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Sandra Mathison: Encyclopedia of Evaluation

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Affective Filters (1998)

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Anderson, M. L. (1989). Theatre Techniques for Language Learning: Assumptions and Suggested Progression of Activities. A discussion of the use of drama activities in Second Language instruction looks at the rationale for using such techniques in the language classroom, describes a progression of drama activities used for an intensive course in intermediate English as a Second Language, and examines other considerations in the use of drama in language teaching. Discussion of the rationale focuses on the following issues: (1) the power of theater, both in human society and for individuals; (2) the opportunity for ego expression; (3) drama as an affective filter; (4) the value of play; (5) process and purpose in a drama project; (6) drama as an opportunity for cultural expression and adaptation; (7) making use of class or group dynamics; and (8) psychology. Nineteen specific, progressive drama activities are described, ranging from simple observation of the environment to the production of a movie. The description of each activity includes the teacher's objectives, the proposed task and procedures, and a process and outcome analysis based on the author's experience with the activity in class. The final chapter summarizes the four primary objectives for the course and the outcomes of each. (MSE) ED321572

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Cross, D. (1985). The Monitor Theory and the Language Teacher. British Journal of Language Teaching, v23 n2 p75-78 Aut 1985. Summarizes and critiques the elements of Krashen's Monitor Theory, points out the major implications, and applies them to classes in Great Britain. The elements of Krashen's theory are: (1) the acquisition-learning hypothesis, (2) the monitor hypothesis, (3) the natural order hypothesis, (4) the input hypothesis, and (5) the affective filter hypothesis. (SED)

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Giauque, G. S. (1985). Teacher's Pets and the Learning Process. Even college students often hesitate to appear too intellectual or participate in class very much. Some students are non-identifying students, with antipathy for teachers, and some are identifying students with a good self-concept as learners and neutral or empathetic feelings for teachers. The teacher's dilemma is to devise techniques to produce identification in students, either by acquiring characteristics so that he or she will appear similar to the students, as many young teachers do, or by providing incentives to draw students toward them. The "Natural Approach" to language instruction does not demand active participation from students, but some teachers feel this approach does not deal with some students' high affective filter. Another approach taken is a collaborative one, encouraging students to participate by means other than calling on them. One teacher's techniqueiis to ask students to write a star on their homework if they have volunteered in class that day, and when some still resist participating, to make volunteering a privilege rather than a duty by allowing fewer answers in the course of a class than there are students. This subtle pressure to participate has been found to be effective in most cases and has improved overall classroom communication considerably. (MSE) ED263772

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Haulman, A. (1985). Fairy Tales in the ESL Classroom. Second language teachers wishing to diversify their instructional approach should consider using fairy tales to enrich the experience of the target language and culture. When used well, they can provide a glimpse of the values, lifestyles, customs, and historical traditions of the target language group. Fairy tales also offer a variety of language contexts for expanding and refining vocabulary and for developing a larger repertoire of linguistic structures. Research in second language learning supports the idea that variations of child-oriented themes and/or fantasy can stimulate a young person's interest, simultaneously providing comprehensible input and lowering the affective filter. Suggested steps for using fairy tales in the second language classroom are: (1) introduction of vocabulary and concepts; (2) story presentation using any props or dramatic techniques necessary and available; (3) language activities to practice, review, or extend story vocabulary or structures; (4) reinforcement and follow-up activities such as summarizing and discussion; and (5) use of story language, themes, or topics to integrate with other content area-related activities. (MSE) ED279166

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Kessler, C., & Others, A. (1985). Processing Mathematics in a Second Language: Problems for LEP Children. A discussion of the connections between mathematics, language, and second language acquisition focuses on four major areas: (1) the nature of mathematical performance, (2) the language of mathematics, (3) problems that mathematics poses for limited-English-proficient (LEP) children learning English as a second language, and (4) mathematics as a facilitator of second language development. It is argued that the effectiveness of mathematics instruction for second language development is more complex than making the language input comprehensible, lowering the affective filter, and providing for interactive situations with peers and the teacher. Successful mathematics processing rests at least in part on the ability to use the very precise language of mathematics in mathematical reasoning. The context-reduced language of mathematics, extensive use of logical connectors, specialized vocabulary and syntactic structures, and appropriate discourse rules all present complex problems to (LEP) children engaged in mathematics discourse. These problems seem to be linked to some underlying deep structures in mathematical thinking, a process that is analogous to cognitive/academic language proficiency. If these relationships are understood and addressed in the mathematics classroom, language need not be a barrier to processing mathematics in a second language. (MSE) ED268821

Kossuth, K. C. (1985). Using the Adventure Formats for CALI. CALICO Journal, v3 n2 p13-17 Dec 9985. Discusses the popularity of adventure games in computer assisted language learning and attributes the success of this format to the Input Hypothesis and the Affective Filter Hypothesis. Criteria for the instructional evaluation of these games are presented. (Author/SED)

Krashen, S. D. (1981). The "Fundamental Pedogagical Principle" in Second Language Teaching. Studia Linguistica, v35 n1-2 p50-70 1981 1981. A fundamental principle of second language acquisition is stated and applied to language teaching. The principle states that learners acquire a second language when they receive comprehensible input in situations where their affective filters are sufficiently low. The theoretical background of this principle consists of five hypotheses: the acquisition-learning, natural order, monitor, input, and affective filter hypotheses. The fundamental principle helps to resolve several problems in the professional literature, including the effectiveness of second language instruction and the effects of age on second language acquisition. The principal applied to pedagogy posits that any instructional technique that promotes second language acquisition does so by providing comprehensible input. This pedagogical principle can be applied to a variety of language teaching methods and settings, including the language classroom, the media, the language laboratory, subject matter teaching, and immersion programs. (RW) ED227661

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Laine, E. J. (1987). Affective Factors in Foreign Language Learning and Teaching: A Study of the "Filter." Jyvaskyla Cross-Language Studies, No. 13. A study of the affective "filter" inhibiting student learning of a second language focuses on the critical features of the filter, especially student self-concept and the general roles of personality traits and learning attitudes. Relevant research on motivation, personality traits, attitudes, and self-concept as they relate to learning is reviewed and three learning models are discussed: the motivational model, the "filter" model, and the self-concept model. Specific aspects of motivation, personality traits, attitudes, and self-concept that may relate to language learning are outlined and applied to existing research findings. In conclusion, a working hypothesis concerning the affective filter in language learning, to be validated in a later study, is proposed. A seven-page reference list is provided and figures for the three learning models are appended. (MSE) ED292302

Laine, E. J. (1987). Emotional Hindrances in the FL Learning Situation: The Weak Self Concept. Some affective/emoiional factors in the foreign language learning situation that tend to hinder the learner in learning the target language are analyzed. Beginning with an explanation of theory concerning the "affective filter" and learning, the discussion proceeds to research findings on self- concept and their relationship to the affective filter and to learning difficulties. General, academic, and target language-specific self concept are all examined. These concepts are then presented in the form of a model of second language learner motivation. A brief bibliography is included. (MSE) ED343400

Laine, E. J. (1988). The Affective Filter in Foreign Language Learning and Teaching. Report 2: A Validation Study of Filtering Factors with a Focus on the Learner's FL Self- Concept. Jyvaskyla Cross-Language Studies, No. 15. A studyiinvestigated Finnish high school students' second language learning motivation, atiitudes, self-concepts, inhibitions, and selected personality traits. The study attempted to learn more about the nature, content, and functions of the "affective filter" in foreign language learning. A variety of relationships between these factors were found, and a number of "filter" and "non-filter" learner types were distinguished. The study's design, results, and implications for language teaching and for future research efforts are discussed. A bibliography of over 60 references is included. (MSE) ED303992

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Pennington, M. C. (1996). The "Cognitive-Affective Filter" in Teacher Development: Transmission-Based and Interpretation-Based Schemas for Change. System, v24 n3 p337-50 1996. Describes two orientations to the learning process: "transmission," transfer of information from source to receiver; and "interpretation," development of knowledge through the interaction of receiver with source. Transmission- or interpretation-based values are like a cognitive-affective filter because they form a cognitive and an emotional frame that affects both intake of new information and performance (output) in teaching and teacher change. (23 references) (Author/CK)

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Sajavaara, K., & Lehtonen, J. (1980). Language Teaching and Acquisition of Communication. A theoretical linguistic model is insufficient to deal with the problems of language teaching because of the complexity of the phenomena concerned and the dynamic nature of language acquisition and communication. Most linguistic models neglect the fact that, in communicative situations, language users construct the prerequisites of communicative success. Variations in the natural situations of language use make analysis of the language teaching process difficult, and most language teaching materials are too simplistic. A communicative rather than a linguistic approach would put more emphasis on reception and message processing. A more accurate model of the processes and parameters in language acquisition would incorporate the factors of acculturation and motivation, language contact, input, the socio-affective filter, intake, prior knowledge, interference, and personality. A two-page bibliography concludes the document. (MSE) ED269972

Schinke-Llano, L., & Vicars, R. (1993). The Affective Filter and Negotiated Interaction: Do Our Language Activities Provide for Both? Modern Language Journal, v77 n3 p325-29 Fall 1993. In a study of learners' levels of comfort with language activity types allowing differing degrees of interaction, 110 first-year college students of French, Spanish, and Italian were surveyed at a university and community college. Results suggest the value of activities facilitative of negotiated interaction. The questionnaire is appended. (10 references) (LB)

Schumann, J. H. (1994). Where Is Cognition? Emotion and Cognition in Second Language Acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, v16 n2 p231-42 1994. Argues that the brain is the seat of cognition, that cognitive processes are neutral processes, and that, in the brain, affect and cognition are distinguishable but inseparable. This perspective allows a reconceptualization of the affective filter in terms of the brain's stimulus appraisal system, which interacts with cognition to promote or inhibit second-language acquisition. (Contains 37 references.) (Author)

Shimatani, H. (1988). An Examination of the Monitor Theory. A discussion of Stephen Krashen's Monitor Theory (1982) of second language acquisition examines five main hypotheses: the acquisition-learning distinction, the natural order hypothesis, the monitor hypothesis, the input hypothesis, and the affective filter hypothesis. Several problematic elements of the theory are pointed out. The discussion supports the basic importance of conscious learning, which is disregarded in the Monitor Theory, and suggests an alternative way to look at language acquisition and learning phenomena from broader perspectives taking into account both skill acquisition theory and human information processing theory. More empirical research needs to be done to identify the developmental stages in second language acquisition and to define the most effective practice at each stage. (Author/MSE) ED297592

Smallwood, B. A. (1992). Children's Literature for Adult ESL Literacy. ERIC Digest. ED353864

Stone, L. (1991). Task-Based Activities: Making the Language Laboratory Interactive. ERIC Digest. ED343407

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Teschner, R. V. (1980). Second-Language Acquisition and Foreign Language Teaching: The Applicability of Its Findings to the Spanish Language Programs at a University on the U.S.-Mexican Border. An approach to foreign language instruction that emphasizes language acquisition rather than learning will emphasize the development of listening comprehension even at the expense of oral production, since research has shown that the latter does not suffer where the former is fostered. This approach tends to reduce the restrictive workings of the "affective filter." Just how powerful that filter can be is illustrated by the poor results of Spanish programs in the public schools of El Paso, Texas. In this city, students undergo traditional FLES training, which amounts to hundreds of hours of Spanish instruction over a period of six years. Still, the effect of the program is to teach failure through the repeated reinforcement of awareness of communicative incompetence. Furthermore, a linguistic continuum of native and non-native Spanish speakers exists in El Paso, rendering nearly impossible the separate placement of Anglos who would benefit from a classroom environment free from the implied intimidation of those who speak at least some Spanish at home. An aural-comprehension approach would effect a high degree of individualization, permitting real progress for each student and freeing students from what amounts to a burden to perform. (JB) ED192598

Towell, J., & Wink, J. (1993). Strategies for Monolingual Teachers in Multilingual Classrooms. A group of instructional strategies for monolingual teachers to use with elementary and secondary school students with limited English skills are described. The strategies are drawn from a teacher education curriculum focusing on this issue. All are based on the notion that monolingual and bilingual teachers can team teach to break down linguistic and cultural barriers in the classroom. All were also experienced by monolingual and bilingual teaching credential students in the course of a demonstration. They include the Total Physical Response technique, sheltered subject matter teaching, use of comprehensible input, efforts to lower the affective filter of students, use of realia, dramatization of a story, and monolingual-bilingual team teaching for primary language instruction. Some useful student reading materials and teacher resources are noted. Contains 20 references. (MSE) ED359797

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Donna M. Mertens: Research and Evaluation Methods in Special Education

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  Affective Filters (1998)  
  Assessment and Evaluation  
  Benefits of Two-way Bilingual Education  
  Bilingual Ed Language Immersion (1998)  
  Bilingual Ed Lit Reviews (1999)  
  Bilingual Ed Research Reports (1999)  
  Bilingual Literacy (1998)  
  Biliteracy (1998)  
  ESL  
  Issues and Policy  
  Language Dominance: Annotated Bibliography  
  Language Proficiency Tests: Annotated Bibliography  
  Links: Dual Language Programs (2005)  
  Montessori Method: Annotated Bibliography  
  New Books  
  News and Information  
  Places  
  Profienciency Assessment Tools: Annotated Bibliography  
  Publications  
  Research and Theory  
  Resources  
  Service Providers  
  Spanish Math Assessment: Annotated Bibliography  
  Spanish Reading Assessment Tools  
  Teaching and Learning  
  Total Physical Response [TPR Bilingual Education] (1998)  
  Two-Way Bilingual Education (1998)  

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