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Arlene Fink: Conducting Research Literature Reviews: From Paper to the Internet

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Montessori Method: Annotated Bibliography

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Allen, Scotty Tucker (1997). Attention Deficit Disorder: What It Isand What It Is Not. Montessori Life, 9, 3, 37 (EJ554429) Argues that denial of Attention Deficit Disorder's existence is harmful to those afflicted and that understanding the disorder will assist sufferers in putting their intelligence to work. Describes symptoms such as hyperfocus on tasks, daydreaming, disarray, and forgetfulness. Explains away myths, including that the disorder is curable or will be outgrown and medication's effects. (SD)

Allen, Kathleen, & Leonard, Gerard (1998). The "Epic of Evolution" Conference: Taking the Journey Back Home. NAMTA Journal, 23, 1, 140-44 (EJ561606 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Provides a summary of the presentations at the "Epic of Evolution" conference held by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (November 12-14, 1997). Describes the impact of the conference in relation to the work of Montessori and the work of Montessori teachers in scientific pursuits in the classroom. (SD)

Alston, Linda (1993). Teaching Haiku to Young Children. NAMTA Journal, 18, 2, 43-50 (EJ469300) Presents a personal account of how haiku can be used with primary students not only to explore language arts but also to share a love of the earth and its various peoples. (HTH)

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Bachhuber, Daniel (1995). Cosmic Education and Literature-Based Teaching. Issue theme: Montessori: Nurturing the Human Potential. (EJ499960) Reviews research on reading and writing development, comparing the whole-language approach with the Montessori approach for teaching reading and writing at the elementary school level. Also discusses techniques to teach students how to write poetry and short fiction, stressing the importance of both freedom and structure in evolving reading and writing experiences. (MDM)

Baker, Kay (1993). Some Thoughts about the Spiritual Development of the Teacher. Thematic Issue: Reinventing Montessori. (EJ465898) Discusses the reciprocal relationship between the Montessori child and teacher that provides spiritual rejuvenation to the teacher. The key to teachers' spiritual development can be found in Montessori's insights into the true nature of the child. (PAM)

Baker, Kay M. (1996). The Mathematical Intelligence Seen through the Lens of the Montessori Theory of the Human Tendencies. NAMTA Journal, 21, 2, 98-107 (EJ523360) Contextualizes the mathematical intelligence as revealed in the human tendencies, as supported by the extended family, and facilitated by choice within a responsive environment. Reviews the function of Montessori materials, including mathematical materials, and emphasizes that the personal intelligences are integral to all activities simply because the Montessori classroom is a community of children. (MOK)

Barnett, Elise Braun (1995). The Montessori Approach to Music. Issue theme: Montessori: Nurturing the Human Potential. (EJ499965) Discusses the Montessori approach to music education and specific techniques for teaching piano to young children using key and note cards above the piano keys. These materials isolate the teaching purpose, show errors, and stimulate self- correction. (MDM)

Barnett, Regina Reynolds (1998). Children's Creativity: Adult's Communication. Montessori Life, 10, 1, 39-41 (EJ558682) Asserts that appropriate responses to children's creative work arise from an awareness of, not only the presence of creativity, but also the stages of its growth and development. Presents example responses to children's work for each of the developmental stages: scribbles, line and shape, and semi-representational. (EV)

Bates, Bob E. (1996). A Computer in the Office: An Administrator's Experience with Technology. Montessori Life, 8, 1, 20-21 (EJ520497) Relates one administrator's experiences integrating computer capability into routine school office work by describing a typical day, explaining which tasks were best handled on the computer and how they changed because of it. It was found that elementary students could do some traditional office tasks, using discount office supplies, on the computer as part of their school community work, learning new skills and becoming literate in new ways. (ET)

Bell, Karen (1993). Toddlerhood: A Sensitive Period for Being. Montessori Life, 5, 4, 28-30 (EJ473265) Examines the developmental stages or sensitive periods unique to the toddler. Discusses how Montessori practitioners can provide an environment supportive of these periods and encourage self-awareness. (HTH)

Berry, Thomas (1998). The Evolutionary Story: The Human Role. NAMTA Journal, 23, 1, 157-69 (EJ561608 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Argues children are bearers of the story of the universe, on a mission to celebrate existence in the community of the universe. Finds in Montessori's philosophy the articulation of education as central in the telling of the story, and for the child to find the universal center of himself or herself with all things. (Author/SD)

Bickley-Green, Cynthia Ann (1995). Math and Art Curriculum Integration: A Post-Modern Foundation. Studies in Art Education, 37, 1, 6-18 (EJ522286) Maintains that integrated mathematics and art curricula reveal congruent activities that enhance learning in both disciplines. Suggested ways to restructure and coordinate the curriculum include inspection of content areas for congruent elements, examination of older models for related theory and materials, and utilizing relevant developmental processes. (MJP)

Boehnlein, Mary Maher (1993). Good Books to Support Children's Research. NAMTA Journal, 18, 2, 53-60 (EJ469301) Reviews several "little" books that can provide material for children's research based on the Montessori Time Lines and classification charts for geography, plants, and animals. Suggests classroom activities to support the beginning reader's curiosity. (HTH)

Boehnlein, Mary Maher, Comp. (1994). The NAMTA Montessori Bibliography: A Bibliography of Sources in the English Language, 1909-1993. Second Edition. This issue appears as a spiral bound bibliography and concludes volume 19 of the NAMTA Journal. (EJ507221) Catalogs Montessori citations in the literature. References are divided by 89 topic areas, including classroom management; evaluation, testing, assessment; bilingual education; gifted and talented education; Head Start; history-social studies; language arts; mathematics; Montessori method; parent education; practical life; reviews of research; standards; and television. Each topic section contains a brief description of the type of material cited. (HTH)

Boehnlein, Mary Maher (1995). The Place of Reading Recovery in Montessori Schools. Issue theme: Montessori: Nurturing the Human Potential. (EJ499959) Discusses the Reading Recovery, whole-language, and Montessori approaches to the teaching of reading, suggesting the use of the reading recovery approach for those children who experience difficulty reading and writing in a Montessori classroom. Notes that Reading Recovery emphasizes writing to generate meaning, focusing on children constructing their own sentences. (MDM)

Bonsteel, Alan (1995). Maria Montessori and the "Glass House.". Theme issue topic: "World Montessori: A Vision of Human Renewal." (EJ510649) Discusses the creation of Maria Montessori's glass-house "Casa dei Bambini" preschool at the San Francisco Panama-Pacific International Exhibition in 1915, which brought the Montessori method of child-centered, individualized, early- childhood education to national attention. Also highlights Montessori's career in Europe and the United States and her contributions to education. (MDM)

Brehony, Kevin J. (1994). "Individual Work": Montessori and English Education Policy 1909-1939. (ED385483) This paper provides a brief history of the work of Maria Montessori and traces the development of the Montessori method in English education. The first woman medical student in Italy, she developed an interest in the needs of mentally handicapped children. Contrary to the accepted view, she came to the conclusion that mentally 'deficient' children required mainly an educational, or 'pedagogical,' rather than a medical treatment. The Montessori movement in England reached its zenith in 1921 and declined due to a division within the ranks of its supporters. However, the influence of Montessori's methods continued to exist and expand, particularly in the private sector of education. Montessori's two principal biographers, Standing and Kramer, missed the significance of the fact that Montessori was a woman in medicine in Italy during a period when women all over Europe were struggling to be admitted into the public sphere. Other researchers have addressed the significance of this factor in the educational field among her contemporaries. Montessori's claims to scientificity and their articulation with an increasingly rationalized education system explain, in part at least, her success. (EH)

Breiman, Robyn (1997). Senior Project: A Grade 6 Curriculum for Writing Research Papers. Montessori Life, 9, 4, 40-48 (EJ554436) This year-long research project encourages student involvement, promotes a sense of mastery, involves the school community, and attempts to provide an incentive for senior Montessori students to continue learning. The curriculum describes the process of choosing a topic, researching, writing, editing, production of the final product, and the oral presentation of findings. (SD)

Brendtro, Larry K., & Long, Nicholas J. (1997). Punishment Rituals: Superstition in an Age of Science. Reclaiming Children and Youth: Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Problems, 6, 3, 130-35 (EJ562330 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Outlines the history of punishment, focusing on the European tradition of obedience versus respect. Discusses reformers in child rearing, such as Maria Montessori, Karl Wilker, and Janusz Korczak, and looks at punishment and thinking errors in angry kids and in angry adults. Supplies a synopsis for conditions leading to effective punishment. (RJM)

Britton, Lesley (1992). Montessori Play and Learn: A Parents Guide to Purposeful Play from Two to Six. (ED363434) Designed for use by parents to further the emotional, social, and intellectual development of their 2- to 6-year old children, this book describes the Montessori method of early childhood education and provides sample activities and games to develop children's skills in the home, the neighborhood, and the world. Following introductory sections advocating an active role for parents in their children's education, the method's fundamental beliefs concerning child development are described, and issues related to the implementation of the method are discussed. These issues include considerations of the role of parents in children's personality development, social and emotional adjustment, and intellectual development. The next section describes planning the home to enhance child development, including suggestions for the child's bedroom, the living room, the kitchen, the bathroom, the hall and stairs, and games and activities for use in the home. Suggestions for exploring the neighborhood, including the backyard, the parks, the countryside, city neighborhoods, and schools are then provided, and related games and activities are described. The final section discusses ways parents can broaden their children's horizons by exploring the world, including the use of globes to explore the human family, trips and explorations, consideration of the universe, and related games and activities. (BCY)

Bronsil, Elizabeth (1996). Teaching Teachers about Needs of Parents. Montessori Life, 8, 4, 31-32 (EJ534658) Describes activities in a university child observation class to sensitize students to diverse parents' needs related to school involvement. Presents feedback regarding parents' needs from: interviews with adoptive parents; interviews with single parents; and interviews with parents regarding parent- teacher conferences. (KDFB)

Bronsil, Elizabeth (1997). International Programs at Xavier University. Montessori Life, 9, 1, 33-35 (EJ538157) Describes efforts to implement an international program between the Montessori program at Xavier University and Korea and Taiwan. Describes eight challenges confronting the project: (1) communication; (2) class participation; (3) sharing culture with the American students; (4) transportation; (5) connection with others; (6) visas and immigration laws; (7) curriculum; and (8) assignments. (SD)

Brown, Mac H. (1994). Early Childhood and the New World Reality. Montessori Life, 6, 1, 9 (EJ478205) Offers generalizations about education and its role in preparing children for a new world reality, including generalizations about the tension between individuality and conformity; availability of resources; quality of educational experiences; goals of education; role of family; and growing recognition of the importance of early childhood education in addressing the world's problems. (TJQ)

Brown, Rexford (1995). A Literacy Worth Having. Theme issue topic: "The Montessori Learning Community: Future Challenges." (EJ508827) Discusses the literacy program of a charter school in Denver, Colorado, which focuses on the basic literacy of reading and writing spoken, computer, and mathematical languages, along with the languages of music, dance, and the visual arts. The curriculum also emphasizes higher-level scientific, civic, and cultural literacy. (MDM)

Bryan, Lilian (1998). Self-Discipline and the Arts. NAMTA Journal, 23, 1, 110-20 (EJ561604 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Argues that a high priority should be placed on creative expression in early childhood settings, including the visual arts, music, dance, poetry, and drama. Stresses that creative potential must be nurtured and carefully cultivated, and argues that there can be no true artistic expression without freedom, and there can be no true freedom without inner discipline. (Author)

Bryant, Miles (Oct 1993). America's Alternative Schools: Prototypes for New Public Schools. (ED363970) As prototypes for new forms of education, public and private alternative schools have much to offer regular schools in the way of new ideas. This paper provides an overview of alternative schools and the options available. Alternative schools are characterized by a more selected student body, a smaller and less bureaucratic structure, values derived from within the school community, holistic student work, and a recognition of the school-survival issue. The basic educational frameworks within the array of public alternative school options are identified: (1) the traditional approach; (2) the nontraditional and nongraded approach; (3) schools that focus on the development of student abilities; (4) schools that emphasize techniques for delivering education (rather than philosophy); (5) schools with community-based organizing principles; (6) the self- directed, Montessori-like environment; (7) schools that are intentionally structured for particular student groups; and (8) subcontracted arrangements. In conclusion, alternative schools are flexible and able to respond to students' various needs. (LMI)



Cagle, Debra Gorman (1996). Montessori and the Arts: A Non-artist's Approach to an "Art Smart" Curriculum. Montessori Life, 8, 3, 18-19 (EJ529831) Highlights the importance of including the arts as part of a total Montessori curriculum, regardless of a teacher's talent. Suggests that success in facilitating children's exploration of the arts is achievable via field trips, classroom activities, appropriate materials, and arts integrated into all areas to create an "Art Smart" curriculum. (SD)

Calvert, Patty (1994). Making the Switch: One School's Evolution from CEO- to Community-Based Management. Montessori Life, 6, 2, 24-25 (EJ484028) Relates the founding and development of Lamplighter School in Memphis, Tennessee. Discusses the founders' experiences and challenges in running the school and its eventual development into a community-based and managed school. Offers suggestions for making such a transition a smooth process, including carefully selecting board members and obtaining expert legal and financial advice. (TJQ)

Calvin-Campbell, Karole (1998). Supporting the Development of the Whole Child through Orff Schulwerk, Montessori and Multiple Intelligences. (ED417030) This paper explores the similarities between Orff's Schulwerk, Montessori's philosophy, and Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences in an effort to explore how to best teach a child. In the late 19th century, specific learning theories began to emerge. Maria Montessori and Carl Orff each developed innovative teaching theories during the first half of the twentieth century. In the 1980s Howard Gardner presented his theory of Multiple Intelligences. The paper begins with a description of the work of each of these educators. The Schulwerk process is described in detail and its four activities of exploration, imitation, improvisation, and creation are discussed. Montessori's method of creating a teaching method to provide the child with all the tools necessary for becoming an adult are then presented. Next, Gardner's seven intelligences of linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, and personal are explored. This is followed by a section showing how these three ideas can work together in one classroom to provide a complete and whole education of the mind, body, and spirit. The paper concludes by noting that a child educated in a combination of these three philosophies has the opportunity to develop all of his or her abilities. Contains 10 references. (Author/SD)

Camp, Cameron J., Judge, Katherine S., Bye, Carol A., Fox, Kathleen M., Bowden, Jay, Bell, Michael, Valencic, Kristin, & Mattern, Jeanne M. (1997). An Intergenerational Program for Persons with Dementia Using Montessori Methods. Gerontologist, 37, 5, 688-92 Oct (EJ563680 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Reports on a program that brought together older adults (n=12) with dementia and preschool children (n=14) in one-on-one interactions, using Montessori activities. Experience indicates that older adults with dementia can still serve as effective mentors and teachers to children in an appropriately structured setting. (RJM)

Cassuto, Barbara (1996). Montessori Music: It's Elementary. Montessori Life, 8, 3, 36-38 (EJ529836) Describes a Montessori music program consisting of vocal music education, instrumental education, and a classical musical appreciation at the Montessori Elementary School of San Leandro, California. Describes educational opportunities provided by the in-house music room and through field trips. Argues that a music program is achievable in any Montessori elementary school. (SD)

Chambliss, J. J., Ed. (1996). Philosophy of Education: An Encyclopedia. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities. Vol. 1671. (ED414217) This reference book charts the influence of philosophical ideas that have had the greatest influence on education from ancient Greece to the present. The book covers such classical thinkers as Plato, Augustine, Hypatia, Locke, and Rousseau, as well as such recent figures as Montessori, Heidegger, Du Bois, and Dewey. The encyclopedia consists of 228 articles by 184 contributors, who survey the full spectrum of the philosophy of education. While the emphasis of most articles is on theory, many of them show how the significance of theory for practice. Each article includes its own bibliography which contains internal cross-references and a comprehensive name and subject index. (EH)

Chattin-McNichols, John (1993). The Montessori Controversy: An Interview with John Chattin-McNichols. Montessori Life, 5, 1, 20-25 (EJ465912) Interviews John Chattin-McNichols, the author of a recent book that examines Montessori education in the context of current child development theory and practice. Topics discussed include McNichols' book, his work in Montessori, his Fulbright year in Trinidad, the use of technology in education, public Montessori programs, and the future of Montessori education. (TJQ)

Chattin-McNichols, John (1996). Technology in the Montessori Classroom: The Most Frequent Questions. Montessori Life, 8, 1, 37-41 (EJ520502) Provides answers to the questions Montessori teachers most often ask about the integration of computers into the curricula and classrooms. Gives hardware set-up suggestions, and software recommendations for different age levels, and suggested uses. (ET)

Chattin-McNichols, John (1998). The Common Vision. Reviews: Books. Montessori Life, 10, 2, 11 (EJ564376 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Reviews Marshak's book describing the work of educators Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner, Aurobindo Ghose, and Inayat Khan. Maintains that the book gives clear, concise information on each educator and presents a common vision for children and their education; also maintains that it gives theoretical and practical information and discusses similarities and differences among the educators. (KB)

Chattin-McNichols, John (Nov 1991). Montessori Teachers' Intervention: Preliminary Findings from an International Study. (ED341499) In this study, a questionnaire was designed to assess Montessori teachers' reported likelihood of intervention in some 25 common situations in Montessori classrooms for 3-6 year olds, as well as to obtain limited background information on the teachers. Subjects were 422 Montessori teachers including 30 from Trinidad (where the questionnaire was first designed and field tested), 9 from Haiti, 362 from the United States, and 21 from Canada. Care was taken to ensure that each of the major Montessori teacher training organizations was represented in the sample. The primary research question to be answered was whether or not Montessori teachers say that they intervene in children's use of materials that require seriation or classification. Additional questions examined reported likelihood of intervention in fantasy play, math errors, language errors, general errors of fact, disruption, and dangerous activities. Findings showed that in the area of seriation and classification activities, Montessori teachers are quite consistent in reporting that they are not likely to intervene, while in the area of math and language, teachers are more likely to respond to errors. In the area of fantasy play results show that Montessori teachers are much more variable in their responses. While this could indicate that Montessori teachers are working to individualize their responses to each child in each situation, in fact it probably means that many teachers are uncertain how to respond to fantasy play in the Montessori classroom. (SH)

Chawla, Louise, & Hart, Roger A. (1995). The Roots of Environmental Concern. Issue theme: Montessori: Nurturing the Human Potential. (EJ499963) Presents a conceptual model of how young children learn about the physical environment, reviewing theories concerning environmental cognition and moral development. Notes that children in developed nations receive much of their information about the environment from the media and are often exposed to conflicting viewpoints about the natural world. (MDM)

Childs, Carol (1991). Coordinating Montessori and Traditional Education through the Use of Units Focused on a Skill Based Competency and Training Staff To Be Goal Directed. (ED338438) This report discusses the implementation of a unit-based instructional method at three child care centers. Two of the centers were Montessori schools and one was a traditional school. The centers were operated by a single corporate owner. A questionnaire completed by the 14 staff members of the 3 centers indicated that there was little year-long planning, scheduling, or use of learning units in the centers. A series of workshops held for staff addressed the issues of the creation of a year-long lesson plan, the use of goals and concepts in teaching, and teacher training. Objectives accomplished by these workshops included: (1) monthly unit studies were created to cover a school year; (2) a list of concepts to be taught each week was created; (3) daily lesson plans were developed; and (4) teachers were trained to use the lesson plans to become more goal oriented in their daily routines. An extensive discussion of existing early childhood education programs and models is presented. A reference list of 21 items is provided. Appendixes include copies of staff questionnaires; lists of unit themes and concepts; forms for recording student progress; and forms for recording weekly and monthly lesson plans. (BC)

Clair, Robin Patric (Apr 1991). The Effects of Tactile Stimulation and Gross Motor Movement on Cognitive Learning: A Test of Montessori's Muscular Movement Theory in the College Classroom. (ED334611) Three theories have been proposed to explain the relationship between nonverbal behavior and cognitive learning: arousal theory, depth-of-processing theory, and muscular movement theory. The first two theories place emphasis on the role of the teacher and have been empirically tested. The third theory, muscular movement (which suggests that the physical involvement of the student will increase cognitive learning), places emphasis on the behavioral role of the student and has received less attention from empiricists. A study examined whether the use of tactile stimulation in conjunction with motor movements would enhance cognitive learning. Subjects were 41 students in an upper level communication research methods class. A lecture (dealing with operationalization, measurement, and reliability and validity) was presented to one group, and the same lecture was presented to a second group with the addition of three tactile/motor exercises. Results indicated a significant relationship between the nonverbal behavioral participation of students and cognitive learning as assessed through exam scores. Findings suggest that students who are physically involved in the content of the lecture score higher on their exams than students who only listen to the lecture even though those students receive similar examples and similar levels of immediacy. (Two tables of data are included and 33 references are attached.) (SR)

Claremont, Francesca (1993). Folk Tales, Fairy Tales, and History: Uses and Classification. NAMTA Journal, 18, 2, 101-21 (EJ469304) Compiles excerpts from two 1964 lectures that examine the use of folk and fairy tales for the teaching of prehistory, geography, and grammar. Provides a starting point for thinking about the power of literature as an integrating medium in the Montessori elementary classroom. (HTH)

Claremont, Francesca (1993). Literature and Grammar. NAMTA Journal, 18, 2, 85-99 (EJ469303) This reprint of a lecture published in 1976 examines the uses of history and literary stories for instructing children in grammar, creative dramatics, natural history, and prehistory, as well as literary analysis. Provides a starting point for thinking about the power of literature as an integrating medium in the Montessori elementary classroom. (HTH)

Claremont, Claude A. (1995). Training the Montessori Teachers. Theme issue topic: "The Montessori Learning Community: Future Challenges." (EJ508826) Discusses the experiences of a Montessori teacher educator in Britain during World War II, describing how the wartime situation affected teacher education practices. Also examines the main features of Montessori teacher education then in practice. (MDM)

Clifford, Alcillia, & Kahn, David (1995). Montessori Head Start Implementation Brief. Theme issue topic: "The Montessori Learning Community: Future Challenges." (EJ508821) Discusses the use of the Montessori method in Head Start programs, focusing on educational environment, teacher training, parent involvement, and funding. Outlines the phased implementation of a Montessori program and provides a list of Montessori publications and organizations. (MDM)

Clinchy, Evans, & Kolb, Frances Arick, Ed. (1992). Planning for Schools of Choice: Achieving Excellence and Equity. Book IVModel Choice Schools: Nontraditional Organization and Curriculum. (ED383067) This publication describes schools of choice that are nontraditional in structure, including continuous-progress, open, and Montessori-type schools. It describes the philosophy, curriculum, teaching methods, school organizations, and grading methods of several different kinds of nontraditional schools: two continuous-progress schools, a Montessori school, a developmental school, and a microsociety school. The examples are drawn from elementary, junior high, or K-8 schools. The continuous-progress schools include Rafael Hernandez Two-Way Bilingual Magnet School (Boston, Massachusetts, Public Schools) and Mill Swan Communications Skills Center (Worcester, Massachusetts, Public Schools). Examples of Montessori, developmental, or microsociety schools include Bennett Park Montessori Center (Buffalo, New York, Public Schools), Graham and Parks Alternative Public School (Cambridge, Massachusetts, Public Schools), and City Magnet School (Lowell, Massachusetts, Public Schools). An example of a nontraditional school with curricular specialization is the Arts Magnet School (Lowell, Massachusetts, Public Schools). The final chapter examines new methods of shared governance practiced by some of the schools. Practitioners' checklists for identifying nontraditional school characteristics are included. (LMI)

Coe, Elisabeth (1993). Woods Middle School: A Profile. NAMTA Journal, 18, 3, 126-36 (EJ467580) Profiles the activities of the School of the Woods in Houston, which in the early 1980s began a Montessori middle school program to complement the already existing elementary instruction. Discusses the physical environment of the school, the activities of the students and teachers, the curriculum, and the contributions of parents. (MDM)

Coe, Elisabeth (1996). Montessori and Middle School. Montessori Life, 8, 2, 26-29,40 (EJ521998) Describes the School of the Woods' (Houston, Texas) middle school environment, a learning environment developed to create trust and community, provide meaningful work, and allow adolescents to create a vision for their future. Explains the school's philosophy in terms of adolescent psychology, trust, and curriculum. (TJQ)

Coe, Elisabeth (1998). Voices of Cultural Harmony. Spotlight: MontessoriMultilingual, Multicultural. Montessori Life, 10, 2, 17-18 (EJ564370 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Asserts the importance of viewing the world as an interrelated system in which each culture and person has important gifts to share. Examines how prejudicial attitudes can be changed through teaching tolerance. Maintains that the Montessori philosophy and methodology contain all the elements recommended for cultural harmony. Challenges teachers to examine classroom practices to put Montessori philosophy into practice. (KB)

Coe, Elisabeth Johnston (Oct 1991). Montessori Education and Its Relevance to Educational Reform. (ED341462) This article describes the general principles of the philosophy of Montessori education. The basis of Montessori education is a student-centered learning environmentone that includes provision for an inquisitive, cooperative, safe, and nurturing atmosphere for learning. Students' psychosocial needs must be addressed before their cognitive needs, so that students will enjoy learning and become life-long learners. Montessori education has developed two sets of practices with regard to teacher preparation and classroom environment that facilitate student-centered environments. Montessori teacher education programs focus on training teachers in observational skill and child development. Teachers are educated in developmental levels and in matching appropriate skills and activities to levels. Appropriate materials facilitate the development of physical, intellectual, and social independence. Characteristics of the Montessori classroom include: teachers who are educated in the Montessori method; partnership with the family; a multi-aged, multi-graded, heterogeneous grouping of students; a diverse set of Montessori materials, activities, and experiences; a schedule that allows time for problem solving; connections between knowing and creating; and a classroom atmosphere that encourages social interaction for cooperative learning, peer teaching, and emotional development. The paper concludes with comments regarding the positive aspects of multi-age grouping. (SH)

Conlon, Cath A. (1996). The Land Laboratory Story. Montessori Life, 8, 2, 38-40 (EJ522002) Notes that Montessori envisioned that the ideal environment for adolescents was "Erdkinder," or "children of the land." She believed that nature could provide a calming force for adolescents, and working the land with peers could prepare adolescents for real life. Describes the development of the Blackwood Land Laboratory, which was based on this Montessori model for adolescent education. (TJQ)

Cottom, Carolyn (1996). A Bold Experiment in Teaching Values. Educational Leadership, 53, 8, 54-58 May (EJ525923) The City Montessori School, a private, nonprofit school in Luchnow, India, provides an exemplary education for K-12 students by focusing on both academic excellence and children's emotional and spiritual well-being. Four building blocks (universal values, excellence, global understanding, and service) are guiding principles for educating the whole child. (MLH)

Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (1998). Self and Evolution. NAMTA Journal, 23, 1, 204-33 (EJ561611 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Suggests the time has come for humans to direct their own individual evolution and the evolution of the entire species. Argues that ways must be found to encourage individuals, families, and cultures to discover and develop their differentiating characteristics and help these groups integrate with other cultures, customs, and belief systems. (Author)

Cummesky, James pp. Others (1993). The Montessori Erdkinder: Three Abstracts. Thematic Issue: Reinventing Montessori. (EJ465903) Describes three projects: (1) the Laufenburg Ranch Project, a historical organic farm and agricultural and environmental education center; (2) the Hershey Montessori School's efforts to teach adolescents about the earth; and (3) the Lake Country School, which developed a farm campus and nature center as an integral part of its educational program. (PAM)

Cusack, Ginny (1996). Discovering the Enneagram. Montessori Life, 8, 4, 34-35 (EJ534659) Presents the enneagram as a tool to identify one's personality type, leading to increased self-understanding and the ability to communicate with others. Describes staff inservice sessions for faculty and administration to identify personality type, discuss "hot buttons and openers," and elaborate on implications for work relationships. Discusses other uses, including teacher training, parent education, and middle-school education. (KDFB)

Cushman, Kathleen (1990). The Whys and Hows of the Multi-Age Primary Classroom. American Educator: The Professional Journal of the American Federation of Teachers, 14, 2, 28-32,39 (EJ412628) Discusses the advantages of mixed-age primary classrooms. Suggests different ways to group children of different ages and methods for successful implementation. Emphasizes the importance of an integrated curriculum similar to a Montessori curriculum. (FMW)



Dahawy, Bayoumi Mohamed (Apr 1993). Pre-School Education in Egypt, Oman and Japan: A Comparative Perspective. (ED360224) This paper examines preschool education in Egypt, Oman, and Japan in the light of the comparative education approach developed by George Bereday utilizing description, interpretation, juxtaposition, and comparison. The literature of early childhood education is surveyed, beginning with the three most influential pioneers: Friedrich Wilhelm Froebel, Maria Montessori, and Rudolf Steiner, and a list of 10 common principles drawn from their works are enumerated. In Egypt the number of preschools affiliated with primary schools has expanded. Governing bodies have been asked to expand preschool education in order to aid working mothers. In Oman there are no government nursery schools, but a very small number of coeducational private schools exist. In view of the increasing entry of women into the work force, governmental kindergartens may be necessary in the near future. However in Egypt and Oman, most children of kindergarten age still are looked after by parents or extended family. The assumption of the study is that preschool education level would achieve its aims and meet societal demand if the aims, admission system, curriculum, teacher training, and administration were available and well established and each of these elements is examined in relation to each of the three countries under study. Despite the cultural differences between the Arab countries and Japan, the study reveals that there are more similarities than differences concerning educational goals. The three societies always have been under the influence of traditions and moral values internally, and the influence of western educational theories externally. Both Egyptian and Japanese societies pay great attention to preschool education. These two countries stress moral education especially at this early level. In Oman because of limited resources there is no specific curricula for this age level. (DK)

Dansereau, Mark (1996). Early Adolescence: Obstacles to Creating an Appropriate Environment. Montessori Life, 8, 2, 32-33 (EJ522000) Discusses early adolescence as the second most critical stage of development, and the importance of recognizing this when planning a middle school program. Describes how one school met the pressures of logistics and community expectations to develop a classroom that was responsive to the individual student in light of the characteristics and needs of the early adolescent. (TJQ)

Davidson, Gary (1996). Real Children and Technology in the Cosmic Classroom. Montessori Life, 8, 1, 27-31 (EJ520500) Focuses on elementary and middle school children, the technology they are embracing, and Montessori methods in education. Connects Montessori philosophy and practices with the concepts of Marshall McLuhan on interactivity and technological change. (ET)

Davis, Suzanne F. (1993). Can Good Become Better?: The Progression of an Exemplary Teacher. Reading Horizons, 33, 5, 441-48 (EJ466662) Describes the progression of an exemplary teacher from inner-city elementary school teacher to teacher-consultant, to teacher at a Montessori magnet school, to administrator of the Montessori preschool program in her public school system, to principal of the magnet school where she formerly taught. (RS)

Davis, Linda (1996). The Elements of Social Life and the Montessori Adolescent. NAMTA Journal, 21, 2, 149-62 (EJ523364) Traces the Montessori view of adolescent social development and provides illustrations in short-term rural life with 12- to 14-year olds. Provides clear signs pointing to Erdkinder based on the theory that adolescents are in the midst of a social transformation and they want to be treated with respect. (MOK)

Delattre, Edwin J. (1993). The Intellectual Lives of Teachers. Thematic Issue: Reinventing Montessori. (EJ465899) Recommends that inservice teacher education challenge the intellectual development of teachers. Discusses the learning process of teachers, and profiles activities in specific elementary and secondary schools intended to benefit students' learning. Suggests that teachers should teach sound habits of mind with intellectual humility, expertise in subject areas, and an awareness of methods of instruction. (PAM)

den Elt, M. E., & Others (1996). Culture and the Kindergarten Curriculum in the Netherlands. Special issue: "Culture and the Early Childhood Curriculum." (EJ531213) Presents the historical development of early childhood education in the Netherlands, including the dilemma of reconciling strongly child-centered kindergarten curricula with adequate preparation for primary school. Describes the issues presented by immigrant children and argues that acceptance of cultural diversity, educating the individual within a common framework, is the starting point. (MOK)

Doughty, Susan Grimes (1996). Integrating Montessori Curriculum and Technology: A Computer Approach to Social Studies' "Fundamental Needs.". Montessori Life, 8, 1, 33-35 (EJ520501) Computer technology supports independent learning, a fundamental goal in Montessori education. Language and research are also fundamental, and computer technology enables and enhances all three goals in the child's hands. A Montessori teacher gives a detailed discussion of and plan for a social studies unit designed for computer utilization in learning. (ET)

Dreffin, Kate Roden (1998). Teaching Grief Work as an Aid to Life. Montessori Life, 10, 1, 47-48 (EJ558685) Encourages Montessori educators Others to consider the importance of talking with children about loss and death and helping them to identify the basic process of grief and the coping skills used for proceeding with grief work in one's lifetime. Describes helpful activities, such as using children's books, keeping journals, and creating a grief library. (EV)

Duax, Tim (1992). Attrition at a Nonselective Magnet School: A Case Study of a Milwaukee Public School. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 25, 3, 173-81 (EJ447962) Study investigated attrition at a nonselective magnet elementary school over 5 years, examining 11 variables which might influence students' withdrawal. Data analysis indicated the school proportionally retained students of varying backgrounds and abilities while serving a diverse urban population, fostering equal educational opportunities. (SM)

Duax, Tim (1993). On the Preservation of Montessori Ideas. Thematic Issue: Reinventing Montessori. (EJ465893) Examines the charge that Montessori trainers adhere too dogmatically to the original ideas developed in Montessori's texts. Maintains that Montessorians do apply Montessori precepts to unique situations, personally evolve as teachers, and introduce variations based on the needs of the children in their classrooms. Suggests that those who adapt Montessori ideas may use a new name for their movement. (PAM)

Duax, Tim (1995). Report on Academic Achievement in a Private Montessori School. Theme issue topic: "The Montessori Learning Community: Future Challenges." (EJ508824) A study at an established private Montessori school in a diverse suburb revealed strong achievement gains by students on the Stanford Achievement Test, which was administered to 36 students every year from second through eighth grade. Concludes that Montessori elementary education can take high achieving students and produce even higher academic results. (MDM)

Duax, Tim, Ed., & Others (May 1994). Montessori Public School Consortium (MPSC) Update, 1993-1994. (ED382337) These five newsletter issues provide reports from institutions and individuals involved in the Montessori Public School Consortium (MPSC). Each issue contains feature articles, editorials, and field reports on Montessori programs in public schools. Featured topics include: (1) the Montessori Induction Program for new Montessori teachers; (2) Montessori Head Start; (3) the development of the MPSC; (4) Montessori assessment; (5) Montessori 2000, a planning document advocating 18 national Montessori projects; (6) a directory of Montessori public schools; (7) national surveys of Montessori public schools; (8) Montessori adolescent programs; (9) a Montessori Head Start program in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; (10) Montessori instructional materials; (11) Montessori training and materials procurement; (12) the November 1993 MPSC national conference; (13) approaches to Montessori implementation; (14) the Montessori bulletin board on the America Online computer network; and (15) Montessori programs in public schools in Denver, Colorado, and Cincinnati, Ohio. (MDM)

Dubble, Sharon L. (1995). Linking the Family and the School: The Importance of Parental Choice in Admissions. Theme issue topic: "The Montessori Learning Community: Future Challenges." (EJ508815) Discusses the role that Montessori school administrators can play in shaping the admissions process to create a powerful link between parents and the school. Reviews how school open houses, application procedures, and interviews influence parental attitudes, as well as the role that parental choice plays in the parent- school partnership. (MDM)

Dubble, Sharon L. (1996). Evolving through Transitions: Mitigating Anxieties. NAMTA Journal, 21, 2, 178-87 (EJ523366) Discusses the Montessori method. Evolves a new vision of the school based on Montessori principles and addresses the anxieties felt during times of transition as part of the natural growth process. Claims that these transitions are cyclical, and affect more than just the childrenthey also create concern for teachers, parents, and administrators. (MOK)

Dubble, Sharon L. (1998). Evolving People/Evolving Schools. (ED419603) When planning the growth of Montessori schools, planners should add the concept of evolution to those of organization and management in order to embrace Maria Montessori's notion that the purpose of education is to fully develop human potentialities. The evolution of Montessori schools must be understood and encouraged through the process of nurturing the evolution of people. Teachers undergo stages of development, starting in the formal training phase and continuing within the context of the school. In this model, teachers move from formal training to a first-year neonate stage, a consolidation stage in years two through four, and renewal during five to seven years, finally emerging as seasoned teachers. This model re-envisions teachers in Montessori schools as part of an organic evolutionary process. This process can be applied to other parts of the school, including parents, board members and administrators. (JPB)

Dubovoy, Silvia C. (1996). The Personal Intelligences: Linking Gardner to Montessori. NAMTA Journal, 21, 2, 64-78 (EJ523358) Emphasizes the intrinsic unity of all the intelligences as well as the inseparable nature of the interpersonal and intrapersonal. Emphasizes the theories of both Gardner and Montessori as a whole, and looks at common features in intelligence profiles and educational environments described by both. (MOK)

DuCharme, Catherine C. (Nov 1992). Margaret McMillan and Maria Montessori: Champions of the Poor. (ED368463) This paper discusses the life and works of Margaret McMillan and Maria Montessori, two advocates for the poor who played a significant role in social and educational reform in Britain and Italy, respectively, in the late 19th- and early 20th century. The upbringing, education, and social milieu of the two women are compared, as well as their philosophy and educational outlook. The paper notes that both women had a deep concern for the misfortunes of the poor and oppressed, understood the importance of good health and nutrition in the lives of children, and began schools to educate the children of the less fortunate. They had a deep sense of commitment and a broad vision for the improvement of all humanity through working with children in poverty. The paper concludes that today's educators and child advocates can learn a great deal from the lives of McMillan and Montessori. (MDM)

Duffy, Michael, & Duffy, D'Neil (1997). A Model of Integrative Planning for Cultural Curriculum. Montessori Life, 9, 4, 24-25 (EJ554433) Consists of a chart that represents a model of integrative planning for cultural curriculum for a 9th- through 12th-grade classroom. The curriculum addresses history, literature, geography, biology, science, art, and music of the Great Civilizations and the Middle Ages and Renaissance Europe, and the vital functions of animals and plants. Includes projects, assignments, and field trip suggestions. (SD)

Dugan, Marie M. (1994). Put Yourself in Their Place: Building Parent Involvement. Theme Issue: "Spotlight: Public Schools." (EJ499954) Provides guidelines for successfully building parental involvement by fitting educational and classroom needs into parents' schedules and by carefully matching parents to classroom jobs to keep interest and involvement high. (ETB)

Dugan, Marie M. (1995). Parents Need Education, Too. Montessori Life, 7, 2, 10 (EJ505534) Presents information on parent courses offered in the context of Montessori philosophy. Suggests that the program creates a strong bond between parents and school: carefully chosen topics recognize parents' concerns and provide support and solutions; when parents truly understand what a Montessori education accomplishes, they are more likely to make Montessori principles part of their child's everyday life. (AA)



Eden, Emily Starr (1998). Digging Down Deep: Educational Experiences with the Earth in a Gardening/Farming Context. NAMTA Journal, 23, 1, 322-32 (EJ561615 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Chronicles a teacher's experiences and impressions of a tour of six farm schools visited in New England. Integrates these experiences within a perspective of research and history. Concludes that the possibilities for a variety of experiences and intellectual, social, and spiritual growth abound on the farm, particularly a fully integrated farm curriculum. (Author/SD)

Egan, Kieran (1993). Literacy and the Oral Foundation of Education. Thematic Issue: Reinventing Montessori. (EJ465894) Traces the richness of oral forms of expression used in nonliterate societies from ancient times to the present. Discusses the implications of research on orality for the early childhood curriculum and for methods of teaching young children. (BC)

Elkind, David (1993). Images of the Young Child: Collected Essays on Development and Education. (ED367468) This collection of essays reflects the notion that perceptions of children and childhood shape approaches to education and child rearing. The essays include: (1) "The Child Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow," on how children have been regarded throughout recorded history; (2) "Piaget and Montessori in the Classroom," examining the different ways these renowned figures in early childhood education viewed the development and education of young children; (3) "Work Is Hardly Child's Play," on children's play and how it has been conceptualized by different investigators; (4) "Development in Early Childhood," summarizing contemporary scientific knowledge about child growth and development; (5) "Humanizing the Curriculum," on educational reform; (6) "We Can Teach Reading Better," about better understanding of the process of reading; (7) "Resistance to Developmentally Appropriate Practice: A Case Study in Educational Inertia," on the relationship between educational change and educational philosophy; (8) "The Hurried Child: Is Our Impatient Society Depriving Kids of Their Right To Be Children?" about early academic pressure on children; (9) "Overwhelmed at an Early Age," a further discussion of the effects of hurrying children academically; and (10) "Questions Parents Ask," providing answers to frequently asked questions. Eight of the essays include references. (TJQ)

Elkind, David (1998). Reinventing Childhood: Raising and Educating Children in a Changing World. (ED422113 Available from: Modern Learning Press, P.O. Box 167, Rosemont, NJ 08556; phone: 800-627- 5867; fax: 9140277-3548 ($19.95). This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) One of the many positive consequences of the transition to a postmodern society is the increased recognition of the range of individual differences among children of the same age. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the postmodern reinvention of childhood, focusing on ages 4 through 8 years. The book's introductory chapter describes the transition from a modern to a postmodern society, focusing on the transformation of the American family. Chapter 2 offers a brief biographical sketch of the major crafters of modern childhood (Froebel, Montessori, Freud, Steiner, Piaget, Vygotsky, Erikson), a summary of their major theoretical contributions, and the implications of their work for postmodern times. The next five chapters explore the reinvention of childhood in regard to language, intelligence, personality, socialization, and normality. The book's afterword examines some of the ongoing attempts at reinvention and the lessons to be learned from these efforts. Each chapter contains references. (Author/KB)

Emerson, Glen (1993). Using Questions: A Sensorial Study. Montessori Life, 5, 3, 33-34 (EJ469312) Fifteen students, ages three to six years, were presented with materials traditionally used in Montessori preschools to teach seriation. Children who were presented the materials with limited discussion or with frequent discussion showed greater interest in the materials but did not score higher on seriation tests than children who were presented the materials with no discussion. (PAM)

Epstein, Paul (1990). Are Public Schools Ready for Montessori? Principal, 69, 5, 20-22 May (EJ410166) Although the Montessori method has been known and practiced for almost a century in Europe and Asia, only recently has it gained recognition in American public schools. The key to the Montessori method's success is teachers specially trained to translate child development principles into classroom design, instructional strategies, and age-appropriate curriculum. Includes five references. (MLH)

Epstein, Paul (1994). Formulation: Implementing Successful Public Montessori Programs. Theme Issue: "Spotlight: Public Schools." (EJ499950) Draws on the experiences of the OEkos Foundation for Education in implementing successful Montessori programs in 12 public school districts to present essential elements and key decisions needed for establishing such programs. Includes a schematic for the Decision Tree developed by the foundation. (ETB)

Epstein, Ann, & Schonfeld, Jillian (1995). We Are All Authors. Montessori Life, 7, 3, 32-34 (EJ508917) Examines early literacy practices in the Montessori classroom. Suggests that there is a need for more integration across the domains of reading and writing. Proposes that the think, write, share, revise, publish, and final-share process in written story creation can provide children with meaningful literacy opportunities as they relate to the development of their reading and writing skills. (AA)

Epstein, Ann (1997). How Teachers Accommodate for Young Children with Special Needs. Montessori Life, 9, 3, 32-34 (EJ554427) Studied how Montessori teachers accommodate young children's special needs. Phase one involved interviews and observations of several teachers, and phase two involved an extensive survey of teachers. Found that teachers' perceptions of support and collaboration, use of strategies to nurture independence, and the impact of children with challenging behaviors were important issues. (SD)



Fafalios, Irene (1997). The Adult's Role in the Child's Acquisition of Independence. Montessori Life, 9, 1, 10-13 (EJ538152) Argues that parents and educators must strive to develop true independence within their children. Argues that independence is achieved by encouraging a strong will in children which enables them to fully develop their personality and arms them with the skills to make decisions, create positive self-esteem, and be responsible and sympathetic members of society. (SD)

Farmer, Marjorie (1998). Creating Montessori Bilingual Programs. Spotlight: Montessori Multilingual, Multicultural. Montessori Life, 10, 2, 22-25 (EJ564372 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Discusses presentation given by Rigoberta Menchu, 1992 Nobel Peace Prize Laureate, at a meeting with Hispanic child caregivers in California. Discusses family life and childrearing among Guatemala's Mayan people, traditional ceremonies and symbols, becoming a leader, and the Mayan experience of resisting oppression. Discusses implications for Montessori education, educational policy, and obstacles to academic achievement by Hispanic students. (KB)

Fitzgerald, Sighle (1997). Harmony in the Montessori Community. Montessori Life, 9, 1, 17-19 (EJ538154) Explores characteristics of community in general and how these relate to the Montessori community. Urges the Montessori community to resist complacency by employing realistic decisions, goals, and interactions with one another; utilizing contemplation as a method of increasing community awareness; and searching for wisdom through thought, study, and experience. (SD)

Flowers, Toni (1993). Autism and Montessori: Old Wisdom, New Ideas. Thematic Issue: Reinventing Montessori. (EJ465901) Explains autism and discusses the effects of autism on one autistic boy. Describes Children as Teachers, a reverse mainstreaming project in which children in the regular Montessori classes volunteered to interact with autistic children. The natural structure of the Montessori classroom, where there is a purpose and a time for everything, is ideal for autistic children. (PAM)

Flynn, Timothy M. (1990). Development of Social, Personal and Cognitive Skills of Preschool Children in Montessori and Traditional Preschool Programs. (ED337297) The relationship of time spent in either Montessori or traditional preschool programs to the preschooler's development in five parameters was studied. The five parameters were: (1) personal skills; (2) relationship with teachers; (3) peer relations; (4) behavioral control; and (5) cognitive skills. A review of the literature on Montessori and other preschool programs is presented. Three Montessori programs and three traditional programs provided the subjects for the study. The Prekindergarten Scale, a multiple choice behavioral rating scale, was completed for each child by the program teachers. Results revealed that the only significant variable for predicting time in program for the traditional program was relationship with teachers, which was also the only variable that was insignificant in predicting time in program for the Montessori program. The strongest relationship was between time in the Montessori program and relationship with peers with age controlled. Four tables of quantitative data used in the study and 12 references are appended. (GLR)



Gebhardt-Seele, Peter (1996). Why Not Consider Erdkinder? NAMTA Journal, 21, 2, 138-48 (EJ523363) Claims that Montessori's educational theory for 12- to 18- year olds, Erdkinder, should be considered as an educational alternative. Erdkinder, or "earth child," refers to observing children and, accordingly, creating a suitable environment. The task for education at this age is the creation of the socially conscious individual. Claims that regular school is a challenge to Erdkinder. (MOK)

Gerhardstein, Aloyse (1997). Montessori in South Africa. Montessori Life, 9, 1, 31-32 (EJ538156) Describes the author's organization and opening of the first Montessori elementary program in South Africa. Describes the first school and the development of local training programs for teachers. Details the current standing of Montessori education in South Africa, its expansion to five schools, and goals of further training, support, and consultation. (SD)

Getzell, Jeffrey H. (1998). Vision Is More than Sight. Montessori Life, 10, 1, 37-38 (EJ558681) Describes the burgeoning field of behavioral optometry, which specializes in promoting the use of both vision systems (focal and ambient) so they can work together to produce optimum visual efficiency, and in concentrating much of its work on developing or remediating the ambient vision system. Includes a simple test to determine need for a behavioral vision evaluation. (EV)

Gillespie, Terri (1994). You Start with Trust: An Interview with Marie M. Dugan. Montessori People. Montessori Life, 6, 2, 18-21 (EJ484027) Presents an interview with Marie M. Dugan, head of Wilmington (DE) Montessori School and a driving force in the American Montessori Society (AMS). Discusses her introduction to the Montessori philosophy and subsequent training and experience as a Montessori teacher. Her work as school administrator and AMS leader is also covered. (TJQ)

Glenn, Christopher M. (1993). Market Research at a Montessori School: Reasons for Choosing, Staying, and Leaving. Montessori Life, 5, 3, 13-14 (EJ469313) Reports the results of a survey by the Franciscan Montessori Earth School in Portland, Oregon. Parents chose the school for their children based on positive impressions when visiting the school. Parents with beliefs in peace and cooperation, and a sense of moral values tended to keep their children in the school. Financial concerns were the primary reason for leaving. (PAM)

Glenn, Christopher M. (May 1993). The Longitudinal Assessment Study (LAS): Cycle 3 (Seven Year) Follow-up. (ED370679) The study attempts to provide valid research to answer parent concerns about whether Montessori education in the elementary grades prepares students for the real world. Begun in 1986, the study will last 18 years to follow participants through schooling and into adulthood. Subjects are assessed every 3 years. This follow-up is the third assessment. Participants were recruited from lower and upper elementary classes of the Franciscan Montessori Earth School. At this follow-up, participants and their parents and teachers completed a survey; students completed a personality measure and achievement tests. The study postulated two hypotheses: (1) the number of Montessori Education Years (MEY) would positively relate to those qualities emphasized in Montessori education, such as cooperation with peers; and (2) participants with any Montessori education would be at least as successful as the general population. Results found minimal support for the first hypothesis; the second hypothesis received considerable support. Participants were described as normal or healthy, and achievement tests results were above average for the general population. (TM)

Gordon, Cam (1994). The First Charter: Little School on the Bluff Is Big Story. Theme Issue: "Spotlight: Public Schools." (EJ499953) Describes how, under the Minnesota Education Act of 1991, Bluffview school opened as one of several charter schools and the nation's first Montessori charter public school. Discusses the school's history and the compromises made to convert to a Montessori program. (ETB)

Gordon, Cam (1995). What to Do with the Grammar Boxes. Montessori Life, 7, 3, 40-41 (EJ508919) Examines grammar instruction as part of Montessori's language curriculum. Suggests that teaching grammar remains, without reason, a significant part of the curriculum. Grammar instruction offers children information about language, but that is not teaching language arts. Proposes the five language arts of listening, speaking, writing, reading, and thinking represent the core of an effective language arts curriculum. (AA)

Grazzini, Camillo (1996). The Four Planes of Development. In NAMTA Journal, 21, 2, 208-41,. EJ523370. Presents two charts designed by Maria Montessori to illustrate the four planes of development. Claims that Montessori's meticulously researched commentary signals an emerging organic vision of the developmental continuum from birth to adulthood that is relevant to the educational needs of our time. (MOK)

Grillo, Barbara Anton (1998). Multicultural Education: A Developmental Process. Spotlight: Montessori Multilingual, Multicultural. Montessori Life, 10, 2, (EJ564371 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Maintains that multicultural education is a key element in the ongoing struggle to solve current educational problems. Presents Banks's (1988) phases in the evolution of multicultural education. Examines three developmental models describing the implementation of multicultural education for their usefulness in assessing the current stage of development: (1) Banks; (2) Sleeter and Grant; and (3) Derman-Sparks. (KB)



Haines, Annette M. (1993). Absorbent Mind Update: Research Sheds New Light on Montessori Theory. NAMTA Journal, 18, 2, 1-25 (EJ469298) Explores Maria Montessori's notion that a young child's brain is significantly different from an adult's and that young children develop according to a series of predictable "sensitive periods." Cites numerous empirical studies that support these and other ideas Montessori postulated without the advantage of sophisticated scientific testing. (HTH)

Haines, Annette M. (1995). Montessori and Assessment: Some Issues of Assessment and Curriculum Reform. Theme issue topic: "The Montessori Learning Community: Future Challenges." (EJ508822) Interviewed eight teachers and principals at three Montessori magnet schools in Kansas City, Missouri, concerning their preparation for mandated state and federal standardized tests. The administrators and teachers generally expressed negative attitudes toward the testing, which ignores the ungraded, holistic, student-centered curriculum of the Montessori approach to education. (MDM)

Haines, Annette M. (1995). Equal Opportunity and the Montessori Magnet School. Issue theme: Montessori: Nurturing the Human Potential. (EJ499964) Discusses the inequalities and hidden curriculum of public education and the role that the Montessori approach can play in revolutionizing educational assumptions, values, and conventions as it expands in the public sector. Suggests that Montessori models for self-discipline, meaningful work, choice, respect, and holistic psychology provide a basis for developing the full extent of individual potential. (MDM)

Hall, Elizabeth (1996). Montessori: A Caring Pedagogy. Theme issue topic: "Rediscovering the All-Day Montessori Community." (EJ529822) Discusses the characteristics of a caring school environment, as exemplified by the Montessori method. Stresses the importance of observing the needs of the moment for the very young child as well as the role of encouragement as a nurturing function. (MDM)

Hallenberg, Harvey R. (1993). Contact Hours and Course Length of Montessori Elementary Teacher Preparation: A Current Controversy. Montessori Life, 5, 1, 28-29 (EJ465914) Maintains that excellent teachers make it possible for elementary school students in enriched Montessori environments to learn as much by age 12 as most students learn by the time they graduate from high school. Contends that a minimum of 800 contact hours with experienced Montessori classroom teachers is necessary for proper training of Montessori elementary teachers. (TJQ)

Hallenberg, Harvey R. (1995). Claude Claremont's Contribution to the History of Science and Engineering. Theme issue topic: "The Montessori Learning Community: Future Challenges." (EJ508820) Discusses the contributions of Claude Claremont to science education for children and his 1937 book, "Spanning Space," which outlines the building of models of bridges and other structures out of paper. Also describes how children and their teachers can build a model strut tower and a steam engine. (MDM)

Hallenberg, Harvey (1995). Mathematics in History. Montessori Life, 7, 2, 30-32 (EJ505531) Presents ideas for creating mathematical classroom activities associated with the history of mathematics: calculating sums and products the way ancient Greeks did it, using an abacus or moving stones on a sanded floor, and engaging elementary students through role playing specific mathematicians. Suggests that through such techniques, mathematics will never be the dull stuff of table memorization. (AA)

Hallenberg, Harvey (1996). The Education of Young Adults: Some Modest Proposals. Montessori Life, 8, 4, 10-11 (EJ534661) Uses Montessori's writings on higher education as basis for recommendations to reform secondary and higher education. Advocates stimulus lectures followed by an assimilative work period to teach diverse university students. Recommends tuition be increasingly assumed by students each year of their secondary or higher education. Advocates eliminating traditional high school or college schedules and allowing for self-paced learning. (KDFB)

Hallenberg, Harvey (1997). Slavery and Involuntary Servitude: Historical Perspectives and Contemporary Issues. Montessori Life, 9, 4, 33-37 (EJ554434) Argues slavery has historically impacted children, and that children need to reflect on this practice, study its forms, look for examples of subjugation and domination in their own lives, and decide whether and how they might eradicate the need to subjugate others. Suggests procedures, activities, lesson sequence, materials, and expected outcomes of such an undertaking. (SD)

Hallenberg, Harvey (1997). Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome: A Case Study. Montessori Life, 9, 3, 38-40 (EJ554430) Describes a Montessori teacher's experience with a sufferer of Tourette's syndrome, a dysfunction characterized by motor and vocal tics. Studies the progress over a school year, including work on academic skills utilizing the Montessori method and behavior. Shares research, successes, and failures in trying to reach the child. (SD)

Hanson, Victor Davis, & Schaefer, Larry (1998). Emerging Psychological Characteristics of Farm Life. NAMTA Journal, 23, 1, 256-83 (EJ561613 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Argues farming can teach the populace that human existence has purpose and dimension beyond material acquisition. Emphasizes the proper balance between nature and culture, word and deed, tragedy and therapy, shame and guilt which leads to the formation of an informed, humane, and stable citizen. Includes response on the relationship of this balance to Montessori's Erdkinder concept. (Author/SD)

Harris, Ian, & Callender, Aaron (1995). Comparative Study of Peace Education Approaches and Their Effectiveness. Theme issue topic: "The Montessori Learning Community: Future Challenges." (EJ508823) Evaluated the effectiveness of peace education efforts in eight classrooms in four urban elementary schools, comparing the Montessori and Second Step approaches to peace education. Found that the Montessori approach produced the most peaceful classroom due to the democratic, student-centered, holistic nature of Montessori education. (MDM)

Harrison, Barbara (1994). A Workshop for Classroom Assistants. Theme Issue: "Spotlight: Public Schools." (EJ499951) Describes organizing and conducting workshops for adult teaching assistants in a Montessori public school setting. Includes contact information for obtaining similar workshop kits, with outlines, handouts, projects, and forms. (ETB)

Healy, Jane M. (1995). Nurturing the Growing Brain. Issue theme: Montessori: Nurturing the Human Potential. (EJ499958) Asserts that family environment and the parent-child relationship have a significant effect on the neurological development of young children. Suggests that parents need to encourage thinking, problem-solving, and language skills in their children through meaningful conversation and interaction. Maintains that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyslexia often have environmental causes. (MDM)

Hilliard, Asa G. (1996). Maintaining the Montessori Metaphor: What Every Child Wants and Needs. NAMTA Journal, 21, 2, 108-25 (EJ523361) Describes the view of intelligence in Montessori education and dismisses a variety of limited and dehumanizing models of education. Refers to the Montessori model as a "human metaphor" that actually responds to who children are and what they need, and extends that metaphor to the world community at large, encompassing the author's spiritual aspirations for the entire human race. (MOK)

Hilliard, Asa (1998). To Touch the Spirit of the Child: A Multicultural Perspective. NAMTA Journal, 23, 1, 122-38 (EJ561605 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Describes educational thinkers who pursue the intangibles in relation to children's education, and argues these intangibles are equally important as developing cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills. Enumerates the universal needs of the educational process as including dialog (good listening and observation), bonding, and a spiritual perspective on the human condition. (Author)

Hinitz, Blythe (Apr 1994). Peace Education for Children: Research on Resources. (ED375973) Peace education is and will continue to be a goal of early childhood educators around the world. A variety of definitions of peace and peace education can be found in the literature. A plethora of resources has become available during the past decade for those wishing to teach peace in educational settings for young children. The literature is replete with statements and examples regarding the necessity of peace education for the child's optimal social-emotional development. However, the literature dealing with peace education for infants and toddlers is severely limited. Three recent articles provide concrete examples of appropriate peace education practices for infants and toddlers. The classroom setting for 3- to 6-year-olds should offer space, materials, and opportunities for harmonious and interactive play. Planned program or curriculum activities can also enhance the peaceful classroom. Children's literature can be a powerful vehicle for strengthening communication skills and teaching peaceful conflict resolution. Therefore, books used with children should be screened and evaluated beforehand to determine the values they convey about peace and conflict. Some books can provide information that children can use to solve their own problems of dealing with anger. Writing books can also be a wonderful experience for primary level children. Some items in the peace literature are more appropriate for primary level and older children; many of the concepts in these books are at an adult level, and must be adapted to the children's cognitive and affective developmental levels. Others books are designed specifically for adults. For example, Maria Montessori's work, "Peace and Education," puts forth many concepts that still hold true today, including the observation that, to set about a sane, spiritual rebuilding of the human race, we must go back to the child. (A 150-item bibliography lists adult and children's resources on peace education.) (AS)

Honig, Alice Sterling (1993). Outcomes of Infant and Toddler Care. Montessori Life, 5, 4, 34-42 (EJ473267) Reviews research into the effects of various child care environments on the emotional and intellectual well-being of children. Examines factors of early education group settings that could facilitate a positive learning and emotional climate without detriment to infant-mother attachment. Suggests measures at the home, day-care, and public policy levels that will help ensure quality care of infants and toddlers. (HTH)

Honig, Alice Sterling, & Park, Kyung Ja (1995). Infant/Toddler Nonparental Care: Differential Effects on Boys and Girls? Spotlight: Gender Differences. Montessori Life, 7, 4, 25-27 (EJ512462) Ratings of emotional responsiveness of preschool children revealed more aggression among males than females during the infant-toddler period, but no interaction effects of group care entry status and sex of child were found. When young males exhibit differentially more aggression and noncompliance than females in daycare settings, other factors should be considered. (DR)

Honig, Alice Sterling (Feb 1990). For Babies to Flourish. (ED324144) Ideas for fine tuning the awareness and responsive interactions of teachers of infants and toddlers are offered. The ideas, which are supported by theory, research, and clinical experience, focus on the importance of: (1) tender, careful holding of babies; (2) prompt and accurate interpretation of the signals of distress; (3) development of keen observational skills; (4) ages, stages, and milestones of infant development; (5) timetable windows and prerequisite skills needed to meet behavioral objectives; (6) the process of using theoretical ideas to comprehend the dialectics of growth and development; (7) respect for infants' rhythms and tempos; (8) in-depth knowledge of numerous dimensions of children's language development; (9) the process of promoting altruism in babies; (10) provision of pleasurable experiences for infants; (11) the process of working with parents in partnership; (12) the mastering of subtle teaching skills; and (13) caregivers' honing of their metacognitive skills for the purposes of gaining a perspective on their practice, reframing potentially troublesome situations, and renewing their faith in themselves and their intellectual spunk. A table listing indicators of good mental health in infants is included. (RH)



Joosten, A. M. (1995). Peace and Education. Theme issue topic: "World Montessori: A Vision of Human Renewal." (EJ510655) This reprint of a 1960 conference paper discusses the role of education in bringing about world peace, focusing on Maria Montessori's ideas for promoting peace through a student-centered, nurturing curriculum for young children. Argues that only through the eyes of children can humankind understand the necessity for peaceful coexistence. (MDM)



Kahn, David, Ed. (1990). Implementing Montessori Education in the Public Sector. (ED327286) This book on implementing Montessori education in the public sector begins with a historical and social overview that reveals the usefulness of Montessori pedagogy as a means of national public school reform. The second chapter discusses equipment needed for Montessori schools, the scope and sequence of curriculum used, and minimal expectations for what should be included in a Montessori classroom. Chapter Three provides a view of Montessori language arts in light of current trends, including bilingual education. Chapter Four outlines a number of implementation approaches. Chapter Five discusses ways to integrate different funding sources so that early childhood Montessori can be supported in school districts that usually do not provide prekindergarten services. Chapter Six concerns Montessori education in relation to the disabled child and special education. Chapter Seven discusses the process of starting a school in terms of development of a proposal, common misconceptions, magnet school funding, and task force development. Cost audits from two established Montessori schools in Cincinnati are included. Chapter Eight covers admissions and recruitment, nonselective admissions, magnet school recruitment, promotions, and admission application procedures. Chapter Nine concerns parent involvement; Chapter Ten, program expansion; and Chapter Eleven, program evaluation. Numerous references are cited throughout; supportive materials are appended to some chapters. (RH)

Kahn, David (1993). Montessori Professional Development: More Depth and More Breadth. Montessori Life, 5, 2, 38-39 (EJ471305) Discusses changes in the professional development opportunities available to Montessori practitioners. Contains brief descriptions of inservice programs of the North American Montessori Teachers' Association and the Montessori Teacher Education Collaborative, including a teacher induction program, the Montessori Academy, a program for developing school culture, and the Humanities and Education Institute. (SM)

Kahn, David (1993). The Fertile Field of Imagination. NAMTA Journal, 18, 2, 27-41 (EJ469299) Defines imagination in Montessori terms, describes the power and centrality of imagination to emotional and intellectual life, and makes a carefully supported case for imagination as the foundation of the entire Montessori elementary experience and, perhaps, even for adult life as well. (HTH)

Kahn, David (1993). Montessori Adolescent Education: Toward an Emerging Framework. NAMTA Journal, 18, 3, 45-69 (EJ467571) Addresses the development of different curriculums and approaches to implementing Montessori programs at the middle school level, including a humanities-centered approach, interdisciplinary minicourses, master-apprentice programs, and team teaching approaches. Maintains that Montessori middle schools must move beyond the experimental stage and into the mainstream of early adolescent education. (MDM)

Kahn, David (1993). Designing for the Needs of Adolescents: An Interview with John McNamara. NAMTA Journal, 18, 3, 33-42 (EJ467570) This interview focuses on the Montessori adolescent program begun by John McNamara in 1978 at Ruffing Middle School in Ohio, describing the adolescent- centered curriculum, activities, and materials utilized in the program. Suggests that such programs need to provide an environment where children can first and foremost experience community, affirmation, love, and support. (MDM)

Kahn, David (1993). Reinventing Montessori: Perils and Possibilities. Thematic Issue: Reinventing Montessori. (EJ465892) To reinvent Montessori education, a new generation of individuals involved in Montessori education must probe questions involving the evolution of educational materials, educational philosophy, and social conscience. The expansion of Montessori education needs to include the traditions which reside in its educational methods and in the changing dynamics of society. (BC)

Kahn, David (1995). The Montessori Learning Community: Evolving Schools, Evolving Adults, Evolving Children. Theme issue topic: "The Montessori Learning Community: Future Challenges." (EJ508814) Discusses a framework for the creation, evolution, and development of Montessori schools, focusing on the creation of preschool programs, addition of primary and elementary education, and expansion to include middle school and secondary programs. Examines the role of teachers, parents, and students at each of these stages. (MDM)

Kahn, David (1996). All-Day Montessori: Notes on the History of the Experiment. Theme issue topic: "Rediscovering the All-Day Montessori Community." (EJ529815) Discusses the development of all-day Montessori programs over the last several decades, focusing on the contrasts between traditional day care programs and the Montessori educational experience. Also notes the application of Montessori principles to day care for preschool children. Concludes by introducing this special issue on the all-day Montessori community. (MDM)

Kahn, David (1996). Book Review. "Montessori Today: A Comprehensive Approach to Education from Birth to Adulthood" by Paula Polk Lillard. NAMTA Journal, 21, 2, 202-07 (EJ523369) Claims that "Montessori Today" concretizes the Montessori developmental continuum from birth to adulthood for the first time in book form in a comfortable and unassuming style. States that the book coherently expresses the coalescing four planes of development, with a final review of what the Montessori adult of the future might be like. (MOK)

Kahn, David (1996). The Theory of Multiple Intelligences: In Support of Montessori. NAMTA Journal, 21, 2, 1-4 (EJ523354) Discusses the theory of multiple intelligences and Montessori practice as interpreted by Torff, Dubovoy, Baker, Hilliard, Zener, and Sillick (PS 524 854- 859). Claims that Gardner and Montessori both look beyond the notion of fixed IQ, and their joint perception of human potential tends toward the boundless, and the belief that each child can make a contribution to the world. (MOK)

Kahn, David (1996). Parent Education: Seeing the Child's Perspective. Theme issue topic: "Introducing NAMTA's Parent Education Tool Kit." (EJ515266) Notes that the critical art of parent education is to bring the parent into the child's world view. Describes current publications from NAMTA's parent education tool kit which support the child's perspective. Includes strategies for generating parent discussion to merge the parent's point of view with that of the child in dealing with conflict. (HTH)

Kahn, David (1998). The Kodaikanal Experience: Kahn-Montessori Interview. NAMTA Journal, 23, 2, 34-42 (EJ565564 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) An interview with Mario Montessori explores the origins of Cosmic Education and experiences of Montessori and his mother, Maria Montessori, in Kodaikanal, India, during World War II. Their experiences contributed to development of theories regarding the elementary child, the power of imagination, the intuition of a cosmic connection, the dynamism of the natural world, and the meaning of history. (Author)

Kahn, David (1998). Mario Montessori: In Search of a Deeper Freedom. A Life's Journey of Educational Ideas. NAMTA Journal, 23, 2, 1-6 (EJ565560 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Introduces this theme issue on Mario Montessori's writings. Describes how his life experiences contributed to the idea of freedom in education, seen as a recurring theme in his mother, Maria Montessori's writings, and also contributed to the integration of the Montessori perspective. (KB)

Kahn, David (1998). Erdkinder under Construction: What the Farm Schools Showed Us. NAMTA Journal, 23, 1, 284-321 (EJ561614 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Describes the process of designing a residential working farm for adolescents, beginning with an overview of its philosophical and theoretical foundations, followed by a description of a recent tour of non- Montessori farm schools in New England, and ending with a preliminary plan for combining theory and practice. (Author)

Katz, Lilian G. (1993). The Nature of Professions: Where Is Early Childhood Education? Montessori Life, 5, 2, 31-35 (EJ471303) Notes the strong drive toward the professionalization of teaching and working in preschool settings. Applies features of a profession to the current state of the art of early childhood education. Discusses eight characteristics of a profession: social necessity; altruism; autonomy; a code of ethics; distance from clients; standards of practice; prolonged training; and specialized knowledge. (SM)

Katz, Lilian G. (1998). Affirming Children's Minds. Montessori Life, 10, 1, 33-36 (EJ558680) Suggests that educators must address: (1) What should be learned? (2) When should it be learned? (3) How would it best be learned? and (4) How can we tell how well we have answered the first three? Addresses the first three questions by offering principles of practice for early childhood educators, ranging from curriculum to learning disposition and self-esteem. (EV)

Katz, Lilian G. (Aug 1990). Questions about Montessori Education Today. (ED321845) In three parts, this symposium presentation to the American Montessori Society: (1) comments generally on current perceptions of Montessori education; (2) poses questions about practices in Montessori classrooms that challenge Montessori educators' core beliefs about Montessori education; and (3) discusses the cutting edges of contemporary Montessori methods education. In addition to general comments, Part 1 provides a discussion of the function of ideology in early childhood education and ways of opening closed belief systems to rational examination. Questions posed in part 2 concern essential aspects of classroom practices, the Montessori position statement, and general questions about Montessori theory to promote open discussion. Part 3, noting that a few decades ago the incorporation of pretend play activities into the Montessori classroom was the "cutting edge" of Montessori practices, asks such questions as "How would Maria Montessori respond to contempory educators' emphasis on project work and current advances in knowledge about teaching strategies that facilitate language development?" In conclusion, suggestions are offered on the substantial assets of the Montessori method, with a view toward future developments. (RH)

Kendall, Sharon Dubble (1993). The Development of Autonomy in Children: An Examination of the Montessori Educational Model. Thematic Issue: Reinventing Montessori. (EJ465896) Examined the nature and degree of autonomous behavior among groups of elementary students from Montessori schools and from traditional public schools. Results indicated that Montessori students demonstrated higher levels of independence, initiative, and self-regulation than students from traditional schools. (PAM)

Keys, Rob (1993). Behind the Mountain, There's Another Mountain: Montessori in Haiti. Montessori Life, 5, 2, 14-16 (EJ471299) Describes the author's recent visit to Montessori classrooms and schools in Haiti. Comments on Haitian politics and also discusses the state of affairs, activities, and availability of supplies in the various Haitian Montessori programs. (SM)

Kirkpatrick, Nanda D., & Others (1991). HISD Magnet School Program Description 1990-91. (ED338767) This paper describes magnet school programs offering a special or enhanced curricula to attract an ethnically diverse population at all grade levels in the Houston (Texas) Independent School District (HISD). Researchers collected data through interviews, site visits, brochures, campus programs summaries, and an analysis of the Student Master File. Evaluation of the data found that 89 educational programs located on 81 campuses have been established and operated during the 1990-91 school year. Organizationally, the following four basic types of programs exist: (1) School-within-a-School; (2) Add-On Programs; (3) Separate and Unique Schools; and (4) Cluster Centers. These programs serve students in pre- kindergarten through grade 12, and feature enrichment instruction in the areas of fine arts (in 12 elementary schools and 5 middle schools); mathematics, science, and computers (in 12 elementary schools and 4 middle schools); extended instructional day; and gifted and talented (in 10 elementary schools and 6 middle schools). Two programs offer Montessori instructional methods, and 11 elementary schools offer Extended Instructional Day Programs. At the high school level there are 16 specialty programs. Data indicate that 31,653 students were enrolled in elementary and secondary Magnet programs; 67 percent were minority students (Black and Hispanic American) and 33 percent were from other ethnic groups. Study data are presented in six tables. Two appendices provide various policy statements and guidelines. (JB)

Koetzsch, Ronald E. (1997). The Parents' Guide to Alternatives in Education. (ED411992) Recognizing that parents have a great range of options in choosing and creating an education for their child, this book is designed to help parents make an informed, conscious choice about their child's schooling. Chapters in the first part of the guide provide an overview of American education, the mainstream public sector and alternative education movements. Chapter 1 looks at the origin and early development of the American public school system. Chapter 2 treats the humanistic-progressive movement, while chapter 3 describes the religious- traditionalist movement. Chapter 4 discusses the range of education alternatives available in the current system. Chapters in the second section deal with six important movements in present-day education: (1) whole language; (2) cooperative learning; (3) the social curriculum; (4) multicultural education; (5) developmental education; and (6) education for character. The third part of the guide looks at 22 types of programs and schools that provide viable alternatives to mainstream public education: Carden Schools, Christian Schools, Comer Schools, Core Knowledge Schools, Essential Schools, Foxfire, Free Schools, Friends Schools, Holistic Schools, International Baccalaureate, Islamic Schools, Jewish Day Schools, Mennonite and Amish Schools, Montessori Schools, Multiple Intelligences, Education, Progressive Schools, Protestant Schools, Reggio Emilia Approach, Catholic Schools, Waldorf Education, and Teenage Liberation. Each chapter presents the approach's history, philosophy and principles; describes practical strategies of the educational approach; describes one or two actual schools using that particular approach; and lists resources and a bibliography. The guide's final section offers practical advice in choosing a school and on creating a school of one's own. Contains 41 references. (Author/KB)

Kohn, Alfie (1998). Beyond Bribes and Threats: How Not to Get Control of the Classroom. NAMTA Journal, 23, 1, 6-61 (EJ561601 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Defines the distinction between a "doing to" approach to children as the imposition of adult will on children and the "working with" approach as good listening, responsive teaching, and a collaborative approach of community-building. Challenges Montessori teachers to improve their craft and move from "doing to" to "working with" children. (Author/SD)

Kovach, Beverly A., & DaRoss, Denise A. (1995). The Use of Language: A Rationale for Respectful and Reciprocal Caregiving with Infants. Montessori Life, 7, 3, 16-17 (EJ508913) Examines the role of language in providing individual quality care to infants in a group situation. Suggests that by using language, the natural medium of choice, the adult includes the infant in his caregiving, and this inclusion helps to set up the beginning of a network of communication that lays the foundation for mutual understanding between caregiver and infant. (AA)

Kunesh, Linda G. (1990). A Historical Review of Early Intervention. (ED326328) The separate yet related fields of early childhood education, compensatory education, and early childhood special education have formed the roots of early intervention. All three fields have contributed to the formation of a rationale for early intervention. This paper traces the history of early intervention. The first section reviews four movements in early childhood education: (1) the kindergarten movement; (2) the Montessori movement; (3) the nursery school movement; and (4) the day care movement. The second section reviews the history of compensatory education pertinent to young children. Early childhood special education is reviewed in the third section. The fourth (and final) section reviews the contributions of selected theorists and researchers that have provided the bases for a rationale for early intervention and have influenced the three fields of education mentioned above. It is argued that the events and individuals discussed have paved the way for what is now considered a "Zeitgeist," that is, the trend of thought and feeling that early intervention is indeed a viable strategy for reducing or eliminating the risk of academic failure for large numbers of children. A list of 173 references is included. (Author/RH)



Leto, Frank (1995). Music Every Day. Montessori Life, 7, 2, 16-18 (EJ505526) Explores the suggestion of a musician studying the Montessori method that children are more susceptible to developing musical skills while in their sensitive period for language. Proposes a list of categories and presentations that can help teachers create their own music program: (1) songs and fingerplays; (2) ear training; (3) movement; (4) rhythm; and (5) use of recorded music. (AA)

Leto, Frank (1996). Fun with Rhythmic Notation. Montessori Life, 8, 2, 12-13 (EJ521997) Presenting music and notation to elementary school children exposes them to musical concepts and inspires them to take an interest in music throughout their lives. Nine lessons demonstrate how to introduce rhythmic notation to elementary- age children while utilizing percussion instruments such as timpani drums, tambourines, and rhythm sticks. (TJQ)

Leue, Mary, Ed. (1997). SKOLE: The Journal of Alternative Education, 1997. (ED424040 Available from: Down-to-Earth Books, 72 Philip St., Albany, NY 12202. ) The four issues of the journal SKOLE published in 1997 contain articles, personal narratives, and interviews about small alternative schools, home schooling, educational history, the deficiencies of public education, and educational philosophy and innovations. Major articles include: "The Creatures They Are: Children Becoming Their Nature" (about imagination) (Richard Lewis); "Eyeless in Gaza" (about literacy) (John Taylor Gatto); "Notes on My Trip to Waabno Gamaak: Helping To Change a School from an Authoritarian to Democratic Process" (Jerry Mintz); "I Went to Seven Different Elementary Schools" (Arthur Gladstone); "Hanging On at the Edge of the World: Teaching Writing to Urban Special Needs Youth" (Barbara Geis); "Breaking the Silence of Violence: Teaching Our Children New Strategies" (Michael Massurin); "Sharing One Skin" (about the Okanagan Indian community) (Jeannette Armstrong); "So Are You a Teacher, or What?" (Bill Kaul); "Like China in the Bull Shop: Classroom Accidents Waiting To Happen and Downshifting into Boredom" (Robert L. Kastelic, Kathleen McLinn); "Emily's Tree; Imagination and the Soul of Learning" (Richard Lewis); "Competition, Conditioning, and Play" (John Chilton Pearce); "A School Must Have a Heart" (Chris Mercogliano); "Montessori & Steiner: A Pattern of Reverse Symmetries" (Dee Joy Coulter); "On Conflict Resolution" (Bill Kaul); "School Is Bad for Children" (John Holt); "'Partial Vision' in Alternative Education" (Ron Miller); "Impatience" (John Potter); "It Takes a Community" (Sarah Scott); "The Different Drum: Community Making and Peace" (M. Scott Peck); "Why I Believe Attention Deficit Disorder Is a Myth" (Thomas Armstrong); "Elizabeth Byrne Ferm, 1857-1947" (Alexis C. Ferm); "Our Solar-Heated Bio-Dome" (Ted Strunck, Jane Strunck); "Radical Democracy and Our Future: A Call to Action" (John Taylor Gatto); "'Lifelong Learning': A Holistic View" (Nathaniel Needle); and "Receding Yet Again. Then Dissolving into Imaginary Gelatin" (about teaching) (Bill Kaul). This journal also contains poems, student writings, interviews, letters to the editor, and reviews of books and videos. (SAS)

Lillard, Paula Polk (1996). Montessori Today: A Comprehensive Approach to Education from Birth to Adulthood. (ED410021) While many parents are familiar with Montessori schooling at the preschool level, Montessori elementary and middle schools have also proliferated in the past decade. This book provides an overview of Montessori theory and practice, with special emphasis on the child's elementary school years. Chapter 1 presents an introduction to the origin and theory of Montessori education. Chapter 2 gives an overview of Montessori education at the primary level. Montessori theory and practice for the elementary classroom are presented in chapters 3 through 8, including children's physical, social, and moral changes; Montessori's "Great Lessons" and "Key Lessons"; classroom materials and environment; the elementary teacher; freedom and responsibility; and observations of a Montessori elementary classroom. Chapter 9 discusses Montessori's ideas for high school and university education. The final chapter describes the current state of Montessori education in the United States and suggests its potential contribution for the future. An appendix contains a high school student's reflections on her Montessori education. The book contains notes organized by chapter and 20 references. (LPP)

Lillard, Paula Polk (1997). Montessori in the Classroom: A Teacher's Account of How Children Really Learn. Revised Edition. (ED411969) This book provides a personal, day-by-day record, kept over a period of 3 years, to illuminate how one teacher brought the Montessori approach to children in a kindergarten classroom. The book's introduction outlines Maria Montessori's approach to education from birth through adolescence as one which focuses on the development of each person as a complete human being and thus emphasizes both academic rigor and personal development. Chapter 1 of the book ("On Education") introduces the teacher's educational philosophy and major characteristics of her kindergarten classroom, including classroom arrangement, materials, schedule, and the teaching relationship with her students. Chapter 2, "Class Life," examines children's adjustment during the beginning weeks of school, their growth throughout the remainder of the school year in independence, confidence, work response, ability to pace themselves and development as social beings; the author's growth in the teacher's role is also described. Chapter 3, "Language," presents journal entries that document instruction and progress in reading and writing, with a focus on the language development of four specific children. Chapter 4, "Mathematics," consists of diary entries documenting instruction and progress in mathematics using Montessori materials. Chapter 5, "Special Children," highlights the author's experiences teaching an intellectually gifted child and a child with learning disabilities. Chapter 6, "Personal Development," presents the author's reflections regarding her own professional and personal development and the personal development of her students. Six appendices include classroom schedules and materials. (KB)

Loeffler, Margaret (1993). Whole Language in the Montessori Classroom: Continuing the Story. NAMTA Journal, 18, 2, 63-82 (EJ469302) Reprints a talk presented to teacher trainers in 1990 that surveys thinking on language acquisition, specifically on the transition from orality to literacy, focusing on Montessori connections and applications. (HTH)

Loeffler, Margaret H. (1994). Rekindling the Romance: How We Can Strengthen the Impact of Montessori's Insights on Elementary Education. Montessori Life, 6, 1, (EJ478201) Proposes changes in elementary curriculum and Montessori teacher training programs that would strengthen the impact of Montessori's views on the education of children ages 6 to 12. Discusses reorganizing the elementary curriculum around broad themes or stories that would serve as paths introducing children to the broader world of learning and be the focus used in teacher education programs. (TJQ)

Loeffler, Margaret (1994). Scientific Pedagogy Revisited. NAMTA Journal, 19, 1, 136-45 (EJ478165) Examines the role of classroom-based research in relation to Montessori's thoughts about scientific pedagogy. Presents three models of on-site evaluation of pedagogical effectiveness that can be carried out by classroom teachers who work with children every day. (BB)

Loeffler, Margaret H. (1998). Unfolding Montessori's Ideas in Today's Society. Montessori Life, 10, 1, 29-32 (EJ558679) Asserts that as Montessorians enter the 21st century, they could benefit from developing an openness toward other educators' ideas and from undertaking a reexamination of their own understandings and practices as well as Montessori's underlying principles and methods, such as the role of materials, the terminology, and aspects of Montessori that have withstood the test of time. (EV)

Long, John (1993). Characteristics and Needs of Adolescents: A Comparative Study. NAMTA Journal, 18, 3, 87-91 (EJ467574) Provides a comparative overview of the developmental characteristics and needs of adolescents according to (1) the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development's report "Turning Points"; (2) Gayle Dorman's "Planning Programs for Young Adolescents"; (3) Maria Montessori's "From Childhood to Adolescence" and Margaret E. Stephenson's "The Adolescent and the Future"; and (4) Larry Schaefer's "A Montessori Vision of Adolescence." (MDM)

Long, John (1993). Ruffing Montessori School Peace Curriculum: An Informal Narrative. Thematic Issue: Reinventing Montessori. (EJ465902) Describes a curriculum for eighth graders that involves students' narratives of personal conflict experiences, study of a book on the methods and rules of war, characterizations of individuals involved with war, expression of a personal vision of peace, and composition of a mission statement concerning their work in the curriculum. (PAM)

Long, John (1994). Survey of Montessori Adolescent Programs: Interpretive Commentary. Special Report (EJ488461) Examines results of a survey documenting the current state of adolescent programs in the Montessori schools of North America. Includes information on the students, adults, and physical environment of such programs, as well as the programs' enrollment, grouping, activities, and materials. (HTH)

Long, John (1995). Dare to Do "Erdkinder": Report from Chicago. Theme issue topic: "The Montessori Learning Community: Future Challenges." (EJ508819) Discusses the "Erdkinder" concept of education advocated by Maria Montessori, in which adolescents spend several years on a farm to learn practical skills and character-building values. Describes one teacher's experiences with his students on week-long stays at an Amish farm in Geauga County, Ohio. (MDM)

Long, John (1995). Toward Key Experiences for the Adolescent. Issue theme: Montessori: Nurturing the Human Potential. (EJ499961) Compares the educational needs of young children and adolescents in relation to movement, work attitudes, psychic development, and language development, emphasizing the prepared environment of the Montessori approach. Also examines the importance of valorization, normalization, and key experiences in the education of adolescents. (MDM)

Lowsley, Joan Mee (1993). Beyond Food. Montessori Life, 5, 4, 31-33 (EJ473266) Discusses toddlers' needs for organization into a predictable framework, for movement, and for understanding language and using it effectively, as these needs affect toddlers' mental and emotional responses to food and nutrition. Provides ways adults can prompt positive responses, including the use of child-size utensils and respect for the criteria by which toddlers choose food. (HTH)

Lucas, Bill (1995). Grounds for Change: Learning through Landscapes in Britain. Theme issue topic: "The Montessori Learning Community: Future Challenges." (EJ508818) Discusses the role of the Learning through Landscapes organization in Britain, which emphasizes the importance of suitable school grounds and gardens for the effective environmental education of children. Also discusses briefly how school grounds can be used in geography, science, mathematics, and physical education instruction. (MDM)

Luckenbill, Louise M. (1995). Biological Superiority in Math: Calvin or Susie? Spotlight: Gender Differences. Montessori Life, 7, 4, 28-32 (EJ512463) Discusses recent research findings, which do not appear to support the idea that boys' superiority in mathematics is biological. Cerebral lateralization studies are discussed; meta-analysis showed that the gender gap has narrowed, casting doubt on the importance of innate ability determining mathematics performance. Discusses implications of recent research studies for educators. (DR)

Ludick, Patricia (1993). Curriculum for Caring. NAMTA Journal, 18, 3, 119-22 (EJ467578) A six-week program of social service and education for eighth graders at Ruffing East Montessori School focuses on aging and connects each pupil with a resident of a local retirement community. Through reading, attending classes, keeping a journal, interviewing, and creative writing, the students develop a greater understanding of and respect for the elderly. (MDM)

Ludick, Patricia (1993). Outreach Service Curriculum. NAMTA Journal, 18, 3, 111-18 (EJ467577) This 6-week course for students at Ruffing Montessori Middle School provides instruction in communication skills, information on human development, and instruction on skills useful in working as a volunteer or tutor. It culminates with service given to first graders in the primary environment and lays the foundation for the extended community work which follows the course. (MDM)

Ludick, Patricia (1993). Ethnic Neighborhoods Study. NAMTA Journal, 18, 3, 105-10 (EJ467576) Ethnic Neighborhoods Study, which is a six-week course developed for eighth graders at Ruffing Montessori School East, offers students an opportunity to research their own ethnicity, observe the social and cultural diversity of other people, and study one of the many nationality settlements in Cleveland. (MDM)

Ludick, Patricia (1996). Reflections from the Farm. Theme issue topic: "Rediscovering the All-Day Montessori Community." (EJ529824) Describes the experiences of a group of 13- and 14-year-old students from Ruffing Montessori School in Cleveland Heights, Ohio, during their 2-week stay in a house next door to an operating Amish farm. Includes reflections from student journals and advice for teachers planning similar excursions. (MDM)



Madden, Drina (1998). Pay Attention. Montessori Life, 10, 1, 44-46 (EJ558684) Children with Attention Deficit Disorder have trouble holding or sustaining attention. This article provides teachers with a general review of the disorder, including ADD and learning difficulties, self-esteem, and behavior problems; symptoms and diagnosis; and helping children with ADD, including medication, routine and regularity, careful planning of activities, and involvement of parents. (EV)

Magid, Lawrence J. (1996). Protecting Your Child on the Information Highway: What Parents Need to Know. Montessori Life, 8, 1, 26 (EJ520499) Discusses how parents can reduce the risks of inappropriate Internet use and ensure positive online experiences for their children. Gives guidelines for family rules and personal rules that each young user should know and understand. (ET)

Martin, Jane Roland (1992). The Schoolhome. Rethinking Schools for Changing Families. (ED351417) This book advances a philosophy of education and a vision of elementary schools as institutions that offer a solution that responds to the changing needs of today's families where schools become "schoolhomes" in which learning is animated by an ethic of social awareness. Following an introduction that sketches the sweeping social changes since the 19th Century, chapter 1, "School and Home", describes the ideas of John Dewey and Maria Montessori and argues for an educational approach that brings the domestic and the educational together. Chapter 2, "Culture and Curriculum," describes the challenge to the "homeschool" idea in a diverse and pluralistic society where no common culture binds students together. Chapter 3, "Learning To Live," considers the different educational needs of boys and girls. Chapter 4, "Domesticity Repressed," looks at the general rejection of home and domesticity in current cultures and argues that domesticity and concepts of family and home cannot be separated from educational institutions. Chapter 5, "Home and World," argues for the role of education in changing the world rather then preparing students for the "real world." An epilogue, "The Here and Now," describes the accomplishments of actual schools and individuals implementing programs with "homeschool" approaches. Included is a 146-item bibliography. (JB)

Martin, Karen (1993). Preparing for Life: Montessori's Philosophy of Sensory Education. Montessori Life, 5, 3, 24-27 (EJ469310) Maria Montessori considered the hand to be the agent of interaction between mind and body. Montessori advocated an environment for children that would encourage and enhance children's experiences through the use of objects that facilitated their learning but freed them from the need for adult direction. Montessori designed materials to facilitate children's refinement of each sense. (PAM)

Massiello, Jennifer Davis (1993). Science Mentor Project. NAMTA Journal, 18, 3, 123-25 (EJ467579) The Science Mentor Program at Ruffing Montessori School East allows students to visit scientists at work. These visits, along with readings, classes, and essay assignments, help students gain a better understanding of the work of scientists and the conduct of scientific research. (MDM)

Matthews, Mary G. (1996). The Effects of Day Care on Infant-Parent Attachment in Children under Three. Theme issue topic: "Rediscovering the All-Day Montessori Community." (EJ529821) Reviews research into the effects of full-time day care on parent-child bonding, noting a number of weaknesses in research in this area, namely small sample size. Concludes that while most research finds that early day care can potentially disrupt the attachment bond, the significance of the disruption is unclear. (MDM)

Matthews, Mary G. (1996). Parenting for Independence. For response to this article, see McNamara (PS 524 866) in this issue. (EJ523367) Responds to William Sears's article: "Attachment Parenting: A Style That Works" (PS 523 690). Claims that there are alternatives to "attachment parenting" based on the Montessori philosophy, pointing out that Sears's suggestion of sleeping with the baby and carrying the baby in a sling may easily become obstacles in the path of natural development and delay the acquisition of independence. (MOK)

McDermott, John J. (1995). Do Not Bequeath a Shamble. The Child in the Twenty-First Century: Innocent Hostage to Mindless Oppression or Messenger to the World? Theme issue topic: "World Montessori: A Vision of Human Renewal." (EJ510657) This reprint of a 1980 article argues that there is a unique global consciousness inherent in the "prepared environment" of Maria Montessori's student-centered, nurturing curriculum for young children. Maintains that war and peace, overpopulation, hunger, environmental problems, and other global concerns can be addressed through education. (MDM)

McDermott, Martha (1996). What It Means to Follow the Child. NAMTA Journal, 21, 2, 126-36 (EJ523362) Makes an evocative plea for accepting children where they are developmentally and maintaining a vision of future possibility. Claims that adults are being guided and informed by children, and adjust their behaviors accordingly. Advocates encountering the child with a willingness to learn from the relationship, with the result that the educator grows with the children. (MOK)

McGhee, Joyce (1995). Mathematics and Language Experience. Montessori Life, 7, 2, 34-36 (EJ505532) Presents an approach to geometry that integrates mathematics and language teaching. Suggests that mathematics is more than manipulation of numbers: it is a way of thinking about things. Argues that mathematics and language should be united especially to achieve the goal of promoting the development of analytical thinkers, as the ability to see relationships and patterns enables problem solving. (AA)

McGuire, Margit E. (1997). Organizing the Social Studies: The Storypath Philosophy. Montessori Life, 9, 4, 21-23 (EJ554432) Describes the Storypath method of using story structure to help students understand concepts. Specifically offers a structure for organizing the social studies curriculum while integrating the Montessori method. Provides strategies for guiding student learning, promoting social and cooperative learning skills, and meeting curriculum needs and the needs of diverse learners. (SD)

McKenzie, Ginger Kelley (1995). Montessori Language and the Sensitive Period for the Imagination and Culture. Montessori Life, 7, 3, 38-39 (EJ508918) Proposes ways to create a language curriculum based on children's "sensitive periods" as described by Montessori. Suggests that ages 6 through 12 are a sensitive period for using imagination. Creative expression should be an integral part of the entire curriculum, and creative expression can be stimulated through many sources of writing experiences such as creative writing, poetry, research, editorials, and myths. (AA)

McMullin, Ernan (1993). The Sciences and the Humanities. Thematic Issue: Reinventing Montessori. (EJ465895) Describes the interdisciplinary and psychological links between the sciences and specific fields of the humanities, including history, literature, and theology and the role of imagination in science. (PAM)

McNamara, John (1994). Montessori Mathematics: A Model Curriculum for the Twenty-First Century. NAMTA Journal, 19, 1, 3-9 (EJ478159) Maintains that the Montessori mathematics curriculum is on the cutting edge of meeting the mathematical literacy needs of elementary and middle school students. Discusses how the curriculum adheres to and uses the five standards or goals for school mathematics as stated by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (BB)

McNamara, Anne (1996). Response to "Parenting for Independence.". Responds to Mary Matthews' article: "Parenting for Independence" (PS 524 865). (EJ523368) Claims that Matthews sees independence as moving freely and being able to function apart from the adult, leading to competence and cognitive development for life. Reiterates the importance of emotion, relationships, and the mother as the central part of the child's prepared environment. (MOK)

McNichols, John Chattin (1993). Transforming the Adult. Montessori Life, 5, 2, 21-23 (EJ471301) Presents a historical sketch of American Montessori teacher education and discusses issues that should be addressed in the future. Suggests that teacher educators should teach their students strategies for individualizing their interactions with children rather than encouraging their students to memorize large amounts of material. Advocates the inclusion of new areas and teaching styles in Montessori teacher education. (SM)

Mellor, Elizabeth J. (1990). Stepping Stones: The Development of Early Childhood Services in Australia. (ED386289) This book presents an overview of the health, education, and care services for young children in Australia in the past 100 years. The book explores how overseas developments, changing values, economic forces, and local conditions shaped and continue to shape the services provided for young children. Chapters in part 1 cover the late 1800s. Chapter 1 describes the prevailing social conditions and values, noting that at mid-century, Australia had large numbers of destitute and neglected children; by the century's end, services for young children became a matter of Christian compassion and national interest. Chapter 2 surveys the orphanages, industrial schools, boarding-out, creches, and infant homes available for children. Chapter 3 describes the important advances in health care for young children after 1875 due to understanding of the cause and transmission of disease. Chapter 4 surveys new approaches to infant teaching that arose in the 1880s. Chapters in part 2 cover the years 1900-1945. Chapter 5 explores the expansion of children's services in Australia, while chapter 6 examines legislative measures to protect infants and the type of care available to young children. Chapter 7 describes the infant health services and the school health services that became available in all states. Chapter 8 discusses approaches to infant and kindergarten care, including Froebelian, the Kindergarten Union, and Montessori method. Chapters in part 3 cover the period after 1945. Chapter 9 discusses postwar social conditions and changes that have affected children's services. Chapter 10 explains why by the 1980s most children requiring care were in foster care or small family group homes, outlines developments regarding adoption and foster care, and examines trends in non-residential child care. Chapter 11 discusses new advances and issues in curative and preventive health services. Chapter 12 surveys the spread of preschools from 1945 to 1970 and the development of early childhood education from 1970 to 1985. Chapter 13 evaluates progress made to date and identifies four trends likely to continue into the 1990s. A bibliography of approximately 250 items is included. (TM)

Merz, Thya (1996). Begin Simply, Simply Begin: Sustaining an Art Area in the Elementary Classroom. Montessori Life, 8, 3, 27-28 (EJ529834) Presents advice on how Montessori elementary teachers can create a vital arts program in the classroom. Promotes literacy in artistic language, the importance of visual observation, and the importance of teachers educating themselves. Provides a materials list and artwork suggestions for teachers, including creating a visual journal, drawing, painting, and sculpting. (SD)

Miron, Gary (1996). Free Choice and Vouchers Transform Schools. Educational Leadership, 54, 2, 77-80 Oct (EJ534025) In response to stagnating economic conditions, the Swedish government introduced numerous "reforms," including a voucher scheme for approved independent schools. Since 1992, enrollments in independent schools have increased only 1%, segregation and interschool disparities have increased, and supports for special- needs children have deteriorated. School vouchers may be discontinued after

Moncada-Davidson, Lillian (1995). Community-Based Montessori Education at La Esperanza. Montessori Life, 7, 4, 18-19,21 (EJ512459) Describes a community-based education program for women and children in extreme poverty. The program educates women in a nonformal education program that uses Montessori pedagogical methods as its underlying philosophy. The women also develop a daycare center as part of this pilot program that adapts conventional Montessori practices to educate children of poverty in Central America. (DR)

Montessori, Mario (1994). Dr. Maria Montessori and the Child. NAMTA Journal, 19, 2, 45-58 (EJ485376) Discusses Maria Montessori's approach to educating and caring for young children, focusing on her early experiences with poor tenement children in 1907 and the development of the Montessori Method of exploratory, child-centered learning. Argues that children do not have an inner spiritual hunger but are themselves the essence of spirituality, needing only a wholesome atmosphere to thrive. (MDM)

Montessori, Renilde (1995). Commitment to Peace. Theme issue topic: "World Montessori: A Vision of Human Renewal." (EJ510654) This reprint from a 1985 issue of "The NAMTA Journal" discusses the ideas of Maria Montessori and Erich Fromm in relation to world peace and the role of education in promoting peace. Also examines the nature of conflict, war, and peace, and the need to commit oneself to peace. (MDM)

Montessori, Maria, & Montessori, Mario (1995). Peace through Education. Theme issue topic: "World Montessori: A Vision of Human Renewal." (EJ510653) This reprint of a 1937 conference paper discusses the role of education in bringing about world peace, focusing on the need for a student-centered, nurturing curriculum to replace the authoritarian, teacher-directed curriculum based on punishment and rewards. Argues that greater emphasis needs to be placed on education in all societies. (MDM)

Montessori, Maria (1995). Education in Relation to the Imagination of the Little Child. Theme issue topic: "World Montessori: A Vision of Human Renewal." (EJ510652) This reprint of a 1915 conference paper discusses the significance of religion and truth in the context of the mental powers of children, focusing on the unique role of imagination in the psychology of young children. Stresses the importance of developing sound imagination built on the real and concrete models of young children's environment. (MDM)

Montessori, Maria (1995). The Mother and the Child. Theme issue topic: "World Montessori: A Vision of Human Renewal." (EJ510651) This reprint of a 1915 conference paper discusses the mother's role in the spiritual and moral development of her children, as well the right of all children to grow spiritually and morally, unimpeded by the power of adults. Stresses the civil rights of children, including their right to a nurturing, healthy environment. (MDM)

Montessori, Maria (1995). The Organization of Intellectual Work in School. Theme issue topic: "World Montessori: A Vision of Human Renewal." (EJ510650) This reprint of a 1915 conference paper discusses the role of preschool teachers in observing and analyzing their students' work under the Montessori method of child-centered, individualized, early-childhood education. It examines children's work cycle over the course of the day and the teachers' role in organizing intellectual work for their students. (MDM)

Montessori, Maria (1995). Creative Ability in Childhood. Issue theme: Montessori: Nurturing the Human Potential. (EJ499955) This lecture discusses the creative ability of young children, asserting that educators must cultivate children's creative potential so that these abilities can develop and expand. Early childhood education also needs to take into account children's natural need for rules. (MDM)

Montessori, Mario M. (1998). A Letter From Mr. Mario M. Montessori. NAMTA Journal, 23, 2, 106-10 (EJ565569 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Reprint of 1973 letter issued by the Association Montessori Internationale to its members regarding signs that although people have been striving for greater general welfare, individual rights, freedom, and leisure, extending reduced work and more leisure to children will disrupt healthy development. Describes necessary environments for healthy child development and the development of physical and spiritual values. (KB)

Montessori, Mario M., & Montessori, Renilde (1998). Spiritual Outlook and the Child. NAMTA Journal, 23, 2, 100-05 (EJ565568 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Examines the role of education in enhancing the natural spirituality of children. Maintains that when young children are given freedom of choice in activities, their behavior becomes gentle, compassionate, and purposeful. Asserts that children unconsciously build the basic structure of the human personality and that spirituality is evident in the first 3 years of life. (Author)

Montessori, Mario M., & Montessori, Renilde (1998). The Child Before Seven Years of Age; The Child After Seven Years of Age; and What Children Taught Dr. Montessori. NAMTA Journal, 23, 2, 82-99 (EJ565567 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) The three lectures reprinted here, given in 1957 London Elementary course, integrate the Montessori perspective on the Elementary child and Cosmic Education: (1) differences between children before and after 7 years of age; (2) characteristics of children 7 years and older; and (3) the adult role in responding to children in the second stage of development. (Author)

Montessori, Mario M., & Claremont, Claude A. (1998). Montessori and the Deeper Freedom. NAMTA Journal, 23, 2, 65-80 (EJ565566 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Synthesizes the Montessori stages of life from birth to adulthood and provides an integrated description of Montessori educational principles. Examines the role of the teacher as learner, revolutionary, and scientist following the child through life. Identifies education as ongoing research on the laws of human development. (KB)

Montessori, Maria (1998). The Unconscious in History. NAMTA Journal, 23, 2, 44-64 (EJ565565 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Describes the absorbent mind as the manifestation of individual unconscious and as the unconscious forces manifested in nature's evolution. The natural creative unconscious directs the instinctive balance of nonhuman lives. Human consciousness creates a conscious, human-made universe, a cultural and technological zone, which evolves on its own terms. Children become more conscious of the collective human role in evolution. (Author)

Montessori, Mario M. (1998). The Impact of India. NAMTA Journal, 23, 2, 26-32 (EJ565563 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Describes the experiences of Maria Montessori and her son, Mario, during their internment in India during World War II. Discusses how their observations of communities of Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Muslims, and Zoroastrians at the Theosophical Society contributed to ideas related to the absorbent mind, and enabled the extension of the Montessori approach to infants and toddlers. (KB)

Montessori, Mario M. (1998). The Botanical Cards. NAMTA Journal, 23, 2, 10-24 (EJ565562 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Describes the founding of an experimental school in 1936 in Laren, Holland by Maria Montessori, which began to synthesize the cultural materials based on children's capacity for hearing and absorbing language. Discusses young children's responsiveness to learning scientific names for leaf forms. Cites this experience as evidence for her theory of sensitive periods and developmental stages. (Author/KB)

Montessori, Mario M. (1998). Respect This House. NAMTA Journal, 23, 2, 7-9 (EJ565561 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Recounts an anecdote about Maria Montessori's series of radio talks about children given during the early days of the Spanish Civil War. They illustrate the obtrusive nature of political oppression. As a result of these radio talks, Maria Montessori gained the title "Friend of the Children." (KB)

Moore, Robin C. (1996). Outdoor Settings for Playing and Learning: Designing School Grounds to Meet the Needs of the Whole Child and Whole Curriculum. Theme issue topic: "Rediscovering the All-Day Montessori Community." (EJ529823) Presents a list of imaginative design options for optimal outdoor learning as well as intimate contact with nature. Focuses on entrances, pathways, signage and displays, barriers and enclosures, manufactured equipment and play structures, multipurpose game settings, groundcovers and safety surfaces, landforms and topography, trees and vegetation, gardening settings, animal habitats, aquatic settings, and performance settings. (MDM)

Moore, William P. (Aug 1991). The Faxon Montessori Magnet Elementary School, 1990-1991. Summative Evaluation. (ED349086) This report documents the progress made by the Faxon Montessori Magnet School in Kansas City, Missouri, during the three years of its implementation of the Montessori philosophy. During the 1990-91 school year, the school served children from three years of age through third grade. School enrollment information was analyzed and data were obtained from classroom observation; from parent, teacher, and student questionnaires; and from achievement tests. Analysis of enrollment information revealed that: (1) enrollment was at 93 percent of capacity; (2) enrollments varied by grade level; and (3) minority students comprised 61 percent of the student population. Classroom observation indicated that students were engaged in independent learning activities and activities that enhanced motor skills. Teacher-initiated management was minimal. Results from the questionnaires indicated that program participants were satisfied with most aspects of the program. However, teachers were dissatisfied with the amount of administrative support they received. Achievement scores of kindergarten, first-grade, and second-grade students on the reading, math, and language subtests of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills were above district and national norms. Third graders scored above district, and below national, norms on the Missouri Mastery and Achievement Tests. Thirteen data tables and seven figures are included, and an appendix presents a description of the goals and activities of the Faxon Montessori extended day program. (BC)

Moore, William P. (Aug 1991). The Holliday Montessori Magnet Elementary School, 1990-1991. Formative Evaluation. (ED346968) This formative evaluation report documents the progress made by the Holliday Montessori Magnet Elementary School (Kansas City, Missouri) during the first year of implementation of Montessori themes. The evaluation was based on the goals established by the Holliday Montessori Site Plan and the Long-Range Magnet School Plan. Examined were enrollment data; program implementation; parent, teacher, administrator, and student attitudes toward the program; and student achievement. Enrollment data indicated that the school's enrollment was 9% below program capacity, and that the school was close to achieving the desegregation goal of 60% minority and 40% nonminority students and had maintained court-ordered class size limits. Achievement scores for nonminority kindergarten students were above national norms in math and language subtests, but minority student achievement scores fell below the national norm. Classroom observations, site visits, questionnaires, and interviews suggest that the program is being implemented according to the site plan and long-range plan objectives. However, program participants identified problems associated with inadequate supplies and materials, student transportation, communication among colleagues, vacancies for Montessori resources staff, and training for teachers and paraprofessionals. Perceptions of parents were positive and reflected a strong degree of satisfaction in most areas of program implementation. Recommendations based on the evaluation results are provided. Appended are 4 references and related materials. (GLR)

Morris, Laura (1996). Northwoods Montessori Full-Day Program. Theme issue topic: "Rediscovering the All-Day Montessori Community." (EJ529820) Describes the trial-and-error approach of Northwoods (Atlanta, Georgia) Montessori School's experiment in all-day Montessori for preschoolers. Contrasts the school's original half-day program with the subsequent all-day programs, and outlines student and teacher schedules. (MDM)



Nelson, Carole S., & Watson, J. Allen (1995). The Computer Gender Gap: Children's Attitudes, Performance, and Socialization. Spotlight: Gender Differences. In Montessori Life, 7, 4, 33-35,. EJ512464. Discusses the significant, historically-rooted gender differences in equality of computer access and performance outcomes. Identifies issues to be dealt with to assure a future in which girls will succeed in technology-based education. Suggests research issues and discusses the mathematical component of computing, influence of family, gender bias in software, and influence of the teacher. (DR)

Newson, Ron (1992). Knowles and Montessori: Facilitators of Learning. Journal of Adult Education, 21, 2, 15-20 (EJ463531) Montessori's ideas contradict Knowles' statements about pedagogy but support his idea that andragogy may be appropriate for children in certain circumstances. If the concepts of child and adult are ignored, the theories of Knowles and Montessori sound similar. (SK)



O'Shaughnessy, Molly (1998). Cultivating Spontaneous Self-Discipline. NAMTA Journal, 23, 1, 62-99 (EJ561602 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Draws on contemporary sources to provide strategies for cultivating self- discipline. Advocates self-healing for the adult to be free from destructive attitudes and personal history that can keep adults from being mindful of the child's needs, perspective, and potential. Concludes with ways to facilitate a truly Montessori approach to discipline. (Author)

Ohlhaver, Dorothy (1996). Music as a Second Language. Montessori Life, 8, 3, 30-34 (EJ529835) Argues that music is a universal language and is important to integrate in the Montessori classroom through teacher education, child-directed activities, and learning individual tones, followed by recognition of patterns and musical sentences. Provides a historical timeline and analysis of musical development. Discusses merits of a music education. (SD)

Organization (1 Mar 1994). Early Childhood Education Program Evaluation 1992-1993. (ED369546) This report describes the early childhood education programs of the Des Moines Independent Community School District and evaluates their strengths and weakness. A description of each of the district's 15 programs and services for children from birth to 8 years of age is given, along with vignettes demonstrating how the programs affect the lives of Des Moines children and their families. Major strengths of the early childhood programs are listed, including: (1) cooperation and collaboration among programs, staff, and administrators; (2) increasing numbers of staff with early childhood endorsements and certifications; (3) collaborative agreements with other community agencies and organizations; (4) increased parent involvement; and (5) excellent Head Start programs. Noted areas in need of improvement include a lack of sufficient dedicated classroom space, a lack of manipulative materials for kindergarten through second-graders, and additional staff time for professional development and planning. Five appendixes provide a diagram of program collaboration; a program organizational chart; a list of program locations and kindergarten sessions; a list of relevant early childhood policies, standards, and regulations; and a table of the ethnicity of children attending district programs. (MDM)

Organization (1 Oct 1991). Early Childhood Initiatives: Doing the Right Thing for Children. (ED339551) The District of Columbia Board of Education declared the 1990-1991 school year "The Year of the Young Child." During this year, the district encouraged programs that: (1) responded to the learning patterns of children; (2) involved parents in their children's development; (3) provided a range of services such as health and nutrition services; and (4) drew on the resources of many agencies. This publication describes program initiatives that were undertaken during the year. These included: (1) demonstration programs, such as teacher training projects and an in-home Head Start project; (2) training programs for Montessori teachers, teacher's aides, and administrators; (3) curriculum programs such as a Head Start project, an arts project, and cooperative projects with the Wolf Trap Institute and the Smithsonian Museum; (4) collaborative efforts for teachers, agencies, and families; (5) bilingual education programs; (6) transitional programs for disabled and special education children, and children of substance abusers; and (7) programs to upgrade classroom equipment and materials, and improve student- teacher ratios. Each of the 31 program profiles includes a synopsis of the program; a phone number and contact person for the participating school; program goals, major objectives, and strategies for the 1991-1992 school year; and descriptions of past accomplishments. (BC)

Organization (15 Oct 1991). Pequenitos en Accion. Edgewood ISD Model Program for 3-Year-Olds Replication Manual. (ED354289) This guide describes "Pequenitos en Accion" (Small Children in Action), the Edgewood (Texas) Independent School District (ISD) early childhood intervention program for Spanish-speaking 3-year-old preschool children. The program is an innovative early childhood education model involving educational programming, collaboration and integration with child care services, and strong parental education and involvement. A Piagetian and Montessori-based bilingual curriculum for Spanish-speaking children is used. The guide present a demographic profile of the area and participants and describes program development, including site and facilities selection, determining needs and target population, goals, research, and a timeline for planning and development. An implementation section details administration, staff, recruitment, eligibility and enrollment, facilities set-up and maintenance, and scheduling. An operation section covers curriculum, the child care component, parent education, staff coordination, staff development, and support services. A program evaluation section discusses costs, outcomes, program successes, obstacles and solutions, and the results of a parent survey. A final section describes changes as of the program's third year. Appendixes contain a forms index with job descriptions, needs assessment forms, student application folders, student registration forms, child care operation forms, and screening forms. Some forms are provided in Spanish. A 35-item bibliography is included. (JB)

Organization (1986). The Montessori Observer, 1980-1997. (ED422062 Available from: International Montessori Society, 912 Thayer Avenue, Suite 207, Silver Spring, MD 20910; phone: 301-589-1127.) This publication of the International Montessori Society, issued eight times yearly, provides news and information to extend awareness and interest in the application of Montessori educational principles and to promote harmony in the Montessori community. Regular sections in each issue provide information on training opportunities, teaching practices, relevant government legislation, editorials, positions available, and membership benefits. Each issue also investigates a special area of Montessori education. (KB)

Organization (1990). Chicago's Private Elementary and Secondary Schools: Enrollment Trends. (ED319823) Nearly one out of every four students enrolled in Chicago's elementary and secondary schools during the 1987-88 school year attended one of the city's 450 private schools. Although frequently overlooked by city-wide educational reform programs, the private schools contribute to the urbanization of newcomers to the city, to the stability of neighborhoods, to setting standards for public schools, and to urban civility. The following enrollment trends from 1976 to 1987 are reported: (1) the number of Catholic schools, the single largest group, declined from 291 to 239, and enrollment declined by 25 percent; (2) enrollments at Lutheran schools dropped 35 percent, and 2 elementary schools that closed were reopened as day care centers; (3) the number of other Christian schools, notably those under Evangelical sponsorship, has grown from 13 to 45 and enrollments have increased; (4) the number of Jewish day schools rose from 7 to 9 and enrollments also rose significantly; (5) 3 Islamic/Muslim schools have been established with a total enrollment of 192; (6) the number of independent schools rose from 23 to 32 and overall enrollments increased; (7) the number of proprietary schools doubled; (8) enrolled in the city's 4 Montessori schools remained stable; and (9) the number of special education schools dropped from 75 to 66 and enrollments also declined. The following fund raising initiatives have been used successfully by financially strapped private schools: (1) new corporate and foundation support; (2) support from religious organizations; (3) multiplying scholarships; (4) community initiatives; and (5) outreach programs. Statistical data are included on five tables. A list of local associations and central offices for private schools is appended. (FMW)

Organization (1991). Restructuring the Education System: A Consumer's Guide, Volume 1. (ED336839) Overviews of 10 major restructuring initiatives in the United States are provided in this publication. The programs share a questioning attitude, vision-based goals, a focus on hands-on learning, an assumption of all children's learning potential, new approaches to thinking and problem-solving, and new participant roles. Each program is described according to its history, beliefs and goals, implementation, teaching content and practices, participant roles, assessment, funding, and per-pupil cost. A contact address is also provided. The 10 programs include Coalition of Essential Schools; Foxfire; The Mastery in Learning Consortium; Montessori in the Public Schools; The Paideia Press; Re: Learning; School Development Program; The Stanford Accelerated Schools Project; Success for All; and Whole Language. A glossary of terms is included. (LMI)

Organization (1992). The 40th Anniversary of the Unesco Institute for Education. UIE Report 6. (ED363561) This report of the 40th anniversary meeting of the Unesco Institute for Education (UIE) discusses the Institute's program which has consistently reflected a concern with education as a lifelong phenomenon. Current priorities are the promotion of literacy and adult basic education, the extension of educational opportunities to children and young people out of school, and education for international understanding. In 1992, a major emphasis of UIE's research work is again on adult education. This report consists of the texts of four lectures. Included is Maria Montessori's address to the institute from June of 1951. The areas discussed include the tragedy of humanistic education, the purposes of education, the history of the institute, a formal celebration held in 1991, and the role of adult education. The four main lectures are presented in the original language of either French or German as well as in English. The lecture discussing the history of the institute divides the group's activities into three periods. The first from 1952-65 were spread over a range of topics of everyday educational importance. The second period from 1966-89 concentrated more on international outreach. From 1972 UIE adopted lifelong education as the framework on its research activities. The third period begins in 1990 with increased cooperation with UNESCO and new emphasis on research in adult education. The lecture on the purpose of education emphasizes the importance of the role of curiosity, history, individuality, and education for liberation. The lecture on humanistic education suggests that education has always been profoundly linked to the tragic vision of life and death. (DK)

Organization (1993). A Disposition to Be Resourceful: An Interview with Lilian Katz. Montessori Life, 5, 2, 26-30 (EJ471302) Lilian Katz is director of ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, professor at University of Illinois, and, in 1992, was elected president of National Association for Education of Young Children (NAEYC). Discussed are her background, early childhood teacher preparation, students' and teachers' dispositions, Montessori education, the Reggio Emilia preschool system, professionalization of teaching, and plans for NAEYC. (SM)

Organization (1993). Living Legacy: A Conversation with Carolina Gomez del Valle. Montessori Life, 5, 3, 18-21 (EJ469309) Carolina Gomez del Valle has been involved in training other Montessorians in Mexico, Chile, Nicaragua, Peru, and Taiwan. This interview explores her experiences with Montessori education and describes how she has woven her religious training and Montessori philosophy together. (PAM)

Organization (1993). The American Adolescent: Facing a "Vortex of New Risks.". NAMTA Journal, 18, 3, 85-86 (EJ467573) Excerpts from the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development's report "Turning Points: Preparing American Youth for the 21st Century," issued in 1989, indicate the need to develop a more adolescent-centered approach to education in the middle grades that is very similar to the basic ideas of the Montessori method. (MDM)

Organization (1993). Book Reviews. Young Children, 48, 4, 86-87 May (EJ463008) Reviews three books (1) "Montessori Play and Learn: A Parents Guide to Purposeful Play from Two to Six" (Lesley Britton); (2) "Health and Safety in Child Care" (Susan S. Aronson); and (3) "The Schoolhome: Rethinking Schools for Changing Families" (Jane Roland Martin). (MDM)

Organization (1993). Outline Guide to Educational Reform Initiatives. ERS Research Digest. (ED357454) Many educational reform initiatives are being tried in an effort to restructure the American school system. This guide compares major educational reform efforts by goal, vision, teaching and learning, and system components. The first section of the guide covers major systemic educational reform initiatives, including Accelerated Schools Project, Agenda for Teacher Education in a Democracy, Carnegie Middle-Grade School/State Policy Initiative, Coalition of Essential Schools, Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics, Effective Schools, Foxfire Teacher Outreach, Holmes Group, Montessori Public Schools, National Education Association Mastery in Learning Consortium, New Standards Project, Outcome-Driven Development Model, Program for School ImprovementLeague of Professional Schools, Project 2061: Science for All Americans, Re:Learning, School Development Program, Success for All, Total Quality Management, Transformational Outcome-Based Education, and Whole Language. The second section includes reform initiatives approved by the New American Schools Development Corporation: Atlas CommunitiesPartners, Bensenville Community Design, College for Human Services, Community Learning Centers of Minnesota, Co-Nect School, Expeditionary Learning, Los Angeles Learning Centers, Modern Red Schoolhouse, National Alliance for Restructuring, Odyssey Project, and Roots and Wings. (JPT)

Organization (1994). American Montessori Society Position Papers. Montessori Life, 6, 2, 6-7 (EJ484031) Presents two American Montessori Society position papers. "Multi-Age Grouping" offers an analysis of eight specific methods and strategies of multiage practice that serve as a useful guide for implementation. "Peace Education" explains the need for, the requirements for, and the benefits of peace education as part of a school's curriculum. (TJQ)

Organization (1994). A Sense of Wonder: An Interview with Maria Montessori? Montessori Life, 6, 1, 22-25 (EJ478202) An imaginary interview with Maria Montessori elaborates on three requirements for an effective elementary school. The effective school should match the development and needs of children; be created as a total learning community; and offer an atmosphere and a curriculum that foster children's innate sense of wonder and connection to the natural world. (TJQ)

Organization (1994). Theory into Practice: A Practical Newsletter for NAMTA Members, 1994. (ED414991) This document consists of the two issues of this newsletter published during 1994. Issues contain articles and employment notices of interest to Montessori teachers and school administrators. Feature articles include: (1) "Meaningful In-Service Comes from Within Our Own School" (Anne Blickenstaff and Nancy Hildick), which discusses one school's inservice teacher programs in Spanish and botany; (2) "Starting at Age Three: A Full-Day Program for Three- to Six-Year-Old Children" (Rita Zener), which discusses the development of preschool children; and (3) "Grammar, Invention, and Writing Starters: Some Principles of Extension" (David Kahn), which describes creative writing activities for elementary school students. The major portion of the publications consists of employment notices for Montessori teachers and administrators throughout the United States and other nations, as well as notices advertising schools for sale and positions wanted. (MDM)

Organization (1994). MINNETESOL Journal, Volumes 1-12. (ED412770) The 12 volumes of the professional journal contain articles on a wide variety of topics on classroom techniques, curriculum design, class activities, and research in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teaching at all educational levels. General topics include: communicating with ESL students; current events in the classroom; cultural test bias; teaching listening comprehension; instructional materials; second language acquisition processes; Hmong refugees and language contact; teaching preliterate adults; discourse analysis and ESL; relevant course content for refugees; Hmong bilingualism; teacher professional growth; ESL for foreign teaching assistants; Montessori language lessons; classroom communication; neglected vocabulary needs; teaching relative clauses; preparing Limited-English- Proficient (LEP) students for on-the-job training; English for Special Purposes (ESP) for nursing students; teacher-planned needs assessment and curriculum development; use of sensitive topics in teaching; using visual stimuli for children's writing instruction; teaching paraphrasing; leaner self-monitoring of grammar in writing; choosing helpful examples of grammatical structures; Chinese students in American universities; foreign scholars; student-teacher collaboration; fossilization and learning strategies; creative writing; film study; emotional support for students; Southeast Asian literature; student textbook writing; national educational reform; drama as curriculum; program design; student cassette journals; test wiseness; art and language learning; teaching across academic cultures; perceptual learning style preferences; writing about culture; mainstreaming LEP students; Hmong women and higher education; gangs; and achievement tests. In later volumes, student work, book reviews, and teacher research are also included. (MSE)

Organization (1996). Three Slide Shows for Parents. Theme issue topic: "Introducing NAMTA's Parent Education Tool Kit." (EJ515267) Presents drawings of visual slides and accompanying text for NAMTA's parent education tool kit slide shows to introduce the Montessori method. The three shows are "At Home with Montessori," "What is Montessori Preschool?" and "What is Montessori Elementary?" Includes form for ordering slide shows. (HTH)

Organization (1997). The Relevance of Montessori Today: Meeting Human Needs-Principles to Practice. Proceeding of the AMI/USA National Conference (Bellevue, Washington, July 25-28, 1996). (ED423953 Available from: American Montessori International of the United States, Inc., 400 Alexander Street, Rochester, NY 14607; phone: 716-461-5920; fax: 461-0075; e-mail: This set of proceedings from the Association Montessori International (AMI/USA) 1996 conference contains the conference schedule and 20 presentations. The conference presentations are: (1) "The Dawning of Wisdom" (Montessori); (2) "The Support of Montessori Education to Human Potential" (Montanaro); (3) "Healthy Environment: Healthy Children: Healthy Culture" (Orion); (4) "Cosmic Education vs. the Public School Curriculum Are the Two at Variance?" (Stephenson); (5) "The Atrium: Silence, Simplicity, Movement, Symbol and Joy" (Kaiel); (6) "Family StarA Montessori Grassroots Early Headstart Initiative" (Urioste); (7) "Beyond the Basic Needs: Nurturing the Full Potential of the Upper Elementary Child" (Denton); (8) "Building the Elementary Program and Transitional Program Strategies" (Davidson); (9) "Practical Applications of Montessori in the Home" (Helfrich); (10) "An Approach to the Resolution of Conflicts in a Positive Way" (Dubovoy); (11) "Talking with Parents: Conferences and Communications" (Caudill); (12) "Dr. Maria MontessoriA Contemporary Educator?" (Stephenson); (13) "The Relevance of the 'Erdkinder' Vision" (Davis); (14) "Maria Montessori Envisioned Physics as Part of the Environment" (Gebhardt-Seele); (15) "Montessori Research: Recent Trends" (Boehnlein); (16) "Children at Risk" (Richardson); (17) "The Child in the Family" (Fernando); (18) "Working with Your Assistant" (Helfrich); (19) "Montessori in the 21st Century" (Lillard); and (20) "Classroom Management The Path to Normalization" (Pritzker). (EV)

Organization (1997). Early Childhood Programs: Program Evaluation. (ED421267) This report describes the early childhood education programs of the Des Moines Independent Community School District and provides evaluation of the programs' context, process, and product. Following a preface that includes the city's early childhood philosophy, the first section of the report presents a context evaluation of the programs, including their history, organizational structures, revenue, and expenditures. The second section details a process evaluation, including responsibility statements for supervisory and consultant staff in early childhood education, instructional philosophies, assessment tools, and staff development activities. The third section presents a product or outcome evaluation of the programs, including cost/benefit analysis, improvements in the preceding three years, Head Start summary, early childhood special education placement information, and survey of skills needed for entering kindergarten. The final section of the report outlines future plans of the combined early childhood programs. Three appendices contain an early childhood organizational chart, early childhood program locations, and early childhood policies, standards, and regulations. (HTH)

Organization (1998). Forging New Identities: Young Refugees and Minority Students Tell Their Stories. Views from London and Amsterdam. (ED422456 Available from: Minority Rights Group International, 379 Briton Road, London SW9 7DE, United Kingdom; World Wide Web: This document is a collection of writings by refugee and minority children from the George Orwell School in London (England) and the Montessori College in Oost, Amsterdam (the Netherlands). About one-third of the students at the George Orwell School, were refugees. These students were aged 11 to 16 years old. About 30 to 40% of the students at the Montessori College were refugees. These students were 12 to 19 years old. All of the students who contributed these narratives were in the process of learning a new language and beginning life in a new country, coping with a new culture and with racism, and having left family and friends behind. Their narratives are divided into: (1) "The Country Where I Used To Live"; (2) "Family and Friends"; (3) "Life in a New Country"; (4) "School"; (5) "Aspects of Identity: Culture, Language, and Religion"; and (6) "The Future." Notes for teachers are included, with some activities for discussions and student worksheets. It is noted that the publication will assist British curriculum Key State 3 and 4 teachers in the delivery of the general requirements for English and can be used to meet General National Vocational Qualification requirements. A map of contributors' countries and regions of origin is included. (SLD)

Organization (1998). The National Language Policy. Spotlight: MontessoriMultilingual, Multicultural. Montessori Life, 10, 2, 30 (EJ564373 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Presents the resolution of the Conference on College Composition and Communication to support the National Language Policy, a pro- multilingualism response to efforts to make English the official language of the United States. Describes the English Only movement and its shortcomings and delineates other organizations opposed to English Only. Describes actions people can take to support the National Language Policy. (KB)

Oriti, Patricia, & Kahn, David, Ed. (1994). At Home with Montessori. (ED376960) Based on Montessori's ideas about children's innate capabilities and potential, this book encourages restructuring the home environment to provide children, especially preschool children, with opportunities for self-directed activities and personal autonomy. In each of the chapters, a different room is examined as to how it could be redesigned to allow children to direct their movements in purposeful activity, working toward perfection without external correction or prodding. For example, the book notes that in the kitchen, children of any age can participate, preparing food, setting the table, cleaning and washing the dishes. Showing the child how to do activities by demonstrating movements that can be imitated nurtures the child's inner need to improve and perfect. The dining room can be used as a formal space where children learn conversation, grace, and courtesy. The bathroom offers experiences of personal care: bathing, dressing, combing, and brushing teeth, activities that children can perform independently when provided with materials that are scaled down to child-size. The bedroom can be designed for maximum independence, in terms of the child's need to learn by doing things by him- or herself, often with the parent close by. The living room can provide opportunities for adults and children to do things together, such as listening to music or playing with a selected group of toys. In addition, children can display their collections in this room. Finally, the outdoors should be as accessible to the child as the indoors. Whether by tending a garden or raking leaves, care of the outdoor environment and of growing things promotes mental as well physical development. (AA)



Paulsen, Judy (1998). Active Peacemaking in the Montessori Classroom. Montessori Life, 10, 1, 42-43 (EJ558683) Describes the use of a "peace rose" in the Montessori classroom to foster conflict-resolution skills in children. Asserts that the child-controlled process, in which children take turns expressing feelings about their conflict, has several positive results. Children learn the value of communication in solving problems, and teachers are freed from intervening in classroom conflicts. (EV)

Peller, Lili E. (1996). Theories of Play. Theme issue topic: "Rediscovering the All-Day Montessori Community." (EJ529817) Discusses several theories of play advanced before the development of psychoanalysis, including the theories of surplus energy, recreation, and practice. Examines the psychoanalytical view advanced by Freud Others, which focuses on the emotional release of play and its role in discovery and learning. (MDM)

Peller, Lili E. (1996). The Children's House. Theme issue topic: "Rediscovering the All-Day Montessori Community." (EJ529816) Discusses the important influence of nursery school design on the learning experiences of preschool children, focusing on the design of the "Haus Der Kinder," an all-day Montessori preschool that operated in Vienna in the 1930s. Notes the importance of a homelike atmosphere and a variety of room layouts and furniture. (MDM)

Peltzman, Barbara Ruth (1998). Pioneers of Early Childhood Education: A Bio-Bibliographical Guide. (ED417862) Previous works on educators who built the field of early childhood education do not provide the researcher with primary and secondary sources or information on multicultural educators, nor do they discuss some of the more current leading educators. This reference book provides biographies and bibliographies of selected pre-modern and modern men and women who have made significant contributions to early childhood education. The biographies provide a personal perspective from which to view the primary sources. The biographies are arranged in alphabetical order followed by the primary sources arranged in chronological order. Secondary sources are listed alphabetically according to author and include obituaries, articles, dissertations, and books. Early childhood pioneers listed are: (1) Johann Amos Comenius; (2) John Dewey; (3) Ella Victoria Dobbs; (4) Abigail Adams Eliot; (5) Friedrich Wilhelm Froebel; (6) Arnold Lucius Gesell; (7) William Nicholas Hailmann; (8) Granville Stanley Hall; (9) William Torrey Harris and Susan E. Blow; (10) Elizabeth Harrison; (11) Patty Smith Hill; (12) Amy M. Hostler; (13) Leland B. Jacobs; (14) William Heard Kilpatrick; (15) Lucy Craft Laney; (16) John Locke; (17) Emma Jacobina Christiana Marwedel; (18) Margaret McMillan and Rachel McMillan; (19) Lucy Sprague Mitchell; (20) Maria Montessori; (21) Robert Owen; (22) Elizabeth Palmer Peabody; (23) Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi; (24) Jean Piaget; (25) Caroline Pratt; (26) Alice Harvey Whiting Putnam; (27) Jean-Jacques Rousseau; (28) Alice Temple; (29) Mary Church Terrell and The National Association of Colored Women; (30) Edward Lee Thorndike; (31) Evangeline H. Ward; (32) Lillian Weber; (33) Lucy Wheelock; and (34) Kate Douglas Wiggin. A chronological list of these pioneers is appended. Contains a 20-item bibliography. (HTH)

Pendleton, D. Renee, Compp. Kahn, David, Ed. (1996). The Adolescent Colloquium (Cleveland, Ohio, October 3-6, 1996). Summary of the Proceedings. (ED411077) This publication summarizes the proceedings of a Montessori colloquium on adolescence, designed for trainers and practitioners to find common ground between the theory of Erdkinder (observing children and, accordingly, creating a suitable environment) and practice as seen in current Montessori secondary programs. Opening remarks on the need for a common vision were made by Renilde Montessori. The paper topics were: (1) adolescents' educational needs (John Long); (2) spiritual development and healthy environments for adolescents (Pat Ludick); (3) adolescents' need for challenge, changing relationships with teachers, and responsibility (Larry Schaefer); (4) Conscious Cosmic Education (John McNamara); (5) program implementation (Linda Davis); (6) the need to meet the goals of Cosmic Education before starting a real Erdkinder (Margaret Stephenson); (7) a proposed course of action leading to the establishment of an experimental Erdkinder program (Camillo Grazzini); (8) personal perspective on the third plane (Kay Baker); and (9) the need for a model and training for adolescent programs (Peter Gebhardt-Seele). Questions regarding each paper and a general discussion are summarized. Erdkinder was established by the group as a worthy goal but there was divergence of opinion as to how quickly an Erdkinder model could be implemented. (KB)

Perolman, Cathie (1994). But How Do I Organize It All? Theme Issue: "Spotlight: Public Schools." (EJ499947) Draws from personal experiences in teaching Montessori classes to three- to six- year olds to discuss specific strategies and techniques for effectively organizing, rotating, utilizing, and storing instructional materials. (ETB)

Peterkin, Robert S. (1994). Progressive Vision, Leadership, and System Change. NAMTA Journal, 19, 1, 121-35 (EJ478164) Defines a new leadership in education, which recognizes the comprehensive nature of change in the public school system to meet the educational needs of all children, especially disadvantaged and minority children, in a global economy. Maintains that Montessori education is uniquely prepared to lead public school reform. (BB)

Picchetti, Patricia M. (1993). Timeline of Growth. Montessori Life, 5, 4, 11-14 (EJ473262) Describes fetal development patterns within the framework of concurrent separateness from and oneness with the mother. Touches on the infant developmental stages along the way to becoming a wholly separate being. (HTH)

Pickering, Joyce S. (1992). Successful Applications of Montessori Methods with Children at Risk for Learning Disabilities. Annals of Dyslexia, 42, 90-109 (EJ455785) This article describes the Montessori educational philosophy and method as it can be applied to preschool children at risk for learning disabilities. This approach to early intervention is designed to offer an individualized program which provides success and a conceptual preparation for later academic learning. (Author/DB)

Plante, Mary Theresa (1997). Connections between Montessori and the United Nations. Montessori Life, 9, 1, 14-16 (EJ538153) Suggests that the international community has moved from being politically isolated to being more interrelated physically, socially, economically, and in the exchange of information. Argues that the United Nations and other world conferences have recognized this shift, and that teachers of Montessori values must also promote and utilize the new environment of exchange. (SD)

Plekhanov, A. (1992). The Pedagogical Theory and Practice of Maria Montessori. Continues the journal Soviet Education. (EJ453710) Discusses the work and philosophy of Italian physician and educator Maria Montessori. Examines her belief in students' need to exercise correct thinking through sensory experience. Describes Montessori's views on the development of children's moral values through interaction. Identifies the upbringer's role as the active supervisor of children's life activities. (SG)

Prillaman, Susan (1992). Whole Language and Its Effect on the School Library Media Center. North Carolina Libraries, 50, 3, 161-64 (EJ453248) Examines the evolution of the Whole Language curriculum, its current theory and practices, and its effect on the school library media center. The similarity between Whole Language and the Montessori approach to literacy is discussed, and the role of the media specialist in a Whole Language library media center is described. (31 references) (LRW)



Quigley, Kathleen M. (Dec 1994). Multiple Intelligences in the Schools. (ED378523) Within the context of school improvement and school reform, it is important to examine Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (MI theory). His work has far-reaching implications for curriculum development and classroom implementation. Gardner believes that the culture defines intelligence too narrowly. He sought to broaden the scope of human potential beyond the confines of the ability to answer items on tests of intelligence and an IQ score. He was disturbed by the almost exclusive use of linguistic and logical capacities in the construction of items on intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests. The MI theory challenges the concept of intelligence as a single general capacity that everyone possesses in varying degrees. Gardner suggests that intelligence has more to do with the capacity for solving problems and fashioning products in a context-rich and naturalistic setting. He identified seven areas of intelligence, which he believes all people possess: (1) linguistic intelligence; (2) logical- mathematical intelligence; (3) spatial intelligence; (4) bodily-kinesthetic intelligence; (5) musical intelligence; (6) interpersonal intelligence; (7) intrapersonal intelligence. A number of school projects have grown out of the thinking of Gardner and other liberals like John Dewey, Rousseau, Maria Montessori, and Friedrich Froebel. Using the seven intelligences as their framework, teachers at Crow Island School in Winnetka, Illinois, assess their students using a portfolio approach. (Contains 19 references and an appendix listing Gardner's criteria.) (TB)



Rambusch, Nancy McCormick (1992). An American Montessori Elementary Teacher: Indigenous American Montessori Models. (ED353066) Maria Montessori's child-centered teaching method came to the United States in 1913 and became linked with an approach to progressive education and child rearing which many Americans considered permissive. During the post-World War II years, advocates of Montessori's method combined this permissive mode with elements of an authoritarian mode to produce an authoritative approach to teaching young children. Following this approach, educators at the Princeton Montessori School have developed and implemented a firm yet empathic teaching model for their classes. The social system which the teachers have developed in their classes respects children's intrinsic motivation in the form of a benign token economy, called a credit-debit system. In this system the rules of the classroom, and the rewards and sanctions attending the rules, are developed cooperatively between teacher and children. Teachers consider the small group as the basic unit of social organization for the presentation of lessons. Teachers present curricular subject areas in a sequence of steps which are numbered and which correspond to a set of materials preassembled by the teacher and directly accessible to the children. For each subject, students keep personal interactive journals which contain written and illustrated work for the whole year. Through these methods, teachers at the Princeton Montessori School demonstrate that they have understood the basic message of Montessori and imbedded that message in a culturally sensitive and appropriate form of schooling. (MM)

Rambusch, Nancy McCormick (1992). Montessori's Flawed Diffusion Model: An American Montessori Diffusion Philosophy. Occasional Paper. Series One. (ED352204) This paper contends that Maria Montessori had a negative effect on the diffusion of the Montessori method in the United States. Throughout her life, Montessori held to the belief that her thoughts and their expression remained her exclusive intellectual property. She therefore tried to exert as much control as possible over the training of teachers in her methods and the establishment of Montessori schools. The main flaw of this approach was that teachers versed in her method were invited to see themselves as independent contractors, not as teachers working with other educators in the community. After the second World War, Nancy McCormick Rambush and a number of educators in the United States who admired Montessori's educational methods but not her restrictive personal control established an American Montessori movement. This American Montessori movement supported: (1) the critical role of parents as first teachers; (2) American Montessori education as a plurality of possibilities, not as a single orthodox iteration of Maria Montessori's thought; and (3) a reevaluation of the process of transmitting Montessori's message, in which insights on the Montessori method in America are seen as coming from those who receive the massage, not those who send it. (MDM)

Rambusch, Nancy McCormick (1994). Indigenous American Montessori Models: An American Montessori Elementary Teacher. Montessori Life, 6, 1, 16-18 (EJ478200) Noting the relationship between educational philosophy and the cultural context in which it is implemented, discusses what American Montessori elementary teachers must do to create a classroom environment responsive to the Montessori notions of child-centeredness, multiage grouping, and community building, while meeting minimum performance expectations of American schooling. Highlights an American Montessori program that has accomplished this goal. (TJQ)

Rambusch, Nancy McCormick (1995). Natural Learning. Memorial Issue: Dr. Nancy McCormick Rambusch; this article reprinted from the "Constructive Triangle AMS Magazine," 1988, issue 3. (EJ499968) Describes Maria Montessori's early learning "Casa" setting for young children and other models for educational programs for young children. Discusses the importance of setting in facilitating natural learning in young children and the five steps in the natural learning cycleobservation, participation, role- playing practice, eureka moment, and performance. (TJQ)

Rambusch, Nancy McCormick (1995). The Child as a Universe of One. Memorial Issue: Dr. Nancy McCormick Rambusch; this article reprinted from the "Constructive Triangle AMS Magazine," 1988, issue 2. (EJ499967) Discusses the elements of Montessori education that distinguish it from traditional education for older children and from much current group experience for young children. Focuses on the respect for each child as a unique individual with unique interests and learning styles and on how Montessori education responds to that individuality to facilitate learning. (TJQ)

Randolph, Shirley L., & Others (1994). Kids Learn from the Inside Out: How To Enhance the Human Matrix. (ED391567) Noting that humans develop according to a genetically encoded timeline and that departure from the timeline limits human potential, this book provides an illustrated practical guide to intervention to help children's bodies work as they should, to nurture children along their developmental timeline, to help children learn "from the inside out." Based on the concepts of assisted healing and repatterning (rather than physical therapy treatments) and physical challenges (rather than physical handicaps), the guide describes the Integrated Human Dynamics approach to fostering healthy child development and circumventing later problems that are built on a complex foundation of body memories, behavioral patterns, and stress. The book is divided into five major sections: (1) What It's All About; (2) The Innate Automatic Stage of Development; (3) The Motor-Perceptual Stage of Development; (4) The Perceptual-Motor Stage; and (5) The Perceptual Stage. Chapters are as follows: (1) "Learning from the Inside Out," on the human matrix and the damage of traumatic or negative events; (2) "Development and Stress," on how stress affects parenting and child development; (3) "Life before Birth," on the physiology of pregnancy and birth; (4) "The 'Fourth Trimester'," on neonatal adjustment and needs; (5) "The AHA of Kinesthesia," on movement and visual perception in the first 2 years; (6) "Moving up in the World," on motor progression and orientation in space and time; (7) "Making Contact," on locomotion, grasping and reaching, and speech development; (8) "Systematic Exploration" (18 months to 4 years), on body awareness and social growth; and (9) "Ready for Action" (3 1/2 to 7 years), on completing motor generalizations, school readiness, and use of Ritalin for hyperactivity. Seven appendices contain chapter notes, case studies, comments on working with developmental therapists, guidelines for using the Integrated Motor Activities Screen (IMAS), and an 87-item bibliography. (ET)

Reazor, Cynthia M. Hall (1994). Improving Parent/Staff Communication through Cooperative Preschool Workshops. (ED375945) A practicum was designed to increase the lines of positive and effective communication between parents and teachers in a preschool setting. Poor parent- teacher communication (due to lack of knowledge or experience) was documented. The program sought to improve communication regarding the child's developmental and personal progress. The 8-month program consisted of staff meetings, six cooperative parent-staff workshops, monthly newsletters, and parent participation in school programs. Implementation topics included academic appropriateness, developmental landmarks, discipline, Montessori philosophy, self-esteem, and stress. Evaluation (based on observation, feedback, topic review, and a survey) showed that providing parents and staff a joint educational experience in the form of a workshop increased their knowledge base and enhanced the parent-teacher relationship and communication between home and school. Parents and staff increased their ability to communicate comfortably and effectively about children's issues. (Four appendices contain surveys and topic reviews. Contains 18 references.) (TM)

Renton, Alice (1998). Cultivating the Natural Linguist. Spotlight: MontessoriMultilingual, Multicultural. Montessori Life, 10, 2, 31-33 (EJ564374 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Describes Montessori's vision of young children as natural linguists and how home and school can support children's natural abilities in one or more languages. Presents five basic principles of second-language acquisition related to educational environment, the acquisition process, components of proficiency, and cultural context and timeand describes how they can be successfully met in a Montessori environment. (KB)

Rice, Mabel L., & O'Brien, Marion (Dec 1993). Kansas Early Childhood Research Institute on Transitions: Executive Summary. (ED376642) This executive summary reviews activities over the past 5 years of the Kansas Early Childhood Research Institute (KECRI). The Institute has addressed transition issues faced by infants and young children (and their families) who have a disability or are at risk for developmental delay. KECRI goals are stated and the importance and impact of the Institute's research program are summarized. Principles of the KECRI Model of Transitions are noted. During this period KECRI conducted 11 research projects and an overarching continuing longitudinal study, trained 63 graduate students, disseminated findings at over 300 professional meetings and 200 pre-and inservice training sessions, and published almost 200 papers and chapters. Seven major research projects are summarized: (1) "Planning the Transition from the NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit) to the Home" (Nancy E. Meck); (2) "Transitioning Preschool Children with Severe and Profound Multiple Disabilities from a Special Education Classroom Program into Mainstream Montessori Preschool and Child Care Programs (Barbara Thompson and Jane Wegner); (3) "Verbal Interactive Skills Training for Transitions" (Mabel L. Rice and Kim A. Wilcox); (4) "Programming Successful Classroom Transitions: Assessment of Children's Survival Skills and Classroom Requirements" (Judith J. Carta et al.); (5) "Promoting Successful Transition to the Primary Grades: Prediction of Reading Problems in Speech and Language Impaired Children" (Hugh W. Catts); (6) "Role of Professionals in Successful Transitions" (Winnie Dunn); and (7) "The Longitudinal Study of Families and Children in Transition" (Marion O'Brien et al.). (Contains 22 references.) (DB)

Richardson, Sylvia O. (1994). Montessori and Learning Disabilities. NAMTA Journal, 19, 2, 151-69 (EJ485380) Discusses the characteristics of learning disabilities in the areas of coordination, language, attention, and perception, and explains how the Montessori method can be used to educate young children with these disabilities. The method relies on a developmental approach that ensures the child a wholesome environment in which to thrive. (MDM)

Richardson, Sylvia Onesti (1997). The Montessori Preschool: Preparation for Writing and Reading. Annals of Dyslexia, 47, 241-56 (EJ559553) Discusses how Montessori principles and practices pertain specifically to the indirect and direct preparation of the child for writing and reading. The general principles are outlined first, followed by a specific discussion relating Montessori's approach to language instruction to current issues in reading disability. (CR)

Richardson, Sylvia O. (1997). Children at Risk. Montessori Life, 9, 3, 26-30 (EJ554426) Examines major characteristics of learning disabilities and the significance of Montessori principles as they may be applied in the education of children with learning disabilities. Addresses disorders of gross and fine motor coordination, language, attention, and perception. Describes exercises in practical life skills, sensory education, and language enhancement. (SD)

Roddy, Mark (1997). Curriculum Resources on the Internet. Montessori Life, 9, 4, (EJ554431) Offers background on constructivism as a means of reconceptualizing the ways in which students learn. Given this concept of learning and the Montessori emphasis on contextualized learning, investigates the potential role of the Internet and the World Wide Web in the classroom, including examples of classroom use and career development. (Author/SD)

Rogers, Patricia L. (1995). Girls Like Colors, Boys Like Action? Imagery Preferences and Gender. Spotlight: Gender Differences. Montessori Life, 7, 4, 37-40 (EJ512465) Describes gender-based imagery preferences in research studies and instructional design, and the relationship of stages of aesthetic development to gender-based imagery preferences. Also provides four guidelines for selecting images for various purposes and discusses implications for further research to understand the impact of gender-based visual imagery in learning. (DR)

Rosanova, M. J. (1997). Early Childhood Bilingualism in the Montessori Children's House: Guessable Context and the Planned Environment. (ED409704) The language immersion approach of the Intercultural Montessori School (Oak Park, Illinois) for children aged 2-6 years is described and discussed. An introductory section gives background information on early work with immersion by Maria Montessori, a personal experience leading to the school's establishment, and the response of language and education professionals, the public, and parents to the concept of preschool immersion. Subsequent sections discuss common patterns in the students' language learning experience at the school and the developmental stages the learners went through as the experiment progressed: pre-production; early production; speech emergence; and intermediate fluency. Anecdotal information about specific students and events are used for illustration. Observations about comprehensible input and the Montessori manipulables, whole language, and other instructional strategies are included. Specific recommendations are made for content and classroom procedures in early childhood immersion, based on this experience. The paper concludes with reflections on the potential of this environment for development of bilingualism. Contains 29 references. (MSE)

Rosanova, Michael (1998). Early Childhood Bilingualism in the Montessori Children's House: Guessable Context and the Planned Environment. Spotlight: MontessoriMultilingual, Multicultural. Montessori Life, 10, 2, 37-48 (EJ564375 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Describes the InterCultura Montessori School language immersion program in Oak Park, Illinois. Profiles the work of several children to illustrate important language learning strategies. Recommends that language immersion programs include: survival vocabulary skills; repetition of key grammatical forms; use of objects, pictures, and dramatization; group readings; buddies/helpers; message and listening centers; and use of prior knowledge. (KB)

Rothman, Robert (1997). KERA: A Tale of One School. Phi Delta Kappan, 79, 4, 272-75 Dec (EJ556841) A Louisville elementary school has a brighter future, thanks to the Kentucky Education Reform Act. Kennedy School's reform efforts predated the 1990 state law, but teachers and administrators credit KERA with providing appropriate resources and a psychic push toward success. Although the school suffered a performance drop in 1996, it has made vast strides in helping students achieve academically, especially in writing. (MLH)

Rubtsov, V. V., & Others (1995). The Cultural-Historical Type of School: Draft of a Concept. Russian Education and Society, 37, 8, 55-76 Aug (EJ525229) Presents a historical and pedagogical overview of various types of schools (for example, Montessori, laboratory schools, traditional). Attempts to classify these schools according to types of consciousness (for example, mythological, scientific, workshop) and types of social communities and activities. Considers the interrelation between the subject content of these schools and the modes of action assimilated. (MJP)

Rueter, Barbara H. (1993). A Montessori Infant Community. Montessori Life, 5, 4, 15-19 (EJ473263) Describes a teacher's experience with infants at a Montessori program. Discusses observations made in the areas of rapid change in development, crying as communication, the thumb-sucking versus pacifier dilemma, and intellectual growth. Discusses factors critical to quality infant care and how infants can teach us. (HTH)



Salkowski, Claire J. (1994). Peacemaking: Establishing the Potential for a Peaceful Society by Achieving Community in the Elementary Classroom. Montessori Life, 6, 1, 32-39 (EJ478204) Noting Montessori's belief that establishing peace is the work of education, describes facets of the Montessori classroom community, including safety, inclusiveness, work plans, class meetings, community service projects, realism, classroom economy, contemplation, peaceful resolution of conflict, group problem solving, mediation, the spirit and joy of community, cooking and sharing meals, camping, and commitment. (TJQ)

Schaefer, Lawrence (1993). A Montessori Vision of Adolescence. NAMTA Journal, 18, 3, 73-84 (EJ467572) Describes the activities of the Lake Country school in Minneapolis, cofounded by Larry Schaefer in 1976 with the goal to create a Montessori school for children aged 2.5 to 18. In 1982, the school began a junior high program, with the goal to help adolescents think and learn for themselves. Discusses characteristics and needs of early adolescents. (MDM)

Schaefer, Rita (1993). Establishing a Personal Teacher Identity. Thematic Issue: Reinventing Montessori. (EJ465897) Discusses identity as the development of functional and intellectual independence and as an involvement in such aspects of life as intimacy, sexuality, and vocation that give one a sense of belonging to the world. Suggests that establishing identity is an on-going process. Describes the Montessori professional's identity as director or directress, teacher, and guide. (BC)

Schaefer, Lawrence (1995). Reinventing Civility. Issue theme: Montessori: Nurturing the Human Potential. (EJ499962) Calls for a "renaissance in civility," discussing definitions of civility and the need to encourage manners and responsible behavior in children and adolescents. Argues that it is essential that elementary school children develop social awareness and social skills and that secondary school students be encouraged to take a more active part in their communities. (MDM)

Scheff, Thomas J. (1992). Discovering Sociology. Teaching Sociology, 20, 3, 248-53 Jul (EJ458426) Discusses a teaching method used by the author in his college sociology classes. Describes a method of active learning in which students are encouraged to discover interrelationships of parts and wholes on their own. Compares this discovery method to the Montessori method used in elementary education. (DK)

Schneider, Mary (1996). Art in Elementary: Is There Enough? Montessori Life, 8, 3, 20-21,26 (EJ529832) Argues that the arts improve academic achievement and provide an emotional outlet which the Montessori classroom should work to integrate across the curriculum. Provides a case study of change toward a better art orientation, and discusses integrating art class with regular classroom work, and searching for and hiring a specialist in the field. (SD)

Schwab, Nancy (1993). Reaping What We Sow. Montessori Life, 5, 1, 26-27 (EJ465913) Argues that traditional educational methods erode children's natural enthusiasm for learning. Suggests that reformers consider incorporating principles of Montessori education as a way to improve the present educational system. Replacing emphasis on performance and competition with respect for children's right to follow their own interests and pace of working could revitalize interest and joy in learning. (TJQ)

Schwab, Nancy (1994). Discipline. Reflections on Parenting. Montessori Life, 6, 2, 11 (EJ484032) Suggests that, without the influence of adults who understand the vital role discipline plays in the child's assumption of responsibility, children may become a threat to their own growth and to their societies. Discusses the need for parents to provide positive discipline in their children's lives to help them become confident, independent, and responsible adults. (TJQ)

Scofield, Richard T., Ed. (1993). School-Age NOTES. September 1992 through August 1993. (ED373887) These 12 newsletter issues provide educational resources to providers of school- age child care. Each eight-page issue may include several feature articles; activities that providers can use with children; descriptions of professional development activities and training programs; information on books, pamphlets, and other educational materials in the field; and a list of School-Age Care (SAC) conferences and training sessions. Featured topics include (1) Adventure Play playgrounds; (2) rules and discipline; (3) professional attitudes; (4) child- initiated programming; (5) peace education; (6) conflict resolution; (7) school- age care accreditation; (8) professional development; (9) developmental needs and imaginary play; (10) summer and year-round programs; (11) a national study or school-age programs; (12) Montessori school-age programs; (13) ideas for summer programs; (14) working with hostile children; (15) the copyright implications of using recorded music and videos in school-age programs; (16) the National Association of Elementary School Principals' Standards for Quality School-Age Child Care; (17) tree climbing; (18) fall holiday celebrations; (18) dedicated space for school-age programs; (19) student portfolios; and (20) classroom discipline. (MDM)

Scott, Judy, & Lanaro, Pamela (1994). Revisiting the Montessori Elementary Biology Sequence. Montessori Life, 6, 1, 26-29 (EJ478203) Suggests a revised Montessori elementary biology sequence based on the new five- kingdom model. In keeping with Montessori principles that move the learner from the whole to the parts and from the simple to the complex, offers a proposed outline of instruction for the lower elementary (6-9) level and for the upper elementary (9-12) level. (TJQ)

Scott, Judith (1995). The Development of the Mathematical Mind. Montessori Life, 7, 2, 25 (EJ505529) Draws parallels between Montessori's mathematical curriculum and the evolution of numbers and counting. Suggests that children share with ancient Sumerians a basic human tendency to develop "the mathematical mind." Argues that children do not need to be surrounded by math; rather, the classroom must supply them with the means to explore objects and their relationships in a mathematical way. (AA)

Sears, William (1995). Attachment Parenting: A Style That Works. Theme issue topic: "The Montessori Learning Community: Future Challenges." (EJ508817) Discusses the benefits of attachment parenting, which emphasizes parental commitment, a low-stress pregnancy, childbirth preparation, breast-feeding with child-led weaning, prompt response to the baby's crying, flexible sleeping arrangements, close-knit father-mother-baby functioning, and the avoidance of detachment parenting. Attachment parenting will help children develop self- esteem, intimacy, nurturance, and discipline. (MDM)

Selman, Ruth (1993). A Second Language in the Classroom; Are We Missing the Boat? Montessori Life, 5, 1, 31-32 (EJ465915) In the context of an increasingly interdependent world society, discusses the benefits of early acquisition of a second language for American children. Benefits cited include the ease of learning a second language at an early age, improved abilities in concept formation, greater cognitive flexibility, and appreciation of cultural diversity. Second language programs in the classroom are also discussed. (TJQ)

Selman, Ruth (1997). Let Them Eat Poetry: Nourishing Young Poets. Montessori Life, 9, 4, 38-39 (EJ554435) Argues lack of encouragement starves the young poet. Describes a teacher's effort to bring an appreciation of poetry and the writing of poetry into a classroom of 9-12 year olds. Suggests specific exercises in using metaphor, comparisons, wish lists, dreams, humor, and rhythm. Also suggests classic poetry for motivating students. (SD)

Shapiro, Dennis (1994). The Faithful Montessorian's Guide to Public Montessori Programs. Theme Issue: "Spotlight: Public Schools." (EJ499948) Directs attention of Montessori method advocates to the current 170 public school Montessori programs and the growing public awareness and interest in applying Montessori principles in broader educational settings. Points out the effects on Montessori leaders of public school programs in terms of training, effectiveness, evaluation, and competition. (ETB)

Sillick, Audrey (1996). Movement, Music, and Learning: The Musical and Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligences. NAMTA Journal, 21, 2, 80-96 (EJ523359) Explores kinesthetic and musical intelligences. Emphasizes the importance of understanding the physical reality of the body and sensory receptors as well as the dimensions of feeling and expression. Summarizes Tomatis's interpretation of the auditory and vestibular functions of the ear. Conveys the community and spiritual values of music, dance, ritual, and celebration. (MOK)

Sirgo, Lisa (1995). New Life for Early Childhood Math. Montessori Life, 7, 2, 22-23 (EJ505528) Examines the role of mathematics in the Montessori curriculum. Suggests three areas important to the strengthening of prenumber concepts: logical quantification (one-to-one matching); logical classification (including open- ended sorting); and recognition, continuation, and creation of patterns. Suggests activities that establish foundations for work with mathematics materials, extensions of the materials, and activities with everyday math. (AA)

Slegers, Brenda (17 Apr 1997). Brain Development and Its Relationship to Early Childhood Education. (ED409110) New research on brain development has profound implications in the areas of child development and education. This review of the research describes how the brain develops to shape children's growing intelligence, addressing such questions as: (1) What are the brain's functions? (2) What are the critical or sensitive periods in brain development? (3) How can teachers take advantage of these "windows of learning?" (4) How much is mental ability influenced by environment and how much by heredity? (5) Is it better to teach to the whole brain, or is left brain/right brain theory better? (6) How does brain development influence language? and (7) How can parents get involved in their child's learning? The paper begins with a presentation of relevant definitions, such as brain development, cerebrum, dendrites, neurons, and plasticity. It next presents brief histories of early childhood education, discussing such theorists as Froebel, Montessori, and J. M. Hunt, and of brain studies, including the work of Wiesel and Hubel and of Epstein. The paper then discusses major issues and controversies in brain research, such as the windows of learning for various functions and subjects, the inseparability of brain structure and function (or of heredity and environment), and left brain/right brain learning. The paper next explores important programs and contributors to the incorporation of brain research into early childhood education, including Caine and Caine's (1995) Dry Creek Elementary in Rio Linda, California, and Blythe and Gardner's (1990) Project Spectrum, based on his work with multiple intelligences. The paper concludes with a synthesis and analysis of brain research's relationship to early childhood education, including brain-based learning, and with a set of recommendations for educators. Contains 28 references. (EV)

Smythe, Cathy (1994). Followership: The Key to Effective Leadership. Montessori Life, 6, 2, 27-29 (EJ484029) Examines traditional staff management styles, and discusses the need for a new approach to school leadership, such as a weblike, interconnected organizational structure in which all parties, leaders and staff alike, work in collaboration to achieve the common good. Outlines the development and components of such a structure. (TJQ)

Solzbacher, Hildegard (1995). Montessori as an Aid to Life. Issue theme: Montessori: Nurturing the Human Potential. (EJ499957) Asserts that children's potential is unlimited but dependent on three factors: (1) a nurturing environment; (2) adult understanding of human growth and development; and (3) society's understanding of the educational process. Suggests that adults need to treat each child as a unique individual and remove obstacles to their growth and development. (MDM)

Sommer, Sandra J. (1993). So...Your PTA Wants to Build a Playground. Montessori Life, 5, 1, 9-10 (EJ465911) Offers schools and parent-teacher groups an organized, systematic approach to the development, building, and maintenance of a safe playground. Includes advice on (1) initial planning strategies; (2) safety guidelines for the selection of equipment and surface materials; (3) layout and design; and (4) installation and maintenance. (TJQ)

Spellman, Rilla (1993). Time for Sixes and Sevens. NAMTA Journal, 18, 2, 133-38 (EJ469306) Discusses the developmental process that takes a child from Montessori's "absorbent mind" period to the period when the child creates interior cognitive structures. Suggests practical ways for teachers and parents to support the six- and seven-year old's need to design projects and accomplish goals. (HTH)

Spodek, Bernard (1991). Reconceptualizing Early Childhood Education: A Commentary. Early Education and Development, 2, 2, 161-67 Apr (EJ441906) Alternative programs developed in early childhood education over the years, from Colonial church communities to Montessori to current developmentally appropriate practices, are reviewed. It is suggested that teachers with limited perspectives on curriculum may violate the various ways of young children's knowing. (LB)

Spodek, Bernard, & Saracho, Olivia N. (1996). Culture and the Early Childhood Curriculum. Special issue: "Culture and the Early Childhood Curriculum." (EJ531212) Presents the definition of culture within the context of early childhood curricula and briefly outlines the history of early childhood education. Claims that culture and child development are closely related. Examines early childhood education programs around the world and describes how the culture of each country influences the content of early childhood programs. (MOK)

Standing, E. Mortimer (1995). Maria Montessori: World Peace through the Child. Theme issue topic: "World Montessori: A Vision of Human Renewal." (EJ510656) Discusses the role of education in bringing about world peace, focusing on the causes and nature of war and peace, educational change, and Maria Montessori's ideas for promoting peace through a student-centered, nurturing curriculum for young children. Reprint of a 1962 article that quotes extensively from an address given by Maria Montessori in 1929. (MDM)

Steinberg, Adria, & Tovey, Roberta (1997). "Research Says...": A Cautionary Note. Montessori Life, 9, 3, 35 (EJ554428) Argues research on the efficacy of special education is poor. Describes key flaws including (1) lack of proper control groups; (2) studies that utilize matching of similarly disabled students rather than random selection; (3) measurements of effectiveness; and (4) studies that have become outdated as the functional definitions of labels have changed. (SD)

Stencel, Marsha (1996). Computerizing Your School. Montessori Life, 8, 1, 18-19 (EJ520496) Discusses introducing computer-based technology to Montessori administrators and teachers, and the difficulty of taking on new operating methods while keeping up with ongoing demands day to day. Suggests making a plan that includes implementation of hardware (computers), software (programs), and ongoing staff development. Addresses questions that often come up during the process. (ET)

Stephenson, Margaret E. (1993). The Adolescent and the Future. NAMTA Journal, 18, 3, 3-30 (EJ467569) Discusses the four "planes of development" posited by Maria Montessori: (1) from birth to age 6; (2) from age 6 to 12; (3) from age 12 to 18; and (4) full maturity. Although Montessori schools have been successful in dealing with children during the first two planes, efforts need to be focused on adolescents at the third stage. (MDM)

Strong, Mike (1996). Socratic Practice: Intellectual Engagement as the Goal of Classroom Conversation. Theme issue topic: "Rediscovering the All-Day Montessori Community." (EJ529825) Discusses the use of self-directed learning within the framework of shared inquiry. Compares this concept of authentic engagementwhereby students are held responsible for group problem solving and working together to discuss ideas related to difficult textsto Maria Montessori's focus on independent learning within a prepared environment. (MDM)



Tate, Mahlon (1996). What Works in Middle School. Montessori Life, 8, 2, 30-31 (EJ521999) An awareness of the developmental needs of adolescents is important in planning for students in a Montessori program. Six important principles to consider when planning for young adolescents are time; thematic, integrated curriculum; choice; time to be together; time to be alone; and technology and nontext reading materials. (TJQ)

Thomason, Joan (1994). Kid's Court. Theme Issue: "Spotlight: Public Schools." (EJ499952) Describes how the "three little pigs" appeared as defendants and the wolf as plaintiff in a mock court held in a Texas 9- to 12-year class studying government and democracy in action. Discusses organizational details, and practical and educational values of this popular exercise. (ETB)

Thompson, Dorothy (1995). Preschool Math and the Didactic Materials. Montessori Life, 7, 2, 20-21 (EJ505527) Proposes guidelines for introducing enrichment materials in the Montessori classroom, focusing on the introduction of numbers to young children and recommendations for specific mathematics activities. Suggests that one reason for adding materials is to revitalize the classroom environment, as children expect novelty and change. The risk is that teachers will overload the room and the children. (AA)

Thompson, Barbara, & Others (Nov 1991). A Qualitative Research Approach for Investigating and Evaluating an Emergent Early Childhood Inclusion Model for Children with Severe Disabilities in a Montessori Preschool. (ED376620) This paper reports on a qualitative ethnographic research study on the inclusion of children with severe disabilities into a Montessori preschool program in Lawrence, Kansas. The program has served 20 children with disabilities since its inception in 1986. The program's emergent model involves a split program (utilizing a special education classroom and the community preschool) with use of integration facilitators and cooperative efforts among early childhood special educators, mainstream Montessori early childhood educators, and families. The project is based on seven specified values such as the rejection that children with disabilities must be "fixed" before they can be fully included. The program has developed several products including video documentation of participants' attitudes and inclusive strategies, a training handbook, specific checklists, and an Individualized Education Program observational matrix. A variety of studies are looking at the program including two recently completed studies on the communicative interactions of preschool children with severe disabilities in the two settings. The model is currently being replicated and validated in Kansas City, Kansas. Attached tables provide detailed data on children in the program, interviews conducted, varieties of project documentation, outcome markers identified in evaluation efforts, concerns and benefits expressed by participants, and variables related to the Montessori approach. (Contains 24 references.) (DB)

Thrush, Ursula (1993). Peace 101: Implementing the Vision. Montessori Life, 5, 2, 36-37 (EJ471304) Maintains that peace education must start in the home. Discusses the teaching of peace to children of all ages and at every level and the relevance of peace education to the physical, emotional, intellectual, and spiritual being of children. "A Plan for Peace Education," a proposal approved by the Montessori Accreditation Council for Teacher Education, is attached. (SM)

Torff, Bruce (1996). How Are You Smart?: Multiple Intelligences and Classroom Practices. NAMTA Journal, 21, 2, 30-43 (EJ523356) Claims that each educator must discover the potentials of the learner and build on the individual's specific assortment of strengths. Presents Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, with practical implications, emphasizing that the intelligences are integrated at the application level by activities and remain separate only at the theory level. (MOK)

Torrence, Martha (1993). From Percept to Concept: The Sensorial Path to Knowledge. Montessori Life, 5, 3, 28-30 (EJ469311) The use of Montessori sensorial materials presents challenges for classroom practitioners. These materials are designed to assist a child's development by leading the child, through use and manipulation, toward eventual mental abstraction of the concepts related to the materials. The questions of when and how to intervene in the child's activities with sensorial materials are discussed. (PAM)

Torrence, Martha, & Others (1996). From Stonecutting to Dante: Transformations in Adult LearningA Research Report. Montessori Life, 8, 4, 37-41 (EJ534660) Action research examined student and faculty responses to delivery-system changes in a university early childhood philosophy course and an assessment method. Results showed that, although students experienced performance pressure and personal discomfort, they appreciated individual attention, the trust evidenced by curriculum unit checks, and the match between instruction and Montessori philosophy. Logistical issues included standards for leadership and participation. (KDFB)

Turner, Joy (1992). Technical Literacy. American Montessori Society National Headquarters, 150 5th Ave., New York, NY 10011. (EJ456381) Discusses technological and computer literacy in relation to solving present and future problems in society. Examines the relationships between computers and ideas, between computers and children, and between technical literacy and the future. (MDH)

Turner, Joy (1993). Our Senses: More than "Windows to the World.". Montessori Life, 5, 3, 15-17 (EJ488589) Discusses the sensory systems of sight, hearing, taste, smell, touch, and equilibrium as tools of children's mental development. (MKR)

Turner, Joy (1993). Toward the Independent Self: A Conversation with Virginia Varga. Montessori Life, 5, 4, 22-25 (EJ473264) Interviews Virginia Varga, Montessori teacher trainer and initiator of the first Montessori toddler program in the country. Discusses her childhood, how she became involved in Montessori, the benefits of the toddler program in terms of the child developing a sense of independence, and what Ms. Varga thinks the future holds for Montessori instruction. (HTH)

Turner, Joy (1993). The Nineteen Postulates and Montessori. Montessori Life, 5, 2, 43-49 (EJ471306) Uses the 19 postulates from "Teachers for Our Nation's Schools" (Goodlad, 1991) as a framework to assess Montessori teacher education and discuss potential strengths, areas for growth and development, and directions for further study. Areas discussed include core staff, curriculum, programs, and collaboration between teacher education programs and school sites. (SM)

Turner, Joy (1994). The Public School Montessorian: An Interview with Dennis Shapiro. Theme Issue: "Spotlight: Public Schools." (EJ499949) Provides Shapiro's background and experience in education and journalism that led to his interest in Montessori methods, Montessori schooling in the United States, and eventual publication of "The Public School Montessorian." Shares his sometimes controversial views on Montessori education and its proprietary and public characteristics. (ETB)

Turner, Joy (1994). Criticisms and Concerns: How Do You Respond? Montessori Life, 6, 2, 30-32 (EJ484030) Montessorians respond to the following criticisms and concerns about Montessori education: (1) accessibility by all racial and socioeconomic groups; (2) evaluation of children's progress; (3) the noisiness of Montessori classrooms; (4) the inclusion or exclusion of humanities and physical education in Montessori curriculum; and (5) transition difficulties of children moving from a Montessori environment to a regular school. (TJQ)

Turner, Joy (1995). A Conversation with Alice Sterling Honig. People: Back to Basics. Montessori Life, 7, 4, 22-24 (EJ512461) Interviewed Alice Honig on: sex role socialization research findings over the last few decades, the role of women in society and as mothers, sexuality, and the need for respect and support for the mothering function. (DR)

Turner, Joy (1995). The Big Picture. Spotlight: Gender Differences. Montessori Life, 7, 4, 20-21 (EJ512460) Examines the influence of prenatal sex hormones on later behavior and social learning that results from differential treatment of boys and girls by parents and peers. Also explores differences in academic achievement between boys and girls. Concludes that, contrary to the views of some parents and teachers in the 1970s and 1980s, inborn gender differences do exist. (DR)

Turner, Joy (1995). How Do You Teach Reading? Montessori Life, 7, 3, 25-29 (EJ508916) Examines reading instruction in the context of Montessori curriculum. Four major areas are explored: (1) goals; (2) identification of landmarks (significant or critical events) in the child's development; (3) enhancement of teachers' responsiveness; and (4) development of relevant skills by creating a supportive physical and psychological environment, building a repertoire of instructional strategies, and designing appropriate materials and activities. (AA)

Turner, Joy (1995). The Nature of the Child as a Learner: An Interview with Kieran Egan. Montessori Life, 7, 3, 22-24 (EJ508915) Presents an interview with Kieran Egan, an award-winning professor of education. Egan's research has focused on the role of imagination in learning, providing new understanding on how children's minds work. After presenting an academic portrait of Egan, discusses his opinion on the role of educational theory today and his teaching-as-storytelling model. (AA)

Turner, Joy (1995). Math Education and Piaget's Theory: A Conversation with Constance Kamii. Montessori Life, 7, 2, 26-28 (EJ505530) Presents an interview with Dr. Constance Kamii on mathematics education. Based on her beliefs about the constructivist approach to elementary arithmetic, she advocates: reformulating goals and objectives, reconceptualizing the teacher role, de-emphasizing competition, eliminating workbooks, and relying instead on a curriculum made up predominately of games and problems for children to solve. (AA)

Turner, Joy, & Others (1995). Remembering Nancy. 25 Members of the Montessori Community Share Their Reflections on the Death of the AMS Founder. Memorial Issue: Dr. Nancy McCormick Rambusch. (EJ499966) Twenty-five members of the Montessori community share their memories of Dr. Nancy McCormick Rambusch, charismatic founder of the American Montessori movement, early childhood professional, and innovative educator, who died of pancreatic cancer on October 27, 1994. Rambusch's work of 40 years now flowers as an institutionalized educational program in both the public and private sectors. (TJQ)

Turner, Joy (1996). An Essay on Learning. Montessori Life, 8, 4, 17-18 (EJ534655) Examines influences on lifelong learning: (1) the shift toward the postmodern family characterized by consensual love, shared parenting, urbanity, autonomy, and self-esteem; (2) the need for economic, sociopolitical, emotional, and spiritual survival; and (3) the characteristics of postmodern teachers (they are learners, prime communicators, emotionally healthy, skilled and flexible organizers, and connected to others). (KDFB)

Turner, Joy (1996). Let the Music Flow: A Conversation with Frank Leto. Montessori Life, 8, 3, 22-25 (EJ529833) Frank Leto, a professional musician and a Montessori teacher, discusses his professional music career, family, the arts in Montessori education, the lifestyle of a professional musician, writing children's songs, and percussion instruments. Provides advice for teachers of music. (SD)

Turner, Joy (1996). Technology and Change of Mind: An Interview with Robert Ornstein. Montessori Life, 8, 1, 22-24 (EJ520498) Expert on the relationship between human nature and the problems of the world humans have created, Ornstein responds to questions about technology's impact on the shaping of tomorrow's world. Possessing a holistic view of life, he predicts the nature of education and the functions of teachers and schools will be very different in the future. (ET)



Ulman, Elinor, Ed., & Dachinger, Penny, Ed. (1996). Art Therapy in Theory & Practice. (ED408236) The essays in this collection are grounded in theoretical underpinnings which range from Freud to Montessori. The focus encompasses educational and psychiatric concerns. Essays are organized in 4 parts. Part 1, "Theory of Art Therapy," includes: (1) "Art Therapy: Problems of Definition" (Elinor Ulman); (2) "Therapy is Not Enough: The Contribution of Art to General Hospital Psychiatry" (Elinor Ulman); (3) "Art and Emptiness: New Problems in Art Education and Art Therapy" (Edith Kramer); (4) "The Problem of Quality in Art" (Edith Kramer); (5) "Fostering Growth through Art Education, Art Therapy, and Art in Psychotherapy" (Sandra Pine); (6) "Children's Work as Art" (Joachim H. Themal); and (7) "Art and Craft" (Edith Kramer). Part 2, "Practice of Art Therapy," presents essays related to work with adults in: (8) "Family Art Therapy: Experiments with New Techniques" (Hanna Yaxa Kwiatkowska); (9) "An Art Therapy Program for Geriatric Patients" (Irene Dewdney); (10) "Techniques for Individual and Group Therapy" (James M. Denny); (11) "Art Therapy for Adolescent Drug Abusers" (Diana Wittenberg), and essays that focus on work with children: (12) "The Practice of Therapy with Children" (Edith Kramer); (13) "Montessori and Compulsive Cleanliness of Severely Retarded Children" (Lena L. Gitter); (14) "Art and the Slow Learner" (Myer Site); (15) "Therapeutic Programs Around the World: Art and Applied Art by Mentally Defective Children"; and (16) "THIS is Therapy?" (Joachim H. Themal). Part 3, "Case Studies," contains (17) "Spontaneous Art Education and Psychotherapy" (Margaret Naumburg); (18) "Elda's Art Therapy in Context of a Quarter Century of Psychiatric Treatment" (Selwyn Dewdney); (19) "A Marital Crisis Precipitated by Art Therapy" (Harriet T. Voegeli; Miriam Goldberg; Irving Schneider); (20) "Correlation between Clinical Course and Pictorial Expression of a Schizophrenic Patient" (Erika Lehnsen); (21) "The Use of Painting to Resolve an Artist's Identity Conflicts" (Josef E. Garai); (22) "The Self-Portraits of a Schizophrenic Patient" (Al. Marinow); and (23) "An Analysis of the Art Productions of a Psychiatric Patient Who Was Preoccupied with his Nose" (John Birtchnell). Part 4, "Systematic Investigations in Art Therapy," includes (24) "The Psychiatric Patient and His "Well" Sibling: A Comparison through Their Art Productions" (Julianna Day; Hanna Yaxa Kwaitkowska) (25) "A New Use of Art in Psychiatric Diagnosis" (Elinor Ulman); (26) "Art for the Mentally Retarded: Directed or Creative?" (James W. Crawford) and (27) "An Experimental Approach to the Judgement of Psychopathology from Paintings" (Elinor Ulman; Bernard I. Levy). (MM)



Van Groenou, Meher (1993). Interaction between Bilingualism and Cognitive Growth. Montessori Life, 5, 1, 33-35 (EJ465916) Examines the relationship between young children's use of two languages and their cognitive development. Discusses the simultaneous and sequential acquisition of two languages; theories on cognition and language; and studies on the effects of bilingualism. Offers strategies for creating an effective language learning environment for young children. (TJQ)

Van Groenou, Meher (1995). "Tell Me a Story": Using Children's Oral Culture in a Preschool Setting. Montessori Life, 7, 3, (EJ508914) Examines the role of storytelling as a medium for promoting language development and cognitive growth in a preschool setting. Gives a rationale for including interactive storytelling in language curriculum and suggestions for its effective use. Underlines that story presentation helps children experience the world as a whole, makes lessons captivating and meaningful, stimulates imagination, and assists metaphoric fluency and articulation. (AA)

Vaz, Nimal (1995). Universality of the Special Child. Theme issue topic: "The Montessori Learning Community: Future Challenges." (EJ508825) Discusses the application of the Montessori method to the education of children with disabilities, focusing on various disabilities and techniques that can be used with all special-needs children and Maria Montessori's work with children with disabilities. (MDM)

Verschuur, Mary B. (1993). Primary Considerations for the Implementation of an All-Day Montessori Program. NAMTA Journal, 18, 2, 158-74 (EJ469308) Challenges Montessori instructors and advocates to address the complex issues of staffing, scheduling, and maintaining a consistency of approach with respect to all-day Montessori instruction. (HTH)

Verschuur, Mary (1995). All-Day Montessori: Creating a "Caring Community.". Theme issue topic: "The Montessori Learning Community: Future Challenges." (EJ508816) Discusses the role that full-day Montessori preschool programs play in providing preschoolers with much more than the term "day care" implies, focusing on the teaching methods and educational strategies that such programs employ with preschoolers and their parents. (MDM)

Verschuur, Mary B. (1996). All-Day Montessori: Making It Work. Theme issue topic: "Rediscovering the All-Day Montessori Community." (EJ529819) Discusses the implementation of Montessori principles in an all-day setting, noting that children's emotional and physical needs require more attention in an all-day setting than in a half-day program. Also focuses on the important role of the teacher as a communicator with both the children and their families. (MDM)

Verschuur, Mary B. (1998). Motivation: The Foundation of Successful Learning. NAMTA Journal, 23, 1, 100-09 (EJ561603 This document is NOT available from the EDRS (EDRS).) Argues children's natural drive to discover is intrinsic and that adults cannot instill it from the outside. Dispels common myths about child motivation and describes the optimal conditions for self-motivated learning. Provides examples of how the Montessori-prepared environment makes the most of children's inborn curiosity, interest, and wonder. (Author)



Waltuch, Margot (1996). The "Casa" of Sevres, France. Theme issue topic: "Rediscovering the All-Day Montessori Community." (EJ529818) Discusses the author's teaching experiences during the 1930s at "La Maison des Enfants," a Montessori school in Sevres, France. Provides photographs and descriptions of the school day, outdoor activities, gardening, cooking and eating, practical activities, and creative activities. (MDM)

Ward, Gay, & Payne, Lesley (1996). Facilitating Parent Education. Montessori Life, 8, 4, 28-30 (EJ534657) Parent education at an Australian Montessori School has several levels. The early childhood level focuses on parent expectations, program philosophy, goals, and operation. Parents of six- to nine-year-olds gain trust in the curriculum through workshops, class observations, and teacher meetings. Parents of 9- to 12-year- olds appreciate the added depth of learning through orientation meetings. (KDFB)

Ward, Gay (1997). Cultural StudiesAustralian Style. Montessori Life, 9, 1, 28-30 (EJ538155) Describes a Montessori grade school's production of a "corroboree," an adaptation of an Aboriginal gathering for ceremony and celebration that included dance, music, and song. Notes the benefits, including a sense of community, interaction between different age groups, and exposure to culture. Also describes a camping trek made by students at year's end. (SD)

Warnemuende, Carolyn (1996). Stress/Burnout: Are You Handling It Effectively? Montessori Life, 8, 4, 18-19 (EJ534656) Discusses teacher burnout and stress management. Describes characteristics of individuals susceptible to burnout, such as charisma, idealism, perfectionism, and goal-orientation. Presents common negative coping strategies for stress. Discusses effective stress management strategies such as changing the situation, taking a proactive role to gain control over the stress, and withdrawing from the situation such as taking a vacation. (KDFB)

Weil, Bruce (1996). The Steel Band. Montessori Life, 8, 3, 39-41 (EJ529837) Describes studying the steel drum, an import from Trinidad, as an instrument of intellectual growth. Describes how developing a steel drum band provided Montessori middle school students the opportunity to experience some important feelings necessary to emotional growth during this difficult age: competence, usefulness, independence, and interdependence. Specific student remarks are included. (SD)

Weiss, Bretta, & Others (1993). Reviews: Books. Montessori Life, 5, 1, 11-13 (EJ465917) Reviews three books: "The Schoolhome: Rethinking Schools for Changing Families," by Jane Martin; "Godly Play," by Jerome Berryman; and "Five Kingdoms: An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth," by Margulis and Schwartz. (TJQ)

Wheatley, Helen (1994). The Training of Montessori Teachers. International Journal of Early Childhood, 26, 2, 54-56 (EJ495329) Explains the philosophy of the Montessori educational system and the training of Montessori teachers. Describes teacher training courses as seeking to produce a new kind of personality, which suppresses unhelpful qualities, such as impatience and loudness of voice. Explains how the theories of Montessori are practiced, including policies of limited freedoms for children and noninterference from teachers. (AC)

Wich, Ginger, & Others (1996). Community Meeting in the Middle School. Montessori Life, 8, 2, 34-37 (EJ522001) Three articles examine the concept of, and the role of, community meetings in the middle school. The articles are "Creating Community" (Ginger Wich); "Walking the Talk" (Marta Donahoe); and "Best for the Program" (Brandt C.P. Smith). Comments on community meetings from students are also included. (TJQ)

Williams, Michael R. (Mar 1997). The Parent-Centered Early School: Highland Community School of Milwaukee. (ED405126) Milwaukee's Highland Community school was opened in 1968 as an independent school (and is still funded mostly by donations) to provide a quality Montessori education and nurturing environment for economically and culturally diverse groups of families on the city's economically depressed Near West Side. Governed by a 9-member parent board of directors, the school serves about 70 students, ages two-and-a-half to ten. This book presents a case study of Highland School, detailing the organizational and attitudinal reasons that Highland works so well. Following an introduction noting research on characteristics of effective schools and the procedures used in the case study, the chapters of the book are: (1) "Highland the School," detailing the school's origins, neighborhood demographics, current program, and effectiveness; (2) "Cultural Diversity at Highland," outlining admission policies, five concerns for educating for cultural diversity, goals for multicultural education, and Highland's multicultural curriculum; (3) "The Meaning of Community at Highland," including the value placed on children, egalitarianism, nonviolence, and staff collegiality; (4) "Recent Research on Parent Involvement," including socioeconomic factors in parent involvement, the effects of parent involvement on student achievement, the effects of school intervention programs that promote parent involvement, and James Comer's Parent Involvement Model; (5) "How HIghland Involves its Parents," including three types of parental attitudes about school involvement and educating parents formally; (6) "Parents Govern Highland," describing recent experiments to reform decision making in U.S. schools, and a survey of the parent board members; (7) "The Trustees of Highland," on the history of Highland's Trustee group, the Trustee role, trustee attitudes, and the efficacy of a trustee board for an urban public school; (8) "Highland's 'Early School' Curriculum," detailing the 3- to 6-year- olds program and the Junior level program, how Highland extends the Montessori Model, and how Highland compares to other current national reform experiments; and (9) "Highland's Lessons for Public Education," detailing the school's mission and values, organizational practices, and recommendations for public schools, such as stressing parent involvement, and organizing large schools into small, multiage units. Contains numerous references. (HTH)

Winn, Harbour (1993). "Grace and Courtesy" Include Parents, Too. Montessori Life, 5, 2, 18-20 (EJ471300) Discusses the benefits of parent participation and various ways to welcome and allow parents to participate in the Montessori experience without formal training sessions and formal lessons that generally intimidate adults and imply the superiority of the teacher. Topics discussed include parent volunteers, parent observation, collaborative discussion groups, and the monthly newsletter. (SM)

Woessner, Ruth (1995). Mathematics: Montessori of Traditional? Montessori Life, 7, 2, 40 (EJ505533) Compares and contrasts the approaches to mathematics in Montessori schools and traditional schools. Suggests that in a traditional curriculum, math is studied as a separate subject and isolated discipline, in an abstract format, with the entire group of children moving together through the prescribed curriculum. In contrast, the Montessori school presents math with concrete, manipulative materials in a child-directed format. (AA)

Wohlstetter, Priscilla, & Anderson, Lesley (Apr 1992). What Can U.S. Charter Schools Learn from England's Grant-Maintained Schools? (ED345354) In his America 2000 Education Strategy, President Bush proposed the establishment of a new generation of public schoolscharter schoolsas part of a long-term plan to achieve the six national education goals. As envisioned by the president, states will contract directly with "America 2000 Communities," conceived in the strategy as any group of people who can demonstrate a commitment to operate a school. Charter schools also have emerged on state policy agendas, and the nation's first charter school, a Montessori school in rural Minnesota, has been approved. In contrast, England's charter schools, known as grant-maintained schools, already have some history; so far 219 schools at all levels have opted out of the local authority since 1988. This paper highlights what has been learned about charter schools from England's experience over the past 3 years. Offered first is an overview of the charter school concept and how charter schools work in practice. Provided are specific lessons for policy makers and practitioners about strategies for success (i.e. conditions and types of support that are needed) and about some of the challenges that face charter schools in the 1990s. (13 endnotes) (RR)

Wolf, Aline D. (1996). Nurturing the Spirit in Non-Sectarian Classrooms. (ED423156 Available from: Parent Child Press, P.O. Box 675, Hollidaysburg, PA 16648 ($13.95, plus $4 shipping and handling).) This book reiterates the fundamental purpose of Maria Montessori's philosophy of bringing about a "better world by nurturing the spirit of the child." The book draws upon published authorities on the importance of the nurturing of the spirit, along with experiences of active Montessorians for everyday examples of nurturing spirituality in the classroom. The book is divided into three parts with 21 chapters. Part 1, "The Meaning and Importance of Spirit," contains: (1) "The Spiritual Legacy of Maria Montessori"; (2) "What Does 'Spirituality' Mean"; (3) "The Differences between 'Spirituality' and 'Religion'"; (4) "Comparing 'Spirit' and 'Soul'"; and (5) "The Child - The Essence of Spirituality." Part 2, "The Spiritually Aware Adult," includes: (1) "Nourishing the Spirit of the Teacher"; (2) "Support for Deepening Spirituality"; and (3) "Community for Teachers." Part 3, "Ideas for Children in Non-Sectarian Settings," offers: (1) "Cultivating Stillness"; (2) "Wonder - the Leaven of Spirituality"; (3) "Experiencing Wonder in the Classroom"; (4) "The Spiritual Meaning of Cosmic Education"; (5) "Care of the Earth - A Spiritual Way of Life"; (6) "The Spiritual Roots of Peace Education"; (7) "Children's Inner Peace and Love"; (8) "Peace in the Classroom Community"; (9) "The School as a Family/Global Community"; (10) "Spirituality and the Arts"; (11) "Controlling Advertising in the Environment"; (12) "What about God?"; and (13) "Explaining Spiritual Nurture to Parents." An appendix, bibliography, and recommended resources conclude the text. (EH)



Zakrewsky, Jackie (1994). History in Present Tense. Executive Educator, 16, 9, 26-28 Sep (EJ489342) Eschewing Little Mermaid and Ninja Turtle costumes, students at a Washington Montessori school celebrate Halloween dressed as John Adams, Clara Barton, and other historical figures. U.S. Department of Education recently recognized eight schools for using interdisciplinary approaches, devoting adequate instructional time to history, and addressing cultural diversity. A Texas elementary school and a California high school are also profiled. (MLH)

Zeman, Mary (1996). The Normalized School: Montessori as a Way of Life. NAMTA Journal, 21, 2, 164-76 (EJ523365) Defines "normalized school" and claims that faith in the child and courage to see the truth provide a firm foundation for any Montessori school community. Claims that in order for normalization to truly occur, adults in the community must be as concerned with the value and vitality of their own growth as they are for those of their children. (MOK)

Zener, Rita Schaefer (1994). Extensions in the Mathematics Area of the Children's House. NAMTA Journal, 19, 1, 11-23 (EJ478160) Presents guidelines for designing and using extensions, which are exercises that follow or extend the basic presentation of an idea, in the mathematics area of the Montessori program to give children more experience and depth as they explore key mathematical concepts. Describes extensions that address counting, sorting, and working with decimals. (BB)

Zener, Rita Schaefer (1995). Nurturing the Creative Personality. Issue theme: Montessori: Nurturing the Human Potential. (EJ499956) Discusses specific teaching strategies to nurture creativity in young children that guide choice, highlight human potential, and distinguish those activities that help children from those that are more impulsive and less developmental. Suggests that teachers need to encourage a love of work, concentration, self- discipline, and sociability. (MDM)

Zener, Rita Schaefer (1996). The Verbal/Linguistic and Visual/Spatial Intelligences. NAMTA Journal, 21, 2, 44-63 (EJ523357) Examines verbal/linguistic and visual/spatial intelligences and their relationship to Montessori education. Aligns Gardner's philosophy of these two intelligences with Montessori's specific counterparts in the prepared environment. Defines assessment in light of observation and the definitive clarity of Montessori activities. Suggests that Montessorians begin to experiment with Gardner's ideas. (MOK)

Zigler, Edward, & Muenchow, Susan (1993). Expand the Head Start ProgramBy Revamping Chapter 1. Thematic Issue: Reinventing Montessori. (EJ465900) Examines the failure of Project Follow Through and Chapter 1 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act to sustain the progress made by Head Start through the school years. Discusses the Head Start Transition Project, established in demonstration sites in each state, which seeks to ease the transition of children from Head Start through the primary grades. (BC)

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Donna M. Mertens: Research and Evaluation Methods in Special Education

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