school is reported. Other tables report mean scores and standard deviations for males and females and for different patterns of academic preparation. Information is also provided about student background characteristics, planned educational majors, and vocational choices. An appendix provides additional information about the testing program and the recommended core curriculum. Included with this document are a press release and the "Standards and Transition" report, a guide that describes what students in various score ranges are likely to know and be able to do. (Contains 15 tables.) (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED434913

Avitabile, J. (1996). Assessing Change after a Computer Course for At-Risk Students. ED398879 This paper describes the change in student attitudes after taking a computer literacy course which is part of a 6-week pre-college summer session. The summer session is designed for the educationally and financially disadvantages students of the Higher Education Opportunity Program (HEOP) and students from the ACCESS program who do not meet normal admissions criteria. The computer literacy course is taught in a Macintosh teaching lab, to classes of 12 to 14 students. The aim is to teach students how to use computers for all their coursework and to encourage students to be comfortable using technology. The course syllabus includes units on Microsoft Word, SuperPaint, the Internet, and HyperCard. To obtain a qualitative assessment of whether the course was meeting its objectives, a survey was distributed at both the beginning and the end of one summer session, asking students to rank their attitudes towards using computers on a scale of one to five, from completely disagree to completely agree. The overall change in student attitudes shows that students learn content and are more confident when they develop computer applications where they can implement their own ideas. (SWC) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED398879

Avoke, S. P. L. (1998). Working Together towards Successful Transition: School to Adult Life = Trabajando juntos hacia una transicion exitosa: De la escuela a la vida adulta. ED438678 This publication, in English and Spanish, is intended to assist in inclusion of transition from school to work components in the development of an Individualized Education Program (IEP) for a student with a disability in middle school or high school. The guide begins with definitions of "transitions" and "success" and then offers vignettes of the IEP process for three individuals (ages 18, 19, and 21) in the transition process, showing who was involved on the IEP team in each case and how career choices were evaluated. Other information addresses location of transition services and programs, the importance of transition services, and the need for people with various skills in the IEP process. Key factors in the transition planning processes are identified, including focus on helping the individual achieve his/her desires and individual and family involvement in the IEP process. Guidelines are also offered for helping the student learn to make choices, helping students with disabilities plan for college, college admissions testing for students with disabilities, self advocacy skills, and selecting a supported employment provider. (DB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED438678

Axelrod, J. (1959). Graduate study for future college teachers. Washington,: American Council on Education. Lb1738
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_____. (1997). Building Capacity for School Renewal: Principles of the Alliance for Achievement Model. ED438367 MDC, Inc.'s Alliance for Achievement was a 4-year school change demonstration aimed at encouraging more students to continue their education beyond high school by linking middle schools, high schools, and community colleges into a unified continuum. Implemented in six southern communities, it focused on increasing minority and low-income student enrollment in high-level high school courses; ensuring that secondary students develop a clear understanding of the connections between school, college, and career; and forging collaborative ties among schools, community colleges, and local businesses to promote the first two objectives. This report describes nine premises that MDC considers fundamental to successful capacity building: develop teams to work with all levels of the system; develop strong team skills; provide an empowering paradigm; focus on critical values and their implication for action; link diagnosis, planning, and implementation; equip people with survival skills; build in tangible incentives for change; dignify the learning process; and offer technical support during implementation. The paper also examines MDC's Moving from Vision to Action planning process and the Alliance for Achievement Data Collection Guide used by demonstration sites. The Moving from Vision to Action Planning Guide and the Data Collection Guide are appended. (SM) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED438367.htm

_____. (1998). Blueprint for Missouri Higher Education. 1998 Report on Progress Toward the Statewide Public Policy Initiatives and Goals for Missouri Higher Education. ED421048 In 1992, Missouri's Coordinating Board for Higher Education (CBHE) adopted 24 higher education goals that would fulfill its vision statement and address needs identified in its task force report. Baseline data for these goals were gathered in 1993, and annual data have been collected through state and federal surveys completed by the state's public and independent colleges and universities. This report provides an update on the progress the state is making toward these goals, which include initiatives in the following areas: high school core curriculum, advanced placement opportunities; underrepresented groups and minority student participation and success; prospective school teachers; remedial education; enrollment at public four-year colleges and universities; admission categories; success rates of entering freshmen; geographic access to postsecondary technical education; student transfers; minority employment in Missouri higher education; degree program assessment; assessment in the major field of study; national recognition of graduate and professional programs; changes in funded positions by employment category; faculty workload; student financial aid; performance-based funding; instructional and research equipment facilities; accountability reporting; operating and capital funding; and governance. Appendices include a status summary on a state plan for a postsecondary instructional television network; and a review of academic programs by campus. (Contains 47 charts). (MAB) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED421048.htm

Bailey, T.& Merritt, D. (1997). School-to-Work for the College Bound. ED405476 This report makes the case for school-to-work as a college preparatory strategy by presenting relevant evidence and by suggesting policies that will facilitate the college preparatory potential of school-to-work. The report begins by explaining why parents, students, and educators should care whether school-to- work can successfully prepare students for college. Then, the report describes the basic characteristics of school-to-work, emphasizing how these characteristics differ from other more school-based reform efforts. It discusses these three basic elements of school-to-work: "learner centered" or "authentic" teaching; guided educational experiences outside the traditional classroom, particularly in the workplace; and a structured approach to help youth begin to form ideas about their future aspirations and how to achieve them. The next section presents empirical evidence that school-to-work programs have been successful in teaching academic skills and preparing students for college. Also discussed is the college admissions process and strategies that reformers are using to help school-to-work students gain access to selective colleges, such as accommodation of the school-to-work program within the existing college admissions system; the communication between individual schools and colleges; and attempts at broad change in assessment and college admissions procedures. Contains 55 references. (YLB) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED405476.htm

Bailey, T.& Merritt, D. (1997). School-to-Work for the College-Bound. ED406546 The case can be made that school-to-work programs can be a college preparatory strategy because they can teach academic skills as well as and possibly even better than more traditional approaches. The skepticism about its potential as a means of preparing students for college is based on misconceptions about its characteristics. Its three basic elementsauthentic teaching and learning, out- of-class experience, and career and interest explorationsupport all types of learning. Authentic teaching and learning requires students to develop in-depth understanding and apply academic learning to important, realistic problems. Experiences outside the classroom strengthen and increase the amount of knowledge learned, understood, and retained. Systematic exploration of student interests and career goals can stimulate interest in academic learning. Some of the most highly regarded school-to-work programs are explicitly designed for college-bound students. Empirical evidence shows many school-to-work programs have high college attendance rates and the use of authentic pedagogy leads to gains in both traditional test scores and in measures of authentic learning. Reformers have taken three broad approaches to reduce the conflict between participation in school-to-work activities and admission to selective colleges: accommodation of the school-to-work program within the existing college admission system, communication between individual schools and colleges, and reform of assessment and college admissions procedures. (Contains 10 references.) (YLB) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED406546.htm

Baldwin, A. (1996). High School Draw: Direct Entry Enrollment of Dade County Public High School GraduatesAnnual Report Year Data 1991-92 through 1995-96. Research Report No. 96-03R. ED405063 For a number of years, analyses have been conducted each fall term to determine changes in the draw of high school graduates to Florida's Miami-Dade Community College (MDCC) from the Dade County Public Schools (DCPS). Findings of the fall term 1995 study, including comparisons to data from studies conducted over the past 5 years, include the following: (1) in 1995-96, there were 13,831 prior year high school graduates from DCPS, with 5,568 of these enrolled at MDCC; (2) 26% of White non-Hispanic graduates, 31% of Black non-Hispanics, and 50% of Hispanics were enrolled at the college in http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED405063.htm

Baldwin, A. (1997). High School Draw: Direct Entry Enrollment of Dade County Public High School GraduatesAnnual Report Year Data 1992-93 through 1996-97. Research Report No. 97-06R. ED422996 For a number of years, analyses have been conducted each fall term to determine changes in the draw of high school graduates to Florida's Miami- Dade Community College (MDCC) from the Dade County Public Schools. Findings of the 1997 study, including comparisons with data from studies conducted over the past 5 years, include the following: (1) in 1995-96, there were 13,266 standard-diploma graduates from 25 Dade County public high schools, 39% of whom enrolled at MDCC during 1996-97; (2) for 1996-97, nearly 27% of the White non-Hispanic, 31% of the Black non-Hispanic, and 49% of the Hispanic Dade County high school graduates were drawn to MDCC; (3) during the past 5 years, MDCC's draw of Dade County high school graduates decreased by 934 students, putting it at a five-year low; (4) of the 25 feeder schools, 10 increased in numbers drawn to the college; (5) schools with the largest positive change in draw for 1996-97 were Killian (+45), Sunset (+31), Carol City (+20), Southwest (+17), and Hialeah-Miami Lakes (+16). College-wide comparisons and campus data for specific high schools are provided. (EMH) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED422996.htm

Baldwin, A. (1998 Length: 72 Page(s); 1 Microfiche). Direct Entry Enrollments of Dade County Public, Special, and Private High Schools. Annual Report Years 1993-94 through 1997-98. Research Report #98-04R. ED428802 This report measures the draw of public, private, and special high school graduates to Miami-Dade Community College (MDCC) in Florida. For the public schools, 5 years of enrollment data are presented, spanning 1993-94 through 1997-98. Draw data for Dade County private and public special high schools are for 1997-98. The statistics for the individual MDCC campuses emphasize campus enrollments from any recruitment area, and summaries are provided for four Dade County Community College campuses: North, Kendall, Wolfson, and Homestead. The report focuses on how changes in the percent draw of high school graduates determine whether the college/campus is losing or gaining ground in enrollments relative to graduates, and how changes in the absolute draw give the magnitude of enrollment changes. Results indicate that there were 12,488 graduates from the county's public school system in 1996-97 (representing a sharp decrease in the number of graduates with standard diplomas), 4,975 of whom enrolled at MDCC. Across the five years, there were large decreases in draw within each ethnic group, with decreases in White non-Hispanic enrollments measuring 29%, Black non-Hispanic enrollments 19%, and Hispanic enrollment dropping 12.5%. Tables 1-6 indicate draw according to: (1) ethnic distribution; (2) prior year graduates of all individual Dade County public high schools; (3) the college's total percent; (4) public schools, sorted by the college's total number enrolled; (5) private and special public high schools; and (6) private and special schools, sorted in descending order by the college's total enrollment. Appended are 22 data tables and 9 figures. (AS) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED428802.htm

Baldwin, A. P. L. (1998). The Draw to Florida Community Colleges from Florida's "College-Age" Population by Program Areas. ED429646 This information capsule presents an overview of the enrollments in the 28 Florida community colleges in comparison to the college-age population in the related counties. The purpose of the report is to determine: (1) the degree of market penetration or percent draw of the "college-age" population; (2) assess the effects of Vocational Technical Centers and universities on the community college draw; (3) study student program area preferences; and (4) examine the potential for increasing enrollments at the College. The college-age populations shown are aggregates of the 15-24 and 25-44 age group for each county. In 1995-96, 12.6% of the Florida college-age population, totaling 783,154 students, enrolled in community colleges. Colleges that drew the highest proportion of the college-age population were also likely to be area Vocational Technical Centers, which focus on adult vocational education, supplemental, and adult basic education program areas. The presence of a public state university within the county of the community college did not noticeably affect the draw of students to the college. In Table 1, colleges are ranked by the percent draw of college-age population to the community college. Table 2 presents the same data, sorted alphabetically by college, while Table 3 displays the top seven and bottom seven colleges. Contains 3 tables. (NB) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED429646.htm

Bergstrom, R. P. L. (1999). NU Start: A Residential Learning Community. ED438755 This paper describes NU Start, a summer learning community program at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln for first-year students of the English department and the University Library faculty. NU Start offered 4 sections of an Introduction to Literature course, each with 13 or 14 students. In addition, all students took a one-hour, self-paced Library course. English classes met for nearly 3 hours daily for 14 days. In the afternoons, students attended study skills seminars and worked on their library course; there were two to three mandatory study hours each evening. Students lived in a campus residence hall, spent their weekends at various cultural and other events, and participated in community-building activities. In evaluating the program, coordinators found that fewer students were recruited than planned, in part because financial aid was lacking and cutoff scores were too high; no students of color enrolled. In evaluating the academic component of the program, it was found that most students were satisfied with their English class but less positive about the library course. The study skills seminars were a failure. Evaluation of the learning community component found that students bonded very quickly and were satisfied with the residence and each another. Students appreciated team- and confidence-building activities. (SM) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED438755.htm

Berkner, L.& Chavez, L. (1997). Access to Postsecondary Education for the 1992 High School Graduates. Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Reports. Statistical Analysis Report. (ISBN: 0-16-049287-4). ED413854 This report uses data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 to examine 1992 high school graduates' access to postsecondary education in 1994, 2 years after high school graduation. An overview of the postsecondary enrollment rates of graduates by family income, race/ethnicity, and parental levels of education is followed by an analysis of the factors associated with the relatively low four-year college enrollment rates of Hispanic, black, and low- income students. The findings include: (1) the differences by income and race/ethnicity in the four-year enrollment rates of college-qualified high school graduates are eliminated among those students who have taken college entrance examinations and completed an admission application; (2) high school graduates with low-income parents are able to attend four-year colleges at the same rates as students from middle-income families, if the low income students follow the usual requirements for consideration and admission; (3) college-qualified low- income students, once accepted to four-year colleges, are as likely to enroll as middle- and high-income students; and (4) barriers to a four-year college education for low-income high school graduates appear to include low educational expectations and poor academic preparation. Appendix A is comprised of a glossary and Appendix B is comprised of technical notes and methodology. (JLS) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED413854.htm

Bobbitt, S. A.& Others. (1995). Schools and Staffing in the United States: Selected Data for Public and Private Schools, 1993-94. Schools and Staffing Survey. E.D. TABS. (ISBN: 0-16-048156-2). ED387534 This report on the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) of the National Center for Education Statistics presents survey estimates for data on public and private schools, school principals, and teachers. Data reported for schools include particular programs or services offered, number of schools with students receiving Chapter 1 services or free or reduced-price lunch, and graduation and college application rates. Data reported for principals include educational level, experience, and salary. Similar data are reported for teachers, along with data on the number and percentage of continuing and newly hired full-time equivalent teachers. The approximately 81,000 public schools and 26,000 private schools in the survey account for about 76% and 24% respectively of the almost 107,000 schools in the United States in 1993-94. About 41.6 million children, about 89%, were enrolled in the public schools, and about 5 million were in private schools. Ten sections of Technical Notes present information about survey methodology. Twenty-six tables in the text and 26 standard error tables in Appendix A present survey findings. (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED387534.htm

Bodenhorn, N. (1998). Student Use of College Computer Searches - A Qualitative Comparison of Independent Usage and Usage with a School Counselor. ED425382 You be able to order this document from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service. As technology has developed, there has been a growing emphasis on using computer college search programs within the process of counseling students about college. This is one part of a trend in which school counselors are integrating technology into the counseling process. The questions be asked how this technology is impacting the roles and practices of school counselors, and how effective it is for students. This qualitative study examines the task of completing a computer college search. A basic understanding of the complex search program involved is provided with a sense of the logic and pathways available. The study was conducted with 12 students and 2 counselors participating at a suburban high school. Each student completed a questionnaire about their computer experience and family background. Students were observed under two conditions: (1) "Alone," working alone on a computer; and (2) "With Counselor," working on a computer with a counselor. Results are presented and discussed under "Navigation within the Program," "Problem Solving Strategies," "Counselor/Student Interaction," "Interpretation of Selection Factors," and "Fitting into the Bigger Picture of the Process." The uses of computer college searches within counseling and the nature of the counselor's role are discussed. The demographic survey form is appended. (EMK) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED425382.htm

Bodilly, S. J.& Others. (1994). A Formative Assessment of the General Electric Foundation's College Bound Program. (ISBN: 0-8330-1563-X). ED376617 This report assesses the interim progress made toward increasing the college- going rate at 11 schools that received College Bound grants from the General Electric (GE) Foundation. It provides information about the kinds of programs developed, early indications of the effects the approaches have on promoting college going and influencing school change, and the ways in which the GE Foundation and local GE facilities provide support to the school beyond the actual grant. Participating schools strove to double the college-going rate for the school as a whole or to increase it significantly for a particular group of students. Data were collected during visits to 10 sites in spring 1992 and 1993. The schools were grouped into three categories: very challenged, somewhat challenged, and less challenged. Four general approaches to increasing the college-going rate were identified: ancillary services; supplemental instruction; improved curriculum and instruction for a target population; and improved curriculum and instruction schoolwide. Four sites doubled their college-going rate and two showed significant improvement. It is concluded that: (1) grants can support major changes in the school; (2) successful grant programs can encourage more ambitious school reform; (3) even the most challenged schools can succeed; (4) sponsoring significant school change requires time and resources; investment strategies can promote longer program survival; and (5) funders can influence a program throughout the course of the grant. One figure and 6 tables are included. The appendix describes each of the 11 College Bound programs. (LMI) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED376617.htm

Bolender, R. (1994). A Comparison of the Effect of Academic Peer Mentors on the Grade Point Averages of Underprepared Freshmen at Mount Vernon Nazarene College. ED406935 This study examined the effect of academic peer mentors on the grade-point averages of underprepared freshmen at Mount Vernon Nazarene College (Ohio), a church-related coeducational college of arts and sciences. Underprepared freshmen at this school are required to participate in the College Experience Enhancement Program. For the fall, 1993 term, a peer mentor component was added to the program. The study compared first semester grade point averages for 41 students in the 1993 group with those for 47 similarly underprepared freshmen in the 1992 program (which did not include the peer mentoring component). The paper summarizes the process of the study, setting out the background and nature of the problem, reviewing the literature on mentoring and academic peer mentoring, and defining methodology and methods. A statistically significant difference in grade point average between the two groups was not found. Possible reasons for this unexpected finding are suggested. (Contains 20 references.) (CH) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED406935.htm

Bolender, R. (1994). A Leadership Development Action Plan for Improving the Preparedness Levels of Prospective Students for the Academic Experience at MVNC. ED406934 This practicum paper sets out a leadership development action plan (LDAP) at Mount Vernon Nazarene College (MVNC) in Ohio intended to help the director of retention and academic services in efforts to improve preparedness and readiness levels of prospective students at the school, a church-related coeducational college of arts and science. The plan was developed to address complaints of student deficiencies in reading, writing, and mathematics skills, scientific knowledge, classical literature background, commitment to out-of-class study, and general study skills such as notetaking and time management. Key points of the LDAP included: (1) challenging the process; (2) inspiring a shared vision; (3) enabling others to act; (4) modeling the way; and (5) encouraging the heart. Emphasis was also on raising academic expectation levels of prospective students and improving retention by encouraging high school students to enroll in proper high school college preparatory courses. Individual sections of the report consider: the project' background, the process of plan development, the literature review, methodology and procedures, results, and evaluation. Appendixes include a list of suggested components for a leadership development action plan; a sample inquiry letter; a list of validators; a list of suggested plan revisions; and the final leadership development action plan. (Contains 50 references.) (CH) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED406934.htm

Brisk, M. E.& Others. (1994). Portraits of Success: Resources Supporting Bilingual Learners. ED378285 The lives of accomplished bilingual adults who were educated in Massachusetts schools are reviewed to analyze the role of transitional bilingual education (TBE) in their lives. The 12 adults interviewed, chosen not as a representative sample, but because they have succeeded in life, attended bilingual education in Massachusetts, generally in urban areas, at elementary or secondary levels. All have gone on to successful careers, and all are fully bilingual. Two case studies, that of a Chinese-American student who entered the bilingual program in second grade and that of a student from the Dominican Republic who entered bilingual education in high school, are presented in detail. Factors that made a difference in the elementary education of bilingual students were found to be: (1) native language development; (2) native language use in content areas; (3) intensive English instruction; (4) participation in accelerated programs; (5) qualified bilingual teachers; and (6) supportive peers. At the secondary level, similar factors, as well as activities supporting college preparation, were found. One figure and one table illustrate the discussion. (Contains 13 references.) (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED378285.htm

Brower, A. M. (1994). Prototype Matching and Striving for Future Selves: Information Management Strategies in the Transition to College. ED369328 Entering college students commonly complain of being inundated with confusing information about attending a college or university, while student services personnel complain that regardless of the efforts placed on making the information "user friendly," students never seem to assimilate what they receive. This paper analyzes the literature and examines the sequence of time frames within which student decisions are made during their transition to academic life. The review finds six distinct time periods in students' transition to college: (1) the initial inquiry to acceptance; (2) the acceptance to the student's summer orientation visit; (3) the summer orientation visit itself; (4) the student's arrival on campus before classes begin; (5) the student's first semester; and (6) the student's second semester. The review finds that student decision-making processes can be described using information management strategies of prototype- matching and striving-for-future-selves. The paper makes the case that universities and colleges can most effectively present different information and services to students by knowing the particular time period they are in and the particular information-processing strategy being used. Contains 69 references. (GLR) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED369328.htm

Brown, B. L. (1998). Tech Prep: Is It Working? Myths and Realities. ED415432 Although tech prep is becoming widely accepted by educators and the business community, the jury is still out regarding whether its anticipated student, school, and community outcomes are being realized. In theory, tech prep's focus is primarily on school-based learning, whereas school-to-work programs also include work-based learning and linkages between the two. The distinction is less clear when the core elements required for tech prep vary among tech prep consortia (as has been reported in the literature). Imprecision in defining the differences between tech prep and school-to-work has created confusion and frustration among the two initiatives' stakeholders. To date, few formal evaluations of tech prep have been conducted to document its claims. Merging tech prep and school-to-work concepts will make it more difficult to evaluate the results of the two reforms. The increased business and industry support enjoyed by tech prep has been one of its most positive outcomes. Because moving students through secondary and on to postsecondary education requires the development of academic and higher-order thinking skills required in the workplace, tech prep is especially valuable for noncollege-bound students. Thanks to its articulation components, however, tech prep is also proving valuable for college-bound students. (MN) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED415432.htm

Brown, J. D.& Madhere, S. (1996). Post-secondary Achievement: How Prepared Are Our Children? ED398852 This study focused on identifying factors that would enhance the probability of college attendance among African-American students. These factors included parental involvement, high school curriculum track, the prestige of one's life goal, socioeconomic status, and amount of television viewing. Data were drawn from a random selection of 1,394 African-American high school sophomores participating in the longitudinal High School and Beyond survey. Discriminant analysis revealed that those desiring to attend college were enrolled in a college preparatory high school course, possessed high occupational aspirations, had parents highly invested in them, and experienced a relatively high Socioeconomic Status (SES). The data revealed that occupational aspirations possessed greater discriminating power than SES or curriculum track. It was concluded that the best avenue for improving students' chances for success depended upon active parental involvement beginning early and continuing through and beyond high school. Four tables contain statistical data on occupational goals, SES, parental involvement, and television viewing time. (Contains 23 references.) (Author/CK) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED398852.htm

Butler, E. D.& Gardner, C. D. (1994). Stage II Assessment of Memphis Center for Urban Partnerships. Technical Report 941101. ED382754 The Memphis Center for Urban Partnerships (MCUP) was formed in 1992 to provide access, resources, and opportunities so that more urban students might realize their potentials and achieve success through increased college preparedness, matriculation, retention, and graduation. The Stage II plan implemented in 1993- 94 included various activities focusing on systemic urban educational change. An ecological systems approach guided evaluative data collection, analysis, and assessment. Evaluation of changes occurred at the following levels: (1) the state system of education, the school district, and the partnership network; (2) the pilot school cluster; (3) school classrooms or grade-level cohorts; and (4) interventions impacting individual students. Evaluation results at each of these levels suggest that the short-term activities of 1993-94 appear to have only limited potential for fostering systemic change. A comprehensive planning process focusing on intermediate and long-term activities is needed, along with established guidelines for collaborative relationships. Emphasis on training and resources for change agents should continue. One appendix presents a number of supporting documents, and another contains 23 tables and 4 figures. (Contains 70 references.) (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED382754.htm
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Balfour, L. F. (1996). Statistical Abstract of Higher Education in North Carolina, 1995-96. ED395548 This statistical abstract presents 84 tables and 17 graphs which cover the current status of public and private higher education activities in the state of North Carolina in their quantitative aspect, from simple counts of enrollment and degrees conferred to complex analyses of the flow of student transfers among institutions, including state and private colleges and universities, community colleges, and two year colleges. Data were gathered in the summer and fall of 1995. The tables and graphs include both current and trend data in the areas of: enrollment, enrollment trends, undergraduate transfers, degrees conferred, faculty (including academic rank, gender, and highest degree held), library resources, tuition and fee costs to graduate and undergraduate students, admissions data (including Scholastic Assessment Test scores, high school class rank, and number of freshman and graduate applications received), student financial aid, and student housing are included. This information is intended to be useful to the public and to planners and educators in educational institutions and government agencies. Four appendices present information on sources of data, definitions of terms, and classification of discipline categories. (JPB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED395548

Balfour, L. F., Comp. (Apr1997). Statistical Abstract of Higher Education in North Carolina, 1996-97. Research Report 1-97. ED406891 This statistical abstract presents 84 tables and 17 graphs that profile the current status of public and private higher education in North Carolina. Data were gathered from a survey conducted in the summer and fall of 1996. The tables and graphs contain both current and trend data on enrollment (including headcount, full-time equivalent, and out-of-state student data), undergraduate transfers (both within and from outside the state), degrees conferred, faculty (including academic rank and gender), library resources (including holdings and expenditures), costs to students, admissions (including average standardized test scores, applications, and acceptances), student financial aid (including grants, loans, and work-study), and student housing (including capacity and utilization). Three appendixes provide information on data sources, definitions of terms, and discipline categories. (MDM) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED406891

Bangura, A. K. (1995). Hold Everything : Emerging Problems in Institutional Accountability for Retention and Graduation. ED410845 This paper discusses the use of Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) scores and other elements affecting institutional accountability in the University of Maryland system. It asserts that SAT scores in and of themselves are not accurate predictors of retention and success. The publication of SAT scores of first-time, full-time freshmen clearly is as not adequately accounting for the large numbers of transfers and part-time students who constitute these universities' complete undergraduate populations. The use of incoming first-time, full-time student SAT scores for purposes of accountability for retention and graduation rates penalizes these institutions. The recommendation is to focus on the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles of the distribution of the combined SAT scores, since these data provide a better representation of an institution's freshman class than does the average SAT score of first-time freshmen. These percentiles and the interquartile range measure the degree of homogeneity in SAT scores of a freshman class and thus more adequately describes the undergraduate student body. In a time of budget constraints, issues of technology, of articulation between high schools and two-year and four-year institutions, and of distance learning programs present both challenges and opportunities for institutions now educating a much wider array of students. Better methods will have to be found to track students coming out of new teaching styles such as 'school to work' and 'tech prep' programs. (BF) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED410845

Barefoot, B. O.& Fidler, P. P. (1996). The 1994 National Survey of Freshman Seminar Programs: Continuing Innovations in the Collegiate Curriculum. The Freshman Year Experience Monograph Series No. 20. ED393386 This monograph presents data from a 1994 national survey on freshman seminars gathered from 1,003 accredited, two- and four-year colleges with student populations of over 100 students. The survey investigated the content and structure of freshman seminars in a mail survey of provosts/vice presidents for academic affairs at 2,460 institutions Among responding institutions, 723 institutions reported they already offered a freshman seminar and 56 institutions were planning such a seminar. The most common seminar types found were: extended orientation, academic orientation with uniform academic content, academic orientation on various topics, professional or discipline-based orientation, and basic study skills-oriented orientation. Many institutions indicated they offered a hybrid of these types. Most freshman seminars had 25 or fewer students. Analyses provide information on seminar goals and topics, enrollment, grading, linkage to other courses, instructional style, instructor training and compensation, and evaluation/assessment. Qualitative analyses illustrate the five seminar types at five particular schoolsLongwood College (Virginia), Union College (New York), Carleton College (Minnesota), Wharton School (University of Pennsylvania), Santa Fe Community College (New Mexico). Results are compared to previous surveys done in 1988 and 1991. Appendixes include the survey instrument and a listing of institutions currently offering freshmen seminars. (Contains 26 references.) (NAV) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED393386

Barnetson, R. J. (1997). Marketing the University of Calgary to Frosh: A Motivational Typology of Student- College Choice. ED404930 This thesis proposes a segmentation of the University of Calgary's (Canada) freshman class based on benefits sought from attendance and provides descriptions of each benefit segment that includes the impact of institutional characteristics. A motivational typology for university participation is presented and the marketing implications of this segmentation on recruiting prospective students are explored. A four-cluster segmentation emerged from analysis, illustrating the predominance of fiscal motives in motivating freshmen from the Baby-Bust and Echo- Bust cohorts to attend a university. A questionnaire was developed which covered biographical information, reasons for attendance, and institutional characteristics. Questionnaire responses were analyzed from 77 freshmen students (out of a sample of 300) at the University of Calgary who had graduated from high school in June 1996. The following motives were most frequently cited as reasons for deciding to attend college: achievement of a higher standard of living, expansion of career opportunities, and career goal requirements. Other motives included the desire to: obtain a degree, have fun, become self-sufficient, learn new things, increase understanding, and meet new people. The institutional characteristics most cited as important were college reputation and quality of education. The survey instrument is included. (Contains 111 references.) (JLS) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED404930

Barr, V. M.& Others. (1995). Getting Ready for College: Advising High School Students with Learning Disabilities. ED391285 This paper was developed to help counselors of students with learning disabilities plan for college, by answering common student questions and providing sources of additional information. Sections of the paper discuss: (1) developing self knowledge (using compensatory learning strategies, knowing one's own strengths and weaknesses, and practicing self-advocacy); (2) understanding legal rights and responsibilities (especially relevant federal legislation, changing levels of responsibility, and privacy rights); (3) transition planning for college (evaluating college options, documenting the learning disability, and course selection/accommodative services); (4) the college application process (creating a short list, caution about course waivers and substitutions, admissions tests and accommodations, application and disclosure, and making a college choice); and (5) selected organizational and print resources for additional information. (DB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED391285

Bates, B., Ed. (1997). Transitions: Issues for the Adult Learner with Learning Disabilities. ED413720 This issue of "Linkages" addresses the need for adult literacy programs to go beyond teaching basic academic skills to adults with learning disabilities to teaching skills in goal setting, problem solving, and self-advocacy that will assist adult learners in their transition into the workforce. Articles include: "Transition: Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities" (Craig A. Michaels), which urges practitioners to reconceptualize the instructional focus on remediation and to address accommodation and compensatory strategies simultaneously, thus enabling students with learning disabilities to succeed; "A Chance To Be Included" (Helen K. Bosch), which describes community inclusion instruction that involves teaching basic skills, management skills, and relationship skills; "Transition: From Pain to Aide" (Tracy S.), the story of an adult with learning disabilities; "Transition to College" (Anne Reamer), discusses strategies for college-bound individuals with learning disabilities; "Transition to Work" (Arlyn Roffman), provides tips for helping adults with learning disabilities make the transition to the workplace; "Developing Workplace Skills" (Robert Crawford), describes the Life Development Institute (LDI), a community-based program that assists individuals with learning disabilities in gaining workplace skills; and "Working toward Independence" (Grant Rayburn), a personal narrative of an individual who participated in LDI. The newsletter includes a list of resource organizations and selected readings. (CR) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED413720

Berger, S. L. (1998). College Planning for Gifted Students. ED425010 You be able to order this document from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service. This paper asserts that for gifted students, college planning should be one step in a life development process that takes place between 7th and 12th grades. Characteristics of gifted students that affect their college planning include multipotentiality, sensitivity to competing expectations, uneven development, ownership of their abilities, dissonance, taking risks, and a sense of urgency. To help resolve the problems encountered by gifted students, the following areas might be considered: self-exploration, academic planning, effective work/study skills and time management, decision-making skills, intellectual and social/emotional enrichment, and learning about colleges. Learning about colleges involves seven steps: (1) gathering information, (2) planning and choosing, (3) making two visits, (4) applying, (5) interviewing and writing an essay, (6) applying for financial aid, and (7) making acceptance decisions. The application process can be looked on from two points of viewthat of the gifted student and that of the admissions officer. Admissions officers look at the academic rigor of the student's high school program; standardized test scores, including Subject Test results; extracurricular activities; and community service. Some schools also require an interview and an essay. Persuading a college or university to choose them requires students to know how to present themselves so that an institution will recognize them as a good match. Part of that presentation is based on what they know about themselves; part involves what they learn about how colleges make selections. (A list of college-planning Internet resources is appended.) (LPP) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED425010

Berger, S. L. (1998). College Planning for Gifted Students. Second Edition, Revised. (ISBN: ISBN-0-86586-312-1). ED439566 This guide offers information on undertaking a comprehensive, well-organized, programmatic approach to college planning. "The College Search: Defining the Problem" provides an overview of college-planning problems and offers solutions. A comprehensive, systematic 6-year timeline is included. "Planning for Gifted Students: What Makes Them Different?" provides a conceptual framework for understanding the intellectual, social, and emotional characteristics of gifted adolescents and offers suggestions for meeting their needs. The framework can be used to develop student profiles and plan specific programs that meet individual needs. "The College Search: A Matter of Matching" provides recommendations and resources for counselors and parents who want to help students be aware of and understand their personal learning styles, values, interests, and needs. "Learning About Colleges: What Have They Got That I Want?" is designed for counselors and parents who want to assist gifted students in researching schools and help students integrate self-understanding with an understanding of college offerings. "The Application Process: What Have I Got that They Want?" explains how credentials are evaluated by colleges and includes specific information on college interviews, writing an effective essay, enhancing applications, and college costs. Appendices include glossaries, resources on gifted students, and a common college application. (CR) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED439566
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"Consumer's Handbook, 1996-97. High School Edition." For the 1995-96 edition, see CG 027 543. ED401518 Designed to help high school guidance counselors advise students about financial aid for postsecondary education, this handbook provides information on sources of aid from programs administered by the U.S. Department of Education. The guide is divided into three parts: (1) General Information about Postsecondary Opportunities; (2) The Application Process for Financial Aid; and (3) Filling Out the Free Application for Federal Student Aid. Part One advises the reader on sources of aid, general eligibility requirements for student aid, demonstration of need, and how to choose a school. Part Two discusses the federal role in application processing, how one should apply for aid, how to submit an initial application, how the application is processed, reviewing the Student Aid Report (SAR), making changes to the SAR, filing an application, and 1996-97 application deadlines. The last section offers detailed instructions on how the student should fill out aid applications with tips on outlining educational background, one's plans, student status, household information, income, the simplified needs test, asset information, releases and signatures. Also included is a special supplement targeted toward disadvantaged students that suggests ways to encourage high school students to consider postsecondary education as an avenue to a more rewarding career. Three appendices list further sources of information, state agencies in education, and a glossary of terms. (JBJ) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED401518.htm

_____. (1994). College-Bound Digest. Valuable Information from Prominent Educators for All College-Bound Students. (ISBN: 1-56244-053-5). ED369013 Selecting the right college can be frightening, confusing, and overwhelming, sometimes all at the same time. This pamphlet's 21 articles touch upon the choices and options available to college bound students, such as: (1) the different advantages of two-year, public, private, women's, or church-related schools; (2) SAT preparation, testing, and the test's use by colleges; (3) tough questions to ask admissions officers; (4) common mistakes students make in selecting a college; (5) financial aid; (6) choosing the right major; (7) advanced placement credit; (8) campus life styles; (9) surviving the freshman year; (10) liberal arts education; (11) preparing for a career in the arts; and (12) parents' roles. Also included is a list of 20 guides for the college-bound student. (RJM) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED369013.htm

_____. (1994). Counseling for Future Education, 1994-1995. ED387750 Designed to help school counselors facilitate the transition from high school to postsecondary education, this annually updated handbook provides information about the various kinds of postsecondary educational opportunities available in Florida. Procedural and financial information, important to those students who will be seeking additional education immediately after graduation, and information about the kind of high school preparation needed for admission and success in postsecondary programs, is provided. The handbook is not meant to provide detailed information about individual institutions, programs, majors, or extracurricular activities, rather it is a general guide to admissions requirements and procedures for students who have not selected a postsecondary institution and who be uncertain of their eligibility for admission. Chapters include: (1) Introduction; (2) Handbook Steering Committee; (3) The Application Process; (4) Students' Rights and Responsibilities in the College Admissions Process; (5) Career Development and Educational Planning Programs and Services; (6) Support Services for Students With Special Needs; (7) The Articulation Coordinating Committee; (8) How to Appeal a Student Admission or Transfer Difficulty; (9) The Statewide Course Numbering System; (10) Financial Aid; (11) The Florida Community College System; (12) The State University System of Florida; (13) The Independent Colleges and Universities of Florida; (14) Designated Area Vocational-Technical Education Centers; and (15) Designated Area Vocational Education Schools. (JBJ) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED387750.htm

_____. (1995). College Choices Guide for Migrant Students and Parents = Guia de Elecciones de Universidades para Estudiantes Migrantes y sus Padres. ED420458 Available from: Student Action with Farmworkers, P.O. Box 90803, Durham, NC 27708. This brief guide is a planning outline to help migrant students and parents prepare for, choose, and apply to college. The first section, "Thinking About College," offers specific tips for each grade from 9-12; discusses high school graduation requirements and college admission requirements, using Johnston County (North Carolina) schools and the North Carolina university system as examples; and describes four college admissions tests. The second section, "Applying to College," has a 5-point checklist of suggestions that cover planning early, studying and selecting schools, and applying. Section 3, "Paying for College," discusses applying for and getting financial aid. This section also lists six organizations that offer scholarships and financial assistance for migrant students. Each entry includes contact information, purpose, eligibility, and financial data. (SAS) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED420458.htm

_____. (1995). Counselor's Handbook for High Schools, 1995-96. ED401517 Designed to help high school guidance counselors advise students about financial aid for postsecondary education, this handbook provides information on sources of aid from programs administered by the U.S. Department of Education. The guide is divided into three parts: (1) General Information about Postsecondary Opportunities; (2) The Application Process for Financial Aid; and (3) Filling Out the Free Application for Federal Student Aid. Part One advises the reader on sources of aid, general eligibility requirements for student aid, demonstration of need, and how to choose a school. Part Two discusses the federal role in application processing, how one should apply for aid, how to submit an initial application, how the application is processed, reviewing the Student Aid Report (SAR), and suggestions on making changes to the SAR. The last section offers detailed instructions on how the student should fill out aid applications with tips on outlining educational background, one's plans, student status, household information, income, the simplified needs test, asset information, releases and signatures. Also included is a special supplement targeted toward disadvantaged students that suggests ways to encourage high school students to consider postsecondary education as an avenue to a more rewarding career. Three appendices list further sources of information, state agencies in education, and a glossary of terms. (JBJ) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED401517.htm

_____. (1996). College Bound: Americans' Attitudes about Paying for College. A Survey of Families with College-Bound High School Students on the Value of a College Education and Its Costs. ED398851 This study examined several aspects of family viewpoints regarding the financing of higher education. Data were collected via a telephone survey of 800 parents of college bound high school students and 300 college bound high school juniors and seniors. The survey examined attitudes in such areas as: the relative importance of financing college among families' other basic financial challenges; the perceived value of a college education from economic and quality of life perspectives; the level of responsibility felt by parents and students for financing a college education; and the expectations about sources of funding to be used for their child's education. Over 80 percent of parents indicated their belief that a college education was very valuable or indispensable to their child's financial well being and child's personal well being. Approximately 81 percent of college-bound high school juniors and seniors thought a college education was very valuable or indispensable. Ninety-two percent of parents indicated that a college education was the most important investment they would make for their child with almost one-third indicating that their children's college education was their first financial priority. Thirty-one percent of parents but only 8 percent of students felt that financing college was primarily a parental responsibility. Parents also expected financial aid to play a large role in defraying college costs. (CK) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED398851.htm

_____. (1996). College Choices: 1994. Part A. By College Attended. Tables Only. ED399894 This document presents data in lists and in tabular form on colleges attended by graduates of Oregon secondary schools for the fall of 1994. The lists presented include the seven state universities, 16 community colleges, and 20 private colleges and universities within the state attended by these students. The first table presents a breakdown by county of 1994 high school graduates admitted in the same year to Oregon colleges. Out of a total of 28,237 high school graduates, 11,743 (42 percent) were enrolled in Oregon Colleges. Of these college freshmen, 4,500 were attending state institutions, 5,801 were at community colleges, and 1,442 were enrolled in private institutions. A breakdown of Oregon high school graduates admitted by Oregon colleges the fall following graduation for the years 1985 to 1994 is also given. The remaining tables list the number of high school graduates of the class of 1994 enrolled in state colleges and universities by college attended; in community colleges by college attended; and in independent colleges and universities by college attended. (CK) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED399894.htm

_____. (1996). College Choices: 1994. Part B. By County and High School. Tables Only. ED399895 This document presents data in lists and in tabular form on colleges attended by graduates of Oregon secondary schools for the fall of 1994. The lists presented include the seven state universities, 16 community colleges, and 20 private colleges and universities within the state attended by these students. The first table presents a breakdown by county of 1994 high school graduates admitted in the same year to Oregon colleges. Out of a total of 28,237 high school graduates, 11,743 (42 percent) were enrolled in Oregon Colleges. Of these college freshmen, 4,500 were attending state institutions, 5,801 were at community colleges, and 1,442 were enrolled in private institutions. A breakdown of Oregon high school graduates admitted by Oregon colleges the fall following graduation for the years 1985 to 1994 is also given. The remaining tables list the number of high school graduates of the class of 1994 enrolled in state colleges and universities by county and high school. (CK) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED399895.htm

_____. (1996). College-Bound Digest. (ISBN: 1-56244-146-9). ED399491 The college admissions process and the college selection process are complex and much debated procedures which confront more than 50% of high school seniors in the United States. The purpose of this digest is to help students explore options available in choosing a suitable postsecondary education. For example the advantages of large or small schools, and considerations for public, private, or church-related schools are examined; the importance of testing and test preparation is discussed; and the opportunities for financial aid are explored. The importance high school counselors in the entire process is emphasized. Chapters are: (1) Foreword to Students; (2) Getting the Most From Your High School Counselor; (3) The SAT: What, How, Who Cares? (4) How to Find Financial Aid; (5) Tough Questions to Ask Any Admissions Officer; (6) Selecting a College: One Size Does Not Fit All; (7) Campus Lifestyle: An Important Consideration in Choosing a College; (8) Major Decisions: Choosing the Right College Major; (9) How to Survive Freshman Year; and (10) Learning a New Role...For Parents. (JBJ) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED399491.htm

_____. (1996). College: You Can Do It DO-IT Program. ED408730 Designed for students with disabilities, this publication outlines the steps needed for successful transition from high school to college and beyond. The guide urges students to find out about institutional entrance requirements, maintain a high grade point average, take pre-college examinations, take care with college applications, find financial resources, find out about and utilize support services at colleges, ask about transition programs in high school and orientation programs at colleges, develop self-advocacy skills and self- management skills, develop study skills, network, and take advantage of opportunities in high school and college to learn about and use computer technologies. The importance of making wise academic and career choices, building a resume, and participating in internships and social activities is also addressed. The guide includes a list of helpful hints for succeeding in college that was developed by participants in DO-IT (Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking, and Technology). Campus resources for students with disabilities at the University of Washington are also listed. (CR) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED408730.htm

_____. (1996). Community and Technical College High School Partnerships. ED409048 Since 1990, education reform efforts in Washington have encouraged the development of cooperative programs between the state's high schools and community and technical colleges. These programs allow advanced high school students to decrease the amount of time spent earning degrees and include the following efforts: Advanced Placement (AP) courses; the International Baccalaureate Diploma (IBD), a pre-college course of study that meets degree requirements in various national systems; the College in High School (CHS) program, providing college-level courses in high school locations; tech prep efforts; and the Running Start (RS) program, allowing dual enrollment in high school and college courses. To determine the current status of cooperative programs in the state, surveys were sent to all 32 community and technical colleges in http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED409048.htm

_____. (1996). Counselor's Handbook for High Schools, 1996-97.

_____. (1998). Campus Profile 98. ED426748 You be able to order this document from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service. Glendale Community College's Campus Profile is designed to assist faculty, staff, and students in understanding the college's diverse operations. Organ ized around an outline from the state accountability model, this statistical report focuses on the academic years 1995-1997. "Campus Profile '98" includes more accountability performance measures than previous issues. In particular, it includes Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) that measure college effectiveness. The profile is divided into the following five sections: (1) community profile, including an introduction to Glendale housing characteristics, ethnicity, and population by age, as well as area school information such as Glendale Unified School District Demographics and high school articulation; (2) student access, covering enrollment, demographics, student needs, and additional access-related KPIs; (3) student success, including characteristics and goals of transfer, vocational and personal interest students; (4) staff composition, considering present workforce, full/part-time ratio, and staff development; and (5) fiscal condition, including general revenue, expenditures, general fund balances and additional fiscal KPIs. (AS) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED426748.htm

_____. (1998). College Choices: 1997. Part A, By College Attended. Tables Only. ED420277 This document presents 47 tables showing the Oregon college choices of 1997 Oregon high school graduates. Two summary tables are provided. The first shows 1997 high school graduates admitted in 1997 to Oregon colleges by county of origin and type of college. Of a total of 30,330 graduates, 12,762 enrolled in Oregon colleges; the second summary table, for the years 1986-97, shows Oregon high school graduates admitted by Oregon colleges in the fall of the year following their graduation. Trend data indicate that from 1986 through 1997 a slightly smaller percentage of total graduates attended the Oregon University system, a greater percentage attended community colleges, and the percentage attending independent colleges remained the same. The remaining tables provide details on the number of 1997 Oregon high school graduates enrolled in each of 45 institutions of higher education in Oregon. Provided for each institution is data on the number of incoming freshmen by Oregon county, specific high school, the number of graduates for each high school, and the percent of the high school's graduates admitted to the specific institution. Tables for the institutions of higher education are grouped into those for the Oregon University system, those for state community colleges, and those for independent colleges. (DB) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED420277.htm

_____. (1998). College Choices: 1997. Part B, By County and High School. Tables Only. ED420278 This document presents 37 tables showing the Oregon college choices of 1997 Oregon high school graduates by county and high school. Two summary tables are provided. The first shows 1997 high school graduates admitted in 1997 to Oregon colleges by county of origin and type of college. Out of a total of 30,330 graduates, 12,762 enrolled in Oregon colleges. The second summary table, for the years 1986 through 1997, gives data for Oregon high school graduates admitted by Oregon colleges in the fall following their graduation. Trend data indicate that a decreasing percentage of total graduates are attending the Oregon University system, a greater percentage are attending community colleges, with the percentage attending independent colleges remaining constant. The remaining tables detail, by county and individual high school, the number of high school graduates attending each Oregon college, as well as the number of high school graduates at each high school and the percentage of each high school's graduates attending each college. An index to Oregon high schools is also provided. (DB) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED420278.htm

Clagett, C. A. (September 1999). Recent High School Graduate Focus Groups. Market Analysis 00-1. ED436212 This report summarizes findings of focus groups of recent high school graduates conducted during new student orientation at Carroll Community College (CCC) in http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED436212.htm

Coley, R. J. (1994). What Americans Study Revisited. Policy Information Report. ED373095 This report looks back over a decade and tracks changes in high school course- taking. It partially updates a 1989 report titled "What Americans Study" and includes some information on instructional emphasis in mathematics and on additional topics related to course taking. These topics include differences among gender, racial, and ethnic groups, and among vocational and academic programs and public and private schools. Most of the data come from studies supported by the National Center for Education Statistics, and some are from the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Over the decade there were steady improvements in the proportion of students taking a defined minimum academic program and a core curriculum. Students took more advanced subjects and more advanced courses. Much room remains for improvement. Less than half of the 1990 graduates took the defined minimum academic program, and less than one in five completed the core curriculum. Many students, especially those from minority groups, took remedial mathematics, and there were racial and ethnic differences in exposure to parts of the curriculum. Males were more likely to take calculus and advanced science courses than were females. Twenty-six figures and 21 tables in an appendix present information about these trends. (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED373095.htm

College Entrance Examination Board. (1967). Preparing school counselors in educational guidance. Papers presented at an invitational conference on the preparation of school counselors, February 23-26, 1966, Chicago. New York,: College Entrance Examination Board. Lb1731

Collins, T. (1994). Arts Internships as Transition. ED417692 This final report describes activities and accomplishments of a 3-year project at the University of Minnesota to develop a transition program emphasizing theater for high school students "at risk" for not continuing their education. Students participated in paid internships at the Penumbra Theater, Minnesota's only African-American professional theater company, and took courses in the University's General College. Theater and college personnel also acted as mentors for the students, working with them individually and in groups on transition issues. Of the 55 students (ages 15 to 20) who participated in the program, 32 were African American. As a result of student dissatisfaction after the program's first year, major changes were made in the direction of greater integration with the campus program. Data obtained from questionnaires and interviews with three cadres of student participants demonstrated that these community-based fine arts internships promoted the successful movement of these students into higher education. Individual sections of this report present an executive summary and an evaluative summary of the program based on the third cadre of students. Extensive appendices include: summaries of student interviews with students in each of the three cadres and summaries of questionnaire responses of students in each of the three cadres. (DB) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED417692.htm

Conley, D. T. (1997). Oregon's Proficiency-Based Admission Standards System (PASS) Project. ED408316 The development and use of Oregon's Proficiency-Based Admission Standards System (PASS) are described and results of some evaluations of the PASS system are presented. PASS is to be used for college entry in Oregon and is designed to promote the seamlessness of high school and college education by guaranteeing that students would have the knowledge and skills needed for college work. The six content areas of PASS are based on disciplinary knowledge in mathematics, science, social sciences, foreign languages, humanities and literature, and fine and performing arts. Criterion-referenced tests, common assessment tasks developed to assess cognitively complex proficiencies, and teacher verifications of classroom performance will be the basic PASS assessment strategies. Activities are under way to set the performance levels for each proficiency and to develop the elements of the assessment system. Issues related to the rationale for changing the admissions requirements in Oregon are reviewed. These generally relate to the relevance of high school preparation for college work and the prediction of academic success in college. The PASS project still has significant issues to address in the areas of assessment, articulation, funding, equity and access, and still must deal with political and educational reform issues. Formative evaluation has begun in the original 12 project schools. Preliminary results with regard to curriculum, instruction, assessment, and collaboration are generally favorable, although they reveal the amount of work required to make PASS a functioning system statewide. (Contains five graphs and one table.) (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED408316.htm

Conley, D. T.& Tell, C. A. (1996). Frequently Asked Questions. PASS Project. Proficiency-based Admission Standards System Project. ED403311 The Oregon State System of Higher Education is developing a new approach to admission to any of the state's seven public baccalaureate granting institutions. This approach replaces the grade point average with proficiencies, clearly specified statements of the knowledge and skills students must master. The new system is known as the Proficiency-based Admission Standards System (PASS). This brochure answers questions most frequently asked about PASS, which will begin with freshmen admitted in fall 2001. Proficiencies will be determined through criterion-referenced tests, common assessment tasks, and teacher-verified assessments that certify student performance. The new system will tie admission directly to demonstrated proficiency in mathematics, science, social sciences, second languages, literature, and the arts. It will be congruent with changes in Oregon secondary school assessment that will require the mastery of defined content knowledge and intellectual skills. The proficiencies have been developed through analysis of more than 60 national state curriculum reports and review by Oregon educators. Nationally normed tests will still be required as part of the data for admissions decisions, but they will not be the primary pieces of information. The goal is to ensure that students are properly prepared to succeed once they are admitted to college. Remedial programs be eliminated, and many introductory courses curtailed when mastery of the proficiencies ensures that all college students are properly prepared. Teacher training will be crucial to the implementation of the PASS system. Lists of current partnerships in PASS development, grants received by PASS participants, and staff members are included. (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED403311.htm

Craemer, H., Ed., Verster, A., Ed., du Toit, R., Ed., &Davids, D., Ed. (1998). Student's Guide to Higher Education in South Africa: With Occupations, Study Opportunities, Bursaries, 1998. Third Edition. (ISBN: 0-7969-1863-5). ED420287 Available from: Human Sciences Research Council, Private Bag X41, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. This guide for students contains information on the more than 2,200 programs offered at institutions of higher education in South Africa, as well as on the approximately 1,200 bursaries that provide student financial aid. The first section urges students to adopt a long-range life planning approach to choosing a career and college. The next section presents brief descriptions, organized by field of interest, of typical occupations that require higher education. The following section provides course information by field of study, including university name, course name and degree, duration, and entry requirements. The following two sections present the same information for technikons, training institutions providing career- oriented education, and private colleges, respectively. Also provided is a list of technical colleges, with each college's courses and requirements listed. The section on bursaries distinguishes between scholarships (student aid based on academic merit) and bursaries (student aid based on both merit and need). Information on bursaries, loans, and other forms of financial aid are arranged in alphabetical order. Indexes to the bursaries are by field of study and institution. A final section provides addresses and phone numbers of the institutions listed in the directory. (DB) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED420287.htm

Creech, J. D. (1997). Better Preparation, Less Remediation. Challenging Courses Make a Difference. Goals for Education: Educational Benchmarks, 1997. ED415741 This report examines the need for and status of remedial education at colleges in the 15 member states of the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB). It notes that too many (one of every three) entering college students currently take at least one remedial course and suggests that this number could be reduced if high school students planning to attend college would take more challenging academic courses to prepare for college admissions tests and college achievement. Narrative and tables present comparative state data on: high school courses required for graduation; required or recommended college preparatory courses; relationship between taking a standard college admission testScholastic Assessment Test (SAT) and American College Testing (ACT) program and completion of a college preparatory curriculum; effects of taking more academic core courses on SAT and ACT scores; numbers of entering college students who take remedial courses; reasons students take remedial courses; some promising initiatives in Maryland, North Carolina, Arkansas, Georgia, Mississippi, and Oklahoma; and recommendations for improving college readiness. States are urged to review the content and rigor of their high school graduation requirements and college preparatory programs and utilize college-school reporting systems to identify ways to help students prepare for and succeed in college. (DB) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED415741.htm
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Callahan, M.-M.& Wolk, R. A., Ed. (1999). The Intentional Community: Colleges and Community Groups Helping Low Income Youth Prepare for College. ED435270 This report presents principles and practices associated with establishing and maintaining effective community-based partnerships. Since 1993 a total of 25 private colleges and universities and nearly 30 community groups have participated in the College/Community Partnership Program, an effort to encourage private colleges and community groups to collaborate in encouraging and preparing students in low-income communities to attend college or other postsecondary institutions. These partnerships serve over 1,400 youth between grades 4 and 12. This report identifies more than 40 principles and practices associated with establishing and maintaining effective community-based partnerships. The report, which is the product of external evaluations, site visits, and focus groups, is divided into three sections: The first provides an overview of the historical and national context in which the program operates. The second section identifies organizational strategies for developing academic support programs; for effectively serving the students in the program; for involving the community; and for sustaining the partnerships. The third section offers recommendations for policymakers based on the principles and practices presented. An appendix describes 16 of the partnerships developed under the program. (DB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED435270

Catsambis, S.& Garland, J. E. (1997). Parental Involvement in Students' Education during Middle School and High School. Report No. 18. ED423328 This project analyzes data from the parent component of the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 to investigate changes in family educational involvement between students' 8th and 12th grades. Findings show that the patterns of parental involvement in adolescents' education change between the two grades. During high school, parents become less involved with monitoring students' individual behaviors and more concerned with their learning opportunities at school. By students' eighth grade, nearly all parents had postsecondary expectations, but few had taken specific actions to secure funds for college. During adolescents' senior year in high school, most parents report frequent discussions with them concerning postsecondary schools. At that time, parents also report that they have some knowledge about financial aid. A high proportion of 12th graders' parents expect to finance their child's further education through scholarships and grants, but fewer had applied for such programs before students' high school graduation. Consistent between-grade differences exist in the ways in which parents from different racial and ethnic backgrounds get involved with their adolescents' education and in their approach towards financing postsecondary education. Overall, findings indicate that many parents welcome opportunities for communication with schools and desire greater participation in the school decision-making process. They would also greatly benefit from guidance in their efforts to secure funds for postsecondary education. Four appendixes present a parent involvement factor analysis and parental variables from first, second, and college factor analyses. (Contains 20 tables and 9 references.) (Author/SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED423328

Cavatta, M. L. (1994). New Mexico Enhanced ACT and SAT Results. School Year 1992-1993. ED392807 Students in New Mexico take either the American College Test Assessment (ACT) or the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), although the ACT is most often used in New Mexico. Results from both examinations are presented in this report, based on those students who were expected to graduate in 1993 and who had expressed an interest in attending college. New Mexico had a 2.2% increase in students taking the ACT, and a 6% increase in the number of minority students taking the test. The mean composite score for 1992-93 was 20.0, and there was a slight increase in the mean mathematics score and a slight decrease in the mean English score. Scores were higher for students enrolled in core college curricula. Males continued to score higher in mathematics, while females continued to score higher in English. While 9,778 high school graduates took the ACT in New Mexico, only 1,935 students took the SAT. The mean verbal SAT score rose by three points, and the mean mathematics score rose by four points. Appendices present 1993 New Mexico ACT scores by school district; and the ethnic composition of New Mexico students taking the SAT from 1981 to 1993. (Contains five figures, nine tables, and five sources.) (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED392807

Chaplin, D.& Hannaway, J. (1996). High School Employment: Meaningful Connections for At-Risk Youth. ED405402 Benefits and drawbacks to the employment of high school students were studied using data from the High School and Beyond Survey (HS&B). A literature review was followed by an analysis that used final samples of between 6,000 and 10,000 HS&B students depending on the regression performed. These students were sophomores in 1980 and were resurveyed 2, 4, 6, and 12 years later. The analysis suggests that working a moderate number of hours a week (15 to 29) as a sophomore in high school can be particularly beneficial for the employment and earnings of at-risk youth even 10 years after finishing high school. On the other hand, working a moderate to high number of hours increases chances of dropping out and lowers college enrollment by even more. Analysis suggests that the future earnings of those who did not work in high school might come to surpass earnings of those who did. Policy implications of the results are discussed, and the measure of "at- risk" that is used is described because it summarizes the factors likely to affect economic attainment later in life better than race or poverty status, which have been used in other research. (Contains 5 figures, 9 tables and 14 references.) (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED405402

Choy, S. p. O., Cecilia. (1998). Choosing a Postsecondary Institution. Statistical Analysis Report. Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Reports. ED424830 You be able to order this document from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service. This report uses data from the 1995-96 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study to examine the factors that first time students consider when choosing an institution for postsecondary education. Specifically, it describes the importance of reputation, location, price, and influence, and assesses how this varies with student characteristics. Students attending public four-year; private, not-for-profit four-year; and public two-year institutions are considered separately. Highlighted among study findings are the following: beginning students at both public and private, not-for- profit four-year institutions were more likely to cite reputation as the most important reason for choosing their institution; students at public four-year institutions were more likely than students at private, not-for- profit four-year institutions to identify location or price as the most important reason for their choice; and beginning students at public two- year institutions reported location as the most important reason for choosing their institutions. Following an introductory section, individual sections present tables, graphs, and text detailing findings concerning: enrollment patterns, choosing a four-year institution, and choosing a public two-year institution. Appended are a glossary and details on methodology. (DB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED424830

Crossland, R. (1996). Running Start: 1994-95 Annual Progress Report. ED390486 The Running Start program was created by the Washington State Legislature in 1990 to allow qualified 11th and 12th grade high school students to take college-level courses at community and technical colleges. In the 1994-95 academic year, 7,418 high school students were enrolled in college classes through the program, representing about 3% of the total high school juniors and seniors in the state. The colleges were reimbursed by K-12 districts at the rate of $75 per credit in academic programs and $96 per credit in vocational programs. The 1994-95 Running Start students had the following characteristics: (1) 68.8% of the participants were attending college full-time; (2) 61% were female and 13% were students of color; (3) 45% were working part-time while attending, while over 2% worked full- time; (4) approximately 85% were taking academic courses; (5) 2% were disabled; (6) the average grade point average of program students was 2.8, slightly above the average entering freshman grade point average; and (7) 202 former participants enrolled in the University of Washington (UW) in fall 1994. Recommendations for program improvement include making additional resources available to high school advanced placement programs and providing counseling for Running Start students. Tables of student demographics, unduplicated headcounts and annual full-time equivalents per district, and program students' characteristics and first year performance at UW for the http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED390486
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_____. (1998). Department of Defense Education Activity: Research and Evaluation Branch. School Summary of Post-Secondary Plans, 1996-97 Evaluation. ED423792 This report presents findings of a survey of high schools in the Department of Defense Dependents Schools and the Domestic Dependents Elementary and Secondary Schools for school year 1996-97 regarding graduating seniors' plans after graduation. Major findings indicate that of the 3,117 graduating seniors at DOD schools, four out of five planned to attend college, with most of these planning to attend a four-year college or university; 10 percent of the class planned to enter the military; graduates were awarded over $26 million in scholarship monies, averaging $10,216 per graduating senior planning to attend college; 58 percent of this money was awarded through military scholarships, including $8.7 million for the military academies. Tables and charts provide detailed displays of data for 1997 graduates by military district, ethnic status, and graduates' plans after graduation; specific graduate plans (four year- college, two-year college, vocational, job, military, apprenticeship, or undecided) by military district; dollar amounts awarded to graduates by scholarship type and military school system; scholarship monies awarded by district and scholarship type; and colleges and universities most chosen by graduates. (DB)

_____. (1999). Direct Loans School Guide. A Better Way To Borrow: The William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program. ED439636 This publication provides guidance to schools that participate in the Federal Direct Student Loan Program. It provides details on how the Direct Loan Program operates and on Direct Loan policies and procedures. The 12 chapters include: (1) "Overview of the Direct Loan Program"; (2) "Basic Components of Direct Loans"; (3) "Direct Loan Program Participant Responsibilities"; (4) "Participating in the Direct Loan Program"; (5) "Establishing Borrower Eligibility for Direct Loans"; (6) "Direct Loan Origination, Disclosure Statements, and Master Promissory Notes"; (7) "Drawing Down and Disbursing Direct Loan Funds"; (8) "Change Records and Loan Adjustments"; (9) "Reconciling Direct Loans"; (10) "Cash Management Issues for Direct Loan Schools"; (11) "Student Status Confirmation Report (SSCR)"; and (12) "Servicing Direct Loans." Appended are a directory for the Direct Loan Program; a glossary; the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 685; the Direct Loan Quality Assurance Planning Guide; and Title IV electronic processes. (SM) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED439636

_____. (2000). Drug Convictions Affect Your Student Aid. ED440589 This booklet explains problems posed by prior drug convictions to college-bound students seeking federal financial aid. Under a new law which takes effect on July 1, 2000, some students who have drug convictions be ineligible for federal student aid. For possession of illegal drugs, students are ineligible from the date of conviction for one year for a first offense, two years for a second offense, and indefinitely for a third offense. For sale of illegal drugs, students are ineligible from the date of conviction for two years for a first offense and indefinitely for a second offense. Drug convictions that were reversed, set aside, or removed from the record do not count, nor do convictions before age 18. The booklet notes that students with drug convictions should still apply because, depending on the date and number of convictions, they be eligible. Even if ineligible, students should still complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid because many schools and states use information from the form for their aid programs. The booklet describes how to correctly answer the question about drug convictions on the student financial aid application, and discusses how to regain eligibility through an acceptable drug rehabilitation program. (SM) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED440589

de Acosta, M. (1996). Characteristics of Successful Recruitment and Retention Programs for Latino Students. Research Report #15. ED402409 Programs aimed at improving the high school graduation rate of Latino students and their college recruitment, retention, and graduation have increased in recent years, but they have seldom been evaluated. To improve the design of such programs, an in-depth analysis was conducted of 15 programs identified through a literature search. Need for financial aid was often the only factor addressed by early programs, and making college affordable continues to be an important link to recruitment and retention of low- and middle-income students. Later programs addressed other aspects of Latino student participation, such as mastering cognitive skills and career decision points. A recent added component is helping students negotiate the institutional culture of the schools they attend. A program model is developed with the following seven key features of successful programs: (1) sensitivity to individual students; (2) sensitivity to students' culture; (3) sensitivity to the institution where the program is located; (4) pro- active interventions; (5) a focus on accelerated, enriched learning; (6) small program size; and (7) partnering with family and community. Programs for Latinos have become more complex and their impact has been amplified, but ways of making recruitment, retention, and graduation programs more effective are still needed. An appendix contains a chart of successful programs. (Contains 14 references.) (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED402409

DesJardins, S. L.& Others. (1997). Modeling the College Application Decision Process in a Land-Grant Institution. ED406893 This study used a logistic probability model to investigate the effects of variables relating student characteristics and institutional factors on the decision to apply to a large land-grant research university. The study used the entire data set from American College Testing (ACT) program test-takers in the fall of 1995 and institutional data on students who applied to a study institution that fall which were matched to the ACT data. The empirical model used was based on human capital theory which states that a student's college choice decision is based on the expected net benefits (utility) of attending a particular institution. The results indicated that students' test scores and high school rank percentile, age, proximity of the institution, whether the student postponed initial college enrollment date, congruence between the student's preferred institution type and size and that of the study institution, and family income were all important variables in students' application decisions. The study also found that highly reputed programs had a positive effect on students' decisions as did the presence of honors programs, study abroad options, and advanced courses in mathematics. No significant effects were found for marital status, gender, underrepresented groups, and number of siblings at home. Results have implications for institutions' recruitment efforts. (Contains 16 references.) (JLS) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED406893

Dossey, J. A., Ed., Swafford, J. O., Ed., Parmantie, M., Ed., &Dossey, A. E., Ed. (1997). Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (19th, Bloomington-Normal, IL, October 18-21, 1997). Volume 1. ED420494 Available from: ERIC/CSMEE, The Ohio State University, 1929 Kenny Road, Columbus, OH 43210- 1080. This conference proceedings volume for PME-NA-XIX contains a total of 87 reports: one plenary session report; 39 research reports; 20 short oral reports; 25 poster session reports; and two discussion group reports. Only the plenary and research reports are full reports; the others are generally one-page abstracts. The full reports include: (1) "Participation as Fundamental in Learning Mathematics" (James G. Greeno); (2) "An Undergraduate Student's Understanding and Use of Mathematical Definitions in Real Analysis" (Barbara S. Edwards); (3) "Mis-Generalization in Calculus: Searching for the Origins" (David E. Meel); (4) "Students' Cognitive Approaches to the Concept of Rate" (Rodolfo Oliveros and Manuel Santos-Trigo); (5) "Effects of Different Instructional Approaches on Calculus Students' Understanding of the Relationship between Slope, Rate of Change, and the First Derivative" (Donald T. Porzio); (6) "The Process of Periodicity" (Gilli Shama and Nitsa Movshovitz-Hadar); (7) "The Relationship between Written and Verbal Performances: A Study of First Year Calculus Students' Understanding of the Derivative" (Kathleen G. Snook); (8) "Mathematical Patterns in the Middle Grades: Symbolic Representations and Solution Strategies" (Joyce Wolfer Bishop); (9) "The Relationship of Undergraduates' Beliefs about Learning Algebra and Their Choice of Reasoning Strategies for Solving Algebra Problems" (Albert D. Otto, Cheryl A. Lubinski, and Carol T. Benson); (10) "Teachers' Beliefs and Student Failure in Algebra" (Daniel K. Siebert); (11) "Mandated Assessment Instruments: How Do Teachers Value Them?" (Karen Bell and Thomas J. Cooney); (12) "Using Assessment Practices as a Tool for Changing Teaching Methodology" (Daniel J. Brahier); (13) "A Proposed Method for Assessing Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge" (Janet Warfield); (14) "Assessing Student Work: The Teacher Knowledge Demands of Open-Ended Tasks" (Linda Dager Wilson and Patricia Ann Kenney); (15) "Mathematical Activities in Insurance Agents' Work" (Judit Moschkovich); (16) "A Semiotic Framework for Linking Cultural Practice and Classroom Mathematics" (Norma C. Presmeg); (17) "Educating Non-College Bound Students: What We Can Learn from Manufacturing Work" (John P. Smith, III); (18) "Probability Instruction Informed by Children's Thinking" (Graham A. Jones, Carol A. Thornton, and Cynthia V. Langrall); (19) "Student Understanding of Statistics: Developing the Concept of Distribution" (Melissa Mellissinos, Janet E. Ford, and Douglas B. McLeod); (20) "A Snapshot of Developmental Algebra Students' Concept Images of Function" (Phil DeMarois); (21) "Preservice Teachers' Cognitive Approaches To Variables and Functions" (David B. Klanderman); (22) "The Development of Students' Notions of Proof in High School Classes Using Dynamic Geometry Software" (Enrique Galindo with Gudmundur Birgisson, Jean-Marc Cenet, Norm Krumpe, and Mike Lutz); (23) "Understanding Angle Ideas by Connecting In-School and Out-of-School Mathematics Practice" (Joanna O. Masingila and Rapti De Silva); (24) "Defining an Exterior Angle of Certain Concave Quadrilaterals: The Role of 'Supposed Others' in Making a Mathematical Definition" (Yoshinori Shimizu); (25) "Problem-Centered Learning and Early Childhood Mathematics" (Noel Geoghegan, Anne Reynolds, and Eileen Lillard); (26) "Similarities and Differences of Experienced and Novice K-6 Teachers after an Intervention: The Use of Students' Thinking in the Teaching of Mathematics" (Cheryl A. Lubinski, Albert D. Otto, Beverly S. Rich, and Rosanna Siongco); (27) "Learning and Teaching Grade 5 Mathematics in New York City, USA, and St. Petersburg, Russia: A Descriptive Study" (Frances R. Curcio and Natalia L. Stefanova); (28) "Some Results in the International Comparison of Pupils' Mathematical Views" (Erkki Pehkonen); (29) "Views of German Mathematics Teachers on Mathematics" (Gunter Torner); (30) "Teacher Change: Developing an Understanding of Meaningful Mathematical Discourse" (Rebekah L. Elliott and Eric J. Knuth); (31) "Group Case Studies of Second Graders Inventing Multidigit Subtraction Methods" (Karen C. Fuson and Birch Burghardt); (32) "Teaching Mathematical Procedures Mindfully: Exploring the Conditional Presentation of Information in Mathematics" (Ron Ritchhart and Ellen Langer); (33) "Generating Multiple Solutions to Mathematical Problems by Prospective Secondary Teachers" (Jinfa Cai); (34) "A Problem Solving Session Designed To Explore the Efficacy of Similes of Learning and Teaching Mathematics" (Vilma Mesa and Patricio Herbst): (35) "An Expert's Approach To Mathematical Problem-Solving Instruction" (Manuel Santos- Trigo); and (36) "Relevance Judgements in Mathematical Problem Solving" (Graeme Shirley and Martin Cooper). (ASK) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED420494

Doyle, W. (1996). Focus on Students: The Student Composition of California Higher Education. Report 96-1. ED399850 This report presents data on the student composition of California higher education in graphs and text. The information focuses on the period from 1989 to 1993 though trends going back to 1980 are also displayed. The data are from a variety of sources including the Educational Testing Service, the California Postsecondary Education Commission, the California Department of Education, the California Student Aid Commission, and the College Board. The information is organized into five sections which cover: (1) eligibility for higher education; (2) first-time freshmen; (3) undergraduates in California higher education; (4) financial profile of undergraduates; and (5) student outcomes. Among highlights shown by the data are the following: while the number of eligible high school students increased from 1989 to 1993, the number of first-time freshmen decreased; the decrease was greatest at the California State University while the California Community Colleges continued to account for the majority of high school graduates continuing on to higher education; during this period, the amount and distribution of student financial aid changed dramatically as more students received both grants and loans, the number of students receiving need- based aid increased, and the amount of money loaned to each student rose; students took an average of 5 years to graduate; and 2 of every 5 California freshmen did graduate. Supporting tables of data are appended. (JLS) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED399850

DuBois, P.& Weisgerber, R. (1994). Find Your Future: A Career-Planning Guide in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering for Precollege Students with Disabilities and the Adults Who Work with Them. Second Edition. ED378751 This career planning guide is intended for precollege students with disabilities who desire careers in science, mathematics, or engineering. The booklet reflects the experiences and advice of 286 individuals with disabilities who are in these careers or preparing for them. The first section summarizes the advantages of a career in these fields, such as earning a good salary and contributing to society. The second section helps students evaluate themselves through considering what interests them, who they admire, what they read, and what they do for fun. Next, suggestions are offered for seizing opportunities toward the student's career goals, including finding out about summer programs, joining a school club, and finding a mentor. The following section asks students to evaluate whether they have the personal qualities, such as determination and self esteem, to be a successful scientist. Keys to success identified by scientists include asking for help when needed, asking teachers to teach to one's strengths, pushing oneself to the limit, trying new things, and seeing disability as the mother of invention. The final section gives specific tips on getting started, emphasizing guidelines for choosing a college. Interspersed throughout the booklet are photographs of successful individuals with disabilities and quotes giving their advice. (DB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED378751

Duran, B. J. (1996). Language Minority Students in High School: Replacing Basic Skills Instruction with Explanatory Models. ED393837 This paper describes an instructional approach for language minority students in high school science and social studiesusing explanatory models or graphical representations of disciplinary concepts to guide students systematically as they construct a concept or conceptual relationship. Data came from a longitudinal study of two successive groups of Mexican American high school students in Chicago who were attending a weekly outreach program to enhance their academic skills for college. As the first group was studied and their learning strategies became more apparent, a method for expanding those strategies and energizing more active use of everyday concepts and language was refined for use with the second group. A preliminary analysis of observations indicated that students were hindered in learning complex concepts because the strategies and skills they possessed were too limited. At the same time, students brought many social skills to classroom interaction, indicating their high motivation. After much reflection and experimentation, teachers realized that literacy experience in one or both languages prepares students to use language for learning. Teachers could then focus on using explanatory models to present content and influence learning without requiring a mediating academic language. This experience led to the conclusion that substituting language arts instruction for appropriate high school content is unacceptable educational policy because it closes the door to higher learning. (Contains 25 references.) (ND) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED393837
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_____. (1997). Eligibility of California's 1996 High School Graduates for Admission to the State's Public Universities. Commission Report 97-9. ED415758 This report analyzes the eligibility of California's 1996 high school graduating class in light of freshman admission requirements in effect for http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED415758

Edelman, A., Schuyler, V. E., &White, P. H. (1998). Maximizing Success for Young Adults with Chronic Health-Related Illnesses. Transition Planning for Education after High School. ED418562 Available from: HEATH Resource Center, One Dupont Circle N.W., Suite 800, Washington, DC 20036-1193; toll-free telephone: 800-544-3284; telephone: 202-939-9320; fax: 202-833-4760; World Wide Web: %1 http://www.acenet.edu; e-mail: HEATH@ace.nche.edu ($2). This booklet defines chronic health-related illnesses and how they affect life functions; discusses the importance of transition planning; identifies how parents, school personnel, medical personnel, and community service providers can help the students with a chronic illness gain the knowledge and skills necessary for a successful postsecondary outcome; and lists elements of effective transition planning. The goals of a transition plan are defined and include the student's ability to: identify the impact of the illness on his or her life; determine what the impact of the illness be in the particular postsecondary setting; and develop and implement strategies to minimize or alleviate this impact in order to increase the opportunity for success. The role of disability support services staff in helping prospective students identify how illness impact the experience at that particular higher education institution and decide on appropriate accommodations is also discussed. Finally, factors that students should assess when choosing an institution are described and include assessing: the college's ability to meet academic needs, community services at the college's location, the college's ability to meet disability-related needs, health insurance coverage, and financial needs for education. Contains a list of organizational resources and a list of two publications that focus on postsecondary institutions and disability laws. (CR) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED418562

Eisner, E.& Others. (1996). Preparing Your Child for College: A Resource Book for Parents: 1996-97 Edition. ED394120 This resource book is designed to help parents plan ahead, with their child and child's teachers and counselors, to ensure appropriate academic preparation for college. Planning financially for the costs of a college education is addressed. A question and answer format addresses topics related to each chapter heading. Chapters and topics addressed are: (1) General Questions About College: Why attend college? What types of colleges exist? What kinds of jobs are available to college graduates? (2) Preparing for College: What can my child do to prepare academically for college? What can my child do outside the classroom to prepare for college? (3) Choosing a College: How can my child go about choosing a college? (4) Financing a College Education: How much does a college education cost? How can I afford to send my child to college? What are the most common sources of financial aid? Is my child eligible for financial aid? If so, how much? Are there other ways to keep the cost of college down? (5) Long-Range Planning: How do I set up a long-range plan? (6) Important Terms: What terms do I need to understand? and (7) Other Sources of Information: Where can I get more information on the topics discussed in this handbook. Contains 5 exercises and checklists and 10 charts. (JBJ) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED394120

Ekstrom, R. B. (1994). Gender Differences in High School Grades: An Exploratory Study. College Board Report No. 94-3. ED380494 Data from the 1980 High School and Beyond (HSB) study are used to examine the variables associated with the grades that college-bound high school sophomores received in English, algebra, and geometry courses. Special concerns included determining if gender differences in high school grades could be explained, and how teachers' perceptions of students, student characteristics, and HSB test scores were related to grades. A model of factors that might explain grades was developed that includes student background and characteristics, attitudes, curriculum, educational aspirations, school behaviors, and scores on HSB tests. The full models explained 46% of variance in English grades, 42% in algebra, and 44% in geometry. The full models tended to explain more variance in males' than females' grades. After controlling for all the variables in the full models, a significant association between gender and grades remained for English and algebra 1, but no such association was found for algebra 2 or geometry. Teacher perceptions were also significantly associated with gender, suggesting gender- related expectations for students. Two figures and 25 tables present study findings. (Contains 36 references.) (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED380494

Epstein, R. (September 1999). Reflections on Academic Development: What We Can Learn from the South African Experience. Technical Report. ED435318 A study examined academic literacy in high-risk South African students entering postsecondary education, and the relationship of academic literacy to instructional development. Data were gathered in discussions with academic staff at South African universities and technikons and at the University of Saskatchewan. The report begins with background information on education in South Africa, focusing on these topics: the effects of separate school systems and Bantu education; the need for academic literacy; the relationship between education, economics, and morale in education; and tertiary academic institutions. Academic literacy and instructional development are then defined, and South African approaches to them, including current research, are examined. Examples of six types of initiatives at a number of South African institutions are then described. Five approaches to academic literacy at the University of Saskatchewan and one Australian example are offered for comparison. Conclusions are drawn about the South African experience, and suggestions for improving academic literacy programs and administration are made. (Contains 41 references.) (MSE) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED435318

Everson, J., Ed.& Enos, J., Ed. (1995). Postsecondary Education: Opportunities and Challenges for Students Who Are Deaf- Blind. ED385973 Some of the opportunities and challenges associated with postsecondary education for young adults who are deaf-blind are considered. Suggestions are offered for transition planning teams to consider, including analysis of students' most and least favorite classes, vocational goals, housing goals, and methods of paying for postsecondary education. A checklist to help in college and career planning is presented for ages 14-16, 16-18, and upon graduation. Provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act for postsecondary education are outlined. A checklist for assessing postsecondary education supports is also provided, which includes questions to ask regarding large-print materials, notetakers, readers, alternate test-taking methods, interpreter services, taped textbooks, reading machines, Braille materials, transportation services, and counseling and support groups. Finally, six current or former postsecondary students share their experiences and offer recommendations for other young adults considering postsecondary opportunities. (SW) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED385973
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_____. (1995). Financial Aid Handbook for High School Counselors, September 1995. ED391442 This publication is intended as a reference tool for secondary school counselors to help prospective postsecondary students with their financial aid application process. A section on student financial aid discusses how to apply for aid, when to apply, and how the process proceeds. This section covers the federal government application form, Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), as well as information specific to Oregon. The next section describes scholarships and grants administered by the Oregon State Scholarship Commission (OSSC) including four state-funded Oregon grants (Oregon Need Grant program, State Grant Supplemental Award, the Barber & Hairdresser Grant Program, and a program for disabled peace officers), two selected federal grant programsthe Paul Douglas Teacher Scholarship program and the Robert Byrd Honors Scholarship (though there is no funding for the first and uncertain funding for the second), and 125 privately funded scholarships. The next section describes federal student loan programs including the Federal Family Education Loan program, the Federal Stafford Loans, Federal PLUS Loans, and Federal Direct Loans. Appendixes contain a copy of the FAFSA, Title IV codes for all Oregon colleges, further application information, a list of financial aid offices, a list of reference books and pamphlets, and the OSSC's World Wide Web page address. (Contains 21 references.) (JB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED391442

_____. (1996). Funding Your Education. ED399844 This booklet is intended to help high school students approaching graduation identify sources of financial assistance for postsecondary education. A question- and-answer format is used in the 10 sections which address the following topics: (1) general information (what is available from the Department of Education, criteria for applying, how to apply); (2) telephone numbers (sources of assistance in filling out applications for financial aid); (3) Federal Pell Grants (how much one can receive, how the grants are paid); (4) loans for students (how to apply for a Stafford Loan, how the funds are provided, interest accumulation, financial limits, repayment procedures); (5) loans for parents (application procedures, criteria, financial limits to the loans, who receives the funds, interest rate, repayment procedures); (6) common loan questions (charges other than interest, repayment schedules, cancellations); (7) campus- based aid (Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants, Federal Work- Study, Federal Perkins Loans); and (8) general questions (how to avoid borrowing too much, what to do next). (MAH) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED399844

_____. (1997). Foundations for High Achievement: Safety, Civility, Literacy. K-12 Public Education. ED416578 The state of Colorado has set high standards for students based on three fundamental principles: safety, civility, and literacy. How these standards were integrated into the schools is the subject of this report. It opens with an overview of the foundations of academic success and the process involved in implementing standards-based education. The state assessment program is detailed, along with the results of a 3-year study depicting the growth of charter schools and the significant changes in teacher licensure amendments. The educational performance of Colorado's students is then profiled, with an emphasis on mathematics achievement, the achievement of college-bound students, high school graduation rates, and postsecondary participation. Demographic information is offered, with descriptions of public school membership, private school enrollment, home study participation, the nonschool population, and information on students at-risk. A profile of educational personnel is provided, which focuses on school district personnel, educator preparation, and teacher assessment. Colorado's educational system and programs are likewise discussed, along with an analysis of school district revenues and expenditures. (RJM) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED416578

_____. (1998). Florida Articulation Summary. ED418762 This report provides articulation information for Florida public schools, community colleges, and state universities. Among the items contained in the paper are text and accompanying charts regarding (1) Florida public high school graduates receiving standard and GED diplomas; (2) high school graduates' postsecondary education intent versus actual enrollment; (3) readiness for college; (4) college preparatory retention and success; (5) community college associate degree completers and follow-up studies; (6) community college transfers; (7) independent colleges and state university system retention and graduation rates; and (8) articulation progression. Statistics gathered from the study include figures such as in 1996-97, 92,430 students graduated from Florida high schools and 47,059 from Florida community colleges. (EMH) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED418762

_____. (1999). Financial Aid for Students with Disabilities, 1999. ED430328 This resource paper provides an overview of student financial aid and discusses the roles and responsibilities of those who play a significant part in the process of providing aid to students with disabilities. The paper also addresses the financial aid application procedure and suggests timeliness and resources for those individuals who are seeking financial aid. The information in this paper reflects information for the 1999-2000 school year. Included is a brief description of Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) Agencies, the services they provide, and the interaction between the state VR agency and the financial aid office of a postsecondary institution. Federal programs described include: Federal Pell grants, Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants; Federal Work-Study; Federal Perkins Loans; Federal Family Education Loans; and Direct Loans. Specific program terminology explained includes: "family contribution," "cost of attendance," "financial aid package," and "disability related expenses." Also addressed are other sources of financial assistance including Supplemental Security Income and Social Security, Talent Search, Educational Opportunity Centers, state programs, and private scholarships. Sources of information including scholarship search services and Internet sites are listed. (Contains 12 references.) (DB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED430328

_____. (2000). Financial Aid: The Student Guide, 2000-2001. ED439635 This publication presents a basic summary of student financial assistance programs provided by the federal government and explains how to apply for them. It begins by reviewing sources of information about student aid. A general information section covers student eligibility, financial need, dependency status, applying, special circumstances, withdrawals, deadlines, and the Federal Student Aid Information Center. Next, specific types of federal aid are explained. These include: federal Pell Grants; Direct and Federal Family Education Loans (FFEL) and Stafford Loans; PLUS loans (Parent Loans for Undergraduate Students), including Direct PLUS Loans and FFEL PLUS Loans; consolidation loans, including both Direct and FFEL Consolidation Loans; and campus-based programs, including Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Perkins Loans. The next section discusses borrower responsibilities and rights. A final section explains important terms. The publication also offers lists of frequently requested telephone numbers and Web sites related to student financial aid and a list of state agencies and their telephone numbers. (SM) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED439635

_____. (2000). Funding Your Education, 2000-2001. ED439634 This publication describes student financial assistance programs available through the U.S. Department of Education's student financial aid programs. Thirteen sections focus on: "Education after High School"; "Paying Tuition and Other Costs"; "Applying for Financial Aid"; "Eligibility Criteria"; "Important Deadlines"; "Federal Pell Grants"; "Campus-Based Aid Programs"; "Federal & Direct Stafford Loans"; "PLUS Loans (Parent Loans)"; "Stafford & Plus Loan Questions"; "Contacting Us"; "Reducing the Cost of School"; and "Taking the Next Step." The publication also includes a list of frequently requested telephone numbers related to applying for student financial aid; a list of frequently requested Web sites related to applying for student financial aid; and a list of state agency telephone numbers. (SM) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED439634

Farmer, M. L. (1967). Student personnel services for adults in higher education. Metuchen, N. J.,: Scarecrow Press. Lc5219

Fejoku, C. G. (September 20, 1999). Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) Results, 1998-99. Measuring Up. E&R Report No. 00.04. ED435723 This report presents Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) results for high school seniors in the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), North Carolina. In Wake County, the number of seniors taking the test rose to 3,496 in 1998-99, an increase from 3,377 in 1997-98 (3.5%). The average SAT score for WCPSS seniors in 1998-99 (1059) was the third highest in the state. The average score for WCPSS students increased by seven points over the preceding year, the fifth consecutive year of rising scores. The national average score was 1016. The WCPSS total score increase of 60 points over 10 years greatly exceeds state and national average increases. Tables contain scores for the WCPSS, each school, and the United States for the verbal and mathematics tests of the SAT I, with scores grouped by family income, parents' education level, and high school rank. (Contains 6 tables, with Table 6 divided into the 13 system schools.) (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED435723

Feller, R.& Others. (1994). School Counselor Role in Planning and Integrating Basic Skills. ERIC Digest. ED378462 http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED378462

Fimmen, C. p. W., Burton O., Riggins, D. L., &Carson, J. (November 1997). Connecting the Parts: A Hispanic/Latino Reality for Achieving More Timely Degree Completion. JSRI Working Paper No. 34. ED435337 This paper examines some of the major problems and barriers faced by Hispanic/Latino youth who, despite high college enrollment rates, do not complete the four-year degree. An examination of five entering classes of Illinois college students found that only 30.2 percent of Hispanic students had completed their degrees at the end of four years, 33.8 percent were still enrolled in college, and 36 percent had dropped out. Factors identified as leading to lack of persistence included the overall cost of earning a degree, lack of academic preparation for college in junior and senior high school, poor articulation between community colleges and four- year institutions, limited access to resources, and family pressures. Several strategies are suggested for improving timely degree completion, including pre-college initiatives such as providing multicultural training for teaching faculty and support staff to dispel stereotypes, introducing concepts of academic achievement and excellence in elementary schools, emphasizing the concept of career opportunities available through post- secondary training, and involving members of the Hispanic community in school parent-teacher organizations. Post-secondary strategies suggested include developing bilingual brochures for high school counselors, parents, and advisors, providing information about fast-track programs, building schedules around student needs, initiating summer scholarship opportunities, and reevaluating general education requirements in colleges. (Contains 28 references.) (JM) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED435337

Fincher-Ford, M. (1996). High School Students Earning College Credit: A Guide to Creating Dual-Credit Programs. (ISBN: 0-8039-6550-8). ED403665 In many parts of the United States, high school students are enrolling in college- level courses for both high school and college credit. The educational innovation is referred to as dual credit. This book was designed to help administrators and teachers develop dual-credit educational partnerships and to provide information to students. Chapter 1 provides the historical foundation and the global context for a dual-credit educational model. The second chapter addresses the intricacies of planning a dual-credit program for public and private institutions. Chapter 3 provides a "Rosetta stone" approach for identifying courses that fulfill both high schools and college credit. Ways to establish program effectiveness through an array of accountability measures are discussed in the fourth chapter. Chapter 5 offers an annotated sample of a dual-credit agreement with clarifying comments about components of the process. The sixth chapter clarifies the differences between dual credit and articulated credit and presents a plan to use when high school and college teams meet to articulate courses that will be credited toward a high school diploma and a college degree. The final chapter offers a methodology for involving faculty for systemic change. A glossary accompanies each chapter. Nine tables are included. (Contains seven references.) (LMI) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED403665

Fink, M. A. (1995). Go for It Migrant Students Succeed in College. ED382434 College education can provide job opportunities, knowledge, skills, and personal growth. Migrant students who want to go to college should let others know of their interest and learn all they can from others' experiences by talking to family, counselors, Others who have attended college. Starting early and not giving up are important. Taking challenging courses in high school and taking the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) and American College Testing (ACT) are important early steps. Family support can be gained by sharing plans and information with them. Teachers and counselors help with family support. Investigating college programs involves deciding between large and small schools, 2-year and 4-year programs, and commuting and residing on campus, as well as choosing a major. Visiting campuses gives one an idea of what the college experience is like. There are a variety of financial aids: scholarships and grants, work-study programs, and loans. There are also several programs just for migrant farmworker students. Once at college, preparing for and attending classes, seeking help and friends when needed, scheduling time, and visualizing oneself as a graduating student are helpful tips for success. (TD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED382434

Fixman, C. S. (1996). College and Careers Project, 1993-96. Final Report. ED417624 The College and Careers Project sought to increase college attendance of at-risk students in the Philadelphia public high schools and to help students link their college and career planning. Over a three-year period, 48 students from 4 high schools participated. Students took part in college preparatory and career awareness activities throughout the year. Five-week summer internships involved group visits to college campuses, practical experiences in the work world, and exposure to career opportunities. Activities included college application and financial aid workshops; tutoring in science, math, and English; Scholastic Aptitude Test courses, and motivational sessions. Career-related activities included goal setting workshops and presentations by professionals in various fields. Special activities were conducted with students' parents to help them become stronger advocates and supports for their children in preparing for college and careers. The students deliberated in a systematic fashion about their career plans, linked these plans to appropriate courses of study, and became strengthened in their desire to earn a college degree. Only four of the 48 students dropped out of the project during the 3 years. At the project's conclusion, all but one senior enrolled in college, and all the juniors were promoted. (SW) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED417624

Flachmann, K., Lingo, M., Ruff, B., Fletcher, D., &Hoagland, P. (1999). Building for the Future through Inter-Segmental Assessment. ED438247 In 1996, a California high school district and two colleges assembled intersegmental teams to establish common assessment of college-readiness in mathematics and English. Subject area teams reviewed standards, rubrics, and current tests. A Joint Assessment Team (JAT) explored the Golden State Exam (GSE) in Written Composition as a common tool. Its format and scoring were similar to college assessments, and it was available statewide. In 1997, 250 high school students took the GSE. A holistic rubric was developed. Essays were read and scored, and data sets were matched. There was a strong correlation, which convinced the team to continue with the GSE. In 1998, 300 more essays were read and scored holistically and diagnostically. Holistic grades were correlated with GSE scores, yielding a strong correlation. In 1999, 3,300 high school juniors took the GSE. The correlation was still strong. Letters were sent to students with diagnostic feedback and GSE scores, noting the relevance for college placement. JAT implementation has had several positive effects in the school district. While the GSE has changed from year to year, it has remained a reliable instrument. (SM) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED438247.htm
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_____. (1997). Getting Ready for College Early: A Handbook for Parents of Students in the Middle and Junior High School Years. ED412460 Steps that parents and children can take to ensure that students properly prepare for college are covered in this guidebook. The guidebook is divided into four steps. In step one, reasons why it is important to go to college are covered. Some of these reasons include better job opportunities, more earning potential, and the increased variety of jobs one can get with more education. In step two, the types of courses that middle school students should take to prepare for college are covered; subjects such as algebra, geometry, a foreign language, English, science, and history are noted. A chart provides a breakdown of the variety of courses children should take and for how many years. Step three looks at college costs and what students and parents can do to prepare for this significant expense. This theme is continued in step four where ideas for paying for college are presented. Some of these payment suggestions entail applying for federal aid, scholarships, loans, and military enrollment. (RJM) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED412460

_____. (1998). Guide to International Academic Standards for Athletics Eligibility for Students Entering. ED435358 This book is intended as a guide for reviewing core-curriculum eligibility of student athletes who have completed any portion of their secondary education in a non-U.S. educational system. Beginning with the 1994-95 academic year, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Initial- Eligibility clearinghouse will certify all student-athletes who wish to participate in Division I and II sports. Sections of the book include instructions for use of the guide; NCAA interpretations of core-curriculum and test-score requirements; a conversion chart for British-patterned grading scales; an alphabetical list of countries and education plans; division I initial eligibility indices, with comparisons of grade point averages, SAT, and ACT scores between the United States and other countries; multi-country references; and a list of NCAA members who have indicated interest in helping member institutions evaluate foreign records. (JM) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED435358

Gandara, P., Ed., Larson, K., Mehan, H., &Rumberger, R. (1998). Capturing Latino Students in the Academic Pipeline. ED427094 Available from: Chicano/Latino Policy Project, Institute for the Study of Social Change, UC Berkeley, 2420 Bowditch Street, #5670, Berkeley, CA 94720-5670; Tel: 510- 642-6903; Fax: 510-643-8844 ($5.00). You be able to order this document from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service. This paper reports on three projects in California that have attempted to stem the tide of Latino dropouts and increase the college-going rates of the Latino population. Each of these three programs has tested a set of strategies aimed at increasing the educational attainment of Latino students, who now make up the largest single ethnic group in California's public schools. They also have the highest dropout rate of any of the state's ethnic groups. The educational attainment of all Latinos is significantly lower than that of other ethnic groups in the United States as well as in California. The first program, Achievement for Latinos through Academic Success (ALAS), was a demonstration program that targeted the lowest achieving Latino students with the greatest risk of dropping out of high school. Because these students are considered comprehensively at risk, the program used a comprehensive approach to address the needs of families as well as students. ALAS was piloted at the middle school level. The second program, Advancement Via Individual Achievement (AVID), continues to target academically underachieving students with above-average test scores at the high school level. It attempts to move them into a college preparatory educational track. The focus is directly on students, most of whom are from lower income communities. The third program, Puente, targets students who are more generally at risk for reasons such as attending high schools where small percentages of students go on to college and where social problems commonly derail students' academic aspirations. Pu ente includes students along nearly the entire continuum of academic achievement with the aim of ensuring that they complete high school and go on to college. These three programs were all designed to plug leaks in the educational pipeline for Latinos. AVID and Puente continue to expand in California schools, but the funding has ended for the ALAS demonstration project. (Contains 20 figures, 14 tables, and 102 references.) (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED427094

Gardner, D.& Hartman, R. C. (1995). Financial Aid for Students with Disabilities, 1995. Update. ED381918 This resource paper provides an overview of financial aid for postsecondary education. The discussion, reflecting information for the 1995-1996 school year, covers the various types of financial aid, the technical words and phrases used to discuss it, and the process involved in its disbursement. The paper discusses the roles and responsibilities of those who play a significant part in the process of providing aid to students with disabilities. Particular attention is given to those expenses which are considered disability related, and suggestions are made about ways in which some of those expenses be met. A brief description of Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) agencies, the services that they provide, and the interaction between the state VR agency and the financial aid office of a postsecondary institution is provided. The paper describes the financial aid application procedure and suggests timelines and resources for individuals seeking financial aid. Finally, suggestions are offered about additional possibilities for financial assistance, such as Supplemental Security Income, social security benefits, Talent Search programs, state programs, and private scholarships. Thirty-one organizations which offer disability-specific scholarships are listed, along with several colleges and universities offering similar scholarships. Twelve publications offering financial aid information are described. (JDD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED381918

Gardner, D.& Hartman, R. C. (1997). Financial Aid for Students with Disabilities, 1997. ED407758 This resource paper provides an overview of postsecondary education financial aid for students with disabilities. Presented in a question and answer format, the paper covers the various types of financial aid, relevant technical words and phrases, and the process involved in financial aid disbursement. Particular attention is given to those expenses which are considered disability related, and suggestions are made about ways in which some of those expenses be met. A brief description of Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) agencies, the services that they provide, and the interaction between the state VR agency and the financial aid office of a postsecondary institution is provided. The paper describes the financial aid application procedure and suggests timelines and resources for individuals seeking financial aid. Finally, suggestions are offered about additional possibilities for financial assistance, such as Supplemental Security Income, social security benefits, Talent Search programs, and private scholarships. Thirty organizations which offer disability-specific scholarships are listed, along with the Internet addresses of helpful Web sites on financial aid and a list of publications offering financial aid information. (CR) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED407758

Gaw, K. F. (1995). Reverse Culture Shock in Students Returning from Overseas. ED394082 Little is known about the reverse culture shock experience of Americans who have lived abroad. Many of these Americans are dependent youth who, after completing high school abroad, return to the United States for college; reverse culture shock impact the academic experiences of these returnees. This study (n=66) examined the relationships between reverse culture shock and personal problems experienced in college, willingness to seek help, and types of services used. This study revealed that returnees experiencing a high level of reverse culture shock were more likely to report more personal adjustment and shyness problems or concerns than were returnees experiencing a low level of reverse culture shock. Willingness to see a counselor for personal problems and concerns was not necessarily related to one's level of reverse culture shock. Finally, a negative correlation was observed with regard to reverse culture shock and student support service usageas reverse culture shock increased, service usage decreased. (Contains 58 references.) (Author/TS) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED394082

Gilbert, W. S. (1996). Bridging the Gap between High School and College: A Successful Program That Promotes Academic Success for Hopi and Navajo Students. ED398039 During 1988-91, the School, College, and University Partnership (SCUP) program at Northern Arizona University (NAU) provided services to disadvantaged students in seven rural high schools on or near the Navajo and Hopi reservations. Many of these students came from low-income families, lived in geographically isolated locations, and attended schools with limited resources. SCUP helped students develop the academic skills needed for higher education and provided support for the school-college transition. Based on partnerships between NAU, the Navajo and Hopi tribes, and the Northern Arizona School Board Association, SCUP consisted of an academic-year program and a summer program. The academic-year program served approximately 9,635 students in grades 7-12 and contained the following components: (1) dropout prevention efforts, including study skills training for seventh- and eighth-graders, teacher training in study skills development and cultural awareness issues, community-based study halls, and a bilingual culturally relevant parent involvement program; (2) career and personal development through career fairs, visiting career mentors, and student seminars; and (3) installation of computer-assisted instructional laboratories, followed by teacher and student training. The summer program (Nizhoni Academy)an intensive 5-week experience at NAUprovided 498 students in grades 9-11 with 160 hours of instruction in English, mathematics, and career development. Instruction emphasized metacognition, concentrated learning, cooperative learning, process approach, and critical thinking skills. In addition, structured extracurricular activities exposed participants to many facets of college life. (SV) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED398039

Gillie, S. (1995). Postsecondary Encouragement in Indiana: A Progress Report. ED382146 This report summarizes indicators of progress in encouraging Indiana high school students to pursue postsecondary education and training. The report uses text, tables, and graphs to address: (1) trends in high-school seniors' postsecondary plans (as reported in the Indiana Department of Education senior intentions survey); (2) trends in postsecondary enrollment of traditional-age students; (3) trends in the postsecondary enrollment of historically underrepresented groups, African-Americans and Hispanics; (4) trends in high-school students' preparation for college; (5) trends in participation in the Indiana Academic Honors Program (a program of study recognized by all Indiana public postsecondary institutions as qualifying students for automatic admission); (6) trends in Indiana participation in the Scholastic Assessment Tests; and (7) trends in Indiana financial aid participation. Among indicators noted are the following: postsecondary participation by Indiana students has increased 29 percent in the past 5 years; most families of ninth-graders haven't yet begun or are unable to set money aside for their children's postsecondary education; college enrollments leveled off in 1993-94 and 1994-95. (DB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED382146

Goldberg, J. L.& Sedlacek, W. E. (1995). Summer Study in Engineering for High School Women. ED399876 The transition between high school and college is a crucial point where many young women engaged in the applied sciences and engineering cease their participation. To help retain young women's interest and help bridge the gap between secondary school and higher education, The University of Maryland, College Park, held a six-week live-in academic summer program to expose 30 young women to college-level engineering study. The young women, who had completed their junior year in high school, were enrolled in two college-level introductory engineering courses. The program also included hands-on team design projects; field trips; laboratory work; computer classes; problem solving; working with others; and presentations by female role models. Parents were invited to participate through visits to the campus and attendance at selected orientation and student design presentations. At a focus group in the fourth week of the program, students discussed their level of interest in engineering compared with their interest at the beginning of the program, what they found most valuable about the program, and suggested improvements. Upon successful completion of the program, students earned six credits towards a college degree. (MAH) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED399876

Grant, D. F.& Others. (1995). Cases of Rural Gifted College Females: Socialization Barriers and Career Choices. ED387730 Gifted females have less frequently sought high-prestige and high-income careers due to a number of barriers. Some barriers are related to society's expectations of women, Others are related to the workplace itself. The most limiting and pervasive barrier is "sex role socialization's impact on the child's developing self-belief system" (Hollinger, 1991). This questionnaire study examines seven female adolescent college students (three African-Americans, and four Caucasians) identified as gifted in elementary school. The subjects participated in gifted and Advanced Placement programs for an average of six years in rural Georgia. For the most part, the gifted females in this study did not articulate marriage and family plans as influences on their choices of major or career aspirations, but the influence is evident. It is also notable that all participants in the study plan to be employed as adults and generally expect to be in partnership relationships where tasks within the home are shared with their partners. Finally, although none of the participants had to limit their career aspirations due to a lack of mathematics or science preparation, their dislike for mathematics did limit their career aspirations. Further investigation of these findings is recommended to understand their significance. Two tables present participants' pre-college influences and current status. The National Career Development Association (NCDA) questionnaire is appended. Contains 10 references. (KW) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED387730

Gray, K. C.& Herr, E. L. (1995). Other Ways To Win: Creating Alternatives for High School Graduates. (ISBN: 0-8039-6246-0). ED390988 This book focuses on the plight of the academic middle of graduating high school students. These students have been led to believe that the only way to succeed is to attend a four-year college, even though they are unprepared for college work. As a result, half of the students who begin college fail to graduate, and even those who do graduate often fail to find college-level jobs after they finish college. The book describes factors in this situation, including the following: intense pressure from parents, schools, colleges, and society for students to attend four-year colleges; college prep curricula that leave half of their graduates unprepared for college work; open admissions policies in colleges; and lack of knowledge of appealing alternatives to four-year degrees on the part of parents, students, and schools. It demonstrates that technical, craft, and repair occupations that require less than a bachelor's degree will pay better than any occupations except the professions in the years ahead and will provide more job openings than occupations requiring college degrees. The book recommends the following steps to making preparation for such occupations more acceptable: (1) providing systematic career guidance for students and structured feedback for parents; (2) redesigning college prep for all students; (3) ensuring equal status and focused academics; and (4) bringing "average students" to excellence. The book contains 75 references. (KC) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED390988

Gray, W. S. (1930). The training of college teachers, including their preliminary preparation and in-service improvement. Chicago, Ill.,: The University of Chicago press. Lb1738

Grayson, J. P. (1996). The Retention of First Year Students in Atkinson College: Institutional Failure or Student Choice? (ISBN: 1-55014-307-7). ED418650 Available from: Institute for Social Research, York University, 4700 Keel St., North York, Ontario, Canada M3J1P3 ($12.50). This study evaluated whether the low retention rate (53 percent) between their first and second years of students at Atkinson College, the part-time evening school of York University (Ontario, Canada) is primarily due to institutional failure or to the characteristics and choices of mature students. A survey was sent to admitted students in September 1993 which covered students' background, potential barriers to education, and initial commitment to education. In February-March 1994 a second survey collected data on students' college experiences, their satisfaction, and final commitment to the college. A total of 489 identified students completed both surveys. Of these students, 53 percent returned to Atkinson in the Fall of 1994 and 43 percent left the university. Overall, the study found that many students who left the university never intended to complete a degree, took fewer courses, and knew by the end of the first year they would not return for a second year. Students who left the university did not differ from those who returned in terms of factors such as barriers to education, their first year experiences, and satisfaction levels. The study concluded that the low retention rate is more a reflection of student choices than of institutional failure. (Contains 11 references.) (DB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED418650

Green, P. J.& Others. (1995). A Profile of the American High School Senior in 1992. National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988. Statistical Analysis Report. (ISBN: 0-16-048127-9). ED386502 The National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) provides information about factors that influence student academic performance and social development. This report describes the experiences of spring 1992 seniors, focusing on their school environments, course-taking and tested achievement, postsecondary plans and occupational goals, and outside-of-school experiences. The typical senior was enrolled in a college preparatory program. Nine of 10 seniors demonstrated basic proficiency in reading and mathematics, but somewhat fewer demonstrated basic proficiency in science. Three-quarters of all seniors planned on continuing their educations beyond high school, and over half expected to hold a professional occupation. Over a quarter of all seniors were from racial and ethnic minority groups. Students generally reported that the quality of education in their schools was good, that their teachers were interested in their students, and that grading was fair. About half of all students worked in addition to going to school. Students participated in a variety of extracurricular activities, but reported a great deal of television viewing. Thirty-three tables and 18 figures present survey data. Eight appendixes contain supplemental information, including 13 tables of standard errors and sample sizes. Appendix H contains abstracts of analytical documents related to the survey. (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED386502

Green, P. J.& Others. (1995). Trends among High School Seniors, 1972-1992. National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988. Statistical Analysis Report. (ISBN: 0-16-048126-0). ED387533 This report presents data from three longitudinal studies conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics. The National Longitudinal Study of the Class of 1972, the High School and Beyond study, and the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) were all designed to assess the educational experiences and achievements of high school students. With each study cohort, the scope of the study was enlarged until the three studies came to provide a rich resource for examining changes in U.S. education in the past 20 years. Enrollment in academic programs had declined from 1972 to 1980, falling from 46 percent to 39 percent, but by 1992, it had returned to its 1972 level, and 48% of seniors were in academic programs. The percentage of seniors in vocational programs has declined from 22% in 1972 to 12% in 1992. The rebound in academic program enrollment is caused primarily by higher enrollment rates among females and minorities. Differences in achievement among racial and ethnic groups are decreasing, but social class distinctions are becoming more marked. In 1992, more students planned to go to college than in 1972, and heightened expectations for graduate degrees became apparent for all racial and ethnic groups. Five appendixes provide 44 supplementary tables and an illustrative figure, information about study methodology, and a list of publications using NELS:88 data. (Contains 21 tables, 9 figures.) (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED387533.htm
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_____. (1994). Higher Education in Texas: 1994 Status Report. ED368309 This report on the status of higher education in Texas covers enrollment trends, quality and access, research, campus planning, funding, and Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board activities. The first section looks at enrollment trends and projections to the year 2005 highlighting an expected 250 percent increase in the number now attending the state's largest public university. It identifies strategies to improve transfer of college courses and changes in the Texas Academic Skills Program test for college bound students. The second section examines program quality and access and describes partnerships to address workforce needs, math and science initiatives, medical education efforts, and use of technology in educational services. The third section focuses on access to education particularly dropout prevention and minority recruitment. The following section covers research, state funding for research, and the advent of a new publication featuring commercial applications of university research. The fifth section looks at campus planning, reducing deferred maintenance, assessing campus space needs, and expanding funds for construction. The next section discusses funding and appropriations including facilities funding, special item funding and evaluation of tuition and fees. The final section describes the Texas Coordinating Board's effort to promote quality, access, and efficiency. Many figures illustrate the report. (JB) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED368309.htm

_____. (1995). High School Survey, 1994. Executive Summary. ED384374 In North Carolina as part of Central Piedmont Community College's (CPCC's) efforts to identify the training needs of the local service area and determine future directions for planning, a survey was conducted of 6,601 students in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg high school system regarding their plans and perceptions of the college. Study findings, based on responses from the 41.6% who were in the 12th grade, included the following: (1) 68.5% of the respondents indicated that they planned to attend college full-time after high school and 29.6% that they planned to attend part-time; (2) of those not planning to attend college, 15.9% indicated that they would attend if they had additional financial support, while 13.9% expressed an interest in on-the-job training programs and 8.3% in apprenticeship programs; (3) 41% were considering pursuing a four-year bachelor's degree, 7% a two-year associate degree, and 2.9% a one-year certificate or diploma; (4) among college-bound White respondents, 28% expressed an interest in CPCC, compared to 19.1% of college-bound Black respondents; (5) while 66.1% agreed with the statement that CPCC was a good place to study part-time and earn a degree, 38.8% agreed that the college was the second choice for most students; and (6) the areas of study in which students expressed the most interest were business (21.4%), computers (15.7%), engineering (11.8%), and nursing (9.7%). (KP) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED384374.htm

_____. (1996). High School Counselor Training, 1995-96. Participant's Guide. ED396651 This package of training materials is intended for high school counselors participating in a 1-day, eight session workshop on student financial aid for postsecondary education. The workshop attempts to: identify basic requirements and responsibilities students need to know about when applying for and accepting federal student aid; provide basic information about requirements of federal student aid programs; and identify federal publications and resources needed when working with students and parents. The individual sessions cover the following topics: (1) introduction to the workshop and training materials; (2) introduction to student financial aid programs; (3) student eligibility requirements for federal financial aid programs; (4) how postsecondary schools package financial aid awards; (5) the 1995-96 Federal Financial Aid Delivery System; (6) completing the 1995-96 Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA); (7) how to plan and conduct a financial aid awareness program; and (8) workshop wrap-up and evaluation. Appended are complete materials including a sample script and transparency masters for conducting a financial aid awareness program. Also appended are addresses of FAFSA processors. (DB) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED396651.htm

_____. (1996). How Can I Help My Gifted Child Plan for College? ED399737 This guide provides parents of gifted children with information on how to assist their child in preparing for college. The guide discusses characteristics of gifted students that affect college planning. These are: multiple talents, idealistic thinking, sensitivity to expectations, and isolation from other gifted students. The guide identifies the college preparation steps that gifted students should take during the secondary years, explains how these students can explore possible career paths, and offers recommendations on how parents can help their gifted child find an appropriate college. A list of organizations and electronic resources that offer information about gifted students and college planning is provided. (CR) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED399737.htm

_____. (1997). High School to College-Going Rates: For Oklahoma High School Graduates to Oklahoma Colleges. Linear College-Going Rate, Combined College-Going Rate. Oklahoma High School Indicators Project. ED416792 The report presents data on the rate of Oklahoma high school graduates going on to colleges within the state. Two kinds of rates are reported: (1) for students proceeding directly to college after high school graduation (linear), and (2) for students who have delayed college entry for a year or more after graduation. Tables present data on: percentage rates for these groups, by county, for each of the years 1994, 1995, and 1996, and as a three-year average; three-year average rates (numbers and percentages) of college attendance for both groups (linear and combined) for each county and each high school; and annual rates for both groups for each county and high school. (MSE) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED416792.htm

_____. (1997). How To Choose a College: Guide for the Student with a Disability. Fifth Edition. ED413708 Designed for high school students with disabilities, this booklet provides information on how to choose an appropriate college. Students are urged to take an organized approach for making one of the major decisions in their lives and to consider their abilities rather than their disability in making their choice. The booklet is divided into six sections that outline an evaluation process for students. The sections focus on: (1) present level of performance, including academic performance; (2) personal and professional short-term and long-term goals; (3) specific support services needed for the students to be successful in a postsecondary setting; (4) the accessibility of extracurricular experiences; (5) timelines for special housing, financial assistance, and specialized equipment/services; and (6) organizing and using the evaluation process to making the final decision. Each section includes questions the student should investigate in evaluating different schools. A list of selected resources for students is also included. (CR) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED413708.htm

Hall, C. L.& Others. (1995). The New Mexico 1994-95 Accountability Report. ED402350 The "Accountability Report" provides indicators of the condition of Public Education in New Mexico, and is published each year by the State Department of Education. The report provides narrative and statistical information on an array of educational indicators, which include enrollment trends, funding and expenditures, graduation and college-bound statistics, specialized program support, and student achievement information. Over the past 3 years student enrollment in New Mexico schools has grown by 3% to 325,000 students. Growth has been significant in special education, as well as in elementary and secondary education. The past 3 years have also seen a continued shift in the ethnic makeup of the student population, with increases in the percentage of Hispanic and Native American students and decreases in the Anglo population. In the 1994-95 school year, the student population was 39.9% Anglo, 46.4% Hispanic, 10.4% Native American, 2.4% African American, and 1.0% Asian. State appropriations to the public schools have increased over the past 3 years, and teacher salaries have begun to catch up to the national average. (Contains 10 figures, 23 tables, and 12 references.) (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED402350.htm

Hellerman, S. B., Ed. (1994). Imagine...Opportunities and Resources for Academically Talented Youth, 1993-1994. (ISSN: 1071-605X). ED375535 This document consists of the first year's output (5 issues) of a newsletter describing opportunities and resources for youth who are academically gifted, in an effort to achieve a match between their interests and abilities and their educational programming. The theme of the first issue is "Entering Academic Competitions." It describes selected competitions from a variety of academic areas. The second issue, "Planning Ahead for College," discusses what college admissions officers are looking for, describes four types of undergraduate environments, and outlines financial aid procedures. The third issue, "Choosing Academic Summer Programs," offers a student's perspective and provides a directory of summer opportunities. The fourth issue, "Getting the Best Precollege Education," discusses choosing a high school, considering early college entrance, advanced placement programs, and ability grouping. The final issue, "Exploring Career Options," discusses multipotentiality, career indecision, and mentorships and lists sources of career information. A regular feature of each issue is a student's review of a university. Universities reviewed include Stanford University (California), Washington University (Missouri), Johns Hopkins University (Maryland), Yale University (Connecticut), and Brown University (Rhode Island). Other regular features include stories, poems, book reviews, and puzzles created by talented youth. (JDD) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED375535.htm

Hellerman, S. B., Ed. (1996). Imagine...Opportunities and Resources for Academically Talented Youth, 1996- 1997. ED433658 This document consists of the five consecutive issues of the journal "Imagine..." published during volume year 4. Typical journal articles cover teaching academically talented secondary students in the following focus areas: (1) planning ahead for college; (2) history and archaeology; (3) physics and astronomy; (4) the global society; and (5) computer technology. Many articles were written by students. In addition to articles, each issue includes special program announcements, competitions, book reviews, a college review, and puzzles. Sample articles include: "Everything You Ever Wanted To Know...Interview with a College Admissions Director" (Susan Hellerman); "Going Public: The Powerful Pluses of Undergraduate Education at State Institutions" (Lesley Mackay); "In Retrospect: How We Got the Most Out of Campus Visits" (Robert Suderman and Tamara Suderman); "Interview with Eric Gordon: Art Conservator" (Lesley Mackay); "National History Day: Promoting the Study of History in the Schools" (Robert James Warren); "Potsherds and Emeralds: Portrait of a Young Archaeologist" (Lisa Brody); "From Jawbones to Genomes: The History of a Science" (Scott Rifkin); "Making the Most of a Museum Internship" (Amanda Bell, Shelli Calland); "Hooked on Physics: Seven Astrophysicists Share Their Stories"; "KidSat: Students Exploring Earth from Space" (Mark Jones and Lesley Mackay); "Spending a Summer in Aerospace Engineering" (Jonah Berger and Amelia Dudley); "Exploring Career Options: Planetary Science" (Carol Blackburn); "Craig Kielburger and Free the Children: Protecting Young People's Rights" (Lesley Mackay); "Traveling the World...To Promote Understanding" (Diana Rutowski and Bill Loth); "Model U.N.: Debating World Issues...and More" (Brian Milch and Jessie Withrow); "Cycles of Destruction" (Shaumo Sadhukhan); "Panning for Gold on the World Wide Web" (Carol Blackburn); "Create Your Own Web Page: Getting Started" (Eileen Ptak); "ThinkQuest: Teaching and Learning, Internet-Style" (Carol Blackburn); and "A Portrait of the Programmer as a Young Man" (Joseph Turian). (DB) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED433658.htm

Hemmings, B., Kay, R., &Hill, D. (1997). Rural Students Continuing Their Studies in University Contexts. ED429792 A two-phase study assessed the extent to which a set of variables predicted rural secondary students' likelihood of continuing to college and sought to determine predictors of rural students' academic success at the completion of first-year university study. Participants were drawn from seven state coeducational secondary schools in the Riverina (Australia) region. Phase 1 gathered school achievement data from 281 rural secondary students for year 10 and year 12 and developed measures of family background, school commitment, and goal commitment from student surveys. Results indicate that although academic achievement was the most important predictor of continuation to university study, other family background and attitudinal factors were also related to this outcome. In addition, a student's future academic success was largely predictable at the end of year 10. Phase 2 monitored the first-year progress of 54 of the 125 students from phase 1 that attended college. Results indicate that although academic achievement and course satisfaction predicted a student's likelihood of passing all first-year subjects, the latter was the more important predictor. Course satisfaction stemmed from the related attitudinal measures of student identity and sense of purpose. Contains 20 references. (TD) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED429792.htm

Higbee, J. L., Ed.& Dwinell, P. L., Ed. (1998). Developmental Education: Preparing Successful College Students. Monograph Series #24. (ISBN: 1-889271-24-1). ED423794 Available from: National Resource Center for the First-Year Experience and Students in Transition, University of South Carolina, 1728 College St., Columbia, SC 29208; Tel: 803-777-6029; Fax: 803-777-4699 ($35). The 16 chapters of this volume describe a wide variety of developmental programs intended to promote skill development and enhance academic performance for high-risk students at all levels of higher education. Following an introductory chapter by the editors, the chapters are: (1) "The Origin, Scope, and Outcomes of Developmental Education in the 20th Century" (Hunter R. Boylan and D. Patrick Saxon); (2) "Who Belongs in College: A Second Look" (Carlette J. Hardin); (3) "Transitions in Developmental Education: Interviews with Hunter Boylan and David Arendale" (Cheryl B. Stratton); (4) "Remedial/Developmental Education: Past, Present, and Future" (Milton G. Spann, Jr. and Suella McCrimmon); (5) "Provisionally Admitted College Students: Do They Belong in a Research University?" (Don T. Garnett and M.V. Hood III); (6) "Transitions in Developmental Education at the University of Georgia" (Jeanne L. Higbee and Patricia L. Dwinell); (7) "Developmental Education at a Public Research University" (Catherine Wambach and Robert delMas); (8) "A Charge to Developmental Educators: Ignite the Spark" (Rita Klein et al.); (9) "The Impact of a Course in Strategic Learning on the Long-Term Retention of College Students" (Claire E. Weinstein et al.); (10) "Integrating Critical Thinking into the Developmental Curriculum" (Linda Best); (11) "Metacognition: Facilitating Academic Success" (Cynthia M. Craig); (12) "Student Beliefs, Learning Theories, and Developmental Mathematics: New Challenges in Preparing Successful College Students" (Irene Mary Duranczyk and Joanne Caniglia); (13) "Mainstreaming Basic Writers: Chronicling the Debate" (Mary P. Deming); (14) "A Commentary on the Current State of Developmental Reading Programs" (Martha Maxwell); (15) "Establishing Personal Management Training in Developmental Education and First-Year Curricula" (Robert Nelson); and (16) "Increasing Efficiency and Effectiveness of Learning for Freshman College Students through Supplemental Instruction" (David Arendale). A concluding chapter is by the editors. (Individual chapters contain references.) (DB) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED423794.htm

Holmes, L. M. (1994). Recruitment of Traditional Students by Two-Year Colleges. ED379017 A study was conducted to identify and evaluate the kinds of student recruitment procedures currently used by community colleges in Kansas and Oklahoma. After a literature search, an 18-item questionnaire was used to collect data on four recruitment techniques; i.e., on-site high school pre-registration; campus tours; early bird on-campus pre-registration; and recruitment by correspondence. Admissions officers at 38 two-year colleges in Oklahoma and Kansas were surveyed by mail regarding the use and effectiveness of these practices. Study findings, based on an 87% response rate, indicated that the most popular of the four techniques was campus tours, followed by early bird on-campus, pre-registration; high school pre-registration; and mail recruitment. Data from colleges where enrollment increased between 1993 and 1994 indicated that schools with increased enrollment: (1) frequently allowed students to enroll during an initial recruitment session; (2) involved faculty and students in conducting campus tours; (3) usually held "early bird" on-campus pre-registration sessions on weekday evenings; (4) sent follow-up correspondence to students who toured their campuses or listed their institutions on Pell applications, and (5) purchased lists of student names and test scores67% of those who practiced this technique were successful in recruiting students from the lists. The survey instrument is included. (Author/KP) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED379017.htm

Horn, L. J. (1997). Confronting the Odds: Students At Risk and the Pipeline to Higher Education. Statistical Analysis Report. (ISBN: 0-16-049334-X). ED414845 This study used data on 1992 high school graduates from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (a survey that began with eighth graders in 1988 and followed them every two years through 1994) to examine the critical junctures when at-risk high school graduates are most likely to leave the pipeline to college enrollment, and to identify factors that increase their chances of successfully navigating the enrollment pipeline. An at-risk student was defined as having risk factors such as being from a single parent household, having an older sibling who dropped out of high school, and earning low grades between sixth and eighth grades. Highlights of the findings include: about 58 percent of graduates had one or more risk factors; of these, 30 percent successfully navigated the pipeline to college enrollment; at-risk students differed most from counterparts in their educational aspirations and academic preparation; and academically prepared at-risk students were much less likely than counterparts to take an entrance exam. After an introductory chapter, two chapters detail data and definitions and provide an overview of students at risk. The following two chapters present findings on the pipeline to a four-year college and compare at- risk students regarding completion of math courses, help received in the college application process, and level of school involvement of students, parents, and peers. Appended are a glossary, technical notes, and supplementary tables. (DB) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED414845.htm

Horn, L. J.& Chen, X. (1998). Toward Resiliency: At-Risk Students Who Make It to College. (ISBN: 0-16-049581-4). ED419463 Available from: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328. This study examined whether or not student, parent, and peer engagement factors that contribute to at-risk students' success in graduating from high school continue to be important in making the transition from high school to postsecondary education. The data set used was the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, which included 1994 data obtained two years after students' scheduled high school graduation. At-risk students exhibited two or more of six risk factors, including "family in the lowest socioeconomic quartile" or "held back a grade". Analysis used alternative statistical methodology, specifically regression analysis and the "odds ratios" produced by this procedure. Key findings indicated that: (1) students whose parents frequently discussed school-related matters and/or had high educational expectations were much more likely than other students to enroll in postsecondary education; (2) students who reported that most or all of their high school friends planned to attend college were far more likely to attend themselves; (3) participating in college preparation activities such as gathering information about financial aid increased the odds of enrolling in postsecondary education; and (4) moderate- to high- risk students participating in college outreach programs were more likely to attend college. Appended are a glossary and technical and methodology notes. (Contains 11 references.) (DB) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED419463.htm

Horn, L.& Bobbitt, L. P. L. (2000). Mapping the Road to College: First-Generation Students' Math Track, Planning Strategies, and Context of Support. Statistical Analysis Report. Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Reports. ED438178 This publication compares first-generation students (i.e., those whose parents have no more than a high school education) with their peers whose parent or parents attended college. It focuses on mathematics course takingthe effectiveness of taking algebra in 8th grade and advanced math courses in high school for subsequent college enrollmentand planning strategies students used to prepare for college. The report also examines the involvement of students' parents, teachers, and other "institutional agents" capable of helping them prepare for college. The results of the study offer both negative and positive findings concerning the experiences of first-generation students. On the negative side, even after controlling for measures of academic achievement, family income, family structure (single versus two parents), and other related characteristics, first-generation students were less likely than their peers to participate in academic programs leading to college enrollment. Consequently, they were much less likely to enroll in college within two years of graduating from high school. The disparity between first-generation students and their peers from families where at least one parent had attained a bachelor's degree was especially notable. On the positive side, regardless of parents' educational attainment, students' achievement, and other related factors, students who completed mathematics programs beyond the level of Algebra 2 substantially increased their chances of enrolling in a 4-year college. In addition, other factors such as parents' participation in college preparation activities and students receiving help from their high school in the application process also increased students' chances of enrolling in college (at any level). (Contains 23 references.) (ASK) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED438178.htm

Horvat, E. M. (1996). African American Students and College Choice Decisionmaking in Social Context: The Influence of Race and Class on Educational Opportunity. ED394463 This report examines the college aspirations and decisionmaking factors gathered from 53 interviews with Black, female, college-bound students, their parents, friends, college counselors, teachers, and school staff. The goal was to reveal how the students' lives and their access to postsecondary education have been framed and structured by the influences of race and class in modern schools and society. Subjects were students at three urban California high schools. Data gathered included transcribed and coded interviews as well as extensive ethnographic observational data and documents. The schools were chosen for their ethnic and social differences: a predominantly African-American public school with predominantly lower class families; a public, racially mixed school of mixed social class composition; and a predominantly white, private, upper social class school. Findings reveal that the students chose colleges where they could see themselves in the form of other students like themselves who already attend the college; race and class defined the choices that fit a particular student. The high schools they attended acted as templates that encouraged particular kinds of action. The expectations of the students, rooted in race and class differences, created different worlds of opportunity and created different patterns of access to higher education. The data further illustrate how race did not have less importance than class in defining these students' habiti, but rather that race was a very clear marker of class membership and class distinction that greatly impacted their decisionmaking. (Contains 41 references.) (NAV) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED394463.htm

Horvat, E. M. (1997). Structure, Standpoint and Practices: The Construction and Meaning of the Boundaries of Blackness for African-American Female High School Seniors in the College Choice Process. ED407884 This qualitative study examined the role played by race in the college choice behavior of a group of minority females. It examines the college aspirations and decision making processes of Black female college-bound students and the influences of their parents, friends, college counselors, teachers, and school staff. Subjects were 50 students at 3 urban California high schools. Data collection included transcribed and coded interviews as well as extensive ethnographic observational data and review of documents. The schools were chosen for their ethnic and social differences and included: a predominantly African- American public school with predominantly lower class families; a racially mixed public school of diverse social class composition; and a predominantly white, private school with upper class families. It was found that the students chose colleges where they could see students like themselves who already attended the college. The high schools they attended had acted as templates that encouraged particular kinds of action with the role of Blackness having a different meaning at each of the three schools. The study supported the importance of race and class in defining students' choice behavior with race a clear marker of class membership and class distinction that greatly impacts decision making. Appended are a summary of the data and descriptions of the school settings. (Contains 15 references.) (JLS) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED407884.htm

Hu, S.& Hossler, D. (1998 Length: 22 Page(s); 1 Microfiche). The Linkage of Student Price Sensitivity with Preferences to Postsecondary Institutions. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper. ED427593 This study examined the correlates of high school students' preferences in their senior year to attend private or public higher education institutions, and especially the effects of student sensitivity to tuition costs and to financial aid. The data analyzed were from a longitudinal study (n=482) of student college choice. The dependent variable was student preference to attend public or private institutions; the independent variables were student background characteristics, student academic characteristics, and student sensitivity to tuition and financial aid. Results indicated that student preferences to go to private institutions were influenced jointly by family, academic, and financial factors. Mother's education, particularly postgraduate education, was significantly and positively related to student preference for a private institution. Other family background characteristics, including family income, were not related to student preference for type of postsecondary institution, but students with better academic preparation were more likely to prefer private institutions. Student sensitivity to tuition and financial aid were related differently to choice of private institutions students interested in private institutions were less concerned about tuition costs but more interested in financial aid. (Contains 37 references.) (DB) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED427593.htm

Hubbard, L. (1997). A Gendered Look at the Academic Achievement of Low Income African-American High School Students: Strategies of Success. ED414287 This paper analyzes the academic success of 30 low-income African-American high school students. The 20 females and 10 males were participants in the Advancement via Individual Determination (AVID) program, a high school program that places previously low-achieving, low-income, and minority students in a special class that offers them academic and social support. Using qualitative data, the study shows that, while most of these students went on to college, the strategies they used and the attitudes they developed towards going to college differed across gender. This research exposes the importance of looking at the construction of academic success as a product of the intersection of race, class, and gender. The social relationships in the homes and communities of these young people transmit a specific set of messages that are unique to their gender and are in response to the anticipated roles they will face in the African-American home. (Contains 23 references.) (Author/SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED414287.htm
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Halperin, S., Ed. (1998). The Forgotten Half Revisited. American Youth and Young Families, 1988-2008. (ISBN: 1-887031-63-4). ED425275 Available from: American Youth Policy Forum, 1836 Jefferson Place, NW, Washington, DC 20036- 2505 ($15; summary: $2). You be able to order this document from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service. The 10 papers in this report review what the United States has accomplished for late-adolescents and young adults in the past decade since publication of "The Forgotten Half." The consensus from the 15 authors is that many developments have not been encouraging. "Today's Forgotten Half: Still Losing Ground" (Samuel Halperin), a review of demographic and economic data, paints a generally discouraging picture of noncollege youth losing ground on a host of social and economic indexes. "Public Opinion and the Youth of America" (Daniel Yankelovich) sees the balance among important trends shifting toward the negative in education, governmental responses, moral values, and public attitudes toward youth. "The Changing American Family" (Carol Emig) examines how conditions and circumstances have changed for the American family. "Communities: Powerful Resources for America's Youth" (Martin J. Blank, Carol Steinbach) highlights initiatives at the community level that are of positive consequence for improving the lives of The Forgotten Half. "Youth and School Reform: From the Forgotten Half to the Forgotten Third" (Jack Jennings, Diane Stark Rentner) reports that more students do not end their education after high school, but those left behind face a bleaker future. "Postsecondary Education: Student Success, Not Just Access" (Lawrence E. Gladieux, Watson Scott Swail) argues the key to success is completion of postsecondary studies. "Preparing Youth for the World of Work" (Thomas Bailey, Vanessa Smith Morest) concludes that no strategy or policy change has caused a broad, consistent national movement. "Ten Years of Youth in Service to America" (Shirley Sagawa) focuses on development of service opportunities for students and young people. "Reflect ions on a Decade of Promoting Youth Development" (Karen Pittman, Merita Irby) offers suggestions to strengthen the insights and thrust of the youth development movement. "On the Horizon: America's Youth Face the New Century" (Harold Howe II) describes two main tasks to complete the youth agenda. A summary of the report is included. (YLB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED425275

Hamrick, F. A.& Stage, F. K. (1995). Student Predisposition to College in High Minority Enrollment, High School Lunch Participation Schools. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper. ED391418 This study examined variables related to college predisposition among students of different ethnic groups who attended schools enrolling high percentages of minority students and high percentages of students participating in free or subsidized school lunch programs. It is based on a subset of data from the 1988 National Education Longitudinal Study, namely 739 African American, 727 Hispanic, 329 Anglo American, 120 Asian/Pacific Islander, and 62 Native American eighth graders. In the analysis of the overall eighth grade model, participation in school activities was significantly associated with background variables such as high family socioeconomic status, for example, and was itself a significant variable in modeling predisposition to attend college. However, in the aggregate model of eighth graders at high minority enrollment, high school lunch program participation schools, ethnicity was the only background variable significantly associated with school activities participation, and such participation proved to be insignificant in modeling college predisposition. Explained variance in college predisposition was highest for the model using data from eighth graders in general (50 percent) and lowest in the model using African American student data (21 percent). An appendix contains a list of variables and other statistical data. (Contains 16 references.) (MDM) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED391418

Harris, S. M. (1998). Factors Influencing Pursuit of Higher Education: Validating a Questionnaire. ED425689 You be able to order this document from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service. This paper explains the process used to validate the construct validity of the Factors Influencing Pursuit of Higher Education Questionnaire. This questionnaire is a literature-based, researcher-developed instrument which gathers information on the factors thought to affect a person's decision to pursue higher education. The questionnaire includes 10 scales: parental influence, extended family support, peer support, locus of control, relative functionalism, glass ceiling effect, financial aid concerns, influence of mentors, presence of role models, and general preparation for college. The questionnaire was completed by 434 college students enrolled in general studies classes at two southeastern universities in the spring of 1997. Results indicate that the questionnaire has a high degree of internal consistency. Reliability estimates for the 10 scales included in the questionnaire ranged from adequate to excellent. Overall, the questionnaire was determined to have satisfactory construct validity for use in further investigations of the factors which influence individuals to pursue higher education. The questionnaire is appended. (Contains 42 references.) (DB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED425689

Harrison, L.& Gardner, D. (March 1999). Summer Pre-College Programs for Students with Disabilities, 1999. ED434593 This document lists summer pre-college programs for students with disabilities who are seeking to prepare for college and to enhance their college performance. The programs listed here do not require students to have been admitted to the college nor do they include programs required as a precondition of acceptance into the regular academic program. Programs, which are listed by state and by institution and include a brief description of the program, as well as program cost and contact information, are as follows: Arizona (Life Development Institute, Phoenix; Tucson Educational Services); Florida (College Living Experience, Davie; Florida A&M University, Tallahassee); Georgia (Brenau University, Gainesville); Iowa (St. Ambrose University, Davenport); Massachusetts (Boston University; Landmark School, Prides Crossing); Michigan (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor); New York (Adelphi University, Garden City; Iona College, New Rochelle; Lynn University, Old Forge; New York Institute of Technology, Central Islip; and Rochester Institute of Technology); Ohio (Muskingum College, New Concord); Vermont (Landmark College, Putney); Washington (University of Washington, Seattle); and West Virginia (Marshall University, Huntington). (CH) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED434593

Head, R. B. P. L. (1999). High School Graduates Attending PVCC. ED438004 This study reports on the characteristics and academic performance of recent high school graduates attending Piedmont Virginia Community College (PVCC). The study found that the number of high school graduates in the PVCC service region increased by an average of 4.1% each year from 1994-99. The number of regional graduates is not a good predictor of enrollment at PVCC. An average of 330 (21.5%) of regional high school graduates enroll each year following graduation plus another 135 recent graduates from other high schools. The total number of recent graduates represent less than seven percent of the student body. Within four years of graduation, 35% or more of regional high school students enroll at PVCC. Service region graduates are more likely to require remediation and do not perform as well academically as other students. Report sections include: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Introduction; (3) High School Graduates within PVCC Service Region; (4) Service Region High School Graduates Attending PVCC; (5) Demographic Characteristics of Recent High School Graduates Attending PVCC; (6) College Characteristics of Recent High School Graduates Attending PVCC; (7) Academic Performance of Recent High School Graduates Attending PVCC; and (8) Conclusion. The appendix contains the RADDS/SAS program used to obtain data. Includes 17 tables and 12 figures. (RDG) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED438004

Heggoy, S. J.& Grant, D. F. (1995). Conversations with a Learning Disabilities Teacher and a School Counselor: Working as Partners. ED380974 Fourteen learning disabilities (LD) teachers and 17 counselors at 31 secondary schools completed a questionnaire concerning their roles in preparing students with learning disabilities for postsecondary education. The open-ended questionnaire covered the following topics: who has primary responsibility for providing transition services, what services are provided to all students including students with learning disabilities by both learning disabilities teachers and counselors, how frequently do learning disabilities teachers and counselors meet with one another concerning the needs of students with learning disabilities, and what are the major unmet needs of learning disabilities students. Findings indicated that 43 percent of the LD teachers said they had primary responsibility for providing postsecondary guidance and 24 percent of the counselors said they had primary responsibility. About half of both the learning disabilities teachers and counselors indicated that they met at least once or twice a month. Concerning identification of unmet needs for LD students, 71 percent of the LD teachers identified transition-related types of needs whereas only 18 percent of counselors identified transition needs. (Contains 11 references.) (DB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED380974

Hektner, J. (1994). When Moving Up Implies Moving Out: Rural Adolescent Conflict in the Transition to Adulthood. ED374949 This paper examines the influence of community context on the attitudes of rural and nonrural adolescents toward their own future geographic and social mobility. Part of a national sample in a longitudinal study of career development, the 1,060 subjects were public school students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 from 3 contrasting Illinois communities. Subjects completed questionnaires based on those used in the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS), and some also participated in the experience sampling method for obtaining self-reports on activities and moods. Some analyses were replicated using NELS data. Hypotheses were that rural adolescents would be more likely than their nonrural counterparts to have future residential preferences that would be incompatible with their career aspirations, and that the resulting conflict would lead to uncertainty and negative affect regarding the future. Questionnaire data revealed a greater prevalence among rural than among nonrural adolescents of a potential conflict between the perceived importance of staying close to parents and relatives and moving away from their area. Those adolescents expressing this potential conflict were more likely to indicate feeling empty, angry, and pessimistic about their futures. Compared to urban and suburban students, rural adolescents (particularly rural males) expressed more hesitancy about pursuing further education, more anger about their futures, and more worry and lower motivation when doing activities related to their future goals. Contains data tables, figures, and 16 references. (Author/SV) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED374949

Hellerman, S. B., Ed. (1994). Exploring Career Options. (ISSN: 1071-605X). ED375540 This newsletter theme issue offers advice to academically talented youth on exploring career options. It begins with an article titled "How To Think about Your Career When You Haven't Even Decided Where To Go to College." The article notes the hazards of early career choice and recognizes the career indecision often brought on by multipotentiality. Names and addresses of 51 organizations that can provide career information are supplied. An article then describes projects of several students participating in the 1994 Westinghouse Science Talent Search. A book review of "The Young Scientists" by Joseph Berger accompanies the article. Another article, "Mentorships and Other Hands-On Strategies for Career Exploration," examines the importance of mentorship, how to find a mentor, and other learning strategies such as shadowing and internships. The educational option of correspondence courses is explored, and several universities offering them are listed. The regular College Review Series describes Brown University (Rhode Island), based on perceptions of nine students enrolled there. The "Creative Minds Imagine" page includes a puzzle and poem. (JDD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED375540

Hellerman, S. B., Ed. (1994). Getting the Best Precollege Education. (ISSN: 1071-605X). ED375539 This theme issue of a newsletter for academically talented youth focuses on getting the best precollege education. It encourages students to take responsibility for their own learning by becoming aware of all the options their school offers; making use of them; supplementing and enriching the basic school curriculum; and participating in extracurricular activities. It offers advice on choosing a high school for those students who have that option, and recommends consideration of early entrance to college. A student describes her experience participating in the International Baccalaureate program. The advantages and disadvantages of participating in the Advanced Placement program are explored. An article then reviews the debate over ability grouping and cooperative learning, followed by comments by parents and students on this issue. Another article offers suggestions to help students keep their high standards under control, recognizing that high standards can be an invaluable source of motivation and inspiration but can also form a relentless inner critic that becomes a negative influence. The regular feature, "College Review Series," offers a review of Yale University (Connecticut) based on experiences of 11 students enrolled there. A book review and puzzle conclude the issue. (JDD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED375539

Hull, J. L. (1994). School-to-Life Planning: Broadening Rural Students' Horizons. ED377999 This report addresses issues related to the responsibility of public schools to prepare rural youth for life choices about careers, postsecondary education, and place of residence. A synthesis of current research literature, as well as the perceptions of rural educators and policymakers in the Northwest, explore some potential resolutions to the dilemmas. Background information is provided on the advantages and disadvantages of living in rural areas; the rural migration dilemma; rural student, parent, and counselor aspirations; demographic changes and their impact; financial and economic trends; and the importance of community ties to rural youth. A discussion of the role of rural schools focuses on their need to prepare students adequately both for being contributing citizens in their own communities and for leaving if they desire; schools must enable students to recognize that they have choices and empower them to make informed decisions. Special attention is directed towards the importance of developing practical programs for non-college-bound students. The report concludes that in rural areas, school issues are community issues, and urges that all components of the community be involved in adapting rural education systems to the changes occurring throughout the United States. An appendix delineates a range of community-based activities derived from rural education forums held in the northwestern United States. Contains 43 references. (RAH) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED377999
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_____. (1996). Intersegmental Articulation. ED425650 You be able to order this document from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service. This English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) journal periodically devotes entire issues to specific themes. The theme of this issue is "Intersegmental Articulation" (especially in California schools). Articles include: "Why Is ESL a Burning Issue?" (Robby Ching, Anne Ediger, Debbie Poole); "Challenges Facing California ESL Students and Teachers across the Segments" (Gari Browning); "The Elementary-Secondary Transition: Issues in Articulation" (Sara Fields, Susan Dunlap); "Articulation between Segments: Secondary to Postsecondary Programs" (Linda Sasser); "Noncredit Students in California Community Colleges: A Community at Risk" (Margaret Manson); "Passages between the Community College and the California State University" (Robby Ching, Sue McKee, Rebecca Ford); "ESL Students Entering the University of California" (Janet Lane, Donna Brinton, Melinda Erickson); "Articulation Agreements between Intensive ESL Programs and Postsecondary Institutions" (Bill Gaskill); "Secondary Education in California and Second Language Research: Instructing ESL Students in the 1990s" (Robin Scarcella); "The Challenge of Articulating ESL Courses in Postsecondary Education: Policy and Legislative Issues" (Kathryn Garlow); "Is Remediation an Articulation Issue?" (Denise Murray); "University of California Responses to the Needs of Students: 1983-1996" (Marianne Celce-Murcia, Tippy Schwabe); "Teaching Analytical Writing to ESL Students: UCLA/High School Collaboration?" (Faye Peitzman); "Articulation or Collaboration?" (Denise Murray); "Establishing Partnerships: The San Diego County ESL Articulation Group" (Anne Ediger); "Building Bridges: Articulating Writing Programs between Two- and Four-Year Colleges" (Kim Flachman, Kate Pluta); "Noncredit to Credit Articulation: The City College of San Francisco Model" (Sharon Seymour, Nadia F. Scholnick, Nina Gibson); "Adult School to Community College: The Fremont Adult School-Ohlone College Model" (Mark Lieu); "Articulation between a Private Language School and Other Academic Institutions: The Case of ESL Language Centers/San Diego" (Jim Scofield, Vince Burns); and "In Their Own Voices" (Margaret Loken). (MSE) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED425650

_____. (1997). Improving College Preparation in Ohio: A Total System Approach. ED410903 This document proposes a plan to significantly increase the number of fully prepared freshmen at Ohio's colleges and universities by the year 2001. The plan, prepared by the Ohio Secondary and Higher Education Remediation Advisory Commission, makes five recommendations: (1) communicate a consistent set of college-level expectations and articulate a clear college-readiness path for students; (2) begin promoting college readiness early in the educational process; (3) support and share successful teaching and learning strategies through a collaborative learning extension program; (4) target a percentage of each year's developmental funds toward collaborative programs that focus on college readiness; and (5) support development of a total system approach of the K-12 and higher education communities. The report supports these recommendations by defining the fundamental problem to be an educational system that identifies and remediates only after students have graduated from high school and entered college; by answering several key questions regarding developmental education; by listing benefits to be derived from the proposed plan; and by suggesting ways to use funding incentives to reduce developmental enrollments. Appendixes define terms, review data sources, summarize existing strengths of the state system, review experiences of other states, and list the names of interested persons. (CH) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED410903

_____. (1999). International Baccalaureate Diploma Program. Higher Education Update. ED435316 The International Baccalaureate Diploma Program has begun to attract attention as an alternative approach to enhancing the academic preparation of college-bound high school students. The rigorous, comprehensive, two- year curriculum offers eleventh- and twelfth-grade students the opportunity to take college-level coursework and exams while also fulfilling requirements of various international educational systems. The liberal arts program emphasizes theory, application, and service. Schools offering the program are part of an international organization that aims to meet the educational needs of geographically mobile students. Over 800 schools in 100 countries are authorized to offer the program; about 37 percent are in the United States. Since 1997 California has had a 17 percent increase in schools offering the program. Students must be highly motivated and have strong academic skills to participate. The curriculum is divided into higher-level and standard-level courses in six core academic areas: the student's primary language and literature; a foreign language; individuals and societies; experimental sciences; mathematics; and arts and electives. Standardized exams are criterion-referenced. Participating schools face significant costs and require commitments of time and resources from families. However, many feel the outcomes justify the costs. The report advocates expansion of the programs in California to target underserved communities. (MSE) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED435316

Imel, S. (1999). School-to-Work. Myths and Realities No. 4. ED435835 When the School-to-Work Opportunities Act (STWOA) was initiated in 1994, it was envisioned as a systematic effort to prepare young people for high- skill, high-wage careers and provide them with the academic instruction and foundation skills needed to pursue postsecondary education and lifelong learning. STWOA called for development of three main components in a school- to-work (STW) system: school-based learning, work-based learning, and connecting activities. Because of STW's emphasis on careers, many have erroneously assumed that STW is just about "getting jobs for kids" and have criticized STW because it fosters business involvement in education. However, national evaluation of STW has shown that college-bound and non- college-bound are about equally involved in the experiences promoted by STWOA. Evidence also shows that STW programs linked closely with business have positive results. Although supporters of the STW approach view it as a way to reorganize education, this idea has not had wide appeal. At the micro level, STW has served young people as an avenue to an education that is connected to a career. At the macro level, however, STWOA-funded efforts have served as the basis for some school restructuring efforts but have failed to make broad inroads into the educational and reform movement. (Contains 13 references.) (MN) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED435835
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_____. (1998). Knowledge & Know-How. Meeting Ohio's Skill Gap Challenge. ED420787 Available from: Ohio Business Roundtable, 41 South High St., Suite 2240, Columbus, OH 43215; phone: 614-469-1044. The Ohio Skill Gap Initiative was conducted to determine the following: (1) what foundational skillsand skill levelsdo entry-level employees need to succeed in today's workplace and (2) whether the students graduating from Ohio's public schools possess the foundational skills that will permit them to acquire the knowledge and "know-how" needed for successful entry into and advancement through the present and future workplace. The Ohio Skill Gap Initiative used ACT's "Work Keys" system to answer both of these questions. Jobs in ACT's national database that most closely matched the skilled entry-level jobs that will exist in Ohio's future economy were selected for the study. Data were gathered in four areas (applied mathematics, reading for information, applied technology, and locating information) through Work Keys assessments administered to 14,474 high school seniors at 119 schools. Findings were as follows: (1) Ohio has a significant skill gap; (2) college-bound students are well prepared for jobs requiring a high school education, but students who are not college bound are not; (3) jobs in scientific fields call for much higher skill levels than do clerical or customer-service jobs; (4) the skill gap is greatest where the skill is not included in the students' curriculum (applied technology and locating information); and (5) suburban and rural students showed higher skill levels than urban students. Recommendations were made for actions by educators, employers, parents, communities, and public officials. (KC) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED420787

Karpinski, S. H.& Earle, M. V., Ed. (April 1999). NCAA Guide for the College-Bound Student-Athlete. ED435281 This booklet is a guide for college-bound athletes as they select a college. An introduction by the executive director of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) notes the difficulty of achieving a career in athletics and the importance of the academic aspects of the college experience. Individual sections discuss the following topics: "recentered" Scholastic Assessment Test scores; academic eligibility standards to participate in intercollegiate athletics; the initial-eligibility clearinghouse procedure; financial aid; recruiting, the national letter of intent; professionalism; agents; drug testing; graduation rates; and questions to ask. (DB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED435281

Kaufman, P.& Chen, X. (June 1999). Projected Postsecondary Outcomes of 1992 High School Graduates. Working Paper Series. ED432929 This report uses data from the third follow-up of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 and the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study to project postsecondary outcomes of the high school class of 1992. Specifically, the study tracked, over a four-year period, the paths of college-qualified students who first enrolled in a four-year college or university in 1992-93. Major findings included: (1) low-income students and Black or Hispanic students were less likely than high-income students or White and Asian students to be at least minimally qualified for college; (2) there were relatively few differences among income groups in four-year persistence and attainment rates; (3) race-ethnicity was associated with persistence and attainment for college-qualified students independent of qualification level; and (4) approximately 33 to 34 percent of highly college-qualified Whites and Hispanics earned bachelor's degrees compared with 14 percent of similarly qualified Black students. Following an introduction, data on characteristics of graduates qualified for college and enrollment are presented. In the next section, tables and data summarize persistence, nondegree departure, degree attainment, individual characteristics associated with attainment and persistence, and student debt. Discussion of controlling- related variables and a summary complete the report. Appendices provide a glossary and methodology details. (DB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED432929

Kim, H. H.& Valadez, J. R. (1995). Reexamination of the Model Minority Stereotype: An Analysis of Factors Affecting Higher Education Aspirations of Asian American Students. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper. ED391417 This study explored the model minority stereotype by examining the differences between Asian American students and other racial groups in terms of higher education aspirations, academic achievement, and socioeconomic characteristics. It is based on subset of data from the 1988 National Education Longitudinal Study, namely 973 Asian American, 939 African American, 934 Latino, and 974 white 10th graders. The study compared student socioeconomic influences and numerous variables affecting academic aspiration and achievement. It concluded that unlike the generally-held perception, the achievement of Asian American students as a group is not shared by all Asian American students. Although Asian Americans as a group excelled over white, African American, and Latino students, higher educational level does not appear to lead to higher occupational status for Asian Americans, as it does for white Americans. The study also found that South Asians tended to have the highest academic achievement of all Asian American groups, followed by Chinese, Southeast Asians, Koreans, Filipinos, and Japanese. Parental expectations, self-concept, and vision appeared to be the most important factors affecting higher education aspiration, regardless of the racial background of the students. An appendix provides frequency distributions, regression models, and other statistical data. (Contains 39 references.) (MDM) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED391417

King, J. E. (1996). The Decision To Go to College: Attitudes and Experiences Associated with College Attendance Among Low-Income Students. ED398775 A survey investigated the attitudes and experiences that distinguish the low- income high school students who decide to attend college from those who do not. Data were gathered in a telephone survey of 900 seniors in the class of 1995 who took the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT); the primary sample was 300 of those students who reported family incomes under $20,000. Data included student characteristics (gender, race, native language), family income, parents' educational level, parents' occupations, SAT scores, post-high school plans, sources of college and financing information, academic self-confidence (in mathematics, science, writing), degree aspiration, influences in college decision- making, preferred college attributes, college preparation, sources of and plans for financing college, and college acceptances. Results are reported in narrative and tabular form. The study found that rigorous high school courses, high expectations of all students, and availability of college counseling and information were important elements in the decision to go to college. Many of the attitudes and educational experiences associated with four-year college attendance were not common to the low-income students. (MSE) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED398775

Klopf, G. J., Bowman, G. W., Bank Street College of Education., United States. Office of Economic Opportunity., & United States. Office of Education. (1967). Teacher education in a social context; a study of the preparation of school personnel for working with disadvantaged children and youth. New York,: Published for Bank Street College of Education by Mental Health Materials Center. Lc4091

Kowarsky, J. (1994). Is There a Place for Every Eligible Student in California Public Higher Education? AIR 1994 Annual Forum Paper. ED373648 High school transcripts and standardized college entrance examination test score results from approximately 6 percent of California's 1990 public high school graduates (n=13,641) were evaluated by University of California (UC) and California State University (CSU) college admissions officers as if they were records submitted by actual freshman applicants. Eligibility for college admission was defined as passing a proscribed series of college preparatory courses and meeting a minimum grade point average and minimum college entrance examination score. (UC also allows eligibility by test scores alone.) Results showed that eligibility rates among California public high school graduates have improved, with CSU eligibility rates changing from 27.5 percent in 1986 to 34.6 percent in 1990 and UC eligibility rates increasing from 9.1 percent in 1986 to 12.4 percent in 1990. Over the same time period, grade point average improved for all ethnic groups except Latinos. A broader sector of the population is gravitating toward a college preparatory curriculum and meeting eligibility requirements. Assuming that eligibility rates remain constant, larger high school graduating classes by the year 2006 generate close to 11,000 more UC eligible students. Enrollment projection models that carefully gauge each ethnic group's eligibility rate as well as their propensity to enroll are needed. Policy implications are discussed. (JDD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED373648

Krallman, D.& Holcomb, T. (1997). First-Year Student Expectations: Pre- and Post-Orientation. ED411731 This study sought to identify the academic, personal, and social expectations of incoming college freshmen and examine the effects of orientation programming on modifying unrealistic expectations held by some students. A total of 201 paid- deposit incoming freshmen at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, completed a 30- item survey questionnaire mailed to them in May, while 108 different freshmen at Miami completed the same survey after the freshman orientation program. The study found that many pre-orientation respondents had unrealistic academic, personal, and social expectations concerning their future college experience. This was especially true in such areas as expected grades, course difficulty, course content, need for outside help, self-discipline, and relationships with fellow students. Students surveyed after the orientation program tended to have more realistic expectations in many, but not all, areas. A copy of the questionnaire items and three-way analysis of variance results (ANOVA) are appended. (MDM) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED411731.htm
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Lam, K. H.& Others. (1994). Young Deaf Adults and the Transition from High School to Postsecondary Careers. Gallaudet Research Institute Occasional Paper 94-1. ED393268 This report presents results of follow-up surveys of students and parents who had been part of a 1986/87 study of transition experiences of deaf high school students. The report examines post-high school transition experiences including postsecondary education or employment outcomes. Most of the analyses are based on responses of 592 deaf youth and 101 parents. An introduction by Arthur N. Schildroth describes the original study, the follow-up surveys, and limitations. The second chapter, "Non-College-Bound Deaf Youth" by Kay H. Lam, discusses the demographic characteristics, employment status and types of jobs held, wages, sources of job acquisition, and satisfaction with employment of respondents who did not receive any postsecondary education. The third chapter, "Postsecondary Education: Its Impact and Outcomes" (Brenda W. Rawlings), reports data for the group receiving postsecondary education, including demographic characteristics; types of programs entered; reasons reported for matriculating at a particular program; subject majors; and relationship of their postsecondary education to employment. Chapter 4, "Rehabilitation and the Transition of Young Deaf Adults" (Arthur N. Schildroth), concentrates on the involvement of state offices of vocational rehabilitation (VR) in terms of whether and how often VR services were provided, kinds of services provided, satisfaction of respondents with VR assistance, and relationship of parental transition concerns to the actual provision of VR services. Chapter 5, "Relationships between Academic Performance on an Achievement Test and Later Postsecondary Outcomes" (Debra E. Rose), studies correlations between high school achievement test scores and certain high school practices (e.g., tracking) and between test scores and later postsecondary outcomes (e.g., employment). It also relates test scores to the presence of additional disabilities. Chapter 6, "School and Demographic Predictors of Transition Success: A Longitudinal Assessment" (Thomas E. Allen), presents a model for estimating the likelihood of transition "success" for individuals with specific educational and demographic characteristics. (Individual chapters contain references.) (DB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED393268

Levesque, K., Lauen, D., Teitelbaum, P., Alt, M., &Librera, S. (2000). Vocational Education in the United States: Toward the Year 2000. Statistical Analysis Report. ED437583 The National Center for Education Statistics conducted a comprehensive analysis of the current context of vocational education (VE), employer perspectives on VE, trends in secondary and postsecondary VE, the academic preparation of students participating in VE, relevant school reform efforts, and VE students' transitions after high school. Among the main findings of the analysis were: (1) most employers of employees who had participated in work-based learning reported that those employees were superior to comparable new employees in terms of productivity and attitude; (2) high school students' participation in VE generally declined between 1982-1994; (3) the academic preparation of high school students participating in VE increased in 1982-1994; (4) vocational concentrators had lower overall rates of postsecondary completion than their peers; (5) vocational concentrators were more likely to be in the labor force 2 years after graduation than their college preparatory peers were; and (6) vocational concentrators and students completing general coursework in high school had similar labor market outcomes 10 years after graduation from high school. (Appendixes constituting approximately 50% of this report contain the following: 116 standard error tables; data sources and technical notes; and glossary. (Contains 37 references and 161 tables/figures.) (MN) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED437583

Lowe, G. S.& Others. (1997). Alberta High School Graduate Survey, 1996. Report of Research Findings. School- Work Transitions Project, Report 97-1. (ISBN: 0-7732-5206-1). ED409827 This study of Alberta (Canada) grade 12 students examines educational achievements, further education plans, perceptions of the relevance of high school education, career goals, work experiences, and acquisition of work-related skills, concluding that: (1) there is a complex linkage between secondary and post-secondary education and between education and employment; (2) demographic and socioeconomic characteristics have a major impact on educational attainment and plans; (3) female students have higher achievement levels than male students; (4) attitude is a key factor in goal attainment; (5) costs are perceived as a barrier to educational goals; (6) students acquire a variety of job skills through high school courses, work experience programs, paid jobs, and volunteer work; and (7) students undervalue the job relevance of core academic skills. Report data tables and analyses are organized under the following headings: research methodology; socio-demographic and personal characteristics; educational status, achievement, preferences, and plans; evaluating high school education; work experience and plans; acquisition of employability skills in school and work. A copy of the 1996 Alberta High School Graduate Questionnaire is appended. (CH) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED409827
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_____. (1994). Membership Projections, 1994 through 1999 and Student Counts at Selected Intervals from Birth to College Entrance. South Carolina Schools. ED390884 Membership projections, which are calculated using average daily membership in conjunction with cohort survival procedure, are produced annually in South Carolina to give insight into trends within the state and individual school districts. By the 1998-99 school year, average daily membership for kindergarten through grade 12 in South Carolina public schools is projected to reach 660,900, an increase of about 32,800 (5.2%) over the 1992-93 level. From 1988-89 to 1992- 93, the average increase has been about 3,800 students per year. Increases are expected at the elementary and high school levels, with a leveling off in the middle schools during the next 6 years. It is expected that the membership of 58 districts will increase and that of 33 will decline. Data also indicate that the percent of school completers entering college increased from about 44% in 1982 to 55% in 1992. (Contains 7 figures, 13 tables, and 9 references.) (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED390884.htm

_____. (1996). Migrant Parent's Resource Guide to Understanding the Educational System: Secondary Level (7-12). ED395744 This resource guide assists migrant parents of secondary school students (grades 7-12) in understanding the educational system. The guide presents a compilation of information from an array of books, manuals, school documents, and ideas from migrant practitioners. The introduction overviews the Texas State Migrant Education Program, including successful efforts undertaken by the migrant education program, the seven areas of focus of the migrant education program, the identification of migrant students, the role of school personnel, steps for parents to take in addressing a concern, and information on the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1994. The second section includes explanations and general information regarding permanent cumulative records, academic achievement records, student assessment, progress reports, report cards, grade requirements, grade classification, high school graduation programs, subject courses, promotion and alternative programs to social promotion, and alternative means of credit accrual. The third section overviews bilingual education, including required programs for students of limited English proficiency, definitions of bilingual education and English as a Second Language (ESL), program goals and features, language categories, entry and placement criteria, and exit criteria. The fourth section covers postsecondary education, including degree options, financial assistance and scholarships specifically for migrant students, educational expenses, colleges and college entrance exams, and information specifically for college bound students. The remainder of the guide describes the New Generation System, an interstate information network for education and health care professionals serving migrant youth; the Texas Migrant Student Transfer Packet System; and late entry and early withdrawal policies. Includes a list of educational terms with Spanish translations. (LP) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED395744.htm

_____. (1998). Missouri's Guide to Advanced Placement Acceptance Policies. A Listing of Advanced Placement Exams, Test Scores, Credit Hours Granted, and Courses Satisfied. ED424246 This publication lists information about the Advanced Placement Acceptance policies of institutions of higher education in Missouri. With colleges and universities listed alphabetically, the document serves as a guide to high school students who can determine the scores required on the Advanced Placement Examinations of the College Entrance Examinations Board for acceptance for college credit, the credit hours granted, and the institutional courses satisfied. This publication reflects the most current institutional policies regarding advanced placement for 67 institutions. The mailing address and a contact person are given for each institution. (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED424246.htm

McCluskey, E., Chelewski, R., Crowley, T., &Lee, D. (1997). Small College + Small Communities + Industry: Share Our Strategies for Success. ED420473 Established in 1991, the Northern and Eastern Maine Tech Prep/School-to- Work Consortium unites 28 high schools, 7 regional technology centers, 2 technical colleges, and the University of Maine system. The consortium represents educators and employers in Maine's three most northerly counties and has facilitated the change from a traditional curriculum poorly serving non-college bound students to the hands-on tech prep curriculum. Staff development has been a major factor in this effort's success, combined with employer input, formal articulation agreements, and the introduction of technology into the classroom. The consortium is divided geographically into six partnerships. Workshops attended by teachers and technical college faculty are held within each partnership, and teachers have developed networking support groups that meet monthly for roundtable discussions. The consortium has developed 121 competency-based articulation agreements, with Northern Maine Technical College (NMTC) being the lead institution. The "general program" has been eliminated in all consortium high schools, with about a third having a clearly defined tech prep program. This paper includes a list of NMTC courses involved in competency-based articulation agreements and the consortium budget. An attachment provides an activity plan that lists the consortium's 12 goals with related objectives and comments. (SV) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED420473.htm

McCormick, A. C. (1997). Changes in Educational Aspirations after High School: The Role of Postsecondary Attendance and Context. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper. ED415808 This study used longitudinal data from the High School and Beyond study to examine how individuals' educational expectations change after high school, especially as related to postsecondary education. Data were from a nationally representative sample of high school seniors in 1980 and follow-up four years later. The dependent variable was students' expectation of amount of schooling. Independent variables included demographic characteristics, occupational expectations, parental support, duration of college plans, high school preparation, academic ability, high school grades, type of postsecondary institution attended, institutional selectivity, first enrollment as a full- or part-time student, and whether postsecondary enrollment was immediate or delayed after high school. Analysis indicated that change in educational expectations reflects two underlying dynamics: resilience, which contributes to stability of expectations; and isomorphism, which motivates adaptation. Among the specific findings were: any form of engagement in postsecondary education maintained or increased bachelor's degree expectations (though this was significantly less for students who attended two-year institutions); early expectations retained an independent effect; delayed entry and part-time attendance exhibited independent, depressant effects on educational expectations; women were less likely to maintain high expectations; and students at highly selective institutions were most likely to aspire to completing a graduate or professional degree. (Contains 41 references.) (DB) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED415808.htm

McDonough, P. M.& Others. (1994). Competitive Advantage for Sale: Private College Counselors and the Students Who Use Them. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper. ED375730 This study examined characteristics of independent educational consultants, who provide a new and rapidly growing service, as well as characteristics of their clients who use these consultants in their college search process. The study used data from the Consultant Survey, which was mailed to 317 independent educational consultants of whom 157 returned surveys. The study also used data from the Student Survey, a large national survey of first-time freshmen with a total 1993 sample of 296,828 freshmen from over 600 institutions. Of these, nearly 3 percent (n=8,029) had used a private consultant. Analysis of the consultant data found that consultants: are mostly white and female; most have masters degrees; have high school or college work experience (though only 15 percent have worked in college admissions); are located in the Northeast, California, or the Midwest; visit a college campus about every 6 days; and charge by units of service. A college counseling package cost an average of $950, and the consultants' average hourly charge was $86. Data on consultants' clients indicate that they: tend to be advice seekers; usually come from privileged families; are usually white and female; more often attend private high schools; and tend to file more than five college applications. Predictors of consultant service use were father's career, having had remedial work in math, and parents' marital status (students with widowed or divorced parents were more likely to seek consultant services). Includes 10 tables. (Contains 14 references.) (JB) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED375730.htm

McDonough, P. M.& Others. (1997). College Choice as Capital Conversion and Investment: A New Model. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper. ED403785 This paper presents a model of college choice that suggests that students' choice of college can be related to perceived "capital conversion" benefits. The model was tested on an evenly distributed sample (n=22,109) of students; one group attending elite colleges (with average freshman Scholastic Assessment Test scores of 1200 or higher) and the other attending less-selective colleges. Data for the 40 variables explored in the study were drawn from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) 1994 Freshman Survey. Descriptive analyses provided a profile of elite college students, and regression analyses identified the variables most strongly associated with attendance at highly selective institutions. The study findings support a pattern suggesting that students attending elite schools base future expectations on cultural capital, while those at non-elite schools base expectations on economic capital. Table 1 lists student descriptive statistics, and Table 2 provides standardized regression coefficients for the four selective college choice models. Appendices list elite (non- military) colleges in the CIRP database and provide an outline of the Cultural Capital College Choice Multivariate Model used in the study. (Contains approximately 50 references.) (CH) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED403785.htm

McGrath, G. (1995). Transitioning Students Identified as Seriously Emotionally Disturbed from High School to Adult Living: A Collaborative Project between the West Hartford Board of Education and the State of Connecticut Social Service Agencies. ED384159 This report describes a pilot project of the West Hartford (Connecticut) Public Schools to help high school graduates who are seriously emotionally disturbed (SED) to successfully transition to community living and to employment. Program services include assessment and planning before graduation as well as support services after beginning college or employment. The collaborative effort involves cost sharing among four school districts and Connecticut's state departments of rehabilitation, education, and mental health. Contents of the report cover: the program rationale; program objectives, types of services currently being provided to targeted high school graduates, agencies and sources of support available to the young adult, outcomes for the first year of this transition project, and results of a follow-up study 6 months after termination of program services. (SW) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED384159.htm

McLaughlin, D.& Others. (1995). Private Schools in the United States: A Statistical Profile, 1990-91. Statistical Analysis Report. (ISBN: 0-16-045470-0). ED379360 This report is based on the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) of 1987-88 and 1990-91 and is designed to provide a broad picture of private schools in the United States. The SASS collects data on only a sample of private schools, but collects a much richer picture of each participating school than does the Private School Universe Survey, a supplement to the Common Core of Data. In 1990-91, the SASS found that there were approximately 24,690 private elementary and secondary schools in the United States, serving an estimated 4,673,878 students in kindergarten through grade 12. This suggests that nearly one-quarter of the schools in the nation are private, and that 1 out of every 10 students are in private schools. Findings from the SASS are presented in sections on: (1) characteristics of private schools as units; (2) characteristics of students; (3) characteristics of teachers and principals; (4) educational goals of teachers and principals, their perceptions of school climate, and rates of graduation and college attendance; and (5) descriptive profiles by religious or other affiliation. Ten figures and 44 figures present survey findings. Two appendixes contain tables of standard errors and technical notes. (Contains 31 references.) (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED379360.htm

McLure, G. T., Boatwright, M., McClanahan, R., &McLure, J. W. (1998). Trends in High School Mathematics Course Taking and Achievement by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Class, 1987-1997. ED423333 The purpose of this study was to examine patterns with regard to six advanced high school mathematics courses 12th-grade students who took the American College Testing (ACT) assessment had taken between 1987 and 1997. Differences in performance on the ACT mathematics test were studied with respect to mathematics courses taken, gender, race/ethnicity, and family income. Also studied was how mathematics achievement varied by the number of mathematics courses taken. Five separate 10% systematic samples of ACT- tested 12th graders were selected in graduating classes as follows: (1) 1987, 50,779 students; (2) 1990, 52,076 students; (3) 1993, 56,749 students; (4) 1996, 57,775 students; and (5) 1997, 61,610 students. The evidence suggests that, overall, college-bound 12th graders are increasing mathematics course taking, and that the more mathematics courses students take, the higher their ACT mathematics scores. Students with higher course- taking averages tend to have higher ACT mathematics scores. Not all groups are increasing their mathematics course-taking at the same rate. Females, Blacks, Mexican Americans, and American Indian/Alaskan Natives made greater gains than others between 1987 and 1996. Students from families in the lower income level made some gains in the number of advanced mathematics courses taken, but such gains were more modest than the gains of those in the middle and higher groups. Mathematics course-taking accounted for most of the explained variance in students' achievement on the ACT mathematics test, regardless of the subgroup studied. (Contains 8 tables and 11 references.) (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED423333.htm

McPherson, M. S.& Schapiro, M. O. P. L. (1999). Reinforcing Stratification in American Higher Education: Some Disturbing Trends. ED440578 This report examines the decade of change in the U.S. system of finance for higher education, which has resulted in a set of programs and policies that are highly responsive to the demands of middle- and upper-income families for help but which are less well equipped to respond to the needs of lower-income families for assistance with their college investments. This paper documents this trend and examines the relationship between financing trends and trends in the enrollment patterns of U.S. high school students (e.g., college access and college choice). The paper also comments on the political economy of the developments being documented (e.g., forces that appear to be leading public policy in the directions identified and circumstances that might produce a different, and perhaps more favorable, outlook for financing policy). The paper concludes that, in most circumstances, when colleges and universities get more revenue, the result is that they do more social good. It claims that the intrinsic benefits of college to students are of at least as much importance as the gain in relative position that accrues from college education. (Contains 14 references.) (SM) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED440578.htm

Meyers, R. (1998). Uninterrupted Sustained Silent Reading. ED418379 A study investigated the effect Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) has had on literacy at Estancia High School in California which recently implemented an SSR program. It also examined the role SSR has on language development, comprehension, vocabulary, student attitudes, and its corollary consequence on the development of reading habits. A survey of 22 students taught by the researcher and currently participating in the high school program supported both the positive and negative conclusions formed about SSR19 of the students said they read most or all of the time during the established reading period. In a further survey at the school, 54 out of 90 students said they read most of the time when told to read silently for 20 minutes during class. Similar results were seen with respect to reading habits. Most students felt they read a little more since the SSR program was introduced; however, only 53% of the students surveyed want the school to continue the program. It is recommended that the SSR program be continued, since SSR gives students practice at reading and in experiencing different writing styles, which can help develop writing skills. The program provides skills that are critical in developing educated, college-bound students. (Contains a list of 14 recommendations and a 37-item bibliography.) (NKA) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED418379.htm

Michaud, B. (1994). SAT Results for WCPSS 1994 Graduates. Testing Bulletin. ED381546 After 3 years of dramatic gains, the average Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores for the Wake County (North Carolina) Public Schools stayed essentially level for 1994 graduates. The scores did reflect a one point drop in the average total score, which is not considered significant. The leveling off matches a similar trend for the entire state. Wake County's average SAT score places it above the state's average scores, and above many states nationwide. When only states for which SAT scores are available for at least 40% of graduating seniors are considered, Wake County scores above Oregon, which is in first place. Ten tables and three figures illustrate test results and comparative information for the rest of the state. (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED381546.htm

Mickens, F. N. (1994). It Doesn't Have To Be This Way: A Handbook on How To Create a Positive Environment in Our Schools. ED383102 This handbook describes how a New York City high school transformed itself into a model school. Boys and Girls High School is located in Bedford-Stuyvesant, one of the city's toughest neighborhoods. Over the period 1986-94, the school experienced increases in school attendance, the graduation rate, the number of college-bound students, the number of regents-endorsed diplomas, and enrollment. In 15 chapters, the principal describes his philosophy and administrative practices in the following areas: providing effective leadership, building teamwork, providing student incentive programs and in-house academic options, encouraging parent involvement, conducting perimeter patrols and ensuring school safety, creating a positive and orderly environment, managing holidays, preventing student fights, enforcing discipline policies, and strengthening community relations. The principal maintains that students want and need an orderly school environment; this provides the basis for student searches, a dress code, and a strict discipline policy. Effective leadership also means being a visible leader, encouraging parent involvement, and providing student incentives. (LMI) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED383102.htm

Minke, A. (1996). A Review of the Recent Changes in the Scholastic Aptitude Test I: Reasoning Test. ED397092 The Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) has been designed to test developed verbal and mathematics reasoning abilities of college-bound students, primarily high school juniors and seniors. For almost a decade there has been a research and development process to evaluate and change the entire SAT program. These changes were implemented in the SAT I: Reasoning Test in content and administration changes in April 1994 and scale recentering in April 1995. As of October 1995, a technical manual for the SAT I had not been published, but extensive research on the SAT I has been reported. The SAT I is normed on the 1990 reference group of 1,052,000 scores from 35 editions from October 1988 through June 1990. Field trials of the new test involved 162,692 high school juniors. By modeling the new test using item response theory, it has been estimated that the reliability of the new test is comparable to the old one, if not better. Definitive studies have not been done on test validity but research has suggested that recentering the scale has improved its predictive validity. Pains were taken in the test improvement process to ensure that the new test was not easier than the old one, even though mean test scores "rose." It could be said that changes to the SAT were not only justified but sorely needed to serve the test taking population adequately. Research on the effects of the new test specifications is needed, especially for changes in the mathematics section, that occurred after the field studies. (Contains 18 references.) (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED397092.htm

Misko, J. (1999). Transition Pathways: What Happens to Young People When They Leave School. ED433427 Australian young people take five major transition pathways when they reach the end of compulsory schooling: compulsory to postcompulsory school, school-to-university/higher-education, school-to-vocational education and training, apprenticeship/traineeship, and school-to-work. In 1997, 97.2 percent were retained to Year 10; in Year 11, 84.4 percent; and in Year 12, 71.8 percent. Students from private schools and managerial and professional family backgrounds had higher retention rates for Year 12. More than one- third of Year 12 completers in 1996 went to university by the following year. Almost a quarter of those who completed Year 11 and 12 in 1996 and more than a third of Year 10 completers went on to technical and further education in 1997. Apprentices/trainees were more likely to come from skilled and clerical family backgrounds and less likely to come from rural areas. More than a quarter of Year 12 completers in 1996 did not go on to further education (FE); about 10 percent were unemployed; the others worked. Almost three-quarters of Year 11 completers did not go on to FE; of these, over one-quarter were unemployed. Over two-thirds of Year 10 completers did not go on to FE; of these, almost a fifth were unemployed. Year 12 completers were less likely to be unemployed, but their labor market or training success was heavily influenced by socioeconomic and achievement factors. Literacy and numeracy achievement was strongly linked to Year 12 completion. Risk factors associated with early school leaving are socioeconomic family background, parental educational levels, and English- speaking background. (Contains 47 references.) (YLB) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED433427.htm

Mooney, D. (1996). You Can Go to College. ED396474 This paper offers advice to high school students with learning disabilities and their parents regarding choice of a college and personal preparation for college. Three levels of college support programs are described: minimal (in which general academic support services and developmental classes are available); moderate (in which the program for students with disabilities is coordinated and students are completely mainstreamed); and intensive (with a specific developmental component, a self-advocacy component, and specialized counseling). The program at the University of the Ozarks (Arkansas) is described as an example of a college offering an intensive support program. Program factors that students should look for to address specific weaknesses in reading, written expression, and mathematics are discussed. High school students are also urged to prepare for college by: (1) learning to get up on time; (2) improving time management skills; (3) practicing self-discipline; (4) developing career goals; (5) learning to type; (6) taking as many math courses as possible; and (6) writing something every day. Appendices list suggested resources. (DB) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED396474.htm

Moss, G. (1995). The Effects of Coaching on the ACT Scores of African-American Students. ED399265 Interest in the effectiveness of test coaching has prompted many studies, almost all of which have been directed toward coaching's effect on results of the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT). The focus of this research was to investigate whether preparation for the American College Test (ACT) provided by professional coaches would raise the scores of African-American students. Subjects were 19 African-American high school students working as summer law interns (a special summer program conducted by St. Louis, Missouri Public Schools) who participated in pretest and posttest. Instruction was provided by professional coaches from the "Focus on Learning" tutoring company in a 6-week program on Saturdays. The average increase among these students was 1.34 points. Consideration of other variables made it apparent that the majority of the increase could be attributed to the coaching they received. Although the increase was modest, it might have made a difference in obtaining admission for the students who derived the most benefit. The study shows that, with proper intervention, the ACT scores of African-American students can be increased. (Contains 1 table and 18 references.) (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED399265.htm

Myers, D. E.& Moore, M. T. (1997). The National Evaluation of Upward Bound. Summary of First-Year Impacts and Program Operations. Executive Summary. ED414848 This monograph presents the executive summary of a study evaluating the first- year impacts and program operations of Upward Bound, a federal pre-college program designed to help economically disadvantaged students complete high school and gain access to post-secondary education. In 1996, 45,000 students participated in the program through projects offered by 601 grantees; the average cost per student was $3,800. Most students enter Upward Bound in ninth or tenth grade and participate in a multi-year program of weekly activities during the school year and an intensive summer program that simulates college. The study found two major impacts of Upward Boundfirst, participating students expect to complete more schooling than similar students not in the program and, second, the program has a positive impact on the number of academic courses participants take. Other findings included: students who benefited most initially were those with lower academic expectations; Hispanic students appeared to benefit most from the program among racial/ethnic groups examined; the program showed no impact in the first year on participants' high school grades; many students left the program in the first year; and most Upward Bound projects focused on providing a rich and challenging program. (DB) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED414848.htm

Myers, D. E.& Schirm, A. L. (1997). The National Evaluation of Upward Bound. The Short-Term Impact of Upward Bound: An Interim Report. ED414849 This report on the short-term effects of Upward Bound, a federal pre-college program designed to help economically disadvantaged students complete high school and gain access to post-secondary education, presents interim findings from the Longitudinal Effectiveness Study of Upward Bound based on data on approximately 2,800 students during the first year or two of high school. At present, there are more than 600 Upward Bound projects; they offer intensive instructional programs and are usually hosted by 2-year and 4-year colleges. The study found that: (1) Upward Bound has early positive impacts on students' educational expectations and academic course-taking; (2) students with lower educational expectations initially benefit more from Upward Bound; (3) Hispanic students initially benefit most from Upward Bound; and (4) many students (about 37 percent) who enter Upward Bound leave the program during the first year. After an executive summary and introductory chapter, Chapter 2 presents data on persistence in Upward Bound, and on the Upward Bound services offered. Chapter 3 details short-term impacts of Upward Bound, including the average impact of the program and groups benefitting most. The concluding chapter summarizes findings, compares them to previous findings, and draws implications for program improvement. Eight appendices provide additional detail on research methodology, data interpretation, and statistics. (Contains 18 references.) (DB) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED414849.htm
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Mallonee, S. A. (1996). NCAA Guide for the College-Bound Student-Athlete, 1996-97. ED407915 This booklet provides a guide for college-bound student-athletes on eligibility requirements for participation in intercollegiate athletics, financial aid, recruiting, and related issues. It provides National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I and II academic eligibility requirements, questions and answers about core-course requirements, and standardized test score requirements. The booklet provides information on the Initial-Eligibility Clearinghouse, financial aid, and NCAA Division I, II, and III recruiting, including contact and evaluation periods for 1996-97. It also explains the National Letter of Intent in regard to school selection, professionalism, agents, drug testing, and graduation rates. Questions that prospective student-athletes should ask of school officials during their recruitment are listed. (MDM) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED407915

Marable, P. (1995). Feedback. Former Student Survey: Four Years of Graduates. Results from Surveys of AISD Students. ED393920 Since 1991, the Austin Independent School District (AISD) (Texas) has asked former students about their public school experiences and present activities. The Former Student Survey helps the district determine its effectiveness in meeting its objective that all students who exit the Austin schools will be able to perform successfully in their subsequent endeavors. High school graduates of the classes of 1990 through 1993 were asked what they were doing, which courses were most useful, and how prepared they felt for their current activities. Samples consisted of a random selection from each class, representing about 20 to 35% of each class, and ranging from a low of 2,768 from the class of 1992 to 2,947 from the class of 1990. About one half to three fourths of former students attended schools of higher learning, and about one third to two thirds were employed full- or part-time. About one third were in school full-time and working part-time. Relatively few (5% or less) entered the armed services. English was the course most often selected as the most useful course, with mathematics selected as the second most useful. Most students (69 to 75%) in all graduating classes strongly agreed or agreed that they were adequately prepared for their present activities. (Contains five figures and three references.) (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED393920

Marcus, M. (1995 ). An English Classroom-Based Approach for Connecting College-Bound Sophomores to the World of Work. This practicum was designed to help college-bound sophomores make connections between English class and the world of work so that they could make informed decisions about college and career choices. The target population was 90 honors- level 10th grade English students on an interdisciplinary team. The setting was a predominately middle class, suburban high school. The writer used a combination of strategies to connect students to the workforce. She designed a shadowing program matching students for a day with career professionals, developed an employability skills portfolio model, organized an in-school Career Day, and arranged for students to access software matching their interests to college options. Analysis of the data revealed students' ability to cite career choices based on reasons other than prestige and media stereotypes. Additionally, they were able to describe realistically a typical day in the career of their choice, and to document at least eight skills necessary to success in English and success in the workplace. Appendices include selected course materials, parents' survey, and sample interview questions. Contains 26 references. (Author)

Martin, C. (1996). Institutional Research and Student Recruitment or How Do Institutions of Higher Education Know What Attracts Students to Their Doors? Market Research Can Help. AIR 1996 Annual Forum Paper. ED397744 This study investigated the institutional characteristics considered by 774 Australian first-year students attending the University of South Australia in their choice of this university. A self-administered survey instrument asked respondents to rate their attitudes on a Likert scale regarding their reasons for selecting this university. Results indicated that students ranked career preparation, academic program, distance from home, academic reputation, the quality of the school's research program, and library resources as strongly affecting their choice. The role of parents was not rated highly, although students used them as a source of information. The primary source of information that they used to find out about the university was the South Australian Tertiary Admissions Center guide. (Contains 29 references.) (Author/CK) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED397744

Mason, D. (1996). Life after "ChemCom": Do They Succeed in University-Level Chemistry Courses? ED393693 Chemistry in the Community ("ChemCom") is a high-school level chemistry text developed by the American Chemical Society (ACS) designed for the college-bound student. The purpose of this study was to identify students enrolled in a university-level chemistry course designed for the nonscience major who had experienced the ChemCom curriculum in high school and to evaluate their success. Participants (N=685) from two summer courses (1993 and 1995) were classified into six groups: no prior chemistry, first-year ChemCom, first-year regular, first- year honors, second-year (Chem II), and advanced placement (AP) students. Final course averages for each group were calculated and compared. All groups of students on the average were successful in completion of the course (i.e. had averages above 66%). Results of a t-test indicated statistically significant differences occurred at an alpha level of 0.05, but the ChemCom group did not exhibit a statistically significant difference. Other findings included a decline in enrollment over the experimental period, especially for the ChemCom group. (Author) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED393693

May, G.& Braswell, J. (1994). SAT I Test Development Procedures for Students with Disabilities. ED375544 This paper describes the principles followed by the Educational Testing Service (New Jersey) in adapting, for students with various disabilities, the Scholastic Assessment Test I (SAT I), the commonly used test for college admissions that assesses verbal and mathematical reasoning. The paper notes that developers of standard tests should be informed early in the test construction process that the test will likely be adapted for use with students having disabilities. Examples are offered of ways that questions in both the math and verbal sections can be originally presented that make them easier to adapt later. Specific guidelines are offered for developing the SAT I in five formats: (1) cassette, (2) script, (3) braille, (4) regular type, and (5) large type. The paper stresses that the development of special versions of the SAT I for students with disabilities involves considerable attention to detail, an understanding of the populations being served, and ample time for preparing and fine-tuning the adapted materials. Appendices include a list of symbols and indicators in the Nemeth Code, and some examples of adaptations for both the verbal and mathematics sections. (DB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED375544

McBroom, L. W.& Others. (1994). The Transition to College for Students with Visual Impairments. Technical Report. ED381982 This monograph considers aspects of the visually impaired student's transition from high school to college and his successful adjustment at college, reports on a forum of experts addressing these issues, and summarizes results of surveys of successful students and college administrators. The first chapter is on making plans to attend college and covers such suggestions as beginning early, preparing both socially and academically, and dealing with admissions testing. Classroom accommodations are covered in the second chapter, including testing accommodations, computers, science laboratories, and transition programs and resources. The discussion of the research forum identifies information helpful to know before college, guidelines of rehabilitation agencies, and research suggestions. The report of the survey focuses on development of two survey instruments to identify, from the points of view of 102 successful students and 66 administrators, the skills, knowledge, and needed steps required of students with visual impairments. Highlights of the student survey address educational environments, college demographics, reading methods, work history, extracurricular activities, mobility, services and equipment, college preparation, and problems while attending college. Highlights of the college administrator survey cover time spent on special needs, admission standards, effect of the Americans with Disabilities Act, services provided by colleges, students' use of services, and source of payment for services. A qualitative analysis of survey responses and a summary complete the monograph. (Contains 80 references.) (DB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED381982

McCarthy, A. R. (2000). Healthy Teens: Facing the Challenges of Young Lives. A Practical Guide for Parents, Caregivers, Educators, and Health Professionals. Third Edition. (ISBN: ISBN-0-9621645-5-0 Page Length: 278). ED439117 This monograph is a guide to teen development and the world of 11-18 year olds in contemporary America. It provides practical suggestions to parents and other concerned adults as they guide children through adolescence. The 12 chapters are: (1) "Healthy Bodies, Healthy Minds"; (2) "Teens, Families, and Schools"; (3) "Teens and Mental Health"; (4) "Teen Sexuality"; (5) "Teens: An Active Life Style"; (6) "Teens: Substance Abuse"; (7) "The Answer to Substance Abuse"; (8) "Teens and Sexual Harassment"; (9) "Teen Safety and Crime Prevention"; (10) "Teens and Violence"; (11) "Teens and Life After High School"; and (12) "Teens and a Better Community." The four appendixes present: "A Load Off the Teachers' Backs: Coordinated School Health Programs"; "The Michigan Model for Comprehensive School Health"; "Making the Grade: A Guide to School Drug Prevention"; and "When Your Adolescent is in Trouble." (Contains 21 references/resources.) (SM) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED439117

Morse, S. C., Ed. (1995). Scholarships and Financial Assistance. School Year 95-96. ED417059 This directory provides general information for students, parents, and counselors about college options for migrant youth. In addition to scholarships available through specific colleges, additional scholarship sources are listed as examples of the variety of funding available. "Planning for College during High School" lists steps to take each year in grades 9-12. "Steps for Applying to College" includes general guidelines for selecting a school, applying for admission, securing references, and following up. Approximate college costs for living at home and on campus are given for community colleges and 4-year public and private schools. Other resources include lists of 17 minority recruitment contacts at private colleges, 8 colleges offering summer college-readiness programs for high school students, and alternative college programs. Types of financial assistance are defined. Other issues addressed include: how to apply for financial aid, residency documentation, schools with high graduation rates, and scholarships offered by special interest programs. Contact information is given for 18 colleges. (SAS) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED417059

Morse, S.& Hammer, P. C. (1998). Migrant Students Attending College: Facilitating Their Success. ERIC Digest. ED423097 Available from: ERIC/CRESS, P.O. Box 1348, Charleston, WV 25325-1348 (free). This Digest discusses common stumbling blocks that prevent migrant students from attending and completing college and examines ways that colleges and universities can help migrant students succeed. The basic steps of completing high school with adequate college preparation, applying to college and being accepted, obtaining financial aid, and progressing through college to graduation are complicated for migrant students by frequent moves, poverty, gaps in previous schooling, and language barriers. Other obstacles include recent antiaffirmative action laws, inadequate immigration documentation, and the pressures of family financial need. Migrant postsecondary participation is encouraged by high school and college counseling, access to financial aid, and the support of parents and educators. Programs promoting college preparation for migrant students include secondary school mentoring and advocacy programs, correspondence courses, programs providing academic support and college motivation, high school equivalency programs, and summer college residential programs. Colleges that emphasize multiculturalism or that serve large Hispanic enrollments promote college completion through peer support, culturally relevant courses, first- and second-language instruction, academic support, and work options. When selecting a college, migrant students should consider campus atmosphere and support systems, as well as various financial aspects. (Contains 14 references.) (SV) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED423097
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_____. (1994). Native American Preparatory School. ED403086 This booklet provides information on the Native American Preparatory School, a residential secondary school in Rowe, New Mexico, for high-achieving Native American students. The school sponsors two programs: a 5-week rigorously academic summer school for junior high school students and, beginning in http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED403086

_____. (1994). North Dakota: Opening Doors to Post-Secondary Education for Students with Disabilities. ED379871 This guide offers information to North Dakota students with disabilities who are entering postsecondary education from high school. It presents a timeline of steps that need to be taken each year of high school to prepare for postsecondary education and lists items to be included in a personal transition file. A self- awareness checklist assesses students' strengths and weaknesses in academic and social areas. Accommodations that are commonly used to compensate for the effects of a disability in learning environments are outlined. Student responsibilities in postsecondary schools are discussed, such as contacting instructors to arrange for accommodations. A list of helpful skills for college-bound students and necessary steps in preparing for college is provided. Admission requirements of North Dakota institutions of higher education as well as financial aid possibilities are noted. Types of postsecondary education programs are described, including technical colleges, community colleges, colleges and universities, and other options. A directory of North Dakota postsecondary programs concludes the guide. (JDD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED379871

_____. (1995). National Forum on Student Preparation for College and the Workplace. Summary of Presentations and Discussions. (Denver, Colorado, 25-27, 1995). ED394456 This report summarizes presentations and discussions concerning student preparation for college and for the workplace. Three educational reform initiatives were addressed: reforming college preparation standards and admissions practices, establishing school-to-work and workforce readiness, and changing undergraduate curricula and standards. Topics discussed at the meeting included public policy initiatives, interdisciplinary approaches to curriculum development, collaborative efforts to enhance student motivation and workforce preparation, the use of technology to reduce postsecondary remediation and enhance student learning and cross-institutional programs aimed at improving teacher preparation, student transfer, and financial assistance for students. Forty states were represented by K-12 State Board members and administrators, higher education commissioners and regents, legislators, vocational educators and advisors, and representatives from business and educational organizations and foundations interested in reform efforts. The forum offered an opportunity to debate the realities and myths surrounding student preparation for college and work and to share successful models, effective change strategies, and innovative ideas to increase student achievement. A list of speakers and presenters is appended. (NAV) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED394456

_____. (1996). North Carolina Public Schools Statistical Profile '96. ED406395 This book, the 22nd edition of a series initiated in 1975, provides general statistical data to the public, professional educators, and the North Carolina General Assembly. The statistical profile includes information on public school students, personnel, and finances. Tables with statewide data are presented in Part I. The first section of the state summary contains pupil information on: (1) pupil accounting; (2) nonpromotion rate by grade; (3) projected final average daily membership; (4) exceptional pupils; (5) pupil membership by race/ethnic origin; (6) high school graduates' intentions; (7) projections of high school graduates; and (8) public school dropout and retention data. The second section contains data on school personnel, the educational and work experience of instructional personnel, characteristics of teachers, and teacher salaries. Financial information, including expenditures, transportation information, and course membership statistics are also listed in Part I. Part II presents pupil accounting, graduate intentions, personnel information, and expense information for the state's 119 local education agencies. (Contains 36 tables.) (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED406395

Nardone, A.& McGrath, G. (1995). A Special Needs Post-High School Program at St. Joseph College: "If They Could See Me Now...". ED381991 This collection of materials describes a collaborative program between the West Hartford (Connecticut) Public Schools and St. Joseph College (Connecticut) to prepare special needs students who have completed high school for transition to employment and community living. The program is intended to provide meaningful integration of special needs students with nonhandicapped, age-appropriate peers and utilizes special education support services, vocational and community experiences, 2-year programming, and job opportunities on campus. The materials include information about program features; an outline of life-centered career education competency units; an individualized education program form; sample academic worksheets; sample vocational training worksheets; and other information concerning life skills, community living, parent communication, and homework. (DB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED381991

National Committee on the Preparation of a Manual on College and University Business Administration., & National Committee on Standard Reports for Institutions of Higher Education. (1952). College and university business administration. Washington,: American Council of Education. Lb2341

National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education. (1999). A guide to college programs in teacher preparation ( 1st ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Lb2165 .g75 1999

National League for Nursing. Council of Baccalaureate and Higher Degree Programs. (1969). Extending the boundaries of nursing education; the preparation and roles of the clinical specialist. Papers presented at the third conference of the Council of Baccalaureate and Higher Degree Programs held at Phoenix, Arizona, November 13-15, 1968. New York,: National League for Nursing Dept. of Baccalaureate and Higher Degree Programs. Rt71

National League for Nursing. Council of Baccalaureate and Higher Degree Programs. (1971). Challenge to nursing education ... preparation of the professional nurse for future roles; papers presented at the seventh conference of the Council of Baccalaureate and Higher Degree Programs held at Miami Beach, Florida, November 11-13, 1970. New York,: National League for Nursing Dept. of Baccalaureate and Higher Degree Programs. Rt71 .n24175
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_____. (1994). Oklahoma High School Indicators Project. High School to College-Going Rates for Oklahoma High School Graduates to Oklahoma Colleges: Linear College-Going Rate, Combined College-Going Rate. ED375775 This report provides a single-year rate and a 3-year average of the Oklahoma college-going rate. The average linear college-going rate for Oklahoma colleges in 1993-94 was 43.9 percent of the Oklahoma high school graduates from 1990-91, 1991-92, and 1992-93. Of 1992-93 high school graduates, 44.7 percent went directly to an Oklahoma college the following academic year. Combining those students who are attending directly out of high school with those students who have delayed entry for 1 year or more (the combined college-going rate) resulted in a rate of 70.1 percent of the high school graduates from 1990-91, 1991-92, and 1992-93. The aggregate data came from the Oklahoma State Department of Education and from the Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education's Unitized Data System. Data are presented by county and by high school within each county. (JDD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED375775

_____. (1998). Oklahoma Higher Education Standards. Admission/Retention/Assessment: Reasons Standards Were Strengthened. Enhancing Student Preparation for College. Improving College Student Performance. Indicators of Positive Student Performance. ED416798 This brief report describes efforts of the Oklahoma State Regents to accelerate positive academic change in the state's higher education system with a combination of strengthened admission, retention, and assessment standards. The first section presents the state's problem of lagging performance during the late 1980s, as indicated by data showing poor comparative performance with similar institutions, inadequate college preparation of college-bound students and college freshmen, and mismatches of students and colleges. The second section then explains the comprehensive policy approach and specific policy steps taken by the state to strengthen quality and broaden access by enhancing student preparation for college and improving college student performance. The third section lists some current indicators that show positive student outcomes. These include better student preparation for college (e.g., more high school students are taking the 13-unit core academic curriculum and freshmen are better prepared for college level work) and greater college student success (as indicated by lower student dropout rates and higher graduation rates). A table then compares profiles of student preparation, fall enrollment, dropout rates, graduation rates, and degrees awarded for 1987 and 1996, with all figures showing improvement. (DB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED416798

Otuya, E. (1994). African Americans in Higher Education. ED383791 This research brief examines data related to the educational experiences of African Americans, profiling their demographic characteristics, their educational experiences in high school and college, and their employment status in higher education. African Americans make up about 12.5 percent of the total U.S. population. Overall, the number of African Americans enrolled in college has increased, rising by 27 percent since 1982. African Americans received more undergraduate and first-professional degrees in 1991 than in 1981, but the number of graduate degrees they received decreased in this period. African Americans represented 12.3 percent of all full-time employees in 1991, but the majority were nonfaculty and nonmanagement positions. Only 5 percent of all college presidents were African American in 1990, and more than half of these headed historically black colleges and universities. While African Americans have improved their performance on the Scholastic Aptitude Test since 1976, their achievement levels are still below the national average. Increased participation by African Americans in college preparatory and advanced placement programs could raise the educational attainment levels of African Americans and narrow the achievement gap. Six figures illustrate the discussion. Contains 26 references, 7 endnotes, and a list of 4 resources. (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED383791

Owings, J.& Others. (1995). Making the Cut: Who Meets Highly Selective College Entrance Criteria? Statistics in Brief. ED382121 This study used national data to categorize college-bound high school seniors on each of five criteria identified as representative of those required for admission to highly selective colleges. Data came from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS: 88). Selected criteria included grade point average (GPA), the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores, courses taken, teachers' perceptions, and participation in extracurricular activities. Demographic and social characteristics of the college-bound seniors who met the highly selective criteria were examined and less restrictive criteria were considered as well. Findings included: (1) more females than males excelled in grades; (2) the percentage of college-bound seniors who achieved GPAs of 3.5 or more and SAT scores of 1100 or more was higher for Asian and White students than for Hispanic, Black, or American Indian students; (3) seniors from high socio- economic backgrounds were more likely than their contemporaries at other status levels to meet any of the selective criteria; and (4) about one-half of college- bound seniors attending schools identified as "all other private schools" scored 1100 or higher on the SAT while about 20 percent of their peers at public and Catholic schools achieved this level. Attached are four tables and information on the study methodology. (JB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED382121

Owings, J.& Others. (1995). Who Can Play? An Examination of NCAA's Proposition 16. Statistics in Brief. ED386082 This study looked at 1992 high school seniors to see how many of them would have met the new National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA) Proposition 16 eligibility requirements for freshman participation in Division I college varsity sports. The new, stricter requirements are based on a combination of the high school grade point average in 13 core courses and specified Scholastic Assessment Test or American College Testing Program scores. These requirements were applied to the transcripts of a National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 sample of 1992 college-bound high school seniors. Findings revealed that: (1) 83.2 percent met earlier NCAA standards while only 64.7 percent met the Proposition 16 requirements; (2) only 46.4 percent of black and 54.1 percent of Hispanic students in the sample met the stricter requirements as compared to 67 percent of white and Asian seniors; (3) college-bound high school seniors from the lowest of the socioeconomic status levels were the least likely to meet the requirements with only 42 percent qualifying to participate; and (4) college-bound high school athletes met the requirements at the same rate as non-athletes. Contains two tables and five figures. (Author/JB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED386082
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_____. (1994). Plan of Work and Strategic Planning Guidelines for the New Mexico Commission on Higher Education, 1994. ED368288 This booklet outlines the mission of the New Mexico Commission on Higher Education, notes its constituencies, and presents its 1994 work theme, "Preparing for the FutureEnsuring the Commitment to Access and Quality." The priorities and workplan of each of the Commission's three committees (Finance, Facilities, and Educational Programs and Policy) are discussed, followed by a list of other Commission activities and projects. Memorials and selected legislation affecting the workplan of the Commission, as passed by the 1994 legislature, are noted. The booklet then states the Commission's commitment to the use of the long-range strategic planning process. This planning process for 1994 involves gathering information via planning meetings and regional forums; reaching agreement on objectives, goals, and priorities; reaching agreement on recommendations; and publication of a strategic plan for New Mexico higher education from 1995 to 2000. Two graphs indicate higher education enrollment from 1982 to 1992 and projection of high school graduates between 1982 and 2000. (JDD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED368288

_____. (1994). Preparing Your Child for College: A Resource Book for Parents. Second Edition. ED378496 It is never too early for parents to think about college for their children. This resource book was designed to help parents and educators work with students to ensure that their children have the option of going to college. The booklet provides tips on academic preparations and also offers ideas on how parents can plan for the costs of a college education. Although it was written primarily as a long-term planning guide for parents, this guide should likewise assist guidance counselors and teachers. The book helps parents set high expectations for their children's future, know what college options are available, and plan college finances. The guide addresses these issues in seven chapters: (1) General Questions about College; (2) Preparing for College; (3) Choosing a College; (4) Financing a College Education; (5) Long-range Planning; (6) Important Terms; and (7) Other Sources of Information. Also included are exercises and checklists parents can use when discussing career plans, college inquiries, college preparation, and financial preparation with their children. Ten charts furnish quick references on finances, recommended high school courses, and other commonly- asked questions. Information about opportunities in each state, complete with addresses, phone, and fax numbers, appears in the back. (RJM) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED378496

_____. (1994). Project Adelante. Moving Onward to a Better Education. ED379367 Project Adelante, established in 1988 at Kean College of New Jersey, is sponsored by the New Jersey Department of Higher Education, and is currently the only "College Bound" program targeting the Hispanic-American population. Adelante ("onward" in Spanish) aims to improve the high school graduation rate of Hispanic students and increase their opportunities for college admission. A secondary goal is to increase the number of minority students who choose teaching as a profession. Adelante enrolls middle school and high school students in a program of academic instruction, peer tutoring, field trips, career and personal counseling, mentoring by Hispanic professionals, and parental involvement. A year- long evaluation is reported, with data gathered from site visits, review of documents, participant surveys, and interviews with participants and staff. The program is found to foster student attitudes of academic success and to tailor instruction and counseling to student needs. Strong student satisfaction with the program is found. Some suggestions are made to improve this already effective program. An appendix contains a literature review on Hispanic-American dropout prevention by Emma Munoz-Duston. (Contains 25 references.) (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED379367

_____. (1995). Paying for College. A Guide for Parents and Their Children. ED401818 This booklet is designed to help prospective college students and their parents estimate college expenses, understand the financial aid process, become educated consumers of financing alternatives, and manage the repayment of education loans. It provides worksheets on how to figure direct and indirect college costs and how to save for college, including various investment choices. The booklet explains various types and sources of student financial aid, along with application and eligibility requirements. Specific information on Federal Perkins Loans, subsidized Stafford Loans, unsubsidized Stafford Loans, Federal Plus Loans, and private or institutional loan programs is provided. A comparison of loan repayment options, including the standard repayment account, Select Step account, income sensitive repayment account, and Smart Loan account, is provided. (MDM) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED401818

_____. (1995). Performance and Characteristics of Maryland Students Who Have Taken the SAT. ED404968 This annual report examines trends in Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) data for Maryland vis-a-vis national trends. Major findings include the following: (1) composite SAT scores for Maryland students trail the national average for the first time since 1982; (2) composite SAT scores of African-Americans in Maryland have consistently trailed those of whites; (3) composite SAT scores of African- American men in Maryland fell seven points, with all of the drop being in the math portion of the test, while scores of African-American women, and well as those of white men and women, increased; (4) Maryland women have gained ground vis-a-vis men on both verbal and math SAT scores; and (5) the percentage of Maryland students planning to major in health fields has risen sharply, while the proportion intending to study business has fallen. Additionally, tables provide SAT trend data for: Maryland versus national scores overall; Maryland versus national scores by gender; Maryland versus national scores by race; for African- Americans versus whites; by race and gender; for the Mid-Atlantic region; by high school class rank; (7) by intended major; trends in intended major for Maryland college-bound seniors; and trends for college-going students who took rigorous levels of high school preparation. (CH) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED404968

_____. (1995). Perspective of the California Postsecondary Education Commission on Educational Equity. ED384291 This publication sets forward the California State Postsecondary Education Commission's historical and present perspective on educational equity in California higher education and was prompted by Governor Wilson's June 1, 1995 Executive Order to End Preferential Treatment and to Promote Individual Opportunity Based on Merit (Executive Order W-124-95). The statement draws on the Master Plan for Higher Education, the California Education Code, and the Commission's adopted policies and recommendations on educational equity. The Commission believes that educational equity is vital to the state's economic and social future and that the focus of attention ought to be on the preparation of students for college, particularly for meeting eligibility requirements for California State University and the University of California institutions. The Commission notes that it has long supported effective collaborative student preparation programs whose goals are to enhance the number of students who are admissible from groups whose historical rates of eligibility for California's public universities have been low. Additionally, this perspective stresses the importance of developing campus environments that are supportive for all students. The Commission reiterates its opposition to any practice that involves quotas, the predominance in the admissions process of any one factor other than eligibility, the lowering of academic standards, or the enrollment of ineligible students through other than limited special action efforts. (Author/JB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED384291

_____. (1996). Performance Indicators of California Higher Education, 1995. ED403806 This is the second annual report on the performance of California higher education. The indicators are organized into five major sections: (1) demographic characteristics of California's population; (2) fiscal support of public postsecondary education and student financial aid as well as an indicator of instructional expenditures in the public systems; (3) student preparation indicators that include the size and composition of the state's public high school graduation classes and their academic preparation for education beyond high school; (4) student access indicators that show participation in California's postsecondary education at the first-time freshman level, the community college transfer level, and the graduate student level; and (5) indicators of student experiences that report persistence, the numbers of degrees awarded, and faculty composition. The report concludes that California's colleges and universities need to increasingly develop and publicize clear statements of their unique missions, goals, and expectations and they should gather and report information on the postgraduate activities of their alumni in order to help guide curricular changes and student choice. Seventy-five tables of data are included. (Author/JLS) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED403806

_____. (1996). Performance Indicators of California Higher Education, 1996. The Third Annual Report to California's Governor, Legislature, and Citizens in Response to Assembly Bill 1808 (Chapter 741, Statutes of 1991). ED403832 This report summarizes data from performance indicators used to assess California higher education. A brief overview covers historical development of the indicators and notes some recent developments and future plans. Data tables, accompanying charts, and notes covering each of the 75 performance indicators are organized into five major sections: (1) demographic characteristics of California's population; (2) fiscal support of public postsecondary education and student financial aid, as well as indicators used to assess instructional expenditures; (3) student preparation indicators, including the number and composition of the state's public high school graduates and their academic preparation; (4) student access indicators that measure participation in postsecondary education for first-time freshmen, community college transfer students, and graduate students; and (5) indicators of student experiences and outcomes that report one-, five-, and term-to-term persistence, and the number of degrees awarded. Also included is information on faculty composition. The appendix contains a copy of Assembly Bill No. 1808 of 1991 mandating this annual report. Also appended is a statement of the membership, functions, and operation of the Commission; and a list of other reports published by the Commission. (CH) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED403832

_____. (1996). Postsecondary Enrollment Options Program. ED405771 This report provides an evaluation of the Postsecondary Enrollment Options program, enacted in Minnesota in 1985 to allow 11th- and 12th-grade students to take postsecondary courses at state expense. It is based on interviews with state education and social services officials, a survey of 401 high school principals and directors of alternative schools that enrolled eligible students, a survey of 76 admissions directors from participating postsecondary institutions, a telephone survey of 300 students (and their parents) enrolled in the program, and visits to participating high schools and postsecondary institutions. It was found that six percent of Minnesota public school juniors and seniors took part in the Postsecondary Enrollment Options program in 1994-95, and that program participants generally received higher grades than regularly admitted postsecondary students, except at technical colleges, where they did somewhat worse. School administrators, students, and parents said that the most important reasons why students participated in the program were to get a head start on college and to save on postsecondary costs. Most program participants, their parents, postsecondary school administrators, and directors of alternative schools were satisfied with the program, while most high school administrators were not. Three appendixes provide copies of survey forms. (MDM) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED405771

_____. (1998). Performance Indicators of California Higher Education, 1997. The Fourth Annual Report to California's Governor, Legislature, and Citizens in Response to Assembly Bill 1808 (Chapter 741, Statutes of 1991). ED419447 Available from: California Postsecondary Education Commission, 1303 J St., Suite 500, Sacramento, CA 95814-2938; phone: 916-445-7933. This fourth annual report presents background information on the development of performance indicators for California higher education, describes the scope of the current set of indicators, identifies highlights of recent trends, delineates some recent developments and future plans, and includes data on the full set of 75 performance indicators. The higher education performance indicators are divided into five categories; (1) characteristics of California's population, (2) fiscal support, (3) student preparation for college, (4) student access to college, and (5) student experiences and outcomes. Recent trends noted include a decline in the state's overall unemployment rate but an increase in youth unemployment; an increase of 12.6 percent in higher education's share of General Fund appropriations; continuing expansion in the number and diversity of high school graduates with limited English proficiency, who now account for nearly one-fourth of public school students; an increasing proportion of college-going students attending public universities and a decreasing proportion attending community colleges; and a slight decrease in the five- year persistence rates of freshmen at public universities. The report also includes a page on each of the 75 performance indicators showing trends in graphs, tables, and narrative. The text of the relevant statute (Assembly Bill 1808, Chapter 741, Statutes of 1991) is appended. (DB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED419447

Patrick, E. S. (1999). Texas State Occupational Information Coordinating Committee Data. Feedback. Pub. No. 97.23. ED433347 The Texas Education Agency provided statewide Public Education Information Management System (PEIMS) data to the Texas State Occupational Information Coordinating Committee (TSOICC) in 1998 to determine employment information and college enrollment for 1996-97 senior students. TSOICC used the Automated Student and Adult Learner Follow-up System, a process that uses electronic linkages to determine enrollment in Texas public universities, types of employment, and quarterly wage for the 1996-97 senior cohort. TSOICC was provided PEIMS data for 3,074 1996-97 graduates and seniors exiting prior to completion of graduation requirements. TSOICC aggregated the statewide results and produced a "report card" on the 1996- 97 exit cohort. This report is based on further analysis of Austin Independent School District (AISD) data from the PEIMs, Unemployment Insurance records, and the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board's master enrollment records to acquaint program personnel and decision makers with the followup data and to demonstrate the data's potential. It is recommended that the AISD continue to use TSOICC data to follow up former students and determine postsecondary enrollments. (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED433347

Perna, L. W. (1998). Differences in the Decision To Attend College among Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites. ED420252 This study examined the extent to which the relative influence on college investment decisions of economic, academic, structural, social, and cultural capital varied by racial/ethnic group. Data from the third (1994) follow-up to the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 were used. The adjusted weighted sample included 11,933 individuals who graduated from high school in 1992. The study found that, on average, Blacks and Hispanics had less economic and academic capital than Whites. Black high school graduates were observed to have more of some types of social and cultural capital than high school graduates of other ethnic groups, in that they were more likely to express interest in earning advanced degrees, receive help from their high schools with college admissions materials, and use more than one tool to prepare for college admissions tests. After controlling for differences in economic, academic, structural, social, and cultural capital, the probability of enrolling in a four-year college or university in the fall after graduating from high school was 11 percent higher for Blacks than for Whites. The probability of enrollment was about equal for Hispanics and Whites. (Contains 33 references.) (MDM) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED420252

Puner, L. P. (1996). Starting Out Suburban: A Frosh Year Survival Guide. (ISBN: 0-9651403-0-X). ED395260 Suburban high school seniors planning to attend universities, as well as parents, high school guidance counselors, and teachers at both the high school and college levels are the intended audience for this guide. It seeks to provide incoming freshmen with "everything you need to know about the first-year college experience" in a lively and entertaining style. In order to do this, 50 students who attended 23 colleges and universities were interviewed. Ten were from the suburb of Weston, Connecticut, and the other 40 were from suburbs around the United States. All students had completed their first-year at college, and were willing to share their anecdotes, reflections, and insights. A wide variety of topics are addressed, including academics, becoming oriented, campus life, safety, and financial matters. The book also furnishes readers with information and suggestions that have been gleaned from education and student personnel professionals, particularly in the "Tips" sections which end most chapters. However, its primary focus is upon the first-hand personal material given by those students interviewed. Contains an index. (TS) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED395260

Puyear, D. (1998). Concurrent and Dual Enrollment of High School Students in Arizona Community Colleges: A Status Report. ED423930 This report addresses most community college students under the age of 18 who have not attained a high school diploma or G.E.D, and who are in the category of concurrent enrollment. For the purposes of this paper, 6 possible models were proposed for dual and concurrent enrollment courses: (1) the course is taught as an augmentation of a high school course; (2) a high school teacher teaches the course and it is taught at the high school during the school day; (3) the course is taught at the high school during the school day, but the teacher is a community college teacher who is not also a high school teacher; (4) the course is taught at a location other than the high school, but it is limited to high school concurrent enrollment students; (5) the course is taught at a location other than the high school and high school students are mixed with other college students; and (6) some other arrangement to be described. The report includes abstracts submitted upon request by the following community colleges: Coconino, Maricopa, Mohave, Pima, Cochise, Eastern Arizona, Northland Pioneer, Central Arizona, Yavapai, and Arizona Western. (AS) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED423930
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Quigley, D. D. (1995). A Schooling and Employment Profile of Immigrant and Native Youth: 1970-1990. ED402484 Over the last 30 years, the demographic picture of youth in the United States has changed as a result of the "immigrant boom." The percentage of youth who are immigrants has increased, and the bulk of them have been in the United States from 1-5 years, are aged 20-24, and are male. The educational make-up of the youth population has also changed: (1) the number of immigrants enrolled in secondary schools over the last 30 years has increased; (2) the share of school leavers who are immigrants will decrease in the near future but remain a large share of the youth population; (3) natives with immigrant parents are a sizable percentage of the student population; (4) this large portion of immigrants enrolled in secondary schools translates into an increase in noncollege-bound immigrants; and (5) immigrants suffer from severe grade delay and are heavily concentrated in a few areas of the country. Labor force participation increased for all three groups of youthnative born, recent immigrant, and other immigrant. Native and other immigrant youth tend to "mature" in terms of labor market participation at the age of 23, whereas recent immigrants "mature" at age 19. The bulk of 16-19 year-old natives and immigrant youth, who have been in the United States longer than 5 years, are both in the labor force and enrolled in school, and the bulk of 16-21 year-old recent immigrants who are in the labor force are working but not in school. (Contains 10 references.) (YLB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED402484

Quinley, J. W.& Cantrell, J. E. (1998). Preparing the Work Force for the 21st Century: 1998 Community Based Research. ED420334 To help determine the community's work force training needs, Spartanburg Technical College (STC) completed an extensive research study. It included a survey of 1,501 high school juniors in Cherokee, Union, and Spartanburg counties in South Carolina; a survey of 293 area businesses and industries; focus groups representing 63 companies, elected officials, human service employers, educators, and health care providers; and a survey of 396 citizens in the community. Results of the high school study indicated strong preferences for careers in professional occupational areas, with 10 percent preferring health service jobs and nine percent aspiring to technician jobs. Seventy-five percent of the students planned to attend college, with 54 percent considering a public university and 36 percent considering a technical college. Results from the work force survey suggested that employers expect higher levels of skill and competency in the work force, especially in writing, mathematics, thinking, computer literacy, and leadership. The focus groups agreed with this assertion, noting that a strong foundation in the academic basics is vital to obtaining more advanced, technically specific skills. Finally, the community survey showed that one-hundred percent of the alumni citizens who responded were satisfied with the quality of the course they'd taken at STC, and would recommend the college to a friend. (Contains 13 graphs.) (EMH) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED420334

Quinley, J. W.& Cantrell, J. E. (1998). Spartanburg Technical College 1998 High School Survey. ED420333 This study reports the findings of a high school student survey conducted by Spartanburg Technical College (STC) in South Carolina to determine its service area's needs. Respondents to the survey included 1,501 juniors from 14 high schools in Cherokee, Union, and Spartanburg counties. Students were queried as to what type of college they would consider attending, parental attitudes about college, influences on their decision to pursue postsecondary education, what type of assistance they might need in college, factors deemed important to college choice, and other specifics such as computer skills and preferred instructional delivery methods. Since the study was especially concerned with respondents who might attend STC, the number and percent of respondent 11th graders indicating an interest in STC were analyzed by high school, ethnicity, and gender. Among the results were: (1) fifty-two percent of respondents' parents encouraged them to pursue higher education; (2) financial aid was the most requested service from a future college at 38 percent, with aid in study skills following closely behind at 28 percent; (3) in total, 433 respondents would consider attending STC; and (4) the percentage of whites and blacks who would consider attending STC was identical at 30 percent. (Contains seven graphs.) (EMH) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED420333
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_____. (1995). 1993-94 Running Start: A Progress Report to the 1995 Legislature. ED388370 The Running Start program was created by the Washington State Legislature in 1990 to allow qualified 11th and 12th grade high school students to take college-level courses at community and technical colleges. In http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED388370

_____. (1995). Remedial and Developmental Programs in Ohio's Public Colleges and Universities. ED393390 This report reviews issues surrounding higher education developmental education programs that support under-prepared college students; especially the provision of below-college-level developmental courses at public institutions of higher education in Ohio. Information was gathered from 25 state-assisted campuses. Analysis indicated that approximately 26 percent of the student sample was under- prepared for college work. Most of the students enrolled in these remedial programs were 18- to 24-years-old, female, and Caucasian (although African- Americans and Hispanic Americans were disproportionately represented in these courses) and approximately half were recent high school graduates. Among other findings were that approximately 56 percent of under-prepared students had taken a college preparatory curriculum in high school. The below-college-level program was found to improve English course performance and short-term retention, but seemed less effective in improving graduation rates. Among recommendations are: (1) that under-prepared students complete below-college-level courses at regional campuses and two-year schools before attending four-year institutions; (2) that passing of the Twelfth Grade Proficiency Test be a condition for acceptance at four-year institutions; and (3) that additional funding be given to expand special programs which reduce the need for below-college-level courses. Appendices include a description of developmental education and information on expectations for two-year and regional campuses, programs to reduce the need for below-college-level instruction, and strategies for retaining and graduating minority members. (Contains 84 references.) (DB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED393390

_____. (1995). Reporting Texas Advanced Placement Examination Performance: Promoting a Head Start on the Transition to College. Policy Research Report No. 7. ED424295 Available from: Publications Distribution Division, Texas Education Agency, 1701 North Congress Avenue, Austin, TX 78701-1494; Tel: 512-463-9744 ($2). Advanced Placement (AP) participation and examination performance data are important in understanding the extent to which Texas students have completed courses that qualify them for a "head start"advanced standing, course credit, or both standing and creditupon beginning college or university course work. A brief history and overview of the College Board AP program is presented in this report, along with a general description of AP courses and examinations, AP benefits and costs, Texas high school graduation requirements with AP components, and college and university AP policies. In addition, recent efforts contributing to increased policy and research interest in Texas AP examination performance, such as the Texas Advanced Placement Incentive Program and national and regional reports of AP examination data, are covered. National and Texas AP participation and performance data provide a backdrop for discussion of issues related to reporting of AP indicator data. Trends in national and Texas AP participation and performance are presented. Texas AP participation and performance are also examined in relation to student demographic characteristics and course-taking patterns, and campus and district characteristics. The report concludes with a discussion of statutory considerations for adopting AP indicators, other potential avenues for AP results reporting and research, and basic considerations for AP results interpretation and reporting. One finding is that, although the cost of AP examinations is less of an issue than it once was, examination fee costs are still a potential barrier to campus or district participation rates. Another finding from Texas data is that small schools and small districts typically have lower AP examination participation than large schools and districts. (Contains 8 tables, 6 figures, and 34 references.) (Author/SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED424295

_____. (1996). Relationship between High School and College Performance by Maryland Students. Student Outcome and Achievement Report. ED404976 This report examines the relationship between Maryland students' academic performance and experiences in high school and how well they did in their initial year in college. It includes students who graduated from a Maryland high school in the 1993-94 school year and who enrolled at a Maryland college or university during the 1994-95 academic year. The report's two sections present data on: (1) differences between the college performance of students who did (core) or did not complete (non-core) a college preparatory curriculum in high school and (2) results of a multiple regression analysis to identify factors that best predict first-year college performance. Core students performed better than non-core on measures of college achievement and non core students were more likely to need remediation. Core students attained higher grades in first college math and English courses and earned a grade point average of 2.5 in college versus 2.2 for non-core students. The best predictors of college grade point average (GPA) were high school GPA followed by Scholastic Assessment Test verbal score, average grades in high school English and social studies courses, number of years of foreign language, and enrollment in honors English and calculus. Data tables by institution, jurisdiction, gender, and race compare core versus non core students. Tables also provide results of the multiple regression analysis. (JLS) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED404976

_____. (1997). Recommended High School Programs of Study for College Preparation and Broad Career Concentrations. A Report Submitted to the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, and Speaker of the House, and the Seventy-Fifth Texas Legislature. ED415360 A study explored the use of career concentration areas in Texas school systems and recommended broad career concentration areas. Of the 40 largest school districts, 35 responded to the survey. Approximately 58 percent currently use variations of the career concentration area concept to help students prepare for working life. Respondents recommended by a margin of more than 2-to-1 that the Public Education Information Management System be used to collect data related to career concentrations. The commissioner of education reviewed three alternatives for the legislature's consideration: (1) adopt the seven career concentration areas identified by the Texas Education Agency (TEA); (2) adopt the eight career concentration areas recommended by the State Occupational Information Coordinating Committee; and (3) adopt the four career concentration areas proposed in the Texas Workforce Commission's grant proposal for federal funds under the School-to-Work Opportunities Act. Adoption of the first alternative was recommended. School districts throughout the state adopted the following seven TEA career concentrations: agricultural science and natural resources; art, communications, and media technology; business and marketing; health science technology; human development, management, and services; industrial and engineering technology; and personal and protective services. Materials developed around them were widely disseminated and extensively used by Texas school districts. (YLB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED415360

_____. (1997). Relationship between High School and College Performance by Maryland Students. Student Outcome and Achievement Report. ED409787 This study examined the relationship between students' academic performance in high school vis-a-vis their performance in the first year at college. The study analyzed data on students who graduated from Maryland high schools in the 1994-95 academic year and who were enrolled in 2- and 4-year Maryland public institutions or in one of 11 state-aided independent institutions. The study distinguished between students who did or did not complete a college preparatory curriculum in high school. Consistent with the previous year, the study found that core students performed better than non core students on every measure of college academic achievement. High school grade point average emerged as the single best predictor of first college math grade, first college English grade, and college grade point average. Other good predictors of first college math grade were the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) math score and whether a student was in honors calculus in high school. High school English and the SAT verbal score were good indicators of first college English grade. Demographic variables which were predictive of college performance were gender (women outperformed men) and father's educational level. (CH) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED409787

_____. (1998). Remediation Rates for Oklahoma High School Graduates in Oklahoma Public Colleges. Oklahoma High School Indicators Project. ED416800 As part of a larger study to provide "indicators" of high school educational performance, this report presents data on remedial services provided to 15,042 college freshmen (1996-97) in Oklahoma public colleges by Oklahoma high school for the graduating class of 1995-96. The study used a student-cohort flow system to track student data semester-by-semester, including courses taken and whether a course was remedial or not. A table summarizes remediation rates by county for science, English, math, and reading. The bulk of the report is in the form of a table for each high school, grouped by county, followed by the college freshman headcount, percentage of freshmen taking remedial courses in the four subject areas, and an unduplicated headcount and percentage of students taking remedial courses. The data show that 37.3 percent of freshmen took at least one remedial course. Mathematics remediation was the highest, with 33.1 percent of freshmen taking a remedial mathematics course. (DB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED416800

Randall, M. E. (October 1999). Survey of College Plans of Maryland High Ability Students. ED436989 The Maryland Higher Education Commission conducts annual surveys of talented Maryland high school seniors to learn about their college plans. This report focuses on the results of the survey of high ability students who graduated from a Maryland high school in the spring of 1998. Survey participants were asked to identify the postsecondary institution they planned to attend; the reasons that were most important in arriving at their decisions; their intended academic major; and their financial aid package. Although a majority of National Merit and National Achievement semifinalists in Maryland selected a college or university outside the state, over one-third of these students chose a Maryland campus. A greater percentage of the students who were offered a Maryland Distinguished Scholar Award stayed in the state than National Merit Scholars or National Achievement Semifinalists. A majority of the students who were offered Maryland Distinguished Scholar Awards, however, still chose an out-of-state institution. (Contains 6 tables and the survey.) (JM) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED436989

Roane, F. L. (1965). A cultural history of professional teacher preparation at Bethune-Cookman College. EdD 1965 R

Rodriguez, C., Ed.& Bosque-Perez, R., Ed. (1994). Puerto Ricans and Higher Education Policies. Volume 1: Issues of Scholarship, Fiscal Policies and Admissions. Higher Education Task Force Discussion Series. (ISBN: 1-878483-52-8). ED401362 This volume explores issues of scholarship, fiscal policies, and admissions in the higher education of Puerto Ricans, with the emphasis on Puerto Ricans on the U.S. mainland and a particular focus on Puerto Rican admissions to the City University of New York. The first paper, "The Centro's Models of Scholarship: Present Challenges to Twenty Years of Academic Empowerment" by Maria Josefa Canino considers the history of the Centro Puertorriqueno of Hunter College of the City University of New York and its mission for scholarship and the formation of policy related to Puerto Ricans. The second paper, "Puerto Ricans and Fiscal Policies in U.S. Higher Education: The Case of the City University of New York" by Camille Rodriguez and Ramon Bosque-Perez illustrates the interplay between finance and policy and the education of Puerto Ricans. "Latinos and the College Preparatory Initiative" by Camille Rodriguez, Judith Stern Torres, Milga Morales- Nadal, and Sandra Del Valle discusses the College Preparatory Initiative (CPI), a program designed by the City University of New York as a way to strengthen the educational experiences of students. CPI attempts to combine raised academic standards and school/college collaboration to increase the participation and retention of minority students, but it is likely to have adverse effects because of the difficulty students will have in achieving CPI standards before admission. A postscript calls for further efforts by the City University to assist minority students. (Contains nine graphs and references following each paper.) (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED401362

Rodriguez, E. M. (1995). College Admission Requirements: A New Role for States. ED388148 The experiences of 10 states described in this paper illustrate how higher education can be a constructive force for change in the schools, and how the changes taking place in school-based curriculum and assessment provide valuable lessons for collegiate reform. The 10 states profiled are California, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, New York, Oklahoma, Oregon, Texas, and Wisconsin. The paper reviews current admission policies and practices in these states. Section 1 explains the need to clearly communicate to high school students expectations for college-level work to foster greater collegiate retention and graduation. Section 2 examines the need to strengthen the quality of the high school curriculum. Section 3 outlines the need to reduce remediation in postsecondary education. Section 4 explores the need to improve the levels of access and academic achievement of underrepresented students. Section 5 discusses the need to manage enrollment within constrained budgets and section 6 addresses the need to align high school student outcomes and college expectations. Appendixes contain more state-by-state detail and information on state officers who provided additional detail on their state's programs. Contains 25 references. (JB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED388148

Rodriguez, E. M.& Ruppert, S. S. (1996). Postsecondary Education and the New Workforce. ED401845 This report is intended to provide a framework for state-level policy and planning in relationship to postsecondary education's role in workforce development. Underlying the report is a set of principles and priorities designed to reflect and shape current policy agendas, and which will address the needs of college-bound high school graduates, workers needing retraining or upgrading of skills, unemployed and underemployed workers, and employers. In separate sections the report covers topics such as: the role of postsecondary education as a factor in workforce development; broadening the school-to-work framework; building a collaborative system of education and training; capitalizing on the distinct roles of learning providers; improving learner productivity; helping learners make informed choices; connecting learning and work, and defining skills needed by new employees; and supporting teachers and faculty. In a final section the report defines an agenda for state higher education boards that includes high school feedback and admissions, articulation with and transfer to postsecondary education, follow-up of program completers and better employer feedback, integration of classroom-based and work-based learning, and effective coordination and planning. The names of participants and institutional leaders at two 1996 conferences on this topic in Racine, Wisconsin, and Denver, Colorado, are appended to the report. (Contains 11 references.) (CH) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED401845

Rosenbaum, J. (1998 Length: 49 Page(s); 1 Microfiche). Unrealistic Plans and Misdirected Efforts: Are Community Colleges Getting the Right Message to High School Students? Community College Research Center Occasional Paper. ED428795 This paper suggests that community colleges receive undeserved criticism as institutions that contribute to students' decline in college motivation. Rather, many college-bound youths underestimate college demands due to open-admissions policies and the ready availability of remedial courses, and fail to prepare adequately for this educational transition. High school students who believe they can make plans for college even if their academic achievement is low seem to reduce their efforts in high school. A 1992 national survey found that, while students with low grades can attend college, over 80% of college-planning students with low high school grades fail to complete any college degree 10 years later. Analyses indicate that high school grades strongly predict educational attainment, signifying whether students attain their plans, predicting plans-attainment for blacks and whites alike, and explaining much of the lower attainment and unrealized plans of disadvantaged students. High school grades have proven to be the most influential factor affecting students' failure to attain their original educational plans in open-door colleges. This paper asserts that the best way for community colleges to intervene would be to inform students about what they must do in high school to make their preparation match their educational plans. The development of linkage programs between high schools and colleges also help improve high school students' understandings of college requirements. Contains 45 references. (AS) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED428795

Russell, A. B. (1998). Statewide College Admissions, Student Preparation, and Remediation Policies and Programs. Summary of a 1997 SHEEO Survey. ED416804 This report presents findings of a nationwide study of student transitions from secondary to postsecondary education that is based on a survey of state higher education agencies and site visits to six states. The report finds a growing role for state higher education agencies in setting minimum college admissions requirements, coexistence of traditional admissions criteria with newer competency-based requirements, and expanding collaboration between postsecondary systems and the K-12 sector in program development. After an introduction, statewide admissions policies are addressed, including types of statewide admissions requirements; their perceived success; competency-based admissions; and open-door, conditional, and other admissions policies. The following section summarizes data on types of student preparation programs and their perceived success. Next, statewide remediation policies are analyzed in terms of types of policies and their perceived success. The final section identifies other state- level student transition issues, such as use of incentive funding and competitive grants. Among eight appendices are: the survey instrument and summaries of statewide college admissions policies; and state data on open door, conditional, and other admissions policies; on programs to improve student preparation and remediation projects; on use of incentive funding to promote institutional change; and on collection and research efforts. (DB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED416804

Russell, A. B.& Others. (1995). An Annotated Bibliography on Student Preparation for College and the Workplace. ED388147 This annotated bibliography lists and describes nearly 50 key national data sources and reports on high school student preparation for college and work. Items were selected because they represent comprehensive research and analyses on high school and college student achievement and the skills and competencies needed for success in postsecondary education and the workplace. Section 1 describes six key primary national data sources: the American College Testing Program; the College Board; the Cooperative Institutional Research Program; the National Assessment of Educational Progress; the National Center for Education Statistics' Longitudinal Studies; and the National Center on Postsecondary Teaching, Learning, and Assessment. Section 2, on student preparation for college, addresses many facets of student college preparation in data-based reports and reports based on data sources from the first section. Section 3 summarizes some of the literature on increasing college costs and criticism of the quality of undergraduate education. Section 4 summarizes publications on student preparation for the workplace. Each section's citations are listed chronologically. Each citation provides information on title, publisher, date, description of the research or publication, and its key findings. (JB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED388147.htm
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_____. (1996). Steppin' On Up: A Post-Secondary Guide for Migrant Students = Tomando Accion: Una Guia para los Estudiantes Migrantes Sobre Que Hacer Despues de la Escuela Secundaria. ED398000 This bilingual guide (English and Spanish) provides information for migrant students on postsecondary education. The guide includes information on: (1) career planning, involving self-exploration, occupational exploration, and strategies for reaching career objectives; (2) planning for postsecondary education during high school, including a year-by-year plan for grades 10-12; (3) planning for technical or vocational school, including a year-by-year plan for grades 9-12; (4) financial aid through grants, loans, work study, and scholarships, and tips for applying for financial aid; and (5) the College Assistance Migrant Program (CAMP), a federal program that provides aid to higher education institutions to fund academic and personal support services for eligible migrant and seasonal farmworker students. The name and addresses of universities that accept applications for CAMP are included. Terms related to postsecondary education are explained, such as commuter student, quarter, residency, American College Testing Program (ACT), the College Level Examination Program (CLEP), and the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT). The remainder of the guide provides information on 51 scholarships, many of which target minority and migrant students. Entries include name, foundation or corporation, address, purpose, eligibility, award, application deadline, and restrictions. (LP) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED398000.htm

_____. (1996). Student Aid Handbook, 1996-1997. ED401825 This booklet contains suggestions to assist Alaskans interested in postsecondary education through the process of selecting a school, a program, and a financial plan. The document proposes as a first step that potential students research fields in which they are interested, talk to people in the field, confer with high school and college counselors, and study school catalogs. At the same time, the booklet recommends that they consider, among other things: the institution's accreditation status, national accreditation, or state authorization; quality, currency, and transferability of courses; retention and/or graduation rate; program length; program cost; comparison of program costs to potential earnings; and availability of a placement service. The booklet presents criteria to qualify for loans through a number of Alaska state and federal scholarship and grant programs, application procedures, and contact telephone numbers. The concluding section describes services which provide educational and occupational information and counseling services, youth and adult education or training programs, and career development programs. (MAH) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED401825.htm

_____. (1997). Survey of College Plans of Maryland High Ability Students. ED408922 This report notes results of a survey of high-ability students who graduated from a Maryland high school in the spring of 1996. Survey respondents, 56 percent of whom were women, were asked what postsecondary institution they planned to attend; what reasons were most important to their decision; what was their intended academic major; and what financial aid package they were seeking. In text and tables the report summarizes demographic characteristics of respondents; presents data on college choice, noting that nearly 30 percent of students chose a Maryland campus; 54 percent selected an independent out-of-state institution; campuses chosen most frequently include Duke University, Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University, Princeton University, and Williams College; provides data on intended major for public and private out- of-state and public and private in-state attendees; notes percentage of cost covered by financial aid package by type of institution; and lists, by type of institution, factor ratings for choice of school. Appended to the report is a copy of the survey questionnaire used. (CH) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED408922.htm

_____. (1998). SAT Report: The North Carolina 1998 Scholastic Assessment Test Report. Reporting on the Nation, the State, the 117 Public School Systems, Charter Schools, North Carolina School of the Arts, and North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics. ED429113 The data in this report are Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) results and most recent scores for students scheduled to graduate from North Carolina schools in 1998 regardless of when they last took the test. Results represent the performance of public and nonpublic school students, including the state's charter schools and schools for the gifted. In 1998 North Carolina students made a mean gain of four points while the U.S. mean SAT score improved by one point. The North Carolina mean total SAT score for 1998 college-bound seniors was 982, and although North Carolina students continue to show improvements each year, they remain 35 points below the national mean. This is the smallest gap in 27 years. The gap is less for students in North Carolina public schools, and North Carolina students are closer to the rest of the country on the verbal portion of the SAT than on the mathematics section. Of all the racial and ethnic groups in North Carolina, only Hispanic students score higher than their national counterparts, but they are a very small portion of the total SAT scores from the state. In North Carolina, as in the entire United States, the higher the family's income, the higher the student's mean total SAT score. Additional information is provided about student course selection, college preparation, and study methodology. A data appendix contains nine tables of comparative data for North Carolina and the United States as a whole. (Contains 10 figures, 9 tables, and 2 references.) (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED429113.htm

_____. (1998). Student Aid Handbook, 1998-1999: Journey to a Successful Future... ED440698 This Student Aid Handbook presents suggestions for prospective applicants to consider when choosing a college or university which bet meets the candidate's needs and goals. The Handbook describes four areas to consider and related questions when researching a field of study or school: national accreditation or state authorizations, courses, costs, and placement assistance. It details state loan and grant programs such as the: Alaska Student Loan (ASL) Program, loans for full-time study, loans for half-time study, Alaska Family Education Loan (FEL) Program, Alaska Teacher Scholarship Loan Program, A. W. "Winn" Brindle Memorial Loan, WICHE Western Regional Graduate Program, Western Undergraduate Exchange (WUE) Program, and WAMI Medical Education Program. This handbook also discusses the details of federal financial aid programs such as the: Federal Pell Grant, Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant, Federal Work Study, Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Stafford Student Loan, Federal PLUS Loan, and Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Grant Programs. It concludes with a list of educational resources that provide services which improve access to postsecondary education and training opportunities. (Contains 17 resources.) (VWC) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED440698.htm

_____. (1999). San Francisco Unified School District Senior Survey Summary, 1997. ED433071 This document is a summary of the findings of the 1997 San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD) Senior Survey. The survey is a multiple- choice response questionnaire administered to all San Francisco public high school seniors. Students were asked a series of questions about their plans for work and higher education after high school graduation. Included in the report is information on career and higher education plans of high school seniors, including which postsecondary educational institution students plan to attend. This information is provided at the school district level and is broken down by individual high school and ethnicity. Some of the main findings include: (1) of the 2,364 San Francisco seniors responding to this survey, 1725 plan to go to college, 455 plan to start a job, and 184 have other goals; (2) over 400 respondents indicated an intention to enroll at City College of San Francisco; and (3) post-high school plans vary by ethnicityAfrican Americans, American Indians, and Latinos are more likely to begin a job and less likely to continue their education after graduation than is the general population. Ambitions also vary by San Francisco's high schools. (JJL) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED433071.htm

_____. (1999). South Dakota Annual Report of Academic Progress. ED430003 Key indicators of educational progress in South Dakota are presented for the 1996-97 school year to fulfill the legislative requirement for reporting. The publication includes attendance and dropout rates, achievement test scores, American College Testing assessment scores, and feedback from the Board of Regents on students entering state colleges and universities. These scores are a snapshot in time and should be used with other indicators of progress. In 1997-98, South Dakota enrolled 132,780 students in its 767 schools. Of the total, 11.98% were from minority groups, and 30.17% were eligible for free lunch. South Dakota's high schools graduated 9,135 students in 1997-98. Information for the following indicators is given for each of the state's school districts: (1) attendance rate; (2) dropout rate; (3) grade 4 Stanford 9 achievement test scores; (4) grade 8 Stanford 9 scores; (5) grade 11 Stanford Achievement Test Series results; (6) Stanford Writing Assessment Program results; (7) American College Test composite scores; and (8) Board of Regents feedback report. A data tables/technical notes section is included. (Contains 190 tables.) (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED430003.htm

_____. (1999). Statewide and District Summaries: Report on Academic Performance of High School Graduates (A.R.S. 15-1822). ED440678 This publication presents the Report on Academic Performance of High School Graduates in Arizona for the fiscal year 1998-1999. This report contains an Arizona Statewide Summary and District Summaries for: (1) Cochise County Community College District; (2) Coconino County Community College District; (3) Graham County Community College District, Eastern Arizona College; (4) Maricopa County Community College District; (5) Mohave County Community College District; (6) Navajo County Community College District, Northland Pioneer College; (7) Pima County Community College District; (8) Pinal County Community College District, Central Arizona College; (9) Yavapai County Community College District; and (10) Yuma & La Paz Counties Community College District, Arizona Western College. Statewide and District Summaries' information are presented using tables and graphs. Summary characteristics include the number of 1998 Arizona high school graduates enrolled in the ten Arizona community college districts and their first term average GPA. Information presented in tabular form also include the number of students enrolling in first English (pre-freshman, freshman, advanced, and other English) and math (pre-intermediate, intermediate, and college algebra, calculus, and other math) courses and the average GPA of these students enrolling. The average GPA for these first English and math courses are individually graphed. (VWC) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED440678.htm

_____. (1999). Student Profiles, 1999. The Latest in a Series of Annual Factbooks about Student Participation in California Higher Education. ED440605 This report provides information about students in postsecondary education in California, including information on first-time freshmen and transfer students, as well as other data, including total enrollments and student outcomes. Most of the tables display information covering the period 1988-89 through academic year 1997-98. Tables are organized in six sections: (1) California high school graduateswhich provides information about the number of public and private high school graduates, their origin and academic preparation by region, and their college-going rates at California public and independent postsecondary institutions; (2) all postsecondary studentswhich provides information about total student enrollment in California's colleges and universities; (3) first-time freshmen and new studentswhich includes information (origin, gender, racial/ethnic distribution) about college-going rates of recent high school graduates, and compares California first-time freshman enrollment with U.S. data; (4) transfer studentswhich includes information on students transferring from community colleges to the California State University and the University of California; (5) student outcomeswhich provides information on the number of degrees/certificates awarded at public institutions by level, gender, race/ethnicity, and discipline; and (6) area-specific student datawhich includes information on high school graduates and college-going rates by county, and on community college transfer students by district and campus. (CH) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED440605.htm

_____. (1999). Students Who Took Advanced Placement (AP) Examinations. Indicator of the Month. ED434166 The number of students per 1,000 12th graders who participated in Advanced Placement (AP) examinations shows the level of importance that students, schools, and colleges place on the AP program and how that importance has changed over time. Between 1984 and 1997, the number of students who took AP examinations increased dramatically, from 50 to 131 students per 1,000 12th graders. By 1997, more females than males (145 per 1,000 compared with 117 per 1,000) took the AP examinations. Whites were more likely than Blacks or Hispanics to take AP examinations except in the area of foreign languages. Two tables and two figures provide information about the students who took AP examinations and the examinations they chose. The highest participation was for social studies examinations. (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED434166.htm

Sauer, K. R. (1995). Secondary Students Who Earn Postsecondary Credit through Instruction Taken at Their High School: A Working Paper. ED390339 In an effort to understand one aspect of the relationship between the secondary and postsecondary sectors in Indiana, this analysis reports data regarding on- site instruction at the secondary school in which students earn dual credit. Under "dual credit" arrangements, a student simultaneously earns credit that will count toward meeting both high school diploma requirements and postsecondary degree requirements. Two tables report a summary of information from participating institutions on various aspects of dual credit instruction. Five public and four private postsecondary institutions reported offering dual credit instruction at secondary schools. A total of 2,348 students took courses on the dual credit basis in the year of the survey. The first table provides information on: institution, program name, who teaches the class, type of students in the class, how students qualify for the class, how postsecondary credit is awarded, and for what courses students can earn postsecondary credit. The second table presents data on: maximum number of postsecondary credits a student can earn, how many students earned credit, what fees students pay, and whether the institutions received enrollment change funding for these students. An appendix contains sections of the Indiana legal code authorizing dual credit arrangements. (JB) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED390339.htm

Saurino, D. R. (1994). Evaluation Formats: A Teacher's Action Research Look at Tracking. ED399271 How different evaluation formats affected test scores for different tracks of high school biology students was studied in an action research case study. For purposes of the study, "A" tracked students were generally college-bound; "B" tracked students were those who had no desire to attend college, especially those in vocational education, or who were below average students whose advisors thought they would not be able to pass a "college-bound" course. Forty-eight A- tracked students and 45 B-tracked students were the experimental groups. Twenty- nine A-tracked students and 42 B-tracked students served as comparisons. Students in the experimental group took the same test control group students did, but, in addition, they were given an additional three essay questions. Their attitudes about the essay test evaluations were noted. Results suggest that adding essay questions to objective tests supplied by textbook publishers is recommended for A- tracked students, who performed well and liked the essay format. However, B- tracked students found the essays difficult and did not do well. The disadvantages of the essay format outweighed the advantages for the students in the B track. Action research was a good approach to investigating the effects of different evaluation formats for students of different levels of ability. (Contains 26 references.) (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED399271.htm

Schwartz, W. (1996). Immigrants and Their Educational Attainment: Some Facts and Findings. ERIC Digest, Number 116. (ISSN: 0889-8049). ED402398 http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED402398.htm

Sharp, S.& Others. (1996). Insider Information: Social Influences on College Attendance. ED395555 This study examined how tracking, among a number of other background and school experience variables, affects students' predisposition to pursue a college education. It hypothesized that background characteristics and experiences affect secondary school track placement, that tracking significantly impacts students' postsecondary plans, and that background characteristics and school experiences influence student decisions to attend two- or four-year institutions. The study explored research on college choice and educational stratification, including tracking, and utilized data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 which is examining critical transitions students experience as they leave elementary school, progress through high school, and enter postsecondary institutions or the workforce. The study used a split group analysis technique to study such variables as socioeconomic status, student's gender, student's race/ethnicity, parents' desire for their child to attend college, and the student's self-report of his or her ability level. The study revealed a number of important relationships among students' background characteristics (especially gender and ethnic group) and track placement and their decisions about whether and where to attend a postsecondary institution. Implications for improving educational access to minority group students are drawn. (Contains 51 references.) (CK) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED395555.htm

Shepard, L. L.& Others. (1996). The Effect of Prematriculation Activity on Freshman Enrollment: Guess Who's Coming and Guess Who's Staying. AIR 1996 Annual Forum Paper. ED397751 Changing patterns in how students apply to colleges and universities have affected the way institutional researchers project enrollment. This paper explores the usefulness of adding student prematriculation activities (i.e., commitment to enroll, registration patterns, and academic ability). Trends in prematriculation activity identified include increased student time investment in the college choice process, increased amount of information available to students, and increased numbers of applications sent out by each student. Admission trends have reflected these changes in record numbers of applications, declines in first year enrollments, more acceptances offered by colleges, but fewer students enrolling in their first choice of college. The data for this study were freshmen from 1991 to 1995 at Indiana University-Bloomington who were counted at four different times in the enrollment process. Findings indicated that although fewer students paid the enrollment deposit by 1, 88 percent of those who did registered for classes in July. Numbers of students registering in July added significantly to the accurate prediction of fall enrollment as did student Scholastic Assessment Test scoree and high school rank. (DB) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED397751.htm

Smith, T. M. (1997). Minorities in Higher Education. Findings from "The Condition of Education, 1996," No. 9. (ISBN: 0-16-048996-2). ED405792 This report presents data on the plans and expectations, preparation and course- taking patterns, college enrollment rates, and college persistence and completion of minorities in comparison with the majority, white population. The data reported show the following: (1) that while almost all high school seniors expect to complete at least some college, Hispanic seniors are less likely to plan to attend college right after high school; (2) that black and Hispanic graduates are less likely than white peers to make an immediate transition to college with Hispanics more likely to enroll in two-year colleges; (3) that white and Asian/Pacific Islanders are more likely than black and Hispanic counterparts to persist toward a bachelor's degree; (4) that black and American Indian/Alaskan Native graduates are less likely than white and Asian/Pacific Islanders to earn a bachelor's degree in 4 years or less; (5) that while several minority groups major in fields that will help them recoup college costs, black, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islanders are less likely than whites to major in education, with the last-named group more likely than whites to major in computer science and engineering. The report also reviews an alternative approach to assessing these data. (Contains 35 references.) (CH) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED405792.htm

Smith, T. Y. (June 01, 1999). Baccalaureate Degree Attainment and Precollege Academic Preparedness of Underrepresented Minorities. AIR 1999 Annual Forum Paper. ED433795 This study analyzed retention and graduation rates of entering minority group freshmen from the 1989-96 cohort at 232 diverse colleges and universities using data from the Consortium for Student Retention Data Exchange (CSRDE), which consistently have indicated that graduation rates are lower for underrepresented minority groups of blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians. Findings are reported for: first-time freshman population, http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED433795.htm

Steen, S. J., Ed. (1994). Academic Year Abroad, 1994/95. The Most Complete Guide to Planning Academic Year Study Abroad. (ISBN: 87206-206-6). ED367270 This book describes over 2,100 academic programs (at least one academic quarter in length) sponsored by accredited U.S. postsecondary institutions or developed for U.S. students by foreign universities and other organizations. Entries are based on a 1993 survey. While most programs listed are available to undergraduates, many programs are also open to precollege students, graduate students, teachers, professionals, and other adults. Learning options presented range from lecture courses and intensive language immersion to internships, student teaching, field research, and voluntary service. Program entries are organized first by geographical region: Africa, South of the Sahara; Asia and Oceania; Eastern Europe; Western Europe; the Middle East and North Africa; and the Western Hemisphere. Each world region is subdivided alphabetically by country and then by city. Within each city section, program entries are alphabetized by name of sponsoring organization. In addition to specific country and city listings, there is a "Worldwide" section for programs that are active in more than one world region. Similarly, there are "More Than One Country" listings at the beginning of each regional section, and "More Than One City" listings at the front of each country. Data provided include (1) costs and fees; (2) academic credit; (3) eligibility and academic level; (4) dates and duration; (5) language/s of instruction; (6) housing; and (7) contact addresses, phone, and fax numbers. (GLR) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED367270.htm

Steen, S. J., Ed. (1994). Vacation Study Abroad, 1994/95. The Complete Guide to Summer and Short-Term Study. (ISBN: 87206-207-4). ED367271 This book describes over 2,100 academic programs sponsored by U.S. and foreign universities, language schools, and a wide variety of other organizations for summer and short-term study abroad programs. Entries are based on a 1993 survey. While most programs listed are available to undergraduates, many programs are also open to precollege students, graduate students, teachers, professionals, and other adults. Learning options presented range from lecture courses and intensive language immersion to internships, student teaching, field research, and voluntary service. Program entries are organized first by geographical region: Africa, South of the Sahara; Asia and Oceania; Eastern Europe; Western Europe; the Middle East and North Africa; and the Western Hemisphere. Each world region is subdivided alphabetically by country and then by city. Within each city section, program entries are alphabetized by name of sponsoring organization. In addition to specific country and city listings, there is a "Worldwide" section for programs that are active in more than one world region. Similarly, there are "More Than One Country" listings at the beginning of each regional section, and "More Than One City" listings at the front of each country. Data provided include: (1) costs and fees; (2) academic credit; (3) eligibility and academic level; (4) dates and duration; (5) languages of instruction; (6) housing; and (7) contact addresses, phone, and fax. (GLR) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED367271.htm

Stern, D. (1997). Learning and Earning: The Value of Working for Urban Students. ERIC/CUE Digest Number 128. (ISSN: 0889-8049). ED413405 This digest briefly reviews the ways that working affects students, and describes ways that schools can partner with businesses to increase the educational benefits of working. The economic payoff for students who work in high school is well-established, including a positive association between the amount of high school work experience and employment or earnings a few years later. The opportunity to acquire skills at work can have positive effects on the development of student orientation toward work. The major potential cost of students' jobs is a negative impact on academic achievement, although research findings vary significantly on the extent of the detriment. Debates over the supposed benefits of work experience have resulted in increased interest in school-to-work initiatives in which education and employment are linked. General purposes of work-based learning are: (1) to provide for acquisition of knowledge or skills for employment; (2) career exploration and planning; (3) knowledge of all aspects of an industry; (4) development of work-related personal and social competence; and (5) improvement in student motivation and academic achievement. If work-based learning is to achieve these goals, it must be planned carefully and monitored by people who understand the work place and what is to be learned there. Teachers of academic subjects must believe that the program is worthwhile and must link the work-based aspects with instruction in formal academic subjects. Until it is determined that work-based learning can be extended effectively to college-bound students, efforts to promote work-based learning programs will be minimal, and students in those programs feel stigmatized as less academically able. (Contains 16 references.) (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED413405.htm

Stevenson, H. W.& Lee, S.-y. (1997). International Comparisons of Entrance and Exit Examinations: Japan, United Kingdom, France, and Germany. ED412289 The roles of exit examinations (high school exit) and college entrance examinations in four industrialized countries are described. Information was obtained from reviews of educational systems and interviews with small samples of students (at least seven or eight students), parents, and teachers during 1993. All four countries studied, Japan, Germany, France, and the United Kingdom, are experiencing a common problem in that their universities, built to educate a moderate percentage of the population, are being asked to accommodate increasing numbers of students. They are left with the alternatives of restricting enrollments to make the universities more elitist or expanding enrollments and watering down the value of the university degree. In all of these countries, entrance and exit examinations are based on a curriculum established by ministries of education. These examinations are closely tied to what students have studied in school. Parents and students expressed satisfaction with the examinations overall, although they noted problems with strong reliance on examinations. They were unable, however, to suggest more desirable procedures. Regardless of the approach taken by governments in these four countries, it seems likely that the number of students selecting a vocational track will continue to lag as long as economic and social advantages of a university degree persist. (Contains 25 references.) (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED412289.htm
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_____. (1994). The ACT Assessment 1994: An Overview. ED378204 Each year 1.5 million students take the ACT Assessment to help themselves identify and develop realistic plans for their postsecondary education and career goals. The ACT Assessment includes the following tests: (1) English; (2) Mathematics; (3) Reading; and (4) Science Reasoning. Students receive four test scores, seven subscores, and a composite score. A student profile and an interest inventory provide student characteristics. Results are reported to the student, the high school, and colleges requested by the student. Tests, development of which is detailed, are based on the major areas of instruction in American high schools and colleges, so that a student's performance has a direct and obvious relationship to academic development. A description and sample questions are provided from each test. The 1994-95 and 1995-96 testing schedule is presented. (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED378204.htm

_____. (1994). The High School Profile Report. Normative Data. A Description of the Academic Abilities and Nonacademic Characteristics of Your ACT Tested 1994 Graduates. National Report. ED378200 Statistics are presented in this report format to reflect the characteristics of students from a given high school who took the ACT Assessment during their junior or senior years and graduated in 1994. Depending on the proportion of students who took the examination, the data or not reflect the characteristics of college-bound students. Tables present information on average ACT scores by academic preparation and ability level for ethnic groups and for males and females, as well as student perceptions of satisfaction with the school and adequacy of the curriculum and student vocational and educational plans. Background information and student educational preferences are also summarized. Data is presented in 13 tables. An appendix summarizes normative data for 1994 graduates nationally. (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED378200.htm

_____. (1994). The North Carolina 1994 Scholastic Aptitude Test Report. ED381548 The 1994 report is the fifth annual report of North Carolina Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) results since special state reporting began in 1990. Information is available for the nation, the state, and the 119 school systems and 2 special schools in North Carolina. It is the third year that all SAT-takers previously had the opportunity to take the PSAT at state expense. It is also the first year that the state supported student participation in advanced placement courses in every school system. While the participation rate on the SAT remained the same as in the previous year, North Carolina students made a one-point gain in 1994 from the previous year. Since 1989, North Carolina is the only SAT state (at least 40% of graduating seniors taking the SAT) to have 5 consecutive years of improvement. In fact, in 10 of the last 11 years, the state's total SAT scores have increased from the previous year's score. In the last 5 years North Carolina increased its average SAT score by 24 points. Test result information is presented in 19 tables and 23 figures. (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED381548.htm

_____. (1995). The Fact Book 1994-95. A Statistical Handbook. ED391825 This handbook presents statistics about the public and private schools of Maryland. In 1994 there were 790,938 public school students and 156,582 nonpublic school students in the state, representing a 13.2% increase in public schools over 5 years and a 17% growth in the nonpublic schools. There were 1,262 public schools in 1994-95 and 1,024 nonpublic schools. Of the state's 87,704.1 total public school employees, 19,533.2 were in noninstructional positions and 60,153.7 were in instructional positions. The majority of Maryland's public school students were white (58.1%), with 34.7% African American, 0.3% American Indian/Alaskan native, 3.8% Asian/Pacific Islander, and 3.1% Hispanic. Most of the state's teachers (78.7%) were white, with 19.6% African American and 1.7% of other racial and ethnic groups. The statewide average dropout rate was 4.96%, but in Baltimore city, the dropout rate was 15.19%. Most (79.5%) of the state's 39,669 high school graduates planned to attend college. Information is also provided about achievement test results for the Scholastic Aptitude Test and the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills, as well as about teacher salaries, financial resources, special programs, and vocational and adult education. A list of state school information resources is provided. (Contains 1 map, 33 tables, and 6 figures.) (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED391825.htm

_____. (1996). The College Guidance Counselor's Handbook, 1996-97. A College Guidance and Information Resource for Oregon High School Counselors. ED402522 Given the increased complexity and variety of post-secondary educational options, the necessary guidance of college-bound students has become ever more critical and vital. Intended as a reference for counselors in their college guidance efforts, this handbook contains information on the Oregon State System High School Visitation Program, preparing for visitation, admission requirements and procedures, testing requirements, State System publications, special programs, college guidance activities, and the educational agencies, organizations, and institutions in Oregon. Though some of the handbook's content applies to all post- secondary education, the central focus and emphasis is on the public four-year colleges and universities in Oregon. Major sections are as follows: (1) A College Guidance Calendar for the 1996-97 Academic Year; (2) The State System High School Visitation Program; (3) Residency Rules; (4) Oregon State System Admission Requirements; (5) Admission of Community College Transfer Students; (6) Testing Requirements, Dates, and Information Sources; (7) Student Budgets and Financial Aid; (8) Special Academic Support Service Programs; (9) State System Publications and Services; (10) College Guidance Information and Resources; (11) Statement of Principles of Good Practice; (12) Pacific Northwest Association of College Admissions Counselors; and (13) College Credit Programs and Opportunities for High School Students. Contains tables that present 1996-97 CLEP, AP, and IB Credit Policies at Oregon state system institutions, Oregon community colleges, and Oregon independent colleges. (RB) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED402522.htm

_____. (1996). The Counselor's Handbook for High Schools, 1997-98. ED408555 Many high school students are not aware that they be eligible for college financial aid. The primary purpose of this book is to help high school guidance counselors advise students about financial aid for postsecondary education. The text is divided into three parts. Part 1 offers general information about postsecondary opportunities and explores sources of aid, general eligibility requirements for student aid, ways to demonstrate need, and tips on choosing a school carefully. Part 2 covers the application process for financial aid in detail. It addresses such concerns as the federal role in application processing, applying for aid, submitting an initial application, processing the application, reviewing the aid report, making changes to the aid application, and filing an application, and 1997-98 application deadlines. Part 3 gives step-by-step instructions for filling out the application for federal student aid. It offers insights on each section of the form, explaining such topics as education background, future plans, student status, household information, asset information, and releases and signatures. Special sections on getting disadvantaged students into college, sources of additional information, and a directory of state agencies responsible for administering student grants are provided at the back. (RJM) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED408555.htm

_____. (1996). Transition Activity Calendar for Students with Visual Impairments. ED399711 This brochure provides college preparation suggestions for students with visual impairments in junior and senior high school. Each section includes a checklist of activities to be accomplished during a given grade in preparation for college. The 11th grade and 12th grade sections have a month-to-month guide. Recommended activities include: exploring different careers; participating in extracurricular activities, clubs, and organizations; taking a part-time or summer job or performing volunteer work; planning on how to pay for college; learning how to use different communication aids; discussing options with school guidance counselors, vocational rehabilitation counselors, Others; contacting colleges to learn about available student support services; taking standardized admission tests; and applying for admission. The guide also discusses the problems students with visual impairments face when attending colleges, including: (1) managing their time; (2) accessing written materials; (3) having enough money; (4) handling difficult classes; and (5) arranging for transportation. Also listed are suggestions offered by college students with visual impairments, focusing on: preregistering for classes; communicating with professors; locating transportation; ordering textbooks early; and making housing arrangements. A list of relevant resource organizations and materials is provided. (CR) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED399711.htm

_____. (1997). The Condition of Education, 1997. Supplemental and Standard Error Tables. ED410681 The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) gathers and publishes information on the status and progress of education in the United States. The "Condition of Education" is an annual, Congressionally mandated report produced by the NCES. It is an indicator report, presenting key data analyses that measure the health of education, monitor important developments in the education system, and show trends in major aspects of education. This document includes all the supplemental tables, notes, and standard error tables prepared for "The Condition of Education 1997." The tables provide additional information to complement the data presented in "The Condition." For example, Indicator 2 in the main volume compares early signs of school problems across racial/ethnic groups and according to parents' highest educational level. Additional tables provided in this supplemental volume compare early signs of school problems by students' age, urbanicity, and household income. Standard errors for all the survey estimates presented in this volume have been calculated and are also included. A total of 226 tables and 21 notes are included. (LMI) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED410681.htm

_____. (1997). The Educational Performance of Hmong Students in Wisconsin. ED424331 This report compares the educational performance of Asian and Hmong students with that of other students in six urban school districts across Wisconsin. These six districts were chosen because Hmong students are the largest minority group in each of the districts. Data from standardized tests given in grades 3, 4, 8, and 10 in these districts indicate that, despite the prevalence of risk factors, including family poverty, unemployment, welfare dependency, and teen pregnancy, Asian students (approximately 90% of whom are Hmong in these districts) have scores above national norms. In four of the six districts, Asian students perform at levels equal to or above the other students on the third-grade reading comprehension test. Interviews with teachers, counselors, bilingual staff, and administrators indicate that Hmong students have made a better adaptation to the school environment than other students and are graduating at rates comparable to or higher than those of other students. The graduation rate for Asian students in these districts is 95%, higher than that reported for white and other non-Asian high school students. Many will continue on to postsecondary education in the University of Wisconsin system, where they also have a higher graduation rate than other groups. It is likely that Hmong youth will be more successful in their education careers than any other immigrant or refugee group to come to the United States. Some reasons for this educational success are discussed, centering on values that promote educational attainment. Some recommendations are made for improving the education of Hmong students, including additional instruction in science for Hmong and Southeast Asian students in elementary grades, attention to the bilingual and bicultural education programs, and long-term monitoring of the effects of welfare reform on the Hmong population. One appendix discusses Hmong participation in the Wisconsin Student Assessment System, and the other provides a table of undergraduate Southeast Asian enrollment in the state system of higher education. (Contains 1 map, 14 tables, and 34 references.) (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED424331.htm

_____. (1997). The Path to College: Making Choices That Are Right for You. (ISSN: 1065-1160). ED413886 The "ERIC Review" announces research results, publications, and new programs relevant to each issue's theme topic. This issue is a compendium of resources, advice, and research to help guidance counselors, parents, and students plan for college. The first section, "Starting Out on the Path to College," contains the following articles: "Why Get on the Path to College?" (Adrianna Kezar); "Common Mistakes: Narrowing Your Choices Too Early" (Adrianna Kezar); "Which Is the Right Path?" (Adrianna Kezar); "Adult Students and the College Experience" (Sandra Kerka); "Women and the Path to College" (Pamela Haag); "Making the Grade: Help and Hope for the First Generation College Student" (Kevin Mitchell); and "College Planning for Students with Disabilities" (excerpted from "How To Choose a College: Guide for the Student with a Disability"). Section 2"Gathering Information and Narrowing Your Choices" contains articles addressing the college landscape: "Community Colleges Today: Bringing You Into the Future" (Norma G. Kent); "State and Land Grant Universities: Opportunities and Choices" (National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges); "The Benefits of the Private, Liberal Arts College Experience" (Alan Splete); "The Case for All-Black Colleges" (William H. Gray, III); "Women's Colleges: A Legacy of High-Achieving Women" (Jadwiga S. Sebrechts); "Tribal Colleges: Tradition, Heritage, and Community" (Gerald Carty Monette); "Career Colleges: Preparing for the Job Market" (Kevin Mitchell); "At the Fork in the Path: Some Guidance from the Research" (Adrianna Kezar); and "How Colleges Are Changing" (Adrianna Kezar). The "College Planning Section" begins with two introductory articles: "Planning for College: Some Issues for Students and Parents To Consider" (Jim Montague); and "College Preparation Checklist for Students" and "Financial Preparation Checklist for Parents" (from the U.S. Department of Education's "Preparing Your Child for College, 1996-97 Edition"). Section 3"Making Decisions" consists of: "Using Decision-Making Tools: A Compass on the Path" (Patricia Wood and Adrianna Kezar); and "College Selection and the Internet" (Kenneth E. Hartman). Section 4 "Succeeding on Your Chosen Path" contains: "Tips for Being Successful on Your Path: Don't Get Tripped Up " (Adrianna Kezar); "Looking Back: Advice from Two Students on the Path" (Jennifer Lauver and Katherine Semrau); and "Graduate School: Some Resources for the Future" (Nancy A. Gaffney). Section 5"Library" consists of print and electronic resources on college choice and attendance, compiled by Patricia Wood. (SWC) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED413886.htm

_____. (1998). The Counselor's Handbook for Postsecondary Schools, 1998-99. ED416787 This guide is designed to help school counselors advise college-bound students and college students about the federal student financial assistance programs available through the Department of Education. The first section gives general information on the aid programs, eligibility requirements, and how a student demonstrates financial need. The second section gives detailed information on the application process, using the Free Application for Federal Student Aid form (FAFSA), including renewal FAFSA, FAFSA on the World Wide Web, FAFSA Express, renewal FAFSA on the Web, use of electronic data exchange, obtaining signatures when applying electronically, receiving a student's application data, submitting the initial application, how the application is processed, reviewing the forms resulting from submission of FAFSA, making information changes, using professional judgment in overriding dependency determination, the "school use only" box on the form, documenting eligibility, handling feedback from the processing system, and 1998-99 application deadlines. The final section walks through completion of the FAFSA form by section and line. An appendix lists organizational and print sources of additional information. (MSE) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED416787.htm

_____. (1998). The Fact Book 1997-1998. A Statistical Handbook. ED419015 Available from: Maryland State Department of Education; Planning, Results, and Information Management, 200 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore, MD 21201-2595. This handbook presents statistics about the public and private schools of Maryland. In 1997 there were 830,744 public school students in Maryland and 170,285 nonpublic students representing a 10.5% increase in the public school enrollment over 5 years and a 14.5% increase in nonpublic school enrollment over 5 years. There were 1,297 public schools in the state and 1,110 nonpublic schools. Of the state's 91,889 public school staff, 62,503 were in instructional positions. The majority of Maryland's public school students were White (55.9%), with the remainder being 36.1% African American, 3.7% Hispanic American, 0.3% American Indian, and 4.0% Asian American. Most of the state's 48,884 teachers were White (78.1%) with 19.7% African American. The statewide average dropout rate was 4.66%, although in Baltimore City, the dropout rate was 13.49%. Most of the state's 43,365 high school graduates (81.1%) planned to go to college. Information is also provided about achievement test results for the Scholastic Aptitude Test and the Maryland School Performance Assessment, as well as information about teacher salaries, financial resources, special programs, and vocational and adult education. Lists of state school information resources and local school systems are provided. (Contains 34 tables, 1 map, and 6 figures.) (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED419015.htm

_____. (1999). The Fact Book, 1998-1999. A Statistical Handbook. ED438302 This handbook presents statistics about the public and private schools of Maryland. In 1998 there were 841,671 public school students in Maryland and 175,622 nonpublic school students, representing a 9.1% increase in the public school enrollment over 5 years and a 15.9% increase in the nonpublic school enrollment over 5 years. There were 1,355 public schools in the state and 1,113 nonpublic schools. Of the state's 95,035 public school staff, 65,486 were in instructional positions. The majority of Maryland's public school students were White (55%), with the remainder being African American (36.6%), Hispanic American (4%), American Indian (0.3%), and Asian American (4%). Most of the state's teachers were White (77.2%), with 20.4% African American. The statewide average dropout rate was 4.05%, although in Baltimore City the dropout rate was 10.22%. Most of the state's 45,033 high school graduates planned to go to college. Information is also provided about achievement test results for the Scholastic Aptitude Test and the Maryland School Performance Assessment, as well as information about teacher salaries, financial resources, special programs, correctional education, and vocational and adult education. Lists of state school information resources and local school systems are provided. (Contains 30 tables and 1 map.) (SLD) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED438302.htm

_____. (1999). The High School Counselor's Handbook, 1999-2000. ED427270 This handbook is designed for high school counselors guiding students through the process of applying for financial aid for postsecondary education. Using a simple, direct style, it covers the basic information, some common mistakes, and provides resource information that counselors can use or refer students to. Part 1, "General Information about Postsecondary Education Opportunities," includes sources of aid, eligibility requirements, demonstrating need, choosing a school, and opportunities for disadvantaged students. Part 2, "The Application Process for Financial Aid," covers the complete process for submitting the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) using paper or electronic methods. How the application is processed, deadlines, and tips for getting through it smoothly are included. Part 3, "Completing the Free Application for Federal Student Aid," reviews the questions to clarify their intent. A copy of the application is supplied. Appendix A includes additional sources of information such as web sites and publications. Appendix B is a "Directory of State Agencies." Appendix C provides sample handouts. Phone numbers, Internet addresses, and a glossary of specialized terms are also included. (EMK) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED427270.htm

_____. (1999). Trend Book. ED426666 You be able to order this document from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service. This document presents trend data, covering approximately a ten-year span, on Maryland postsecondary schools. The tables are grouped into nine topics: (1) factors affecting enrollment trends in the college-going rates of Maryland high school seniors, their intended major, college admissions test scores, and performance in college; (2) enrollment on Maryland campuses by level, gender, race, residency, and program; (3) retention, transfer, and graduation transfer patterns, retention, and graduation rates; (4) degrees number of degrees and certificates awarded at Maryland campuses, including breakdowns by race and gender; (5) graduate outcomes summarizes information from surveys of community college graduates and bachelor's degree recipients about their postgraduation education experience and occupational status. Also provides information on placement rates of students at private career schools; (6) faculty and staff number of faculty and staff at state's public colleges and universities, including breakdowns by race and gender; (7) campus resources revenues and expenditures at Maryland's public campuses, general fund support for higher education, and capital projects; (8) tuition and fees annual undergraduate tuition and fees for resident and nonresidents at state public four-year campuses, and credit-hour tuition rates for community college and graduate/professional students at public institutions; and (9) student financial aid undergraduate financial aid, percentage of state students receiving aid, and funding for state scholarship programs. (CH) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED426666.htm

Thomas, R. S. (1998). Black and Latino College Enrollment: Effects of Background, High School Preparation, Family and Peer Influence, and Financial Aid. ED420253 This study examined the college enrollment decisions of Black and Latino students, focusing on factors that influenced their decision to attend college. Data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988-1994 were used, namely a sample of 11,879 seniors who completed high school in 1992, including 1,181 Blacks and 1,505 Latinos. The study found that Black students who enrolled in a four-year college were more likely to: be female (62 percent), have come from upper-middle-class backgrounds (36 percent), have parents with some college education (52 percent), have been placed in a college prep program in high school (62 percent), and fall in the third quartile of standardized tests (33 percent), than their peers. Unlike Blacks, Latinos who enrolled in a four-year college were slightly more likely to be male (53 percent) and to be from low-income backgrounds (30 percent), and were about equally as likely to have parents with educational levels no higher than high school or some college (38 percent and 37 percent) and to fall into the two highest test quartiles (34 percent and 33 percent respectively). High school preparation and the availability of financial aid also had a significant influence on the college enrollment decisions of both groups. An appendix describes the operationalization of the variables.(Contains 59 references.) (MDM) http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED420253.htm

Thurber, H. J., Ed.& Thomason, T. C., Ed. (1995). Guide to Financial Aid for American Indian Students. ED400130 This directory compiles information on college financial aid for American Indian and Alaska Native students. Information is provided on approximately 175 programs exclusively for American Indian and Alaska Native students, including private scholarships and fellowships, school-specific programs and scholarships, state financial aid, tribal funding, and summer programs. Entries include contact information, scholarship amount, application deadline, and eligibility requirements. This directory also lists tribal colleges and universities; programs and financial aid for minorities; scholarships and fellowships for American Indians and other minority group students who wish to study psychology and related fields; federal financial aid programs including Pell Grants, Perkins Loans, Federal-Work Study, Supplemental Education Opportunity Grants, Stafford Loans, and Parent Loans for Undergraduate Students; and publications and other resources related to college financial aid. Includes an index. (LP) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED400130.htm

Toma, J. D.& Cross, M. (1996). Intercollegiate Athletics and Student College Choice: Understanding the Impact of Championship Seasons on the Quantity and Quality of Undergraduate Applicants. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper. ED404895 The effect that winning a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 national championship in football or men's basketball have upon the quantity and quality of undergraduate admissions applications received by institutions was examined. Between 1979 and 1992, 11 institutions won the NCAA Men's Basketball Tournament with two winning twice. In the same years, 13 different universities won or shared the national title in football. For each of these institutions and each of the championships, admissions data for the 5 years before and after the championship were analyzed. The preliminary findings suggest that the most apparent measure of athletic success, a championship season, was one factor among several in the college choice process for undergraduates. It was found that in certain circumstances notable increases occurred in applications received in the years following the championship season. No evidence was found that the quality of applicants increased following championship years. Championship seasons in the most popular sports were routinely accompanied by significant, positive attention for the sponsoring institution but this attention did not increase the quality of the applicant pool. Appendices detail the findings for football and basketball. (Contains 71 references.)(JLS) http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED404895.htm

Topeka,: Published by the college.
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_____. (1995). Underrepresented Groups in Public Institutions of Higher Education in Illinois. Report to the Governor and General Assembly. ED401364 This is the seventh annual report on minority, female, and disabled students and staff in Illinois higher education, submitted under a legislative mandate. The main body of the report is divided into three sections. The first presents trends and the most recent enrollment, employment, and degree completion data for these students at public universities, community colleges, and private schools. Black enrollment at the undergraduate level increased slightly in 1993, with a slight increase at the graduate level also. The growth in Hispanic enrollment is somewhat greater, with a 4.5% increase from 1992 to 1993. The second section, "Efforts To Improve Representation," describes major statewide and institutional initiatives that have occurred in the past year and describes the results of studies related to underrepresented groups. The third section considers public college and university efforts in Illinois to improve the retention of undergraduate students from underrepresented groups. Three appendixes present material on specific program activities as reported by individual schools, an annotated bibliography of 11 sources, a list of programs, and tables to supplement the text. (Contains 34 figures, 3 text tables, and 24 appendix tables.) (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED401364
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Vernez, G.& Abrahamse, A. (1996). How Immigrants Fare in U.S. Education. (ISBN: 0-8330-2399-3). ED399320 This study is the first effort to produce a systematic description and analysis of the experience and performance of immigrant children and youths in the U.S. educational system. Data from the High School and Beyond (HSB) study initiated in 1980 were complemented by 1970, 1980, and 1990 U.S. Census figures to compare the performance of immigrant children and youth to their native counterparts. Immigrant children and youth are as likely as their native counterparts to enroll in U.S. elementary and middle schools, but they are somewhat less likely to attend high school. This differential is accounted for by immigrant youths of Hispanic origin, primarily from Mexico. If enrolled in a U.S. high school by grade 10, immigrants are more likely than their native counterparts to make choices consistent with pursuing a college education, a pattern that is true in the aggregate and for separate ethnic groups. Immigrant children and their parents have higher educational aspirations than their native counterparts, and, once enrolled, their educational attainment overall has equaled, if not exceeded, that of native children and youths. Findings suggest that there is no need to develop policies targeted uniquely on immigrants, although this does not mean that there are no difficulties inherent in meeting the needs of immigrant children. A cause for concern is the continuing large discrepancy in educational attainment between Hispanics and other racial and ethnic groups. Two appendixes present definitions, means, and standard errors of analyses, and regression results. (Contains 2 figures, 22 tables, 6 appendix tables, and 41 references.) (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED399320
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_____. (1994). Women in Literature 7-12: A Training Module. Equity in Education: The Alaska Project. ED375429 Developed and written so that Alaska school district personnel with a minimal amount of experience could conduct an equity inservice presentation, this equity module provides trainer instruction sheets, handouts, and activity sheets suitable for an inservice presentation on women in literature. After a sample agenda for the inservice presentation and an introductory exercise, the module presents activities designed to: (1) identify bias in books for college-bound students; (2) point out bias in reviewing of female authors' books; (3) give participants a chance to analyze their own curriculum; (4) help participants adapt and/or use some of the 13 lesson plans included in the module; (5) have participants experience a lesson on women in literature; (6) introduce participants to a number of women authors; and (7) show what assumptions can be made from literature that is sexually biased. Evaluation instruments; a list of eight womens' diaries and journals that are available in Alaska; a list of 11 womens' diaries and journals that are not available in Alaska; Elaine Millard's essay "Stories to Grow On: A Re-Examination of Fiction in the First Years of Secondary School"; a list of alternative themes, literature units, and publishers' resources; a list of 50 recommended books by women; and four articles from "English Journal" concerning women in literature are attached. (RS) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED375429

_____. (1996). Where Have All the Graduates Gone? Survey of the Oregon High School Graduating Class of 1995. ED394474 A telephone survey was undertaken in February 1996 of the 400 randomly selected members of the Oregon high school graduating class of 1995 and 400 ethnic minority graduates, in an update of a similar study done of the class of 1993. The study aimed to identify the percentage of the graduating class who attended a postsecondary institution in http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED394474

_____. (2000). Workforce Development. Symposium 37. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.]. ED441127 Three presentations are provided from Symposium 37, Workforce Development, of the Academy of Human Resource Development (HRD) 2000 Conference Proceedings. "Unemployment and Low-Literacy among Welfare Recipients: Continuum of Literacy Program Models" (Larry G. Martin) presents a continuum of four types of literacy programsacademic, situated context/cognition, integrated literacy-soft skills, and integrated literacy-occupational skills. It matches them with five employment tiers of welfare recipients: unsubsidized employed, subsidized employed, subsidized unemployed (community service jobs), subsidized unemployed (transitions), and unsubsidized unemployed (homeless). "The Relationship between Learning Transfer System Perceptions and Basic Workplace Skills" (Reid A. Bates, Elwood F. Holton III) reports a study that examined variation in individual level learning transfer system perceptions associated with job-related basic skill differences and found significant differences for employees with math and reading skill levels required for their jobs versus those without. "Survey Evidence from College-Bound High School Graduates: Implications for School-to-Work [STW] and Human Resource Development" (Richard L. Hannah) describes early work patterns, reasons for working, and implications in the context of STW literature and the rethinking of evaluative criteria with respect to HRD. The papers contain reference sections. (YLB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED441127

Wagner, T.& Sconyers, N. (1996). "Seeing" the School Reform Elephant: Connecting Policy Makers, Parents, Practioners, and Students. ED400078 This report is part of a multi-year project conducted by the Institute for Responsive Education (IRE) and Boston University components of the Center on Families, Communities, Schools and Children's Learning. The report draws on results of a series of focus groups and interviews conducted in 1994 and 1995 to explore how policymakers and parents, teachers, and students in local schools view school reform and family-community collaboration. Policymakers view school reform as necessary to maintain a competitive economic advantage and think parental involvement is crucial to reform efforts, but some are skeptical about parents' desire to be involved in their children's education. Policymakers from both the Democratic and Republican political parties are interested in and supportive of family-community-school partnerships. Parents express a sense of urgency about the need for fundamental changes primarily because of a perceived lack of student motivation and values. They are also concerned about offerings for non-college-bound students, enrichment opportunities, uncaring teachers, and high school structure. Practitioners are concerned about students' stress level and lack of motivation, scarce resources, and changes imposed by out-of-touch bureaucracies. Teachers hesitate to recommend major reform because of previous failed programs, but many see strong parental advocacy as a key to changing conditions. Students are concerned about boring classes but their major priorities are safety, the need for engaging school and extracurricular activities, and teachers' lack of respect for them. By examining the views of the four groups, an understanding of what must change in U.S. schools can be achieved. The practice of community partnership for school change must become a matter of both regular practice and policy. The report concludes with descriptions of promising new approaches to school reform, including IRE's Responsive Schools Project. (KDFB) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED400078

Walters, D. L. (1997). Is This College for Me? The Campus Visit as Seen by Student and Parent. AIR 1997 Annual Forum Paper. ED410893 This paper offers the personal reactions of a high school student and his parents to 27 preapplication college campus visits conducted from June through August 1994. The institutions included three public, six private religious, and 18 private nonsectarian institutions. Data were obtained through observations and interviews, and the study reports the reactions of the student and his parents. The report notes that requested information about campus tours and information sessions were generally received prior to the scheduled visit; that maps and signs made locating the admissions office easy; and that the admissions offices generally had brochures and information about the college and its programs. The student's reactions to group information sessions were mixed; he felt that some presenters covered the college's admissions process, financial aid opportunities, and the application essay adequately; others did not. The campus tour was also variously experienced; usually it included the library, student center, recreation facilities, classrooms and labs; in some cases the residence hall was not included. At eight of the colleges admissions personnel conducted individual interviews. Most colleges offered "viewbooks," but college catalogs generally had to be requested. Recommendations are offered to admissions officers concerning the admissions office itself, the group information session, the individual interview, the campus tour, and informational materials. Institutional researchers are urged to gather data on student and parent reactions to campus visits. (CH) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED410893

Wells, B. G. (1998). School Factors Associated with African American Students Who Thrive in College-Preparatory Mathematics. ED421572 Any explanation of the absence of African Americans from the workforce in positions requiring mathematics usually begins with an acknowledgment of black underachievement in mathematics from the early grades and continuing throughout secondary schooling. Yet there are those among this group that are successful in studying mathematics. This paper discusses school factors associated with successful African American study of secondary college- preparatory mathematics. It explores the hypothesis that specific school factors, alone or in combination with individual, family, and classroom factorssome manifest as early as eighth grademay serve as predictors of continued college-preparatory mathematics coursetaking by African American secondary students. The subject pool came from the National Education Longitudinal Study. A base year core of 24,599 African American students was selected, and these students were surveyed in 8th and 10th grades. Findings suggest that a 10th grade African American doing well in the appropriate level college preparatory mathematics class more than likely would have attended an eighth-grade public school in a nonrural part of the Northeastern North Central part of the United States. That school had an honor society, had high homework expectations of its students, and the students themselves placed a high priority on learning. The school also had a small student body, a smaller proportion of students eligible for free lunch, a larger proportion of minority students, and a smaller eighth-grade enrollment (less than 200). (Contains 3 tables and 44 references.) (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED421572

Whitener, S. D.& Others. (1997). Schools and Staffing Survey Student Records Questionnaire: School Year 1993-94, with Special Emphasis on American Indian and Alaska Native Students. E.D. Tabs. (ISBN: 0-16-049060-X). ED407209 First conducted during the 1987-88 school year, the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) provides periodic data on public and private schools in the United States. The Student Records Questionnaire was added during the 1993-94 cycle of SASS to collect student-level data from public schools, private schools, and schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The schools provided information from their administrative records for randomly selected students; American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) students were oversampled. Extensive data tables present total national enrollments by type of school, race/ethnicity, sex, community type (rural/urban), and region; describe characteristics of AIAN students (tribal membership and enrollment, currently taught or counseled by AIAN staff); and provide information from BIA schools, public schools, and private schools for AIAN students, other minority students, and White non-Hispanic students, and for males and females on the following: (1) students who withdrew, dropped out, or were chronically truant and reasons for the behavior; (2) students receiving special programs or services; (3) disabilities; (4) retention in grade; (5) junior high and high school students enrolled in various science and mathematics courses; (6) students enrolled in various Native studies, culture, and language courses; (7) students who completed advanced placement courses; (8) high school juniors and seniors who sent transcripts to colleges; and (9) students whose primary language is not English and those with limited English proficiency. Technical notes detail survey content, methodology, and definitions. Appendices include standard error tables, the Student Records Questionnaire, and a list of SASS data products. (SV) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED407209

Wida, K. J. (1997). The CPI as a Predictor of Academic Success. ED412463 Today's students experience a great deal of pressure to succeed in school. Since predictors of academic performance are widely used to assess student capabilities, the relationship between one such test, the California Psychological Inventory (CPI), and academic success are examined in this paper. The focus here is on the non-cognitive variables of the CPI and how they can serve as valid indicators of academic success. An overview of academic achievement is offered, along with a discussion of the relevant literature on non- cognitive variables that have been associated with school success. This discussion is followed by a general history of the CPI, which was published in its original form in 1957. The purpose of the inventory and a brief description of its 20 scales are likewise provided. The relationship between the CPI and academic success is detailed, with an emphasis on locus of control, self- efficacy, and expectations. It is claimed that given the current status of research, it is difficult to draw definitive conclusions regarding the use of the CPI as an indicator of school success. Nonetheless, non-cognitive variables such as self-efficacy, which enhance academic success, can be identified. Contains 15 references. (RJM) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED412463

Wille-Gregory, M. O. Preparing Students with Learning Disabilities for Success in Postsecondary Education. Components of transition planning to prepare students with learning disabilities for postsecondary education are described, with attention to student self- determination, self-evaluation, and selection of post-school transition goals and appropriate educational experiences during high school. Provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Act, Section 504, and Americans with Disabilities Act are compared. It is suggested that success in postsecondary education depend on the student's willingness to disclose having a learning disability and on having an accurate understanding of effective strategies and academic adjustments. Two curricula are identified to help students with learning disabilities to develop self-knowledge and advocacy skills and to identify realistic post-high school goals. Activities are suggested to build postsecondary planning into the high school curriculum. Frequently used accommodations for students with learning disabilities are also listed. Seven resource guides and two resource organizations are listed. (Contains 21 references.) (SW)

Williams, J. E.& Coombs, W. T. (1996). An Analysis of the Reliability and Validity of Bandura's Multidimensional Scales of Perceived Self-Efficacy. ED400307 The reliability of A. Bandura's Multidimensional Scales of Perceived Self- Efficacy (MSPSE) was studied using the Cronbach alpha measure of internal consistency. The divergent validity of the MSPSE was also examined using subscale correlations, and the construct validity of the measure was studied through application of principal axes factor analysis. A sample of 500 college-bound high school students completed the MSPSE. A three-factor model was selected based on previous empirical findings, application of the scree test of R. B. Cattell, and consideration of the theoretical nature of the factors. The three factors were identified and labeled as: (1) social efficacy; (2) academic efficacy; and (3) self-regulatory. Interrelationships among the factors are examined, and potential uses of the MSPSE were discussed. (Contains 5 tables and 16 references.) (Author/SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED400307

Wilson, J. D. (1974). Ravel's L'enfant et les sortilèges : a musical-dramatic analysis and guide to its musical preparation for college opera workshop production. Ml410.r23

Windham, P. P. L. (2000). Prior Year High School Graduates in the Florida Community College System (FCCS). ED441528 The One Florida Plan proposes that the State University System (SUS) admit any public high school graduate who: (1) is in the top 20 percent of his or her class; and (2) has completed the 19 credits required for admission. This report examines which 1997-98 high school graduates attending the Florida Community College System (FCCS) in 1998-99 would be eligible for SUS admission under the One Florida Plan. The purpose of the study was to examine who would be impacted by any admissions changes under the new plan. About 16 percent of the 1997-98 graduating class met the 2 admissions requirements. Ethnic differences were evident as 35 percent of Asian students met the criteria, compared to 20 percent of White and Indian students, 11 percent of Hispanic students, and 7 percent of Black students. Twenty percent of females met the requirements, compared to 12 percent of males. Of graduates attending the FCCS in 1998-99, 12 percent met the admissions criteria. Sixty-three percent of FCCS students had completed the required 19 credits, and these students were less likely to require remedial courses. Eighty-eight percent of students who took dual enrollment courses in high school completed the nineteen credits and 45 percent were in the top 20 percent of their high school classes. (RDG) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED441528

Winer, R. K. (1958). A junior college curriculum for the educational preparation of a medical technologist. AM 1958 win

Winter, J. (1999). Issues in National Assessment of Mathematicsthe Transition to Higher Level Study. ED430038 A study was conducted in England in 1997 to consider materials that were available to support students making a transition from compulsory education to the study of mathematics in noncompulsory post-16 education. This report on the study also contains an outline of the basic structures of the English education system and its assessment provisions. Recent changes in the English educational assessment system and to the curriculum with the adoption of the National Curriculum have created considerable interest in the transition students face between the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) mathematics and the "A level" examinations required for university entrance. Responses by 67 colleges and schools to a questionnaire about the transition were used to select 5 institutions for case studies and interviews about practices. Specific information about difficulties schools and colleges noted about gaps between the two mathematics curricula are identified and grouped into concerns about teaching in the "pre-16" years, teaching related to the GCSE, and teaching for students after the age of 16 who are beginning their A-level courses of study. Five recommendations are made for easing students' transition between the two curricula. Appendixes contain the attainment target for mathematics, a mathematics task, and a list of A-level prerequisites in mathematics. (Contains six references.) (SLD) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED430038

Woodrick, W. E.& Wolfe, V. L., Ed. (1995). The PEC (Postsecondary Education Consortium) Salutes Success. ED398660 This booklet offers profiles of 55 successful individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. The profiles identify how long the person has had a hearing impairment and the cause, their educational background, and the field in which they are employed. The profiles describe successful role models and are designed to help in career exploration for students with hearing impairments in school, rehabilitation, and community settings. The profiles can also be incorporated into the reading curriculum and can lead to group discussions concerning college and career options for young people who are deaf and hard of hearing. An introduction to the profiles suggests that students who have a clearly defined career goal are more likely to complete postsecondary education, and advises students to select a postsecondary institution which provides support services and special accommodations. (SW) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED398660.htm
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Yates, J. A., & University of Kentucky. Bureau of School Service. (1929). The type of high school curriculum which gives the best preparation for college. Lexington, Ky.,: University of Kentucky. Lb2350

Yu, M. (1999 Length: 76 Page(s); 1 Microfiche). Plans of the 1998 Graduates, Los Angeles Unified School District. Publication No. 711. ED429162 The Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) (California) conducts an annual survey of the educational experiences and plans of its high school graduates. Results from the 1998 survey are analyzed and summarized in this report, with results by ethnicity and gender reported only when there are large group differences. In http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED429162.htm
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Zalinsky, S. H. O. (1994). Increasing the Awareness of Available Scholarship Opportunities for High School Seniors through a Strategic Public Relations Program. ED383941 This practicum was designed so that high school seniors would have the opportunity to apply for and receive scholarships to further their education. A strategic plan was organized to increase the awareness of the available scholarships, grants, and financial aid of high school seniors. Activities included: soliciting business donations; publishing and distributing a bimonthly scholarship newsletter; constructing a scholarship bulletin board and scholarship files; holding monthly meetings with the students of the senior class; holding parent conferences; and organizing a formal financial aid meeting with an expert in the field of financial aid. The culminating activity was a senior awards ceremony honoring those students who won or received scholarships throughout the school year. Analysis of the data revealed that 67 percent of those students who were furthering their education after high school did utilize the scholarship materials and information available to them by applying for one or more scholarships. Parents also benefited. This practicum met all expectations and outcomes. The scholarship office, files, and awards ceremony were all well received by students, teachers, parents, administrators, and the community. (Author) http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_metadata&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED383941
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